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1

Brightness Discrimination in Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

PubMed Central

Birds have excellent spatial acuity and colour vision compared to other vertebrates while spatial contrast sensitivity is relatively poor for unknown reasons. Contrast sensitivity describes the detection of gratings of varying spatial frequency. It is unclear whether bird brightness discrimination between large uniform fields is poor as well. Here we show that budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) need a Michelson contrast of 0.09 to discriminate between large spatially separated achromatic fields in bright light conditions. This is similar to the peak contrast sensitivity of 10.2 (0.098 Michelson contrast) for achromatic grating stimuli established in earlier studies. The brightness discrimination threshold described in Weber fractions is 0.18, which is modest compared to other vertebrates. PMID:23349946

Lind, Olle; Karlsson, Sandra; Kelber, Almut

2013-01-01

2

Original article Protection of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

E-print Network

budgerigars showed low pre-existing serum antibody titres. This indicates that animals were previously, lories) and psittacosis or parrot fever in humans. The infection is highly prevalent in Psittaciformes as studies in wild and captive Psittaciformes in North and South America, Australia, Europe and Japan have

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

Spatial Unmasking of Birdsong in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

E-print Network

Spatial Unmasking of Birdsong in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and Budgerigars (Melopsittacus-Cunningham Boston University Budgerigars and zebra finches were tested, using operant conditioning techniques, on their ability to identify a zebra finch song in the presence of a background masker emitted from either the same

Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

4

Temporal coherence for pure tones in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and humans (Homo sapiens).  

PubMed

Auditory scene analysis has been suggested as a universal process that exists across all animals. Relative to humans, however, little work has been devoted to how animals perceptually isolate different sound sources. Frequency separation of sounds is arguably the most common parameter studied in auditory streaming, but it is not the only factor contributing to how the auditory scene is perceived. Researchers have found that in humans, even at large frequency separations, synchronous tones are heard as a single auditory stream, whereas asynchronous tones with the same frequency separations are perceived as 2 distinct sounds. These findings demonstrate how both the timing and frequency separation of sounds are important for auditory scene analysis. It is unclear how animals, such as budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), perceive synchronous and asynchronous sounds. In this study, budgerigars and humans (Homo sapiens) were tested on their perception of synchronous, asynchronous, and partially overlapping pure tones using the same psychophysical procedures. Species differences were found between budgerigars and humans in how partially overlapping sounds were perceived, with budgerigars more likely to segregate overlapping sounds and humans more apt to fuse the 2 sounds together. The results also illustrated that temporal cues are particularly important for stream segregation of overlapping sounds. Lastly, budgerigars were found to segregate partially overlapping sounds in a manner predicted by computational models of streaming, whereas humans were not. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25419717

Neilans, Erikson G; Dent, Micheal L

2015-02-01

5

Lateralization of acoustic signals by dichotically listening budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

Sound localization allows humans and animals to determine the direction of objects to seek or avoid and indicates the appropriate position to direct visual attention. Interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) are two primary cues that humans use to localize or lateralize sound sources. There is limited information about behavioral cue sensitivity in animals, especially animals with poor sound localization acuity and small heads, like budgerigars. ITD and ILD thresholds were measured behaviorally in dichotically listening budgerigars equipped with headphones in an identification task. Budgerigars were less sensitive than humans and cats, and more similar to rabbits, barn owls, and monkeys, in their abilities to lateralize dichotic signals. Threshold ITDs were relatively constant for pure tones below 4 kHz, and were immeasurable at higher frequencies. Threshold ILDs were relatively constant over a wide range of frequencies, similar to humans. Thresholds in both experiments were best for broadband noise stimuli. These lateralization results are generally consistent with the free field localization abilities of these birds, and add support to the idea that budgerigars may be able to enhance their cues to directional hearing (e.g., via connected interaural pathways) beyond what would be expected based on head size. PMID:21973385

Welch, Thomas E; Dent, Micheal L

2011-10-01

6

Validation of a fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assay to assess stress in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

PubMed Central

The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) is a small parrot native to Australia that is commonly held in zoos, laboratories, and private homes. Assessment of budgerigar stress levels would aid welfare monitoring and improve our understanding of their biology. Analyzing fecal glucocorticoid metabolites provides a non-invasive method to measure stress levels in birds. For this method to be reliable, the antibody to be used in an immunoassay must be carefully selected for each species, and validation must be performed. A common limitation in many existing assays is the inability to accurately detect variable fecal glucocorticoid metabolites levels in minute quantities of feces, requiring small samples to be combined. We have developed a double antibody radioimmunoassay protocol based on a commercially available 125I-corticosterone radioimmunoassay kit for use in detecting fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in small quantities (< 20 mg) of budgerigar droppings. The assay was validated pharmacologically with an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and with oral administration of corticosterone. Our validation has demonstrated our assay is both sensitive and a reliable approach to non-invasive monitoring of stress in budgerigars. PMID:22907869

Young, Anna M.; Hallford, Dennis M.

2012-01-01

7

Comparison of treatment protocols for removing metallic foreign objects from the ventriculus of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

To compare the efficacy of treatment protocols recommended to aid passage of metallic foreign objects from the ventriculus of birds, a 1-mm metal sphere, made from solder wire, was placed into the crop of each of 44 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). After survey radiographs confirmed the spheres were lodged in the ventriculus, birds were divided into 6 groups. Each group received 1 of 6 different treatment protocols: psyllium with grit, acidic drinking water, fine grit, coarse grit, cathartic emollients (peanut butter and mineral oil), and a control group. All birds were treated simultaneously with a chelating agent, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), to prevent heavy-metal toxicosis. Successive survey radiographs were used to monitor elimination of the spheres from the digestive tract. Of all protocols tested, birds treated with either fine or large grit had the shortest mean elimination time of the metal spheres. These results indicate that administration of grit particles, either fine or coarse, appears to be effective in hastening the passage of metallic foreign objects from the ventriculus of budgerigars. PMID:19999761

Lupu, Corina; Robins, Stephanie

2009-09-01

8

An outbreak of thyroid hyperplasia (goiter) with high mortality in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

An outbreak of goiter with high morbidity and mortality in a flock of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in California is described. Forty-five out of 400 adult birds exhibited signs of illness, weight loss, and enlargement in the crop area; 15 of the 45 birds died over a 2-3-month period. Diet consisted of a commercial mixture with the addition of broccoli, whole oats, and carrots, but no minerals or supplements. Six budgerigars were subjected to necropsy; all 6 birds had severely enlarged thyroid glands. Thyroid follicular hyperplasia was histologically observed in all birds examined, while granulomatous thyroiditis and microfollicular adenoma were observed in 2 birds, respectively. Virological, bacteriological, parasitological, and heavy metal analyses were negative or within normal limits. The total iodine in the thyroid glands of affected birds was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Following iodine supplementation and removal of broccoli from the diet, the owner reported weight gain and a reduced death rate among clinically affected birds; no additional birds became sick. The presence of broccoli with its iodine-binding ability and the complete lack of added minerals in the diet of these animals were thought to be the predisposing factors for the outbreak in the present study. Outbreaks of goiter accompanied by high mortality are rare in any species and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have not been described previously in any avian species. Recognition of this condition may help improve medical, welfare, and trade standards concerning this species. PMID:25428186

Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Murphy, Brian; Crossley, Beate M; Holser, Ian; Gomes, Lucy; Shivaprasad, H L; Uzal, Francisco A

2015-01-01

9

Experimental Inoculation of BFDV-Positive Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Isolates  

PubMed Central

Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group. PMID:24738057

Sapierzy?ski, Rafa?; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

2014-01-01

10

Experimental inoculation of BFDV-positive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates.  

PubMed

Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group. PMID:24738057

Ledwo?, Aleksandra; Sapierzy?ski, Rafa?; Augustynowicz-Kope?, Ewa; Szeleszczuk, Piotr; Kozak, Marcin

2014-01-01

11

A test of multiple hypotheses for the function of call sharing in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus  

PubMed Central

In many social species group, members share acoustically similar calls. Functional hypotheses have been proposed for call sharing, but previous studies have been limited by an inability to distinguish among these hypotheses. We examined the function of vocal sharing in female budgerigars with a two-part experimental design that allowed us to distinguish between two functional hypotheses. The social association hypothesis proposes that shared calls help animals mediate affiliative and aggressive interactions, while the password hypothesis proposes that shared calls allow animals to distinguish group identity and exclude nonmembers. We also tested the labeling hypothesis, a mechanistic explanation which proposes that shared calls are used to address specific individuals within the sender–receiver relationship. We tested the social association hypothesis by creating four–member flocks of unfamiliar female budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and then monitoring the birds’ calls, social behaviors, and stress levels via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. We tested the password hypothesis by moving immigrants into established social groups. To test the labeling hypothesis, we conducted additional recording sessions in which individuals were paired with different group members. The social association hypothesis was supported by the development of multiple shared call types in each cage and a correlation between the number of shared call types and the number of aggressive interactions between pairs of birds. We also found support for calls serving as a labeling mechanism using discriminant function analysis with a permutation procedure. Our results did not support the password hypothesis, as there was no difference in stress or directed behaviors between immigrant and control birds. PMID:24860236

Young, Anna M.; Cordier, Breanne; Mundry, Roger; Wright, Timothy F.

2014-01-01

12

Characterization of a gram-positive bacterium from the proventriculus of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

The cellular, cultural, and biochemical characteristics of eight isolates of a large gram-positive bacillus that are commonly observed as apparently normal flora in the proventriculus of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were determined. The bacterium was highly pleomorphic and changed markedly in both diameter and length when subcultured on agar media. The bacterium was facultative anaerobic and capnophilic, hemolytic on blood agar, and formed flat colonies with irregular edges after incubation for several days. All isolates grew on sodium azide agar but did not grow on MacConkey agar. The isolates were catalase-negative and oxidase-negative and did not reduce nitrate. All isolates failed to utilize arginine, lysine, ornithine or tryptophane but produced acid from glucose, galactose, levulose, maltose, melibiose, starch, and sucrose. All isolates produced acetoin from glucose and hydrolyzed esculin. The eight isolates could not be identified to either genus or species level based on the descriptions of currently classified organisms in the division Firmicutes as described in Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. PMID:2241708

Scanlan, C M; Graham, D L

1990-01-01

13

Modulation of flight muscle power output in budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata: in vitro muscle performance.  

PubMed

The pectoralis muscles are the main source of mechanical power for avian flight. The power output of these muscles must be modulated to meet the changing power requirements of flight across a range of speeds. This can be achieved at the muscle level by manipulation of strain trajectory and recruitment patterns, and/or by intermittent flight strategies. We have measured the in vitro power outputs of pectoralis muscle fascicles from budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata under conditions replicating those previously measured in vivo during flight. This has allowed us to quantify the extent to which different power modulation mechanisms control flight muscle power output. Intermittent flight behaviour is a more important determinant of flight power in zebra finches than budgerigars. This behaviour accounts for 25-62% of power modulation relative to the maximum available mechanical power output in zebra finch, compared to 0-38% in budgerigars. Muscle level changes in fascicle strain trajectory and motor unit recruitment, rather than intermittent flight behaviours, are the main determinants of pectoralis muscle power output in budgerigars at all speeds, and in zebra finch at speeds below 14 m s(-1). PMID:17951419

Ellerby, David J; Askew, Graham N

2007-11-01

14

Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolution of two parrot species: budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke's parrot (Neopsephotus bourkii).  

PubMed

Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) isodensity maps indicate important regions in an animal's visual field. These maps can also be combined with measures of focal length to estimate the theoretical visual acuity. Here we present the RGC isodensity maps and anatomical spatial resolving power in three budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and two Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii). Because RGCs were stacked in several layers, we modified the Nissl staining procedure to assess the cell number in the whole-mounted and cross-sectioned tissue of the same retinal specimen. The retinal topography showed surprising variation; however, both parrot species had an area centralis without discernable fovea. Budgerigars also had a putative area nasalis never reported in birds before. The peak RGC density was 22,300-34,200 cells/mm(2) in budgerigars and 18,100-38,000 cells/mm(2) in Bourke's parrots. The maximum visual acuity based on RGCs and focal length was 6.9 cyc/deg in budgerigars and 9.2 cyc/deg in Bourke's parrots. These results are lower than earlier behavioural estimates. Our findings illustrate that retinal topography is not a very fixed trait and that theoretical visual acuity estimations based on RGC density can be lower than the behavioural performance of the bird. PMID:24677162

Mitkus, Mindaugas; Chaib, Sandra; Lind, Olle; Kelber, Almut

2014-05-01

15

Evaluation of a fast, objective tool for assessing body condition of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

There is currently no suitable system available for the assessment of budgerigar body condition. A tool has been developed that uses an algorithmic decision tree of yes-no answers based on physical examination to objectively guide the assessor to a body condition score. The aim of this work was to evaluate the guide. Repeatability and reproducibility were measured by four assessors on three sequential days, using 38 budgerigars of mixed sex, age and weight. Data were analysed using a 3-factor anova, with Person and Bird as variable factors and occasion as a fixed factor. The association between body condition score and body fat was measured using three assessors and 63 dead budgerigars, which were chemically analysed for fat content after assessment. Data were statistically analysed to determine correlation using Spearman's Rank Coefficient. Occasion and person had no significant effect on body condition score (p = 0.988 and 0.347 respectively). Body condition score and percentage body fat were highly significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.768): percentage fat increased with increasing body condition score. The guide would appear to be a repeatable measure of body condition in budgerigars, suitable for use during physical examinations. PMID:23509997

Burton, E J; Newnham, R; Bailey, S J; Alexander, L G

2014-04-01

16

Investigation and control of an attaching and effacing Escherichia coli outbreak in a colony of captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

An increase in mortality in a captive flock of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) coincided with the isolation of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli from postmortem samples. Common histologic lesions included hepatitis, enteritis, and in one case attaching and effacing lesions along the intestinal tract. Retrospective review of necropsy records and increased sampling led to the identification of several cases of E. coli with the attaching and effacing (eae) virulence gene. Factors such as environment, nutrition, and concomitant pathogens were thought to contribute to mortality in the flock. Although it is not clear whether E. coli was a primary pathogen during the period of increased mortality, the presence of the eae gene combined with associated histologic lesions supports the conclusion that this organism was a significant contributor to mortality. Manipulation of diet, environment, and the addition of probiotic supplementation resulted in a decline in mortality rate and decreased shedding of E. coli based on negative follow-up cultures of intestines, liver, and feces. PMID:25632676

Seeley, Kathryn E; Baitchman, Eric; Bartlett, Susan; DebRoy, Chitrita; Garner, Michael M

2014-12-01

17

Bacteria Isolated From the Skin of Congo African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ), Budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ), and Cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ).  

PubMed

Little is known about the normal bacterial flora of the skin of birds. To identify the bacterial organisms that reside on the integument of companion psittacine birds in a normal physiologic state, skin cultures were taken from 75 psittacine birds comprising 25 Congo African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ), 25 budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ), and 25 cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ). All birds were adults and in good health with no underlying identifiable diseases, had not been on antibiotics in the preceding 2 months or longer, and had no skin or feather abnormalities. Cultures were taken from the axillary region and incubated on bovine blood agar plates. Positive cultures were identified for 52 out of 75 birds, and a total of 89 bacterial colonies grew. The most frequently identified bacterial organisms belonged to the genus Staphylococcus followed by Corynebacterium. Several other genera of bacteria were also isolated. Of the 89 bacterial colonies, 25 were identified to the species level and 50 to the genus level, and 14 were identified as either a nonfermenter or coliform. PMID:25843464

Lamb, Stephanie; Sobczynski, Alicia; Starks, Darius; Sitinas, Nicholas

2014-12-01

18

Endogenous Hepadnaviruses in the Genome of the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and the Evolution of Avian Hepadnaviruses  

PubMed Central

Endogenous hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B viruses [HBVs]) were recently discovered in the genomes of passerine birds. We mined six additional avian genomes and discovered multiple copies of endogenous HBVs in the budgerigar (order Psittaciformes), designated eBHBV. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that the endogenous hepadnaviruses are more diverse than their exogenous counterparts and that the endogenous and exogenous hepadnaviruses form distinct lineages even when sampled from the same avian order, indicative of multiple genomic integration events. PMID:22553337

Cui, Jie

2012-01-01

19

Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.  

PubMed

Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented. PMID:24758122

Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

2014-03-01

20

Rapid contact call-driven induction of NR2A and NR2B NMDA subunit mRNAs in the auditory thalamus of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

In situ hybridization histochemistry was used to assess the effect of auditory stimulation with natural contact calls on expression of NR2A and NR2B NMDA subunit mRNAs in neurons of the thalamic auditory relay nucleus ovoidalis (Ov) of a vocal learning parrot species, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The results showed that both the core (Ov) and ventromedial shell subdivisions (Ovm) of ovoidalis contained neurons expressing NR2A and NR2B mRNA in no-stimulation control subjects and that the distributions of neurons expressing these subunit mRNAs were very similar in both the core and shell of Ov. Contact call stimulation (5, 30 and 180 min) resulted in substantial increases of 50-60% in the number of neurons expressing NR2A and NR2B mRNAs in both the core and shell. Staining intensity, as measured by the optical density of stained somata approximately doubled compared to controls for both NR2 subunits in the 5 and 30 min conditions, but declined from 30 to 180 min. In all conditions, the density, but not staining intensity, of neurons expressing NR2B exceeded NR2A expression. Furthermore, the density of neurons expressing both subunit mRNAs in call stimulation conditions was greater in the core than in the shell despite the fact that total neuronal density was approximately 20% higher in the shell. Previous experiments have shown that call stimulation is more effective at inducing expression of the immediate early gene zenk in the Ov shell than core; however the present results do not indicate that either NR2A or NR2B mRNA expression mediates this effect since neither subunit exhibits greater expression in Ovm. Ca(++) release is needed for immediate early gene expression, however and, notably, Ovm contains large numbers of neurons containing CGRP, a peptide which has been shown to increase cytosolic Ca(++) levels. PMID:17449285

Brauth, Steven E; Liang, Wenru; Tang, YeZhong; Galdzicka, Ewa; Hall, William S

2007-07-01

21

Behavioural Lateralization in Budgerigars Varies with the Task and the Individual  

PubMed Central

Handedness/footedness and side biases are a well-known phenomenon in many animals, including humans. However, these so-called biases have mostly been studied at the population level - individual biases have received less attention, especially with regard to consistency over different tasks. Here we investigate behavioral lateralization in 12 male Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, a social parrot inhabiting the Australian bushlands. We performed 5 types of experiments to investigate lateralization, in tasks that involved climbing onto a perch, or landing on perches arranged in various configurations. The birds displayed highly significant, individually varying biases. The bias displayed by any particular individual varied with the task, in strength as well as polarity. Analysis of the data revealed that the preferred foot used for climbing did not coincide with the foot that was used while landing. Thus, landing choices are probably not determined by foot bias. Furthermore, these individual preferences were overridden completely when a bird had to perform a task simultaneously with another bird. PMID:24324820

Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

2013-01-01

22

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus.  

PubMed

Abstract Here, we describe the budgie's mitochondrial genome sequence, a resource that can facilitate this parrot's use as a model organism as well as for determining its phylogenetic relatedness to other parrots/Psittaciformes. The estimated total length of the sequence was 18,193?bp. In addition to the to the 13 protein and tRNA and rRNA coding regions, the sequence also includes a duplicated hypervariable region, a feature unique to only a few birds. The two hypervariable regions shared a sequence identity of about 86%. PMID:24660934

Guan, Xiaojing; Xu, Jun; Smith, Edward J

2014-03-24

23

The breeding management affects fresh and cryopreserved semen characteristics in Melopsittacus undulatus.  

PubMed

Melopsittacus undulatus is a companion parrot worldwide diffused. Many parrots are considered endangered or vulnerable. The preservation of semen is crucial in endangered species, thus, M. undulatus could be a good model to study sperm characteristics and semen cryopreservation in these other endangered parrots. In this study the effect of the breeding management (males bred in promiscuous aviary or in couple) on sperm characteristics (motility, membrane integrity and morphometry) of fresh and cryopreserved semen was evaluated. The computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed a significant effect of the husbandry method on semen characteristics in budgerigars: male housed in couple with the female in individual cages allowed the higher results in term of both semen quantity and sperm quality. Total and progressive motility were significantly higher in males bred in couple (68.7±8.9% and 54±15.9%, respectively) than in promiscuous aviary (48.3±15.1% and 24.4±12.4%, respectively), such as sperm velocity (average path velocity, straight line velocity, and curvilinear velocity). The type of sperm movement (amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness, and linearity), sperm membrane integrity and morphometry parameters seemed not affected by the husbandry method. The standardization of a CASA procedure for the semen analysis in M. undulatus allow further studies on parrot semen manipulation and cryopreservation, but the method used for the breeding of the male could have a significant effect on the semen quality. PMID:24361005

Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Parrillo, Salvatore; Cicconi, Mirko; Robbe, Domenico

2014-01-10

24

Prevalence and genetic characterization of avian polyomavirus and psittacine beak and feather disease virus isolated from budgerigars in Mainland China.  

PubMed

Budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) and psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) are caused by avian polyomavirus (APV) and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), respectively. These diseases frequently infect psittacine birds and result in similar clinical manifestations. In this study, we observed the prevalence of PBFDV infection and a dual infection of APV and PBFDV in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) in Mainland China for the first time. One PBFDV isolate and two APV isolates were harvested using chicken embryos. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of the two APV isolates revealed nucleotide similarity ranging from 99.0% to 99.6% to other sequences in GenBank, and a 14-bp insertion was observed in the genome of one APV isolate. The results of complete genome analysis of the PBFDV isolate showed nucleotide similarity ranging from 83.0% to 95.0% with other PBFDV sequences in GenBank. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the APV and PBFDV strains isolated in this study indicated that the isolates from China were closely related to their Japanese counterparts. The results of this study will help to identify molecular determinants and will aid further research on the prevention and control of APV and PBFD infection. PMID:22002652

Zhuang, Qingye; Chen, Jiming; Mushtaq, Muhammad Hassan; Chen, Jie; Liu, Shuo; Hou, Guangyu; Li, Jinping; Huang, Baoxu; Jiang, Wenming

2012-01-01

25

The contribution of single and double cones to spectral sensitivity in budgerigars during changing light conditions.  

PubMed

Bird colour vision is mediated by single cones, while double cones and rods mediate luminance vision in bright and dim light, respectively. In daylight conditions, birds use colour vision to discriminate large objects such as fruit and plumage patches, and luminance vision to detect fine spatial detail and motion. However, decreasing light intensity favours achromatic mechanisms and eventually, in dim light, luminance vision outperforms colour vision in all visual tasks. We have used behavioural tests in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to investigate how single cones, double cones and rods contribute to spectral sensitivity for large (3.4°) static monochromatic stimuli at light intensities ranging from 0.08 to 63.5 cd/m². We found no influences of rods at any intensity level. Single cones dominate the spectral sensitivity function at intensities above 1.1 cd/m², as predicted by a receptor noise-limited colour discrimination model. Below 1.1 cd/m², spectral sensitivity is lower than expected at all wavelengths except 575 nm, which corresponds to double cone function. We suggest that luminance vision mediated by double cones restores visual sensitivity when single cone sensitivity quickly decreases at light intensities close to the absolute threshold of colour vision. PMID:24366429

Lind, Olle; Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut

2014-03-01

26

Neural FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the budgerigar, an avian species with adult vocal learning.  

