Sample records for landing budgerigars melopsittacus

  1. Retrobulbar rhabdomyosarcoma in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Gulbahar, M Y; Ozak, A; Guvenç, T; Yarim, M

    2005-12-01

    This report describes a retrobulbar rhabdomyosarcoma in a 7-year-old male budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The bird was presented with orbital distension and exophthalmia of the left eye and died during surgery. Necropsy revealed a tan to grey retrobulbar mass compressing all components of the left eye with obscured vision. In histopathological examination, the mass was composed of sheets of spindle-shaped cells with pleomorphic nuclei, numerous bizarre mitotic figures and mononucleated or multinucleated giant cells and also typically strap cells. Neoplastic cells had no cross-striations in sections stained by phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin. The tumour cells did not invade surrounding tissues, including the retina, and there was no metastasis to other organs. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for desmin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin, but were negative for S-100 protein and pancytokeratin. PMID:16537163

  2. Brightness Discrimination in Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Olle; Karlsson, Sandra; Kelber, Almut

    2013-01-01

    Birds have excellent spatial acuity and colour vision compared to other vertebrates while spatial contrast sensitivity is relatively poor for unknown reasons. Contrast sensitivity describes the detection of gratings of varying spatial frequency. It is unclear whether bird brightness discrimination between large uniform fields is poor as well. Here we show that budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) need a Michelson contrast of 0.09 to discriminate between large spatially separated achromatic fields in bright light conditions. This is similar to the peak contrast sensitivity of 10.2 (0.098 Michelson contrast) for achromatic grating stimuli established in earlier studies. The brightness discrimination threshold described in Weber fractions is 0.18, which is modest compared to other vertebrates. PMID:23349946

  3. The nutrition of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Earle, K E; Clarke, N R

    1991-11-01

    Growing interest in the nutrition of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) has highlighted the paucity of knowledge in this area. The aims of this study were to review the available literature on their individual nutrient requirements and relate this to the nutrient content of their predominantly seed-based diet and to investigate the effect of the bird's daily energy requirement on the fluctuations in body weight. Studies were conducted at the Waltham Centre to measure the relationship between daily metabolizable energy intake (kJ/kg BW) and body weight change (g/d) for groups of adult budgerigars. The birds were found to require daily 48-128 kJ/bird depending on their body mass (birds in our colony typically weigh 30-80 g). During a series of breeding trials the daily energy intake for a breeding pair plus their three chicks, at peak energy intake, was found to be 483-505 kJ (at pairing, the mean daily energy intake of the breeding pairs was 231 kJ). Apparent metabolizability of the major nutrients from a seed diet were generally found to be greater than 80%, which allows these birds to assimilate the high levels of energy needed for their basal metabolism. In summary, the nutrient requirements of the budgerigar (where known) were found to be similar to those of other avian species, however, further work is needed, especially in the area of availability of key nutrients. Further developments in the dietary management of these birds will only be possible if researchers can overcome the birds' poor acceptance of novel foods and satisfy their high basal energy requirements before establishing their requirements for individual nutrients. PMID:1941225

  4. Stimulus motion improves spatial contrast sensitivity in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Haller, Nicola Kristin; Lind, Olle; Steinlechner, Stephan; Kelber, Almut

    2014-09-01

    Birds are generally thought to have excellent vision with high spatial resolution. However, spatial contrast sensitivity of birds for stationary targets is low compared to other animals with similar acuity, such as mammals. For fast flying animals body stability and coordination are highly important, and visual motion cues are known to be relevant for flight control. We have tested five budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in behavioural discrimination experiments to determine whether or not stimulus motion improves contrast sensitivity. The birds were trained to distinguish between a homogenous grey field and sine-wave gratings of spatial frequencies between 0.48 and 6.5 cyc/deg, and Michelson contrasts between 0.7% and 99%. The gratings were either stationary or drifting with velocities between 0.9 and 13 deg/s. Budgerigars were able to discriminate patterns of lower contrast from grey when the gratings were drifting, and the improvement in sensitivity was strongest at lower spatial frequencies and higher drift velocities. Our findings indicate that motion cues can have positive effects on visual perception of birds. This is similar to earlier results on human vision. Contrast sensitivity, tested solely with stationary stimuli, underestimates the sensory capacity of budgerigars flying through their natural environments. PMID:25072853

  5. Radiographic reference limits for cardiac width of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Velayati, Mozhgan; Mirshahi, Ali; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Primary and secondary cardiovascular diseases are not uncommon in birds. Although radiologic standards for heart width have been developed for mammals, they are still not available for many avian species. The purpose of this study was to establish normal reference values for cardiac size in budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), one of the most popular pet bird species all over the world. After clinical and radiographic (lateral and ventrodorsal views) evaluations, 27 adult, clinically healthy budgerigars (10 females and 17 males) were included in this study. High-quality ventrodorsal and lateral radiographic projections were obtained. The cardiac and thoracic width, distance between third and fourth ribs, synsacrum width, coracoid width, and the distance between clavicle bones were measured on ventrodorsal radiographs. The ratio between cardiac width and other mentioned indices was calculated. Correlation of each anatomical index with the cardiac width was evaluated by linear regression model. Sex and weight were included in all models. Mean + SD of cardiac width was 10.8 +/- 0.6 mm, with lower and upper limits of 9.5 and 12.0 mm. The results showed a significant correlation between the cardiac width and the thoracic width (R2 = 0.28; P = 0.005). There were no significant associations between weight, sex, and the heart width. The values and ratios obtained in this study can be used as a reference of normal cardiac size of budgerigar in radiology for detection of cardiomegaly in this bird. PMID:25831574

  6. Pathomorphological, immunohistochemical and bacteriological findings in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) naturally infected with S. Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Tunca, R; Toplu, N; K?rkan, S; Avci, H; Aydo?an, A; Epikmen, E T; Tekbiyik, S

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the pathological and bacteriological findings and diagnosis by immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence methods in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) naturally infected with Salmonella gallinarum obtained from three commercial budgerigar rearing farms. The course of the disease in young budgerigars was peracute or acute, whereas in adult budgerigars the disease was acute or chronic. Clinically, yellow-white diarrhoea was observed in the young budgerigars with the acute form. In the adult budgerigars with the acute and chronic forms, a decrease in feed and water consumption with loss in body condition together with greenish-yellow diarrhoea was generally noted. Peritonitis and pericarditis were the most common findings in young budgerigars at necropsy, while in adult budgerigars scattered grey-white necrotic foci were found in the livers. Histopathologically, the lesions in young budgerigars were characterized with fibrinonecrotic peritonitis and/or pericarditis and necrotic hepatitis. In adult budgerigars with acute infection, hepatic necrosis with focal heterophil infiltration was present; whilst lesions in the chronic cases were granulomatous in nature with the infiltration of macrophages, lymphocytes and histiocytes. For the detection of S. Gallinarum in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex and immunofluorescence methods were used. Both methods showed bacteria to be localized in the liver, kidney, peritoneum, heart, spleen and intestines of both young and adult budgerigars. The results of the present study indicate that the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method was more sensitive than the immunofluorescence method in the detection of the bacteria. PMID:22515538

  7. Auditory Disturbances Promote Temporal Clustering of Yawning and Stretching in Small Groups of Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Miller; Andrew C. Gallup; Andrea R. Vogel; Anne B. Clark

    2012-01-01

    Yawning may serve both social and nonsocial functions. When budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) are briefly held, simulating capture by a predator, the temporal pattern of yawning changes. When this species is observed in a naturalistic setting (undisturbed flock), yawning and also stretching, a related behavior, are mildly contagious. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that a stressful event would

  8. Vocal Plasticity in Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus ): Evidence for Social Factors in the Learning of Contact Calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Farabaugh; Alison Linzenbold; Robert J. Dooling

    1994-01-01

    Distance or contact calls of 6 unrelated adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were recorded before and during 8 weeks of social contact. The 6 birds were housed in 2 separate groups of 3 each in adjoining cages. Birds in each cage could hear but not see the birds in the neighboring cage. At the beginning of the study, none of

  9. Development of auditory sensitivity in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2004-06-01

    Auditory feedback influences the development of vocalizations in songbirds and parrots; however, little is known about the development of hearing in these birds. The auditory brainstem response was used to track the development of auditory sensitivity in budgerigars from hatch to 6 weeks of age. Responses were first obtained from 1-week-old at high stimulation levels at frequencies at or below 2 kHz, showing that budgerigars do not hear well at hatch. Over the next week, thresholds improved markedly, and responses were obtained for almost all test frequencies throughout the range of hearing by 14 days. By 3 weeks posthatch, birds' best sensitivity shifted from 2 to 2.86 kHz, and the shape of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) audiogram became similar to that of adult budgerigars. About a week before leaving the nest, ABR audiograms of young budgerigars are very similar to those of adult birds. These data complement what is known about vocal development in budgerigars and show that hearing is fully developed by the time that vocal learning begins.

