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1

Original article Protection of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

E-print Network

Original article Protection of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) against Chlamydophila psittaci) expressing the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila psittaci genotype A strain 89/1051 has-existing serum antibodies, as compared to the placebo-vaccinated controls. Chlamydophila psittaci / budgerigar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Brightness Discrimination in Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

PubMed Central

Birds have excellent spatial acuity and colour vision compared to other vertebrates while spatial contrast sensitivity is relatively poor for unknown reasons. Contrast sensitivity describes the detection of gratings of varying spatial frequency. It is unclear whether bird brightness discrimination between large uniform fields is poor as well. Here we show that budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) need a Michelson contrast of 0.09 to discriminate between large spatially separated achromatic fields in bright light conditions. This is similar to the peak contrast sensitivity of 10.2 (0.098 Michelson contrast) for achromatic grating stimuli established in earlier studies. The brightness discrimination threshold described in Weber fractions is 0.18, which is modest compared to other vertebrates. PMID:23349946

Lind, Olle; Karlsson, Sandra; Kelber, Almut

2013-01-01

3

Spatial Unmasking of Birdsong in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

E-print Network

Spatial Unmasking of Birdsong in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and Budgerigars (Melopsittacus-Cunningham Boston University Budgerigars and zebra finches were tested, using operant conditioning techniques, on their ability to identify a zebra finch song in the presence of a background masker emitted from either the same

Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara

4

Auditory Disturbances Promote Temporal Clustering of Yawning and Stretching in Small Groups of Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yawning may serve both social and nonsocial functions. When budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) are briefly held, simulating capture by a predator, the temporal pattern of yawning changes. When this species is observed in a naturalistic setting (undisturbed flock), yawning and also stretching, a related behavior, are mildly contagious. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that a stressful event would

Michael L. Miller; Andrew C. Gallup; Andrea R. Vogel; Anne B. Clark

2012-01-01

5

Vocal production mechanisms in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): the presence and implications of amplitude modulation.  

PubMed

In this paper acoustic evidence is presented for the presence of amplitude modulation in budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) contact calls and learned English vocalizations. Previously, acoustic analyses of budgerigar vocalizations have consisted solely of visual inspection of spectrograms or power spectra (derived from Fourier transformation). Such analyses have led researchers to conclude that budgerigar vocalizations are primarily frequency-modulated, harmonic vocalizations. Although budgerigar calls have been shown to contain regions that are modulated in amplitude, the implications of this fact have been largely ignored. Amplitude modulation, the nonlinear interaction between two separate signals that results in the creation of new, heterodyne (sum and difference) frequencies, can produce a very complex Fourier spectrum that may resemble that produced by a harmonic vocalization. In this paper, the acoustic principles necessary for identifying amplitude modulation present in signals are outlined, and followed by data demonstrating that amplitude modulation is a prominent feature not only of natural budgerigar contact calls, but also of their learned English vocalizations. It is illustrated how analyzing a vocalization that contains amplitude modulation as if it were harmonic can result in misinterpretations of the acoustic and physical properties of the sound and sound source. The implications of amplitude modulation for studies of the ontogenetic, physical, and neural basis of budgerigar vocalizations are discussed, and a potential model for how the budgerigar syrinx may function to produce amplitude modulation is proposed. PMID:10420639

Lavenex, P B

1999-07-01

6

Temporal Coherence for Pure Tones in Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Humans (Homo sapiens).  

PubMed

Auditory scene analysis has been suggested as a universal process that exists across all animals. Relative to humans, however, little work has been devoted to how animals perceptually isolate different sound sources. Frequency separation of sounds is arguably the most common parameter studied in auditory streaming, but it is not the only factor contributing to how the auditory scene is perceived. Researchers have found that in humans, even at large frequency separations, synchronous tones are heard as a single auditory stream, whereas asynchronous tones with the same frequency separations are perceived as 2 distinct sounds. These findings demonstrate how both the timing and frequency separation of sounds are important for auditory scene analysis. It is unclear how animals, such as budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), perceive synchronous and asynchronous sounds. In this study, budgerigars and humans (Homo sapiens) were tested on their perception of synchronous, asynchronous, and partially overlapping pure tones using the same psychophysical procedures. Species differences were found between budgerigars and humans in how partially overlapping sounds were perceived, with budgerigars more likely to segregate overlapping sounds and humans more apt to fuse the 2 sounds together. The results also illustrated that temporal cues are particularly important for stream segregation of overlapping sounds. Lastly, budgerigars were found to segregate partially overlapping sounds in a manner predicted by computational models of streaming, whereas humans were not. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25419717

Neilans, Erikson G; Dent, Micheal L

2014-11-24

7

A case of cutaneous angiolipoleiomyoma (angiomyolipoma) in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

We report a case of cutaneous angiolipoleiomyoma (angiomyolipoma) found on the anterior wall of the ventral part of the abdomen of a three-year-old female budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Histologic examination of the well-circumscribed, surgically removed tumour (1.5 cm in diameter) showed a benign admixed proliferation of blood vessels of different size, smooth muscle bundles, and mature adipose tissue, without evidence of malignancy. Endothelial cells of the haemangioma component were positive for claudin-5 endothelium-specific immunohistochemical marker, and the leiomyoma component was positive for ?-smooth muscle actin. The differentiated lipocytes showed S-100 protein positivity. The Ki-67 labelling index was 2 to 3%. The mesenchymal tumour was negative for HMB45 melanocytic immunhistochemical marker. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a cutaneous angiolipoleiomyoma in a budgerigar with histological and immunohistochemical analyses. PMID:24106747

Jakab, Csaba; Balka, Gyula; Szabára, Agnes; Csaba, Csintalan; Pazár, Péter

2013-12-01

8

New record of Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) from Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chewing lice of the species Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) were collected from captive budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw) in Pakistan. This is the first record of amblyceran lice from this host. It is also the first record of the genus\\u000a Afrimenopon from Pakistani region. The primary host species of Afrimenopon waar is the rosy-faced lovebird Agapornis roseicollis (Vieillot). The finding of A.

Old?ich Sychra; Saima Naz; S. Anser Rizvi

2007-01-01

9

Experimental Inoculation of BFDV-Positive Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Isolates  

PubMed Central

Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group. PMID:24738057

Sapierzy?ski, Rafa?; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

2014-01-01

10

Evidence for contagious behaviors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): an observational study of yawning and stretching.  

PubMed

Yawning is contagious in humans and some non-human primates. If there are social functions to contagious behaviors, such as yawning, they might occur in other highly social vertebrates. To investigate this possibility, we conducted an observational study of yawning and an associated behavior, stretching, in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a social, flock-living parrot. Flock-housed budgerigars were videotaped for 1.5h at three time-blocks during the day (early morning, afternoon and early evening), and the times of all yawns and stretches for each bird were recorded. Both yawning and stretching were temporally clumped within sessions, but were uniformly distributed across the trials of a particular time-block. This suggests that clumping was not a result of circadian patterning and that both behaviors could be contagious. There was additional evidence of contagion in stretching, which occurred in two forms - a posterior-dorsal extension of either one foot or both feet. Birds that could have observed a conspecific stretch, and that then stretched themselves within 20s, replicated the form of the earlier stretch significantly more often than expected by chance. This study provides the first detailed description of temporal patterns of yawning under social conditions in a flock-living species as well as the first support for contagious yawning and stretching in a non-primate species in a natural context. Experimental evidence will be necessary to confirm the extent of contagion in either behavior. PMID:22209955

Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Vicario, Shannon M; Clark, Anne B

2012-03-01

11

A test of multiple hypotheses for the function of call sharing in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus.  

PubMed

In many social species group, members share acoustically similar calls. Functional hypotheses have been proposed for call sharing, but previous studies have been limited by an inability to distinguish among these hypotheses. We examined the function of vocal sharing in female budgerigars with a two-part experimental design that allowed us to distinguish between two functional hypotheses. The social association hypothesis proposes that shared calls help animals mediate affiliative and aggressive interactions, while the password hypothesis proposes that shared calls allow animals to distinguish group identity and exclude nonmembers. We also tested the labeling hypothesis, a mechanistic explanation which proposes that shared calls are used to address specific individuals within the sender-receiver relationship. We tested the social association hypothesis by creating four-member flocks of unfamiliar female budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and then monitoring the birds' calls, social behaviors, and stress levels via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. We tested the password hypothesis by moving immigrants into established social groups. To test the labeling hypothesis, we conducted additional recording sessions in which individuals were paired with different group members. The social association hypothesis was supported by the development of multiple shared call types in each cage and a correlation between the number of shared call types and the number of aggressive interactions between pairs of birds. We also found support for calls serving as a labeling mechanism using discriminant function analysis with a permutation procedure. Our results did not support the password hypothesis, as there was no difference in stress or directed behaviors between immigrant and control birds. PMID:24860236

Dahlin, Christine R; Young, Anna M; Cordier, Breanne; Mundry, Roger; Wright, Timothy F

2014-01-01

12

A test of multiple hypotheses for the function of call sharing in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus  

PubMed Central

In many social species group, members share acoustically similar calls. Functional hypotheses have been proposed for call sharing, but previous studies have been limited by an inability to distinguish among these hypotheses. We examined the function of vocal sharing in female budgerigars with a two-part experimental design that allowed us to distinguish between two functional hypotheses. The social association hypothesis proposes that shared calls help animals mediate affiliative and aggressive interactions, while the password hypothesis proposes that shared calls allow animals to distinguish group identity and exclude nonmembers. We also tested the labeling hypothesis, a mechanistic explanation which proposes that shared calls are used to address specific individuals within the sender–receiver relationship. We tested the social association hypothesis by creating four–member flocks of unfamiliar female budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and then monitoring the birds’ calls, social behaviors, and stress levels via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. We tested the password hypothesis by moving immigrants into established social groups. To test the labeling hypothesis, we conducted additional recording sessions in which individuals were paired with different group members. The social association hypothesis was supported by the development of multiple shared call types in each cage and a correlation between the number of shared call types and the number of aggressive interactions between pairs of birds. We also found support for calls serving as a labeling mechanism using discriminant function analysis with a permutation procedure. Our results did not support the password hypothesis, as there was no difference in stress or directed behaviors between immigrant and control birds. PMID:24860236

Young, Anna M.; Cordier, Breanne; Mundry, Roger; Wright, Timothy F.

2014-01-01

13

Auditory disturbances promote temporal clustering of yawning and stretching in small groups of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

Yawning may serve both social and nonsocial functions. When budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) are briefly held, simulating capture by a predator, the temporal pattern of yawning changes. When this species is observed in a naturalistic setting (undisturbed flock), yawning and also stretching, a related behavior, are mildly contagious. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that a stressful event would be followed by the clustering of these behaviors in a group of birds, which may be facilitated both by a standard pattern of responding to a startling stressor and also contagion. In this study, we measured yawning and stretching in 4-bird groups following a nonspecific stressor (loud white noise) for a period of 1 hr, determining whether auditory disturbances alter the timing and frequency of these behaviors. Our results show that stretching, and to a lesser degree yawning, were nonrandomly clumped in time following the auditory disturbances, indicating that the temporal clustering is sensitive to, and enhanced by, environmental stressors while in small groups. No decrease in yawning such as found after handling stress was observed immediately after the loud noise but a similar increase in yawning 20 min after was observed. Future research is required to tease apart the roles of behavioral contagion and a time-setting effect following a startle in this species. This research is of interest because of the potential role that temporal clumping of yawning and stretching could play in both the collective detection of, and response to, local disturbances or predation threats. PMID:22268553

Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Clark, Anne B

2012-08-01

14

Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolution of two parrot species: budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke's parrot (Neopsephotus bourkii).  

PubMed

Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) isodensity maps indicate important regions in an animal's visual field. These maps can also be combined with measures of focal length to estimate the theoretical visual acuity. Here we present the RGC isodensity maps and anatomical spatial resolving power in three budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and two Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii). Because RGCs were stacked in several layers, we modified the Nissl staining procedure to assess the cell number in the whole-mounted and cross-sectioned tissue of the same retinal specimen. The retinal topography showed surprising variation; however, both parrot species had an area centralis without discernable fovea. Budgerigars also had a putative area nasalis never reported in birds before. The peak RGC density was 22,300-34,200 cells/mm(2) in budgerigars and 18,100-38,000 cells/mm(2) in Bourke's parrots. The maximum visual acuity based on RGCs and focal length was 6.9 cyc/deg in budgerigars and 9.2 cyc/deg in Bourke's parrots. These results are lower than earlier behavioural estimates. Our findings illustrate that retinal topography is not a very fixed trait and that theoretical visual acuity estimations based on RGC density can be lower than the behavioural performance of the bird. PMID:24677162

Mitkus, Mindaugas; Chaib, Sandra; Lind, Olle; Kelber, Almut

2014-05-01

15

Determination of a safe and effective ultraviolet B radiant dose in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): a pilot study.  

PubMed

The object of this study was to establish a minimum dose of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation capable of producing an erythemal reaction in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), to determine a threshold dose of UVB for vitamin D photoconversion, and to investigate the use of safer UVB wavelengths. In each of 5 experiments of this study, 20 birds were divided into a control group (n = 10) and a UVB irradiated group (n = 10). Light sources that provide broadband UVB wavelengths (280-315 nm) and narrowband UVB (310-320 nm) were used. Varied doses of UVB radiation were administered to budgerigars by altering exposure time and irradiance. Safety was determined by observing body weight and incidence of photokeratitis and photodermatitis. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring changes in serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels. Serum corticosterone was measured in 1 experiment to monitor stress levels. The results demonstrated that exposure to 180 mJ/cm2 broadband UVB induced vitamin D photoconversion, decreased body weights, and increased serum corticosterone levels. At these wavelengths, UVB-induced lesions were observed. A broadband UVB of 150 to 300 mJ/cm2 was determined as the minimum erythema dose, and the threshold dose for vitamin D photoconversion was calculated to be in the range of 113-225 mJ/cm2. No erythemal lesions or vitamin D photoconversion took place after exposure to up to 1730 mJ/cm2 narrowband UVB radiation. A minimum erythema dose and a threshold dose for vitamin D conversion need to be determined for each species if phototherapy is to be considered as a safe and effective therapeutic or husbandry tool. PMID:24640928

Lupu, Corina; Robins, Stephanie

2013-12-01

16

Evaluation of a fast, objective tool for assessing body condition of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

There is currently no suitable system available for the assessment of budgerigar body condition. A tool has been developed that uses an algorithmic decision tree of yes-no answers based on physical examination to objectively guide the assessor to a body condition score. The aim of this work was to evaluate the guide. Repeatability and reproducibility were measured by four assessors on three sequential days, using 38 budgerigars of mixed sex, age and weight. Data were analysed using a 3-factor anova, with Person and Bird as variable factors and occasion as a fixed factor. The association between body condition score and body fat was measured using three assessors and 63 dead budgerigars, which were chemically analysed for fat content after assessment. Data were statistically analysed to determine correlation using Spearman's Rank Coefficient. Occasion and person had no significant effect on body condition score (p = 0.988 and 0.347 respectively). Body condition score and percentage body fat were highly significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.768): percentage fat increased with increasing body condition score. The guide would appear to be a repeatable measure of body condition in budgerigars, suitable for use during physical examinations. PMID:23509997

Burton, E J; Newnham, R; Bailey, S J; Alexander, L G

2014-04-01

17

Acoustic and Perceptual Categories of Vocal Elements in the Warble Song of Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

E-print Network

Acoustic and Perceptual Categories of Vocal Elements in the Warble Song of Budgerigars, variable acoustic elements that are sung by male birds in intimate courtship contexts for periods lasting up to several minutes. If these variable acoustic elements can be assigned to distinct acoustic

Hampton, Robert

18

Perceptual Organization of Acoustic Stimuli by Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus ): I. Pure Tones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new combination of operant conditioning and psychophysical scaling procedures was used to study auditory perception in a small bird. In a same-different discrimination task, budgerigars learned to discriminate among pure tones that varied along one or more acoustic dimensions. Response latencies were used to generate a matrix of interstimulus similarities. Multidimensional scaling procedures were used to arrange these acoustic

Robert J. Dooling; Susan D. Brown; Thomas J. Park; Kazuo Okanoya; Sigfrid D. Soli

1987-01-01

19

Vocal area-related expression of the androgen receptor in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) brain.  

PubMed

The androgen receptor is a steroid hormone receptor widely expressed in the vocal control nuclei in songbirds. Here, we analysed androgen receptor expression in the brains of juvenile and adult budgerigars. With a species-specific probe for budgerigar androgen receptor mRNA, we found that the androgen receptor was expressed in the vocal areas, such as the central nucleus of the lateral nidopallium, the anterior arcopallium, the oval nucleus of the mesopallium, the oval nucleus of the anterior nidopallium and the tracheosyringeal hypoglossal nucleus. With the present data, together with previous reports, it turned out that the androgen receptor expression in telencephalic vocal control areas is similar amongst three groups of vocal learners--songbirds, hummingbirds and parrots, suggesting the possibility that the androgen receptor might play a role in vocal development and that the molecular mechanism regulating the androgen receptor expression in the vocal areas might be important in the evolution of vocal learning. PMID:18394591

Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

2008-05-01

20

Endogenous Hepadnaviruses in the Genome of the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and the Evolution of Avian Hepadnaviruses  

PubMed Central

Endogenous hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B viruses [HBVs]) were recently discovered in the genomes of passerine birds. We mined six additional avian genomes and discovered multiple copies of endogenous HBVs in the budgerigar (order Psittaciformes), designated eBHBV. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that the endogenous hepadnaviruses are more diverse than their exogenous counterparts and that the endogenous and exogenous hepadnaviruses form distinct lineages even when sampled from the same avian order, indicative of multiple genomic integration events. PMID:22553337

Cui, Jie

2012-01-01

21

Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.  

PubMed

Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented. PMID:24758122

Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

2014-03-01

22

Changing the average frequency of contact calls is associated with changes in other acoustic parameters in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most-often produced vocalization of the budgerigar, a small parrot native to Australia, is the short (100-150 ms) frequency-modulated contact call. These calls play a role in maintaining flock dynamics and are believed to act as vocal signatures in these birds. Previous findings in our lab have shown that budgerigars can control the intensity of their vocal behavior and exhibit a robust Lombard effect (Manabe et al., 1998). Recently, we have shown that there is a high degree of stereotypy in contact calls across a number of acoustic parameters (Osmanski and Dooling, 2004). Questions arise concerning the limits of plasticity in these calls and the relation or interdependence among the various parameters. As a first approach to answering these questions, four budgerigars were trained using operant conditioning methods to change the average peak frequency of their contact calls (both upward and downward in frequency) to obtain access to a food reward. Results show that these birds can both increase and decrease the average frequency of their contact calls. Such changes are associated with modifications in a number of other acoustic parameters, suggesting constraints on vocal plasticity. [Work supported by NIH DC-00198 to RJD and NIDCD Training Grant DC-00046.

Osmanski, Michael; Dooling, Robert

2001-05-01

23

Behavioural Lateralization in Budgerigars Varies with the Task and the Individual  

PubMed Central

Handedness/footedness and side biases are a well-known phenomenon in many animals, including humans. However, these so-called biases have mostly been studied at the population level - individual biases have received less attention, especially with regard to consistency over different tasks. Here we investigate behavioral lateralization in 12 male Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, a social parrot inhabiting the Australian bushlands. We performed 5 types of experiments to investigate lateralization, in tasks that involved climbing onto a perch, or landing on perches arranged in various configurations. The birds displayed highly significant, individually varying biases. The bias displayed by any particular individual varied with the task, in strength as well as polarity. Analysis of the data revealed that the preferred foot used for climbing did not coincide with the foot that was used while landing. Thus, landing choices are probably not determined by foot bias. Furthermore, these individual preferences were overridden completely when a bird had to perform a task simultaneously with another bird. PMID:24324820

Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

2013-01-01

24

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus.  

PubMed

Abstract Here, we describe the budgie's mitochondrial genome sequence, a resource that can facilitate this parrot's use as a model organism as well as for determining its phylogenetic relatedness to other parrots/Psittaciformes. The estimated total length of the sequence was 18,193?bp. In addition to the to the 13 protein and tRNA and rRNA coding regions, the sequence also includes a duplicated hypervariable region, a feature unique to only a few birds. The two hypervariable regions shared a sequence identity of about 86%. PMID:24660934

Guan, Xiaojing; Xu, Jun; Smith, Edward J

2014-03-24

25

Free-field binaural unmasking in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of signals in noise is important for understanding both the mechanisms of hearing and how the auditory system functions under more natural conditions. In humans, the auditory system gains some improvement if the signal and noise are separated in space (binaural masking release). Birds with small heads are at a disadvantage in separating noise and signal sources relative

Michael L. Dent; Ole N. Larsen; Robert J. Dooling

1997-01-01

26

Uropygial gland-secreted alkanols contribute to olfactory sex signals in budgerigars.  

PubMed

The possible role of uropygial gland-secreted compounds in olfactory discrimination of sex or sex attractants in the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus, was investigated using behavioral 2-choice tests and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Our data showed that female budgerigars were capable of distinguishing males from females in a Y maze via body odor, indicating its sexual dimorphism. When we conducted a chemical assay of the uropygial preen gland secretions, we found 4 times more volatile octadecanol, nonadecanol, and eicosanol in ratios in males than in females, making them putative male pheromone candidates. Female birds also showed overt preferences for the odor of male preen gland secretions or the 3-alkanol blend equivalent preened onto the plumage of a male over that of female counterparts. Removal of any one alkanol was associated with a loss of attractiveness to the female. In another test device (a test cage) with visible male bird stimulus, females chose the male with the 3-alkanol blend of males over the other male with female preen gland secretion, whereas did not differentiate their responses between the males with either this blend or male preen gland secretions. The behavioral data robustly suggested that the 3 alkanols synergistically created a female attractant odor or male pheromone in the budgerigar and that bird uropygial glands have broader implications in sexual behavior than previously known. This is the first investigation with bioassay of components of the gland in a bird species. PMID:20212012

Zhang, Jian-Xu; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Yang, Wei-He

2010-06-01

27

High-coverage sequencing and annotated assemblies of the budgerigar genome  

PubMed Central

Background Parrots belong to a group of behaviorally advanced vertebrates and have an advanced ability of vocal learning relative to other vocal-learning birds. They can imitate human speech, synchronize their body movements to a rhythmic beat, and understand complex concepts of referential meaning to sounds. However, little is known about the genetics of these traits. Elucidating the genetic bases would require whole genome sequencing and a robust assembly of a parrot genome. Findings We present a genomic resource for the budgerigar, an Australian Parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) -- the most widely studied parrot species in neuroscience and behavior. We present genomic sequence data that includes over 300× raw read coverage from multiple sequencing technologies and chromosome optical maps from a single male animal. The reads and optical maps were used to create three hybrid assemblies representing some of the largest genomic scaffolds to date for a bird; two of which were annotated based on similarities to reference sets of non-redundant human, zebra finch and chicken proteins, and budgerigar transcriptome sequence assemblies. The sequence reads for this project were in part generated and used for both the Assemblathon 2 competition and the first de novo assembly of a giga-scale vertebrate genome utilizing PacBio single-molecule sequencing. Conclusions Across several quality metrics, these budgerigar assemblies are comparable to or better than the chicken and zebra finch genome assemblies built from traditional Sanger sequencing reads, and are sufficient to analyze regions that are difficult to sequence and assemble, including those not yet assembled in prior bird genomes, and promoter regions of genes differentially regulated in vocal learning brain regions. This work provides valuable data and material for genome technology development and for investigating the genomics of complex behavioral traits. PMID:25061512

2014-01-01

28

The breeding management affects fresh and cryopreserved semen characteristics in Melopsittacus undulatus.  