PubMed

Vocal learning underlies acquisition of both language in humans and vocal signals in some avian taxa. These bird groups and humans exhibit convergent developmental phases and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. The transcription factor FoxP2 plays critical roles in vocal learning in humans and songbirds. Another member of the forkhead box gene family, FoxP1 also shows high expression in brain areas involved in vocal learning and production. Here, we investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 mRNA and protein in adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot species that exhibits vocal learning as both juveniles and adults. To examine these molecules in adult vocal learners, we compared their expression patterns in the budgerigar striatal nucleus involved in vocal learning, magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), across birds with different vocal states, such as vocalizing to a female (directed), vocalizing alone (undirected), and non-vocalizing. We found that both FoxP2 mRNA and protein expressions were consistently lower in MMSt than in the adjacent striatum regardless of the vocal states, whereas previous work has shown that songbirds exhibit down-regulation in the homologous region, Area X, only after singing alone. In contrast, FoxP1 levels were high in MMSt compared to the adjacent striatum in all groups. Taken together these results strengthen the general hypothesis that FoxP2 and FoxP1 have specialized expression in vocal nuclei across a range of taxa, and suggest that the adult vocal plasticity seen in budgerigars may be a product of persistent down-regulation of FoxP2 in MMSt. PMID:25601574

Hara, Erina; Perez, Jemima M; Whitney, Osceola; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A; Wright, Timothy F

2015-04-15

27

Outbreaks of budgerigar fledgling disease in three aviaries in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) occurred in three budgerigar aviaries in Ontario. Acute death in seven to ten-day-old nestlings and feather abnormalities in birds over three weeks of age were common findings. Ascites, hepatomegaly and hydropericardium were prominent gross lesions. Histologically, basophilic intranuclear inclusions were seen in many tissues. A severe drop in hatchability occurred in one aviary—a finding not previously reported with BFD. Interruption of breeding controlled the disease in aviary 1, but failed in two consecutive attempts in aviary 2. A third outbreak occurred in aviary 2 after depopulation and restocking. In aviary 3, the spread of disease was very rapid; 90% of the nestlings died within a few weeks. A papovavirus similar to a previously described isolate was recovered in this outbreak. PMID:17423398

Gough, Joan F.

1989-01-01

28

Unexpectedly low UV-sensitivity in a bird, the budgerigar  

PubMed Central

Photoreceptor adaptation ensures appropriate visual responses during changing light conditions and contributes to colour constancy. We used behavioural tests to compare UV-sensitivity of budgerigars after adaptation to UV-rich and UV-poor backgrounds. In the latter case, we found lower UV-sensitivity than expected, which could be the result of photon-shot noise corrupting cone signal robustness or nonlinear background adaptation. We suggest that nonlinear adaptation may be necessary for allowing cones to discriminate UV-rich signals, such as bird plumage colours, against UV-poor natural backgrounds. PMID:25376799

Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut; Vorobyev, Misha; Lind, Olle

2014-01-01

29

Bare-Part Color in Female Budgerigars Changes from Brown to Structural Blue following Testosterone Treatment but Is Not Strongly Masculinized  

PubMed Central

Whereas several studies have shown that experimentally increased levels of the androgenic steroid testosterone can affect female behavior, fewer studies have focused on the activational effects of exogenous testosterone on female morphology. With respect to colorful displays in birds, almost exclusively the effects of testosterone manipulation on female carotenoid-based colorations have been studied. Other color types such as structural colors (i.e. UV, blue and violet colors that result from differential light reflection in the nanostructures of the tissue) remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of exogenous testosterone on the expression of structural bare-part coloration in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In this parrot species, bare-part coloration is expressed in the cere, a structure over the beak which is brown in females and structural blue in males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and we performed weekly spectrophotometric measurements of the cere for five weeks after implantation and one measurement after ten weeks. We also estimated the extent to which testosterone masculinized female cere color by comparing the experimental females with untreated males. We found significant effects of testosterone on cere color from week four after implantation onwards. T-females expressed significantly bluer ceres than C-females with higher values for brightness and UV reflectance. T-female cere color, however, remained significantly less blue than in males, while values for brightness and UV reflectance were significantly higher in T-females than in males. Our quantitative results show that exogenous testosterone induces the expression of structural blue color in females but does not strongly masculinize female cere coloration. We provide several potential pathways for the action of testosterone on structural color. PMID:24475184

Lahaye, Stefanie E. P.; Eens, Marcel; Darras, Veerle M.; Pinxten, Rianne

2014-01-01

30

Diarrhea associated with small-intestinal cryptosporidiosis in a budgerigar and in a cockatiel.  

PubMed

Small-intestinal cryptosporidiosis has not been described in budgerigars or cockatiels. Organisms of the genus Cryptosporidium were found during histologic examination of segments of small intestine from a budgerigar with chronic weight loss and from a cockatiel that died acutely. Parasitism was accompanied by non-purulent inflammation (lymphocytes and plasma cells predominated). Bacterial and viral pathogens were not isolated. The death of the budgerigar was attributed to malassimilation interpreted to have been caused by Cryptosporidium. The cause of death in the cockatiel was inhalation pneumonia. Because the index of suspicion for cryptosporidiosis was low, samples for isolation of Cryptosporidium were not collected. In the future, cryptosporidiosis should be included as a differential diagnosis for weight loss and death in pet birds, and isolation and speciation of Cryptosporidium sp. should be attempted and reported. PMID:2619673

Goodwin, M A; Krabill, V A

1989-01-01

31

Behavioral lateralization and optimal route choice in flying budgerigars.  

PubMed

Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to continue their transit to the end of the tunnel, regardless of whether this passage was on the right or the left. Evidently, the birds were selecting the safest and quickest route. However, when the two passages were of equal or nearly equal width, some individuals consistently preferred the left-hand passage, while others consistently preferred the passage on the right. Thus, the birds displayed idiosyncratic biases when choosing between alternative routes. Surprisingly--and unlike most of the instances in which behavioral lateralization has previously been discovered--the bias was found to vary from individual to individual, in its direction as well as its magnitude. This is very different from handedness in humans, where the majority of humans are right-handed, giving rise to a so-called 'population' bias. Our experimental results and mathematical model of this behavior suggest that individually varying lateralization, working in concert with a tendency to choose the wider aperture, can expedite the passage of a flock of birds through a cluttered environment. PMID:24603285

Bhagavatula, Partha S; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

2014-03-01

32

Behavioral Lateralization and Optimal Route Choice in Flying Budgerigars  

PubMed Central

Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to continue their transit to the end of the tunnel, regardless of whether this passage was on the right or the left. Evidently, the birds were selecting the safest and quickest route. However, when the two passages were of equal or nearly equal width, some individuals consistently preferred the left-hand passage, while others consistently preferred the passage on the right. Thus, the birds displayed idiosyncratic biases when choosing between alternative routes. Surprisingly - and unlike most of the instances in which behavioral lateralization has previously been discovered - the bias was found to vary from individual to individual, in its direction as well as its magnitude. This is very different from handedness in humans, where the majority of humans are right-handed, giving rise to a so-called ‘population’ bias. Our experimental results and mathematical model of this behavior suggest that individually varying lateralization, working in concert with a tendency to choose the wider aperture, can expedite the passage of a flock of birds through a cluttered environment. PMID:24603285

Bhagavatula, Partha S.; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

2014-01-01

33

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

34

Detection thresholds for amplitude modulations of tones in budgerigar, rabbit, and human.  

PubMed

Envelope fluctuations of complex sounds carry information that is -essential for many types of discrimination and for detection in noise. To study the neural representation of envelope information and mechanisms for processing of this temporal aspect of sounds, it is useful to identify an animal model that can -sensitively detect amplitude modulations (AM). Low modulation frequencies, which dominate speech sounds, are of particular interest. Yet, most animal -models studied previously are relatively insensitive to AM at low modulation -frequencies. Rabbits have high thresholds for low-frequency modulations, -especially for tone carriers. Rhesus macaques are less sensitive than humans to low-frequency -modulations of wideband noise (O'Conner et al. Hear Res 277, 37-43, 2011). Rats and -chinchilla also have higher thresholds than humans for amplitude -modulations of noise (Kelly et al. J Comp Psychol 120, 98-105, 2006; Henderson et al. J Acoust Soc Am 75, -1177-1183, 1984). In contrast, the budgerigar has thresholds for AM detection of wideband noise similar to those of human listeners at low -modulation frequencies (Dooling and Searcy. Percept Psychophys 46, 65-71, 1981). A -one-interval, two-alternative operant conditioning procedure was used to estimate AM -detection thresholds for 4-kHz tone carriers at low modulation -frequencies (4-256 Hz). Budgerigar thresholds are comparable to those of human subjects in a comparable task. Implications of these comparative results for temporal coding of complex sounds are discussed. Comparative results for masked AM detection are also presented. PMID:23716245

Carney, Laurel H; Ketterer, Angela D; Abrams, Kristina S; Schwarz, Douglas M; Idrobo, Fabio

2013-01-01

35

Purification of recombinant budgerigar fledgling disease virus VP1 capsid protein and its ability for in vitro capsid assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recombinant system for the major capsid VP1 protein of budgerigar fledgling disease virus has been established. The VP1 gene was inserted into a truncated form of the pFlag-1 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The budgerigar fledgling disease virus VP1 protein was purified to near homogeneity by immunoaffinity chromatography. Fractions containing highly purified VP1 were pooled and found to constitute 3.3% of the original E. coli-expressed VP1 protein. Electron microscopy revealed that the VP1 protein was isolated as pentameric capsomeres. Electron microscopy also revealed that capsid-like particles were formed in vitro from purified VP1 capsomeres with the addition of Ca2+ ions and the removal of chelating and reducing agents.

Rodgers, R. E.; Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

36

An outbreak of the polyomavirus infection in budgerigars and cockatiels in Slovakia, including a genome analysis of an avian polyomavirus isolate.  

PubMed

In winter 2003-04, large numbers of budgerigars (Mellopsitacus undulatus) and cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) fell ill and died in a large parrot-breeding aviary in Slovakia. In budgerigars, the disease outbreak occurred at the age of 2-3 weeks; cockatiels died within their first 7 days of life. In budgerigars, symptoms of the disease included delayed growth, tremor, darkish discoloration of skin, quill bleeding, and feathering defects. cockatiels often died without any symptoms and with a full crop; feathering defects occurred sporadically. Electron microscopy with negative staining of aqueous lysates of the affected skin and of bleeding quills showed isolated or clustered polyomavirus particles 45-50 nm in size. Long filamentous forms of the virus were also found in virion clusters of skin lysates from the budgerigars. In ultrathin sections through the pathologically altered skin tissue of budgerigars, virus particles were present in both nuclei and cytoplasm of epidermal cells, often in crystalline form. In infected cells, enlarged nuclei showed an extensive chromatin margination. On the DNA level, presence of a polyomavirus infection was conclusively proved by the polymerase chain reaction using avian polyomavirus (APV)-specific primers. A sequence analysis of the gene encoding viral protein (VP)1 and of the combined region for VP2 and VP3 proteins revealed a previously undescribed synonymous mutation in this isolate. This report extended the knowledge of the area of APV occurrence and of the spectrum of hosts in the context of genomic and morphologic variability of APV isolates. PMID:16617994

Literák, Ivan; Smíd, Bediich; Dubská, Lenka; Bryndza, Lukás; Valícek, Lubomír

2006-03-01

37

Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus) and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs), segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+) MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird): the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+ MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order) and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order). We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+ MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail), but also between close vocal learner bird families. PMID:24391552

Garcia-Calero, Elena; Bahamonde, Olga; Martinez, Salvador

2013-01-01

38

Phosphorylation of the budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural proteins of the budgerigar fledgling disease virus, the first known nonmammalian polyomavirus, were analyzed by isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The major capsid protein VP1 was found to be composed of at least five distinct species having isoelectric points ranging from pH 6.45 to 5.85. By analogy with the murine polyomavirus, these species apparently result from different modifications of an initial translation product. Primary chicken embryo cells were infected in the presence of 32Pi to determine whether the virus structural proteins were modified by phosphorylation. SDS-PAGE of the purified virus structural proteins demonstrated that VP1 (along with both minor capsid proteins) was phosphorylated. Two-dimensional analysis of the radiolabeled virus showed phosphorylation of only the two most acidic isoelectric species of VP1, indicating that this posttranslational modification contributes to VP1 species heterogeneity. Phosphoamino acid analysis of 32P-labeled VP1 revealed that phosphoserine is the only phosphoamino acid present in the VP1 protein.

Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

39

Hot or Not: The Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Female Attractiveness to Male Conspecifics in the Budgerigar  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of studies indicate that not only females but also males can be selective when choosing a mate. In species exhibiting male or mutual mate choice, females may benefit from being attractive. While male attractiveness is often positively influenced by higher plasma levels of the androgenic hormone testosterone, it has been shown that testosterone can masculinise female behavior and morphology in several bird species, potentially rendering them less attractive. In this study, we investigated whether female budgerigars, Melopsittacusundulatus, suffer from increased plasma testosterone levels through a negative effect on their attractiveness to males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and allowed males to choose between a T- and a C-female in a two-way choice situation. Although testosterone treatment significantly affected female behavioral and morphological characteristics, males did not show a significant difference in preference between T- and C-females. These results suggest that experimentally increasing testosterone levels in females does not appear to influence male preference during initial mate choice. Our findings indicate that selection for higher levels of testosterone in male budgerigars is probably not constrained by a correlated response to selection causing negative effects on female attractiveness during initial mate choice. Evaluating whether or not a potential constraint may arise from negative testosterone-induced effects on other fitness related traits in females requires further work. PMID:23951365

Lahaye, Stefanie E. P.; Eens, Marcel; Darras, Veerle M.; Pinxten, Rianne

2013-01-01

40

Isolation of Sarcocystis falcatula from the South American opossum ( Didelphis albiventris) from Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of four opossums (Didelphis albiventris) from Argentina were identified as Sarcocystis falcatula based on schizogonic stages and pathogenicity to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Seven budgerigars fed sporocysts from the opossum feces died of acute sarcocystosis 8, 9, 11, 12, and 14 days after inoculation. Schizonts and merozoites found in the lungs and other organs of the

J. P. Dubey; L. Venturini; C. Venturini; W. Basso; J. Unzaga

1999-01-01

41

Invasive Birds in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of exotic birds has been increasing throughout the world. We conducted inquiry investigations in order to reveal the spread of introduced bird species in Japan. Forty-three exotic species are known to breed or are regarded as breeding. The Feral Pigeon (Columba livia), Chinese Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Red Avadavat (Amandava amandava)

Kazuhiro EGUCHI; Hitoha E. AMANO

2004-01-01

42

This Land Is Your Land, This Land Is My Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will review and evaluate the ways land is covered and used in their local community. They will also consider the environmental effects of the different types of land use. Students will act as community planning engineers to determine where to place a new structure that will have the least affect on the environment.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

43

Visual pigments and oil droplets from six classes of photoreceptor in the retinas of birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microspectrophotometric examination of the retinal photoreceptors of the budgerigar (shell parakeet), Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittaciformes) and the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata (Passeriformes), demonstrate the presence of four, spectrally distinct classes of single cone that contain visual pigments absorbing maximally at about 565, 507, 430–445 and 360–380 nm. The three longer-wave cone classes contain coloured oil droplets acting as long pass filters

J. K. Bowmaker; L. A. Heath; S. E. Wilkie; D. M. Hunt

1997-01-01

44

Land Use and Land Cover Baseline Report  

E-print Network

high-priority development and conservation zones. Land management tools that center sustainable land management on areas with slopes greater than 15%. #12Land Use and Land Cover Baseline Report September 2012 Data and analysis of land use and land cover

Columbia University

45

Mars Landing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning (PBL) module, students take on the role of Captain aboard the fictional good ship Low Bid, the first manned spacecraft to orbit Mars. Their challenge: to choose a safe, interesting landing spot, using old Viking images taken in the 1970s to guide them. Students download and analyze digital images using NIH image software. This module is part of exploring the environment.

2012-08-03

46

water transport land runoff  

E-print Network

Monitoring station Land to water transport Urban runoff Cultivated land runoff Wastewater discharges Pasture land runoff Instream transport and removal Land to water transport Monitoring station Benefits of Integrated Monitoring and Modeling Successful management of our Nation's water resources

Torgersen, Christian

47

On Landing Gear Stresses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on landing gear stresses is presented on the following: vibratory phenomena, tangential forces applied to landing gear, fore and aft oscillations of landing gears, examples of fatigue failures, vibration calculations, and improvement of existing test equipment.

Gentric, A.

1956-01-01

48

Primitive Land Plants 37 PRIMITIVE LAND PLANTS  

E-print Network

Primitive Land Plants 37 PRIMITIVE LAND PLANTS These are the plants that were present soon after land was colonized, over 400 mil- lion years ago. A few plants living today are closely related to those ancient plants, and we often call them "living fossils". Two major lineages of plants evolved

Koptur, Suzanne

49

Bureau of Land Management: Public Land Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) manages over 264 million acres of public land, most of which is located in the western United States. The BLM works diligently to get information on these lands out to a variety of stakeholders, including other government agencies, private landowners, and other organizations. This website brings together the BLM's formal land statistics and reports. Visitors can view the complete reports dating from the present year all the way back to 1996, and they are also encouraged to look over the site's other sections. As these reports are quite lengthy, the other sections may be a bit more useful as they break out the reports' statistics into themes like Healthy Lands, Commercial Uses, Recreation, and Natural and Cultural. These separate themes contain tables like "Estimated Recreational Use of Public Lands Administered by the BLM" and "National Historic and Scenic Trails."

2012-03-09

50

Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the detected obstacles we select a safe landing zone for the UAV. The motion and structure detection uses background estimation of stabilized video. The background variation is measured and used to enhance the moving objects if necessary. In the motion and structure map a distance transform is calculated to find a suitable location for landing.

Eendebak, P. T.; van Eekeren, A. W. M.; den Hollander, R. J. M.

2013-05-01

51

Public Lands: Hidden Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is about American public lands including parks, monuments, refuges, wilderness areas, underground mineral reserves, marine sanctuaries, historic and scenic trails, forests, and seashores. Throughout this lesson, students will explore and share with others the hidden histories and stories of these lands about wildlife, cultures, governments, and people who have lived on, enjoyed, protected, or influenced them. Students will identify the economic, scientific, recreational, and spiritual values of public lands; interpret Native American quotes that demonstrate the unique relationship between Native Americans and the land; identify important historic facts about select public lands; and develop a creative way to share information with others about a select public land.

52

Lands and natural resources  

SciTech Connect

The Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals decided a surprisingly small number of controversies involving lands and natural resources during the time period covered by the Tenth Annual Tenth Circuit Survey. The subject matter of the few land and resource decisions was also limited. Whereas in recent years the court has considered a wide variety of resource and land issues, the past year is distinguished by its lack of variety. Of the eight land and resource decisions published by the court, six concerned public lands, one involved Indian lands, and one resolved an environmental law question. This survey highlights the issues resolved in each of these cases.

Crane, J.

1984-01-01

53

Land valuation and land rents in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

State and cooperative agricultural land had neither a market nor an assigned accounting value in the former socialist countries. This led to tremendous waste and underusage. For this reason, in the reform movements of the 1960s and 1980s a monetary valuation of land was demanded by some economists and several methods were worked out to determine this. After the political

Anna Burger

1998-01-01

54

Land and World Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

1982-01-01

55

Alaska Natives & the Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

56

Land surface interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered include the following: land and climate modeling; sensitivity studies; the process of a land model; model-specific parameterizations; water stress; within-canopy resistances; partial vegetation; canopy temperature; and present experience with a land model coupled to a general circulation model.

Dickinson, Robert E.

1992-01-01

57

Land Treatment Digital Library  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

2013-01-01

58

Landing gear noise attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

2011-01-01

59

Land Tenure Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1962, the Land Tenure Center (LTC) is perhaps one of the most well-regarded university-based institutions to deal specifically with land policy across the world. Essentially, the LTC "serves as a global resource institution on issues relating to land ownership, land rights, land access, and land use." The LTC is also highly regarded for its interdisciplinary research approach which places a premium on working collaboratively with host-country institutions and individuals in the areas of policy analysis, research, and training. On the organization's site, visitors can learn about their various ongoing research programs, its staff members and affiliates, and the lectures and events it sponsors. Of course, the publications area is quite strong, and all documents created since 1996 are available online. These papers include such titles as "Patterns of Tenure Insecurity in Guyana" and "Indigenous Land and Community Security: A (Radical) Planning Agenda."

60

Land landing couch dynamics computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer programs perform landing stability studies of mechanical impact system designs for advanced spacecraft. The programs consider variation in spacecraft vertical and horizontal velocity, attitude and orientation, shock strut load-stroke characteristics, and ground coefficient of friction.

Herting, D. N.; Pohlen, J. C.; Pollack, R. A.

1967-01-01

61

Land Treatment Digital Library  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A dynamic system to enter, store, retrieve, and analyze Federal land-treatment data. More information and access to data available at: http://greatbasin.wr.usgs.gov/ltdl Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

Pilliod, David S.

2009-01-01

62

Land Plants Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In response to a growing interest regarding evolutionary relationships of green plants in recent years, Dan Nickrent and Karen Renzaglia--of Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC)--developed Land Plants Online (LPO). LPO was also designed to provide researchers and students with a centralized source for new information resulting from technological advancements in the field. LPO's stated goal "is to bring together, from a variety of disciplines, the available information on evolutionary relationships in land plants including their most likely outgroup, charophycean algae." The heart of LPO is the Phylum Pages, which are organized by Non Vascular plants (Bryophytes), and Vascular Plants (Tracheophytes). The site also includes sections for Phylogenetic Relationships among Land Plants, and Character Matrices for Land Plants. In addition, site visitors will find a collection of general references for basal land plants, contact information for plant specialists, information on SIUC land plant research, and related links.

Nickrent, Daniel Lee

63

Land Surface Phenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Land surface phenology (LSP) is a key indicator of ecosystem dynamics under a changing environment. Over the last few decades,\\u000a numerous studies have used the time series data of vegetation indices derived from land surface reflectance acquired by satellite-based\\u000a optical sensors to delineate land surface phenology. Recent progress and data accumulation from CO2 eddy flux towers offers a new perspective

Xiangming Xiao; Junhui Zhang; Huimin Yan; Weixing Wu; Chandrashekhar Biradar

64

Land use planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

1975-01-01

65

Landing-gear impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report deals with the impact forces in landing gears. Both the landing impact and the taxiing impact have been considered, but drag forces have so far been excluded. The differential equations are developed and their numerical integration is shown, considering the nonlinear properties of the oleo shock strut. A way is shown for determining the dimensions of the metering pin from a given load-time diagram. A review of German literature on landing-gear impact is also presented.

Flugge, W

1952-01-01

66

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Agriculture Data Creator /  

E-print Network

square kilometers of land and water. The Land Capability for Agriculture shows the varying potentialTitle: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Agriculture Data Creator / Copyright Owner Updates: N/A Series Title: Soil Capability Classification for Agriculture Abstract: The Canada Land

67

Land quality indicators of sustainable land management across scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing definitions of “soil quality” and “sustainable land management” are analysed to derive a procedure for defining land quality (LQ) indicators of sustainable land management. Land — rather than soil qualities are considered to reflect the impact of the climate on soil behaviour. LQ is different for different types of land use and attention is arbitrarily confined here to agriculture.

J. Bouma

2002-01-01

68

Improving urban land use and land cover classification from  

E-print Network

Improving urban land use and land cover classification from high-spatial-resolution hyperspectral Library on 02 Sep 2010 to 130.18.64.144. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Improving urban land) classification for urban land use and land cover (LULC) mapping from airborne hyperspectral imagery with high

Du, Jenny (Qian)

69

Scaling the land use system  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use\\/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity through deforestation or soil degradation through unsustainable land use, increasing importance is given to the

K. Kok

2001-01-01

70

Securing land rights for women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This collection of papers on Securing Women's Land Rights presents five articles relating to eastern Africa. Four of these illustrate practical approaches to securing land rights for women in distinct situations: law-making for women's land rights (Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda); land tenure reform in practice (Rwanda); women's rights under pastoral land tenure (Ethiopia); and women's rights in areas of matrilineal-matrilocal

Elizabeth Daley; Birgit Englert

2010-01-01

71

All That Unplowed Land  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

MOSAIC, 1975

1975-01-01

72

Airplane landing gear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents an investigation of the design and construction of various types of landing gears. Some of the items discussed include: chassises, wheels, shock absorbers (rubber disk and rubber cord), as well as oleopneumatic shock absorbers. Various types of landing gears are also discussed such as the Messier, Bendix, Vickers, and Bleriot.