  10. Eye surface temperature detects stress response in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Ikkatai, Yuko; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that stressors not only increase body core temperature but also body surface temperature in many animals. However, it remains unclear whether surface temperature could be used as an alternative to directly measure body core temperature, particularly in birds. We investigated whether surface temperature is perceived as a stress response in budgerigars. Budgerigars have been used as popular animal models to investigate various neural mechanisms such as visual perception, vocal learning, and imitation. Developing a new technique to understand the basic physiological mechanism would help neuroscience researchers. First, we found that cloacal temperature correlated with eye surface temperature. Second, eye surface temperature increased after handling stress. Our findings suggest that eye surface temperature is closely related to cloacal temperature and that the stress response can be measured by eye surface temperature in budgerigars. PMID:26103119

  11. Validation of a fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assay to assess stress in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    PubMed Central

    Young, Anna M.; Hallford, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) is a small parrot native to Australia that is commonly held in zoos, laboratories, and private homes. Assessment of budgerigar stress levels would aid welfare monitoring and improve our understanding of their biology. Analyzing fecal glucocorticoid metabolites provides a non-invasive method to measure stress levels in birds. For this method to be reliable, the antibody to be used in an immunoassay must be carefully selected for each species, and validation must be performed. A common limitation in many existing assays is the inability to accurately detect variable fecal glucocorticoid metabolites levels in minute quantities of feces, requiring small samples to be combined. We have developed a double antibody radioimmunoassay protocol based on a commercially available 125I-corticosterone radioimmunoassay kit for use in detecting fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in small quantities (< 20 mg) of budgerigar droppings. The assay was validated pharmacologically with an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and with oral administration of corticosterone. Our validation has demonstrated our assay is both sensitive and a reliable approach to non-invasive monitoring of stress in budgerigars. PMID:22907869

  12. Acoustic and Perceptual Categories of Vocal Elements in the Warble Song of Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Smith, Edward W.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The warble songs of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) are composed of a number of complex, variable acoustic elements that are sung by male birds in intimate courtship contexts for periods lasting up to several minutes. If these variable acoustic elements can be assigned to distinct acoustic-perceptual categories, it provides the opportunity to explore whether birds are perceptually sensitive to the proportion or sequential combination of warble elements belonging to different categories. By the inspection of spectrograms and by listening to recordings, humans assigned the acoustic elements in budgerigar warble from several birds to eight broad, overlapping categories. A neural-network program was developed and trained on these warble elements to simulate human categorization. The classification reliability between human raters and between human raters and the neural network classifier was better than 80% both within and across birds. Using operant conditioning and a psychophysical task, budgerigars were tested on large sets of these elements from different acoustic categories and different individuals. The birds consistently showed high discriminability for pairs of warble elements drawn from between acoustic categories and low discriminability for pairs drawn from within acoustic categories. With warble elements reliably assigned to different acoustic categories by humans and birds, it affords the opportunity to ask questions about the ordering of elements in natural warble streams and the perceptual significance of this ordering. PMID:22142040

  13. New record of Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) from Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sychra, Oldrich; Naz, Saima; Rizvi, S Anser

    2007-08-01

    Chewing lice of the species Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) were collected from captive budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw) in Pakistan. This is the first record of amblyceran lice from this host. It is also the first record of the genus Afrimenopon from Pakistani region. The primary host species of Afrimenopon waar is the rosy-faced lovebird Agapornis roseicollis (Vieillot). The finding of A. waar on budgerigars is, most likely, a result of a contamination in captivity. Morphological variation and origin of these lice are discussed. PMID:17334969

  14. Evidence for contagious behaviors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): an observational study of yawning and stretching.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Vicario, Shannon M; Clark, Anne B

    2012-03-01

    Yawning is contagious in humans and some non-human primates. If there are social functions to contagious behaviors, such as yawning, they might occur in other highly social vertebrates. To investigate this possibility, we conducted an observational study of yawning and an associated behavior, stretching, in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a social, flock-living parrot. Flock-housed budgerigars were videotaped for 1.5h at three time-blocks during the day (early morning, afternoon and early evening), and the times of all yawns and stretches for each bird were recorded. Both yawning and stretching were temporally clumped within sessions, but were uniformly distributed across the trials of a particular time-block. This suggests that clumping was not a result of circadian patterning and that both behaviors could be contagious. There was additional evidence of contagion in stretching, which occurred in two forms - a posterior-dorsal extension of either one foot or both feet. Birds that could have observed a conspecific stretch, and that then stretched themselves within 20s, replicated the form of the earlier stretch significantly more often than expected by chance. This study provides the first detailed description of temporal patterns of yawning under social conditions in a flock-living species as well as the first support for contagious yawning and stretching in a non-primate species in a natural context. Experimental evidence will be necessary to confirm the extent of contagion in either behavior. PMID:22209955

  15. An outbreak of thyroid hyperplasia (goiter) with high mortality in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Murphy, Brian; Crossley, Beate M; Holser, Ian; Gomes, Lucy; Shivaprasad, H L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of goiter with high morbidity and mortality in a flock of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in California is described. Forty-five out of 400 adult birds exhibited signs of illness, weight loss, and enlargement in the crop area; 15 of the 45 birds died over a 2-3-month period. Diet consisted of a commercial mixture with the addition of broccoli, whole oats, and carrots, but no minerals or supplements. Six budgerigars were subjected to necropsy; all 6 birds had severely enlarged thyroid glands. Thyroid follicular hyperplasia was histologically observed in all birds examined, while granulomatous thyroiditis and microfollicular adenoma were observed in 2 birds, respectively. Virological, bacteriological, parasitological, and heavy metal analyses were negative or within normal limits. The total iodine in the thyroid glands of affected birds was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Following iodine supplementation and removal of broccoli from the diet, the owner reported weight gain and a reduced death rate among clinically affected birds; no additional birds became sick. The presence of broccoli with its iodine-binding ability and the complete lack of added minerals in the diet of these animals were thought to be the predisposing factors for the outbreak in the present study. Outbreaks of goiter accompanied by high mortality are rare in any species and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have not been described previously in any avian species. Recognition of this condition may help improve medical, welfare, and trade standards concerning this species. PMID:25428186

  16. Mixed infection with reovirus and Chlamydophila in a flock of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Perpiñán, David; Garner, Michael M; Wellehan, James F X; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2010-12-01

    Eleven budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) from a zoological collection presented at necropsy with emaciation and splenomegaly or hepatomegaly or both. Polymerase chain reaction assays performed on liver and spleen samples were positive for Chlamydophila psittaci in 2 of 3 birds tested, and histologic findings in 2 additional birds were compatible with chlamydiosis. The aviary was subsequently closed to the public, and a 45-day treatment regimen with doxycycline in the seeds was initiated. No further deaths of birds with hepatomegaly or splenomegaly were observed after the first day of treatment. Further investigation of birds that died during the outbreak with emaciation and with hepatic and splenic enlargement revealed severe necrosis of the spleen and liver suggestive of reovirus infection, which was supported with polymerase chain reaction analysis from paraffin-embedded tissue. This reovirus was sequenced and had 100% homology with a reovirus previously identified in an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). The outbreak did not affect cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and blue quail (Coturnix chinensis) kept in the same aviary. A group of budgerigars added to the collection soon before the opening of the aviary may have introduced reovirus and Chlamydophila into the collection. PMID:21302762

  17. A test of multiple hypotheses for the function of call sharing in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus

    PubMed Central

    Young, Anna M.; Cordier, Breanne; Mundry, Roger; Wright, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    In many social species group, members share acoustically similar calls. Functional hypotheses have been proposed for call sharing, but previous studies have been limited by an inability to distinguish among these hypotheses. We examined the function of vocal sharing in female budgerigars with a two-part experimental design that allowed us to distinguish between two functional hypotheses. The social association hypothesis proposes that shared calls help animals mediate affiliative and aggressive interactions, while the password hypothesis proposes that shared calls allow animals to distinguish group identity and exclude nonmembers. We also tested the labeling hypothesis, a mechanistic explanation which proposes that shared calls are used to address specific individuals within the sender–receiver relationship. We tested the social association hypothesis by creating four–member flocks of unfamiliar female budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and then monitoring the birds’ calls, social behaviors, and stress levels via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. We tested the password hypothesis by moving immigrants into established social groups. To test the labeling hypothesis, we conducted additional recording sessions in which individuals were paired with different group members. The social association hypothesis was supported by the development of multiple shared call types in each cage and a correlation between the number of shared call types and the number of aggressive interactions between pairs of birds. We also found support for calls serving as a labeling mechanism using discriminant function analysis with a permutation procedure. Our results did not support the password hypothesis, as there was no difference in stress or directed behaviors between immigrant and control birds. PMID:24860236

  18. Auditory disturbances promote temporal clustering of yawning and stretching in small groups of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Clark, Anne B

    2012-08-01

    Yawning may serve both social and nonsocial functions. When budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) are briefly held, simulating capture by a predator, the temporal pattern of yawning changes. When this species is observed in a naturalistic setting (undisturbed flock), yawning and also stretching, a related behavior, are mildly contagious. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that a stressful event would be followed by the clustering of these behaviors in a group of birds, which may be facilitated both by a standard pattern of responding to a startling stressor and also contagion. In this study, we measured yawning and stretching in 4-bird groups following a nonspecific stressor (loud white noise) for a period of 1 hr, determining whether auditory disturbances alter the timing and frequency of these behaviors. Our results show that stretching, and to a lesser degree yawning, were nonrandomly clumped in time following the auditory disturbances, indicating that the temporal clustering is sensitive to, and enhanced by, environmental stressors while in small groups. No decrease in yawning such as found after handling stress was observed immediately after the loud noise but a similar increase in yawning 20 min after was observed. Future research is required to tease apart the roles of behavioral contagion and a time-setting effect following a startle in this species. This research is of interest because of the potential role that temporal clumping of yawning and stretching could play in both the collective detection of, and response to, local disturbances or predation threats. PMID:22268553

  19. Retinal ganglion cell topography and spatial resolution of two parrot species: budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke's parrot (Neopsephotus bourkii).