PubMed

Melopsittacus undulatus is a companion parrot worldwide diffused. Many parrots are considered endangered or vulnerable. The preservation of semen is crucial in endangered species, thus, M. undulatus could be a good model to study sperm characteristics and semen cryopreservation in these other endangered parrots. In this study the effect of the breeding management (males bred in promiscuous aviary or in couple) on sperm characteristics (motility, membrane integrity and morphometry) of fresh and cryopreserved semen was evaluated. The computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed a significant effect of the husbandry method on semen characteristics in budgerigars: male housed in couple with the female in individual cages allowed the higher results in term of both semen quantity and sperm quality. Total and progressive motility were significantly higher in males bred in couple (68.7±8.9% and 54±15.9%, respectively) than in promiscuous aviary (48.3±15.1% and 24.4±12.4%, respectively), such as sperm velocity (average path velocity, straight line velocity, and curvilinear velocity). The type of sperm movement (amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness, and linearity), sperm membrane integrity and morphometry parameters seemed not affected by the husbandry method. The standardization of a CASA procedure for the semen analysis in M. undulatus allow further studies on parrot semen manipulation and cryopreservation, but the method used for the breeding of the male could have a significant effect on the semen quality. PMID:24361005

Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Parrillo, Salvatore; Cicconi, Mirko; Robbe, Domenico

2014-01-10

29

The contribution of single and double cones to spectral sensitivity in budgerigars during changing light conditions.  

PubMed

Bird colour vision is mediated by single cones, while double cones and rods mediate luminance vision in bright and dim light, respectively. In daylight conditions, birds use colour vision to discriminate large objects such as fruit and plumage patches, and luminance vision to detect fine spatial detail and motion. However, decreasing light intensity favours achromatic mechanisms and eventually, in dim light, luminance vision outperforms colour vision in all visual tasks. We have used behavioural tests in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to investigate how single cones, double cones and rods contribute to spectral sensitivity for large (3.4°) static monochromatic stimuli at light intensities ranging from 0.08 to 63.5 cd/m². We found no influences of rods at any intensity level. Single cones dominate the spectral sensitivity function at intensities above 1.1 cd/m², as predicted by a receptor noise-limited colour discrimination model. Below 1.1 cd/m², spectral sensitivity is lower than expected at all wavelengths except 575 nm, which corresponds to double cone function. We suggest that luminance vision mediated by double cones restores visual sensitivity when single cone sensitivity quickly decreases at light intensities close to the absolute threshold of colour vision. PMID:24366429

Lind, Olle; Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut

2014-03-01

30

Outbreaks of budgerigar fledgling disease in three aviaries in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) occurred in three budgerigar aviaries in Ontario. Acute death in seven to ten-day-old nestlings and feather abnormalities in birds over three weeks of age were common findings. Ascites, hepatomegaly and hydropericardium were prominent gross lesions. Histologically, basophilic intranuclear inclusions were seen in many tissues. A severe drop in hatchability occurred in one aviary—a finding not previously reported with BFD. Interruption of breeding controlled the disease in aviary 1, but failed in two consecutive attempts in aviary 2. A third outbreak occurred in aviary 2 after depopulation and restocking. In aviary 3, the spread of disease was very rapid; 90% of the nestlings died within a few weeks. A papovavirus similar to a previously described isolate was recovered in this outbreak. PMID:17423398

Gough, Joan F.

1989-01-01

31

Evaluation of selected plants for acute toxicosis in budgerigars.  

PubMed

Pairs of budgerigars were given samples, by gavage, of plants considered potentially toxic to pet birds. Samples were prepared by flash-freezing and powdering fresh plant material in liquid nitrogen and resuspending the material in deionized water for administration. Of the 19 plants tested, only 6 induced clinical signs of illness; these plants included yew, oleander, clematis, avocado, black locust, and Virginia creeper (Taxus media, Nerium oleander, Clematis sp, Persea americana, Robinia pseudoacacia, Parthenocissus quinquefolio). PMID:1577644

Shropshire, C M; Stauber, E; Arai, M

1992-04-01

32

Unexpectedly low UV-sensitivity in a bird, the budgerigar  

PubMed Central

Photoreceptor adaptation ensures appropriate visual responses during changing light conditions and contributes to colour constancy. We used behavioural tests to compare UV-sensitivity of budgerigars after adaptation to UV-rich and UV-poor backgrounds. In the latter case, we found lower UV-sensitivity than expected, which could be the result of photon-shot noise corrupting cone signal robustness or nonlinear background adaptation. We suggest that nonlinear adaptation may be necessary for allowing cones to discriminate UV-rich signals, such as bird plumage colours, against UV-poor natural backgrounds. PMID:25376799

Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut; Vorobyev, Misha; Lind, Olle

2014-01-01

33

Bare-part color in female budgerigars changes from brown to structural blue following testosterone treatment but is not strongly masculinized.  

PubMed

Whereas several studies have shown that experimentally increased levels of the androgenic steroid testosterone can affect female behavior, fewer studies have focused on the activational effects of exogenous testosterone on female morphology. With respect to colorful displays in birds, almost exclusively the effects of testosterone manipulation on female carotenoid-based colorations have been studied. Other color types such as structural colors (i.e. UV, blue and violet colors that result from differential light reflection in the nanostructures of the tissue) remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of exogenous testosterone on the expression of structural bare-part coloration in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In this parrot species, bare-part coloration is expressed in the cere, a structure over the beak which is brown in females and structural blue in males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and we performed weekly spectrophotometric measurements of the cere for five weeks after implantation and one measurement after ten weeks. We also estimated the extent to which testosterone masculinized female cere color by comparing the experimental females with untreated males. We found significant effects of testosterone on cere color from week four after implantation onwards. T-females expressed significantly bluer ceres than C-females with higher values for brightness and UV reflectance. T-female cere color, however, remained significantly less blue than in males, while values for brightness and UV reflectance were significantly higher in T-females than in males. Our quantitative results show that exogenous testosterone induces the expression of structural blue color in females but does not strongly masculinize female cere coloration. We provide several potential pathways for the action of testosterone on structural color. PMID:24475184

Lahaye, Stefanie E P; Eens, Marcel; Darras, Veerle M; Pinxten, Rianne

2014-01-01

34

Bare-Part Color in Female Budgerigars Changes from Brown to Structural Blue following Testosterone Treatment but Is Not Strongly Masculinized  

PubMed Central

Whereas several studies have shown that experimentally increased levels of the androgenic steroid testosterone can affect female behavior, fewer studies have focused on the activational effects of exogenous testosterone on female morphology. With respect to colorful displays in birds, almost exclusively the effects of testosterone manipulation on female carotenoid-based colorations have been studied. Other color types such as structural colors (i.e. UV, blue and violet colors that result from differential light reflection in the nanostructures of the tissue) remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of exogenous testosterone on the expression of structural bare-part coloration in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In this parrot species, bare-part coloration is expressed in the cere, a structure over the beak which is brown in females and structural blue in males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and we performed weekly spectrophotometric measurements of the cere for five weeks after implantation and one measurement after ten weeks. We also estimated the extent to which testosterone masculinized female cere color by comparing the experimental females with untreated males. We found significant effects of testosterone on cere color from week four after implantation onwards. T-females expressed significantly bluer ceres than C-females with higher values for brightness and UV reflectance. T-female cere color, however, remained significantly less blue than in males, while values for brightness and UV reflectance were significantly higher in T-females than in males. Our quantitative results show that exogenous testosterone induces the expression of structural blue color in females but does not strongly masculinize female cere coloration. We provide several potential pathways for the action of testosterone on structural color. PMID:24475184

Lahaye, Stefanie E. P.; Eens, Marcel; Darras, Veerle M.; Pinxten, Rianne

2014-01-01

35

Rhythmic synchronization tapping to an audio-visual metronome in budgerigars.  

PubMed

In all ages and countries, music and dance have constituted a central part in human culture and communication. Recently, vocal-learning animals such as parrots and elephants have been found to share rhythmic ability with humans. Thus, we investigated the rhythmic synchronization of budgerigars, a vocal-mimicking parrot species, under controlled conditions and a systematically designed experimental paradigm as a first step in understanding the evolution of musical entrainment. We trained eight budgerigars to perform isochronous tapping tasks in which they pecked a key to the rhythm of audio-visual metronome-like stimuli. The budgerigars showed evidence of entrainment to external stimuli over a wide range of tempos. They seemed to be inherently inclined to tap at fast tempos, which have a similar time scale to the rhythm of budgerigars' natural vocalizations. We suggest that vocal learning might have contributed to their performance, which resembled that of humans. PMID:22355637

Hasegawa, Ai; Okanoya, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Seki, Yoshimasa

2011-01-01

36

Behavioral lateralization and optimal route choice in flying budgerigars.  

PubMed

Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to continue their transit to the end of the tunnel, regardless of whether this passage was on the right or the left. Evidently, the birds were selecting the safest and quickest route. However, when the two passages were of equal or nearly equal width, some individuals consistently preferred the left-hand passage, while others consistently preferred the passage on the right. Thus, the birds displayed idiosyncratic biases when choosing between alternative routes. Surprisingly--and unlike most of the instances in which behavioral lateralization has previously been discovered--the bias was found to vary from individual to individual, in its direction as well as its magnitude. This is very different from handedness in humans, where the majority of humans are right-handed, giving rise to a so-called 'population' bias. Our experimental results and mathematical model of this behavior suggest that individually varying lateralization, working in concert with a tendency to choose the wider aperture, can expedite the passage of a flock of birds through a cluttered environment. PMID:24603285

Bhagavatula, Partha S; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

2014-03-01

37

Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 215222 Begging signals and biparental care: nestling choice between parental feeding  

E-print Network

). In budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, and tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, male parents preferentially feed large and female parents small nestlings (Stamps et al. 1985

Richner, Heinz

38

Hot or Not: The Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Female Attractiveness to Male Conspecifics in the Budgerigar  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of studies indicate that not only females but also males can be selective when choosing a mate. In species exhibiting male or mutual mate choice, females may benefit from being attractive. While male attractiveness is often positively influenced by higher plasma levels of the androgenic hormone testosterone, it has been shown that testosterone can masculinise female behavior and morphology in several bird species, potentially rendering them less attractive. In this study, we investigated whether female budgerigars, Melopsittacusundulatus, suffer from increased plasma testosterone levels through a negative effect on their attractiveness to males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and allowed males to choose between a T- and a C-female in a two-way choice situation. Although testosterone treatment significantly affected female behavioral and morphological characteristics, males did not show a significant difference in preference between T- and C-females. These results suggest that experimentally increasing testosterone levels in females does not appear to influence male preference during initial mate choice. Our findings indicate that selection for higher levels of testosterone in male budgerigars is probably not constrained by a correlated response to selection causing negative effects on female attractiveness during initial mate choice. Evaluating whether or not a potential constraint may arise from negative testosterone-induced effects on other fitness related traits in females requires further work. PMID:23951365

Lahaye, Stefanie E. P.; Eens, Marcel; Darras, Veerle M.; Pinxten, Rianne

2013-01-01

39

The role of ultraviolet-A reflectance and ultraviolet-A induced fluorescence in the appearance of budgerigar plumage: insights from spectrofluorometry and reflectance spectrophotometry.  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence has so far been found in 52 parrot species when illuminated with ultraviolet-A (UVA) 'black' lamps, and two attempts have been made to determine whether such fluorescence plays any role in sexual signalling. However, the contribution of the reflectance versus fluorescence to the total radiance from feathers, even in the most studied species to date (budgerigars), is unclear. Nor has the plumage of this study species been systematically assessed to determine the distribution of fluorescent patches. We therefore used spectrofluorometry to determine which areas of budgerigars fluoresce and the excitation and emission spectra involved; this is the first time that such a technique has been applied to avian plumage. We found that both the yellow crown and (normally hidden) white downy chest feathers exhibit strong UVA-induced fluorescence, with peak emissions at 527 nm and 436 nm, respectively. Conversely, the bright-green chest and dark-blue tail feathers do not fluoresce. When comparing reflectance spectra (400-700 nm) from the yellow crown using illuminants with a proportion of UVA comparable to daylight, and illuminants with all UVA removed, no measurable difference resulting from fluorescence was found. This suggests that under normal daylight the contribution of fluorescence to radiance is probably trivial. Furthermore, these spectra revealed that males had fluorescent crowns with substantially higher reflectance than those of females, in both the UV waveband and at longer wavelengths. Reflectance spectrophotometry was also performed on a number of live wild-type male budgerigars to investigate the chromatic contrast between the different plumage areas. This showed that many plumage regions are highly UV-reflective. Overall our results suggest that rapid surveys using UVA black lamps may overestimate the contribution of fluorescence to plumage coloration, and that any signalling role of fluorescence emissions, at least from the yellow crown of budgerigars, may not be as important as previously thought. PMID:12737665

Pearn, Sophie M; Bennett, Andrew T D; Cuthill, Innes C

2003-01-01

40

Comparative Gene Expression Analysis Among Vocal Learners (Bengalese Finch and Budgerigar) and Non-Learners (Quail and Ring Dove) Reveals Variable Cadherin Expressions in the Vocal System  

PubMed Central

Birds use various vocalizations to communicate with one another, and some are acquired through learning. So far, three families of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds) have been identified as having vocal learning ability. Previously, we found that cadherins, a large family of cell-adhesion molecules, show vocal control-area-related expression in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. To investigate the molecular basis of evolution in avian species, we conducted comparative analysis of cadherin expressions in the vocal and other neural systems among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and a non-learner (quail and ring dove). The gene expression analysis revealed that cadherin expressions were more variable in vocal and auditory areas compared to vocally unrelated areas such as the visual areas among these species. Thus, it appears that such diverse cadherin expressions might have been related to generating species diversity in vocal behavior during the evolution of avian vocal learning. PMID:21541260

Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

2010-01-01

41

Experimental induction of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses using Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts from the opossum ( Didelphis virginiana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts isolated from eight feral opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were pooled and fed to 18 commercially reared budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 14 wild-caught sparrows (Passer domesticus), one wild-caught slate-colored Junco (Junco hyemalis) and five weanling horses (Equus caballus). All budgerigars died within 5 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Histologic examination revealed meronts within the pulmonary epithelia and typical Sarcocystis falcatula sarcocysts

Clara K. Fenger; David E. Granstrom; Alvin A. Gajadhar; Neil M. Williams; Shani A. McCrillis; Shelby Stamper; John L. Langemeier; J. P. Dubey

1997-01-01

42

Neural song control system of hummingbirds: comparison to swifts, vocal learning (Songbirds) and nonlearning (Suboscines) passerines, and vocal learning (Budgerigars) and nonlearning (Dove, owl, gull, quail, chicken) nonpasserines.  

PubMed

Males of certain hummingbird species such as Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) learn their song during postnatal development. Here we report that male Anna's hummingbirds and male Amazilia hummingbirds (Amazilia amazilia), two singing hummingbird species, possess forebrain areas that are similar in morphological appearance, location, and connectivity to the song control areas RA (nucleus robustus archistriatalis), HVC (nucleus hyperstriatalis ventrale, pars caudale, or higher vocal center), and LMAN (lateral part of nucleus mangnocellularis anterioris) of oscine passerines (songbirds). The vocal control areas of songbirds are further defined by the expression of androgen receptors. Similarly, the singing hummingbird species express androgen receptors in the LMAN-like area and in the HVC-like area. The hummingbird RA projects to the medullary syringeal motonucleus nXIIts (nucleus hypoglossus pars tracheosyringealis) and the respiratory premotonucleus RAm (nucleus retroambigualis). The HVC-, RA-, and LMAN-like areas are rudimentary in adult male ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) and Allen's hummingbirds (Selasphorus sasin) and not distinguishable in female hummingbirds, none of which sing. Vocal-area-like forebrain areas (delineated by the cytoarchitecture or androgen receptor expression) were not found in vocal nonlearning swifts and suboscines, the taxonomic sister groups of hummingbirds and songbirds, respectively. These areas were also missing in owls, ring doves, gulls, and gallinaceous species, nonpasserines that do not learn vocalizations. Budgerigars (vocal learners) are known to have forebrain vocal areas, but these areas do not express sex steroid receptors. These data suggest that hummingbirds and songbirds belong to two groups of birds that have common forebrain circuits. Parts of this circuit are organized as nuclear-like structures (LMAN, HVC, RA) in species that learn to sing. PMID:10982462

Gahr, M

2000-10-16

43

Protein and lipid oxidative damage and complex I content are lower in the brain of budgerigar and canaries than in mice. Relation to aging rate.  

PubMed

What are the mechanisms determining the rate of animal aging? Of the two major classes of endothermic animals, bird species are strikingly long-lived compared to mammals of similar body size and metabolic rate. Thus, they are ideal models to identify longevity-related characteristics not linked to body size or low metabolic rates. Since oxidative stress seems to be related to the basic aging process, we measured specific markers of different kinds of oxidative damage to proteins, like glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes (GSA and AASA, specific protein carbonyls), N?-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), N?-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and N?-(malondialdehyde)lysine (MDAL), as well as mitochondrial Complex I content and amino acid and membrane fatty acyl composition, in the brain of short-lived mice (maximum life span [MLSP] 3.5 years) compared with those of long-lived budgerigar 'parakeets' (MLSP, 21 years) and canaries (MLSP, 24 years). The brains of both bird species had significantly lower levels of compounds formed as a result of oxidative (GSA and AASA), glycoxidative (CEL and CML), and lipoxidative (CML and MDAL) protein modifications, as well as a lower levels of mitochondrial complex I protein. Although it is known that fatty acid unsaturation is lower in many tissues of long-lived compared to short-lived mammals, this is not true in the particular case of brain. In agreement with this, we also found that the brain tissue of bugerigars and canaries contains no fewer double bonds than that of mice. Amino acid composition analyses revealed that bird proteins have a significantly lower content of His, Leu and Phe, as well as, interestingly, of methionine, whereas Asp, Glu, Ala, Val, and Lys contents were higher than in the mammals. These results, together with those previously described in other tissues of pigeons (MLSP, 35 years) compared to rats (MLSP, 4 years), indicate that oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA are lower in birds (very long-lived species) than in short-lived mammals of similar body size. The lower degree of oxidative modification of bird brain proteins was not due to decreases in the target amino acids (lysine for CEL, CML, MDAL, and AASA; and arg and pro for GSA), since these were present in bird brain proteins at higher or similar levels than in those of mice. These results are consistent with the possibility that decreases in oxidative protein modification are caused at least in part by the low rate of mitochondrial oxygen radical generation in these birds, as in all long-lived homeothermic vertebrates investigated so far. PMID:23598660

Pamplona, Reinald; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Sanz, Alberto; Ayala, Victoria; Vasileva, Ekaterina; Barja, Gustavo

2005-12-01

44

This Land Is Your Land, This Land Is My Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will review and evaluate the ways land is covered and used in their local community. They will also consider the environmental effects of the different types of land use. Students will act as community planning engineers to determine where to place a new structure that will have the least affect on the environment.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

45

Visual pigments and oil droplets from six classes of photoreceptor in the retinas of birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microspectrophotometric examination of the retinal photoreceptors of the budgerigar (shell parakeet), Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittaciformes) and the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata (Passeriformes), demonstrate the presence of four, spectrally distinct classes of single cone that contain visual pigments absorbing maximally at about 565, 507, 430–445 and 360–380 nm. The three longer-wave cone classes contain coloured oil droplets acting as long pass filters

J. K. Bowmaker; L. A. Heath; S. E. Wilkie; D. M. Hunt

1997-01-01

46

National Forest Land Scheme  

E-print Network

National Forest Land Scheme Guidance #12;National Forest Land Scheme National Forest Land Scheme | 32 | National Forest Land Scheme Contents National Forest Land Scheme 3 Community Acquisition 7 Land national forest land a community can use its rights under Community Right to Buy to apply to buy it

47

water transport land runoff  

E-print Network

Monitoring station Land to water transport Urban runoff Cultivated land runoff Wastewater discharges Pasture land runoff Instream transport and removal Land to water transport Monitoring station Benefits of Integrated Monitoring and Modeling Successful management of our Nation's water resources

Torgersen, Christian

48

Land and water snails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Land snails live on the land and water snails make water their habitat. Land snails have shells to protect them and so do water snails. Land snails have two sets of antennae, while water snails only have one set.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

49

Mars Landing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning (PBL) module, students take on the role of Captain aboard the fictional good ship Low Bid, the first manned spacecraft to orbit Mars. Their challenge: to choose a safe, interesting landing spot, using old Viking images taken in the 1970s to guide them. Students download and analyze digital images using NIH image software. This module is part of exploring the environment.

50

University Endowment Lands Collection /  

E-print Network

University Endowment Lands Collection / various collectors Compiled by Christopher Hives and Erwin of the University Endowment Lands series o University Marine Foreshore Development Committee File List Catalogue entry (UBC Library catalogue) #12;Collection Description University Endowment Lands Collection / various

Handy, Todd C.

51

* Transitional land is land that is moving out of agriculture.  

E-print Network

__________ * Transitional land is land that is moving out of agriculture. he 2002 Purdue Land on average land by 2.7% to $116 per acre. Statewide Land Values For the six months ending in June 2002, the value of bare tillable land was reported to have increased 2.0% on top land, 2.1 percent on average land

52

Bureau of Land Management: Public Land Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) manages over 264 million acres of public land, most of which is located in the western United States. The BLM works diligently to get information on these lands out to a variety of stakeholders, including other government agencies, private landowners, and other organizations. This website brings together the BLM's formal land statistics and reports. Visitors can view the complete reports dating from the present year all the way back to 1996, and they are also encouraged to look over the site's other sections. As these reports are quite lengthy, the other sections may be a bit more useful as they break out the reports' statistics into themes like Healthy Lands, Commercial Uses, Recreation, and Natural and Cultural. These separate themes contain tables like "Estimated Recreational Use of Public Lands Administered by the BLM" and "National Historic and Scenic Trails."

2012-03-09

53

Title: Canada Land Inventory: 1966 Land Use Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Canada Land Inventory: 1966 Land Use Data Creator / Copyright Owner: National Archives, covering over 2.5 million square kilometers of land and water. The Land-Use Capability dataset divided land), 60 (north), 42 (south) Index Map: Canada Land Inventory Land-Use Indexes Keywords (Place): Canada

54

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Forestry Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Forestry Data Creator / Copyright Owner: National/A Series Title: Land Capability Classification for Forestry Abstract: The Canada Land Inventory of land and water. The Land Capability for Forestry rates land into 7 classes depending on its capability

55

Public Lands: Hidden Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is about American public lands including parks, monuments, refuges, wilderness areas, underground mineral reserves, marine sanctuaries, historic and scenic trails, forests, and seashores. Throughout this lesson, students will explore and share with others the hidden histories and stories of these lands about wildlife, cultures, governments, and people who have lived on, enjoyed, protected, or influenced them. Students will identify the economic, scientific, recreational, and spiritual values of public lands; interpret Native American quotes that demonstrate the unique relationship between Native Americans and the land; identify important historic facts about select public lands; and develop a creative way to share information with others about a select public land.

56

Land valuation and land rents in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

State and cooperative agricultural land had neither a market nor an assigned accounting value in the former socialist countries. This led to tremendous waste and underusage. For this reason, in the reform movements of the 1960s and 1980s a monetary valuation of land was demanded by some economists and several methods were worked out to determine this. After the political

Anna Burger

1998-01-01

57

Microwave Landing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) program is a joint DOT\\/DOD\\/NASA effort to implement a common civil\\/military precision landing system to replace the current Instrument Landing System (ILS). The MLS will be capable of providing precision landing guidance down to Category III minimum while allowing for complex approach paths in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The system is based

Thomas E. Evans

1986-01-01

58

Survey of Critical Wetlands Bureau of Land Management Lands  

E-print Network

Survey of Critical Wetlands Bureau of Land Management Lands South Park, Park County, Colorado 2003 Delivery Colorado State University #12;Survey of Critical Wetlands Bureau of Land Management Lands South

59

Descriptive land Impact asses.  

E-print Network

Descriptive land use model Impact asses. Impact asses. Impact asses. Impact asses. Conflicts and regulations Functioning of sub-systems Revised goals and objectives "Networks in the Delta" Land use analysis for interactive integrated physical planning Study area Land use change modelling "Networks in the Delta" Faculty

Schot, Paul

60

Literature and the Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

McKee, James W.