Maiorca, Salvatore

1931-01-01

73

Petroleum lands and leasing  

SciTech Connect

This is a reference book for the lessor, lessee, royalty owner, PLM student and landman. Contents: A historical background; Rights of ownership; Instruments of conveyance; Who owns this land. The oil and gas lease and leasing procedures; Curing titles; Pooling and utilization; Contracts and agreements; Lease maintenance; Land measurements and descriptions; Code of ethics; American Association of Petroleum Landmen; Glossary.

Burk, J.

1984-01-01

74

Energy and land use  

SciTech Connect

It is the purpose of this book - through its 27 essays - to build a foundation for the clear explication of the relationships between energy considerations and land-use planning. Toward this end, energy and land use may be defined as: land planning requirements to enhance energy supply and reduce energy demand. These requirements recognize both: (1) the influence and pervasiveness of past development trends; and (2) the necessity, in some instances, to redirect past trends. Further, energy-sensitive land planning will most enduringly be influenced through comprehensive state and local land-use controls that include energy considerations as a key element of their basic fabric. A separate abstract was prepared for the editor's introduction and each of the 27 essays. All of the abstracts will appear in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA); five will appear in Energy Abstracts (ERA).

Burchell, R.W.; Listokin, D. (eds.)

1982-01-01

75

Depicting Coastal Louisiana Land Loss  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Coastal Louisiana Land Loss map depicts historical (1932-2000) changes of land to water and water to land, as well as projected changes (2000-2050). Projections are based on the assumption of no future restoration.

Smith, Gregory J.

2005-01-01

76

Analysis of land bridge transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land bridge transportation means transportation from one seaport to another by railway across continents instead of by ocean\\u000a ship. At present, there are two common routes for using land bridge transportation in the world. One is Asia—America—Europe\\u000a land bridge, the other is Europe—Asia land bridge.\\u000a \\u000a Eurasia land bridge has obvious advantages over Asia—America—Europe land bridge due to its shorter distance,

Yong Qi; Yan Wang

1991-01-01

77

Land-Breeze Forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

78

Algorithm for Autonomous Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of their small size, high maneuverability, and easy deployment, micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) are used for a wide variety of both civilian and military missions. One of their current drawbacks is the vast array of sensors (such as GPS, altimeter, radar, and the like) required to make a landing. Due to the MAV s small payload size, this is a major concern. Replacing the imaging sensors with a single monocular camera is sufficient to land a MAV. By applying optical flow algorithms to images obtained from the camera, time-to-collision can be measured. This is a measurement of position and velocity (but not of absolute distance), and can avoid obstacles as well as facilitate a landing on a flat surface given a set of initial conditions. The key to this approach is to calculate time-to-collision based on some image on the ground. By holding the angular velocity constant, horizontal speed decreases linearly with the height, resulting in a smooth landing. Mathematical proofs show that even with actuator saturation or modeling/ measurement uncertainties, MAVs can land safely. Landings of this nature may have a higher velocity than is desirable, but this can be compensated for by a cushioning or dampening system, or by using a system of legs to grab onto a surface. Such a monocular camera system can increase vehicle payload size (or correspondingly reduce vehicle size), increase speed of descent, and guarantee a safe landing by directly correlating speed to height from the ground.

Kuwata, Yoshiaki

2011-01-01

79

Climate and Land Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On the occasion of the Seventh session of the Conference of Parties, The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has prepared this brochure which explains the role of different climatic factors in land degradation and WMO's contribution in addressing this important subject.

2005-01-01

80

Land Product Validation (LPV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

2013-01-01

81

Air cushion landing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

1978-01-01

82

Survey of Critical Wetlands Bureau of Land Management Lands  

E-print Network

Survey of Critical Wetlands Bureau of Land Management Lands South Park, Park County, Colorado 2003 Delivery Colorado State University #12;Survey of Critical Wetlands Bureau of Land Management Lands South place from unique wetlands to high quality grasslands to the bristlecone pine forests to its alpine

83

LAND USE LAND COVER (LULC) - US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Mapping Program, a component of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), produces and distributes land use and land cover maps and digitized data for the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii. Land use refers to the human activities that are directly related to the land. The int...

84

Major Land Resource Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map from the US Department of Agriculture displays US land use areas by color. Clicking on a region of the map takes you to a page featuring a blown-up map and a paragraph describing the major land use of the area (e.g., agriculture, residential, industrial, etc.). From there, you can also access regional elevation, climate, water, and soil information.

2000-01-01

85

A Land Worth Loving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the BBC Nature Web site, comes the A Land Worth Loving page. The site has several interactive activities related to energy conservation and recycling including the virtual energy house. Here users get to choose energy saving items to see the resulting gains to the homeowner and the environment. The site also explains recycling and sustainable living and even offers a "green" quiz and a free downloadable "A Land Worth Living" poster.

2002-01-01

86

Land subsidence in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land subsidence in China occurs in different regions. It is primarily caused by excessive groundwater withdrawal. Other reasons\\u000a for the subsidence include the oil, warm groundwater withdrawal and the neotectonic movement. The common characteristics of\\u000a land subsidence in China are slow, accumulative, irreversible, and other unique properties. The range of subsidence still\\u000a keeps extending and the accumulative subsidence increasing though

Yu-Qun Xue; Yun Zhang; Shu-Jun Ye; Ji-Chun Wu; Qin-Fen Li

2005-01-01

87

Apollo Landing Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the siting and geology of the six Apollo lunar landings. Learners use latitude and longitude to identify potential landing sites and study the geology of lunar samples collected from those sites. This activity is in Unit 2 of the "Exploring the Moon" teacher’s guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

2012-08-03

88

Viking landing sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

Panagakos, N.

1973-01-01

89

43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to Location...

2012-10-01

90

43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to Location...

2014-10-01

91

43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...3811.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to Location...

2011-10-01

92

43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...Provisions § 2920.3 Bureau of Land Management initiated land use...

2013-10-01

93

43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...Provisions § 2920.3 Bureau of Land Management initiated land use...

2012-10-01

94

43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...Provisions § 2920.3 Bureau of Land Management initiated land use...

2011-10-01

95

43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...Provisions § 2920.3 Bureau of Land Management initiated land use...

2014-10-01

96

The land potential knowledge system (LandPKS): Increasing land productivity and resilience  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Africa must significantly increase agricultural production to meet the needs of a growing population. Current efforts focus on intensifying production on currently used lands and expanding to un- or under-utilized lands. The success of both strategies requires understanding the land’s potential prod...

97

Energy and land use  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

Not Available

1981-12-01

98

Future land use plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

NONE

1995-08-31

99

Land-use Leakage  

SciTech Connect

Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

2009-12-01

100

Land Surveyor Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of Land Surveyor Reference Page Web site is "to provide reference materials that are useful in the practice of Land Surveying and to promote communication within the surveying community globally." Funded by the Huntington Technology Group, the site is periodically updated to include the latest information on state rules, regulations and statutes, federal government data sources, maps, articles of interest, college and university programs, meetings and conventions, as well as links to professional organizations, land surveying message boards, and much more. While obviously helpful to the surveying professional, the site also should appeal to researchers and others doing work that involves surveying; providing them with helpful and up-to-date information.

1995-01-01

101

LichenLand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LichenLand offers a way to learn about lichen biology and taxonomy that's much more engaging than leafing through a textbook. This Web site, provided by Oregon State University, offers a number of features to help students become familiar with the subject. First-time users should visit LichenLand Lite for a quick introduction to lichens and instructions for using the Web site. LichenLand Main Door contains an illustrated set of characters that can be queried with simple drop-down menus. Query results yield a list of lichens that exhibit the characters selected, with information and photos for each species. The Web site could complement related coursework for a range of grade levels.

102

Land use and energy  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

1980-07-01

103

Land & Water Conservation Fund  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1965, the US Congress created the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) "to preserve open space, develop recreation opportunities, and assure that all Americans have access to quality outdoor recreation." The Land and Water Conservation Fund receives $900 million annually, mainly from ocean oil drilling revenues. However, as much as 85 percent of each year's Fund is diverted for purposes other than conservation and recreation. The National Park Service provides this site, which gives technical information on the State and Federal components of the LWCF, with some historical information. For those interested in the future of natural places in this country, this site will be of great interest.

104

Clearing Debris from Land  

E-print Network

level. Burial ? Tree debris can be buried, but the cost is high. ? Use a chipping machine to eliminate smaller branches and reduce the amount of burial space needed. Landfill ? You can place tree debris in erosion gullies (where the land is not prac...- tical for terracing) or in swamps or low-lying areas. ? Consult a water resource specialist to determine how the landfill will alter the water?s path. You will need a bulldozer or other large equip- ment for this work. Clearing Debris from Land...

McFarland, Mark L.

2005-09-30

105

Regional land use studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing technology and data from instrumented satellites and high altitude aircraft are proposed for mapping land use on a current national basis, for monitoring changes and trends, and for creating statistical models which can be manipulated to demonstrate the probable effects of proposed land use and of environmental changes over large areas. Both Apollo spacecraft and aircraft photography were used; the spacecraft pictures delineated the cropland and urban boundaries more clearly. A computer model is also proposed for statistical analysis and for printing out updated maps automatically; this model will include a data bank which can be updated rapidly with changes detected by the computer.

Place, J. L.

1970-01-01

106

Urban land teleconnections and sustainability  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural–urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental “grand challenges” and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept. PMID:22550174

Seto, Karen C.; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G.; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K.; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

2012-01-01

107

Public Lands: Preserve or Develop?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces students to the various ways that public lands are valued, used, and managed in the United States. Students will compare and contrast different types of public lands, then simulate the decision-making and communication involved in converting private land to public land, taking into consideration the location, terrain, and climate of the land, as well as the needs and desires of residents of the region. Students will imagine that they are able to bequeath a parcel of land to their state for public use, then create an argument for the best use of the property.

108

Land Use and Nitrogen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students explore the impacts of concentrated development and sprawl on water quality and land use. The concept of a watershed is introduced, along with information on basins and tributaries and the impacts of growth and nitrogen loading. The students are able to develop a plan to reduce nitrogen runoff to a targeted level. Several handouts and maps are included.

109

Geodiversity and land form  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

Gray, Murray

2014-05-01

110

The Mayflower Landed Here!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides information so that teachers can prepare their grade 5 and above students for a visit to the Cape Cod National Seashore historic site. Pilgrims on the Mayflower landed here in 1620. The booklet contains pre-visit, on site, and post-visit activities, along with a list of educational objectives and materials needed. It also…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Wellfleet, MA. Cape Cod National Seashore.

111

Understanding Our Environment: Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

112

Camera for landing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Enhanced Video System (EVS) camera, built by OPGAL as subcontractor of Kollsman Inc. The EVS contains a Head up Display built by Honeywell, a special design camera for landing applications, and the external window installed on the plane together with the electronic control box built by Kollsman. The special design camera for lending applications is the

Ernest Grimberg

2001-01-01

113

Lands and natural resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tenth Circuit has historically played a major role in the development of Indian law. Among the court's numerous decisions affecting Indians were those involving the standard of proof in cases seeking to disestablish Indian reservations, the duty owed by the Secretary of the Interior to the Indians in the administration of oil and gas leasing on Indian lands, the

1985-01-01

114

Living Off the Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the

Maryellen Gamberg

2010-02-01

115

Biofuel on contaminated land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation \\/ removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and

Pascal Suer; Yvonne Andersson-Sköld; Sonja Blom; Paul Bardos; Marcel Polland; Thomas Track

2010-01-01

116

Land application of sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is the proceedings of a workshop held in Las Vegas, NV in 1985 entitled Effects of Sewage Sludge Quality and Soil Properties on Plant Uptake of Sludge-Applied Trace Constituents. The workshop was in response to the need to utilize the most current available information in the development of regulations and criteria to safely apply and manage the land

A. L. Page; T. J. Logan; J. A. Ryan

1987-01-01

117

Lab 3: Land Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first part of this lab, students learn about land ice and the processes and timescales involved in glaciation. In Part B, they use an online interactive to explore how glaciers provide scientists with evidence for climate change. Finally, students use image processing software to measure how much area a real glacier has lost over time due to rising temperatures.

118

Living off the Land  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the classroom walls. Its inhabitants date back to the first hunting and gathering settlers--the…

Dickerson, Peg; Gamberg, Maryellen

2010-01-01

119

Simulating feedbacks in land use and land cover change models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the many advances in land use and land cover change modelling over the past decade many challenges remain. One\\u000a of these challenges relates to the explicit treatment of feedback mechanisms in descriptive models of the land use system.\\u000a This paper argues for model-based analysis to explore the role of feedback mechanisms as determinants of land use dynamics

Peter H. Verburg

2006-01-01

120

Land Fragmentation and Land Consolidation in Romania1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Romania as a result of Land Laws application, the ownership system has changed. Private property became prevailing with an average area of 2 ha. Furthermore, land property is extremely fragmented, into about 50 million parcels, and one third of agricultural land belong to people who do not live in the rural areas. The establishment of private ownership right upon

Marioara Rusu

121

LAND USE AND NATURAL RESOURCES  

E-print Network

1 LAND USE AND NATURAL RESOURCES CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION SUMMER 2013 Including in a white Cadillac. It was worth the trip. We in the Land Use and Natural Resources and Sustainability Lave Johnston Director, Land Use and Natural Resources Department UC Davis Extension #12;3 CONTENTS

Ferrara, Katherine W.

122

Landing of Manned Reentry Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landing of Manned Reentry Vehicles. Landing characteristics were investigated using dynamic models. The landing speeds for several let-down systems are simulated. Demonstrations include: (1) the vertical landing of parachute-supported capsules on water; (2) reduction of landing acceleration by shaping the impact surface for water entry; (3) problems created by horizontal velocity due to wind; (4) the use of energy absorbers (yielding metal legs or torus bags) for land or water landings; (5) problems associated with horizontal land landings; (6) the use of a paraglider to aid in vehicle direction control; (7) a curved undersurface to serve as a skid-rocker to convert sinking-speed energy into angular energy; (8) horizontal-type landing obtained with winged vehicles on a hard runway; (9) the dangers of high-speed water landings; and (10) the positive effects of parachute support for landing winged vehicles. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030969. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1961-01-01

123

LAND IN MAORI TRADITIONAL SOCIETY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to European settlement of New Zealand, Maori people had occupied the land for hundreds of years. Their customs, similar to those of other Polynesian peoples of Pacific islands, recognised how rights to land were obtained, and by whom land was rightfully held. Generally a right had been asserted by an identified ancestor in one or more of a number

David F Sheppard

124

Evaluation of the VIIRS Land Algorithms at Land PEATE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (Land PEATE), a component of the Science Data Segment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), is being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The primary task of the Land PEATE is to assess the quality of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land data products made by the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) using the Operational (OPS) Code during the NPP era and to recommend improvements to the algorithms in the IDPS OPS code. The Land PEATE uses a version of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), NPPDAPS, that has been modified to produce products from the IDPS OPS code and software provided by the VIIRS Science Team, and uses the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team for evaluation of the data records generated by the NPPDAPS. Land PEATE evaluates the algorithms by comparing data products generated using different versions of the algorithm and also by comparing to heritage products generated from different instrument such as MODIS using various quality assessment tools developed at LDOPE. This paper describes the Land PEATE system and some of the approaches used by the Land PEATE for evaluating the VIIRS Land algorithms during the pre-launch period of the NPP mission and the proposed plan for long term monitoring of the quality of the VIIRS Land products post-launch.

Wolfe, Robert E.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Ye, Gang; Masuoka, Edward J.; Schweiss, Robert J.

2010-01-01

125

CSIRO Land and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSIRO Land and Water is an Australian research organization working with government and industry to solve some of Australia's environmental challenges. The Current Issues section of this Web siteoffers some understanding of the resource management and ecosystem issues facing Australia, including agricultural and aquatic ecosystem issues. The site also offers an Image Gallery containing almost 1,200 downloadable images that visitors can browse by category or search by keyword.

126

Settling in New Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You and your group are explorers out to start a settlement in new land. Third Grade Social Studies Standard 1 Students will understand how geography influences community location and development. Objective 1 Determine the relationships between human settlement and geography. Identify the geographic features common to areas where human settlements exist. a. Use map features to make logical inferences and describe relationships between human settlement and physical ...

mgubler

2009-11-18

127

Aggressive landing maneuvers for unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) vehicle landing is considered to be a critically difficult task for both land, marine, and urban operations. This thesis describes one possible control approach to enable landing of ...

Bayraktar, Selcuk

2006-01-01

128

State Lands Management Plan Rosemary Hill Observatory  

E-print Network

State Lands Management Plan For Rosemary Hill Observatory DRAFT: January 2002 prepared by Office;ROSEMARY HILL OBSERVATORY LAND MANAGEMENT PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. Need for Additional Land or Surplus Lands. . . . . . . . . . . . V. MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES 17

Slatton, Clint

129

Land Use Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer technology, aerial photography and space imagery are being combined in a NASA community services program designed to help solve land use and natural resource planning problems. As urban areas grow, so grows the need for comprehensive, up-to-date information on which to base intelligent decisions regarding land use. State and local planners need information such as the nature of urban change, where the changes are occurring, how they affect public safety, transportation, the economy, tax assessment, sewer systems, water quality, flood hazard, noise impact and a great variety of other considerations. Most importantly they need continually updated maps. Preparing timely maps, gathering the essential data and maintaining it in orderly fashion are becoming matters of increasing difficulty. The NASA project, which has nationwide potential for improving efficiency in the planning process, is a pilot program focused on Tacoma, Washington and surrounding Pierce County. Its key element, developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a computerized Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS).

1978-01-01

130

Consequences of land use and land cover change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

2013-01-01

131

Land Reform and Landholdings in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land and wealth are closely related in rural Brazil, a country characterized by high levels of inequality in terms of income or landholdings. After presenting a historical retrospective of land concentration and land reform in Brazil, this study evaluates the impact of the land reform programme undertaken in the 1990s on land ownership and land distribution. It is shown that

Juliano Assuncao

2006-01-01

132

Forum on land use and land Cover: Summary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report includes the agenda and abstracts of presentations from the Forum on Land Use and Land Cover Data, cohosted by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), February 25-27,1992 at the USGS National Center in Reston, Virginia. The Forum was conducted under the auspices of the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and was attended by Federal and State managers of programs that produce and use land use and land cover maps and data in support of environmental analysis, monitoring, and policy development. The goal was to improve opportunities for Federal and State coordination, information exchange, data sharing, and work sharing in land use and land cover mapping.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Geological Survey

1992-01-01

133

To Land on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Science Definition Team (SDT) for NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission recommends including a lander as an integral part of the science payload of the JIMO Mission. The Europa Surface Science Package (ESSP) could comprise up to 25% of science payload resources. We have identified several key scientific and technical issues for such a lander, including 1) the potential effects of propellant contamination of the landng site, 2) the likely macroscopic surface roughness of potential landing sites, and 3) the desire to sample materials from depths of approximately 1 m beneath the surface. Discussion and consensus building on these issues within the science community is a prerequisite for establishing design requirements.

Shirley, James H.; Carlson, Robert W.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Sabahi, Dara

2005-01-01

134

Camera for landing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the Enhanced Video System (EVS) camera, built by OPGAL as subcontractor of Kollsman Inc. The EVS contains a Head up Display built by Honeywell, a special design camera for landing applications, and the external window installed on the plane together with the electronic control box built by Kollsman. The special design camera for lending applications is the subject of this paper. The entire system was installed on a Gulfstream V plane and passed the FAA proof of concept during August and September 2000.

Grimberg, Ernest

2001-08-01

135

Land and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past few weeks we have studied the movement of water through the land. We have talked about the water cycle and erosion. Today, you will see more models about water's movement on the earth. Each activity today will open in a new link. Make sure you close the link when you finish the activity or video so that you don't have so many pages open at once. This first video, from the Environmental Protection Agency, will give you a review of the water cycle. Click ...

Mrs. Petersen

2013-02-18

136

Happy Fun Communication Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Happy Fun Communication Land (HFCL) is a felicitous learning realm created by Richard W. Dillman, Professor of Communication at Western Maryland College. Designed for undergraduates, HFCL is the home of several self-study opportunities for students of communication theory. Seven online tutorials -- on such topics as Self and Society, Signs and Language, and Mass Communication -- provide succinct overviews of the methods, theories, and history of human communications. A large collection of study questions, most linked directly to the tutorials, allows students to test their knowledge. HFCL also includes a useful glossary of terms and an extensive list of bibliographic citations.

137

Atmospheric Pressure During Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

1997-01-01

138

Food Calories and Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity is on the rise in the United States, due primarily to the size and composition of the American diet. Discussion topics include lack of exercise, changes in calorie intake over time, and environmental impacts of these increases in consumption. Each student will particpate in an activity in which they investigate how their own diets affect the agricultural demands of a hypothetical country. They will record their calorie intake, categorize the calories as coming from either plants or animals, and estimate the amount of land that is needed to provide their daily intake. Links to related sites are provided.

John Pratte

139

Arid Lands Biofuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark colored viscous gum. At this point, when methylated and the mixture analyzed by gas chromatography, grindelic acid methyl ester composes approximately 60-80% of the hydrocarbons present which is the actual available portion for biodiesel. Based on two years of crop data, we can say that we can produce in between 85-126 gallons of biofuel per acre of land. While agronomic issues remain still to be solved, crops can be grown, harvested and extracted using conventional methods. Further research is being undertaken to select optimal strains of gumweed, as well as methods of conversion of grindelic acid to a diesel fuel directly.

Neupane, B. P.

2013-05-01

140

Rosetta Lander - Philae: Landing preparations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rosetta and Philae have been in hibernation until January 20, 2014. After the successful wakeup they underwent a post-hibernation commissioning. The orbiter instruments (like e.g. the OSIRIS cameras, VIRTIS, MIRO, Alice and ROSINA) characterized the target comet and its environment to allow landing site selection and the definition of a separation, descent and landing (SDL) strategy for the Lander. By September 2014 our previously poor knowledge of the characteristics of the nucleus of the comet has increased drastically and the nominal and backup landing could be selected. The nominal site, as well as the corresponding descent strategy have been confirmed in mid-October, one month before the landing. The paper summarizes the selection process for a landing site and the planning for Separation-Descent-Landing (SDL).

Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Blazquez, Alejandro; Cozzoni, Barbara; Delmas, Cedric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Küchemann, Oliver; Lommatsch, Valentina; Maibaum, Michael; Sierks, Holger; Witte, Lars

2015-02-01

141

LSRA landing with tire test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

1994-01-01

142

The future of land warfare  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

Bellamy, C.

1987-01-01

143

Deserts and Arid Lands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exponential growth of global population and often concomitant degradation of the environment has forced human expansion into the more hostile and less well-known terrains of arid lands and deserts. Drought in the African Sahel, with recent wholesale movement of tribes seeking survival, has focused interest in such regions. However, geologic and geomorphic knowledge of deserts has expanded slowly until the last few decades. For instance, the arid cycle of erosion, as conceived by William Morse Davis (now deceased; formerly, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.), with modifications by W. Penck (now deceased; formerly, Leipzig University, Leipzig, German Democratic Republic), and L. C. King (University of Natal and Durban, South Africa), has dominated desert geomorphological deductions until recently. Since World War II and the verification of plate tectonics, the knowledge of arid lands has increased dramatically, especially in synoptic mapping from remote sensing data and space photography, which transcends political boundaries, thanks to the open skies policy of the U.S. space pioneers.