    PubMed

    Mitkus, Mindaugas; Chaib, Sandra; Lind, Olle; Kelber, Almut

    2014-05-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) isodensity maps indicate important regions in an animal's visual field. These maps can also be combined with measures of focal length to estimate the theoretical visual acuity. Here we present the RGC isodensity maps and anatomical spatial resolving power in three budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and two Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii). Because RGCs were stacked in several layers, we modified the Nissl staining procedure to assess the cell number in the whole-mounted and cross-sectioned tissue of the same retinal specimen. The retinal topography showed surprising variation; however, both parrot species had an area centralis without discernable fovea. Budgerigars also had a putative area nasalis never reported in birds before. The peak RGC density was 22,300-34,200 cells/mm(2) in budgerigars and 18,100-38,000 cells/mm(2) in Bourke's parrots. The maximum visual acuity based on RGCs and focal length was 6.9 cyc/deg in budgerigars and 9.2 cyc/deg in Bourke's parrots. These results are lower than earlier behavioural estimates. Our findings illustrate that retinal topography is not a very fixed trait and that theoretical visual acuity estimations based on RGC density can be lower than the behavioural performance of the bird. PMID:24677162

  20. Perception of warble song in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): evidence for special processing

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Dooling, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The long, rambling warble song of male budgerigars is composed of a large number of acoustically complex elements uttered in streams lasting minutes a time and accompanied by various courtship behaviors. Warble song has no obvious sequential structure or patterned repetition of elements, raising questions as to which aspects of it are perceptually salient, whether budgerigars can detect changes in natural warble streams, and to what extent these capabilities are species-specific. Using operant conditioning and a psychophysical paradigm, we examined the sensitivity of budgerigars, canaries, and zebra finches to changes in long (>6 min) natural warble sequences of a male budgerigar. All three species could detect a single insertion of pure tones, zebra finch song syllables, budgerigar contact calls, or warble elements from another budgerigar’s warble. In each case, budgerigars were more sensitive to these changes than were canaries or finches. When warble elements from the ongoing warble stream were used as targets and inserted, out of order, into the natural warble stream so that the only cue available was the violation of the natural ordering of warble elements, only budgerigars performed above chance. When the experiment was repeated with all the ongoing warble stream elements presented in random order, the performance of budgerigars fell to chance. These results show species-specific advantages in budgerigars for detecting acoustic changes in natural warble sequences and indicate at least a limited sensitivity to sequential rules governing the structure of their species-specific warble songs. PMID:22890832

  1. Relative contributions of pigments and biophotonic nanostructures to natural color production: a case study in budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) feathers.

    PubMed

    D'Alba, Liliana; Kieffer, Leah; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2012-04-15

    Understanding the mechanistic bases of natural color diversity can provide insight into its evolution and inspiration for biomimetic optical structures. Metazoans can be colored by absorption of light from pigments or by scattering of light from biophotonic nanostructures, and these mechanisms have largely been treated as distinct. However, the interactions between them have rarely been examined. Captive breeding of budgerigars (Aves, Psittacidae, Melopsittacus undulatus) has produced a wide variety of color morphs spanning the majority of the spectrum visible to birds, including the ultraviolet, and thus they have been used as examples of hypothesized structure-pigment interactions. However, empirical data testing these interactions in this excellent model system are lacking. Here we used ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, light and electron microscopy, pigment extraction experiments and optical modeling to examine the physical bases of color production in seven budgerigar morphs, including grey and chromatic (purple to yellow) colors. Feathers from all morphs contained quasi-ordered air-keratin 'spongy layer' matrices, but these were highly reduced and irregular in grey and yellow feathers. Similarly, all feathers but yellow and grey had a layer of melanin-containing melanosomes basal to the spongy layer. The presence of melanosomes likely increases color saturation produced by spongy layers whereas their absence may allow increased expression of yellow colors. Finally, extraction of yellow pigments caused some degree of color change in all feathers except purple and grey, suggesting that their presence and contribution to color production is more widespread than previously thought. These data illustrate how interactions between structures and pigments can increase the range of colors attainable in birds and potentially in synthetic systems. PMID:22442364

  2. Evaluation of a fast, objective tool for assessing body condition of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Burton, E J; Newnham, R; Bailey, S J; Alexander, L G

    2014-04-01

    There is currently no suitable system available for the assessment of budgerigar body condition. A tool has been developed that uses an algorithmic decision tree of yes-no answers based on physical examination to objectively guide the assessor to a body condition score. The aim of this work was to evaluate the guide. Repeatability and reproducibility were measured by four assessors on three sequential days, using 38 budgerigars of mixed sex, age and weight. Data were analysed using a 3-factor anova, with Person and Bird as variable factors and occasion as a fixed factor. The association between body condition score and body fat was measured using three assessors and 63 dead budgerigars, which were chemically analysed for fat content after assessment. Data were statistically analysed to determine correlation using Spearman's Rank Coefficient. Occasion and person had no significant effect on body condition score (p = 0.988 and 0.347 respectively). Body condition score and percentage body fat were highly significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.768): percentage fat increased with increasing body condition score. The guide would appear to be a repeatable measure of body condition in budgerigars, suitable for use during physical examinations. PMID:23509997

  3. Acoustic and Perceptual Categories of Vocal Elements in the Warble Song of Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    E-print Network

    Hampton, Robert

    Acoustic and Perceptual Categories of Vocal Elements in the Warble Song of Budgerigars, variable acoustic elements that are sung by male birds in intimate courtship contexts for periods lasting up to several minutes. If these variable acoustic elements can be assigned to distinct acoustic

  4. Colours of feathers and their structural causes in varieties of the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw) 

    E-print Network

    Auber, Ludwig

    Several papers on the microscopical structure and the pigmentation of the feathers of the Budgerigar have already been published. This bird which is so easily bred and which, under selection, has developed a great number of varieties in two or three...

  5. Investigation and control of an attaching and effacing Escherichia coli outbreak in a colony of captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Seeley, Kathryn E; Baitchman, Eric; Bartlett, Susan; DebRoy, Chitrita; Garner, Michael M

    2014-12-01

    An increase in mortality in a captive flock of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) coincided with the isolation of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli from postmortem samples. Common histologic lesions included hepatitis, enteritis, and in one case attaching and effacing lesions along the intestinal tract. Retrospective review of necropsy records and increased sampling led to the identification of several cases of E. coli with the attaching and effacing (eae) virulence gene. Factors such as environment, nutrition, and concomitant pathogens were thought to contribute to mortality in the flock. Although it is not clear whether E. coli was a primary pathogen during the period of increased mortality, the presence of the eae gene combined with associated histologic lesions supports the conclusion that this organism was a significant contributor to mortality. Manipulation of diet, environment, and the addition of probiotic supplementation resulted in a decline in mortality rate and decreased shedding of E. coli based on negative follow-up cultures of intestines, liver, and feces. PMID:25632676

  6. Bacteria Isolated From the Skin of Congo African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ), Budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ), and Cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ).

    PubMed

    Lamb, Stephanie; Sobczynski, Alicia; Starks, Darius; Sitinas, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the normal bacterial flora of the skin of birds. To identify the bacterial organisms that reside on the integument of companion psittacine birds in a normal physiologic state, skin cultures were taken from 75 psittacine birds comprising 25 Congo African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ), 25 budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ), and 25 cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus ). All birds were adults and in good health with no underlying identifiable diseases, had not been on antibiotics in the preceding 2 months or longer, and had no skin or feather abnormalities. Cultures were taken from the axillary region and incubated on bovine blood agar plates. Positive cultures were identified for 52 out of 75 birds, and a total of 89 bacterial colonies grew. The most frequently identified bacterial organisms belonged to the genus Staphylococcus followed by Corynebacterium. Several other genera of bacteria were also isolated. Of the 89 bacterial colonies, 25 were identified to the species level and 50 to the genus level, and 14 were identified as either a nonfermenter or coliform. PMID:25843464

  7. Temporal coherence for complex signals in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Neilans, Erikson G; Dent, Micheal L

    2015-05-01

    The auditory scene is filled with an array of overlapping acoustic signals, yet relatively little work has focused on how animals are able to perceptually isolate different sound sources necessary for survival. Much of the previous work on auditory scene analysis has investigated how sequential pure tone stimuli are perceived, but how temporally overlapping complex communication signals are segregated has been largely ignored. In this study, budgerigars and humans were tested using psychophysical procedures to measure their perception of synchronous, asynchronous, and partially overlapping complex signals, including bird calls and human vowels. Segregation thresholds for complex stimuli were significantly lower than those for pure tone stimuli in both humans and birds. Additionally, a species effect was discovered such that relative to humans, budgerigars required significantly less temporal separation between 2 sounds in order to segregate them. Overall, and similar to previous behavioral results investigating temporal coherence, the results from this experiment illustrate that temporal cues are particularly important for auditory scene analysis across multiple species and for both simple and complex acoustic signals. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25822769

  8. The effects of short-term antioxidant supplementation on oxidative stress and flight performance in adult budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus.