1979-01-01

61

Land and World Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

1982-01-01

62

Alaska Natives & the Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

63

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Recreation Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Recreation Data Creator / Copyright Owner Updates: N/A Abstract: The Canada Land Inventory is a comprehensive multi-disciplinary land inventory of rural Canada, covering over 2.5 million square kilometers of land and water. The Land Capability

64

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Ungulates Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Ungulates Data Creator / Copyright Owner Updates: N/A Abstract: The Canada Land Inventory is a comprehensive multi-disciplinary land inventory of rural Canada, covering over 2.5 million square kilometers of land and water. The Land Capability

65

Land Treatment Digital Library  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

2013-01-01

66

Landing gear noise attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

2011-01-01

67

Land Tenure Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1962, the Land Tenure Center (LTC) is perhaps one of the most well-regarded university-based institutions to deal specifically with land policy across the world. Essentially, the LTC "serves as a global resource institution on issues relating to land ownership, land rights, land access, and land use." The LTC is also highly regarded for its interdisciplinary research approach which places a premium on working collaboratively with host-country institutions and individuals in the areas of policy analysis, research, and training. On the organization's site, visitors can learn about their various ongoing research programs, its staff members and affiliates, and the lectures and events it sponsors. Of course, the publications area is quite strong, and all documents created since 1996 are available online. These papers include such titles as "Patterns of Tenure Insecurity in Guyana" and "Indigenous Land and Community Security: A (Radical) Planning Agenda."

68

Land Treatment Digital Library  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A dynamic system to enter, store, retrieve, and analyze Federal land-treatment data. More information and access to data available at: http://greatbasin.wr.usgs.gov/ltdl Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

Pilliod, David S.

2009-01-01

69

Land Plants Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In response to a growing interest regarding evolutionary relationships of green plants in recent years, Dan Nickrent and Karen Renzaglia--of Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC)--developed Land Plants Online (LPO). LPO was also designed to provide researchers and students with a centralized source for new information resulting from technological advancements in the field. LPO's stated goal "is to bring together, from a variety of disciplines, the available information on evolutionary relationships in land plants including their most likely outgroup, charophycean algae." The heart of LPO is the Phylum Pages, which are organized by Non Vascular plants (Bryophytes), and Vascular Plants (Tracheophytes). The site also includes sections for Phylogenetic Relationships among Land Plants, and Character Matrices for Land Plants. In addition, site visitors will find a collection of general references for basal land plants, contact information for plant specialists, information on SIUC land plant research, and related links.

Nickrent, Daniel L.; Renzaglia, Karen S.

2007-09-04

70

Land use planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

1975-01-01

71

State of the Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent new site, from the US Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service, "provides data on land use and change, soil erosion and soil quality, water quality, wetlands, and other issues regarding the conservation and use of natural resources on non-Federal land in the United States." The site is searchable by keyword and is organized into five main sections: People on the Land; Analysis Maps & Publications; Water Quality, Wetlands; Cropping, Grazing Land; and NRCS National Conservation Priorities. Each main section offers further information on that topic, and hyperlinks take readers to related sites.

72

Securing land rights for women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This collection of papers on Securing Women's Land Rights presents five articles relating to eastern Africa. Four of these illustrate practical approaches to securing land rights for women in distinct situations: law-making for women's land rights (Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda); land tenure reform in practice (Rwanda); women's rights under pastoral land tenure (Ethiopia); and women's rights in areas of matrilineal-matrilocal

Elizabeth Daley; Birgit Englert

2010-01-01

73

External Resource: Lunar Landing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This AP Physics problem set presents learners/students with background information regarding lunar landings and the necessary information to apply equations of motion and force. Landing safely and learning to live on the Moon will give NASA a head start i

1900-01-01

74

Instrument Landing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A historical background of instrumental approach and landing equipment for aircraft is given beginning with post-World War I efforts of J. D. Doolittle and emphasizing military-civil standardization efforts that began in 1948 and are continuing. The inadequacies of the current Instrument Landing System (ILS) are detailed and the various efforts of special committees to define an eventual replacement system are

L. Sanders

1973-01-01

75

All That Unplowed Land  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

MOSAIC, 1975

1975-01-01

76

Land Cover Trends Project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

Acevedo, William

2006-01-01

77

Algorithm for Autonomous Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of their small size, high maneuverability, and easy deployment, micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) are used for a wide variety of both civilian and military missions. One of their current drawbacks is the vast array of sensors (such as GPS, altimeter, radar, and the like) required to make a landing. Due to the MAV s small payload size, this is a major concern. Replacing the imaging sensors with a single monocular camera is sufficient to land a MAV. By applying optical flow algorithms to images obtained from the camera, time-to-collision can be measured. This is a measurement of position and velocity (but not of absolute distance), and can avoid obstacles as well as facilitate a landing on a flat surface given a set of initial conditions. The key to this approach is to calculate time-to-collision based on some image on the ground. By holding the angular velocity constant, horizontal speed decreases linearly with the height, resulting in a smooth landing. Mathematical proofs show that even with actuator saturation or modeling/ measurement uncertainties, MAVs can land safely. Landings of this nature may have a higher velocity than is desirable, but this can be compensated for by a cushioning or dampening system, or by using a system of legs to grab onto a surface. Such a monocular camera system can increase vehicle payload size (or correspondingly reduce vehicle size), increase speed of descent, and guarantee a safe landing by directly correlating speed to height from the ground.

Kuwata, Yoshiaki

2011-01-01

78

The Land Credit Problem  

E-print Network

, free of cost, to landless settlers".6 Moreover, "the rich and fertile lands of the Mississippi Valley were fast filling up with settlers. Agricultural lands in the Middle States, which, after the year 1834, were bought for $1.35 per acre, now sold... it was possible for one to be come his own master on his own land. Likewise, the frontier offered a life of independence to those who found the conditions of employment in the factory and workshop unpromising or in tolerable. To have been born in the ranks...

Putnam, George E.

1916-12-01

79

Air cushion landing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static and dynamic performance of air cushion landing system is simulated in computer program that treats four primary ACLS subsystems: fan, feeding system, trunk, and cushion. Configuration of systems is sufficiently general to represent variety of practical designs.

Boghami, K. M.; Captain, K. M.; Fish, R. B.

1978-01-01

80

Land Product Validation (LPV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

2013-01-01

81

Arnold Schwarzenegger A REVIEW OF LAND USE/LAND COVER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor A REVIEW OF LAND USE/LAND COVER AND AGRICULTURAL CHANGE MODELS in this report. #12;Please cite this report as follows: Jones, R. 2005. A Review of Land Use/Land Cover for the information in this report; nor does any party represent that the uses of this information will not infringe

82

Discovering land transaction relations from land deeds of Taiwan............................................................................................................................................................  

E-print Network

Discovering land transaction relations from land deeds of Taiwan ....................................................................................................................................... Abstract Land deeds were the only proof of ownership in pre-1900 Taiwan. They are indispensable library that contains almost 40,000 land deeds. The deeds in our collection range over 250 years

Chu, Hao-hua

83

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Agriculture Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Agriculture Data Creator / Copyright Owner Updates: N/A Series Title: Soil Capability Classification for Agriculture Abstract: The Canada Land Inventory is a comprehensive multi-disciplinary land inventory of rural Canada, covering over 2.5 million

84

LAND USE LAND COVER (LULC) - US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Mapping Program, a component of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), produces and distributes land use and land cover maps and digitized data for the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii. Land use refers to the human activities that are directly related to the land. The int...

85

Viking landing sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

Panagakos, N.

1973-01-01

86

Visible Earth: Land Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is part of Visible Earth, which is hosted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and contains a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to surface processes, including erosion, sedimentation, land temperature, land use, soils, topography, and more. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the satellite that took the image.

87

Major Land Resource Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map from the US Department of Agriculture displays US land use areas by color. Clicking on a region of the map takes you to a page featuring a blown-up map and a paragraph describing the major land use of the area (e.g., agriculture, residential, industrial, etc.). From there, you can also access regional elevation, climate, water, and soil information.

2000-01-01

88

A Land Worth Loving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the BBC Nature Web site, comes the A Land Worth Loving page. The site has several interactive activities related to energy conservation and recycling including the virtual energy house. Here users get to choose energy saving items to see the resulting gains to the homeowner and the environment. The site also explains recycling and sustainable living and even offers a "green" quiz and a free downloadable "A Land Worth Living" poster.

2002-01-01

89

Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

2012-09-01

90

The land potential knowledge system (LandPKS): Increasing land productivity and resilience  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Africa must significantly increase agricultural production to meet the needs of a growing population. Current efforts focus on intensifying production on currently used lands and expanding to un- or under-utilized lands. The success of both strategies requires understanding the land’s potential prod...

91

Land-use Leakage  

SciTech Connect

Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

2009-12-01

92

Future land use plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

NONE

1995-08-31

93

Anticipating land surface change  

PubMed Central

The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify “near misses,” close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management. PMID:23530230

Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

94

Energy and land use  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

Not Available

1981-12-01

95

Land Use History  

E-print Network

This study focuses on the cultural-historical environment of the 88,900-acre (35,560-ha) Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) over the past four centuries of Spanish, Mexican, and U.S. governance. It includes a review and synthesis of available published and unpublished historical, ethnohistorical, and ethnographic literature about the human occupation of the area now contained within the VCNP. Documents include historical maps, texts, letters, diaries, business records, photographs, land and mineral patents, and court testimony. This study presents a cultural-historical framework of VCNP land use that will be useful to land managers and researchers in assessing the historical ecology of the property. It provides VCNP administrators and agents the cultural-historical background needed to develop management plans that acknowledge traditional associations with the Preserve, and offers managers additional background for structuring and acting on consultations with affiliated communities.

United States; Forest Service; Kurt F. Anschuetz

2007-01-01

96

Land Surveyor Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of Land Surveyor Reference Page Web site is "to provide reference materials that are useful in the practice of Land Surveying and to promote communication within the surveying community globally." Funded by the Huntington Technology Group, the site is periodically updated to include the latest information on state rules, regulations and statutes, federal government data sources, maps, articles of interest, college and university programs, meetings and conventions, as well as links to professional organizations, land surveying message boards, and much more. While obviously helpful to the surveying professional, the site also should appeal to researchers and others doing work that involves surveying; providing them with helpful and up-to-date information.

1995-01-01

97

Land use and energy  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

1980-07-01

98

Urban land teleconnections and sustainability  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural–urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental “grand challenges” and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept. PMID:22550174

Seto, Karen C.; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G.; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K.; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

2012-01-01

99

Regional land use studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing technology and data from instrumented satellites and high altitude aircraft are proposed for mapping land use on a current national basis, for monitoring changes and trends, and for creating statistical models which can be manipulated to demonstrate the probable effects of proposed land use and of environmental changes over large areas. Both Apollo spacecraft and aircraft photography were used; the spacecraft pictures delineated the cropland and urban boundaries more clearly. A computer model is also proposed for statistical analysis and for printing out updated maps automatically; this model will include a data bank which can be updated rapidly with changes detected by the computer.

Place, J. L.

1970-01-01

100

Land Use and Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

Irwin, Daniel E.

2004-01-01

101

Aircraft landing gear systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

Tanner, John A. (editor)

1990-01-01

102

Land & Water Conservation Fund  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1965, the US Congress created the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) "to preserve open space, develop recreation opportunities, and assure that all Americans have access to quality outdoor recreation." The Land and Water Conservation Fund receives $900 million annually, mainly from ocean oil drilling revenues. However, as much as 85 percent of each year's Fund is diverted for purposes other than conservation and recreation. The National Park Service provides this site, which gives technical information on the State and Federal components of the LWCF, with some historical information. For those interested in the future of natural places in this country, this site will be of great interest.

103

Global Land Information System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is a World Wide Web-based query tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide data and information about the Earth's land surface. Examples of holdings available through the GLIS include cartographic data, topographic data, soils data, aerial photographs, and satellite images from various agencies and cooperators located around the world. Both hard copy and digital data collections are represented in the GLIS, and preview images are available for millions of the products in the system.

U.S. Geological Survey

1999-01-01

104

Spirit's Successful Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bright triangle seen in these images is Spirit's lander resting at the Gusev Crater landing site on Mars after a nerve-wracking entry, descent and landing process on Jan. 3, 2004. The left image was taken by the camera on board the orbiting Mars Global Surveyor on Jan. 19, 2004. The right image is the same image enhanced to show the contrast between the lander and the martian surface. The rover is not visible in this image due to the bright glare of the lander.

2004-01-01

105

Simulating Unpowered Helicopter Landings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents results of experiment with visual, aural, and motion cues in simulations of helicopter landings without engine power. Helicopter simulators do not offer realistic environment, particularly in sensory cues for near-ground, low-speed flight. Evaluated importance of various cues in difficult autorotation. Conducted in vertical-motion simulator with experienced pilots as subjects.

Decker, William A.; Adam, Charles F.; Gerdes, Ronald M.

1988-01-01

106

X-15 landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This roughly 30-second video clip shows an X-15 landing on lakebed runway 18 adjacent to Edwards Air Force Base. The aircraft appears to be closer to the facilities at the base than it is because of the camera angle.

1960-01-01

107

Understanding Our Environment: Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

108

Lab 3: Land Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first part of this lab, students learn about land ice and the processes and timescales involved in glaciation. In Part B, they use an online interactive to explore how glaciers provide scientists with evidence for climate change. Finally, students use image processing software to measure how much area a real glacier has lost over time due to rising temperatures.

109

Egg-cellent Landing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to recreate the classic egg-drop experiment with an analogy to the Mars rover landing. The concept of terminal velocity will be introduced, and students will perform several velocity calculations. Also, students will have to design and build their lander within a pre-determined budget to help reinforce a real-world design scenario.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

110

Land Use and Nitrogen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students explore the impacts of concentrated development and sprawl on water quality and land use. The concept of a watershed is introduced, along with information on basins and tributaries and the impacts of growth and nitrogen loading. The students are able to develop a plan to reduce nitrogen runoff to a targeted level. Several handouts and maps are included.

111

Land Use in Saskatchewan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

112

Geodiversity and land form  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's surface has a dynamic and topographically varied natural landscape. In some cases the resulting landforms are given generic names reflecting their form and/or origin, (e.g. sand dunes, eskers, ox-bow lakes) but in many cases the land surface has a more amorphous form and is less easily categorized other than at a landscape scale (e.g. dissected plateau, Chalk downland). Across much of Europe, while the natural vegetation has been removed or radically modified, the natural land form/topography remains in tact. In this context and in terms of geoconservation we ought to be: • allowing the dynamic natural processes that create, carve and modify landscapes to continue to operate; and • retaining natural topographic character and geomorphological authenticity in the face of human actions seeking to remodel the land surface. In this presentation examples of this approach to geoconservation of land form will be given from the UK and other parts of the world. This will include examples of both appropriate and inappropriate topographic modifications.

Gray, Murray

2014-05-01

113

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

and resources in a geographic area Promote conservation of these natural features and resources Guide ________________________________________________________________________ Preparing a Conservation Plan INTRODUCTION Conservation of land, water and other natural features and resources is a priority for many New Hampshire communities. In order to implement conservation projects

New Hampshire, University of

114

Land between the Lakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land between the Lakes, the nation's only federal demonstration area in outdoor education, environmental education, and resource management, provides both recreational facilities for the public and outdoor educational training for college students. Article describes programs, facilities, and objectives of the 170,000 acre "university of the…

Espeseth, Robert D.

1979-01-01

115

Land Product Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

116

By Land, Sea or Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn that navigational techniques change when people travel to different places â land, sea, air and space. For example, an explorer traveling by land uses different navigation methods and tools than a sailor or an astronaut.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

117

Predicting land-use change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use change modelling, especially if done in a spatially-explicit, integrated and multi-scale manner, is an important technique for the projection of alternative pathways into the future, for conducting experiments that test our understanding of key processes in land use changes. Land-use change models should represent part of the complexity of land use systems. They offer the possibility to test

A. Veldkamp; E. F. Lambin

2001-01-01

118

Scheduled Castes and Land Deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is more in the form of setting broad contours for a comprehensive buildup. It is divided into four sections. The first section discusses the landlessness or nearlandlessness of majority of Scheduled Caste households and the benefits of land assigned to them as a part of redistributive land reform strategy. The second section analyses the impact of redistributive land

D. Narasimha Reddy

119

The Land-Grant Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides an overview and history of the land-grant system, as well as copies of the original and amended legislation affecting the land-grant colleges. Land-grant colleges or universities have been designated by their state legislatures or Congress to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862, 1890 and 1994. The original…

National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2008

2008-01-01

120

Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants  

E-print Network

EVOLUTION OF SEX CHROMOSOMES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 SEX CHROMOSOMES IN LAND PLANTSSex Chromosomes in Land Plants Ray Ming,1 Abdelhafid Bendahmane,2,3 and Susanne S. Renner4 1 reserved 1543-5008/11/0602-0485$20.00 Keywords land plants, pseudoautosomal region, sex determination, sex

Renner, Susanne

121

Evaluation of the VIIRS Land Algorithms at Land PEATE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (Land PEATE), a component of the Science Data Segment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), is being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The primary task of the Land PEATE is to assess the quality of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land data products made by the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) using the Operational (OPS) Code during the NPP era and to recommend improvements to the algorithms in the IDPS OPS code. The Land PEATE uses a version of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), NPPDAPS, that has been modified to produce products from the IDPS OPS code and software provided by the VIIRS Science Team, and uses the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team for evaluation of the data records generated by the NPPDAPS. Land PEATE evaluates the algorithms by comparing data products generated using different versions of the algorithm and also by comparing to heritage products generated from different instrument such as MODIS using various quality assessment tools developed at LDOPE. This paper describes the Land PEATE system and some of the approaches used by the Land PEATE for evaluating the VIIRS Land algorithms during the pre-launch period of the NPP mission and the proposed plan for long term monitoring of the quality of the VIIRS Land products post-launch.

Wolfe, Robert E.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Ye, Gang; Masuoka, Edward J.; Schweiss, Robert J.

2010-01-01

122

43 CFR 3838.2 - How are SRHA lands different from other Federal lands?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are SRHA lands different from other Federal lands? 3838.2 Section 3838.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued)...

2012-10-01

123

43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...

2012-10-01

124

43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...

2013-10-01

125

43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals. 2920.3 Section 2920.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued)...

2014-10-01

126

43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals. 2920.3 Section 2920.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued)...

2011-10-01

127

43 CFR 3838.2 - How are SRHA lands different from other Federal lands?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How are SRHA lands different from other Federal lands? 3838.2 Section 3838.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued)...

2014-10-01

128

43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...

2014-10-01

129

Endeavour lands at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lights on Runway 15 silhouette Endeavour with its drag chute open as it lands at 6:04 p.m. EST following a 4.4-million-mile mission to the International Space Station. At the controls is Commander Brent Jett, completing the successful 10-day, 19-hour and 58- minute-long STS-97 mission. Other crew members on board are Pilot Michael Bloomfield and Mission Specialists Joseph Tanner, Carlos Noriega and Marc Garneau, with the Canadian Space Agency. Endeavour carried the P6 Integrated Truss Structure with solar arrays to power the International Space Station. The arrays and other equipment were installed during three EVAs that totaled 19 hours, 20 minutes. Endeavour was docked with the Space Station for 6 days, 23 hours, 13 minutes. This was the 16th nighttime landing for a Space Shuttle and the 53rd at Kennedy Space Center.

2000-01-01

130

Aggressive landing maneuvers for unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) vehicle landing is considered to be a critically difficult task for both land, marine, and urban operations. This thesis describes one possible control approach to enable landing of ...

Bayraktar, Selcuk

2006-01-01

131

A Simple Reclassification Method for Correcting Uncertainty in Land Use/Land Cover Data Sets Used with Land Surface Models  

E-print Network

A Simple Reclassification Method for Correcting Uncertainty in Land Use/Land Cover Data Sets Used spacing to resolve the land surface characteristics. The land use/land cover (LULC) data sets input into land surface models are used to assign various default parameters from a look-up tables. The objective

Niyogi, Dev

132

UNIVERSITY-NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC LABORATORY SYSTEM Moss Landing Marine Laboratories 8272 Moss Landing Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY-NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC LABORATORY SYSTEM Moss Landing Marine Laboratories 8272 Moss Landing Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039 (831)-771-4410 Fax (831) 632-4413 www.unols.org office SYSTEM Moss Landing Marine Laboratories 8272 Moss Landing Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039 (831)-771-4410 Fax

133

Settling in New Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You and your group are explorers out to start a settlement in new land. Third Grade Social Studies Standard 1 Students will understand how geography influences community location and development. Objective 1 Determine the relationships between human settlement and geography. Identify the geographic features common to areas where human settlements exist. a. Use map features to make logical inferences and describe relationships between human settlement and physical ...

Mgubler

2009-11-18

134

CSIRO Land and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSIRO Land and Water is an Australian research organization working with government and industry to solve some of Australia's environmental challenges. The Current Issues section of this Web siteoffers some understanding of the resource management and ecosystem issues facing Australia, including agricultural and aquatic ecosystem issues. The site also offers an Image Gallery containing almost 1,200 downloadable images that visitors can browse by category or search by keyword.

2001-01-01

135

Egg-cellent Landing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners recreate the classic egg-drop experiment with an analogy to the Mars rover landing. The concept of terminal velocity will be introduced, and learners perform several velocity calculations. Also, learners design and build their lander within a pre-determined budget to help reinforce a real-world design scenario. Materials list can be expanded to include a great variety of items as desired.

2014-06-27

136

STS-64 landing view  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Discovery, with a crew of six NASA Astronauts aboard, touches down on Runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base, completing a 10-day, 22 hour and 50 minute mission. Touchdown was at 2:12:59 p.m. and the nose wheel touched down at 2:13:03 p.m., with wheel stop at 2:13:52 p.m. Bad weather in Florida called for an 'eleventh hour' shift to the California landing site.

1994-01-01

137

Land Product Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: 1) to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation; 2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites.

Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

138

Land Use Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer technology, aerial photography and space imagery are being combined in a NASA community services program designed to help solve land use and natural resource planning problems. As urban areas grow, so grows the need for comprehensive, up-to-date information on which to base intelligent decisions regarding land use. State and local planners need information such as the nature of urban change, where the changes are occurring, how they affect public safety, transportation, the economy, tax assessment, sewer systems, water quality, flood hazard, noise impact and a great variety of other considerations. Most importantly they need continually updated maps. Preparing timely maps, gathering the essential data and maintaining it in orderly fashion are becoming matters of increasing difficulty. The NASA project, which has nationwide potential for improving efficiency in the planning process, is a pilot program focused on Tacoma, Washington and surrounding Pierce County. Its key element, developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a computerized Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS).

1978-01-01

139

Modeling land-use change  

SciTech Connect

Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

NONE

1995-12-31

140

Land Cover, Land Use of twoLand Cover, Land Use of two bioluminescent bays in Puerto Ricobioluminescent bays in Puerto Ricobioluminescent bays in Puerto Ricobioluminescent bays in Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Land Cover, Land Use of twoLand Cover, Land Use of two bioluminescent bays in PuertoRico areare usedused toto produceproduce LandLand Use/Use/ LandLand CoverCover mapsmaps.. LandLand useuse isis.water resources, vegetations index and others. The Land Use/Land Cover maps have theThe Land Use/Land Cover maps

Gilbes, Fernando

141

Land availability for biofuel production.  

PubMed

Marginal agricultural land is estimated for biofuel production in Africa, China, Europe, India, South America, and the continental United States, which have major agricultural production capacities. These countries/regions can have 320-702 million hectares of land available if only abandoned and degraded cropland and mixed crop and vegetation land, which are usually of low quality, are accounted. If grassland, savanna, and shrubland with marginal productivity are considered for planting low-input high-diversity (LIHD) mixtures of native perennials as energy crops, the total land availability can increase from 1107-1411 million hectares, depending on if the pasture land is discounted. Planting the second generation of biofuel feedstocks on abandoned and degraded cropland and LIHD perennials on grassland with marginal productivity may fulfill 26-55% of the current world liquid fuel consumption, without affecting the use of land with regular productivity for conventional crops and without affecting the current pasture land. Under the various land use scenarios, Africa may have more than one-third, and Africa and Brazil, together, may have more than half of the total land available for biofuel production. These estimations are based on physical conditions such as soil productivity, land slope, and climate. PMID:21142000

Cai, Ximing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dingbao

2011-01-01

142

Atmospheric Pressure During Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

1997-01-01

143

Arid Lands Biofuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark colored viscous gum. At this point, when methylated and the mixture analyzed by gas chromatography, grindelic acid methyl ester composes approximately 60-80% of the hydrocarbons present which is the actual available portion for biodiesel. Based on two years of crop data, we can say that we can produce in between 85-126 gallons of biofuel per acre of land. While agronomic issues remain still to be solved, crops can be grown, harvested and extracted using conventional methods. Further research is being undertaken to select optimal strains of gumweed, as well as methods of conversion of grindelic acid to a diesel fuel directly.