Brown, Glen F.

144

Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeaneDeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSpozaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

2003-01-01

145

Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

2004-01-01

146

LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

2014-01-01

147

Public Land Grazing for Private Land Conservation?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

California ranchers with substantial private oak woodlands sometimes use public lands as an important component of their production cycle. Yet allowed public grazing has declined and is likely to continue to decline. This, combined with intensifying development pressure and land use change, dramatically affects the resource base for ranch operations, which in turn influences landowner management decisions and practices. Such

Adriana Sulak; Lynn Huntsinger; Sheila Barry

148

LAND USE/LAND COVER, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED (BUFFERED)  

EPA Science Inventory

EOSAT and the North Carolina State University Computer Graphics Center, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Land Use/Land Cover digital data to enhance planning, siting and impact analysis in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Stu...

149

Land Management in Diepkloof: Land Shortage, Participation and Contestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses contestations and contradictions that characterise land management related participatory decision-making at a local level. It discusses challenges, setbacks and successes that came out of invaluable efforts made by local authorities and residence of Diepkloof, to engage in seeking a collective solution to the problem of land scarcity and the subsequent housing shortage that arises from it. It

Jonathan Mafukidze; Fazeela Hoosen

2007-01-01

150

Accelerations in Landing with a Tricycle-Type Landing Gear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In connection with the application of stable tricycle-type landing gears to transport airplanes, the question arises as to whether certain passengers may not experience relatively great accelerations in an emergency landing. Since the main landing wheels are behind the center of gravity in this type of gear, a hard-braked landing will cause immediate nosing down of the airplane and, when this motion is stopped due to the front wheel striking the ground, there will be some tendency for the rearmost passengers to be thrown out of their seats, The provided rough calculations are designed to show the magnitudes of the various reactions experienced in a severe landing under these circumstances.

Jones, Robert T.

1937-01-01

151

Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

2008-01-01

152

The Barren Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The area west of Hudson Bay in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan is known as the Barren Lands region, and it was thoroughly documented and explored by J.B. Tyrrell in 1893 and 1894. Tyrell was a geologist working in the service of the Geological Survey of Canada when he led two separate expeditions to the region. This thoughtful digital collection from the University of Toronto's Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library includes over 5000 images from the original field notebooks from the expedition, along with written correspondence, photographs, maps, and published reports. A great place to start is the "Expedition Overview" area. Here visitors can read a brief overview of each expedition, and then follow along the path of the original expedition route on period maps. The site also includes a biographical sketch of Tyrell and his younger brother, James.

153

Canada's Polar Environments: Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Arctic lands of Canada, which have been divided into three ecozones: the Arctic Cordillera, which encompasses the northeastern fringe of Nunavut and northern Labrador and is defined by the Arctic Cordillera Mountain Range; the Northern Arctic, which is a polar desert that comprises the non-mountainous portions of the Arctic Islands as well as the northernmost areas of Quebec; and the Southern Arctic, which covers much of the northern mainland of Canada, from the Richardson Mountains in the Yukon Territory to northern Quebec. The site discusses topography, glacial features, freeze/thaw features, geology, and permafrost and soils. The discussion of glaciers includes their origin and classification as well as glaciers, past and present, their retreat and glacial cores. A section called cool facts contrasts the North Magnetic Pole with the geographic North Pole, discusses polar wandering, and tells of the smoking hills where the ground is burning.

154

Weather, land satellite sale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

Richman, Barbara T.

155

43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land...authorized officer of the Bureau of Land Management will take into consideration such...

2011-10-01

156

43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land...authorized officer of the Bureau of Land Management will take into consideration such...

2014-10-01

157

43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land...authorized officer of the Bureau of Land Management will take into consideration such...

2012-10-01

158

43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land...authorized officer of the Bureau of Land Management will take into consideration such...

2013-10-01

159

Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important.

Katleen Van den Broeck; Carol Newman; Finn Tarp

2007-01-01

160

ALGORITHM DEVELOPING FOR LAND CONSOLIDATION SOFTWARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although increasing population in Turkey agricultural lands have not been expanded, thus, agricultural lands should be used more effectively. Therefore, Land consolidation is the most important work, which has to be done. Land consolidation takes time to execute project because of large application area and extensive. Therefore, using computer is extremely significant to conclude the land consolidation projects in a

T. Cay; F. Iscan

161

21 Sustainable Land Management and Global Development  

E-print Network

427 21 Sustainable Land Management and Global Development: Factors Affecting Land Users' Efforts awareness of the dangers of land degradation, the value of sustainable land management (SLM) has become for improved land management. This article outlines the preconditions for adoption and on-the-ground imple

Richner, Heinz

162

Land reclamation beautifies coal mines  

SciTech Connect

The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

Coblentz, B. [MSU Ag Communications (United States)

2009-07-15

163

Breaking Story Marginal Lands Are  

E-print Network

Breaking Story Marginal Lands Are Prime Fuel Source For Alternative Energy Using marginal lands greenhouse gas mitigation, says scientist. (http://news.science360.gov/obj/story/79feadee e47340a3babf f14d Known 'Social Chromosome' Found (http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2013/01/first

164

2011LandesBioscience. Donotdistribute.  

E-print Network

©2011LandesBioscience. Donotdistribute. www.landesbioscience.com Bioengineered Bugs 1 Bioengineered Bugs 2:5, 1-6; September/October 2011; © 2011 Landes Bioscience COMMENTARY COMMENTARY Key words: dengue-breathing oxen and to sow the teeth of a dragon that later sprout into an army of warriors. But despite her

Hay, Bruce A.

165

Monitoring urban land cover change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal distribution of land cover is a fundamental dataset for urban ecological research. An expert (or hypothesis testing) system has been used with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to derive a land cover classification for the semiarid Phoenix metropolitan portion of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) site. Expert systems allow for the integration

William L. Stefanov; Michael S. Ramsey; Philip R. Christensen

2001-01-01

166

LANDING GEARS AERODYNAMIC INTERACTION NOISE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airframe noise is generated as a result of the interaction of turbulent flow with different airframe components, i.e. the high lift devices and landing gears in particular, and may dominate over engine noise in the approach phase of large commercial aircraft. This paper describes the landing gears interaction noise research work in the EC co-financed pro- ject \\

Werner Dobrzynski; Michael Pott-Pollenske; Dave Foot; Michael Goodwin

2004-01-01

167

Global land and water grabbing.  

PubMed

Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as "land grabbing," this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 10(6) ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

2013-01-15

168

Multiple criteria land use analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1980s, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) have been collaborating on expanding FAO's Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) methodology of land resources appraisal by incorporating decision support tools for optimizing the use of land resources. Initially, these tools consisted of the application of linear optimization techniques

Marek Makowski; Jacques Antoine

1997-01-01

169

Global land and water grabbing  

PubMed Central

Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as “land grabbing,” this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 1012 m3?y?1 of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 1012 m3?y?1 of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 106 ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D’Odorico, Paolo

2013-01-01

170

Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants  

E-print Network

Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants Ray Ming,1 Abdelhafid Bendahmane,2,3 and Susanne S. Renner4 1 chromosomes, suppression of recombination Abstract Sex chromosomes in land plants can evolve as a consequence chromosomes in hepatics, mosses, and gymnosperms are morphologically heteromor- phic. In angiosperms

Renner, Susanne

171

Remote sensing. [land use mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

Jinich, A.

1979-01-01

172

Humanitarian Consequences of Land Mines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the human and economic consequences of the continuing use and abandonment of land mines. Discusses the reasons for the worldwide proliferation (over 85 million uncleared mines in at least 62 countries) and the legal complexities in curtailing their use. Includes a brief account by a land-mine victim. (MJP)

Rutherford, Ken

1997-01-01

173

Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product  

EPA Science Inventory

The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

174

Valuing agricultural land standard prices based on agricultural land gradation and evaluation information system (ALGEIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture land is the most fundamental material of production, and is man's indispensable living condition for existence. Agricultural land prices reflect not only the uses of agricultural land, but the potential uses as well. This paper reviews the valuation on agricultural land prices in western developed countries and the development courses of agricultural land appraisal, especially valuation on agricultural land

Yaolin Liu; Kun Wang; Yanfang Liu; Nianchao Deng; Yang Liu

2008-01-01

175

Land Markets and Agricultural Land Use Efficiency and Sustainability: Evidence from East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land markets, including land sales and short-term land rentals, have an important role to play for efficient and sustainable land management and agricultural development, especially where markets for other factors of production are imperfect or missing. This study utilises data from the highlands of Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda to examine the impact of land markets on various types of land

Ephraim M. Nkonya; John L. Pender

2006-01-01

176

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2010-01-01

177

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be...

2010-01-01

178

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2010-01-01

179

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2012-01-01

180

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2013-01-01

181

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be...

2014-01-01

182

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2014-01-01

183

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2012-01-01

184

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be...

2012-01-01

185

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2014-01-01

186

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2013-01-01

187

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be...

2013-01-01

188

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or waste, leases on undivided inherited lands will not be approved until the...it appears necessary to lease the lands to prevent loss or waste, the Area...

2012-04-01

189

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or waste, leases on undivided inherited lands will not be approved until the...it appears necessary to lease the lands to prevent loss or waste, the Area...

2011-04-01

190

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or waste, leases on undivided inherited lands will not be approved until the...it appears necessary to lease the lands to prevent loss or waste, the Area...

2013-04-01

191

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or waste, leases on undivided inherited lands will not be approved until the...it appears necessary to lease the lands to prevent loss or waste, the Area...

2014-04-01

192

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or waste, leases on undivided inherited lands will not be approved until the...it appears necessary to lease the lands to prevent loss or waste, the Area...

2010-04-01

193

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2014-10-01

194

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2013-10-01

195

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2011-10-01

196

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2012-10-01

197

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...eligible for enrollment in the EWRP: (a) Land that contains either timber stands or trees established in connection with a CRP contract; (b) Lands owned or acquired by an agency of the Federal Government; (c) Land already subject to a...

2010-01-01

198

Global Land Vegetation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this NASA Earth Science Enterprise-funded project is to increase the use of satellite data in high school and college science classrooms by developing classroom materials linked to guided inquiry computer exercises. This Global Land Vegetation module is one of four Studying Earth's Environment from Space (SEES) modules. Each module consists of three sections: Class Resources, Computer Lab Resources and a Glossary and Acronym List. Class Resources is an electronic textbook viewable by a Web browser. Computer Lab Resources contains an instructor's guide, data and software. The instructor's guide contains exercises for using the data and software. The public domain software, a version of NIH-Image for the Macintosh that was modified by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center especially for SEES, is for data display, analysis and tutorial of satellite data. The software will also work on Windows machines with a Mac emulator. Image2000, a cross-platform Java version of the software, is expected to be available by the end of the year 2000. Each module section can stand-alone (e.g. you don't have to use the Class Resources in order to complete the Computer Lab Resources). Students and instructors may continue their own scientific discovery by accessing archived and current data from various NASA Earth Science data centers.

Elizabeth Smith

199

Exploring The Waste Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Almost certainly the most commented-upon poem in the English Language, T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land has puzzled undergraduate English students and seasoned scholars for eight decades. While Rikard Parker's Website will not end this puzzlement, it offers an innovative use of Web technology to explore a poem that many consider to have anticipated hypertext in its themes and format. Parker's site features a number of versions of a multi-framed approach to the text (more than are necessary, really) with each one a variation on a format that lets readers place portions of the original published poem side-by-side with one or more of the following: Eliot's notes to the poem; Parker's explanations of allusions; other lines in the poem evoking related themes such as seasons, weather, death, etc.; earlier manuscript versions of selected portions; and Parker's commentary on possible textual meanings. Parker's text allows one to do much more easily and with less confusion what a critical edition of the poem is supposed to help one do, i.e., read analytically. With its spatial, fragmented approach, perhaps this version would have been welcomed by Eliot as its truest manifestation. Perhaps not. In any case, we suggest that users select the link "my recommended entry point to the framed sub-site" as the most pleasing and comprehensive version of the text on-site. Parker is a full-time software engineer and part-time amateur scholar of Eliot's great poem.

200

Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

2007-01-01

201

Evaluating biodiversity of mineral lands  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly, lands intended for mining, or lands that have been mined and reclaimed, are being evaluated in terms of biological diversity (biodiversity). The concept of biodiversity includes die variety and number of living organisms, their organizations, and the environments that support them. This paper presents a framework for discussing and evaluating biodiversity and for constructing checklists for evaluating biodiversity before and after mining. This framework identifies some of the different types of biodiversity applicable to mineral lands, die ranges of scale at which they are applicable, and the social stakes and stakeholders relevant across scale and diversity types.

Wade, G.L. [USDA Forest Service, Burlington, VT (United States); Tritton, L.M.

1997-12-31

202

The Biogeohydroclimatology of Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When John Donne wrote his Meditation XVII, which includes the famous"No man is an island" passage, he was thinking about connections between people; no human being is isolated from another. Donne might just as well have been writing about the science of land use, however. What happens on one plot of land clearly affects what happens on another, whether downhill, downstream, or downwind. I will explore the consequences of land use for mass and energy fluxes, focusing on pasture, crop, and forest transitions in the Americas. I'll discuss my own work, some work of collaborators, and a few examples from the literature. No man is an island.

Jackson, R. B.

2008-05-01

203

Simulation of X-38 Landing Scenarios With Landing Gear Failures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal landing scenarios of the X-38 prototype Crew RescueVehicle (CRV) were modeled for three different cases involving nondeploymentof landing gear with an explicit dynamic nonlinearfinite element code, MSC\\/DYTRAN. The goal of this research was todevelop models to predict the probability of crew injuries. Theinitial velocity conditions for the X-38 with chute deployed were 10ft\\/s vertical and 57 ft\\/s longitudinal velocity.

Edwin L. Fasanella; Karen H. Lyle; Jocelyn I. Pritchard

2000-01-01

204

Land use change and land degradation in southeastern Mediterranean Spain.  

PubMed

The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall "recuperating" trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management. PMID:17530333

Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

2007-07-01

205

Polarization in the land distribution, land use and land cover change in the Amazon  

PubMed Central

The objective of this article is to present Polarization of Agrarian Structure as a single, more complete representation than models emphasizing rural exodus and consolidation of land into large agropastoral enterprises of the dynamics of changing land distribution, land use / cover, and thus the rural milieu of Amazonia. Data were collected in 2003 using social surveys on a sample of 587 lots randomly selected from among 5,086 lots on a cadastral map produced in the 1970s. Georeferencing of current property boundaries in the location of these previously demarcated lots allows us to relate sociodemographic and biophysical variables of the surveyed properties to the changes in boundaries that have occurred since the 1970s. As have other authors in other Amazonian regions, we found concentration of land ownership into larger properties. The approach we took, however, showed that changes in the distribution of land ownership is not limited to the appearance of larger properties, those with 200 ha or more; there also exists substantial division of earlier lots into properties with fewer than five hectares, many without any agropastoral use. These two trends are juxtaposed against the decline in establishments with between five and 200 ha. The variation across groups in land use / land cover and population distribution shows the necessity of developing conceptual models, whether from socioeconomic, demographic or environmental perspectives, look beyond a single group of people or properties. PMID:24639597

D'ANTONA, Alvaro; VANWEY, Leah; LUDEWIGS, Thomas

2013-01-01

206

Polarization in the land distribution, land use and land cover change in the Amazon.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to present Polarization of Agrarian Structure as a single, more complete representation than models emphasizing rural exodus and consolidation of land into large agropastoral enterprises of the dynamics of changing land distribution, land use / cover, and thus the rural milieu of Amazonia. Data were collected in 2003 using social surveys on a sample of 587 lots randomly selected from among 5,086 lots on a cadastral map produced in the 1970s. Georeferencing of current property boundaries in the location of these previously demarcated lots allows us to relate sociodemographic and biophysical variables of the surveyed properties to the changes in boundaries that have occurred since the 1970s. As have other authors in other Amazonian regions, we found concentration of land ownership into larger properties. The approach we took, however, showed that changes in the distribution of land ownership is not limited to the appearance of larger properties, those with 200 ha or more; there also exists substantial division of earlier lots into properties with fewer than five hectares, many without any agropastoral use. These two trends are juxtaposed against the decline in establishments with between five and 200 ha. The variation across groups in land use / land cover and population distribution shows the necessity of developing conceptual models, whether from socioeconomic, demographic or environmental perspectives, look beyond a single group of people or properties. PMID:24639597

D'Antona, Alvaro; Vanwey, Leah; Ludewigs, Thomas

2011-01-01

207

Christmas in Physics Land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short story of everyday folk for the Yuletide season It was a beautiful scene. Children were sledging, or at least adults were sledging whilst the children waited for a go. Snow flakes were falling gently to the ground. The physicist was extremely content. All the snow flakes had a perfectly symmetric hexagonal crystal structure; the sledges were all reaching the bottom of the slope at just the correct velocity, neglecting heat loss due to friction. A skater went past. The physicist smiled. The change in melting point under the blades was just as it should have been, and angular momentum was completely conserved in the pirouette. A snowball hit the physicist squarely in the face, probably thrown by a geographer. But even this made the physicist laugh, as the trajectory was perfect, as long as you accounted for the changing mass. How different to last year when the physicist had spent Christmas in the real world. How glad he was that he had come to Physics Land for the festive season where everything was just as it ought to be. Someone in the crowd barged into him, but it didn't matter, he was a boson, so they just ignored each other. How horrid it had been last Christmas.... As a young man carrying a light ladder went past, whistling merrily and enjoying the experience of the Doppler effect, the physicist leant back against the perfectly smooth wall, revelling in the joy of resolving his forces on the rough ground... and began to think dark thoughts about the previous year. You see the problem with the real world was that it didn't understand physicists at all. Probably the worst place of all for a physicist was at a party. So often things would go wrong and he would leave early in disgrace. How well he remembered the evening when he had been curious whether it was a pnp or npn type semiconductor controlling the disco lights. It had taken barely three hours to reassemble the lights, and indeed improve on the flashing sequence by altering the reverse bias voltage, but no-one thanked him. Oh no, they were all just annoyed that he had dismantled the lights at all. That was the real world for you. Conversation had been difficult. People kept asking questions, but then didn't appear to be interested in the answer. One host had commented on the weather and then very rudely drifted off to another guest just as the physicist was making a clear distinction between rotating and inertial reference frames as the fundamental cause of the geostrophic wind. Another guest had made an equally bad impression by being clearly uninterested in a small digression on energy balance which seemed the obvious response to his comment about how warm the room had become as people began to dance. The physicist came out of his day dream. An old man was walking a dog on the end of a light inextensible string. A young girl on a swing was executing simple harmonic motion using a small-angle approximation in the park. Two older boys were investigating moments on a see-saw. A boisterous teenager was having a great time with the centripetal force on a roundabout. Yes, this was the life. In Physics Land, it would be a very merry Christmas. Philip Britton

1999-01-01

208

Biofuel on contaminated land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also contributed to the biofuel impacts. The net CO2 equivalent emission on a 100 year basis per MJ energy in the Salix Vinimalis was between -0.02 and -0.1 kgCO2e/MJ. The fate of the stubble and roots of the salix was crucial for the carbon footprint. While stubble and roots remain in the soil (as increased soil organic matter), the carbon dioxide they took up while growing is not contributing to global warming. This pool was much larger than the CO2 emissions from soil transport and other processes. Biodiversity was difficult to include, and the results are uncertain. But the results indicated that biodiversity impact of biofuel cultivation may be large compared to "easier" categories like global warming and human health, and the net impact of biofuel cultivation may well be benifical to the environment instead of damaging.

Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

2010-05-01

209

Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Pathfinder Project is an approved Discovery-class mission that will place a lander and rover on the surface of the Red Planet in July 1997. The Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop was designed to allow the Mars scientific community to provide input as to where to land Pathfinder on Mars. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from around the United States and from Europe. Over 20 landing sites were proposed at the workshop, and the scientific questions and problems concerning each were addressed. The workshop and the discussion that occured during and afterward have significantly improved the ability to select a scientifically exciting but safe landing site on Mars.

Golombek, Matthew (editor)

1994-01-01

210

Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

2005-01-01

211

Learning to classify land plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are four main groups of land plants: bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, angiosperms (flowering), and gymnosperms (cone-producing). The four groups are distinguished by structural and reproductive traits.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

212

Geomorphology: Flood-built land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeastern US coastline is under threat as land subsides and sea level rises. Measurements of the 2011 Mississippi River flood suggest that the river carries enough sandy sediment to offset some of this coastal drowning.

Kim, Wonsuck

2012-08-01

213

SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

214

Minnesota Land Management Information Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of the Minnesota Land Management Information Center is given and the present operational status and plans for future development are described. The incorporation of LANDSAT data into the system, hardware and software capabilities, and funding are addressed.

Nordstrand, E. A.

1981-01-01

215

Land Use and Public Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of how public and private land use and development affect environmental and human health. Special topics include hazardous waste sites such as Superfund sites and "brownfields," sprawl and transportation issues, development of antibiotic resistance in humans due to antibiotic use on farm animals, and how land use can contaminate surface waters. The site also features links to current news and related resources and organizations.

Physicians for Social Responsibility

216

Effects of land markets and land management on ecosystem function: A framework for modelling exurban land-changeq  

E-print Network

Effects of land markets and land management on ecosystem function: A framework for modelling that can be extended into specific model implementations to evaluate how policy, land-management agent-based model of exurban residential development and land-management decisions with the ecosystem

Brown, Daniel G.

217

[The sinuatrial node of the avian heart (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Comparative histologic observations were made of the sinuatrial nodes of avian hearts from a short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris), a black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), two ducks (Anas platyrhycha domestica), eight Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica), a pigeon (Columba livia domestica), a macaw (Ara macao), three budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and a jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). The node lies between the right atrial myocardium and epicardium at the right caudal region of the orifice of right anterior vena cava, where the right and left sinuatrial valves come close each and fuse with the right atrial wall. The sinuatrial node is well developed in the duck, black-crowned night heron and budgerigar and enters into the both sinuatrial valves and, in the budgerigar, further into the sinus septum. In the duck and black-crowned night heron, the node is composed of two types of cells; the one is atrial muscle-like cells and the other has morphologic characteristics intermediate between atrial muscle fiber and the Purkinje fiber. The node cells of the budgerigar are of the intermediate cells, while the nodal cells in the jungle crow, macaw, short-tailed shearwater, pigeon and Japanese quail are totally atrial muscle-like cells. The nodal cells of these birds are continuous with the adjacent ordinary cardiac muscle fibers and subendocardial Purkinje fibers of the right atrium, but do not reach to the atrioventricular node. There is an extensive network of Purkinje fibers beneath the endocardium and around arteries in both atrial walls, though not as far as to the atrioventricular node, nor to the ventricle. PMID:7318931

Murakami, T; Saito, I; Mochizuki, K

1981-07-01

218

Are agricultural land-use models able to predict changes in land-use intensity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use and land-cover change research needs to pay more attention to processes of land-cover modification, and especially to agricultural land intensification. The objective of this paper is to review the different modelling approaches that have been used in land-use\\/land-cover change research from the perspective of their utility for the study and prediction of changes in land-use intensification. After clarifying the

E. F. Lambin; M. D. A Rounsevell; H. J Geist

2000-01-01

219

LandSpaCES: A Spatial Expert System for Land Consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Land fragmentation is a major issue in many rural areas around the world, preventing rational agricultural production and\\u000a sustainable rural development. Traditionally, land consolidation has been the primary land management approach for solving\\u000a this problem. Land reallocation is recognised as the most important, complex, and time-consuming process of land consolidation.\\u000a It is split into two components: land redistribution and land

Demetris Demetriou; John Stillwell; Linda Seel

220

Mars Pathfinder Landing Ellipses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mosaic of Ares Vallis showing different landing ellipses, with color inset of the Chryse Planitia region of Mars showing the outflow channels. The large blue ellipse (100 km by 200 km) to the northwest is an ellipse in the USGS cartographic reference frame designed to avoid streamlined hills to the south and east, craters to the north, and etched terrain to the west (this ellipse is shown in the color inset). The large yellow ellipse (100 km by 200 km) displaced toward the southeast (by 20 km in longitude and 8 km in latitude) is the navigation target ellipse in the revised local cartographic reference frame (which are the latitude and longitude shown in this figure). The elongate light blue ellipse (98 km by 19 km) is the navigation prediction as of late 3 July and early 4 July; it includes part of the streamlined island in the southwest. The gold ellipse (15 km by 8 km) is the prediction with tracking through atmospheric entry. The pink ellipse (41 km by 15 km), which encloses the smallest ellipse (and the location of the lander), is the navigation result with dispersions added for atmospheric entry and descent. The blue X is the location of the lander with respect to surface features identified in Viking orbiter images (located at 19.33 degrees N, 33.55 degrees W in the local reference frame). The location of the lander in inertial space (19.30 degrees N, 33.52 degrees W) from the two-way ranging and Doppler tracking of the lander is at the very northwest edge of the crater, just 2.2 km to the south-southeast of the X. If the location of the lander in inertial space is forced to coincide with its location with respect to surface features, then the resulting cartographic frame is actually 2 km to the south and 0.8 km to the east of the local network. Color mosaic is part of the Oxia Palus Quadrangle (MC 11) of Mars; black and white mosaic from Viking orbiter images of 38 m/pixel resolution; north is at the top.