    PubMed

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J S; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L; Arnold, K E

    2008-09-01

    Antioxidants are known to play an important role in quenching reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus ameliorating oxidative stress. Since increased metabolism associated with exercise can increase oxidative stress, dietary antioxidants may be a limiting factor in determining aspects of physical performance. Here we tested whether oxidative stress associated with flight exercise of captive adult budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus differed after they received a diet containing either enhanced (EQ) or reduced levels (RQ) of a nutritional supplement (Nutrivit) rich in antioxidants for 4 weeks. We also assessed differences in take-off escape time, a potential fitness-determining physiological capability. Oxidative stress was measured in two ways: comet assay to measure DNA damage; and analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), a by-product of lipid peroxidation. Flight exercise appeared to increase oxidative stress. Moreover, birds had a higher percentage of intact DNA (fewer alkali labile sites) in one comet measure and lower levels of MDA after an EQ diet than after an RQ diet. We found no difference in flight performance between the two diets. Our results suggested that birds exerted maximum effort in escape flights, regardless of diet. However, this was at a cost of increased oxidative stress post-flight when on a reduced quality diet, but not when on an enhanced, antioxidant-rich diet. We suggest that dietary antioxidants may prove important in reducing exercise-related costs through multiple physiological pathways. Further work is necessary to fully understand the effects of antioxidants and oxidative stress on exercise performance in the longer term. PMID:18723545

  9. Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.

    PubMed

    Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

    2014-03-01

    Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented. PMID:24758122

  10. Behavioural Processes, 13 (1986) 191-202 191 IMITATION LEARNING IN BUDGERIGARS: DAWSON AND FOSS (1965) REVISITED

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    1986-01-01

    Behavioural Processes, 13 (1986) 191-202 191 Elsevier IMITATION LEARNING IN BUDGERIGARS: DAWSON, R.M. budgerigars: Dawson and Foss (1965) revisited. 1986. Behav. Imitation learning in Processes,13: 191-202. Dawson and Foss (1965) have reported that each of five naive budgerigars (Melopsittacus

  11. Original article Protection of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the transmis- sion of genotype E/B from African grey par- rots to humans. In birds, the course of infection can-negative obligate intracellular pathogen, causes chla- mydiosis in Psittaciformes (cockatoos, parrots, parakeets, lories) and psittacosis or parrot fever in humans. The infection is highly prevalent in Psittaciformes

  12. Direct Evidence for Vision-based Control of Flight Speed in Budgerigars.

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated whether, and, if so, how birds use vision to regulate the speed of their flight. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were filmed in 3-D using high-speed video cameras as they flew along a 25?m tunnel in which stationary or moving vertically oriented black and white stripes were projected on the side walls. We found that the birds increased their flight speed when the stripes were moved in the birds' flight direction, but decreased it only marginally when the stripes were moved in the opposite direction. The results provide the first direct evidence that Budgerigars use cues based on optic flow, to regulate their flight speed. However, unlike the situation in flying insects, it appears that the control of flight speed in Budgerigars is direction-specific. It does not rely solely on cues derived from optic flow, but may also be determined by energy constraints. PMID:26046799

  13. Direct Evidence for Vision-based Control of Flight Speed in Budgerigars

    PubMed Central

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated whether, and, if so, how birds use vision to regulate the speed of their flight. Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were filmed in 3-D using high-speed video cameras as they flew along a 25?m tunnel in which stationary or moving vertically oriented black and white stripes were projected on the side walls. We found that the birds increased their flight speed when the stripes were moved in the birds’ flight direction, but decreased it only marginally when the stripes were moved in the opposite direction. The results provide the first direct evidence that Budgerigars use cues based on optic flow, to regulate their flight speed. However, unlike the situation in flying insects, it appears that the control of flight speed in Budgerigars is direction-specific. It does not rely solely on cues derived from optic flow, but may also be determined by energy constraints. PMID:26046799

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaojing; Xu, Jun; Smith, Edward J

    2014-03-24

    Abstract Here, we describe the budgie's mitochondrial genome sequence, a resource that can facilitate this parrot's use as a model organism as well as for determining its phylogenetic relatedness to other parrots/Psittaciformes. The estimated total length of the sequence was 18,193?bp. In addition to the to the 13 protein and tRNA and rRNA coding regions, the sequence also includes a duplicated hypervariable region, a feature unique to only a few birds. The two hypervariable regions shared a sequence identity of about 86%. PMID:24660934

  15. Automatic imitation in budgerigars.

    PubMed

    Mui, Rosetta; Haselgrove, Mark; Pearce, John; Heyes, Cecilia

    2008-11-22

    A fully automated procedure, involving computer-controlled stimulus presentation and computer-recorded response measurement, was used for the first time to study imitation in non-human animals. After preliminary training to peck and step on a manipulandum, budgerigars were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for pecking during observation of pecking and for stepping during observation of stepping (Compatible group), or for pecking while observing stepping and for stepping while observing pecking (Incompatible group). The Incompatible group, which had to counter-imitate for food reward, showed weaker discrimination performance than the Compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, budgerigars are subject to 'automatic imitation'; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate pecking and/or stepping, even when imitation of these behaviours interferes with the performance of an ongoing task. The difference between the two groups persisted over 10 test sessions, but the Incompatible group eventually acquired the discrimination, making more counter-imitative than imitative responses in the final sessions. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that, across species, the development of imitation and the mirror system depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically ancient mechanisms of associative learning. PMID:18664439

  16. Differential FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in a vocal learning nucleus of the developing budgerigar.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Osceola; Voyles, Tawni; Hara, Erina; Chen, Qianqian; White, Stephanie A; Wright, Timothy F

    2015-07-01

    The forkhead domain FOXP2 and FOXP1 transcription factors are implicated in several cognitive disorders with language deficits, notably autism, and thus play a central role in learned vocal motor behavior in humans. Although a similar role for FoxP2 and FoxP1 is proposed for other vertebrate species, including songbirds, the neurodevelopmental expression of these genes are unknown in a species with lifelong vocal learning abilities. Like humans, budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) learn new vocalizations throughout their entire lifetime. Like songbirds, budgerigars have distinct brain nuclei for vocal learning, which include the magnocellular nucleus of the medial striatum (MMSt), a basal ganglia region that is considered developmentally and functionally analogous to Area X in songbirds. Here, we used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to investigate FoxP2 and FoxP1 expression in the MMSt of juvenile and adult budgerigars. We found FoxP2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the MMSt that were lower than the surrounding striatum throughout development and adulthood. In contrast, FoxP1 mRNA and protein had an elevated MMSt/striatum expression ratio as birds matured, regardless of their sex. These results show that life-long vocal plasticity in budgerigars is associated with persistent low-level FoxP2 expression in the budgerigar MMSt, and suggests the possibility that FoxP1 plays an organizational role in the neurodevelopment of vocal motor circuitry. Thus, developmental regulation of the FoxP2 and FoxP1 genes in the basal ganglia appears essential for vocal mimicry in a range of species that possess this relatively rare trait. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 75: 778-790, 2015. PMID:25407828

  17. The contribution of single and double cones to spectral sensitivity in budgerigars during changing light conditions.

    PubMed

    Lind, Olle; Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut

    2014-03-01

    Bird colour vision is mediated by single cones, while double cones and rods mediate luminance vision in bright and dim light, respectively. In daylight conditions, birds use colour vision to discriminate large objects such as fruit and plumage patches, and luminance vision to detect fine spatial detail and motion. However, decreasing light intensity favours achromatic mechanisms and eventually, in dim light, luminance vision outperforms colour vision in all visual tasks. We have used behavioural tests in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to investigate how single cones, double cones and rods contribute to spectral sensitivity for large (3.4°) static monochromatic stimuli at light intensities ranging from 0.08 to 63.5 cd/m². We found no influences of rods at any intensity level. Single cones dominate the spectral sensitivity function at intensities above 1.1 cd/m², as predicted by a receptor noise-limited colour discrimination model. Below 1.1 cd/m², spectral sensitivity is lower than expected at all wavelengths except 575 nm, which corresponds to double cone function. We suggest that luminance vision mediated by double cones restores visual sensitivity when single cone sensitivity quickly decreases at light intensities close to the absolute threshold of colour vision. PMID:24366429

  18. Measuring flicker thresholds in the budgerigar1

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Norman; Nilsson, Virginia

    1971-01-01

    A method of measuring thresholds in animals is described and illustrated in the case of flicker fusion in the budgerigar. After training with reinforcement for pecking at a high-frequency light (115 Hz) and nonreinforcement for pecking at a low-frequency light (20 Hz), subjects were given threshold trials and reinforcement trials mixed randomly in equal number. In threshold trials (no reinforcement), the target began flashing at 115 Hz and decreased in flash rate with each peck until the subject stopped responding. During reinforcement trials, the target continued to flash at 115 Hz, and responses were reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule. Flicker thresholds obtained from two birds showed a linear relation to the logarithm of intensity in accordance with the Ferry-Porter law. PMID:16811499

  19. Behavioral lateralization and optimal route choice in flying budgerigars.

    PubMed

    Bhagavatula, Partha S; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2014-03-01

    Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to continue their transit to the end of the tunnel, regardless of whether this passage was on the right or the left. Evidently, the birds were selecting the safest and quickest route. However, when the two passages were of equal or nearly equal width, some individuals consistently preferred the left-hand passage, while others consistently preferred the passage on the right. Thus, the birds displayed idiosyncratic biases when choosing between alternative routes. Surprisingly--and unlike most of the instances in which behavioral lateralization has previously been discovered--the bias was found to vary from individual to individual, in its direction as well as its magnitude. This is very different from handedness in humans, where the majority of humans are right-handed, giving rise to a so-called 'population' bias. Our experimental results and mathematical model of this behavior suggest that individually varying lateralization, working in concert with a tendency to choose the wider aperture, can expedite the passage of a flock of birds through a cluttered environment. PMID:24603285