Neupane, B. P.

2013-05-01

144

Happy Fun Communication Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Happy Fun Communication Land (HFCL) is a felicitous learning realm created by Richard W. Dillman, Professor of Communication at Western Maryland College. Designed for undergraduates, HFCL is the home of several self-study opportunities for students of communication theory. Seven online tutorials -- on such topics as Self and Society, Signs and Language, and Mass Communication -- provide succinct overviews of the methods, theories, and history of human communications. A large collection of study questions, most linked directly to the tutorials, allows students to test their knowledge. HFCL also includes a useful glossary of terms and an extensive list of bibliographic citations.

145

To Land on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Science Definition Team (SDT) for NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission recommends including a lander as an integral part of the science payload of the JIMO Mission. The Europa Surface Science Package (ESSP) could comprise up to 25% of science payload resources. We have identified several key scientific and technical issues for such a lander, including 1) the potential effects of propellant contamination of the landng site, 2) the likely macroscopic surface roughness of potential landing sites, and 3) the desire to sample materials from depths of approximately 1 m beneath the surface. Discussion and consensus building on these issues within the science community is a prerequisite for establishing design requirements.

Shirley, James H.; Carlson, Robert W.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Sabahi, Dara

2005-01-01

146

STS-64 landing view  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The drag chute for the Space Shuttle Discovery is deployed as NASA's most-heavily flown spacecraft completes a 10-day, 22 hour and 50 minute mission. Discovery, with a crew of six NASA astronauts aboard, fired its de-orbit engine at 1:14 p.m. (PDT), September 21, 1994. Touchdown was at 2:12:59 p.m. and the nose wheel touched down at 2:13:03 p.m., with wheel stop at 2:13:52 p.m. Bad weather in Florida called for an 'eleventh hour' shift to the California landing site.

1994-01-01

147

Food Calories and Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity is on the rise in the United States, due primarily to the size and composition of the American diet. Discussion topics include lack of exercise, changes in calorie intake over time, and environmental impacts of these increases in consumption. Each student will particpate in an activity in which they investigate how their own diets affect the agricultural demands of a hypothetical country. They will record their calorie intake, categorize the calories as coming from either plants or animals, and estimate the amount of land that is needed to provide their daily intake. Links to related sites are provided.

Pratte, John

148

Zona Land: Wave Adder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java simulation that models the addition and subtraction of waves. You can set amplitude, frequency, and phase shift of two waves, then push the "Add" button to see the wave addition on a coordinate plane. The student may select either addition or subtraction and may opt for either sine or cosine functions. These buttons are at the lower left (their text is hard to see). SEE RELATED ITEMS ON THIS PAGE for a link to the full set of Zona Land Waves tutorials.

Zobel, Edward

2009-03-22

149

Rosetta Lander - Philae: Landing preparations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rosetta and Philae have been in hibernation until January 20, 2014. After the successful wakeup they underwent a post-hibernation commissioning. The orbiter instruments (like e.g. the OSIRIS cameras, VIRTIS, MIRO, Alice and ROSINA) characterized the target comet and its environment to allow landing site selection and the definition of a separation, descent and landing (SDL) strategy for the Lander. By September 2014 our previously poor knowledge of the characteristics of the nucleus of the comet has increased drastically and the nominal and backup landing could be selected. The nominal site, as well as the corresponding descent strategy have been confirmed in mid-October, one month before the landing. The paper summarizes the selection process for a landing site and the planning for Separation-Descent-Landing (SDL).

Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Blazquez, Alejandro; Cozzoni, Barbara; Delmas, Cedric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Küchemann, Oliver; Lommatsch, Valentina; Maibaum, Michael; Sierks, Holger; Witte, Lars

2015-02-01

150

The future of land warfare  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

Bellamy, C.

1987-01-01

151

Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeaneDeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSpozaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

2003-01-01

152

Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

2004-01-01

153

X-24B Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-24B is seen here landing on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-24B was the last aircraft to fly in Dryden's manned lifting body program. The X-24B's design evolved from a family of potential reentry shapes, each with higher lift-to-drag ratios, proposed by the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. The X-24B is on public display at the Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19, 1970. The X-24A was flown 28 times in the program that, like the HL-10, validated the concept that a Space Shuttle vehicle could be landed unpowered. The fastest speed achieved by the X-24A was 1,036 miles per hour (mph-Mach 1.6). Its maximum altitude was 71,400 feet. It was powered by an XLR-11 rocket engine with a maximum theoretical vacuum thrust of 8,480 pounds. The X-24A was later modified into the X-24B. The bulbous shape of the X-24A was converted into a 'flying flatiron' shape with a rounded top, flat bottom, and double delta platform that ended in a pointed nose. The X-24B demonstrated that accurate unpowered reentry vehicle landings were operationally feasible. Top speed achieved by the X-24B was 1,164 mph and the highest altitude it reached was 74,130 feet. The vehicle is on display at the Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The pilot on the last powered flight of the X-24B was Bill Dana, who also flew the last X-15 flight about seven years earlier. The X-24A shape was later borrowed for the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) technology demonstrator for the International Space Station.

1975-01-01

154

Manned Spacecraft Landing and Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As recent history has tragically demonstrated, a successful space mission is not complete until the crew has safely returned to earth and has been successfully recovered. It is noted that a safe return to earth does not guarantee a successful recovery. The focus of this presentation will be a discussion of the ground operation assets involved in a successful recovery. The author's experience in land and water-based recovery of crewed vehicles and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Edwards Air Force Base, international landing sites, and the Atlantic Ocean provides for some unique insight into this topic. He has participated in many aspects of Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations including activation of Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites and Emergency Landing Sites (ELS) as an Operations Test Director, execution of post landing convoy operations as an Orbiter Move Director, Operations Test Director, and Landing and Recovery Director, and recovery of solid rocket boosters, frustum and their parachutes 140 miles offshore in a wide range of sea states as a Retrieval Diver/Engineer. The recovery operations for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were similar from a landing and recovery perspective in th t they all were capsules with limited "flying" capability and had a planned End of Mission (EOM) in an ocean with a descent slowed by parachutes. The general process was to deploy swim teams via helicopters to prepare the capsule for recovery and assist with crew extraction when required. The capsule was then hoisted onto the deck of a naval vessel. This approach required the extensive use and deployment of military assets to support the primary landing zone as well as alternate and contingency locations. The Russian Soyuz capsule also has limited "flying" capability; however, the planned EOM is terrestrial. In addition to use of parachutes to slow the reentry descent, soft-landing rockets on the bottom of the vehicle are employed to cushion the landing. The recovery forces are deployed via helicopters and the capsule is transported by a specialized all-terrain vehicle. The Space Shuttle Orbiter landing and recovery process is considerably different. The added lift capability and maneuverability allow the Orbiter to land at an exact location/runway for a nominal EOM. This allows for a timely response of recovery/contingency rescue forces, centralized staging of personnel and equipment, and assured access by ground vehicles. The well defined landing zone also provides for far more options when selecting landing sites for EOM and emergency returns and the relatively large cross-range capability increases the number of landing opportunities at the preferred sites.

Hammel, Don

2004-01-01

155

Effects of land markets and land management on ecosystem function: A framework for modelling exurban land-changeq  

E-print Network

Effects of land markets and land management on ecosystem function: A framework for modelling exurban land-changeq Derek T. Robinson a,*, Shipeng Sun b , Meghan Hutchins c , Rick L. Riolo d , Daniel G Accepted 30 June 2012 Available online xxx Keywords: Land-use and land-cover change Carbon storage and flux

Brown, Daniel G.

156

China's land resources and land-use change: insights from the 1996 land survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of land-use change in China have long been hampered by the lack of accurate and reliable data. This research analyzes systematic data on land use gathered in the 1996 survey, the first nation-wide land survey ever conducted in the history of the People's Republic. The actual size of the Chinese territory on the mainland in 1996 was 9.5 million

George C. S Lin; Samuel P. S Ho

2003-01-01

157

Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

2008-01-01

158

Molecular Mapping of Brain Areas Involved in Parrot Vocal Communication  

PubMed Central

Auditory and vocal regulation of gene expression occurs in separate discrete regions of the songbird brain. Here we demonstrate that regulated gene expression also occurs during vocal communication in a parrot, belonging to an order whose ability to learn vocalizations is thought to have evolved independently of songbirds. Adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were stimulated to vocalize with playbacks of conspecific vocalizations (warbles), and their brains were analyzed for expression of the transcriptional regulator ZENK. The results showed that there was distinct separation of brain areas that had hearing- or vocalizing-induced ZENK expression. Hearing warbles resulted in ZENK induction in large parts of the caudal medial forebrain and in 1 midbrain region, with a pattern highly reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Vocalizing resulted in ZENK induction in nine brain structures, seven restricted to the lateral and anterior telencephalon, one in the thalamus, and one in the midbrain, with a pattern partially reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Five of the telencephalic structures had been previously described as part of the budgerigar vocal control pathway. However, functional boundaries defined by the gene expression patterns for some of these structures were much larger and different in shape than previously reported anatomical boundaries. Our results provide the first functional demonstration of brain areas involved in vocalizing and auditory processing of conspecific sounds in budgerigars. They also indicate that, whether or not vocal learning evolved independently, some of the gene regulatory mechanisms that accompany learned vocal communication are similar in songbirds and parrots. PMID:10717637

JARVIS, ERICH D.; MELLO, CLAUDIO V.

2008-01-01

159

43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

2013-10-01

160

43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

2014-10-01

161

43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

2012-10-01

162

43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

2011-10-01

163

The Barren Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The area west of Hudson Bay in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan is known as the Barren Lands region, and it was thoroughly documented and explored by J.B. Tyrrell in 1893 and 1894. Tyrell was a geologist working in the service of the Geological Survey of Canada when he led two separate expeditions to the region. This thoughtful digital collection from the University of Toronto's Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library includes over 5000 images from the original field notebooks from the expedition, along with written correspondence, photographs, maps, and published reports. A great place to start is the "Expedition Overview" area. Here visitors can read a brief overview of each expedition, and then follow along the path of the original expedition route on period maps. The site also includes a biographical sketch of Tyrell and his younger brother, James.

164

Canada's Polar Environments: Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Arctic lands of Canada, which have been divided into three ecozones: the Arctic Cordillera, which encompasses the northeastern fringe of Nunavut and northern Labrador and is defined by the Arctic Cordillera Mountain Range; the Northern Arctic, which is a polar desert that comprises the non-mountainous portions of the Arctic Islands as well as the northernmost areas of Quebec; and the Southern Arctic, which covers much of the northern mainland of Canada, from the Richardson Mountains in the Yukon Territory to northern Quebec. The site discusses topography, glacial features, freeze/thaw features, geology, and permafrost and soils. The discussion of glaciers includes their origin and classification as well as glaciers, past and present, their retreat and glacial cores. A section called cool facts contrasts the North Magnetic Pole with the geographic North Pole, discusses polar wandering, and tells of the smoking hills where the ground is burning.

165

National Public Lands Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the National Environmental Education Foundation (NEEF), National Public Lands Day (NPLD) was started in 1994 with three federal agencies and 700 volunteers. Today, over 150,000 volunteers take part every year at over 2,000 locations across the United States. The idea for such a day came from the work of the Civilian Conservation Corps, and on this site, visitors can learn about NPLD and how they can participate. Here, visitors can sign up for their newsletter, find a local NPLD site, and also learn about past projects. The "Resource Library" contains posters, handouts, and site manager tools that will help interested parties create a successful NPLD event. Moving along, the "Get Involved" section contains information about setting up a NPLD site, grants, webinars, and stories from volunteers. Finally, the "Photos & Videos" area contains photographic essays and video clips that document past NPLD activities.

166

Remote sensing. [land use mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

Jinich, A.

1979-01-01

167

Commercial land remote sensing market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land remote sensing in the United States is in a state of flux, due largely to the confusion resulting from the Landsat commercialization process. The land remote sensing marketplace, comprised of raw data and value-added commodities such as consulting services and computer hardware and software has been hit not only by the disarray of the Landsat commercialization, but also by

1988-01-01

168

Status of Instrument Landing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past ten years a large number of instrument landing systems have undergone development and tests and a considerable fund of information has been accumulated concerning the shortcomings and advantages of each. The major airlines of the United States, the Federal Communications Commission, the Bureau of Air Commerce, and the Subcommittee on Instrument Landing Devices of the Radio Technical

W. E. Jackson

1938-01-01

169

Microwave Landing System Area Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) states that the Time Reference Scanning Beam (TRSB) Microwave Landing System will supplant the existing Instrument Landing System (ILS) as the recognized international standard as early as 1995. The MLS provides the ability to determine the aircraft's position in three dimensional space over a large coverage volume in the

James Remer; Barry Billmann

1987-01-01

170

Global land and water grabbing  

PubMed Central

Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as “land grabbing,” this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 1012 m3?y?1 of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 1012 m3?y?1 of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 106 ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D’Odorico, Paolo

2013-01-01

171

Global land and water grabbing.  

PubMed

Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as "land grabbing," this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 10(6) ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

2013-01-15

172

2011LandesBioscience. Donotdistribute.  

E-print Network

©2011LandesBioscience. Donotdistribute. www.landesbioscience.com Plant Signaling & Behavior 1451 Plant Signaling & Behavior 6:10, 1451-1453; October 2011; ©2011 Landes Bioscience ShOrt COmmuni ammonium concentrations often have opposite effects on many aspects of plant development, including seed

Kronzucker, Herbert J.

173

Land Use and Rural Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

As trees seem to be objects of hate as well as of love in the British landscape, this paper attempts to assess the place of forestry in the tangled pattern of British land uses. Both the weaknesses and the strengths of forestry as an important use of land are examined in the light of past events and analyses and as

G. Wibberley; D. R. Johnston; K. N. Rankin

1975-01-01

174

Land reclamation beautifies coal mines  

SciTech Connect

The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

Coblentz, B. [MSU Ag Communications (United States)

2009-07-15

175

MONITORING LAND USE CHANGES AROUND THE INDIGENOUS LANDS OF THE XINGU BASIN IN MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL  

E-print Network

MONITORING LAND USE CHANGES AROUND THE INDIGENOUS LANDS OF THE XINGU BASIN IN MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL the land use changes occuring in its surroundings. We quantified the land use changes in the Xingu basin EVI, Amazonia, indigenous land, land use changes, soybean 1. INTRODUCTION The State of Mato Grosso

Brest, Université de

176

Exploring subtle land use and land cover changes: a framework for future landscape studies  

E-print Network

1 Exploring subtle land use and land cover changes: a framework for future landscape studies Thomas studies can provide a framework to forecast how land use and land cover changes is likely to react demonstrate that relatively subtle land cover and land use changes can have a large impact on future

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Land Use/Land Cover of two bioluminescent bays in Puerto Rico Yadira Soto Viruet  

E-print Network

1 Land Use/Land Cover of two bioluminescent bays in Puerto Rico Yadira Soto Viruet #802 The Land Use/Land Cover maps have the capacity to illustrate the interaction between humans) are used to produce Land Use/Land Cover maps, which show environmental and geological characteristics

Gilbes, Fernando

178

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Waterfowl Wildlife Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Waterfowl Wildlife Data Creator / Copyright Owner Updates: N/A Abstract: The Canada Land Inventory is a comprehensive multi-disciplinary land inventory of rural Canada, covering over 2.5 million square kilometers of land and water. The Land Capability

179

San Jos State University / Moss Landing Marine Labs Moss Landing, California  

E-print Network

San José State University / Moss Landing Marine Labs Moss Landing, California ANNOUNCEMENT the Moss Landing Marine Labs website (www.mlml.calstate.edu.) Director Moss Landing Marine Laboratories 8272 Moss Landing Road Moss Landing, CA 95039 MLML, located on Monterey Bay, is operated

McPhee-Shaw, Erika

180

Which Gets Hotter, Land or Water?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity illustrates how dark land surfaces, light land surfaces and water all heat at different rates. Students determine whether land or water absorbs heat more quickly and how this difference affects weather and climate.

Mclelland, Christine

1999-04-01

181

7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

2013-01-01

182

7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

2014-01-01

183

7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

2011-01-01

184

7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

2012-01-01

185

7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs, or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

2010-01-01

186

14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...power on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing flaps...flight-idle position; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing flaps...flight idle position; (2) Landing gear extended; (3) Wing flaps...

2011-01-01

187

14 CFR 23.77 - Balked landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...power on each engine; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing flaps...flight-idle position; (2) The landing gear extended; (3) The wing flaps...flight idle position; (2) Landing gear extended; (3) Wing flaps...

2010-01-01

188

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2011-01-01

189

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2010-01-01

190

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be...

2011-01-01

191

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2011-01-01

192

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be...

2010-01-01

193

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2010-01-01

194

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2012-01-01

195

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2014-01-01

196

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be...

2013-01-01

197

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be...

2014-01-01

198

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be...

2012-01-01

199

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2013-01-01

200

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2014-01-01

201

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2013-01-01

202

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2012-01-01

203

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2014-10-01

204

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2013-10-01

205

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2011-10-01

206

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2012-10-01

207

Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)

Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

2002-01-01

208

Autonomous landing guidance program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

Brown, John A.

1996-05-01

209

Global Land Vegetation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this NASA Earth Science Enterprise-funded project is to increase the use of satellite data in high school and college science classrooms by developing classroom materials linked to guided inquiry computer exercises. This Global Land Vegetation module is one of four Studying Earth's Environment from Space (SEES) modules. Each module consists of three sections: Class Resources, Computer Lab Resources and a Glossary and Acronym List. Class Resources is an electronic textbook viewable by a Web browser. Computer Lab Resources contains an instructor's guide, data and software. The instructor's guide contains exercises for using the data and software. The public domain software, a version of NIH-Image for the Macintosh that was modified by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center especially for SEES, is for data display, analysis and tutorial of satellite data. The software will also work on Windows machines with a Mac emulator. Image2000, a cross-platform Java version of the software, is expected to be available by the end of the year 2000. Each module section can stand-alone (e.g. you don't have to use the Class Resources in order to complete the Computer Lab Resources). Students and instructors may continue their own scientific discovery by accessing archived and current data from various NASA Earth Science data centers.

Smith, Elizabeth

210

78 FR 67928 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...identified is too low to justify delaying implementation of every final decision. Constitutional ``Taking'' A few commenters stated that the rule raises constitutional ``takings'' issues because the land is ``taken'' into trust...

2013-11-13

211

Evaluating biodiversity of mineral lands  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly, lands intended for mining, or lands that have been mined and reclaimed, are being evaluated in terms of biological diversity (biodiversity). The concept of biodiversity includes die variety and number of living organisms, their organizations, and the environments that support them. This paper presents a framework for discussing and evaluating biodiversity and for constructing checklists for evaluating biodiversity before and after mining. This framework identifies some of the different types of biodiversity applicable to mineral lands, die ranges of scale at which they are applicable, and the social stakes and stakeholders relevant across scale and diversity types.

Wade, G.L. [USDA Forest Service, Burlington, VT (United States); Tritton, L.M.

1997-12-31

212

The Biogeohydroclimatology of Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When John Donne wrote his Meditation XVII, which includes the famous"No man is an island" passage, he was thinking about connections between people; no human being is isolated from another. Donne might just as well have been writing about the science of land use, however. What happens on one plot of land clearly affects what happens on another, whether downhill, downstream, or downwind. I will explore the consequences of land use for mass and energy fluxes, focusing on pasture, crop, and forest transitions in the Americas. I'll discuss my own work, some work of collaborators, and a few examples from the literature. No man is an island.

Jackson, R. B.

2008-05-01

213

Polarization in the land distribution, land use and land cover change in the Amazon  

PubMed Central

The objective of this article is to present Polarization of Agrarian Structure as a single, more complete representation than models emphasizing rural exodus and consolidation of land into large agropastoral enterprises of the dynamics of changing land distribution, land use / cover, and thus the rural milieu of Amazonia. Data were collected in 2003 using social surveys on a sample of 587 lots randomly selected from among 5,086 lots on a cadastral map produced in the 1970s. Georeferencing of current property boundaries in the location of these previously demarcated lots allows us to relate sociodemographic and biophysical variables of the surveyed properties to the changes in boundaries that have occurred since the 1970s. As have other authors in other Amazonian regions, we found concentration of land ownership into larger properties. The approach we took, however, showed that changes in the distribution of land ownership is not limited to the appearance of larger properties, those with 200 ha or more; there also exists substantial division of earlier lots into properties with fewer than five hectares, many without any agropastoral use. These two trends are juxtaposed against the decline in establishments with between five and 200 ha. The variation across groups in land use / land cover and population distribution shows the necessity of developing conceptual models, whether from socioeconomic, demographic or environmental perspectives, look beyond a single group of people or properties. PMID:24639597

D'ANTONA, Alvaro; VANWEY, Leah; LUDEWIGS, Thomas

2013-01-01

214

Polarization in the land distribution, land use and land cover change in the Amazon.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to present Polarization of Agrarian Structure as a single, more complete representation than models emphasizing rural exodus and consolidation of land into large agropastoral enterprises of the dynamics of changing land distribution, land use / cover, and thus the rural milieu of Amazonia. Data were collected in 2003 using social surveys on a sample of 587 lots randomly selected from among 5,086 lots on a cadastral map produced in the 1970s. Georeferencing of current property boundaries in the location of these previously demarcated lots allows us to relate sociodemographic and biophysical variables of the surveyed properties to the changes in boundaries that have occurred since the 1970s. As have other authors in other Amazonian regions, we found concentration of land ownership into larger properties. The approach we took, however, showed that changes in the distribution of land ownership is not limited to the appearance of larger properties, those with 200 ha or more; there also exists substantial division of earlier lots into properties with fewer than five hectares, many without any agropastoral use. These two trends are juxtaposed against the decline in establishments with between five and 200 ha. The variation across groups in land use / land cover and population distribution shows the necessity of developing conceptual models, whether from socioeconomic, demographic or environmental perspectives, look beyond a single group of people or properties. PMID:24639597

D'Antona, Alvaro; Vanwey, Leah; Ludewigs, Thomas

2011-01-01

215

Biofuel on contaminated land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also contributed to the biofuel impacts. The net CO2 equivalent emission on a 100 year basis per MJ energy in the Salix Vinimalis was between -0.02 and -0.1 kgCO2e/MJ. The fate of the stubble and roots of the salix was crucial for the carbon footprint. While stubble and roots remain in the soil (as increased soil organic matter), the carbon dioxide they took up while growing is not contributing to global warming. This pool was much larger than the CO2 emissions from soil transport and other processes. Biodiversity was difficult to include, and the results are uncertain. But the results indicated that biodiversity impact of biofuel cultivation may be large compared to "easier" categories like global warming and human health, and the net impact of biofuel cultivation may well be benifical to the environment instead of damaging.

Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

2010-05-01

216

SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

217

Georgia Land Conservation Partnership Plan  

E-print Network

County Commission Mr. Ralph Callaway, Vice President Callaway Gardens Mr. Deke Copenhaver, Director State Representative Honorable Cecil Pruett, Mayor City of Canton Mr. Wade Shealy Hampton Island 23 Creating Land Conservation Partnerships 27 State Organizational Structure 31 Reconstituting

Rosemond, Amy Daum

218

Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

2005-01-01

219

Sustainable Principles for Land Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maria Cahill and Doug Paul used this document in their presentation at Portland Community College's 2009 Summer Sustainability Institute. The presentation is mostly visual, but would support learners with a background in the basic concepts related to sustainable land development. The steps involved with sustainable land development, a few examples of best management practices, stormwater management tips and other important topics are included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Cahill, Maria; Paul, Doug

2012-01-11

220

Global Land Information System (GLIS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Global Land Information System (GLIS) is an interactive computer system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for scientists seeking sources of information about the Earth's land surfaces. GLIS contains "metadata," that is, descriptive information about data sets. Through GLIS, scientists can evaluate data sets, determine their availability, and place online requests for products. GLIS is more, however, than a mere list of products. It offers online samples of earth science data that may be ordered through the system.