NOTE: original caption as published in Science Magazine

1997-01-01

221

The Ten Relationships in Rural Land Circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ten relationships during land circulation are discussed. Among them, the relationship between peasant household and government indicates that government should only carry out its service and regulatory functions and farmers should be the main body of land circulation, because peasants usually have no discourse power during land circulation. In the relationship between land ownership and contracting management right, we

Zhirong Cai; Shuo Ren; Zhigang Zhang

2009-01-01

222

Land Leverage: Decomposing Home Price Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates the importance of separating the bundled good of housing into land and improvements, arguing that changes in a property's overall value will depend critically on how much of its total value is contained in the land, a proportion we call land leverage. The importance of this deconstruction is demonstrated by highlighting how land leverage helps to explain

Raphael W. Bostic; Stanley D. Longhofer; Christian L. Redfearn

2007-01-01

223

Aircraft Landing Gear Dynamics: Simulation and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The landing gear is an inevitable system for the aircraft. It absorbs the energy of the landing impact and carries the aircraft weight at all ground operations, including take off, taxiing, and towing. Numerical simulation has become an invaluable tool for the assessment of landing gear dynamics as well as of aircraft\\/landing gear interaction. This paper gives an overview of

W. KRÜGER; I. BESSELINK; D. COWLING; D. B. DOAN; W. KORTÜM; W. KRABACHER

1997-01-01

224

ALASKA GENERAL LAND STATUS (STAT1)  

EPA Science Inventory

AKSTATUS is a statewide summary of land ownership in Alaska. It includes the major categories of state, native, and federal holdings. Activity on state land is recorded, by section, in DRSs Land Adminstration System (LAS). Information on state land status is extracted from LAS...

225

Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present-day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing, RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We attribute historical changes in terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo to LULCC using simulations with the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF of changes in atmospheric chemistry and aerosol concentrations attributed to LULCC. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 40% (±16%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We attribute total RFs between 0.9 and 1.9 W m-2 to LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a pre-industrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget, we include a fifth scenario in which all arable land is cultivated by 2100. This theoretical extreme case leads to a LULCC RF of 3.9 W m-2 (±0.9 W m-2), suggesting that not only energy policy but also land policy is necessary to minimize future increases in RF and associated climate changes.

Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

2014-12-01

226

Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing; RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects and land surface albedo. We simulate historical changes to terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo from LULCC using the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF from LULCC impacts on atmospheric chemistry and changes in aerosol concentrations. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We calculate total RFs between 1 to 2 W m-2 from LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a preindustrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget we include a fifth scenario in which all arable land is cultivated by 2100. This "worst-case scenario" leads to a LULCC RF of 4.3 W m-2 (±1.0 W m-2), suggesting that not only energy policy but land policy is necessary to minimize future increases in RF and associated climate changes.

Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

2014-05-01

227

Managing Land Use, Protecting Land and Mitigating Land Degradation: Tanzania Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the United Republic of Tanzania, efforts to combat desertification and land degradation generally, are part and parcel\\u000a of the national efforts to address poverty and ensure sustainable development. More concerted efforts to ensure sustainable\\u000a land management and combat desertification came after the Rio Conference in 1992. Since then, major milestones include: the\\u000a 1994 National Environment Action Plan (NEAP) prepared

R. Muyungi

228

The Official Land Patent Records Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) General Land Office, this site currently provides public access to over two million Federal land title records, issued between 1820 and 1908, for twelve Eastern Public Land States. The databases for each state enable researchers to conduct sophisticated cross-field queries to trace the initial transfer of land titles from the Federal government to individuals. Historians may conduct genealogical searches to associate an individual with a particular location during a specific time. The site allows users to order certified copies of land patents at a nominal cost. Note: electronic images for land patent records are viewable as TIF files only.

1999-01-01

229

14 CFR 25.487 - Rebound landing condition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...landing condition. (a) The landing gear and its supporting structure...landing surface. (b) With the landing gear fully extended and not in contact...on the unsprung weights of the landing gear. This load factor must...

2014-01-01

230

14 CFR 25.487 - Rebound landing condition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...landing condition. (a) The landing gear and its supporting structure...landing surface. (b) With the landing gear fully extended and not in contact...on the unsprung weights of the landing gear. This load factor must...

2011-01-01

231

14 CFR 25.487 - Rebound landing condition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...landing condition. (a) The landing gear and its supporting structure...landing surface. (b) With the landing gear fully extended and not in contact...on the unsprung weights of the landing gear. This load factor must...

2010-01-01

232

14 CFR 25.487 - Rebound landing condition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...landing condition. (a) The landing gear and its supporting structure...landing surface. (b) With the landing gear fully extended and not in contact...on the unsprung weights of the landing gear. This load factor must...

2012-01-01

233

14 CFR 25.487 - Rebound landing condition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...landing condition. (a) The landing gear and its supporting structure...landing surface. (b) With the landing gear fully extended and not in contact...on the unsprung weights of the landing gear. This load factor must...

2013-01-01

234

43 CFR 2091.6 - Opening of withdrawn lands: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 2091.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands...

2013-10-01

235

43 CFR 2541.4 - Price of land; payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 2541.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Color-of-Title...

2011-10-01

236

43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to Location...

2013-10-01

237

43 CFR 2623.0-8 - Lands subject to selection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2623.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS School Land Grants to Certain States...

2014-10-01

238

43 CFR 2091.8 - Status of gift lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 2091.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands...

2012-10-01

239

43 CFR 2091.6 - Opening of withdrawn lands: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 2091.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands...

2012-10-01

240

43 CFR 2710.0-8 - Lands subject to sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SALES: FEDERAL LAND POLICY AND MANAGEMENT ACT Sales: General Provisions § 2710.0-8 Lands...

2012-10-01

241

43 CFR 2710.0-8 - Lands subject to sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SALES: FEDERAL LAND POLICY AND MANAGEMENT ACT Sales: General Provisions § 2710.0-8 Lands...

2011-10-01

242

43 CFR 2710.0-8 - Lands subject to sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SALES: FEDERAL LAND POLICY AND MANAGEMENT ACT Sales: General Provisions § 2710.0-8 Lands...

2014-10-01

243

43 CFR 2710.0-8 - Lands subject to sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SALES: FEDERAL LAND POLICY AND MANAGEMENT ACT Sales: General Provisions § 2710.0-8 Lands...

2013-10-01

244

43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO LOCATION Lands Subject to Location...

2014-10-01

245

Land use land cover change and atmospheric feedback: Impact on regional water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change, such as conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural land and urbanization, is a major global change phenomenon. Between 1700 and 2000, the global extent of natural vegetation has decreased by 45%, and agricultural land area has increased five fold. LULC change impacts hydrology by changing regional climate (temperature and precipitation) and land surface

Sanjiv Kumar

2011-01-01

246

Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

247

Monitoring land use changes around the indigenous lands of the Xingu basin in Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous lands represent an efficient way to protect indigenous communities and environment in Brazil. However, these lands are also highly affected y the land use changes occuring in its surroundings. We quantified the land use changes in the Xingu basin based on MODIS EVI data between 2000 and 2006. We estimated the deforested area inside and outside the indigenous lands,

Damien Arvor; Margareth Simoes Penello Meirelles; Rafaela Vargas; Ladislau Araujo Skorupa; Elaine Cristina Cardoso Fidalgo; Vincent Dubreuil; Isabelle Herlin; Jean-Paul Berroir

2010-01-01

248

X-31 landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at the Rockwell International facility, Palmdale, California, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on October 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an airplane with a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft's body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the exhaust nozzle of the X-31 aircraft directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31 aircraft were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. This understanding is expected to lead to design methods that provide better maneuverability in future high performance aircraft and make them safer to fly. An international test organization of about 110 people, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), conducted the flight operations at NASA Dryden. The ARPA had requested flight research for the X-31 aircraft be moved there in February 1992. In addition to ARPA and NASA, the international test organization (ITO) included the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell International, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace). NASA was responsible for flight research operations, aircraft maintenance, and research engineering once the program moved to Dryden. The No. 1 X-31 aircraft was lost in an accident January 19, 1995. The pilot, Karl Heinz-Lang, of the Federal Republic of Germany, ejected safely before the aircraft crashed in an unpopulated desert area just north of Edwards. The X-31 program logged an X-plane record of 580 flights during the program, including 555 research missions and 21 in Europe for the 1995 Paris Air Show. A total of 14 pilots representing all agencies of the ITO flew the aircraft. The X-31 aircraft shown on approach with a high angle of attack, touches down with its speed brakes, which can be seen extended just above and behind the wing. The aircraft then begins to rotate the nosegear down to runway contact and deploys a braking parachute that assists in slowing the aircraft after landing.

1995-01-01

249

Florida Memory Spanish Land Grants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For several centuries, Spain established a presence in the area that is now Florida. After the land was transferred to the United States in 1821, European settlers filed land grants to prove land ownership. Interestingly enough, in 1790 Spain had started offering land grants to encourage settlement to the sparsely populated and vulnerable Florida colony. Of course, those who had filed claims had to prove to the United States that they had valid claims via documentation and testimonials. The Florida Memory project has digitized these documents and placed them online here for use by the general public. These documents provide information about the settlement and cultivation of Florida during this period via descriptions of the land, copies of royal grants, and so on. Visitors can browse all of the grants here or look at the five volume history of these documents created as part of the WPA's work in the 1930s. Finally, there is information here about how to order the maps for closer consideration.

250

Visiting the Scene of Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera focuses on the rock dubbed 'Bounce,' which the rover's airbag-wrapped lander hit upon landing. Though the plains surrounding Opportunity's 'Eagle Crater' landing site are relatively free of any hazards that would have hindered landing, the packaged rover managed to bounce down on one of the only rocks in the vicinity. The rock measures approximately 40 centimeters (about 16 inches) across.

Bounce -- a rock that differs significantly from the light rocks in the Eagle Crater outcrop -- is currently being investigated by Opportunity. So far, the rover's miniature thermal emission spectrometer has revealed that it is rich in hematite. In the coming sols, a target yet to be chosen on the rock will be examined by the rover's spectrometers, then ground into by the rock abrasion tool. After the grind, the spectrometers will assess the chemical content of the exposed rock.

2004-01-01

251

Manual Land Cover Mapping Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students produce a land cover map of a 15 km x 15 km GLOBE study site from hard copies of Landsat satellite images. Students place clear transparencies over the Landsat TM images and use markers to outline and classify areas of different land cover using the MUC System. Students use their local expertise of their GLOBE study site and their sample site measurements to create and assess the accuracy of their maps. The resource includes a sample Landsat image, an example of an accuracy assessment work sheet, and a difference-error matrix to validate the degree of accuracy of the student product. This resource is a procedural tutorial supporting the protocol within the Land Cover/Biology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide.

252

Landing gear energy absorption system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

Hansen, Christopher P. (inventor)

1994-01-01

253

Land use management in Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of bulk imagery suggests that the forty-acre data cell used in the Minnesota Land Management Information Systems (MLMIS) can be utilized in interpretation of ERTS-1 data. High quality bulk images of the Twin Cities metropolitan area suggest that detail in urban land use patterns is much greater than originally anticipated. This implies a greater work effort in this area than was planned. Furthermore, the forest classes of land use can also be usefully divided into subcategories. Preliminary analysis of one rather low quality image also indicates that subclasses of wetlands can be identified. Prospects are bright for improving the potential detail that ERTS-1 can contribute to MLMIS.

Sizer, J. E. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

254

Environmental Issues: Land Use Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary technology-embedded middle school science unit focuses on how human activities influence environmental changes related to land use. Students use geospatial information technology (GIT) tools including Google Earth and remotely sensed images to investigate modern day land use issues and land use change over time. It was designed using the Understanding by Design framework and is aligned to national science and geography standards. The unit has modified materials from the NASA-sponsored Mission Geography curricular module, Human footprints on Earth as seen by NASA scientists to take advantage of available, user-friendly geospatial technologies. The materials have been pilot-tested and field-tested in 8th grade classrooms at Broughal Middle School, a technology-rich urban school.

Alec Bodzin

2009-01-01

255

The Emergency Landing Planner Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous work, we described an Emergency Landing Planner (ELP) designed to assist pilots in choosing the best emergency landing site when damage or failures occur in an aircraft. In this paper, we briefly describe the system, but focus on the integration of this system into the cockpit of a 6 DOF full-motion simulator and a study designed to evaluate the ELP. We discuss the results of this study, the lessons learned, and some of the issues involved in advancing this work further.

Meuleau, Nocolas F.; Neukom, Christian; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.; Smith, Tristan B.

2011-01-01

256

78 FR 67928 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...411-12 (8th Cir. 1993); Fort Berthold Land & Livestock Ass'n v. Anderson, 361 F.Supp.2d 1045, 1051-52 (D...relief under that section. See, e.g., Corning Savings & Loan Ass'n v. Federal Home Loan Bank Board, 562 F. Supp. 279...

2013-11-13

257

Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video is an edited approach and landing of the Enterprise on Rogers Dry Lake. The air-to-air shot of the Space Shuttle at a few thousand feet above the lakebed, gives some idea of the steepness required for a Shuttle approach; also note the long pitot tube (an appendage used only for flight testing) extending from the Space Shuttle nose.

1977-01-01

258

Relation of land use/land cover to resource demands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predictive models for forecasting residential energy demand are investigated. The models are examined in the context of implementation through manipulation of geographic information systems containing land use/cover information. Remotely sensed data is examined as a possible component in this process.

Clayton, C.

1981-01-01

259

Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

2004-01-01

260

Dynamics Model of Carrier-based Aircraft Landing Gears Landed on Dynamic Deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the carrier-based aircraft landing laws landed on the carrier, the dynamics model of carrier-based aircraft landing gears landed on dynamic deck is built. In this model, the interactions of the carrier-based aircraft landing attitude and the damping force acting on landing gears are considered, and the influence of dynamic deck is introduced into the model through

Zhang Wen; Zhang Zhi; Zhu Qidan; Xu Shiyue

2009-01-01

261

The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.  

PubMed

In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas. PMID:22419398

Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

2012-05-01

262

The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

2012-05-01

263

Determining key ecological indicators for urban land consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban land consolidation, which reforms land parcels to remove fragmentation and produce ideal blocks, is an effective means of urban renewal. Successful urban land consolidation benefits city officials as well as the general public, in improved city image, increased land value, and more effective land use. However, urban land consolidation can be ecologically detrimental to the environment, while land consolidation

2010-01-01

264

Land Reform and Exclusion of Poor Jagat Basnet  

E-print Network

of effective land management, land administration and all land reform processes interrelated141 CHAPTER 6 Land Reform and Exclusion of Poor People Jagat Basnet 6.1 Land Questions Firstly, by land reform, it is widely understood to be a process of confiscating someone's land and award

Richner, Heinz

265

The Physics of Land Yachting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will explore motion related to an object in terms of its change in position over time compared to a reference point. Students will be given a variety of simple materials to create and test their very own land yachts to explore motion.

2012-10-16

266

Land subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land subsidence from deep well pumping has been affecting Bangkok for the past 35 years. Its impact is particularly critical because of the flat low-lying topography and the presence of a thick soft clay layer at the ground surface that augment flood risk and foundation engineering problems, respectively. The subsidence reached its most critical state in the early 1980s when

N. Phien-wej; P. H. Giao; P. Nutalaya

2006-01-01

267

Zimbabwe Land Crisis Turns Violent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This weekend the land crisis in Zimbabwe was marked by violence as one white farmer was killed and two members of the country's opposition party were the victims of a firebombing. In the past week, Zimbabwe veterans of the country's war for independence began occupying prime farmland owned exclusively by whites. These squatters have demanded that land redistribution promised for years by President Mugabe's government be enacted immediately. Mugabe himself, with an eye on upcoming elections in May, has supported the squatters, warning white farmers that he cannot protect them if they "provoke the war veterans." Early Monday, perhaps in response to international pressure, Mugabe modified his position somewhat, promising to maintain peace in the region, but stopping short of telling squatters to vacate the farms. Land reform has been a major issue in the country since it won its independence from Britain. Currently, about 4,500 white farmers own 11 million hectares of prime agricultural land while one million blacks divide 16 million hectares-typically in drought-prone areas. The political situation in the country also worsened with the firebombing death of two prominent members of the country's opposition party, Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). The killings were an ominous sign for the upcoming elections, especially since Mugabe did not condemn the attacks. Diplomats and observers are concerned that the elections next month may be marred by coercion, corruption, and violence. Not surprisingly, many whites in Zimbabwe have recently sought to reclaim their UK passports in possible preparation for fleeing the country.

Charbonneau, David D.

268

Monitoring Changes in Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Besides big cities strongly effected by industrialization and urbanization, many areas in the suburbs are not exceptional cases. Apart from advantages brought by the development process such as economic growth and social life improvement, they are deeply under pressure between two trends: development and conservation; economic interests and environmental protection and cultural values. Agricultural land uses for different purpose

THU Trinh; Thi Hoai

269

Assessing sustainable land management (SLM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘sustainable development’ and its component ‘sustainable land management (SLM)’ have been receiving increasing attention in development co-operation and at the global level. However, practical tools which can help local users and multi-disciplinary teams to work together and apply these general concepts at the local to regional levels have emerged only very recently. Some of these tools, as well

Hans Hurni

2000-01-01

270

Autonomous landing guidance system validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALG is a combination of raster imaging sensor, head-up displays, flight guidance and procedures which allow pilots to perform hand flown aircraft maneuvers in adverse weather, at night, or in low visibility conditions at facilities with minimal or no ground aids. Maneuvers in the context of ALG relate to takeoff, landing, rollout, taxi and terminal parking. Commercial needs are driven

Long Q. Bui; Michael R. Franklin; Christopher Taylor; Graham Neilson

1997-01-01

271

2011LandesBioscience. Donotdistribute.  

E-print Network

Biology & Therapy 12:9, 1-10; November 1, 2011; © 2011 Landes Bioscience ReseaRCh papeR ReseaRCh pape conventional chemotherapeutic and immunomodulatory approaches are inef- fective. An important area of research in our and other laborato- ries relates to the mechanism of RCC chemotherapy resistance, which

Hammock, Bruce D.

272

Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

2010-01-01

273

This Land Is Our Land? This Land Is Your Land: The Decolonizing Journeys of White Outdoor Environmental Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across Canada, many Aboriginal peoples and communities are actively resisting environmental destruction and communicating to settler-Canadians traditions of respect for the land. Moreover, some Indigenous scholars and educators are calling for a foregrounding of Indigenous ways of knowing in environmental education for all students. However,…

Root, Emily

2010-01-01

274

Global Consequences of Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by

Jonathan A. Foley; Ruth DeFries; Gregory P. Asner; Carol Barford; Gordon Bonan; Stephen R. Carpenter; F. Stuart Chapin; Michael T. Coe; Gretchen C. Daily; Holly K. Gibbs; Joseph H. Helkowski; Tracey Holloway; Erica A. Howard; Christopher J. Kucharik; Chad Monfreda; Jonathan A. Patz; I. Colin Prentice; Navin Ramankutty; Peter K. Snyder

2005-01-01

275

Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions?  

PubMed Central

Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

2013-01-01

276

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2012-01-01

277

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2011-01-01

278

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2014-01-01

279

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2013-01-01

280

Introduction Size distribution within reported land-  

E-print Network

of Brown Shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, from the Northern Gulf of Mexico Fishery CHARLES W. CAILLOUET Jr landings of shrimp. We used, as examples, landings of brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, from

281

33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be installed. (b) The personnel landings shall be provided with satisfactory illumination. The minimum shall be one-foot candle of artificial illumination as measured at the landing floor and guards and...

2013-07-01

282

33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall be installed. (b) The personnel landings shall be provided with satisfactory illumination. The minimum shall be one-foot candle of artificial illumination as measured at the landing floor and guards and...

2010-07-01

283

33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shall be installed. (b) The personnel landings shall be provided with satisfactory illumination. The minimum shall be one-foot candle of artificial illumination as measured at the landing floor and guards and...

2012-07-01

284

33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall be installed. (b) The personnel landings shall be provided with satisfactory illumination. The minimum shall be one-foot candle of artificial illumination as measured at the landing floor and guards and...

2011-07-01

285

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2014-07-01

286

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2012-07-01

287

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2010-07-01

288

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2013-07-01

289

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2011-07-01

290

Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK  

E-print Network

, transport, and fate of pollutants in soil, air, and water; improving and protecting land, air, and water on the fundamentals of Earth system processes related to land and atmosphere and their coupled interactions. Students

Minnesota, University of

291

Private land management for biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As human influences fragment native communities and ecosystems, remaining land must be better managed to conserve many elements\\u000a of biodiversity. Much of this land is privately held, yet traditional private land-use management practices often further\\u000a diminish biodiversity by promoting favored or edge-adapted species.\\u000a \\u000a Today, private land stewards are increasingly aware of and concerned about biodiversity, but little guidance exists for

Michael A. O'Connell; Reed F. Noss

1992-01-01

292

Mars Rover/Sample Return landing strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the analysis and results of an investigation of the Mars Rover/Sample Return mission's landing strategy, together with the trade-offs of different landing strategies. The percentile points and the descriptive statistics of the probability distribution of traverse distances are calculated using a simple model formulated on the basis of landing error characteristics. The results show that variations in the landing stratgegy can significantly affect the traverse distance requirements, which range from 20 to 200 km.

Friedlander, Alan L.; German, Darla J.

1988-01-01

293

23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Scenic lands. 752.9 Section 752...DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of interests...and improvement of strips of land or water areas adjacent to...necessary for restoration, preservation, and enhancement of...

2010-04-01

294

14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...exceptional piloting skill or alertness. (c) For landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level...required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on water must be determined on...

2014-01-01

295

14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exceptional piloting skill or alertness. (c) For landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level...required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on water must be determined on...

2012-01-01

296

14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exceptional piloting skill or alertness. (c) For landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level...required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on water must be determined on...

2010-01-01

297

14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exceptional piloting skill or alertness. (c) For landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level...required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on water must be determined on...

2013-01-01

298

14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exceptional piloting skill or alertness. (c) For landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level...required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on water must be determined on...

2011-01-01

299

LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

Chapter PM LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN By T.T. Taber and S.A. Kinney In U........................................PM-1 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Land Use and Land Cover map...........................................................PM-2 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Subsurface Ownership map

300

Agricultural Land Conversion: Background and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes forces contributing to the conversion of agricultural land for other uses, causes for the depletion of the land, major issues surrounding the loss of farmland, and current policies designed to control haphazard land conversion. Concludes that the United States lacks a national farmland protection policy. (KC)

Furuseth, Owen J.