  20. Behavioral Lateralization and Optimal Route Choice in Flying Budgerigars

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavatula, Partha S.; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2014-01-01

    Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to continue their transit to the end of the tunnel, regardless of whether this passage was on the right or the left. Evidently, the birds were selecting the safest and quickest route. However, when the two passages were of equal or nearly equal width, some individuals consistently preferred the left-hand passage, while others consistently preferred the passage on the right. Thus, the birds displayed idiosyncratic biases when choosing between alternative routes. Surprisingly - and unlike most of the instances in which behavioral lateralization has previously been discovered - the bias was found to vary from individual to individual, in its direction as well as its magnitude. This is very different from handedness in humans, where the majority of humans are right-handed, giving rise to a so-called ‘population’ bias. Our experimental results and mathematical model of this behavior suggest that individually varying lateralization, working in concert with a tendency to choose the wider aperture, can expedite the passage of a flock of birds through a cluttered environment. PMID:24603285

  1. Investigations of the precedence effect in budgerigars: Effects of stimulus type, intensity, duration, and location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Micheal L.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2003-04-01

    Auditory experiments on the localization of sounds in the presence of reflections, or echoes, that arrive later and from different directions are important to understanding hearing in natural environments. The perceived location of the auditory image can change with the time delay between the presentations of a leading and lagging sound. These changes in perceived location, encompassing the precedence effect, have been examined behaviorally or physiologically in humans and a number of animals. Here, these results are extended to include budgerigars. Behavioral methods were used to measure the discrimination performance between a stimulus presented at + and -90° azimuth with a delay (left-), from the same two stimuli presented with the opposite delay (right-left). At short delays, where humans experience summing localization, budgerigars have difficulty discriminating between the two presentation types. With increasing delays, where humans experience localization dominance, budgerigars show improved discrimination performance. At even longer delays, where echo thresholds are found in humans, discrimination performance worsens again. The shapes of the discrimination functions are affected by the intensity, locations, and durations of the stimuli, and are subject to a buildup effect. These results show that budgerigars exhibit the phases of the precedence effect similar to humans and other animals.

  2. Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 215222 Begging signals and biparental care: nestling choice between parental feeding

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    ). In budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, and tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, male parents preferentially feed large and female parents small nestlings (Stamps et al. 1985

  3. Über den Einfluss der Bewegungsrichtung der Basilarmembran auf die Ausbildung der Cochlea-Potentiale von Strix varia (Barton) und Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schwartzkopff

    1958-01-01

    Die vom runden Fenster abgeleiteten Cochlea-Potentiale von „Barred Owl“ (Strix varia) und Wellensittich (Melopsittacus undulatus) werden in einer ursprünglich für Säuger entwickelten Apparatur untersucht. Verbesserungen der schon früher erarbeiteten präparativen Technik für Kleinvögel werden angegeben.

  4. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

  5. Purification of recombinant budgerigar fledgling disease virus VP1 capsid protein and its ability for in vitro capsid assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, R. E.; Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A recombinant system for the major capsid VP1 protein of budgerigar fledgling disease virus has been established. The VP1 gene was inserted into a truncated form of the pFlag-1 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The budgerigar fledgling disease virus VP1 protein was purified to near homogeneity by immunoaffinity chromatography. Fractions containing highly purified VP1 were pooled and found to constitute 3.3% of the original E. coli-expressed VP1 protein. Electron microscopy revealed that the VP1 protein was isolated as pentameric capsomeres. Electron microscopy also revealed that capsid-like particles were formed in vitro from purified VP1 capsomeres with the addition of Ca2+ ions and the removal of chelating and reducing agents.

  6. Developmental Species Differences in Brain Cell Cycle Rates between Northern Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus) and Parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus): Implications for Mosaic Brain Evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine J. Charvet; Georg F. Striedter

    2008-01-01

    Adult brains differ among species in the proportional sizes of their major subdivisions. For example, the telencephalon occupies 71% of the entire brain in parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) but only 54% in quail (Colinus virginianus). In contrast, the tectum is smaller in parakeets than in quail. To determine whether these differences in brain region size arise because of species differences in

  7. Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus) and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Calero, Elena; Bahamonde, Olga; Martinez, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs), segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+) MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird): the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+ MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order) and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order). We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+ MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail), but also between close vocal learner bird families. PMID:24391552

  8. Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus) and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Calero, Elena; Bahamonde, Olga; Martinez, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs), segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+) MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird): the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+ MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order) and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order). We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+ MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail), but also between close vocal learner bird families. PMID:24391552

  9. The Importance of Wellness Examinations for Your Exotic Pet Birds, reptiles, and small pet mammals, such as ferrets, rabbits, guinea pigs, chinchillas, rodents,

    E-print Network

    . Obviously, the list is much longer than those presented here. PSITTACINE BIRDS African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), Amazon parrots (Amazona spp), Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Cockatoos (Cacatua spp), Eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus), Lovebirds (Agapornis

  10. The role of ultraviolet-A reflectance and ultraviolet-A induced fluorescence in the appearance of budgerigar plumage: insights from spectrofluorometry and reflectance spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Pearn, Sophie M; Bennett, Andrew T D; Cuthill, Innes C

    2003-04-22

    Fluorescence has so far been found in 52 parrot species when illuminated with ultraviolet-A (UVA) 'black' lamps, and two attempts have been made to determine whether such fluorescence plays any role in sexual signalling. However, the contribution of the reflectance versus fluorescence to the total radiance from feathers, even in the most studied species to date (budgerigars), is unclear. Nor has the plumage of this study species been systematically assessed to determine the distribution of fluorescent patches. We therefore used spectrofluorometry to determine which areas of budgerigars fluoresce and the excitation and emission spectra involved; this is the first time that such a technique has been applied to avian plumage. We found that both the yellow crown and (normally hidden) white downy chest feathers exhibit strong UVA-induced fluorescence, with peak emissions at 527 nm and 436 nm, respectively. Conversely, the bright-green chest and dark-blue tail feathers do not fluoresce. When comparing reflectance spectra (400-700 nm) from the yellow crown using illuminants with a proportion of UVA comparable to daylight, and illuminants with all UVA removed, no measurable difference resulting from fluorescence was found. This suggests that under normal daylight the contribution of fluorescence to radiance is probably trivial. Furthermore, these spectra revealed that males had fluorescent crowns with substantially higher reflectance than those of females, in both the UV waveband and at longer wavelengths. Reflectance spectrophotometry was also performed on a number of live wild-type male budgerigars to investigate the chromatic contrast between the different plumage areas. This showed that many plumage regions are highly UV-reflective. Overall our results suggest that rapid surveys using UVA black lamps may overestimate the contribution of fluorescence to plumage coloration, and that any signalling role of fluorescence emissions, at least from the yellow crown of budgerigars, may not be as important as previously thought. PMID:12737665

  11. Tawni Voyles 1317 Branson Ave

    E-print Network

    Wright, Timothy F.

    (Melopsittacus undulatus), a small parrot with the ability to learn vocalizations throughout its entire lifespan Learning in Developing Budgerigar Parrots. Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience. San Diego, CA. November during Vocal Learning in Developing Budgerigar Parrots. Howard Hughes Medical Institute at New Mexico

  12. Investigations on feathering, feather growth and potential influences of nutrient supply on feathers' regrowth in small pet birds (canaries, budgerigars and lovebirds).

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Rabehl, N; Kamphues, J

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitate feathering in several companion birds. Besides the ratio of feathers to whole body mass, feather length as well as feather weight were of interest. Furthermore, data on feather loss and growth rates were estimated. In general, it could be observed that the proportion of feathers relative to body mass varied between 14 (canaries) and 7.4% (lovebirds). Feather losses (outside the moult period) amounted to an average of 6.65 (canaries), 8.98 (budgerigars), and 8.43 (lovebirds) mg/bird/day respectively or 37 (canaries), 20 (budgerigars), and 17 (lovebirds) mg/100 g body weight/day (values of interest in calculating of protein requirements for maintenance). In canaries, the average growth rate of the developing feathers amounted to 2 mm/day. In contrast to the onset of feather regeneration, the growth rate of new feathers leaving the follicle was not influenced by the supplements used here. The regeneration period (first measurable feather growth) of a plucked pinion can be used as an indicator and objective parameter to test potential nutritional influences. Parallel to the improvement of nutrient supply the rates of feather losses and also replacement increased, whereas the rates decreased when seed mixtures without any addition of minerals, sulphurous amino acids, and vitamins were fed. PMID:14511139

  13. Developmental species differences in brain cell cycle rates between northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus): implications for mosaic brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2008-01-01

    Adult brains differ among species in the proportional sizes of their major subdivisions. For example, the telencephalon occupies 71% of the entire brain in parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) but only 54% in quail (Colinus virginianus). In contrast, the tectum is smaller in parakeets than in quail. To determine whether these differences in brain region size arise because of species differences in cell cycle rates, parakeet and quail embryos were collected at various stages of development (HH24-HH37) and stained with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which labels all dividing cells, and phosphorylated histone-3 (pH3), which labels M-phase cells. Analysis of pH3+ cell densities and pH3+/PCNA+ cell ratios were used to compare cell cycle rates across stages and species. Cumulative labeling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was also used to compare cell cycle rates at stages 24 and 28 in quail. We found that telencephalic cell cycle rates lengthen with age in both species, but that they lengthen significantly later in parakeets than in quail. This species difference in cell cycle rates explains, at least partly, why adult parakeets have a proportionately larger telencephalon. Tectal cell cycle rates also remain elevated for a prolonged period of time in parakeets compared to quail. This seems paradoxical at first, given that the parakeet's adult tectum is relatively small. However, the tectum is initially much smaller but then grows more extensively in parakeets than in quail. Thus, species differences in adult brain proportions can be traced back to species differences in cell cycle kinetics. PMID:19088470