U.S. Geological Survey

1992-01-01

221

Are agricultural land-use models able to predict changes in land-use intensity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use and land-cover change research needs to pay more attention to processes of land-cover modification, and especially to agricultural land intensification. The objective of this paper is to review the different modelling approaches that have been used in land-use\\/land-cover change research from the perspective of their utility for the study and prediction of changes in land-use intensification. After clarifying the

E. F. Lambin; M. D. A Rounsevell; H. J Geist

2000-01-01

222

Person Landing After a Jump  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab uses Tracker 4.0 video analysis software to measure and analyze the center of mass motion of a person landing after a jump. Students measure the acceleration of the person in free-fall and his acceleration while he is landing and slowing down. Students use the data to calculate the force of impact by the floor on the student during the landing. There are two video files: (1) the student bends his knees a maximum amount during the landing in order to decrease the force of impact by the floor; and (2) the student bends his knees a small amount in order to increase the force of impact on the floor. The zip file contains two folders: (1) a long time interval during the landing and (2) a short time interval during the landing. Each folder includes the lab handout, a video, and a Tracker 4.0 file. The video was recorded by Aaron Titus at High Point University. To open the Tracker file, download and run Tracker from http://www.cabrillo.edu/~dbrown/tracker/. Tracker is free. The videos can be used with other video analysis software; however, the handout has screen captures from Tracker 4.0 and instructions specifically written for Tracker 4.0.

Titus, Aaron

2011-07-03

223

ALASKA GENERAL LAND STATUS (STAT1)  

EPA Science Inventory

AKSTATUS is a statewide summary of land ownership in Alaska. It includes the major categories of state, native, and federal holdings. Activity on state land is recorded, by section, in DRSs Land Adminstration System (LAS). Information on state land status is extracted from LAS...

224

LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM  

E-print Network

FLORIDA LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM HANDBOOK JANUARY 1999 DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SURVEYING AND MAPPING GEOGRAPHIC MAPPING SECTION #12;FLORIDA LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM ABOUT THIS EDITION: This is an updated FLORIDA LAND USE

Binford, Michael W.

225

LAND TENURE in ZAMBIA Bastiaan van Loenen  

E-print Network

LAND TENURE in ZAMBIA Bastiaan van Loenen May 1999 University of Maine Department of Spatial Information Engineering Abstract Land registration and cadastral systems exist in great variety. This paper describes the rich history of Zambian land tenure systems and discusses the present land tenure system

Onsrud, Harlan J.

226

Managing publicly owned land in Canberra  

Microsoft Academic Search

All land in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) is government owned. Prior to 1989, when the ACT became self-governing, the government developed land for urban use and auctioned leases for parcels of land for specified uses. Since then, leases for raw land have been auctioned for private development, to be completed within a specified time. A case study of a

Steven C Bourassa; Max Neutze; Ann Louise Strong

1996-01-01

227

The Global Land Data Assimilation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) has been developed. Its purpose is to ingest satellite- and ground-based observational data products, using advanced land surface modeling and data assimilation techniques, in order to generate optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. GLDAS is unique in that it is an uncoupled land surface modeling system that drives multiple models, integrates

M. Rodell; U. Jambor; J. Gottschalck; K. Mitchell; C.-J. Meng; K. Arsenault; B. Cosgrove; J. Radakovich; M. Bosilovich; J. K. Entin; J. P. Walker; D. Lohmann; D. Toll

2004-01-01

228

Land-use survey of Idukki District  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing population pressure and limited availability of land necessitates proper utilization of the available land through scientific land-use planning. Realizing this fact, a project using multiband aerial photography was taken up with following objectives: identification and mapping of areas under various land uses, study of geomorphology, identification of potential groundwater areas and identification of areas requiring soil conservation and

Baldev Sahai; J. S. Parihar; S. R. Nayak; T. P. Singh; M. V. Muley; C. B. Tiwari; V. Tamilarasan; D. M. Shende; T. V. Samuel; C. V. Thomas; G. Gopinathan; G. Vijayan; K. Rajamohan; G. Devapalan Nair

1985-01-01

229

The Land Ethic by Aldo Leopold  

E-print Network

dealing with man's relation to land and to the animals and plants which grow upon it. Land, like Odysseus of the community to include soils, waters, plants, and animals, or collectively: the land. This sounds simple: doThe Land Ethic by Aldo Leopold 1949 [ This essay is excerpted from Aldo Leopold's book, "A Sand

Hutchens, John

230

Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present-day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing, RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We attribute historical changes in terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo to LULCC using simulations with the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF of changes in atmospheric chemistry and aerosol concentrations attributed to LULCC. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 40% (±16%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We attribute total RFs between 0.9 and 1.9 W m-2 to LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a pre-industrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget, we include a fifth scenario in which all arable land is cultivated by 2100. This theoretical extreme case leads to a LULCC RF of 3.9 W m-2 (±0.9 W m-2), suggesting that not only energy policy but also land policy is necessary to minimize future increases in RF and associated climate changes.

Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

2014-12-01

231

Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing; RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects and land surface albedo. We simulate historical changes to terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo from LULCC using the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF from LULCC impacts on atmospheric chemistry and changes in aerosol concentrations. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We calculate total RFs between 1 to 2 W m-2 from LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a preindustrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget we include a fifth scenario in which all arable land is cultivated by 2100. This "worst-case scenario" leads to a LULCC RF of 4.3 W m-2 (±1.0 W m-2), suggesting that not only energy policy but land policy is necessary to minimize future increases in RF and associated climate changes.

Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

2014-05-01

232

Summary of NASA landing-gear research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a brief summary of the airplane landing gear research underway at NASA. The technology areas include: ground handling simulator, antiskid braking systems, space shuttle nose-gear shimmy, active control landing gear, wire brush skid landing gear, air cushion landing systems, tire/surface friction characteristics, tire mechanical properties, tire-tread materials, powered wheels for taxiing, and crosswind landing gear. This paper deals mainly with the programs on tire-tread materials, powered wheel taxiing, air cushion landing systems, and crosswind landing gear research with particular emphasis on previously unreported results of recently completed flight tests. Work in the remaining areas is only mentioned.

Fisher, B. D.; Sleeper, R. K.; Stubbs, S. M.

1978-01-01

233

The Official Land Patent Records Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) General Land Office, this site currently provides public access to over two million Federal land title records, issued between 1820 and 1908, for twelve Eastern Public Land States. The databases for each state enable researchers to conduct sophisticated cross-field queries to trace the initial transfer of land titles from the Federal government to individuals. Historians may conduct genealogical searches to associate an individual with a particular location during a specific time. The site allows users to order certified copies of land patents at a nominal cost. Note: electronic images for land patent records are viewable as TIF files only.

1999-01-01

234

43 CFR 3400.2 - Lands subject to leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands subject to leasing. 3400.2 Section 3400.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

2011-10-01

235

43 CFR 2541.4 - Price of land; payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Price of land; payment. 2541.4 Section 2541.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

2013-10-01

236

43 CFR 2091.8 - Status of gift lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Status of gift lands. 2091.8 Section 2091.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

2012-10-01

237

43 CFR 2610.0-8 - Lands subject to application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands subject to application. 2610.0-8 Section 2610.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

2013-10-01

238

43 CFR 2091.8 - Status of gift lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Status of gift lands. 2091.8 Section 2091.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

2011-10-01

239

43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3 Section 3811.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

2014-10-01

240

43 CFR 2547.3 - Price of land; payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Price of land; payment. 2547.3 Section 2547.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

2013-10-01

241

43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land subject to disposition. 2520.0-8 Section 2520.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

2013-10-01

242

43 CFR 2541.4 - Price of land; payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Price of land; payment. 2541.4 Section 2541.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

2011-10-01

243

43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3 Section 3811.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

2013-10-01

244

43 CFR 2547.3 - Price of land; payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Price of land; payment. 2547.3 Section 2547.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

2012-10-01

245

43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land subject to disposition. 2520.0-8 Section 2520.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

2014-10-01

246

43 CFR 2545.4 - Price of land; other conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Price of land; other conditions. 2545.4 Section 2545.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

2014-10-01

247

43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land subject to disposition. 2520.0-8 Section 2520.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

2011-10-01

248

43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land subject to disposition. 2520.0-8 Section 2520.0-8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

2012-10-01

249

14 CFR 25.487 - Rebound landing condition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...landing condition. (a) The landing gear and its supporting structure...landing surface. (b) With the landing gear fully extended and not in contact...on the unsprung weights of the landing gear. This load factor must...

2011-01-01

250

14 CFR 25.487 - Rebound landing condition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...landing condition. (a) The landing gear and its supporting structure...landing surface. (b) With the landing gear fully extended and not in contact...on the unsprung weights of the landing gear. This load factor must...

2010-01-01

251

International Symposium on Urban Land Policies and Land Use Systems Center for Urban Studies  

E-print Network

1 International Symposium on Urban Land Policies and Land Use Systems Center for Urban Studies original land-use tools, such as the Legal Density Ceiling, a kind of land tax that the Brazilian. Furthermore, the strong land-use control policy enforced after the second World War in France has enabled

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

Forty Years of Land Use and Land Ownership Change in Central Sierra Nevada  

E-print Network

Forty Years of Land Use and Land Ownership Change in Central Sierra Nevada Oak Woodlands1 Matt owned, and, therefore, highly susceptible to changes in land use and ownership as well as land fragmentation. This is particularly true in the Central Sierra Nevada, where significant changes in land use

Standiford, Richard B.

253

Impact of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in the Surface Fluxes of an Atmospheric Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution numerical weather prediction models are sensitive to changes in the prescribed land use data. The land use and land cover (LULC) information, derived from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors, has been substituted for the Global Land Cover Characterization (GLCC) land use data based on 1-km AVHRR observations in the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS),

Valentine G. Anantharaj; Patrick J. Fitzpatrick; Yongzuo Li; Roger L. King; Gueorgui V. Mostovoy

2006-01-01

254

Land Reform and Land-Use Changes in the Lower Amazon: Implications for Agricultural Intensification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land tenure has been considered one of the key factors that define patterns and change in land-use systems. This paper examines the implications of land reform for household decisions regarding patterns of land use, agricultural intensification, and forest conservation. We look at an Amazonian caboclo settlement in the Lower Amazon that had experienced land reform by the end of the

Célia Futemma; Eduardo S. Brondízio

2003-01-01

255

Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

256

Public land ownership and urban land management effectiveness in Metropolitan Kano, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid urban population expansion in the developing world has created the need for effective land management in urban areas. Effective urban land management is important because of its implication in social and economic development. Public intervention and control of land markets is generally viewed as one of the best means of ensuring the effective management of land. In Nigeria, land

Shaibu Bala Garba

1997-01-01

257

Scheduling Aircraft Landings - The Static Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In this paper we consider the problem,of scheduling aircraft (plane) landings at an airport. This problem,is one of deciding a landing time for each plane such that each plane lands within a predetermined,time window,and separation criteria between,the landing of a plane, and the landing of all successive planes, are respected. We present a mixed-integer zero-one formulation of the problem,for

John E. Beasley; Mohan Krishnamoorthy; Yazid M. Sharaiha; D. Abramson

2000-01-01

258

X-31 landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at the Rockwell International facility, Palmdale, California, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on October 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an airplane with a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft's body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the exhaust nozzle of the X-31 aircraft directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31 aircraft were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. This understanding is expected to lead to design methods that provide better maneuverability in future high performance aircraft and make them safer to fly. An international test organization of about 110 people, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), conducted the flight operations at NASA Dryden. The ARPA had requested flight research for the X-31 aircraft be moved there in February 1992. In addition to ARPA and NASA, the international test organization (ITO) included the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell International, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace). NASA was responsible for flight research operations, aircraft maintenance, and research engineering once the program moved to Dryden. The No. 1 X-31 aircraft was lost in an accident January 19, 1995. The pilot, Karl Heinz-Lang, of the Federal Republic of Germany, ejected safely before the aircraft crashed in an unpopulated desert area just north of Edwards. The X-31 program logged an X-plane record of 580 flights during the program, including 555 research missions and 21 in Europe for the 1995 Paris Air Show. A total of 14 pilots representing all agencies of the ITO flew the aircraft. The X-31 aircraft shown on approach with a high angle of attack, touches down with its speed brakes, which can be seen extended just above and behind the wing. The aircraft then begins to rotate the nosegear down to runway contact and deploys a braking parachute that assists in slowing the aircraft after landing.

1995-01-01

259

Manual Land Cover Mapping Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students produce a land cover map of a 15 km x 15 km GLOBE study site from hard copies of Landsat satellite images. Students place clear transparencies over the Landsat TM images and use markers to outline and classify areas of different land cover using the MUC System. Students use their local expertise of their GLOBE study site and their sample site measurements to create and assess the accuracy of their maps. The resource includes a sample Landsat image, an example of an accuracy assessment work sheet, and a difference-error matrix to validate the degree of accuracy of the student product. This resource is a procedural tutorial supporting the protocol within the Land Cover/Biology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide.

260

Environmental Issues: Land Use Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary technology-embedded middle school science unit focuses on how human activities influence environmental changes related to land use. Students use geospatial information technology (GIT) tools including Google Earth and remotely sensed images to investigate modern day land use issues and land use change over time. It was designed using the Understanding by Design framework and is aligned to national science and geography standards. The unit has modified materials from the NASA-sponsored Mission Geography curricular module, Human footprints on Earth as seen by NASA scientists to take advantage of available, user-friendly geospatial technologies. The materials have been pilot-tested and field-tested in 8th grade classrooms at Broughal Middle School, a technology-rich urban school.

Alec Bodzin

2009-01-01

261

Landing gear energy absorption system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

Hansen, Christopher P. (inventor)

1994-01-01

262

Land classification and ecosystem classification.  

PubMed

Earth, the ecosphere, is a unified functional ecosystem. Ecological land classification (ELC) and regionalization divides and categorizes this unity into similar and dissimilar pieces-sectoral ecosystems - at various scales, in the interests of admiration and understanding. The recognition of land/water ecosystems in a hierarchy of sizes provides a rational base for the many-scaled problems of protection and careful exploitation in the fields of agriculture, forestry, wildlife and recreation. In forested terrain the protection of biodiversity, old growth forests, watersheds and wildlife habitat depends on spatial-temporal planning of forestry operations to maintain a preferred mosaic structure of local ecosystems within each ecological region. Without ecological understanding and a good ELC, this is impossible. Conceiving the world as comprising nested land/water ecosystems that are the source of life, elevates the role of Earth-as-context, an antidote to destructive anthropocentrism. PMID:24197992

Rowe, J S

1996-01-01

263

76 FR 36573 - Public Land Order No. 7770; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6884; Alaska  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLAK-963000-L1410000-FQ0000; AA-5964, AA-3060, AA-5934] Public Land Order No. 7770; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6884; Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of...

2011-06-22

264

25 CFR 162.102 - What land, or interests in land, are subject to these regulations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What land, or interests in land, are subject to these regulations? 162.102...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS General...

2010-04-01

265

76 FR 52347 - Public Land Order No. 7774; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6868; Oregon  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLOR936000-14300000-ET0000; HAG-11-0195; OROR-16124] Public Land Order No. 7774; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6868; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of...

2011-08-22

266

76 FR 23335 - Public Land Order No. 7761; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6849; Nevada  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Public Land Order No. 6849; Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...National Wildlife Refuge in Washoe and Humboldt Counties, Nevada. DATES: Effective Date: April...Bureau of Land Management, Nevada State Office, P.O. Box...

2011-04-26

267

Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video is an edited approach and landing of the Enterprise on Rogers Dry Lake. The air-to-air shot of the Space Shuttle at a few thousand feet above the lakebed, gives some idea of the steepness required for a Shuttle approach; also note the long pitot tube (an appendage used only for flight testing) extending from the Space Shuttle nose.

1977-01-01

268

Relation of land use/land cover to resource demands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predictive models for forecasting residential energy demand are investigated. The models are examined in the context of implementation through manipulation of geographic information systems containing land use/cover information. Remotely sensed data is examined as a possible component in this process.

Clayton, C.

1981-01-01

269

High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Mapping  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As the Nation?s population grows, quantifying, monitoring, and managing land use becomes increasingly important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover (LULC) mapping that has been the model both nationally and internationally for over 20 years. At present, the USGS is producing high-resolution LULC data for several watershed and urban areas within the United States. This high-resolution LULC mapping is part of an ongoing USGS Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP). The four components of the LCCP are global (1:2,000,000-scale), national (1:100,000-scale), urban (1:24,000-scale), and special projects (various scales and time periods). Within the urban and special project components, the USGS Rocky Mountain Mapping Center (RMMC) is collecting historical as well as contemporary high-resolution LULC data. RMMC?s high-resolution LULC mapping builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS LULC programs and provides LULC information to meet user requirements.

U.S. Geological Survey

1999-01-01

270

18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in the acquisition of water rights and grants. (20) Cost of fill to extend bulkhead line over land under water, where riparian rights are held, which is not occasioned by the erection of a structure. (21) Sidewalks and curbs constructed by...

2011-04-01

271

18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...in the acquisition of water rights and grants. (20) Cost of fill to extend bulkhead line over land under water, where riparian rights are held, which is not occasioned by the erection of a structure. (21) Sidewalks and curbs constructed by...

2014-04-01

272

18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in the acquisition of water rights and grants. (20) Cost of fill to extend bulkhead line over land under water, where riparian rights are held, which is not occasioned by the erection of a structure. (21) Sidewalks and curbs constructed by...

2010-04-01

273

18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in the acquisition of water rights and grants. (20) Cost of fill to extend bulkhead line over land under water, where riparian rights are held, which is not occasioned by the erection of a structure. (21) Sidewalks and curbs constructed by...

2013-04-01

274

18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in the acquisition of water rights and grants. (20) Cost of fill to extend bulkhead line over land under water, where riparian rights are held, which is not occasioned by the erection of a structure. (21) Sidewalks and curbs constructed by...

2012-04-01

275

10.1177/0160017604266026 ARTICLEINTERNATIONAL REGIONAL SCIENCE REVIEW (Vol. 27, No. 3, 2004)Walker / THEORIZING LAND-COVER AND LAND-USE CHANGE THEORIZING LAND-COVER AND  

E-print Network

/ THEORIZING LAND-COVER AND LAND-USE CHANGE THEORIZING LAND-COVER AND LAND-USE CHANGE: THE CASE OF TROPICAL@msu.edu This article addresses land-cover and land-use dynamics from the perspective of regional sci- ence and economic to evaluate the potential utility of von Thünen to the dis- course on land-cover and land-use change. After

Walker, Robert T.

276

Reservoir compaction and land subsidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface hydrocarbon removal induces a reservoir compaction that migrates to the ground surface and causes the land to subside. While compaction depends primarily on the fluid pore pressure drawdown, the thickness and the mechanical compressibility of the depleted formation, the amount of compaction reaching the surface depends on the depth and size of the producing field and the stiffness of

Giuseppe Gambolati; Massimiliano Ferronato; Pietro Teatini

2006-01-01

277

Global Consequences of Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by

Jonathan A. Foley; Ruth DeFries; Gregory P. Asner; Carol Barford; Gordon Bonan; Stephen R. Carpenter; F. Stuart Chapin; Michael T. Coe; Gretchen C. Daily; Holly K. Gibbs; Joseph H. Helkowski; Tracey Holloway; Erica A. Howard; Christopher J. Kucharik; Chad Monfreda; Jonathan A. Patz; I. Colin Prentice; Navin Ramankutty; Peter K. Snyder

2005-01-01

278

Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

2010-01-01

279

Carbon sequestration and land degradation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter is not only a viable strategy to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, but is vital for improving the quality of soil. This presentation describes (1) C sequestration concepts and rationale, (2) relevant management approaches to avoid land degradation and fo...

280

Instrument Landing System Performance Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electromagnetic scattering model has been developed for predicting Instrument Landing System (ILS) localizer and glide slope performance. The model is used to predict course structure degradation resulting from a change in the airport environment. Such changes include the addition of new hangars, terminal buildings and control towers as well as terrain modifications. In addition, the model is used to

G. Chin; L. Jordan; D. Kahn; S. Morin

1975-01-01

281

Autonomous landing guidance system validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALG is a combination of raster imaging sensor, head-up displays, flight guidance and procedures which allow pilots to perform hand flown aircraft maneuvers in adverse weather, at night, or in low visibility conditions at facilities with minimal or no ground aids. Maneuvers in the context of ALG relate to takeoff, landing, rollout, taxi and terminal parking. Commercial needs are driven

Long Q. Bui; Michael R. Franklin; Christopher Taylor; Graham Neilson

1997-01-01

282

Atmospheric Ammonia From Undisturbed Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of ammonia from the land areas of the world are calculated by using a simplified model. Soil ammonium concentrations are obtained from relative decomposition and nitrification rates; Henry's law gives the equilibrium concentration of ammonia gas in the soil, and a simplified diffusion equation yields the flux to the atmosphere. The model predicts negligible ammonia production in the polar

G. A. Dawson

1977-01-01

283

Polymorphism in pleistocene land snails.  

PubMed

Under suitable conditions the colors and patterns of the shells of land snails may be preserved for thousands of years. In a late Pleistocene population of Limicolaria martensiana all the major color forms that occur in modern living snails may be distinguished, and the basic polymorphism is at least 8,000 to 10,000 year old. PMID:17830234

Owen, D F

1966-04-01

284

MAINE LANDS OVER 2700 FEET  

EPA Science Inventory

MECON2700 contains areas in Maine with elevations greater than 2700 feet, generated from USGS 1:250,000 DEMs. Areas above 2700 feet are regulated by the Maine Land Use Regulation Commission (MELURC). Areas were generated from USGS 1:250,000 scale digital elevation models using A...

285

The future of land warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of

Bellamy

1987-01-01

286

Zimbabwe Land Crisis Turns Violent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This weekend the land crisis in Zimbabwe was marked by violence as one white farmer was killed and two members of the country's opposition party were the victims of a firebombing. In the past week, Zimbabwe veterans of the country's war for independence began occupying prime farmland owned exclusively by whites. These squatters have demanded that land redistribution promised for years by President Mugabe's government be enacted immediately. Mugabe himself, with an eye on upcoming elections in May, has supported the squatters, warning white farmers that he cannot protect them if they "provoke the war veterans." Early Monday, perhaps in response to international pressure, Mugabe modified his position somewhat, promising to maintain peace in the region, but stopping short of telling squatters to vacate the farms. Land reform has been a major issue in the country since it won its independence from Britain. Currently, about 4,500 white farmers own 11 million hectares of prime agricultural land while one million blacks divide 16 million hectares-typically in drought-prone areas. The political situation in the country also worsened with the firebombing death of two prominent members of the country's opposition party, Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). The killings were an ominous sign for the upcoming elections, especially since Mugabe did not condemn the attacks. Diplomats and observers are concerned that the elections next month may be marred by coercion, corruption, and violence. Not surprisingly, many whites in Zimbabwe have recently sought to reclaim their UK passports in possible preparation for fleeing the country.

Charbonneau, David D.

287

Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions?  

PubMed Central

Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

2013-01-01

288

Land-use/land-cover drives variation in the specific inherent optical properties of estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use/land-cover change impacts the exports of biogeochemically active constituents to estuaries. Specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs) are directly related to the composition of optically active water constituent in estuaries, and are important inputs for semi-analytical ocean color remote sensing algorithms. Studying the relationship between land-use/land-cover and SIOPs may help us to better understand how land-use/land-cover change affects the biological properties in the estuaries, and assist to optimize and tune local ocean color remote sensing algorithms for water quality retrieval. Using data from six estuaries on the northeast coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the relationships between land-use/land-cover and SIOPs were analyzed in this study. The results showed that land-use/land-cover change significantly affected the SIOPs in the six systems. Changing vegetation (Evergreen+Wetland) cover to developed land cover (Urban+Agriculture) decreased specific phytoplankton absorption (a*ph), but increased the slope of absorption spectral from detrital particles (Sd) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (Sg). These trends indicated that land-use/land-cover change significantly influenced the phytoplankton cell size distribution, organic particle concentration, and the ratio of dissolved organic matter to dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DOC/DIN) in these systems by enhancing the nutrient loading and organic matter transport. The strong relationships between SIOPs and land-use/land-cover implied that the variation of SIOPs may be predictable in different systems with knowledge of land-use/land-cover.