1982-01-01

301

Mars exobiology landing sites for future exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of landing sites for Exobiology is an important issue for planning for future Mars missions. Results of a recent site selection study which focused on potential landing sites described in the Mars Landing Site Catalog are presented. In addition, basic Exobiology science objectives in Mars exploration are reviewed, and the procedures used in site evaluation and prioritization are outlined.

Landheim, Ragnhild; Greeley, Ronald; Desmarais, David; Farmer, Jack D.; Klein, Harold

1993-01-01

302

Land Use. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land use is the subject of the student resource unit to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Uses of the land in an urban environment, suburban environment, rural environment (as cropland, forest, and others), recreation and parks, and other environments are described. The supply of and demand for land is discussed.…

Tulloch, Rodney W.

303

Discovering the Effect Mining has on Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an investigation where students observe what happens to land after it is mined. Students will create a hypothesis, observe their model, conclude what happens to land after it is mined, and discover the role humans play in land conservation.

Debra Olson

304

Land Tenure and Allocative Efficiency in Niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using field-level data, we investigate whether traditional land tenure systems are an impediment to allocative efficiency in Niger. We find that yields are strongly influenced by the manpower available to farming households, an indication that marginal returns to labor and land are not equalized across households. We uncover no relationship between manuring and whether or not local customs allow land

Sarah Gavian; Marcel Fafchamps

1996-01-01

305

A Spatial-Temporal Representation of Land  

E-print Network

A Spatial-Temporal Representation of Land Subsidence in the Northwest Phoenix Valley, Arizona Brian of the 26 land subsidence features are partially or completely within a few of Arizona's Urbanized Areas (Avondale, Phoenix - - Mesa, and Tucson have known land subsidence features).2 This is important because

Hall, Sharon J.

306

An Overview of Land Consolidation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Rural development by land consolidation is used in several countries in the Continent of Europe. At the moment, land consolidation projects are executed broadly in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Switzerland, as well as in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The demand for land consolidation arises from a similar source in all countries: the need for readjusting

Arvo VITIKAINEN

2004-01-01

307

LAND FRAGMENTATION AND CONSOLIDATION IN ALBANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1945 agrarian reform in Albania changed the distribution of landownership. The land of the largest landlords was distributed to 70,000 families who either did not own any land or owned very little. Since this agrarian reform, land tenure structures have continually changed according to the organizational form of the agricultural sector. In the early 1990s, when the centralized economy

Sherif Lusho; Dhimiter Papa

1998-01-01

308

New Tools and Processes for Land Consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of land consolidation activities in Finland. Demand for land consolidation services in Finland has increased recently. The main reasons for this are: 1. the fragmentation of farms in connection with their rapid growth in size has become a problem, and 2. experience gained in implementing nature-conservation or road-safety programs with new kinds of land rearrangements

Mikko UIMONEN

309

Selecting indicators for assessing sustainable land management  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the importance of the concept of the sustainability of land management practices is now widely accepted, there remains considerable debate on methods of identifying sustainability. This paper proposes a series of criteria which can be used to select indicators for assessing the sustainability of land management systems. «Sustainable land management» is defined using the five objectives of productivity, security,

I. C. Cornforth

1999-01-01

310

LAND MANAGEMENT Statutory Instrument 1982 No 648  

E-print Network

LAND MANAGEMENT Statutory Instrument 1982 No 648 THE FORESTRY COMMISSION BYELAWS The Forestry. In these byelaws:- "the Arboretum" means those lands of the Commissioners known as the Westonbirt Arboretum, Silk" means the Forestry Commissioners; "the Forest of Dean" means the lands of the Commissioners which

311

Land unit approach for biodiversity mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of most wild species relies on habitat maintenance, which can rely on vegetation and terrain features. In land ecology, these terrain features are used to delineate land units that describe structure and function of geographic entities in space and time. The aim of this paper is to depict diagnostic species and link them into land units to define habitats.

Alejandro Velázquez; Gerardo Bocco

312

New frontiers of land control: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land questions have invigorated agrarian studies and economic history, with particular emphases on its control, since Marx. Words such as ‘exclusion’, ‘alienation’, ‘expropriation’, ‘dispossession’, and ‘violence’ describe processes that animate land histories and those of resources, property rights, and territories created, extracted, produced, or protected on land. Primitive and on-going forms of accumulation, frontiers, enclosures, territories, grabs, and racializations have

Nancy Lee Peluso; Christian Lund

2011-01-01

313

Black Rural Land Decline in the South  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that it is widely accepted that millions of blacks who migrated from the South contributed significantly to the decline of black rural land ownership. However, the less than altruistic behavior patterns of land officials has also contributed to the loss of rural land by blacks. (Author/AM)

McGee, Leo; Boone, Robert

1977-01-01

314

7 CFR 623.4 - Eligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (5) Is wetland that has been restored on the land under a CRP contract, or under a Federal or State wetland restoration program...least 1 of the 5 previous crop years; or (2) Be land under a CRP contract, in which case, the land need only to have been...

2010-01-01

315

Land suitability assessment and land use change in Fujian Province, China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding land suitability and the land use spatial and temporal variations is important for making land management decisions. To that end, the suitability of cropland and forest land and their changes in Fujian Prov. were evaluated and analyzed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and R...

316

1.0 Purpose To establish a financial accounting capitalization policy for land, land improvements,  

E-print Network

1 1.0 Purpose To establish a financial accounting capitalization policy for land, land improvements will be utilized, a portion of the cost should be allocated to land and a portion to the buildings. The fair market value of the land should be recorded, and the value assigned to the building will be the difference

Baltisberger, Jay H.

317

BusRapidTransitandLandUse Bus Transit and Land Use  

E-print Network

BusRapidTransitandLandUse 21 Bus Transit and Land Use: Illuminating the Interaction Andy Johnson transit in urban areas has proven to be a difficult task indeed. Recent research on the transportation­land use connection has suggested that transit use can be increased through transit-friendly land use

Levinson, David M.

318

Prescriptive Land Surface Phenologies: Modeling Possible Futures Arising from Land and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the contemporary literature on land surface phenologies (LSPs) is descriptive and retrospective. Here we explore prescriptive LSPs that project possible futures given regional climate change and variability and land cover \\/ land use change scenarios. Land cover change across the Northern Great Plains of North America over the past three decades has been driven by changes in agricultural

G. M. Henebry; C. K. Wright; M. C. Wimberly; M. C. Hansen

2009-01-01

319

Potential Supply of Cultivated Land under the Land Consolidation of Rural Residential Areas Based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land consolidation of rural residential areas is an important step for dynamic equilibrium of the total cultivated land. As a case of Jiayu county in Hubei province, an evaluation model of land consolidation potential was established based on 3 factors of policy index, households' willingness and spatial distribution, analyzed the realistic potential of land consolidation in consolidating areas and planning

Kong Xuesong; Liu Yanfang; Zou Yafeng; Chen Yiyun

2010-01-01

320

Land quality indicators for sustainable land management: proposed method for yield gap and soil nutrient balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The required increase in agricultural production to meet future food demand will further increase pressure on land resources. Integrative indicators of the current status of the agricultural production capacity of land and their change over time are needed for promoting land management practices to maintain or improve land productivity and a sustainable use of natural resources. It is argued that

P. S. Bindraban; J. J. Stoorvogel; D. M. Jansen; J. Vlaming; J. J. R. Groot

2000-01-01

321

CREATION OF LAND MARKETS IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE INSTITUTIONS OF LAND ADMINISTRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes (1) the processes of privatization of land management in selected transition countries and (2) the post-privatization changes in land administration institutions which are being crafted to establish land markets. It begins with the proposition that there are similar land market institutional problems which most \\

J. David Stanfield

1999-01-01

322

Land Banking as Metropolitan Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the United States continues to grapple with a financial crisis, many scholars and policy pundits are looking at ways to improve the lot of American cities. One recently proposed idea is land banking, which is "the process or policy by which local governments acquire surplus properties and convert them to productive use or hold them for long term strategic public purposes." In this 39-page paper released in October 2008, Frank S. Alexander of The Brookings Institution offers a lucid and compelling exploration of how land banking might be used at the federal level in order to support the millions of properties that are currently in the process of foreclosure, or those which are already vacant and abandoned. The report contains an executive summary and nine chapters (including a conclusion) which discuss the ways in which such a policy might be implemented over the short and long term.

323

Global Consequences of Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.

Foley, Jonathan A.; DeFries, Ruth; Asner, Gregory P.; Barford, Carol; Bonan, Gordon; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Coe, Michael T.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Helkowski, Joseph H.; Holloway, Tracey; Howard, Erica A.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Monfreda, Chad; Patz, Jonathan A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Ramankutty, Navin; Snyder, Peter K.

2005-07-01

324

Reconstructing the Scene of Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

This map of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's new neighborhood at Meridiani Planum, Mars shows remnants of the rover's landing, including its lander; backshell and parachute; first bounce mark; and the site where its heat shield hit the surface (see inset for exact locations). The image was taken by a camera onboard the Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

2004-01-01

325

STS-53 Launch and Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Footage of various stages of the STS-53 Discovery launch is shown, including shots of the crew at breakfast, getting suited up, and departing to board the Orbiter. The launch is seen from many vantage points, as is the landing. On-orbit activities show the crew performing several medical experiments, such as taking a picture of the retina and measuring the pressure on the eyeball. One crewmember demonstrates how to use the rowing machine in an antigravity environment.

1992-01-01

326

Biological consequences of land use.  

PubMed

The primary goals of land-use planning are enunciated. A plea is made for consideration of the total biosphere and not just its separate components. The environmental impact statement process is reviewed and some suggestions made for its strengthening. Moves for international adoption of this process are noted, as well as the concept of eco-development currently under examination by UN agencies. PMID:1157793

Munn, R E

1975-04-01

327

The last of the lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

On some unknown date in the first half of the first millennium AD, a flotilla of Polynesian pirogues, probably coming from\\u000a the Marquese Islands, landed on a very small island lost in the immensity of the Pacific Ocean, formed a million years earlier\\u000a by volcanic eruptions and never before inhabited.\\u000a \\u000a According to a legend the discoverers called the island Te-Pito-te-Henua:

Giulio Magli

328

15 Most Endangered Wild Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, recently released by the Wilderness Society, describes the "15 most endangered wild lands" and the threats to each. The list includes Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Badger-Two Medicine, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Cascade Crest, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges, Mojave Desert, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Owyhee Canyonlands, Petroglyph National Monument, Routt National Forest, Utah Wilderness, and Western Maine Woods.

329

Land use of northern megalopolis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major objective is to map and digitize the land use of northern megalopolis, the states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, and to evaluate ERTS as a planning tool for megalopolitan areas. The southern New England region provides a good test ERTS's capabilities because of its complex landscape. Not only are there great differences in the degree of urban development, but in relief and vegetative cover as well.

Simpson, R. B.; Lindgren, D. T.

1973-01-01

330

43 CFR 2544.2 - Appraisal of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Erroneously Meandered Lands: Louisiana § 2544.2 Appraisal of land. When an application is received it will be assigned for investigation and...

2014-10-01

331

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 23 - Basic Landing Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...landing with inclined reactions Level landing with nose wheel just clear of ground Tail-down landing Reference section 23.479(a...is most critical for each element of the landing gear. Note (3). Unbalanced...

2011-01-01

332

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 23 - Basic Landing Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...landing with inclined reactions Level landing with nose wheel just clear of ground Tail-down landing Reference section 23.479(a...is most critical for each element of the landing gear. Note (3). Unbalanced...

2013-01-01

333

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 23 - Basic Landing Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...landing with inclined reactions Level landing with nose wheel just clear of ground Tail-down landing Reference section 23.479(a...is most critical for each element of the landing gear. Note (3). Unbalanced...

2014-01-01

334

THECENTERforEcologicalManagementofMilitaryLands Access LCTA  

E-print Network

...................................................................................................................... 9 4.2 LAND USE ANALYSISTHECENTERforEcologicalManagementofMilitaryLands Access LCTA A Microsoft Access Land Condition Trend Analysis User Interface Users Guide By William Sprouse CENTER FOR ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS

335

43 CFR 2650.2 - Application procedures for land selections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...approved by the Director, Bureau of Land Management. Applications must be filed...appropriate office of the Bureau of Land Management. (e)(1) If the...

2014-10-01

336

43 CFR 2741.1 - Lands subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC... (c) Section 211 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 does not apply to...

2013-10-01

337

43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS...submitted in writing to the Bureau of Land Management office having jurisdiction over...

2012-10-01

338

43 CFR 2655.1 - Lands subject to determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 2655.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Federal Installations §...

2011-10-01

339

43 CFR 3932.20 - Lease modification land availability criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...modification land availability criteria. 3932.20 Section 3932.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

2014-10-01

340

30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF...WATER § 879.14 Management of acquired land. Land acquired...

2010-07-01

341

43 CFR 2622.0-8 - Lands subject to selection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2622.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Quantity and Special Grant Selections §...

2012-10-01

342

43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS...submitted in writing to the Bureau of Land Management office having jurisdiction over...

2011-10-01

343

43 CFR 3932.20 - Lease modification land availability criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...modification land availability criteria. 3932.20 Section 3932.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

2012-10-01

344

43 CFR 2610.0-8 - Lands subject to application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2610.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) CAREY ACT GRANTS Carey Act Grants, General §...

2013-10-01

345

43 CFR 2530.0-8 - Land subject to allotment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2530.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) INDIAN ALLOTMENTS Indian Allotments: General §...

2012-10-01

346

30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF...WATER § 879.14 Management of acquired land. Land acquired...

2013-07-01

347

43 CFR 2742.1 - Lands subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC...provisions of section 211 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (43 U.S.C. 1721)....

2011-10-01

348

43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS...submitted in writing to the Bureau of Land Management office having jurisdiction over...

2014-10-01

349

43 CFR 3932.20 - Lease modification land availability criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...modification land availability criteria. 3932.20 Section 3932.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

2013-10-01

350

30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF...WATER § 879.14 Management of acquired land. Land acquired...

2014-07-01

351

43 CFR 3932.20 - Lease modification land availability criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...modification land availability criteria. 3932.20 Section 3932.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) MANAGEMENT...

2011-10-01

352

43 CFR 3430.3-1 - Land use planning.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Land use planning. 3430.3-1 Section 3430.3-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

2011-10-01

353

30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF...WATER § 879.14 Management of acquired land. Land acquired...

2012-07-01

354

43 CFR 2650.2 - Application procedures for land selections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...approved by the Director, Bureau of Land Management. Applications must be filed...appropriate office of the Bureau of Land Management. (e)(1) If the...

2011-10-01

355

43 CFR 2650.2 - Application procedures for land selections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...approved by the Director, Bureau of Land Management. Applications must be filed...appropriate office of the Bureau of Land Management. (e)(1) If the...

2012-10-01

356

30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF...WATER § 879.14 Management of acquired land. Land acquired...

2011-07-01

357

43 CFR 2742.1 - Lands subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC...provisions of section 211 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (43 U.S.C. 1721)....

2013-10-01

358

43 CFR 2741.1 - Lands subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC... (c) Section 211 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 does not apply to...

2014-10-01

359

43 CFR 2650.2 - Application procedures for land selections.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...approved by the Director, Bureau of Land Management. Applications must be filed...appropriate office of the Bureau of Land Management. (e)(1) If the...

2013-10-01

360

43 CFR 2741.1 - Lands subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC... (c) Section 211 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 does not apply to...

2011-10-01

361

43 CFR 2741.1 - Lands subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC... (c) Section 211 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 does not apply to...

2012-10-01

362

43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS...submitted in writing to the Bureau of Land Management office having jurisdiction over...

2013-10-01

363

43 CFR 2742.1 - Lands subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC...provisions of section 211 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (43 U.S.C. 1721)....

2012-10-01

364

43 CFR 2742.1 - Lands subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC...provisions of section 211 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (43 U.S.C. 1721)....

2014-10-01

365

Zooming in on Landing Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Zooming in on Landing Site

This animation zooms in on the area on Mars where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will touchdown on May 25, 2008. The image was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

The first shot shows the spacecraft's landing ellipse in green, the area where Phoenix has a high probability of landing. It then zooms in to show the region's arctic terrain. This polar landscape is relatively free of rocks, with only about 1 to 2 rocks 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) or larger in an area about as big as two football fields.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo.

2008-01-01

366

DYNAMICS OF LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGE IN TROPICAL REGIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We highlight the complexity of land-use\\/cover change and propose a framework for a more general understanding of the issue, with emphasis on tropical regions. The review summarizes recent estimates on changes in cropland, agricultural intensification, tropical deforestation, pasture expansion, and urbanization and identifies the still unmeasured land-cover changes. Climate-driven land-cover modifications interact with land-use changes. Land-use change is driven by

Eric F. Lambin; Helmut J. Geist; Erika Lepers

2003-01-01

367

Land availability and land value assessment for solar ponds in the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The land availability and land values for solar ponds in the United States as they concern the residential, commercial, and institutional land use categories were investigated. Solar ponds were identified as efficient and economical means for collecting and storing direct and diffuse solar energy. Innovative methodologies were applied to arrive at regional projections regarding the amount of land that might potentially be available for retrofit or future solar pond applications. Regional land values were also documented and analyzed.

1982-01-01

368

Effects land surface type, land use, and land use change on aquatic-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide from tropical forests and peat lands of Borneo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical peat lands appear to be loosing huge amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to patterns of land use and land use change including conversion of tropical forest peat lands to palm oil production and other agricultural endeavors and forest exploitation. Here, we look at the effect of land use patterns on the export of carbon to tropical river systems and the efflux from tropical rivers to the atmosphere. Levels of pcarbon dioxide, DOC and POC were measured in the Kapuas River, the longest river in Borneo. Patterns of land use and land use change were correlated with export rates of organic matter to the river as well as the vertical fluxes of carbon dioxide from the river and delta to the atmosphere. Land conversion of tropical forests on peat land soils to agriculture, including palm oil production, had some of the highest rates of lateral fluxes of organic carbon to the river system, and among the highest fluxes of carbon dioxide from the river to the atmosphere. This approach illustrates the utility of using a combination of methods: pcarbon dioxide measurement, water chemistry, temporal remote sensing, and modeling to understand and quantify the impact of land use change on GHG emissions from tropical peat lands. Boat based eddy covariance, developed and tested in the coastal zones of the Pacific Ocean, promises to provide a powerful addition to these approaches.

Oechel, W. C.; Abelleira Martínez, O.; Anshari, G.; Ikawa, H.; Lawrence, W. T.; Metz, M.; Neteler, M.; Nuriman, M.; Rocchini, D.; Zona, D.

2011-12-01

369

Land cover trends dataset, 1973-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends Project is releasing a 1973–2000 time-series land-use/land-cover dataset for the conterminous United States. The dataset contains 5 dates of land-use/land-cover data for 2,688 sample blocks randomly selected within 84 ecological regions. The nominal dates of the land-use/land-cover maps are 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000. The land-use/land-cover maps were classified manually from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery using a modified Anderson Level I classification scheme. The resulting land-use/land-cover data has a 60-meter resolution and the projection is set to Albers Equal-Area Conic, North American Datum of 1983. The files are labeled using a standard file naming convention that contains the number of the ecoregion, sample block, and Landsat year. The downloadable files are organized by ecoregion, and are available in the ERDAS IMAGINETM (.img) raster file format.

Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Auch, Roger F.; Sohl, Terry L.; Drummond, Mark A.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sorenson, Daniel G.; Kambly, Steven; Wilson, Tamara S.; Taylor, Janis L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stier, Michael P.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Methven, Steven C.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Headley, Rachel; Brooks, Mark S.

2014-01-01

370

Land use/land cover change in Yellow River Delta, China during fast development period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial eco-system in coastal zones is unstable and land-use and Land-cover of its land resource are crucial for its sustainability. Therefore it is necessary to understand distribution of land use/cover changes in those tender areas. This paper was to analyze changes of land use/cover in Yellow River Delta in China during recent ten years, which was its fast development period, by remote sensing monitoring. Two Landsat TM images in October of 1995 and 2004 were processed using ERDAS software and supervised classification method in study for the land use and land cover of those two years. The two land use/cover maps were overlaid to discover the changes. It was showed that lots of land use/cover changes in the Yellow River Delta had taken place in past ten years. Because abundant sand that carried by river water filled up at estuary of the Yellow River, new land increased fleetly. The rates that foreshore were turned into fishery land was high for aquaculture with salt water had been developed quickly. Another important effect of human activity was that part of waste land and grassland had been cultivated for crops. With industry and economy development, land for urbanization had been outspreaded. Although fast exploitation had been carried out in Yellow River Delta going though those years, some human activities on land use were inharmonious for sustainable development of land resource in this area. This must be pay attention to by local government and people.

Zhou, Wenzuo; Tian, Yongzhong; Zhu, Lifen

2007-09-01

371

Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change  

SciTech Connect

Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

Dale, V.H.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Loureiro, F. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1992-07-01

372

Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change  

SciTech Connect

Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

Dale, V.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Loureiro, F. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1992-01-01

373

Global Land Use History: A New Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human use of land has transformed the terrestrial biosphere, causing global changes in ecosystems, landscapes, biogeochemistry, climate, and biodiversity. This global transformation is commonly described as recent in human-environment history. Interdisciplinary paleo and historical data reconstructions and global land use and land cover modeling challenge this view, indicating that human use of land has been extensive and sustained for millennia, and may represent more of a recovery than an acceleration of land use in this century and beyond. Here we present a new global synthesis of recent scientific work on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a global force transforming the Earth system. Central to this synthesis is early human use of fire to engineer ecosystems and other systemic changes in land use dynamics, which together explain how relatively small human populations may have caused widespread and profound ecological changes early in the Holocene, while the largest human populations in history are associated with forests recovery across large regions. While quantitative global models of Holocene and even contemporary land use are still at early stage of development, improved land use histories and models that incorporate land change processes offer a more spatially detailed and accurate view of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. The implicit view from the Anthropocene that humans have reached a historical moment in which "wild nature" is threatened is thus challenged by a view that humans are ancestral shapers and permanent stewards of Earth's terrestrial surface. Land use intensification processes have long sustained human interactions with the terrestrial biosphere, and they continue to evolve as populations grow and urbanize. While these processes are rapidly shifting from their historic patterns in both scale and type, integrative land use and land cover models that incorporate dynamics in human-environment relations help advance our understanding of both past and future land use changes and their global effects.

Ellis, E. C.

2011-12-01

374

Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The solid Earth is the foundation upon which the entire system rests, and provides the critical substrate and reservoir of raw materials the rest of the system. The solid Earth also records the past in the ...

375

Impact Dynamics Landing Facility - Lunar Landing Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of backstop. Originally intended for use in conjunction with one of the various apparatuses used to simulate astronauts walking on the moon, this backstop was eventually used as a backdrop for the various aircraft crashworthiness studies. By 1972 the Lunar Landing Research Facility was no longer in use for its original purpose. The 23 story structure was swiftly modified to allow engineers to study the dynamics of aircraft crashes. The 'backstop' with its painted grid has become a backdrop for films and videos of numerous crash tests.

2002-01-01

376

Impact Landing Dynamics Facility - Lunar Landing Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of backstop. Originally intended for use in conjunction with one of the various apparatus used to simulate astronauts walking on the moon, this backstop was eventually used as a backdrop for the various aircraft crashworthiness studies. By 1972 the Lunar Landing Research Facility was no longer in use for its original purpose. The 23 story structure was swiftly modified to allow engineers to study the dynamics of aircraft crashes. The 'backstop' with its painted grid has become a backdrop for films and videos of numerous crash tests.