  14. Ethology Ecology & Evolution 16: 339-349, 2004 Preening, plumage reflectance

    E-print Network

    Pilastro, Andrea

    Ethology Ecology & Evolution 16: 339-349, 2004 Preening, plumage reflectance and female choice on the influence of preening on plumage reflectance and, indirectly, on female preference in the budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus. We measured the effect of preening on the reflectance of previously soiled plumage. Our

  15. New Mexico State University Department of Animal & Range Sciences

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    to assess stress in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulates)," Anna M. Young and Dennis M. Hallford. 2013 and demonstrating a positive attitude. STUDENT NEWS The NMSU Ranch Horse Team competed in the ASHA Collegiate Stock (assistant coach). Participating in the Graduate Student Research and Art Symposium (GRAS) on March 13

  16. Distribution of iron in the parrot brain: conserved (pallidal) and derived (nigral) labeling patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd F Roberts; Steven E Brauth; William S Hall

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of iron in the brain of a vocal learning parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), was examined using iron histochemistry. In mammals, iron is a highly specific stain for the dorsal and ventral pallidal subdivision as well as specific cell groups in the brainstem, including the substantia nigra pars reticulata [Neuroscience 11 (1984) 595–603]. The purpose of this study

  17. Land Use and Land Cover Baseline Report

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Land Use and Land Cover Baseline Report September 2012 Data and analysis of land use and land cover of the findings of land use and land cover mapping in the South Department of Haiti a baseline measurement of land cover and land use conditions in the region

  18. This Land Is Your Land, This Land Is My Land

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this activity, students will review and evaluate the ways land is covered and used in their local community. They will also consider the environmental effects of the different types of land use. Students will act as community planning engineers to determine where to place a new structure that will have the least affect on the environment.

  19. Visual pigments and oil droplets from six classes of photoreceptor in the retinas of birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Bowmaker; L. A. Heath; S. E. Wilkie; D. M. Hunt

    1997-01-01

    Microspectrophotometric examination of the retinal photoreceptors of the budgerigar (shell parakeet), Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittaciformes) and the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata (Passeriformes), demonstrate the presence of four, spectrally distinct classes of single cone that contain visual pigments absorbing maximally at about 565, 507, 430–445 and 360–380 nm. The three longer-wave cone classes contain coloured oil droplets acting as long pass filters

  20. Eye lesions in pet birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Tsai; J. H. Park; K. Hirai; C. Itakura

    1993-01-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37\\/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockati?els (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent

  1. water transport land runoff

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Monitoring station Land to water transport Urban runoff Cultivated land runoff Wastewater discharges Pasture land runoff Instream transport and removal Land to water transport Monitoring station Benefits of Integrated Monitoring and Modeling Successful management of our Nation's water resources

  2. Land and water snails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-03

    Land snails live on the land and water snails make water their habitat. Land snails have shells to protect them and so do water snails. Land snails have two sets of antennae, while water snails only have one set.

  3. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  4. Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Forestry Data Creator /

    E-print Network

    Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Forestry Data Creator / Copyright Owner: National/A Series Title: Land Capability Classification for Forestry Abstract: The Canada Land Inventory of land and water. The Land Capability for Forestry rates land into 7 classes depending on its capability

  5. Autonomous landing on Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Stevenson; Teresa Morrison; Timothy Murphy

    1990-01-01

    Long communication times between earth and Mars demand autonomous landing capabilities. If high-resolution imagery acquired from an orbiter is available to select and certify a specific safe landing site or sites, navigational updates relative to the surface can be used to achieve the necessary accuracy to land within these certified sites. Autonomous registrations of the orbiter's imagery with photographs of

  6. Land surface interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: land and climate modeling; sensitivity studies; the process of a land model; model-specific parameterizations; water stress; within-canopy resistances; partial vegetation; canopy temperature; and present experience with a land model coupled to a general circulation model.

  7. Literature and the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

  8. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

  9. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  10. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  11. National land cover dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

  12. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  13. Land Tenure Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1962, the Land Tenure Center (LTC) is perhaps one of the most well-regarded university-based institutions to deal specifically with land policy across the world. Essentially, the LTC "serves as a global resource institution on issues relating to land ownership, land rights, land access, and land use." The LTC is also highly regarded for its interdisciplinary research approach which places a premium on working collaboratively with host-country institutions and individuals in the areas of policy analysis, research, and training. On the organization's site, visitors can learn about their various ongoing research programs, its staff members and affiliates, and the lectures and events it sponsors. Of course, the publications area is quite strong, and all documents created since 1996 are available online. These papers include such titles as "Patterns of Tenure Insecurity in Guyana" and "Indigenous Land and Community Security: A (Radical) Planning Agenda."

  14. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic system to enter, store, retrieve, and analyze Federal land-treatment data. More information and access to data available at: http://greatbasin.wr.usgs.gov/ltdl Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  15. Landing the Rover

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    2013-01-30

    In this team design challenge (page 19-24 of PDF), learners "land" a model Lunar Rover in a model Landing Pod (both previously built in activities #3 and #4 in PDF). Learners drop the pods containing the rovers from a prescribed height and record their observations. Learners improve (re-design and re-build) their Landing Pods based on their observations from the first drop.

  16. Landing-gear impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flugge, W

    1952-01-01

    Report deals with the impact forces in landing gears. Both the landing impact and the taxiing impact have been considered, but drag forces have so far been excluded. The differential equations are developed and their numerical integration is shown, considering the nonlinear properties of the oleo shock strut. A way is shown for determining the dimensions of the metering pin from a given load-time diagram. A review of German literature on landing-gear impact is also presented.

  17. State of the Land

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This excellent new site, from the US Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service, "provides data on land use and change, soil erosion and soil quality, water quality, wetlands, and other issues regarding the conservation and use of natural resources on non-Federal land in the United States." The site is searchable by keyword and is organized into five main sections: People on the Land; Analysis Maps & Publications; Water Quality, Wetlands; Cropping, Grazing Land; and NRCS National Conservation Priorities. Each main section offers further information on that topic, and hyperlinks take readers to related sites.

  18. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  19. Scaling the land use system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kok

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use\\/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity through deforestation or soil degradation through unsustainable land use, increasing importance is given to the

  20. Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Adler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    here have been five fully successful robotic landings on Mars. The systems used to deliver these robots to the surface have shown large design diversity and continue to evolve. How will future Mars landing systems evolve to eventually deliver precious human cargo? We do not yet know the answers, but current trends tell us an interesting and daunting tale.

  1. Instrument Landing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sanders

    1973-01-01

    A historical background of instrumental approach and landing equipment for aircraft is given beginning with post-World War I efforts of J. D. Doolittle and emphasizing military-civil standardization efforts that began in 1948 and are continuing. The inadequacies of the current Instrument Landing System (ILS) are detailed and the various efforts of special committees to define an eventual replacement system are

  2. Airplane landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiorca, Salvatore

    1931-01-01

    This report presents an investigation of the design and construction of various types of landing gears. Some of the items discussed include: chassises, wheels, shock absorbers (rubber disk and rubber cord), as well as oleopneumatic shock absorbers. Various types of landing gears are also discussed such as the Messier, Bendix, Vickers, and Bleriot.

  3. LAND STEWARDSHIP Introduction

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    1 CHAPTER 4 LAND STEWARDSHIP Introduction To fulfill the analytical mission of GAP, it is necessary through habitat conversion--the primary cause of biodiversity decline. We use the term "stewardship between stewardship and management status in that a single category of land stewardship such as a national

  4. Depicting Coastal Louisiana Land Loss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory J.

    2005-01-01

    The Coastal Louisiana Land Loss map depicts historical (1932-2000) changes of land to water and water to land, as well as projected changes (2000-2050). Projections are based on the assumption of no future restoration.

  5. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  6. Design a Landing Pod!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    2013-01-30

    In this team design challenge (page 11-18 of PDF), learners design and build a Landing Pod for a model Lunar Rover (previously built in activity on page 1-10 of PDF). Learners must build a Landing Pod that fits within the specified mass limit. Learners test their design by dropping it and making sure that it lands intact and right side up. Learners improve their designs by re-designing and re-building. Learners can complete a follow-up activity included in this resource.

  7. STS-72 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Endeavour and its crew of six glide in to Runway 15 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility after spending nine days in space on the STS-72 mission, the first Shuttle flight of 1996. It is the eighth night landing of the Shuttle since the program began in 1981, but only the third night landing at KSC. Highlights of the mission were the retrieval of the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU), the deployment and retrieval of NASA's Office of Aeronauts and Space Techology-Flyer (OAST-Flyer), and two Extravehicular Activities (EVA's) or spacewalks.