Le, C.; Lehrter, J. C.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Hu, C.

2013-12-01

289

Land Application of Organic Fertilizers or Amendments  

E-print Network

Mechell, Daren Harmel and Bruce Lesikar* Land Application of Organic Fertilizers or Amendments Preventing Environmental Problems When too much organic fertilizer is applied to land, plants cannot use all of the applied nutrients. Then, when rainwater...

Harmel, Daren; Mechell, Justin; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2007-12-13

290

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2011-07-01

291

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2013-07-01

292

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2010-07-01

293

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2012-07-01

294

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2014-07-01

295

AERIAL OF SHUTTLE LANDING FACILITY [SLF] TOWWAY  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AERIAL OF SHUTTLE LANDING FACILITY [SLF] TOWWAY KSC-375C-10050.01 108-KSC-375C-10050.1, P-18791, ARCHIVE-04491 Aerial oblique of Orbiter Landing Facility - Shuttle runway towway. Alt. 200' direction - north.

1975-01-01

296

43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will be compatible with...

2013-10-01

297

43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will be compatible with...

2011-10-01

298

43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will be compatible with...

2010-10-01

299

43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will be compatible with...

2012-10-01

300

43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will be compatible with...

2014-10-01

301

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or waste, leases on...

2013-04-01

302

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or waste, leases on...

2011-04-01

303

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or waste, leases on...

2014-04-01

304

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or waste, leases on...

2012-04-01

305

33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be installed. (b) The personnel landings shall be provided with satisfactory illumination. The minimum shall be one-foot candle of artificial illumination as measured at the landing floor and guards and...

2013-07-01

306

33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall be installed. (b) The personnel landings shall be provided with satisfactory illumination. The minimum shall be one-foot candle of artificial illumination as measured at the landing floor and guards and...

2011-07-01

307

33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shall be installed. (b) The personnel landings shall be provided with satisfactory illumination. The minimum shall be one-foot candle of artificial illumination as measured at the landing floor and guards and...

2012-07-01

308

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2014-01-01

309

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2012-01-01

310

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2013-01-01

311

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2011-01-01

312

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2010-01-01

313

Enhanced vision for adverse weather aircraft landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landing in poor weather is a crucial problem for the air transportation system of the future. To aid the pilots for these conditions several solutions have been suggested and\\/or implemented including instrument landing system(ILS) and microwave landing system(MLS) that put the responsibility of the landing to a large extent in the hands of the airport facilities. These systems even though

Firooz Sadjadi; Mike Helgeson; Jeff Radke; Gunter Stein

1996-01-01

314

Mars Rover/Sample Return landing strategy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the analysis and results of an investigation of the Mars Rover/Sample Return mission's landing strategy, together with the trade-offs of different landing strategies. The percentile points and the descriptive statistics of the probability distribution of traverse distances are calculated using a simple model formulated on the basis of landing error characteristics. The results show that variations in the landing stratgegy can significantly affect the traverse distance requirements, which range from 20 to 200 km.

Friedlander, Alan L.; German, Darla J.

1988-01-01

315

Climate and Land Degradation — an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of land degradation in the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) gives explicit recognition\\u000a to climatic variations as one of the major factors contributing to land degradation. In order to accurately assess sustainable\\u000a land management practices, the climate resources and the risk of climate-related or induced natural disasters in a region\\u000a must be known. Land surface is

Mannava V. K. Sivakumar; Robert Stefanski

316

High impact forces in skateboarding landings affected by landing outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Despite concerns elicited by the injury-rate statistics for skateboarding, the literature has been silent on biomechanical factors that might be causing or exacerbating these injuries. To help fill this void, we sought to describe the kinetic characteristics of landing from a rail slide, one of the more high-risk, albeit common, maneuvers practiced by skateboarders. Methods. Twelve top-amateur or professional

Jeremy J. Determan; Edward C. Frederick; Joseph S. Cox; Matthew N. Nevitt

2010-01-01

317

Land Use. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land use is the subject of the student resource unit to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Uses of the land in an urban environment, suburban environment, rural environment (as cropland, forest, and others), recreation and parks, and other environments are described. The supply of and demand for land is discussed.…

Tulloch, Rodney W.

318

Land Use Planning (3cr.) Spring 2007  

E-print Network

ENV 3016 Land Use Planning (3cr.) Spring 2007 Tuesday 2:30-5:30 Bogue 17 Instructor Greg Brown Juergensmeyer, J.C. and T.E. Roberts. (2003). Land Use Planning and Development Regulation Law. St. Paul, MN: West Group. Randolph, J. (2004). Environmental Land Use Planning and Management. Washington, DC: Island

Brown, Gregory G.

319

3, 34393472, 2006 Uncertainties in land  

E-print Network

in gridded land use data derived from Remote Sensing observations, in the context of hydrological studiesHESSD 3, 3439­3472, 2006 Uncertainties in land use data G. Castilla Title Page Abstract are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Uncertainties in land use

Boyer, Edmond

320

Land Information Systems in Developing Countries  

E-print Network

Land Information Systems in Developing Countries: Bibliography Compiled by: Harlan Onsrud Jeff Acknowledgments Articles on land information systems and cadastral systems in developing countries are spread and Geomatics Engineering at the University of New Brunswick and the Land Tenure Center at the University

California at Santa Barbara, University of

321

Land Tenure Center 50th Anniversary Celebration  

E-print Network

Land Tenure Center 50th Anniversary Celebration ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ University of Wisconsin Land Tenure Forum: 9:00am­3:45pm: Union South, 3rd floor Three panel sessions & Life Sciences 9:15-10:30 ­ Panel 1: Large Scale Land Concessions & Acquisitions. 10:30-11:00 - Coffee

Sheridan, Jennifer

322

Indiana Land Values Rise Another Seven Percent  

E-print Network

Indiana Land Values Rise Another Seven Percent J. H. Atkinson, Professor and Kim Cook, Research by an increase in the value of top and average land of over 7% for the most current year ending in June, 1995, according to the Purdue land values survey. Crops were good in 1994, corn and bean prices moved up nicely

323

LAND MANAGEMENT Statutory Instrument 1982 No 648  

E-print Network

LAND MANAGEMENT Statutory Instrument 1982 No 648 THE FORESTRY COMMISSION BYELAWS The Forestry. In these byelaws:- "the Arboretum" means those lands of the Commissioners known as the Westonbirt Arboretum, Silk" means the Forestry Commissioners; "the Forest of Dean" means the lands of the Commissioners which

324

Land Tenure Center 50th Anniversary Celebration  

E-print Network

1 Land Tenure Center · 50th Anniversary Celebration University of Wisconsin-Madison Information Describing Panel Sessions on: Saturday, April 28, 2012 & Sunday, April 29, 2012 The Land Tenure Center's 50th involving land tenure in the future. Friday evening, April 27 ­ 7-9 pm ­ Weekend opener: get

Sheridan, Jennifer

325

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians...ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA...Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or...

2010-04-01

326

THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH. Thomson's Land.  

E-print Network

THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH. Thomson's Land. Holyrood Campus. A GUIDE TO ACCESS AND FACILITIES. Address Thomson's Land. The University of Edinburgh, Holyrood, Edinburgh, E,H,8, 8,A,Q, Telephone. 0,1,3,1,. 6,5,1, 6,1,3,8, Map Link. http://www.ed.ac.uk/maps?building=thomsons-land #12;Page 1. If you require

Edinburgh, University of

327

State Agency Land Leases Prepared for the  

E-print Network

. Richardson School of Law University of Hawai`i And submitted to Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute School ..........................................................................................................................................................v A. DEPARTMENT OF LAND AND NATURAL RESOURCES ..................................................................................................... 17 A. Board of Land and Natural Resources Authority to Dispose of Public Lands

328

Autonomous Landing of Miniature Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a simple algorithm for automated landing of miniature aerial vehicles (MAVs). Utilizing estimates of height above ground from barometric pressure and optic ?ow measurements, repeated landings were performed with a 1.5 m wingspan MAV. With height above ground estimated from barometric pressure measurements alone, landing errors averaged 7.6 m. When optic ?ow and barometric pressure measurements were

D. Blake; Barber Stephen; R. Gri-ths; Timothy W. McLain; Randal W. Beard

329

UBC Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands  

E-print Network

UBC Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands fonds Compiled by Erwin Wodarczak (2001 Description UBC Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands fonds. ­ 1982-2001. 12 cm of textual materials. Administrative History The Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands was established by UBC in 1981. Its basic

Handy, Todd C.

330

Guidance characteristics of GNSS landing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and operation concepts for precision landing have evolved around the signal in space characteristics of the Instrument Landing System (ILS). For the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Landing System (GLS), many of these characteristics will be dependent on computational processes inside the airborne receiver. Development of GLS standards creates an opportunity to improve on inherent ILS limitations while retaining

A. Stratton

1998-01-01

331

PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE ON LAND  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this paper is to discuss the acceptance of municipal wastewater sludge on land in the United States. Application to land has been an economical disposal method for cities and a means of increasing soil productivity. Use of land for sludge disposal is increasing. ...

332

Black Rural Land Decline in the South  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that it is widely accepted that millions of blacks who migrated from the South contributed significantly to the decline of black rural land ownership. However, the less than altruistic behavior patterns of land officials has also contributed to the loss of rural land by blacks. (Author/AM)

McGee, Leo; Boone, Robert

1977-01-01

333

Rehabilitation of degraded tropical forest lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area of tropical forest lands in high rainfall areas that is already degraded is great and growing rapidly. Rehabilitation of such lands is important so their biological productivity can support people and reduce pressures for degradation of additional tropical forest lands. While further knowledge and experience is needed, there is a sufficient basis for trial programs. The economic and

Thomas E. Lovejoy

1985-01-01

334

The Closest Living Relatives of Land Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The embryophytes (land plants) have long been thought to be related to the green algal group Charophyta, though the nature of this relationship and the origin of the land plants have remained unresolved. A four-gene phylogenetic analysis was conducted to investigate these relationships. This analysis supports the hypothesis that the land plants are placed phylogenetically within the Charophyta, identifies the

Kenneth G. Karol; Richard M. McCourt; Matthew T. Cimino; Charles F. Delwiche

2001-01-01

335

Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

1974-01-01

336

Women and Land Rights Reforms in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Land rights are usually conceived of as the rights to use, enjoy and exploit land including information about, decision - making around and benefits from the latter. Women's land rights are fragile and transient, being dependent upon age and marital status (including type of marriage and the success of that marriage), whether they had children (including the number and

Bioye Tajudeen ALUKO; Abdul-Rasheed AMIDU

2006-01-01

337

14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exceptional piloting skill or alertness. (c) For landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level...required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on water must be determined on...

2013-01-01

338

14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...exceptional piloting skill or alertness. (c) For landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level...required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on water must be determined on...

2012-01-01

339

14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...exceptional piloting skill or alertness. (c) For landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level...required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on water must be determined on...

2014-01-01

340

14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exceptional piloting skill or alertness. (c) For landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level...required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on water must be determined on...

2010-01-01

341

14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...exceptional piloting skill or alertness. (c) For landplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on land must be determined on a level...required to control the airplane. (d) For seaplanes and amphibians, the landing distance on water must be determined on...

2011-01-01

342

Discovering the Effect Mining has on Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an investigation where students observe what happens to land after it is mined. Students will create a hypothesis, observe their model, conclude what happens to land after it is mined, and discover the role humans play in land conservation.

Olson, Debra

343

Forming Weld Lands On Metal Plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forming shoe pounds edge of newly inserted plate workpiece. After many passes of shoe and advances of plate, thick land builds up at edge. Workpiece heated to enable metal to flow without strain hardening. Proposed upset-forming process replaces relatively expensive, time-consuming, and wasteful process in which integral weld lands created by machining metal away from plates everywhere except at lands.

Weddendorf, Bruce

1994-01-01

344

Scheduling Aircraft Landings The Dynamic Case  

E-print Network

Scheduling Aircraft Landings The Dynamic Case Master Thesis April 2007 Supervisor: Jens Clausen #12;Abstract This Master Theses is about solving the aircraft landing problem dynamically. Given an original landing schedule for the incoming aircraft this schedule are rescheduled whenever an aircraft

345

The Land Ethic by Aldo Leopold  

E-print Network

no ethic dealing with man's relation to land and to the animals and plants which grow upon it. Land, likeThe Land Ethic by Aldo Leopold 1949 [ This essay is excerpted from Aldo Leopold's book A Sand a process in ecological evolution. Its sequences may be described in ecological as well as well

Harms, Kyle E.

346

Identifying land cover variability distinct from land cover change: Cheatgrass in the Great Basin  

E-print Network

401 863 9845. E-mail address: Bethany_Bradley@brown.edu (B.A. Bradley). Remote Sensing of EnvironmentIdentifying land cover variability distinct from land cover change: Cheatgrass in the Great Basin August 2004 Abstract An understanding of land use/land cover change at local, regional, and global scales

Bradley, Bethany

347

Land Tenure and Land Administration Issues in Guatemala Danielle Kelly Donovan  

E-print Network

Land Tenure and Land Administration Issues in Guatemala Danielle Kelly Donovan danielle.donovan@spatial.maine.edu May 2002 1. Abstract The evolution of land tenure in Guatemala is a mix of the native Mayan owned land but not an exclusive ownership setting. However, this patriarchal landholding system went

Onsrud, Harlan J.

348

LAND SURFACE ALBEDO AND ITS IMPACT ON MODELING LAND-SURFACE-ATMOSPHERE INTERACTIONS  

E-print Network

LAND SURFACE ALBEDO AND ITS IMPACT ON MODELING LAND-SURFACE- ATMOSPHERE INTERACTIONS Yu Xie and Wei.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Land-surface-atmosphere interaction has been received increasing attention in the past a few decades. The current land surface models and parameterizations are concerned

Johnson, Peter D.

349

Gaffney, Land in Capital Theory p. 1 "Keeping Land in Capital Theory  

E-print Network

Gaffney, Land in Capital Theory p. 1 "Keeping Land in Capital Theory: Ricardo, Faustmann, Wicksell in a 2-factor world: there are just labor and capital. Land, so central to classical political economy treatments of land and capital, their interrelations, and how they support modern Georgists and Greens who

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

350

Monitoring urban land cover change: An expert system approach to land cover classification  

E-print Network

Monitoring urban land cover change: An expert system approach to land cover classification 2001; accepted 1 March 2001 Abstract The spatial and temporal distribution of land cover with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to derive a land cover classification for the semiarid Phoenix

Ramsey, Michael

351

ForEnvironmentalManagementofMilitaryLands Land Condition-Trend Analysis  

E-print Network

THECENTER ForEnvironmentalManagementofMilitaryLands Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) II Survey Using MS Access to Analyze Land Condition-Trend Analysis Data A Beginner's Guide By Christine Bern CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado

352

BusRapidTransitandLandUse Bus Transit and Land Use  

E-print Network

BusRapidTransitandLandUse 21 Bus Transit and Land Use: Illuminating the Interaction Andy Johnson transit in urban areas has proven to be a difficult task indeed. Recent research on the transportation­land use connection has suggested that transit use can be increased through transit-friendly land use

Levinson, David M.

353

43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...by application to close lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section 3101.4 Public...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.4 Lands...by application to close lands to mineral leasing. Offers filed on lands within a...

2011-10-01

354

Land Banking as Metropolitan Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the United States continues to grapple with a financial crisis, many scholars and policy pundits are looking at ways to improve the lot of American cities. One recently proposed idea is land banking, which is "the process or policy by which local governments acquire surplus properties and convert them to productive use or hold them for long term strategic public purposes." In this 39-page paper released in October 2008, Frank S. Alexander of The Brookings Institution offers a lucid and compelling exploration of how land banking might be used at the federal level in order to support the millions of properties that are currently in the process of foreclosure, or those which are already vacant and abandoned. The report contains an executive summary and nine chapters (including a conclusion) which discuss the ways in which such a policy might be implemented over the short and long term.

355

Global Consequences of Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.

Foley, Jonathan A.; DeFries, Ruth; Asner, Gregory P.; Barford, Carol; Bonan, Gordon; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Coe, Michael T.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Helkowski, Joseph H.; Holloway, Tracey; Howard, Erica A.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Monfreda, Chad; Patz, Jonathan A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Ramankutty, Navin; Snyder, Peter K.

2005-07-01

356

72 FR 24267 - Gunnison Basin Federal Lands Travel Management Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service DEPARTMENT OF...Land Management Gunnison Basin Federal Lands Travel Management Plan AGENCIES: Forest Service, USDA, Bureau...by BLM. Both National Forest System lands and public lands in the Gunnison Basin will be addressed...

2007-05-02

357

43 CFR 2561.0-8 - Lands subject to allotment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Native Allotments § 2561.0-8 Lands subject to allotment. (a) A Native...

2012-10-01

358

43 CFR 2561.0-8 - Lands subject to allotment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Native Allotments § 2561.0-8 Lands subject to allotment. (a) A Native...

2011-10-01

359

43 CFR 2565.5 - Sale of the land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Non-native Townsites § 2565.5 Sale of the land. (a) Public sale of unclaimed...

2013-10-01

360

43 CFR 2561.0-8 - Lands subject to allotment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Native Allotments § 2561.0-8 Lands subject to allotment. (a) A Native...

2013-10-01

361

43 CFR 2561.0-8 - Lands subject to allotment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Native Allotments § 2561.0-8 Lands subject to allotment. (a) A Native...

2014-10-01

362

43 CFR 2565.5 - Sale of the land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Non-native Townsites § 2565.5 Sale of the land. (a) Public sale of unclaimed...

2012-10-01

363

43 CFR 2565.5 - Sale of the land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Non-native Townsites § 2565.5 Sale of the land. (a) Public sale of unclaimed...

2011-10-01

364

43 CFR 2565.5 - Sale of the land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Non-native Townsites § 2565.5 Sale of the land. (a) Public sale of unclaimed...

2014-10-01

365

43 CFR 418.8 - Types of eligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Types of eligible land. 418.8 Section 418.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2012-10-01

366

36 CFR 292.22 - Land category assignments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Land category assignments. 292.22 Section 292.22...AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Private Lands § 292.22 Land category assignments. (a) Land categories....

2013-07-01

367

43 CFR 426.4 - Attribution of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Attribution of land. 426.4 Section 426.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2013-10-01

368

43 CFR 426.4 - Attribution of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Attribution of land. 426.4 Section 426.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2014-10-01

369

30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section 874...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water...

2013-07-01

370

43 CFR 426.4 - Attribution of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Attribution of land. 426.4 Section 426.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2011-10-01

371

43 CFR 418.8 - Types of eligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of eligible land. 418.8 Section 418.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2010-10-01

372

43 CFR 418.8 - Types of eligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Types of eligible land. 418.8 Section 418.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2014-10-01

373

43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess land appraisals. 426.13 Section 426.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2011-10-01

374

30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land eligible for acquisition. 879.11 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.11 Land eligible...

2010-07-01

375

43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Excess land appraisals. 426.13 Section 426.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2012-10-01

376

36 CFR 292.22 - Land category assignments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Land category assignments. 292.22 Section 292.22...AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Private Lands § 292.22 Land category assignments. (a) Land categories....

2011-07-01

377

43 CFR 426.4 - Attribution of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attribution of land. 426.4 Section 426.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2010-10-01

378

25 CFR 292.11 - What are “restored lands”?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES GAMING ON TRUST LANDS ACQUIRED AFTER OCTOBER 17, 1988 Exceptions...Prohibitions on Gaming on Newly Acquired Lands Restored Landsâ Exception § 292.11 What are “restored lands”? For newly acquired lands to...

2010-04-01

379

43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess land appraisals. 426.13 Section 426.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2010-10-01

380

30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Land eligible for acquisition. 879.11 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.11 Land eligible...

2012-07-01

381

36 CFR 292.22 - Land category assignments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land category assignments. 292.22 Section 292.22...AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Private Lands § 292.22 Land category assignments. (a) Land categories....

2010-07-01

382

Land capability classification of minesoils in East Texas  

E-print Network

for the post-mine land. A land capability classification specific to minesoils will facilitate the design of appropriate land uses or alternative uses for reclaimed mine areas based on observed limitations. The proposed system is similar to the Land...

Barth, Amy Kristen

2012-06-07

383

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 23 - Basic Landing Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...landing with inclined reactions Level landing with nose wheel just clear of ground Tail-down landing Reference section 23.479(a...is most critical for each element of the landing gear. Note (3). Unbalanced...

2010-01-01

384

14 CFR Appendix C to Part 23 - Basic Landing Conditions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...landing with inclined reactions Level landing with nose wheel just clear of ground Tail-down landing Reference section 23.479(a...is most critical for each element of the landing gear. Note (3). Unbalanced...

2011-01-01

385

15 Most Endangered Wild Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, recently released by the Wilderness Society, describes the "15 most endangered wild lands" and the threats to each. The list includes Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Badger-Two Medicine, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Cascade Crest, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges, Mojave Desert, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Owyhee Canyonlands, Petroglyph National Monument, Routt National Forest, Utah Wilderness, and Western Maine Woods.

386

DYNAMICS OF LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGE IN TROPICAL REGIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We highlight the complexity of land-use\\/cover change and propose a framework for a more general understanding of the issue, with emphasis on tropical regions. The review summarizes recent estimates on changes in cropland, agricultural intensification, tropical deforestation, pasture expansion, and urbanization and identifies the still unmeasured land-cover changes. Climate-driven land-cover modifications interact with land-use changes. Land-use change is driven by

Eric F. Lambin; Helmut J. Geist; Erika Lepers

2003-01-01

387

Land use\\/land cover change in Yellow River Delta, China during fast development period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial eco-system in coastal zones is unstable and land-use and Land-cover of its land resource are crucial for its sustainability. Therefore it is necessary to understand distribution of land use\\/cover changes in those tender areas. This paper was to analyze changes of land use\\/cover in Yellow River Delta in China during recent ten years, which was its fast development period,

Wenzuo Zhou; Yongzhong Tian; Lifen Zhu

2007-01-01

388

Land availability and land value assessment for solar ponds in the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The land availability and land values for solar ponds in the United States as they concern the residential, commercial, and institutional land use categories were investigated. Solar ponds were identified as efficient and economical means for collecting and storing direct and diffuse solar energy. Innovative methodologies were applied to arrive at regional projections regarding the amount of land that might potentially be available for retrofit or future solar pond applications. Regional land values were also documented and analyzed.

1982-01-01

389

Zooming in on Landing Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Zooming in on Landing Site

This animation zooms in on the area on Mars where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will touchdown on May 25, 2008. The image was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

The first shot shows the spacecraft's landing ellipse in green, the area where Phoenix has a high probability of landing. It then zooms in to show the region's arctic terrain. This polar landscape is relatively free of rocks, with only about 1 to 2 rocks 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) or larger in an area about as big as two football fields.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo.

2008-01-01

390

Land use map, Finney County, Kansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Methods for the mapping of land use in agricultural regions are developed and applied to preparation of a land use map of Finney County, Kanas. Six land use categories were identified from an MSS-5 image. These categories are: (1) large field irrigation; (2) small field irrigation; (3) dryland cultivation; (4) rangeland; (5) cultural features; and (6) riverine land. The map is composed of basically homogeneous regions with definable mixtures of the six categories. Each region is bounded by an ocularly evident change in land use.

Morain, S. A. (principal investigator); Williams, D. L.; Coiner, J. C.