1966-01-01

377

Simulation of X-38 Landing Scenarios With Landing Gear Failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abnormal landing scenarios of the X-38 prototype Crew Rescue Vehicle (CRV) were modeled for three different cases involving non-deployment of landing gear with an explicit dynamic nonlinear finite element code, MSC/DYTRAN. The goal of this research was to develop models to predict the probability of crew injuries. The initial velocity conditions for the X-38 with chute deployed were 10 ft/s vertical and 57 ft/s longitudinal velocity. An MSC/NASTRAN structural model was supplied by JSC and was converted to a dynamic MSC/DYTRAN model. The MSC/NASTRAN model did not include seats or floor structure; thus, the acceleration of a lumped-mass attached to the bulkhead near each assumed occupant location was used to determine injury risk for each occupant. The worst case for injury was nondeployment of all gears. The mildest case was nondeployment of one main gear. Although a probability for minor injury was predicted for all cases, it is expected that the addition of energy-absorbing floor structure and seats would greatly diminish the probability of injury.

Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Stockwell, Alan E.

2000-01-01

378

Hyperspectral Data for Land use/Land cover classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made to compare the multispectral Resourcesat-2 LISS III and Hyperion image for the selected area at sub class level classes of major land use/ land cover. On-screen interpretation of LISS III (resolution 23.5 m) was compared with Spectral Angle Mapping (SAM) classification of Hyperion (resolution 30m). Results of the preliminary interpretation of both images showed that features like fallow, built up and wasteland classes in Hyperion image are clearer than LISS-III and Hyperion is comparable with any high resolution data. Even canopy types of vegetation classes, aquatic vegetation and aquatic systems are distinct in Hyperion data. Accuracy assessment of SAM classification of Hyperion compared with the common classification systems followed for LISS III there was no much significant difference between the two. However, more number of vegetation classes could be classified in SAM. There is a misinterpretation of built up and fallow classes in SAM. The advantages of Hyperion over visual interpretation are the differentiation of the type of crop canopy and also crop stage could be confirmed with the spectral signature. The Red edge phenomenon was found for different canopy type of the study area and it clearly differentiated the stage of vegetation, which was verified with high resolution image. Hyperion image for a specific area is on par with high resolution data along with LISS III data.

Vijayan, D.; Shankar, G. Ravi; Shankar, T. Ravi

2014-11-01

379

Connecting Indicators with land degradation and desertification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of 72 selected candidate indicators corresponding to the physical environment, social, economic, and land management characteristics were defined in 1672 field sites located in 17 study sites in the Mediterranean and eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The selected indicators refer to specific farm characteristics such as family status, land tenure, present and previous types of land use, period of existing type of land use, soil depth, slope gradient, tillage operations, tillage depth and direction, etc., as well as to regional characteristics such as annual rainfall, rain seasonality, water availability, water quality and quantity, rate of land abandonment, rate of burned area, etc. Based on existing geo-referenced database, classes have been designated for each indicator and presented in a tabulated form. Weighing indices have been assigned to each class based on existing research or empirically assessing the importance to land degradation and desertification. Various processes or causes related to land degradation and desertification important for the study sites have been studied and the most relevant indicators have been defined. Questionnaires for each process or cause have been prepared and data were collected at field site level in collaboration with land users. The obtained data were statistically analyzed to identify the most important indicators related to each process or cause affecting land degradation and desertification. The analyses have shown that indicators may be widely, even globally, used for assessing the various land degradation and desertification processes or causes at field level. Of course, some indicators related to agriculture, social, and institutional characteristics in some cases show trends that are opposite to what happens in other study sites. These trends can be explained by further investigation including other indicators or processes affecting land degradation and desertification that it was not possible to consider in this effort. Efficiency and performance indicators seem the most promising for further research, particularly combined with economic principles for assessing land degradation and desertification. Key words: Indicators, land degradation, desertification

Kosmas, C.

2012-04-01

380

The land Gini coefficient and its application for land use structure analysis in China.  

PubMed

We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types-farmland, built-up land and unused land-was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764

Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

2013-01-01

381

The Land Gini Coefficient and Its Application for Land Use Structure Analysis in China  

PubMed Central

We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types–farmland, built-up land and unused land–was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764

Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

2013-01-01

382

Wind Development on Tribal Lands  

SciTech Connect

Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

2008-01-18

383

The X-34 Demonstrator Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept depicts the X-34 Demonstrator landing in a dessert. Part of the Pathfinder Program, the X-34 was a reusable technology testbed vehicle that was designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center to demonstrate technologies that were essential to lowering the cost of access to space. Powered by a LOX and RP-1 liquid Fastrac engine, the X-34 would be capable of speeds up to Mach 8 and altitudes of 250,000-feet. The X-34 program was cancelled in 2001.

2004-01-01

384

Featured Videos: Urban Land Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Land Institute (ULI) offers up high-quality seminars, conferences, research materials, and long term planning information for real estate professionals, urbanologists, public leaders, and others. Its Featured Videos include observations from professionals in Europe talking about large scale megaprojects to conversations about transit planning in Chicago. A good place to start is with "The Changing World: A ULI Speaker Series," which includes conversations on "The Power of Face-to-Face Crowdfunding" and renegade urban gardening. Other great videos highlight infrastructure challenges in African cities and how communities rebuild after major environmental disasters.

385

Land mobile satellite demonstration system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A land mobile satellite demonstration system is described. It ulilizes the INMARSAT MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W. The system provides data transmission using a poll-response protocol with error detection and retransmission at 200 b/s rate. For most tests a 1.8 inch monopole antenna was used, along with a satellite EIRP normally used for four voice channels. A brief summary of the results are given and the overall system consisting of three elements in addition to the satellite (the mobile unit, the base station, and the office terminal and map display) is described. Throughput statistics from one trip are summarized.

Gooch, Guy M.; Nicholas, David C.

1988-01-01

386

Evaluation of historical land cover, land use, and land-use change emissions in the GCAM integrated assessment model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are often used as science-based decision-support tools for evaluating the consequences of climate and energy policies, and their use in this framework is likely to increase in the future. However, quantitative evaluation of these models has been somewhat limited for a variety of reasons, including data availability, data quality, and the inherent challenges in projections of societal values and decision-making. In this analysis, we identify and confront methodological challenges involved in evaluating the agriculture and land use component of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. GCAM then calculates both emissions from land-use practices, and long-term changes in carbon stocks in different land uses, thus providing simulation information that can be compared to observed historical data. In this work, we compare GCAM results, both in recent historic and future time periods, to historical data sets. We focus on land use, land cover, land-use change emissions, and albedo.

Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Janetos, A. C.; Zhou, Y.

2012-12-01

387

Localized Brain Activation Related to the Strength of Auditory Learning in a Parrot  

PubMed Central

Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory. PMID:22701714

Matsushita, Masanori; Matsuda, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Satoh, Ryohei; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Manabe, Kazuchika; Kawashima, Takashi; Bolhuis, Johan J.

2012-01-01

388

Monitoring land use on military installations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The US Geological Survey's Land Cover Trends is a research projects aimed to understand the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary US land use and land-cover change. The project is using the EPA Level III eco-regions as a geographic framework to process geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000 to characterize ecosystem responses to land-use changes. The results are expected to be used for collaborative environmental change consequences research with various partners including the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The Land Cover project can provide geographic understanding of the state of the nation's ecosystems. The project is scheduled to be completed by 2010 and expected to provide an unbiased, national synthesis of land-cover changes.

Karstensen, K.A.; Loveland, T.R.

2009-01-01

389

Analysis of Landing-Gear Behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.

Milwitzky, Benjamin; Cook, Francis E

1953-01-01

390

Phoenix Landing Ellipse Over San Francisco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This map compares the size of the area where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is expected to land, called the landing ellipse (red), to the size of the San Francisco Bay Area.

Phoenix has a 99.9 percent probability of landing within the area denoted by its landing ellipse, a region in the northern plains of Mars centered at approximately 68 degrees north latitude, 233 degrees east longitude. The ellipse is about 70 kilometers (44 miles) long. Phoenix is most likely to land near the center of the ellipse, and least likely to land at its very edges.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

391

Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities.  

PubMed

Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here. PMID:24558449

Diffendorfer, Jay E; Compton, Roger W

2014-01-01

392

Land Cover and Topography Affect the Land Transformation Caused by Wind Facilities  

PubMed Central

Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here. PMID:24558449

Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

2014-01-01

393

Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation. An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of a reentry vehicle using a passive landing system to alleviate the landing-impact loads. The passive landing system consisted of a flexible heat shield with a small section of aluminum honeycomb placed between the heat shield and the crew compartment at the point that would be the first to contact the landing surface. The model was landed on concrete and sand landing surfaces at parachute letdown velocities. The investigations simulated a vertical velocity of 30 ft/sec (full scale), horizontal velocities of 0, 15, 30, 40, and 50 ft/sec (full scale), and landing attitudes ranging from -30 degrees to 20 degrees. The model investigation indicated that stable landings could be made on a concrete surface at horizontal velocities up to about 30 ft/sec, but the stable landing-attitude range at these speeds was small. The aluminum honeycomb bottomed occasionally during landings on concrete. When bottoming did not occur, maximum normal and longitudinal accelerations at the center of gravity of the vehicle were approximately 50g and 30g, respectively. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030981. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1963-01-01

394

Warm Oceans Raise Land Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2004, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were the third warmest in the past 125 years, land surface temperatures were the fourth warmest, and globaly averaged temperatures likewise ranked fourth highest [Levinson, 2005]. This article presents evidence that SSTs contributed significantly to the widespread terrestrial and global tropospheric warmth. Every ocean witnessed warm sea surface conditions in 2004, with only the middle latitudes of the Southern Ocean experiencing below average values (Figure 1, top). Much of this warmth was concentrated north of 30°S and included a weak El Niño event in the tropical central Pacific. Terrestrial warmth in 2004 was seen at all locations between 45°N and 45°S. The greatest departures from average temperatures occurred over interior Eurasia and western North America, which experienced increases of up to 2°C (Figure 1, middle). Consistent with the considerable warmth of ocean and land surfaces, much of the global troposphere was also warm in 2004. The thermal expansion of the tropospheric column, whose top is roughly at the 200-milli-bar pressure surface, is demonstrated by the increase in elevation of that surface world-wide (Figure 1, bottom).

Hoerling, Martin P.; Xu, TaiYi; Bates, Gary; Kumar, Arun; Jha, Bhaskar

2006-05-01

395

Advanced Land Imager Assessment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

2008-01-01

396

The Public Lands Commission of 1879  

E-print Network

. The members of the com- mission included James A. Williamson, Commissioner of the General Land Office, Clarence King, Director of the United. Sta"es Geological Survey, Alexander T ~ Britton, John Wesley Powell, and Thomas Donaldson. The commission... and in politics. Consideration is given to key scientists and. politicians, especially John Wesley Powell, who first conceived the idea for a Public Lands Commission. Powell transmitted his idea for a commission to codify the land laws and to classify...

Odom, Danna Evelyn

1971-01-01

397

STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Atlantis approaches runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the STS-66 mission dedicated to the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3), part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. The astronauts also deployed and retrieved a free-flying satellite designed to study the middle and lower thermospheres and perform a series of experiments covering life sciences research and microgravity processing. The landing was at 7:34 a.m. (PST) 14 November 1994, after being waved off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, due to adverse weather. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining

1994-01-01

398

Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

1996-06-01

399

Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

?rsi, Anna

2014-05-01

400

Resolution on land tenure, June 1988.  

PubMed

In June 1988, a Resolution on land tenure was adopted at the sixth plenum of the Communist Party Central Committee of Laos, also attended by the Government's Council of Ministers. The Resolution states that, although land still belongs to the Government, actions are to be taken to distribute lands and forests to each village and assign plots to individual families, rather than to cooperatives. Farmers are to be allowed to sell or use what they produce as they choose and can pass land on to their children or transfer it to other farmers by charging for their investments for improving the soil. PMID:12289460

1988-01-01

401

7 CFR 205.202 - Land requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.202 Land requirements. Any...

2013-01-01

402

7 CFR 205.202 - Land requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.202 Land requirements. Any...

2011-01-01

403

7 CFR 205.202 - Land requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.202 Land requirements. Any...

2014-01-01

404

7 CFR 205.202 - Land requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.202 Land requirements. Any...

2012-01-01

405

Alaska interim land cover mapping program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In order to meet the requirements of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) for comprehensive resource and management plans from all major land management agencies in Alaska, the USGS has begun a program to classify land cover for the entire State using Landsat digital data. Vegetation and land cover classifications, generated in cooperation with other agencies, currently exist for 115 million acres of Alaska. Using these as a base, the USGS has prepared a comprehensive plan for classifying the remaining areas of the State. The development of this program will lead to a complete interim vegetation and land cover classification system for Alaska and allow the dissemination of digital data for those areas classified. At completion, 153 Alaska 1:250,000-scale quadrangles will be published and will include land cover from digital Landsat classifications, statistical summaries of all land cover by township, and computer-compatible tapes. An interagency working group has established an Alaska classification system (table 1) composed of 18 classes modified from "A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data" (Anderson and others, 1976), and from "Revision of a preliminary classification system for vegetation of Alaska" (Viereck and Dyrness, 1982) for the unique ecoregions which are found in Alaska.

U.S. Geological Survey

1987-01-01

406

Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The film shows experimental investigations to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices include crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact.

Fisher, Loyd. L.

1960-01-01

407

Lunar Polar Orbiter and Landing Probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study of the Lunar Polar Orbiter (LPO) and small Landing Probe tentatively planned to be launched in 1997 by H-II launch vehicle is presented. The mission objectives of the LPO are to provide global geographical and elemental composition data about the lunar surface. Three types of LPO systems have been studied according to three different requirements of the mission candidates. Each LPO system can be designed by best utilizing the up-to-date earth observation satellite technologies without any major technical challenges. As for the Landing Probe, Navigation and Guidance, Landing Radar, Engine Throttling and Landing Gear are the key technologies which require further research effort.

Iwata, Tsutomu; Eto, Takao; Okuda, Kazumi; Ota, Kazuo; Kaneko, Yutaka; Imai, Ryoichi

408

Marginal Lands: Concept, Assessment and Management  

SciTech Connect

Marginal lands have received wide attention for their potential to improve food security and support bioenergy production. However, environmental, ecosystem service, and sustainability concerns have been widely raised over the use of marginal land. Knowledge of the extent, location, and quality of marginal lands as well as their assessment and management are limited and diverse. This paper provides a review of the historical development of marginal concept, its application and assessment. Limitations and priority research needs of marginal land assessment and management were discussed.

Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Bandaru, Vara Prasad [ORNL; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, Dali [ORNL; Nichols, Dr Jeff A [ORNL

2013-01-01

409

Food appropriation through large scale land acquisitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crops yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with LSLAs. We show how up to 300-550 million people could be fed by crops grown in the acquired land, should these investments in agriculture improve crop production and close the yield gap. In contrast, about 190-370 million people could be supported by this land without closing of the yield gap. These numbers raise some concern because the food produced in the acquired land is typically exported to other regions, while the target countries exhibit high levels of malnourishment. Conversely, if used for domestic consumption, the crops harvested in the acquired land could ensure food security to the local populations.

Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

2014-05-01

410

Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

Epp, Chirold

2007-01-01

411

Land Reclamation: Land from the Sea (and Other Places). Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching resource talks about the importance of land reclamation and describes how many communities have reclaimed land for productive use. Includes a student quiz, possible student outcomes, and references. (JOW)

Hadley, Fred

1995-01-01

412

Relationships among land ownership, land use, and landowner behavior changes in Gillespie and Washington Counties, Texas  

E-print Network

The recent trend of land parcelization and habitat fragmentation has prompted concern among scientists. This concern has led to studies exploring the causes and effects of both events, but has not targeted the owners of land as participants in all...

Steinbach, Mark Shane

2001-01-01

413

Study on temporal and spatial variations of urban land use based on land change data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of urbanization, demands of urban land increase in succession, hence, to analyze temporal and spatial variations of urban land use becomes more and more important. In this paper, the principle of trend surface analysis and formula of urban land sprawl index ( ULSI) are expatiated at first, and then based on land change data of Jiayu county, the author fits quadratic trend surface by choosing urban land area as dependent variable and urbanization and GDP as independent variables from 1996 to 2006, draws isoline of trend surface and residual values; and then urban land sprawl indexes of towns are calculated on the basis of urban land area of 1996 and 2006 and distribution map of ULSI is plotted. After analyzing those results, we can conclude that there is consanguineous relationship between urban land area and urbanization, economic level etc.

Jiang, Ping; Liu, Yanfang; Fan, Min; Zhang, Yang

2009-10-01

414

76 FR 9227 - Safety Zone; Havasu Landing Regatta, Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...would either preempt State law or impose a substantial...inconsistent with applicable law or otherwise impractical...Havasu Landing Regatta, Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing...local, state, and federal law enforcement vessels...

2011-02-17

415

75 FR 2438 - Safety Zone; Havasu Landing Annual Regatta; Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...would either preempt State law or impose a substantial...inconsistent with applicable law or otherwise impractical...Landing Annual Regatta; Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing...local, State, and Federal law enforcement vessels...

2010-01-15

416

Modeling the effect of land cover land use change on estuarine environmental flows  

E-print Network

Environmental flows are important to maintain the ecological integrity of the estuary. In a watershed, it is influenced by land use land cover (LULC) change, climate variability, and water regulations. San Antonio, Texas, the 8th largest city...

Sahoo, Debabrata

2009-05-15

417

Options on Land Management and Land Use for Coping with Climate Change in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The South Asia region is characterized by high population density and scarcely available land for sustainable agriculture.\\u000a The region has a land area of 642 million ha (Mha) and a population of 1,587 million. The agricultural population is 786 million,\\u000a 49% of the total. The area of agricultural land is 230 Mha, 36% of the total land area. The average

Yuji Niino

418

Leave No Trace! Land Ethics [and] Tread Lightly! On Public and Private Land. A National Land Use Ethics Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two brochures that provide land ethics guidelines for outdoor recreationists. The brochures provide techniques that visitors can use to help reduce evidence of their presence in the back country, designated "Wilderness" areas. The first brochure, titled "Leave no Trace! Land Ethics," provides guidelines for planning back…

Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

419

Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

420

THE IMPORTANCE OF LAND ADMINISTRATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LAND MARKETS - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at the growing pressures on land administration systems and examines the effectiveness or otherwise of current responses. It cites examples from around the world, including less developed countries, drawing attention to the need for sustainable development and the role that land administration plays in support of such a goal. It comments on the development of land markets

Peter Dale

2000-01-01

421

Land surface hydrology in the cloud land surface interaction campaign (CLASIC)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A fundamental objective of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) was to contribute to our understanding of the interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface. It has been observed that land surface characteristics influence the timing and evolution of cumulus convection. The...

422

Interior Secretary Formally Designates BLM Lands the National System of Public Lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

He also said that the designation will emphasize the interconnectedness and interdependence of the public lands and all who benefit from them; better convey the diversity of interests and values associated with the public lands and how these are served through balanced, comprehensive, management; and increase the critical importance of enlightened citizen stewardship to the preservation of these lands and

Frank Quimby

2009-01-01

423

EVALUATION OF A LANDING GEAR SEMIACTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR COMPLETE AIRCRAFT LANDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the simulation of landing gear semi-active control for a small trainer aircraft in a multibody framework. The behavior of single passive landing gear drop test simulation models and of a complete aircraft landing simulation model, developed and implemented in the commercial multibody code ADAMS in previous works, is compared to the that of analogous models equipped

Gian Luca Ghiringhelli; Stefania Gualdi

2004-01-01

424

Impacts and causes of land fragmentation, and lessons learned from land consolidation in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landholdings and land parcels in South Asia are undergoing fragmentation, thereby accelerating the pace of their degradation and constraining agricultural development. Based on experiences gained in the region and elsewhere, this paper finds the fragmentation of small landholdings and tiny land parcels detrimental to land conservation and economic gain, thereby discouraging farmers from adoption of agricultural innovations. Primarily induced by

Gajendra S. Niroula; Gopal B. Thapa

2005-01-01

425

25 CFR 162.102 - What land, or interests in land, are subject to these regulations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...necessary to preserve the value of the land or protect the interests of the...regulations do not apply to tribal land that is leased under a corporate...this part conflict with the Indian Land Consolidation Act Amendments of 2000,...

2010-04-01

426

25 CFR 162.102 - What land, or interests in land, are subject to these regulations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...necessary to preserve the value of the land or protect the interests of the...regulations do not apply to tribal land that is leased under a corporate...this part conflict with the Indian Land Consolidation Act Amendments of 2000,...

2012-04-01

427

25 CFR 162.102 - What land, or interests in land, are subject to these regulations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...necessary to preserve the value of the land or protect the interests of the...regulations do not apply to tribal land that is leased under a corporate...this part conflict with the Indian Land Consolidation Act Amendments of 2000,...

2011-04-01

428

forEnvironmentalManagementofMilitaryLands CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS  

E-print Network

MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1500 April 2001 Edited. Zeidler CEMML TPS 01-8 Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands Colorado State UniversityTHECENTER CEMML TPS 01-8 forEnvironmentalManagementofMilitaryLands CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL

429

Which authority, whose land? Access to land in Paser, East Kalimantan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key issue in this study is access to land registration, which is the official responsibility of the National Land Agency (Badan Pertanahan Nasional, hereafter NLA). Nonetheless other official institutions such as the Department of Forestry and regional governments have authority over issues pertaining to land usage as well. Moreover, local custom (usually called adat 1) can be a normative

L. G. H. Bakker

2010-01-01

430

The State, Land System, and Land Development Processes in Contemporary China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the era of state socialism under Mao, land in China was treated as a means of production and was allocated administratively by the state free of charge. To accommodate the interests of foreign investors without violating the socialist principle of public ownership, the Chinese state has, since the 1980s, separated land use rights from land ownership and opened up

George C. S. Lin; Samuel P. S. Ho

2005-01-01

431

MONITORING LAND USE CHANGES AROUND THE INDIGENOUS LANDS OF THE XINGU BASIN IN MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL  

E-print Network

MONITORING LAND USE CHANGES AROUND THE INDIGENOUS LANDS OF THE XINGU BASIN IN MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL to protect indigenous communities and environment in Brazil. However, these lands are also highly affected y (906000 km²), located in the southern region of the Brazilian Amazon, is composed of three main biomas

Brest, Université de

432

Household land tenure reform in China: Its impact on farming land use and agro-environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-Mao rural reform has stimulated farmers' incentives for agricultural production. Yet, the short period of 15 years' land tenure, coupled with the ambiguous land property rights between collectives and individual households has also encouraged short-sighted decisions and the irresponsible use of land resources. Capital investment in farmland, and maintenance of irrigation facilities have been neglected. Farmers are “digging” soil and

Wei Hu

1997-01-01

433

The Environment and Landscape Land Cover and Land Use in Ireland - Key Issues and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use practices directly influence both landscape and quality of life, particularly in relation to where people live, the surrounding environment and the associated infrastructure and services that are required. The rate and nature of land use changes indicate where future environmental pressures are likely to arise. By European standards, Ireland has experienced a relatively high rate of land use

Mary Kelly

2009-01-01

434

Approving communitization agreements covering Native American lands  

SciTech Connect

A series of recent cases in the US Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit has created a great deal of confusion about the role of the Secretary of the Interior in approving oil and gas communitization agreements where Native American tribal or allotted lands are involved. In each case, the court was confronted with an operator who was attempting to extend an oil and gas lease covering tribal or allotted lands beyond its primary term by requesting to unitize the tribal or allotted lands with adjacent non-Native American lands on which a well had been drilled and completed or where drilling was taking place. All of the tribal and allotted leases involved in these cases contained {open_quotes}commence drilling{close_quotes} clauses, as well as {open_quotes}unit operation{close_quotes} clauses that authorized communitization of the lands covered by the leases with adjacent lands upon approval by the Secretary. While the Secretary clearly is required to approve communitization agreements covering tribal or allotted lands before such agreements are deemed effective, the scope of the Secretary`s approval authority has been the subject of continuing controversy. Communitization refers to the pooling of oil and gas interests in separate tracts, including federal and nonfederal properties, into a size sufficient to grant a well permit under applicable well-spacing rules. When lands have been communitized, production achieved on one oil and gas lease is allocated among all of the communitized leases. Thus, a lease of tribal or allotted lands that is communitized with a fee lease on which a producing well has been drilled is considered a producing lease even though there is no well on such lease. Such tribal or allotted lands lease therefore does not expire at the end of its stated primary term, but is extended until the well on the communitized land ceases to produce oil or gas in paying quantities. This article discusses the problem.