  8. Improving urban land use and land cover classification from

    E-print Network

    Du, Jenny (Qian)

    Improving urban land use and land cover classification from high-spatial-resolution hyperspectral Library on 02 Sep 2010 to 130.18.64.144. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Improving urban land use and land cover classification from high-spatial-resolution hyperspectral imagery using contextual

  9. LAND USE LAND COVER (LULC) - US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Mapping Program, a component of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), produces and distributes land use and land cover maps and digitized data for the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii. Land use refers to the human activities that are directly related to the land. The int...

  10. Land Use Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This study examines current and emerging issues relating to federal involvement in the land use planning, management, and control area and represents the perspective used to organize General Accounting Office (GAO) audit efforts. (Author)

  11. Land planner's environmental handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Honachefsky, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    The chapters in the book cover various aspects of: Water Resources, Geology and Topography, Soils, Wastewater Disposal, Vegetation, Utilities, Agricultural Land, Mines and Quarries, Underground Storage Tanks, Solid Waste Disposal, Roadways, Radon, Coastal Areas, Wildlife, and Miscellaneous Environmental Problems.

  12. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  13. Climate and Land Degradation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    On the occasion of the Seventh session of the Conference of Parties, The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has prepared this brochure which explains the role of different climatic factors in land degradation and WMO's contribution in addressing this important subject.

  14. KamLAND Zen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishidoshiro, Koji

    2014-09-01

    KamLAND-Zen is an experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay search with xenon 136 based on large liquid scintillator detector KamLAND. The first phase of the experiment was operated from Oct. 12, 2011 to June 14, 2012 and we set lower limit for the neutrino-less double beta decay half-life , T1 / 2 (0 ?) > 1 . 9 ×1025 yr. The combined result of KamLAND-Zen and EXO data give T1 / 2 (0 ?) > 3 . 4 ×1025 yr. At the first phase, we found problematic background, 110mAg. Then we purified liquid scintillator and xenon gas by distillation to remove the background. The purification campaign was started just after the first phase and ended at Dec. 2013. We present current status and latest results from KamLAND-Zen second phase, and discuss the future prospects.

  15. Land use and mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    The ERTS program provides data that can be used to derive information relative to the actual use of the land resource, in a practical and timely manner. ERTS data provide coverage of total land areas, and its repetitive nature enables the detection and monitoring of changes taking place in land use. Generally, the techniques and the procedures used to extract information from ERTS data may be categorized as pertaining to either the interpretations of ERTS imagery or to the use of digital data and computer techniques. Examples are given of the use of ERTS-1 data for land use classification in: (1) New England areas; (2) Chesapeake Bay and Washington, D.C.; (3) Mississippi Gulf Coast; (4) Los Angeles, California; (5) Houston, Texas; and (6) Phoenix, Arizona.

  16. Viking landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1973-01-01

    A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

  17. Land Use and Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon B. Bonan; Ruth S. DeFries; Michael T. Coe; Dennis S. Ojima

    Terrestrial ecosystems affect climate through exchanges of energy, water, momentum, mineral aerosols, CO2, and other atmospheric gases. Changes in community composition and ecosystem structure alter these exchanges and in doing\\u000a so alter surface energy fluxes, the hydrologic cycle, and biogeochemical cycles. As a result, changes in land cover through\\u000a natural vegetation dynamics or human uses of land can alter climate.

  18. A Land Worth Loving

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    From the BBC Nature Web site, comes the A Land Worth Loving page. The site has several interactive activities related to energy conservation and recycling including the virtual energy house. Here users get to choose energy saving items to see the resulting gains to the homeowner and the environment. The site also explains recycling and sustainable living and even offers a "green" quiz and a free downloadable "A Land Worth Living" poster.

  19. Lunar Landing Sites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This activity is about landing on the Moon. Learners will design a spacecraft, choose a suitable lunar landing site, and present their ideas before the entire class using visual aides such as maps, diagrams, and 3-dimensional models. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

  20. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  1. This Land is Your Land. The Problem of Land Utilization. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Carl; And Others

    This unit, written for seventh-grade school children, focuses on the variety of factors that are involved in land utilization. It specifically examines land use in St. Louis County, Missouri, and discusses such concepts as the variety of ways man has used this land, the influence surface features have on land use, the influence of socio-cultural…

  2. Anticipating land surface change

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify “near misses,” close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management. PMID:23530230

  3. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  4. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  5. Bureau of Land Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), a powerful government agency within the US Department of the Interior, administers 264 million acres of America's public lands, primarily in the western US states. For those interested in what, exactly, the BLM does in order "to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations," this Website will be a useful resource. The homepage includes six sections: News, Information (including FAQ), What We Do, BLM Facts (including the BLM's mission), Directory (state and other BLM Websites), and FOIA (Freedom of Information Act). For news summaries of recent actions related to BLM management in western states, go to the What We Do section and click on the appropriate subject heading. A feedback form is also provided.

  6. Land use and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  7. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  8. Land & Water Conservation Fund

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In 1965, the US Congress created the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) "to preserve open space, develop recreation opportunities, and assure that all Americans have access to quality outdoor recreation." The Land and Water Conservation Fund receives $900 million annually, mainly from ocean oil drilling revenues. However, as much as 85 percent of each year's Fund is diverted for purposes other than conservation and recreation. The National Park Service provides this site, which gives technical information on the State and Federal components of the LWCF, with some historical information. For those interested in the future of natural places in this country, this site will be of great interest.

  9. Land Use and Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  10. Regional land use studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L.

    1970-01-01

    Remote sensing technology and data from instrumented satellites and high altitude aircraft are proposed for mapping land use on a current national basis, for monitoring changes and trends, and for creating statistical models which can be manipulated to demonstrate the probable effects of proposed land use and of environmental changes over large areas. Both Apollo spacecraft and aircraft photography were used; the spacecraft pictures delineated the cropland and urban boundaries more clearly. A computer model is also proposed for statistical analysis and for printing out updated maps automatically; this model will include a data bank which can be updated rapidly with changes detected by the computer.

  11. Public Lands: Preserve or Develop?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan introduces students to the various ways that public lands are valued, used, and managed in the United States. Students will compare and contrast different types of public lands, then simulate the decision-making and communication involved in converting private land to public land, taking into consideration the location, terrain, and climate of the land, as well as the needs and desires of residents of the region. Students will imagine that they are able to bequeath a parcel of land to their state for public use, then create an argument for the best use of the property.

  12. LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    and resources in a geographic area Promote conservation of these natural features and resources Guide ________________________________________________________________________ Preparing a Conservation Plan INTRODUCTION Conservation of land, water and other natural features and resources is a priority for many New Hampshire communities. In order to implement conservation projects

  13. Land Use in Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

    Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

  14. X-15 - Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Footage of the X-15 research aircraft (landing), designed to investigate the problems of manned flight in a near space environment: altitudes up to 50 miles, speed up mach 6, high speed aerodynamics, aerodynamic heating, structural design, aircraft stability and control in space and re-entry.

  15. Egg-cellent Landing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    The purpose of this activity is to recreate the classic egg-drop experiment with an analogy to the Mars rover landing. The concept of terminal velocity will be introduced, and students will perform several velocity calculations. Also, students will have to design and build their lander within a pre-determined budget to help reinforce a real-world design scenario.

  16. Lab 3: Land Ice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the first part of this lab, students learn about land ice and the processes and timescales involved in glaciation. In Part B, they use an online interactive to explore how glaciers provide scientists with evidence for climate change. Finally, students use image processing software to measure how much area a real glacier has lost over time due to rising temperatures.

  17. Land snail anatomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2006-06-17

    Land snails have a shell for protection. They have four tentacles, a foot, and a head and a tail region. The top set of tentacles are the snail's eyes. The bottom set of tentacles are what the snail uses to smell.

  18. Electrorheologically controlled landing gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    State-of-the-art landing gear design concept is proposed focusing on the damping function and the energy storage or springing function. The control in the landing gear is based on the medium of an electrorheological (ER) fluid. The shear-mode damper uses multiple rotational shearing disks which provide a total control surface area that is constant and independent of the relative position of the landing gear, resulting in good control and a compact size. It is concluded that the rotary shear-mode damper makes it possible to obtain a fast response time and a high ratio of strut forces achieved under ER vs zero-field control. The design is compact and simple due to the use of the screw-nut mechanism and integration of the pneumatic spring. Results of computer simulations show that when using an ER fluid of a yield stress of 7 kPa, the energy absorption efficiency of the landing gear can reach almost 100 percent at various sink rates.

  19. EnviroLand

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Frank Dunnivant

    2008-02-20

    This software package contains several Visual Basic simulations of wet laboratory experiments for environmental chemistry (i.e. alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, etc.), a theoretical calculation/simulator (pC-pH diagram), and seven pollutant fate and transport simulators. EnviroLand only works on PC machines. Zipped file size: 12 Mb

  20. Land Use and Nitrogen

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students explore the impacts of concentrated development and sprawl on water quality and land use. The concept of a watershed is introduced, along with information on basins and tributaries and the impacts of growth and nitrogen loading. The students are able to develop a plan to reduce nitrogen runoff to a targeted level. Several handouts and maps are included.

  1. The Mayflower Landed Here!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Wellfleet, MA. Cape Cod National Seashore.