1973-01-01

391

Changes in Land Use and Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use change is one of the main drivers of many processes of environmental change, as it influences basic resources of the landscape including the soil. Poor land management can rapidly deteriorate vast amounts of land, which frequently becomes a major threat to rural subsistence in many developing countries. Conversely, impact of land use changes on soil also can occur so unnoticed that land managers hardly contemplate initiating ameliorative measures. Subsequently, changes in land use affect soil properties and processes at a variety of scales. For example, forest conversion to cropland and reduction of tillage intensity can prevail as main changes of land use in some regions, whereas abandon of agricultural fields can be a major concern in other regions. In non-agricultural context, changes of land use of major interest are driven by urbanization, landscaping, engineering, mining, contamination, etc. Disturbed soils are not necessarily lost to agriculture, forestry, amenity or other alternative uses. Knowledge and understanding of soil properties and processes ensures remediation or reclamation of disturbed or damaged soils. Therefore, we focus mainly on how soil properties and processes can be managed and controlled to mitigate the impact of changes in land use. Moreover, land use changes occur at different spatial and temporal scales. Currently, the most promising approaches to evaluate the complex interaction between land use and soil heterogeneity at various scales apply advanced statistical and mathematical methods.

Paz-González, A.; Tarquis, A.; de Abreu, C. A.; Olechko, K.; Sáa, A.; Gobin, A.; Gómez, J. A.; Kutilek, M.

2012-04-01

392

Improving Hydrology in Land Ice Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community Earth System Model Land Ice Working Group Meeting; Boulder, Colorado, 13 January 2011 ; Recent observations indicate that mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets (“land ice”) is increasing. The drivers of these changes are not well understood, and modeling the land ice response to them remains challenging. As a result, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change explicitly avoided speculating on 21st-century sea level rise from ice dynamical processes in its fourth assessment report. The mismatch between observations of land ice change and model skill at mimicking those changes is behind recent efforts to develop next-generation land ice models. Necessary improvements to existing models include improved dynamics, coupling to climate models, and better representations of important boundary conditions and physical processes. Basal sliding, the primary control on the rate of land ice delivery to the oceans, is one such boundary condition that is largely controlled by land ice hydrology.

Price, Stephen; Flowers, Gwenn; Schoof, Christian

2011-05-01

393

76 FR 23334 - Public Land Order No. 7763; Partial Revocation of Public Land Order No. 3708; Alaska  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLAK-963000-L1410000-FQ0000; F-025943] Public Land Order No. 7763; Partial Revocation of Public Land Order No. 3708; Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

2011-04-26

394

76 FR 21914 - Public Land Order No. 7762; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6845; New Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLNMA02000-L1430000.ET0000; NMNM77967] Public Land Order No. 7762; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6845; New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

2011-04-19

395

MSU at Work in Africa: Land Use, Strategic Growth  

E-print Network

MSU at Work in Africa: Land Use, Strategic Growth and Prosperity Land, Economic Development facing communities. Rethinking Land Use: Beyond Food Security Most land-based intervention programs are related to land, its use, land ownership rights, and the postagrarian infrastructure needed to produce

396

Global Land Use History: A New Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human use of land has transformed the terrestrial biosphere, causing global changes in ecosystems, landscapes, biogeochemistry, climate, and biodiversity. This global transformation is commonly described as recent in human-environment history. Interdisciplinary paleo and historical data reconstructions and global land use and land cover modeling challenge this view, indicating that human use of land has been extensive and sustained for millennia, and may represent more of a recovery than an acceleration of land use in this century and beyond. Here we present a new global synthesis of recent scientific work on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a global force transforming the Earth system. Central to this synthesis is early human use of fire to engineer ecosystems and other systemic changes in land use dynamics, which together explain how relatively small human populations may have caused widespread and profound ecological changes early in the Holocene, while the largest human populations in history are associated with forests recovery across large regions. While quantitative global models of Holocene and even contemporary land use are still at early stage of development, improved land use histories and models that incorporate land change processes offer a more spatially detailed and accurate view of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. The implicit view from the Anthropocene that humans have reached a historical moment in which "wild nature" is threatened is thus challenged by a view that humans are ancestral shapers and permanent stewards of Earth's terrestrial surface. Land use intensification processes have long sustained human interactions with the terrestrial biosphere, and they continue to evolve as populations grow and urbanize. While these processes are rapidly shifting from their historic patterns in both scale and type, integrative land use and land cover models that incorporate dynamics in human-environment relations help advance our understanding of both past and future land use changes and their global effects.

Ellis, E. C.

2011-12-01

397

Offshore investigations on Wilkes land-Victoria land margin, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

In January 1984, the US Geological Survey research vessel S. P. Lee carried out investigations of the Antarctic continental margin in the Wilkes Land Victoria Land areas, using 24-channel and high-resolution seismic, sonobuoy refraction, gravity, magnetic, and bottom-sampling methods. This investigation augmented previous surveys of the Dumont d'Urville area by the French Petroleum Institute and explored new areas west and east to the boundary between the onshore Wilkes basin and the Victoria Land highlands. These surveys defined sediment thickness distribution and seismic stratigraphy in this frontier area. The tectonic style of the boundary between the East Antarctic craton and the younger crust of West Antarctica in the Ross Sea is revealed by one multichannel seismic line across this important boundary. The initial breakup of Antarctical from Australia occurred as a slowly spreading phase during the middle Cretaceous. According to Deep Sea Drilling Project results on the Tasman Rise, conditions of restricted circulation existed in the growing basin between the continents before the late Eocene. After the late Eocene, the major oceanic circulation pattern was established. Before that time, conditions were favorable for preservation of organic-carbon deposits on the sea floor. Among the questions to be addressed with this data are the following. How do apparent subsidence rates of this passive margin compare with others around the world. Does the onshore subglacial Wilkes basins to the Otway and Ceduna basins of Australia exists. What is the effect of the ice cap on the stratigraphy of this margin. Do the two major Tertiary ice advances have conspicuous seismic-stratigraphic signatures.

Eittreim, S.L.

1984-04-01

398

Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The solid Earth is the foundation upon which the entire system rests, and provides the critical substrate and reservoir of raw materials the rest of the system. The solid Earth also records the past in the ...

399

Analysis of land use and land cover change in a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro using  

E-print Network

1 Analysis of land use and land cover change in a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro using high opportunities, but require intensive resource management and environmental protection. Land use and land cover. This study quantitatively describes spatiotemporal changes of land use and land cover over the last four

400

Theorizing Land-Cover and Land-Use Change: The Case of the Florida Everglades and Its Degradation  

E-print Network

Theorizing Land-Cover and Land-Use Change: The Case of the Florida Everglades and Its Degradation to the comprehension of regional land-cover and land-use change. The second objective is to deploy the theoretical's socionature, and the regimes governing land-cover and land-use change that led to wetlands reclamation

Walker, Robert T.

401

Monitoring 1985-2005 land use and land cover change in the Phoenix metropolitan area: distance and direction  

E-print Network

Monitoring 1985-2005 land use and land cover change in the Phoenix metropolitan area: distance changed the land surfaces in Phoenix. Changes of land use and land cover, especially from the expansion converted into some category of urban use, 54% was agricultural and 40% was desert land. Of the converted

Hall, Sharon J.

402

The Land Gini Coefficient and Its Application for Land Use Structure Analysis in China  

PubMed Central

We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types–farmland, built-up land and unused land–was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764

Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

2013-01-01

403

Connecting Indicators with land degradation and desertification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of 72 selected candidate indicators corresponding to the physical environment, social, economic, and land management characteristics were defined in 1672 field sites located in 17 study sites in the Mediterranean and eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The selected indicators refer to specific farm characteristics such as family status, land tenure, present and previous types of land use, period of existing type of land use, soil depth, slope gradient, tillage operations, tillage depth and direction, etc., as well as to regional characteristics such as annual rainfall, rain seasonality, water availability, water quality and quantity, rate of land abandonment, rate of burned area, etc. Based on existing geo-referenced database, classes have been designated for each indicator and presented in a tabulated form. Weighing indices have been assigned to each class based on existing research or empirically assessing the importance to land degradation and desertification. Various processes or causes related to land degradation and desertification important for the study sites have been studied and the most relevant indicators have been defined. Questionnaires for each process or cause have been prepared and data were collected at field site level in collaboration with land users. The obtained data were statistically analyzed to identify the most important indicators related to each process or cause affecting land degradation and desertification. The analyses have shown that indicators may be widely, even globally, used for assessing the various land degradation and desertification processes or causes at field level. Of course, some indicators related to agriculture, social, and institutional characteristics in some cases show trends that are opposite to what happens in other study sites. These trends can be explained by further investigation including other indicators or processes affecting land degradation and desertification that it was not possible to consider in this effort. Efficiency and performance indicators seem the most promising for further research, particularly combined with economic principles for assessing land degradation and desertification. Key words: Indicators, land degradation, desertification

Kosmas, C.

2012-04-01

404

Hyperspectral Data for Land use/Land cover classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made to compare the multispectral Resourcesat-2 LISS III and Hyperion image for the selected area at sub class level classes of major land use/ land cover. On-screen interpretation of LISS III (resolution 23.5 m) was compared with Spectral Angle Mapping (SAM) classification of Hyperion (resolution 30m). Results of the preliminary interpretation of both images showed that features like fallow, built up and wasteland classes in Hyperion image are clearer than LISS-III and Hyperion is comparable with any high resolution data. Even canopy types of vegetation classes, aquatic vegetation and aquatic systems are distinct in Hyperion data. Accuracy assessment of SAM classification of Hyperion compared with the common classification systems followed for LISS III there was no much significant difference between the two. However, more number of vegetation classes could be classified in SAM. There is a misinterpretation of built up and fallow classes in SAM. The advantages of Hyperion over visual interpretation are the differentiation of the type of crop canopy and also crop stage could be confirmed with the spectral signature. The Red edge phenomenon was found for different canopy type of the study area and it clearly differentiated the stage of vegetation, which was verified with high resolution image. Hyperion image for a specific area is on par with high resolution data along with LISS III data.

Vijayan, D.; Shankar, G. Ravi; Shankar, T. Ravi

2014-11-01

405

Simulation of X-38 Landing Scenarios With Landing Gear Failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abnormal landing scenarios of the X-38 prototype Crew Rescue Vehicle (CRV) were modeled for three different cases involving non-deployment of landing gear with an explicit dynamic nonlinear finite element code, MSC/DYTRAN. The goal of this research was to develop models to predict the probability of crew injuries. The initial velocity conditions for the X-38 with chute deployed were 10 ft/s vertical and 57 ft/s longitudinal velocity. An MSC/NASTRAN structural model was supplied by JSC and was converted to a dynamic MSC/DYTRAN model. The MSC/NASTRAN model did not include seats or floor structure; thus, the acceleration of a lumped-mass attached to the bulkhead near each assumed occupant location was used to determine injury risk for each occupant. The worst case for injury was nondeployment of all gears. The mildest case was nondeployment of one main gear. Although a probability for minor injury was predicted for all cases, it is expected that the addition of energy-absorbing floor structure and seats would greatly diminish the probability of injury.

Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Stockwell, Alan E.

2000-01-01

406

Wind Development on Tribal Lands  

SciTech Connect

Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

2008-01-18

407

Land mobile satellite demonstration system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A land mobile satellite demonstration system is described. It ulilizes the INMARSAT MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W. The system provides data transmission using a poll-response protocol with error detection and retransmission at 200 b/s rate. For most tests a 1.8 inch monopole antenna was used, along with a satellite EIRP normally used for four voice channels. A brief summary of the results are given and the overall system consisting of three elements in addition to the satellite (the mobile unit, the base station, and the office terminal and map display) is described. Throughput statistics from one trip are summarized.

Gooch, Guy M.; Nicholas, David C.

1988-01-01

408

Land mobile satellite propagation results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Fall of 1987 a land mobile satellite demonstration using the MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W was performed. While all the data have not been digested, some observations are in order. First, the system worked remarkably well for the margins indicated. Second, when the system worked poorly, the experimenters could almost always identify terrain or other obstacles causing blockage. Third, the forward link seems relatively more reliable than the return link, and occasional return link problems occured which have not been entirely explained.

Nicholas, David C.

1988-01-01

409

Featured Videos: Urban Land Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Land Institute (ULI) offers up high-quality seminars, conferences, research materials, and long term planning information for real estate professionals, urbanologists, public leaders, and others. Its Featured Videos include observations from professionals in Europe talking about large scale megaprojects to conversations about transit planning in Chicago. A good place to start is with "The Changing World: A ULI Speaker Series," which includes conversations on "The Power of Face-to-Face Crowdfunding" and renegade urban gardening. Other great videos highlight infrastructure challenges in African cities and how communities rebuild after major environmental disasters.

410

Landing and Braking of Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the numerical examples, we have considered an airplane landing in calm air in a fixed direction after crossing the border (with its obstacles) at a height of 30 m. Its stopping point is at a distance D from the obstacle, comprising: a distance D(sub 1) in regular gliding flight; a distance D(sub 2) in levelling off; a distance D(sub 3) in taxying on the ground. The calculations enable us to make out the following table, which gives an idea of the improvements to be expected in the use of various possible methods of braking in the air and on the ground.

Breguet, Louis

1929-01-01

411

Analysis of Landing-Gear Behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.

Milwitzky, Benjamin; Cook, Francis E

1953-01-01

412

Land Cover and Topography Affect the Land Transformation Caused by Wind Facilities  

PubMed Central

Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here. PMID:24558449

Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

2014-01-01

413

Advanced Land Imager Assessment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

2008-01-01

414

Optical information in landing scenes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During landing, the visual scene contains optical information about speed, altitude, glide slope, and track that is useful for the maintenance of spatial orientation and awareness. This information, embedded in the structure and transformations of the optical patterns, may be globally, regionally, or locally available. Global changes occur everywhere in the visual field during landing and include such information as flow rate acceleration due to changing speed and/or altitude. Regional changes occur within a more restricted area and include such information as horizon line motion due to aircraft pitching and rolling. Locally available changes are the most restricted and include such information as changes in runway form ratios due to changing glide slopes. Thus, within partially or fully synthetic displays, or within sensor-driven displays, preservation of flow rate and horizon motion information requires a minimum of knowledge about the details of the airport layout, while runway outlines do require much more knowledge of the layout. All may be important, however, and these, as well as other sources of optical information, can provide a pilot with his most natural framework for maintaining orientation.

Johnson, Walter W.

1993-01-01

415

THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, St John's Land,  

E-print Network

THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, St John's Land, Holyrood Campus. A GUIDE TO ACCESS AND FACILITIES, Address. St John's Land. University of Edinburgh. Holyrood. Edinburgh, E,H,8,8,A,Q, United Kingdom, Telephone. 0,1,3,1,. 6,5,1, 6,1,3,8, Web address. http://www.ed.ac.uk/maps/buildings/st-johns-land #12;Page

Edinburgh, University of

416

The Public Lands Commission of 1879  

E-print Network

struggling to carve farms from virgin land. The little capital they d. id. bring West had. to 'buy tools, stock, seed, and. food until crops were harvested. . Speculators offered 6 Benjamin Horace Hibbard. , A Histor of the Public Land. Policies (Nadison... to the fore. The Democrats demanded. price graduation legislation which would base the selling price of land upon its potential productivity. The Whigs feared. that wholesale fraud. would result from such action. They, in turn, advocated a homestead act...

Odom, Danna Evelyn

2012-06-07

417

STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Atlantis approaches runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the STS-66 mission dedicated to the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3), part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. The astronauts also deployed and retrieved a free-flying satellite designed to study the middle and lower thermospheres and perform a series of experiments covering life sciences research and microgravity processing. The landing was at 7:34 a.m. (PST) 14 November 1994, after being waved off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, due to adverse weather. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining

1994-01-01

418

Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

?rsi, Anna

2014-05-01

419

Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

1996-06-01

420

Mars Exploration Rover Landing Site Boulder Fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As an aid in constraining the rock size-frequency distributions at the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing sites, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of all potential MER landing sites were systematically searched for boulder fields. Low-Sun angle MOC images can be used to identify boulders larger than 1.5 m diameter, which can be used to determine the shape of the rock size-frequency distributions. These distributions can be compared with the rock size-frequency distributions measured at the Viking and Mars Pathfinder landing sites to better quantify potentially hazardous rocks at the MER landing sites.

Schroeder, R. D.; Golombek, M. P.

2003-01-01

421

Radar Observations of Recent Mars Landing Sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity will arrive at their respective landing sites of Gusev Crater and Terra Meridiani in January 2004. During the 2001 and 2003 Mars Oppositions both landing sites were targeted for a series of radar observations using the telescopes of the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC). This paper will present results of terrestrial delay- Doppler radar observations of the landing sites, predictions for the surface properties that will be encountered, and, after successful landings, correlation between the predicted and observed surface properties. The in-situ observations made by both missions serve as ground truth for the validation of the high resolution radar mapping results.

Larsen, K. W.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.

2004-01-01

422

STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Endeavour concludes mission STS-49 at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, with a 1:57 p.m. (PDT) landing 16 May on Edward's concrete runway 22. The planned 7-day mission, which began with a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:41 p.m. (PFT), 7 May, was extended two days to allow extra time to rescue the Intelsat VI satellite and complete Space Station assembly techniques originally planned. After a perfect rendezvous in orbit and numerous attempts to grab the satellite, space walking astronauts Pierre Thuot, Rick Hieb and Tom Akers successfully rescued it by hand on the third space walk with the support of mission specialists Kathy Thornton and Bruce Melnick. The three astronauts, on a record space walk, took hold of the satellite and directed it to the shuttle where a booster motor was attached to launch it to its proper orbit. Commander Dan Brandenstein and Pilot Kevin Chilton brought Endeavours's record setting maiden voyage to a perfect landing at Edwards AFB with the first deployment of a drag chute on a shuttle mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,

1992-01-01

423

STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Endeavour concludes mission STS-49 at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, with a 1:57 p.m. (PDT) landing May 16 on Edward's concrete runway 22. The planned 7-day mission, which began with a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:41 p.m. (PFT), 7 May, was extended two days to allow extra time to rescue the Intelsat VI satellite and complete Space Station assembly techniques originally planned. After a perfect rendezvous in orbit and numerous attempts to grab the satellite, space walking astronauts Pierre Thuot, Rick Hieb and Tom Akers successfully rescued it by hand on the third space walk with the support of mission specialists Kathy Thornton and Bruce Melnick. The three astronauts, on a record space walk, took hold of the satellite and directed it to the shuttle where a booster motor was attached to launch it to its proper orbit. Commander Dan Brandenstein and Pilot Kevin Chilton brought Endeavours's record setting maiden voyage to a perfect landing at Edwards with the first deployment of a drag chute on a shuttle mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000

1992-01-01

424

Access to Land Data Products Through the Land Processes DAAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) was established as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) initiative to process, archive, and distribute land-related data collected by EOS sensors, thereby promoting the inter-disciplinary study and understanding of the integrated Earth system. The LP DAAC is responsible for archiving, product development, distribution, and user support of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land products derived from data acquired by the Terra and Aqua satellites and processing and distribution of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data products. These data are applied in scientific research, management of natural resources, emergency response to natural disaster, and Earth Science Education. There are several web interfaces by which the inventory may be searched and the products ordered. The LP DAAC web site (http://lpdaac.usgs.gov/) provides product-specific information and links to data access tools. The primary search and order tool is the EOS Data Gateway (EDG) (http://edcimswww.cr.usgs.gov/pub/imswelcome/) that allows users to search data holdings, retrieve descriptions of data sets, view browse images, and place orders. The EDG is the only tool to search the entire inventory of ASTER and MODIS products available from the LP DAAC. The Data Pool (http://lpdaac.usgs.gov/datapool/datapool.asp) is an online archive that provides immediate FTP access to selected LP DAAC data products. The data can be downloaded by going directly to the FTP site, where you can navigate to the desired granule, metadata file or browse image. It includes the ability to convert files from the standard HDF-EOS data format into GeoTIFF, to change the data projections, or perform spatial subsetting by using the HDF-EOS to GeoTIFF Converter (HEG) for selected data types. The Browse Tool also known as the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (http://lpdaac.usgs.gov/aster/glovis.asp) provides a easy online method to search, browse, and order the LP DAAC ASTER and MODIS land data by viewing browse images to define spatial and temporal queries. The LP DAAC User Services Office is the interface for support for the ASTER and MODIS data products and services. The user services representatives are available to answer questions, assist with ordering data, technical support and referrals, and provide information on a variety of tools available to assist in data preparation. The LP DAAC User Services contact information is: LP DAAC User Services U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center 47914 252nd Street Sioux Falls, SD 57198-0001 Voice: (605) 594-6116 Toll Free: 866-573-3222 Fax: 605-594-6963 E-mail: edc@eos.nasa.gov "This abstract was prepared under Contract number 03CRCN0001 between SAIC and U.S. Geological Survey. Abstract has not been reviewed for conformity with USGS editorial standards and has been submitted for approval by the USGS Director."

Klaassen, A. L.; Gacke, C. K.

2004-12-01

425

Land Reclamation: Land from the Sea (and Other Places). Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching resource talks about the importance of land reclamation and describes how many communities have reclaimed land for productive use. Includes a student quiz, possible student outcomes, and references. (JOW)

Hadley, Fred

1995-01-01

426

Land Ethics for Bureau of Land Management Employees1 Duane DePaepe2  

E-print Network

Land Ethics for Bureau of Land Management Employees1 Duane DePaepe2 Abstract: With increased expected to make what is perceived as "right decisions." The ethical dimensions of often highly complex is designed to promote a land ethic awareness among a wide spectrum of bureau employees who contribute

Standiford, Richard B.

427

Introduction to Land Use Decision Making Kit and Economics of Land Use. [2 Units].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this set of materials are two units: (1) Introduction to Land Use Decision Making Kit, and (2) Economics of Land Use. Each unit includes student guide sheets, reference material, and tape script. A set of 35mm slides and audiotapes are usually used with the materials. The introductory unit provides an overview of land use and suggested…

Haakonsen, Harry O., Ed.; Schaefer, Larry, Ed.

428

Roads, lands, markets, and deforestation : a spatial model of land use in Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural roads promote economic development but also facilitate deforestation. To explore the tradeoffs between development and environmental damage posed by road building, the authors develop and estimate a spatially explicit model of land use. This model takes into account location and land characteristics and predicts land use at each point on the landscape. They find that: (a) market access and

Kenneth M. Chomitz; David A. Gray

1995-01-01

429

Household land tenure reform in China: Its impact on farming land use and agro-environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-Mao rural reform has stimulated farmers' incentives for agricultural production. Yet, the short period of 15 years' land tenure, coupled with the ambiguous land property rights between collectives and individual households has also encouraged short-sighted decisions and the irresponsible use of land resources. Capital investment in farmland, and maintenance of irrigation facilities have been neglected. Farmers are “digging” soil and

Wei Hu

1997-01-01

430

Influence of Land Related Factors on Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land is a scarce resource in the highlands of Ethiopia. Its sustainable use is highly affected among other factors by bio-physical and institutional aspects of land. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems on interrelated sustainable land management (SLM) investments in the North Western Ethiopian Highlands. A multivariate probit regression model is used to analyse interdependent investment decisions of SLM practices using a multiple parcel-level observations. The analysis indicates that farmers invest a combination of practices at parcels levels by considering substitution and complementarity effects of the practices. The results also reveal that land quality (e.g. slope and soil fertility status), land fragmentation (parcel size and distance of parcel from homestead) and tenure arrangements influence farmers' investments in SLM practices. The overall results indicate that farm land attributes promote or hinder investments, and tenure systems regulate the decisions about investments. Policy makers should take into consideration these various land related factors in designing and implementing SLM policies and programmes. Key words: Land quality, land fragmentation, tenure arrangements, sustainable land management, multivariate probit

Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Ritsema, Coen

2014-05-01

431

Land abandonment and slope gradient as key factors of soil erosion in Mediterranean terraced lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important land use change recorded in the Mediterranean basin comprises the abandonment of agricultural lands due to economic and social changes, which is followed by significant impacts on soil erosion. Observed land abandonment may have positive or negative impacts on soil protection from erosion because fundamental ecosystem processes are influenced by changes in agricultural practices and soil resources management.

M. Koulouri; Chr. Giourga

2007-01-01

432

Localized Brain Activation Related to the Strength of Auditory Learning in a Parrot  

PubMed Central

Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory. PMID:22701714

Matsushita, Masanori; Matsuda, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Satoh, Ryohei; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Manabe, Kazuchika; Kawashima, Takashi; Bolhuis, Johan J.

2012-01-01

433

Vocal control area-related expression of neuropilin-1, plexin-A4, and the ligand semaphorin-3A has implications for the evolution of the avian vocal system.  