Hook, J. [Dorsey & Whitney, Denver, CO (United States)

1997-06-01

435

Oblique Photogrammetry and Usage on Land Administration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projects based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have started within the body of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC) by the Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (LRCIS) in the beginning of 2000s. LRCIS was followed by other projects which are Turkish National Geographic Information System (TNGIS), Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (CORS-TR), Geo Metadata Portal (GMP), Orthophoto Web Services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastre Renovation Project (CRP), 2B and Land Registry Achieve Information System (LRAIS). When examining the projects generated by GDLRC, it is realized that they include basic functions of land administration required for sustainable development. Sustainable development is obtained through effective land administration as is known. Nowadays, land use becomes more intense as a result of rapid population increase. The importance of land ownership has increased accordingly. At this point, the necessity of cadastre appears. In Turkey, cadastral registration is carried out by the detection of parcels. In other words, it is obtained through the division of land surface into 2D boundaries and mapping of them. However, existing land administration systems have begun to lose their efficiency while coping with rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) belonging to land which become more complicated day by day. Overlapping and interlocking constructions appear particularly in urban areas with dense housing and consequently, the problem of how to project these structures onto the surface in 2D cadastral systems has arisen. Herein, the necessity of 3D cadastre concept and 3D property data is confronted. In recent years, oblique photogrammetry, whose applications are gradually spreading, is used as an effective method for producing 3D data. In this study, applications of oblique photogrammetry and usability of oblique images as base for 3D Cadastre and Land Administration projects are examined.

Kisa, A.; Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Ates, H. B.; Bakici, S.

2013-08-01

436

Newfoundland tests land exploration interest  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the government of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is inviting the industry to take another look at onshore western Newfoundland. A 1989 study by the Petroleum Resource Development Division of the Department of Mines and Energy stated that an area of about 30,000 sq km with widespread oil and gas seeps and hydrocarbon shows in shallow wells remains virtually unexplored in western Newfoundland. The report further concluded, a systematic exploration program utilizing modern exploratory techniques is warranted in this area and could potentially lead to the discovery of commercial accumulations of hydrocarbons. Success of the Canada- Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board's 1990 land sale, in which oil and gas rights were issued for 1.6 million hectares of adjoining offshore parcels, attests to growing interest in the area.

Petzet, G.A.

1991-09-09

437

LULUs: locally unwanted land uses  

SciTech Connect

A LULU is a locally unwanted land use. It may be an old-age home or a nuclear-waste-disposal site. People need it but do not want to live next to it. Some characteristics LULUs have in common are: opposition (more or less organized), costs to the neighborhood (real or perceived), support from conservatives for LULUs of the right, support from liberals for LULUs of the left, and some local support. Today's LULU may be tomorrow's prize; witness the 1982 competition for a state prison by 21 towns in depressed Illinois. Regional and national LULUs, while offering (or appearing to offer) a regional or national benefit, put financial and environmental costs and social stresses on a locality. Governmental and legal questions confront the decision-makers who must untangle these conflicts.

Popper, F.J.

1983-06-01

438

43 CFR 2547.6 - Lands not subject to disposal under this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 2547.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Omitted Lands:...

2013-10-01

439

43 CFR 2547.6 - Lands not subject to disposal under this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 2547.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Omitted Lands:...

2011-10-01

440

STS-68 Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Endeavour glides to a landing on runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the highly successful STS-68 mission dedicated to radar imaging of the earth's surface as part of NASA's Mission To Planet Earth program. The landing was at 10:02 a.m. (PDT) 11 October 1994, after waiving off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, earlier that morning due to adverse weather at Kennedy. The Endeavour crew was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy the morning of October 10, but mission planners decided early in the flight to extend the mission by one day. Mission commander was Michael A. Baker, making his third flight, and the pilot was Terrence W. Wilcutt, on his first mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Sh

1994-01-01

441

SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF PRIVATE AND COMMUNAL LANDS IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land degradation in sub-Saharan Africa reduces the land's potential productivity through soil erosion, nutrient depletion, soil moisture stress, deforestation and overgrazing. Efforts to reverse land degradation require an understanding of why it takes place and what factors govern farmers' willingness to invest in land conservation. These factors differ importantly between private and public lands. This study synthesizes results from analyses

Berhanu Gebremedhin; Scott M. Swinton

2001-01-01

442

Spatial autocorrelation in multi-scale land use models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several land use models statistical methods are being used to analyse spatial data. Land use drivers that best describe land use patterns quantitatively are often selected through (logistic) regression analysis. A problem using conventional statistical methods, like (logistic) regression, in spatial land use analysis is that these methods assume the data to be statistically independent. But, spatial land use

K. P. Overmars; G. H. J. de Koning; A. Veldkamp

2003-01-01

443

DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A rational procedure is presented in this manual for the design of municipal sludge land application systems. he utilization of sludge in agriculture and forestry, reclamation of disturbed and marginal lands, and dedicated high-rate surface disposal practices are discussed in det...

444

Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation  

E-print Network

Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation Jiu Jimmy Jiao Department ofEarth Sciences, The University ofHong Kong, P. R. China Abstract JJ.Jiao Land reclamation has played a significant role in the urban development process in many coastal areas in the world. While reclamation

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

445

BIOREMEDIATION USING THE LAND TREATMENT CONCEPT  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is designed to be used by those who are involved with the use of land treatment technologies for the remediation of contaminated solid phase materials. In addition to a discussion of the basic processes which drive land treatment applications, the parameters involv...

446

Land Condition -Trend Analysis Data Dictionary  

E-print Network

Land Condition - Trend Analysis Data Dictionary William L. Sprouse and Alan B. Anderson Center Dictionary Center for Ecological Management of Military Lands i Table of Contents INTRODUCTION 1 LCTA A APPENDIX B B ENTITY (TABLE) INFORMATION B #12;LCTA Data Dictionary Center for Ecological Management

447

Biofuels and indirect land use change  

E-print Network

Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation October 2011 #12;About this study), Malaysian Palm Oil Board, National Farmers Union, Novozymes, Northeast Biofuels Collaborative, Patagonia Bio contributed views on a confidential basis. #12;1Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation

448

Regional land use schemes generated by TOPAZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dickey J. W. and Najafi F. T. (1973) Regional land use schemes generated by TOPAZ, Reg. Studies7, 373–386. TOPAZ, which is the Technique for the Optimal Placement of Activities in Zones, was developed to provide the urban planner with a series of alternative solutions from which he could determine the land use pattern with the least amount of cost involved.

J. W. Dickey; F. T. Najafi

1973-01-01

449

Trends in Land Degradation in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief introduction to various land degradation processes. It then gives an overview of the trends in land degradation in Chile and other South American countries. An important tendency of agriculture has been the conversion of traditional cultivations like beans and corn to new export cultivations, in particular soybeans and sorghum. Observers have noticed an obvious relationship

Gualterio Hugo

450

New Mexico: The Land of Enchantment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New Mexico, a state of brown plains and sand deserts, is nicknamed "The Land of Enchantment." One reason is that the very starkness of the land adds to its enchantment. Another reason is that the rich history of the state has resulted in a landscape filled with remnants of the Pueblo people, Spanish colonizers, and Mexican settlers.

McKay, Sandra

2009-01-01

451

Analyzing Land Use Change In Urban Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This four-page fact sheet provides a brief summary of the analysis of land use in urban environments. Topics include the rapid growth in urban populations, some of the methods used to analyze land use change (mapping, databases, time series documents), and some of the concerns and possible consequences created by the rapid shift of human populations to urban centers.

452

Land Information Systems in Developing Countries  

E-print Network

Limitations to Registration of Title in Tropical Africa. Seminar on problems of land tenure in African Information System Workshop. Bali, Indonesia: FIG. 253-256. Andersson, Sune (1988). Problems and Issues (1984). Aerophotogrammetric Techniques for Demarcation and Measuring of Rural Lands and Use of Data

California at Santa Barbara, University of

453

Multifunctional Land Use: An Accessibility Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for an efficient urban land use has generated much interest in new forms of urban architecture. In The Netherlands, at present an intensive discussion is taking place on so-called multifunctional land use. This concept aims to concentrate and combine several socio-economic functions in the same area, so as to save scarce space and to exploit economies of synergy.

Caroline Rodenburg

2003-01-01

454

Coastal land loss in Texas - An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year in Texas more than 1,500 acres of prime real estate and productive wetlands are destroyed along the Gulf shoreline and near the bay margins primarily as a result of coastal erosion and submergence. Wetland losses constitute about half of the total land losses. Historical analyses of maps and aerial photographs since the mid-1800s indicate that land losses are

R. A. Morton; J. G. Paine

1990-01-01

455

Land Subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Approximate point of maximum subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Land surface subsided ~9 m from 1925 to 1977 due to aquifer-system compaction. Signs on the telephone pole indicate the former elevations of the land surface in 1925 and 1955....

456

Land Use - Concern-Challenge-Commitment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet designed for junior and senior high school teachers identifies a developmental sequence of indoor and outdoor experiences related to land use in an urban setting. Lists of cognitive and affective objectives are followed by nine lesson strategies developing the land use concept. Included is a list of activities used in an…

Jackson, John Y.

457

14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...reciprocating engine-powered airplane at 6,000 pounds or...extended; (3) The wing flaps in the landing...extended; (3) The wing flaps in the landing...Each commuter category airplane must be able to maintain...gear extended; (3) Wing flaps in the...

2011-01-01

458

14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...reciprocating engine-powered airplane at 6,000 pounds or...extended; (3) The wing flaps in the landing...extended; (3) The wing flaps in the landing...Each commuter category airplane must be able to maintain...gear extended; (3) Wing flaps in the...

2012-01-01

459

14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reciprocating engine-powered airplane at 6,000 pounds or...extended; (3) The wing flaps in the landing...extended; (3) The wing flaps in the landing...Each commuter category airplane must be able to maintain...gear extended; (3) Wing flaps in the...

2010-01-01

460

Conceptual Problems in Land Surface Data Assimilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A land data assimilation system (LDAS) merges observations (or satellite retrievals) of land surface hydrological conditions, including soil moisture, snow, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), into a numerical model of land surface processes. In theory, the output from such a system is superior to estimates based on the observations or the model alone, thereby enhancing our ability to understand, monitor, and predict key elements of the terrestrial water cycle. In practice, however, several conceptual problems can interfere with realizing the potential improvements from data assimilation. Of particular concern is the frequent mismatch between the assimilated observations and the land surface model variables of interest. The seminar will discuss recent research with the ensemble-based NASA GEOS-S LDAS to address various aspects of this mismatch. These aspects include (i) the assimilation of coarse-scale observations into higher-resolution land surface models, (ii) the partitioning of satellite observations (such as TWS retrievals) into their constituent water cycle components, (iii) the forward modeling of microwave brightness temperatures over land for radiance-based land surface data aSSimilation, and (iv) the selection of the most relevant types of observations for the analysis of a specific water cycle variable (such as root zone soil moisture). At its core, the solution to the above challenges involves the careful construction of an observation operator that maps from the land surface model variables of interest to the space of the assimilated observations.

Reichle, Rolf

2012-01-01

461

Influenza A Virus Infections in Land  

E-print Network

Influenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People's Republic of China A. Townsend Peterson, Sarah­PCR testing of 939 Asian land birds of 153 species. Influenza A infection was found, particularly among influenza virus ecology has long regarded water- birds as a primary reservoir. Although the benchmark study

Clayton, Dale H.

462

Sustainable land use and agricultural soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustainable land use is the management of the natural environment and the built environment to conserve the resources that help to sustain the current human population of the area and that of future generations. This concept of sustainable land use requires an analysis of the existing resources, the...

463

A Journey to a New Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of an exhibit in the Simon Fraser University Museum entitled "A Journey to a New Land" about the coming of the first humans to North and South America. The page presents an animation of the effects of post-glacial seal level rise on the area known as Beringia and the Bering Land Bridge

SFU Museum of Archaeolgy and Ethnology

464

NATIVE AMERICAN LANDS IN REGION 10  

EPA Science Inventory

The .dbf file is standalone ArcView coverage contained within the American Indian Lands Environmental Support Project (AILESP) data base. Data supports scales at multiple resolutions although ambiguities can be seen when combined with other coverages such as general land ownersh...

465

Second Mars Surveyor Landing Site Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication presents abstracts accepted for presentation at the 2nd Mars Surveyor Landing Site Workshop, held at the State University of New York at Buffalo, June 22-23, 1999. The general theme of the conference centers on the engineering and topographical constraints placed upon the Mars Surveyor 2001 lander and proposed landing sites that fall within these constraints.

Gulick, Virginia

1999-01-01

466

Magnetorheological landing gear: 1. A design methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft landing gears are subjected to a wide range of excitation conditions, which result in conflicting damping requirements. A novel solution to this problem is to implement semi-active damping using magnetorheological (MR) fluids. This paper presents a design methodology that enables an MR landing gear to be optimized, both in terms of its damping and magnetic circuit performance, whilst adhering

D C Batterbee; N D Sims; R Stanway; Zbigniew Wolejsza

2007-01-01

467

TIRE MODELS IN AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR SIMULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the development of a simulation model of an aircraft landing gear describing its typical non-linear behaviour. The development of the design tool -which correlates the actual design parameters with the performance of the gear- is a part of the research project that investigates the estimation of the nonlinear dynamical system, which an aircraft landing gear is. This

M. T. P. van Slagmaat

1992-01-01

468

Failure analysis of nose landing gear assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the causes of the incident of an F-4 which landed abnormally due to a crack in the nose landing gear hydraulic actuator cylinder. Striations, typical of a fatigue crack, were observed on the fracture surface and a large quantity of corrosive oxide was detected in the initial stage of the crack. Furthermore, surface pits caused by corrosion

Hong-Chul Lee; Young-Ha Hwang; Tae-Gu Kim

2003-01-01

469

Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical and experimental investigations have been made to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices discussed are crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact. It appears feasible to readily evaluate landing-gear systems for internal or external application in hard-surface or water landings by using computational procedures and free-body landing techniques with dynamic models. The systems investigated have shown very interesting energy-dissipation characteristics over a considerable range of landing parameters. Acceptable gear can be developed along lines similar to those presented if stroke requirements and human-tolerance limits are considered.

Fisher, Lloyd J., Jr.

1960-01-01

470

Aircraft Landing Gear Simulation and Analysis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer aided graphical synthesis was undertaken to understand the kinematics of a nose wheel landing gear mechanism such as that on the Lockheed F-16 using Working Model software. The mobility of the design was verified by computer animation. To contrast the nose gear kinematic simulation, the main landing gear located under the wing of a light weight aircraft such

Derek Morrison; Gregory Neff; Mohammad Zahraee

471

Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

472

2012 Landes Bioscience. Do not distribute.  

E-print Network

diseases, including Alzheimer.1 Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are key players in the promotion of cell© 2012 Landes Bioscience. Do not distribute. Cell Cycle 11:11, 1-6; June 1, 2012; © 2012 Landes Bioscience CeLL CyCLe news & views 1 Cell Cycle volume 11 issue 11 neurons can live for more than 80 years

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

473

The land management and operations database (LMOD)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper presents the design, implementation, deployment, and application of the Land Management and Operations Database (LMOD). LMOD is the single authoritative source for reference land management and operation reference data within the USDA enterprise data warehouse. LMOD supports modeling appl...

474

Visual perception of wild land in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term `wild land' is often used to describe the Highlands of Scotland, but means different things to different people. In biophysical terms there is very little, if any, `wild land' left in Scotland as most of the landscape has been altered by human hand or grazing; what is left is now under pressure from recreational activities and the continued

Dominic Habron

1998-01-01

475

Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

1980-03-01

476

SRP Meeting: Land Remediation - Liabilities and Practicalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

London, 19 January 2000 The morning session of the SRP Conference on Land Remediation - Liabilities and Practicalities, held at the Scientific Societies Lecture Theatre in London on the 19 January 2000, concerned the legal background relating to liability for radioactively contaminated land and the development of standards for remediation. The chairman of this session was Mr David Bennett (Environment

Simon Clark; Eileen Cowling

2000-01-01

477

"Lands for Life": Reading between the Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Ontario provincial government's "Lands for Life" program, which will allocate 46 million hectares of public lands to four uses: intensive forestry, multiple use, tourism, and protected areas. Expresses skepticism about government statements by juxtaposing the rhetoric with the record, with regard to environmental protection,…

Bell, Anne

1997-01-01

478

Monitoring for land application of wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ensure adequate performance and warn of potential ground water contamination, land application systems must be monitored. The monitoring system for the Lake George Village Sewage Treatment Plant land application system is described, including suction lsyimeters, observation wells and tracer studies.

Donald B. Aulenbach; Nicholas L. Clesceri

1980-01-01

479

GEORGE LEA FOUNDER'S SCHOLARSHIP PUBLIC LANDS FOUNDATION  

E-print Network

1 GEORGE LEA FOUNDER'S SCHOLARSHIP PUBLIC LANDS FOUNDATION P.O. Box 7226 Arlington, VA 22207 Scholarship Application Form This scholarship is being offered by the Public Lands Foundation, a national non and enjoyment of American citizens. This scholarship is for students majoring in a natural resource or public

480

MEDIATION IN THE NORWEGIAN LAND CONSOLIDATION COURTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Norway land consolidation is organized entirely within the judicial system. This paper describes how land consolidation courts work, and examines mediation activities in the courts. Questionnaires were used to get data on 727 cases in 1996, and in-depth interviews with 23 judges were used to get information on mediation behavior. The results indicate that mediation is a frequent activity.

Jorn Rognes; Per Kare Sky

1998-01-01

481

Land consolidation and rural development in Kosovo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Kosovo has a complex situation of a polarized farm structure with a large number of small holdings, a pronounced fragmentation and incomplete records on ownership. A methodology on land consolidation has been devised based on voluntary participation. It is a multipurpose strategy that can combine a range of land reform tools as appropriate, notably, that actualization of the property

Murat Meha; Niels Otto Haldrup; Afrim Frrokaj; Idriz Gashi; Avni Ramadani

482

Renewing the evaluation of land consolidation effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Land consolidation projects (LCP) in Finland can receive public financing to cover the expenses if a project is found to be cost-effective. The amount of public financing depends on the impacts of the land consolidation and the purposes that the LCP is carried out for. In order to start such a project, it is necessary to prove that the

Juhana HIIRONEN; Päivi MATTILA; Hannu OJA; Heidi TANSKANEN; Kalle KONTTINEN; Laura PENTTILÄ

2010-01-01

483

Addressing land-based discrimination in  

E-print Network

Chapter 8 Addressing land-based discrimination in post-conflict Nepal Purna Bahadur Nepali1 Kailash-based discrimination namely, i) Power and domination, ii) Deprivation and exploitation, and iii) Discrimination and violence. These concepts are considered appropriate to explain land-based discrimination. 1.1 Power

Richner, Heinz

484

Sinte Gleska University Reclaims Land from Loneliness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sinte Gleska University's (SGU) model for community development includes transformation of an old boarding school site, community-based collaborations in gardening and nutrition, and a bison restoration project. Tribal members learn to work with the land in harmony with tribal stewardship models as well as Western land use and agricultural…

Crazy Bull, Cheryl

2000-01-01

485

Obtaining Institutional Access to Federal Lands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to federal lands is becoming more difficult for institutional outdoor programs. The Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service are drafting rules to address institutional users, and the U.S. Forest Service is reviewing institutional use and sees a need for some type of permitting for this population. A 1996 study of federal…

Beiser, Mike

486

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF LIVESTOCK ON GRAZING LANDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Properly managed grazing lands provide several positive environmental benefits. The key to sustainability of grazing lands is perennial vegetative cover, which holds soil in place, filters water, and recycles nutrients. Significant changes in vegetation can have subtle to dramatic effects on the pr...

487

Dante and the Form of the Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Verona in 1320 Dante Alighieri delivered an address, later published as “A Question of the Water and of the Land,'’which dealt with the position and origins of the continental land mass and its mountains. In this cogently argued discourse the ideas expressed in Aristotle's Meteorologica and De caelo are blended with Dante's own cosmography and cosmogeny, as expressed in

David Alexander

1986-01-01

488

Land Ethics--Who Needs Them?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies land degradation as Australia's most urgent environmental problem and recommends the development of a land ethic for soil conservation. Presents a 15-point conservation education plan that encourages a sustainable ecological basis for rural production and also cultivates ecologically sound habits toward nature. (ML)

Roberts, B.

1985-01-01

489

Forests and competing land uses in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

1989-03-01

490

Land-based hatchery systems for finfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...

491

North American Miocene land mammals from Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miocene land mammals are described from the Gaillard Cut Local Fauna based on a collection made by Stewart and Whitmore in the 1960s from Cucaracha Reach, former Canal Zone, Republic of Panama. In addition to the Order Rodentia described elsewhere, the land mammals represent three other orders (Carnivora [new record], Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla), including the canid Tomarctus brevirostris, indeterminant Amphicyonidae or

Bruce J. Macfadden

2006-01-01

492

GEOG 400 Spring 2013 ARID LANDS GEOMORPHOLOGY  

E-print Network

GEOG 400 ­ Spring 2013 ARID LANDS GEOMORPHOLOGY Dr. Vatche P. Tchakerian Office: O&M 810 Time: TR, geomorphology and the physical environment, but also the major environmental issues in the global arid lands. Since this is foremost a course on the geomorphology of deserts, special emphasis will be placed

493

Lakes representation in a land surface model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lakes and other inland water bodies can, in certain areas, compose a large fraction of the land surface. Inland waters have an important role in determining local and regional climates, primarily because of large differences in albedo, heat capacity, roughness, and energy exchange compared to vegetated land surfaces. Despite the radically different physical characteristics of inland waters when compared to

E. Dutra; V. M. Stepanenko; G. Balsamo; P. Viterbo; P. M. A. Miranda; D. Mironov

2009-01-01

494

12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and other products such as but not limited to fruits and timber or for the raising of livestock. [37 FR 11446, June 7, 1972....

2011-01-01

495

12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and other products such as but not limited to fruits and timber or for the raising of livestock. [37 FR 11446, June 7, 1972....

2010-01-01

496

12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and other products such as but not limited to fruits and timber or for the raising of livestock. [37 FR 11446, June 7, 1972....

2013-01-01

497

12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and other products such as but not limited to fruits and timber or for the raising of livestock. [37 FR 11446, June 7, 1972....

2014-01-01

498

12 CFR 619.9025 - Agricultural land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agricultural land. Land improved or unimproved which is devoted to or available for the production of crops and other products such as but not limited to fruits and timber or for the raising of livestock. [37 FR 11446, June 7, 1972....

2012-01-01

499

CONDUCT ON UNIVERSITY LANDS CHAPTER UWS 18  

E-print Network

) "Discharge pollutants into storm sewers" means placing pollutants or water containing pollutants into any storm sewer on or serving university lands. (5) "Discharge pollutants to storm water" means placing pol- lutants onto university lands so that they are carried by storm water to waters of the state. (6

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

500

Agricultural land use change in the Northeast  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Census of Agriculture (http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/) provides county-level estimates of farm numbers, land use area and livestock and crop production every five years. In 2007, only eight of the 299 counties that make up the twelve Northeastern states had no agricultural land use. About 20...