PubMed

The avian vocal system is a good model for exploring the molecular basis of neural circuit evolution related to behavioral diversity. Previously, we conducted a comparative gene expression analysis among two different families of vocal learner, the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica), a songbird, and the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot; and a non-learner, the quail (Coturnix coturnix), to identify various axon guidance molecules such as cadherin and neuropilin-1 as vocal control area-related genes. Here, we continue with this study and examine the expression of neuropilin and related genes in these species in more detail. We found that neuropilin-1 and its coreceptor, plexin-A4, were expressed in several vocal control areas in both Bengalese finch and budgerigar brains. In addition, semaphorin-3A, the ligand of neuropilin-1, expression was not detected in vocal control areas in both species. Furthermore, there was some similar gene expression in the quail brain. These results suggest the possibility that a change in the expression of a combination of semaphorin/neuropilin/plexin was involved in the acquisition of vocal learning ability during evolution. PMID:19128404

Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

2009-01-01

434

Oblique Photogrammetry and Usage on Land Administration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projects based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have started within the body of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC) by the Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (LRCIS) in the beginning of 2000s. LRCIS was followed by other projects which are Turkish National Geographic Information System (TNGIS), Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (CORS-TR), Geo Metadata Portal (GMP), Orthophoto Web Services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastre Renovation Project (CRP), 2B and Land Registry Achieve Information System (LRAIS). When examining the projects generated by GDLRC, it is realized that they include basic functions of land administration required for sustainable development. Sustainable development is obtained through effective land administration as is known. Nowadays, land use becomes more intense as a result of rapid population increase. The importance of land ownership has increased accordingly. At this point, the necessity of cadastre appears. In Turkey, cadastral registration is carried out by the detection of parcels. In other words, it is obtained through the division of land surface into 2D boundaries and mapping of them. However, existing land administration systems have begun to lose their efficiency while coping with rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) belonging to land which become more complicated day by day. Overlapping and interlocking constructions appear particularly in urban areas with dense housing and consequently, the problem of how to project these structures onto the surface in 2D cadastral systems has arisen. Herein, the necessity of 3D cadastre concept and 3D property data is confronted. In recent years, oblique photogrammetry, whose applications are gradually spreading, is used as an effective method for producing 3D data. In this study, applications of oblique photogrammetry and usability of oblique images as base for 3D Cadastre and Land Administration projects are examined.

Kisa, A.; Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Ates, H. B.; Bakici, S.

2013-08-01

435

South Atlantic Division Land Use Review Evaluation Process  

E-print Network

South Atlantic Division Land Use Review Evaluation Process For Fee and Easement Lands Decision Flow of land use requests. Such requests ask to use public lands for any number of private and public. Land Use Request Submitted to the Operations Manager in writing with necessary maps and supporting

US Army Corps of Engineers

436

STS-68 Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Endeavour glides to a landing on runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the highly successful STS-68 mission dedicated to radar imaging of the earth's surface as part of NASA's Mission To Planet Earth program. The landing was at 10:02 a.m. (PDT) 11 October 1994, after waiving off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, earlier that morning due to adverse weather at Kennedy. The Endeavour crew was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy the morning of October 10, but mission planners decided early in the flight to extend the mission by one day. Mission commander was Michael A. Baker, making his third flight, and the pilot was Terrence W. Wilcutt, on his first mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Sh

1994-01-01

437

Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Atlantis touches down at 3:35 p.m. PST on 6 December 1988 at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at the conclusion of the STS-27 Department of Defense mission. Landing took place on runway 17 of the Rogers Dry Lake, concluding the 4-day, 9-hour, 6-minute mission. The five-man crew was led by Commander Robert L. Gibson and included Pilot Guy S. Gardner; Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross, William M. Sheperd, and Richard M. Mullane. Atlantis was launched on December 2 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

1988-01-01

438

Forests and competing land uses in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

1989-03-01

439

5, 10691095, 2008 BRF of land surfaces  

E-print Network

theories and models. Remote sensing is a 1070 #12;BGD 5, 1069­1095, 2008 BRF of land surfaces J. I. The reflectance properties of land surfaces are of crucial importance in quantitative remote sensing and climate in remote sensing J. I. Peltoniemi1 , J. Suomalainen1 , E. Puttonen1 , J. Näränen2 , and M. Rautiainen3,4 1

Boyer, Edmond

440

Passive Microwave Remote Sensing for Land Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceborne microwave radiometry is an important technique for obtaining global estimates of parameters important to Earth's hydrologic cycle, land resources, environmental monitoring, and climate. They key physical processes involved in these applications are the land-atmosphere exchanges of heat and moisture, and their status and variability on different time and space scales.

Njoku, E. G.

1993-01-01

441

Conceptual Problems in Land Surface Data Assimilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A land data assimilation system (LDAS) merges observations (or satellite retrievals) of land surface hydrological conditions, including soil moisture, snow, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), into a numerical model of land surface processes. In theory, the output from such a system is superior to estimates based on the observations or the model alone, thereby enhancing our ability to understand, monitor, and predict key elements of the terrestrial water cycle. In practice, however, several conceptual problems can interfere with realizing the potential improvements from data assimilation. Of particular concern is the frequent mismatch between the assimilated observations and the land surface model variables of interest. The seminar will discuss recent research with the ensemble-based NASA GEOS-S LDAS to address various aspects of this mismatch. These aspects include (i) the assimilation of coarse-scale observations into higher-resolution land surface models, (ii) the partitioning of satellite observations (such as TWS retrievals) into their constituent water cycle components, (iii) the forward modeling of microwave brightness temperatures over land for radiance-based land surface data aSSimilation, and (iv) the selection of the most relevant types of observations for the analysis of a specific water cycle variable (such as root zone soil moisture). At its core, the solution to the above challenges involves the careful construction of an observation operator that maps from the land surface model variables of interest to the space of the assimilated observations.

Reichle, Rolf

2012-01-01

442

Land Subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Approximate point of maximum subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Land surface subsided ~9 m from 1925 to 1977 due to aquifer-system compaction. Signs on the telephone pole indicate the former elevations of the land surface in 1925 and 1955....

2010-09-15

443

PLACES: A Tool For Sustainable Land Use  

EPA Science Inventory

Rapid development of the human made environment to meet human needs and expand the economy is largely responsible for environmental losses. Because all land uses will incrementally and cumulatively degrade ecosystems that sustain human life, site-level land use decisions must ac...

444

Flight inspection of instrument landing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

?This paper aims to familiarize experts from other fields with issues of flight inspection of instrument landing system (ILS) and its assessment contained in the elaborated documentation. At first in chapter I. the standard volumes of the instrument landing system are described, followed by standard profiles flown during the flight inspection in chapter II. Finally, chapter III. describes the instrument

Andrej Novak; Jan Pitor

2011-01-01

445

Regional land use schemes generated by TOPAZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dickey J. W. and Najafi F. T. (1973) Regional land use schemes generated by TOPAZ, Reg. Studies7, 373–386. TOPAZ, which is the Technique for the Optimal Placement of Activities in Zones, was developed to provide the urban planner with a series of alternative solutions from which he could determine the land use pattern with the least amount of cost involved.

J. W. Dickey; F. T. Najafi

1973-01-01

446

NATIVE AMERICAN LANDS IN REGION 10  

EPA Science Inventory

The .dbf file is standalone ArcView coverage contained within the American Indian Lands Environmental Support Project (AILESP) data base. Data supports scales at multiple resolutions although ambiguities can be seen when combined with other coverages such as general land ownersh...

447

BIOREMEDIATION USING THE LAND TREATMENT CONCEPT  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is designed to be used by those who are involved with the use of land treatment technologies for the remediation of contaminated solid phase materials. In addition to a discussion of the basic processes which drive land treatment applications, the parameters involv...

448

DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A rational procedure is presented in this manual for the design of municipal sludge land application systems. he utilization of sludge in agriculture and forestry, reclamation of disturbed and marginal lands, and dedicated high-rate surface disposal practices are discussed in det...

449

2012 Landes Bioscience. Do not distribute.  

E-print Network

, as it is a side effect of evolution (mutations in genes allow evolution, and they can also give rise to cancer© 2012 Landes Bioscience. Do not distribute. article addendum 1018 Human Vaccines & immunotherapeutics Volume 8 issue 8 Human Vaccines & immunotherapeutics 8:8, 1018-1021; august 2012; © 2012 landes

Hemminki, Akseli

450

Land Use History of North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book describes the historical and ongoing changes in land use and land cover for several regions around the U.S. Issues which are addressed include the types of changes that are occurring now and how fast they are occurring; a comparison of these changes with those in the past; and the consequences for future environmental quality and the habitability of the planet.

451

ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure describes NASA's ICESat mission ((Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite), which was launched January 12, 2003. ICESat is the benchmark Earth Observing System mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics.

2007-11-01

452

15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS...boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned...Federal agencies. (b) The exclusion of Federal lands does not...natural resource of the coastal zone within the purview of a...

2014-01-01

453

15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS...boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned...Federal agencies. (b) The exclusion of Federal lands does not...natural resource of the coastal zone within the purview of a...

2013-01-01

454

15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS...boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned...Federal agencies. (b) The exclusion of Federal lands does not...natural resource of the coastal zone within the purview of a...

2011-01-01

455

15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS...boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned...Federal agencies. (b) The exclusion of Federal lands does not...natural resource of the coastal zone within the purview of a...

2012-01-01

456

15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS...boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned...Federal agencies. (b) The exclusion of Federal lands does not...natural resource of the coastal zone within the purview of a...

2010-01-01

457

Accuracy Requirements for Rural Land Parcel Boundaries  

E-print Network

Accuracy Requirements for Rural Land Parcel Boundaries Kristin M. Stock School of Planning to a questionnaire addressing issues associated with accuracy requirements, rather than asking landowners what accuracy they require directly, there is some indication that rural landowners require land boundary

Stock, Kristin

458

Ecological land classification: A survey approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A landscape approach to ecological land mapping, as illustrated in this article, proceeds by pattern recognition based on ecological theory. The unit areas delineated are hypotheses that arise from a knowledge of what is ecologically important in the land. Units formed by the mapper are likely to be inefficient or irrelevant for ecological purposes unless he possesses a sound rationale

J. Stan Rowe; John W. Sheard

1981-01-01

459

Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation  

E-print Network

Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation Jiu Jimmy Jiao Department ofEarth Sciences, The University ofHong Kong, P. R. China Abstract JJ.Jiao Land reclamation has played a significant role in the urban development process in many coastal areas in the world. While reclamation

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

460

GEOG 400 Spring 2013 ARID LANDS GEOMORPHOLOGY  

E-print Network

Outline# 1 Course and Historical Overview/Global Deserts 2 Causes/Climates/Soils and Ecosystems of Arid 12 Arid Lands and Climate Change 13 Desertification and Land Degradation 14 Environmental Issues Environments (2008), Wiley-Blackwell. The book is listed at $80 in Amazon and used copies start at $45

461

"Lands for Life": Reading between the Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Ontario provincial government's "Lands for Life" program, which will allocate 46 million hectares of public lands to four uses: intensive forestry, multiple use, tourism, and protected areas. Expresses skepticism about government statements by juxtaposing the rhetoric with the record, with regard to environmental protection,…

Bell, Anne

1997-01-01

462

Future scenarios of European agricultural land use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of quantitative, spatially explicit and alternative scenarios of future agricultural land use in Europe (the 15 European Union member states, Norway and Switzerland). The scenarios were constructed to support analyses of the vulnerability of ecosystem services, but the approach also provides an exploration of how agricultural land use might respond to a range of future

M. D. A. Rounsevell; F. Ewert; I. Reginster; R. Leemans; T. R. Carter

2005-01-01

463

Second Mars Surveyor Landing Site Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication presents abstracts accepted for presentation at the 2nd Mars Surveyor Landing Site Workshop, held at the State University of New York at Buffalo, June 22-23, 1999. The general theme of the conference centers on the engineering and topographical constraints placed upon the Mars Surveyor 2001 lander and proposed landing sites that fall within these constraints.

Gulick, Virginia

1999-01-01

464

Dante and the Form of the Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Verona in 1320 Dante Alighieri delivered an address, later published as “A Question of the Water and of the Land,'’which dealt with the position and origins of the continental land mass and its mountains. In this cogently argued discourse the ideas expressed in Aristotle's Meteorologica and De caelo are blended with Dante's own cosmography and cosmogeny, as expressed in

David Alexander

1986-01-01

465

Planning for Transportation, Land Use, and Sustainability  

E-print Network

Planning for Transportation, Land Use, and Sustainability Big Issues / Broad Thoughts Terry Moore, FAICP! ECONorthwest and! National Center for Smart Growth! moore@eugene.econw.com" www.econw.com! Iceland: Conference on Transportation / Land Use ! 2! Terry Moore February 2010! Conference: Broad Topics

Karlsson, Brynjar

466

Influenza A Virus Infections in Land  

E-print Network

Influenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People's Republic of China A. Townsend Peterson, Sarah­PCR testing of 939 Asian land birds of 153 species. Influenza A infection was found, particularly among influenza virus ecology has long regarded water- birds as a primary reservoir. Although the benchmark study

Clayton, Dale H.

467

A Journey to a New Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of an exhibit in the Simon Fraser University Museum entitled "A Journey to a New Land" about the coming of the first humans to North and South America. The page presents an animation of the effects of post-glacial seal level rise on the area known as Beringia and the Bering Land Bridge

SFU Museum of Archaeolgy and Ethnology

468

The Early History of Life on Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses evidence suggesting that the earliest land plants (small simple forms in damp areas during the Silurian period) preceeded the earliest land animals (including such small arthropods as millipedes and mites). Close animal-plant interactions occurred at the onset with more complex terrestrial ecosystems developing by the Devonian. (DH)

Scott, Andrew C.

1984-01-01

469

Analyzing Land Use Change In Urban Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This four-page fact sheet provides a brief summary of the analysis of land use in urban environments. Topics include the rapid growth in urban populations, some of the methods used to analyze land use change (mapping, databases, time series documents), and some of the concerns and possible consequences created by the rapid shift of human populations to urban centers.

2010-11-16

470

Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

1980-03-01

471

Addressing land-based discrimination in  

E-print Network

Chapter 8 Addressing land-based discrimination in post-conflict Nepal Purna Bahadur Nepali1 Kailash-based discrimination namely, i) Power and domination, ii) Deprivation and exploitation, and iii) Discrimination and violence. These concepts are considered appropriate to explain land-based discrimination. 1.1 Power

Richner, Heinz

472

Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenario for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios ab applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained well be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities.

Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W.

1995-12-31

473

Radar observations of land breeze fronts.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a radar-observed apparent land breeze front 12 to 14 n mi off the coast of Wallops Island, Va. Accompanying meteorological data show the land breeze at the shore to be a layer of cold air less than 300 ft deep moving seaward at approximately 2 knots. The radar observations show the land breeze vertical frontal surface sloping landward at about 20 deg, with convection over the warm water increasing the layer thickness to 2000 ft near the frontal zone. The radar-observed horizontal frontal surface is a sharp scalloped line echo in the lower 1000 ft, but becomes diffuse above. As the local circulation during daylight hours changes to a sea breeze, the land breeze front recedes toward land and dissipates.

Meyer, J. H.

1971-01-01

474

Mars Exploration Rover Landing Site Selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selection of the landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers has involved over 2 years of research and analysis effort that has included the participation of broad sections of the planetary sciences community through a series of open landing site workshops. The effort has included the definition of the engineering constraints based on the landing system, mapping those engineering constraints into acceptable regions and prospective sites, the acquisition of new information from Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters, the evaluation of science and safety criteria for the sites, and the downselection and final site selection based on the sites science potential and safety. The final landing sites (Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater) were selected by NASA Headquarters on April 11, 2003, prior to launch in June. This paper presents engineering requirements, and potential landing sites for Mars Exploration Rovers.

Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Parker, T.; Kass, D.; Crisp, J.; Squyres, S.; Adler, M.; Haldemann, H.; Carr, M.; Arvidson, A.

2003-01-01

475

A universal strategy for visually guided landing  

PubMed Central

Landing is a challenging aspect of flight because, to land safely, speed must be decreased to a value close to zero at touchdown. The mechanisms by which animals achieve this remain unclear. When landing on horizontal surfaces, honey bees control their speed by holding constant the rate of front-to-back image motion (optic flow) generated by the surface as they reduce altitude. As inclination increases, however, this simple pattern of optic flow becomes increasingly complex. How do honey bees control speed when landing on surfaces that have different orientations? To answer this, we analyze the trajectories of honey bees landing on a vertical surface that produces various patterns of motion. We find that landing honey bees control their speed by holding the rate of expansion of the image constant. We then test and confirm this hypothesis rigorously by analyzing landings when the apparent rate of expansion generated by the surface is manipulated artificially. This strategy ensures that speed is reduced, gradually and automatically, as the surface is approached. We then develop a mathematical model of this strategy and show that it can effectively be used to guide smooth landings on surfaces of any orientation, including horizontal surfaces. This biological strategy for guiding landings does not require knowledge about either the distance to the surface or the speed at which it is approached. The simplicity and generality of this landing strategy suggests that it is likely to be exploited by other flying animals and makes it ideal for implementation in the guidance systems of flying robots. PMID:24167269

Baird, Emily; Boeddeker, Norbert; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

2013-01-01

476

Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission lands at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch of a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five-man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the

1989-01-01

477

STS-68 Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shuttle Endeavour comes in for a landing on runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the highly successful STS-68 mission dedicated to radar imaging of the earth's surface as part of NASA's Mission To Planet Earth program. The landing was at 10:02 a.m. (PDT) 11 October 1994, after waiving off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, earlier that morning due to adverse weather at Kennedy. The Endeavour crew was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy the morning of 10 October, but mission planners decided early in the flight to extend the mission by one day. Mission commander was Michael A. Baker making his third flight and the pilot was Terrence W. Wilcutt on his first mission. The four mission specialists were Thomas D. Jones, payload commander making his second flight; Steven L. Smith on his first flight; Daniel W. Bursch making his second flight; and Peter J.K. Wisoff making his second flight. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking abou

1994-01-01

478

STS-68 Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A drag chute slows the shuttle Endeavour after landing on runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the highly successful STS-68 mission dedicated to radar imaging of the earth's surface as part of NASA's Mission To Planet Earth program. The landing was at 10:02 a.m. (PDT) 11 October 1994, after waiving off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, earlier that morning due to adverse weather at Kennedy. The Endeavour crew was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy the morning of 10 October, but mission planners decided early in the flight to extend the mission by one day. Mission commander was Michael A. Baker and the pilot was Terrence W. Wilcutt. The four mission specialists were Thomas D. Jones, payload; Steven L. Smith; Daniel W. Bursch; and Peter J.K. Wisoff. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight

1994-01-01

479

STS-55 Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Columbia completes the STS-55 Spacelab D-2 mission 6 May with a landing at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, at 7:30 a.m. (PDT). The landing was scheduled for the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but was diverted to Dryden during the final hours of flight because of unacceptable weather at the Florida facility. The STS-55 mission began with the launch from Kennedy at 7:50 a.m. (PDT), 26 April. Aboard Columbia were commander Steve Nagel; pilot Tom Henricks; mission specialists Jerry Ross, Charles Precourt, and Bernard Harris; and payload specialists Hans Schlegel and Ulrich Walter, both from Germany. During Columbia's flight the NASA space shuttle fleet logged more than one year of combined flight time in space, including the time of all previous orbiters and Columbia on this flight. That mark was reached at 7:01:42 (PDT) on 5 May, and with Columbia's landing the total flight time had reached 365 days, 23 hours, and 28 minutes. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and

1993-01-01

480

Investigating the Impact of Land between the Lakes (LBL) and Land Use/Land Cover Change on Precipitation Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large dams/reservoirs as open water surface and as a mechanism of triggering land use/land cover changes in their vicinity have impacted local climate and extreme precipitation patterns as study show. Urbanization, agricultural development, and forestation are some of the Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCC) that are result of development of large dams/reservoirs. Thus creating heterogeneities. It is believed that such heterogeneities bring about a boundary of different air masses that triggers convection due to differential heating as well as variation in soil moisture. One such heterogeneities is of the Land Between the Lakes (LBL). LBL is an inland peninsula formed by Lake Kentucky on Tennessee River and Lake Barkley on Cumberland River in Western Kentucky. The development of the two lakes brought about an area of 680 sq.km forest cover. The LBL renders unique land use/land cover heterogeneities with in a shorter distance providing open water for evaporation and forest for evapotranspiration. Reports as well as a preliminary investigation of nearby weather radar data showed storms dying out as it approaches the inland peninsula and gaining strength east of LBL. The storm exhibits a wave like strength, attenuating before LBL and gaining strength after. The purpose of this study mainly is to investigate the impact of LBL and in general LULCC on precipitation in the area. In this study the following specific scientific question will be addressed a. Has the development of LBL modified precipitation in the region? b. Which LULCC predominately affects storm formation? Summer radar reflectivity data from Paducah, KY station along with North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) geopotential height and wind direction data will be analyzed for identification of LBL effect precipitation and synoptic effect precipitation, respectively. A Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) will be setup to investigate what land use/land cover predominately modifies precipitation in the region.

Degu, A. M.; Hossain, F.

2012-12-01

481

Human spatial orientation perceptions during simulated lunar landing  

E-print Network

During crewed lunar landings, astronauts are expected to guide a stable and controlled descent to a landing zone that is level and free of hazards by either making landing point (LP) redesignations or taking direct manual ...

Clark, Torin Kristofer

2010-01-01

482

30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section...EACH STATE INTRODUCTION § 900.14 Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under the...

2013-07-01

483

30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section...EACH STATE INTRODUCTION § 900.14 Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under the...

2011-07-01

484

30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section...EACH STATE INTRODUCTION § 900.14 Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under the...

2012-07-01

485

30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section...EACH STATE INTRODUCTION § 900.14 Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under the...

2010-07-01

486

30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section...EACH STATE INTRODUCTION § 900.14 Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under the...

2014-07-01

487

44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

2011-10-01

488

25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168.10...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall...

2011-04-01

489

50 CFR 29.2 - Cooperative land management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative land management. 29.2 Section 29.2 ...THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules § 29.2 Cooperative land management. Cooperative agreements...

2012-10-01

490

44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...true Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

2012-10-01

491

CALIFORNIA ENERGY EFFECT OF LAND USE CHOICES ON  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION EFFECT OF LAND USE CHOICES ON TRANSPORTATION FUEL DEMAND IN SUPPORT ................................................................................................................... 1 Current Approach to Transportation Fuel Demand and Land Use Planning........... 1 Obstacles to Efficient Land Use Planning .................................................................. 2 Trends

492

40 CFR 52.784 - Transportation and land use controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Transportation and land use controls. 52.784 Section 52... § 52.784 Transportation and land use controls. (a) To complete...15, 1973, transportation and/or land use control strategies and a...

2012-07-01

493

25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2011-04-01 true Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168.10...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall...

2012-04-01

494

40 CFR 52.784 - Transportation and land use controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Transportation and land use controls. 52.784 Section 52... § 52.784 Transportation and land use controls. (a) To complete...15, 1973, transportation and/or land use control strategies and a...

2014-07-01

495

44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

2014-10-01

496

44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

2013-10-01

497

40 CFR 52.784 - Transportation and land use controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Transportation and land use controls. 52.784 Section 52... § 52.784 Transportation and land use controls. (a) To complete...15, 1973, transportation and/or land use control strategies and a...

2013-07-01

498

40 CFR 52.784 - Transportation and land use controls.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Transportation and land use controls. 52.784 Section 52... § 52.784 Transportation and land use controls. (a) To complete...15, 1973, transportation and/or land use control strategies and a...

2011-07-01

499

50 CFR 29.2 - Cooperative land management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative land management. 29.2 Section 29.2 ...THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules § 29.2 Cooperative land management. Cooperative agreements...

2013-10-01

500

THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN MEETING CALIFORNIA'S ENERGY AND  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN MEETING CALIFORNIA'S ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE. The Role of Land Use in Meeting California's Energy and Climate Change Goals. California Energy Commission .....................................................................................................1 Examples of Better Land Use Planning