    This booklet provides information so that teachers can prepare their grade 5 and above students for a visit to the Cape Cod National Seashore historic site. Pilgrims on the Mayflower landed here in 1620. The booklet contains pre-visit, on site, and post-visit activities, along with a list of educational objectives and materials needed. It also…

  2. Human Interactive Landing Point Redesignation for Lunar Landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Forest; B. E. Cohanim; T. Brady

    2008-01-01

    In order to achieve safe and precise landings anywhere on the lunar surface without the heavy involvement of mission operations required during Apollo, an autonomous flight manager (AFM) is needed to assist the crew in managing the landing mission. An essential algorithm within the AFM is the landing point redesignation (LPR) function, which determines a prioritized list of safe and

  3. Land Surface Analysis and Reanalysis

    E-print Network

    on Reanalyses Silver Spring, MD, May 9, 2012 #12;Outline Introduction MERRA-Land · Motivation and data product is often called "LDAS" Example: The MERRA-Land data product http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/research/merra/merra

  4. Spatial differentiation of land transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-xing Du; Xian-jin Huang; Wen-xia Zhai; Bu-zhuo Peng

    2006-01-01

    The policy of land transfer has greatly influenced the macro economy of China with the commencement of another innovation\\u000a of land use system. Therefore, it is urgent to put forward some rational and feasible suggestions for local government to\\u000a manage the market of land transfer. Moreover, it is important in the field of study on agricultural land use change to

  5. Predicting land-use change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Veldkamp; E. F. Lambin

    2001-01-01

    Land use change modelling, especially if done in a spatially-explicit, integrated and multi-scale manner, is an important technique for the projection of alternative pathways into the future, for conducting experiments that test our understanding of key processes in land use changes. Land-use change models should represent part of the complexity of land use systems. They offer the possibility to test

  6. The Land-Grant Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview and history of the land-grant system, as well as copies of the original and amended legislation affecting the land-grant colleges. Land-grant colleges or universities have been designated by their state legislatures or Congress to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862, 1890 and 1994. The original…

  7. Landing of Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Landing of Manned Reentry Vehicles. Landing characteristics were investigated using dynamic models. The landing speeds for several let-down systems are simulated. Demonstrations include: (1) the vertical landing of parachute-supported capsules on water; (2) reduction of landing acceleration by shaping the impact surface for water entry; (3) problems created by horizontal velocity due to wind; (4) the use of energy absorbers (yielding metal legs or torus bags) for land or water landings; (5) problems associated with horizontal land landings; (6) the use of a paraglider to aid in vehicle direction control; (7) a curved undersurface to serve as a skid-rocker to convert sinking-speed energy into angular energy; (8) horizontal-type landing obtained with winged vehicles on a hard runway; (9) the dangers of high-speed water landings; and (10) the positive effects of parachute support for landing winged vehicles. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030969. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  8. Second generation Mars landed missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Graf; Sam Thurman; Howard Eisen; Tom Rivellini; Dara Sabahi

    2001-01-01

    Mars future landed missions include safe, accurate landing of payloads large enough to accomplish a sample return mission or to accommodate both a comprehensive science instrument suite and extensive in situ resource utilization payloads. In addition, the landers may be fixed (immovable) or have sufficient mobility capability to rove multiple kilometers on the surface. Accurate landing, coupled with extensive roving

  9. LAND USE AND NATURAL RESOURCES

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    1 LAND USE AND NATURAL RESOURCES CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION SUMMER 2013 Including in a white Cadillac. It was worth the trip. We in the Land Use and Natural Resources and Sustainability Lave Johnston Director, Land Use and Natural Resources Department UC Davis Extension #12;3 CONTENTS

  10. ERA-Interim/Land: A global land surface reanalysis dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Albergel, Clement; Beljaars, Anton; Boussetta, Souhail; Brun, Eric; Cloke, Hannah; Dee, Dick; Dutra, Emanuel; Muñoz-Sabater, Joaquín; Pappenberger, Florian; De Rosnay, Patricia; Stockdale, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    ERA-Interim/Land is a global land-surface reanalysis dataset covering the period 1979-2010 recently made publicly available from ECMWF. It describes the evolution of soil moisture, soil temperature and snowpack. ERA-Interim/Land is the result of a single 32-year simulation with the latest ECMWF land surface model driven by meteorological forcing from the ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis and precipitation adjustments based on monthly GPCP v2.1 (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). The horizontal resolution is about 80km and the time frequency is 3-hourly. ERA-Interim/Land includes a number of parameterization improvements in the land surface scheme with respect to the original ERA-Interim dataset, which makes it more suitable for climate studies involving land water resources. The quality of ERA-Interim/Land is assessed by comparing with ground-based and remote sensing observations. In particular, estimates of soil moisture, snow depth, surface albedo, turbulent latent and sensible fluxes, and river discharges are verified against a large number of site measurements. ERA-Interim/Land provides a global integrated and coherent estimate of soil moisture and snow water equivalent, which can also be used for the initialization of numerical weather prediction and climate models. Current plans for the extension and improvements of ERA-Interim/Land in the framework of future reanalyses will be briefly presented. References and dataset download information at: http://www.ecmwf.int/en/research/climate-reanalysis/era-interim/land

  11. Evaluation of the VIIRS Land Algorithms at Land PEATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Ye, Gang; Masuoka, Edward J.; Schweiss, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (Land PEATE), a component of the Science Data Segment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), is being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The primary task of the Land PEATE is to assess the quality of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land data products made by the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) using the Operational (OPS) Code during the NPP era and to recommend improvements to the algorithms in the IDPS OPS code. The Land PEATE uses a version of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), NPPDAPS, that has been modified to produce products from the IDPS OPS code and software provided by the VIIRS Science Team, and uses the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team for evaluation of the data records generated by the NPPDAPS. Land PEATE evaluates the algorithms by comparing data products generated using different versions of the algorithm and also by comparing to heritage products generated from different instrument such as MODIS using various quality assessment tools developed at LDOPE. This paper describes the Land PEATE system and some of the approaches used by the Land PEATE for evaluating the VIIRS Land algorithms during the pre-launch period of the NPP mission and the proposed plan for long term monitoring of the quality of the VIIRS Land products post-launch.

  12. Aggressive landing maneuvers for unmanned aerial vehicles

    E-print Network

    Bayraktar, Selcuk

    2006-01-01

    VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) vehicle landing is considered to be a critically difficult task for both land, marine, and urban operations. This thesis describes one possible control approach to enable landing of ...

  13. A Simple Reclassification Method for Correcting Uncertainty in Land Use/Land Cover Data Sets Used with Land Surface Models

    E-print Network

    Niyogi, Dev

    A Simple Reclassification Method for Correcting Uncertainty in Land Use/Land Cover Data Sets Used spacing to resolve the land surface characteristics. The land use/land cover (LULC) data sets input into land surface models are used to assign various default parameters from a look-up tables. The objective

  14. The Use of Urban Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Techniques for analyzing scientific information from the lunar and planetary missions now are being applied to land-resource management in and around cities. Two systems have been formalized by Jet Propulsion Laboratory and are being applied in the Los Angeles area. The first, called the 'Land Use Management Information System' incorporates maps, aerial photos, and other land data into routine city and county census records. The second system, 'multiple-input land use' combines satellite imagery with other data sources. Essentially a city street map in computer readable form, the system will help planners in traffic accident analysis, mapping, and land-record.

  15. Modeling land-use change

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

  16. The Land Credit Problem

    E-print Network

    Putnam, George E.

    1916-12-01

    at from $50 to $80 per acre. Former purchasers of these Government lands in the Middle, Western, and Southern States were selling their early purchases for this great advance, and moving west, to Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Missouri... acquire sufficient means to purchase a farm of his own. In some of the older agri cultural states, where, on account of a certain immobility on the part of farmers, the status of tenancy was deemed preferable to the isolation and hardships of frontier...

  17. CSIRO Land and Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CSIRO Land and Water is an Australian research organization working with government and industry to solve some of Australia's environmental challenges. The Current Issues section of this Web siteoffers some understanding of the resource management and ecosystem issues facing Australia, including agricultural and aquatic ecosystem issues. The site also offers an Image Gallery containing almost 1,200 downloadable images that visitors can browse by category or search by keyword.

  18. Egg-cellent Landing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-06-27

    Learners recreate the classic egg-drop experiment with an analogy to the Mars rover landing. The concept of terminal velocity will be introduced, and learners perform several velocity calculations. Also, learners design and build their lander within a pre-determined budget to help reinforce a real-world design scenario. Materials list can be expanded to include a great variety of items as desired.

  19. Settling in New Land

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    mgubler

    2009-11-18

    You and your group are explorers out to start a settlement in new land. Third Grade Social Studies Standard 1 Students will understand how geography influences community location and development. Objective 1 Determine the relationships between human settlement and geography. Identify the geographic features common to areas where human settlements exist. a. Use map features to make logical inferences and describe relationships between human settlement and physical ...

  20. Land scarcity in Northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemertz, Lena; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Land access is a major topic in the Namibian population, which can also be seen in political discourses. In North-Central Namibia, the ongoing Communal Land Reform aims at improving tenure security and thereby also hopes to promote sustainable investment in land. Within this context, it is often argued that population growth is leading to an increased scarcity of land. However, this argument falls short of actual issues determining land scarcity in Namibia. In a context, where a large part of the population is still seen as depending on agricultural production, land scarcity has to be measured by different means to assess physical scarcity (population density, farm density, proportion of cultivated areas, or yield per person) as well as the perception of these different scarcities. This paper aims to discuss the different notions of land scarcity and argues that by focusing only on the physical realities of increasing pressure on land because of population growth, important other aspects are neglected. In order to scrutinize those measures, the study will further look at the distribution of different land uses, changing land use practices as connected to changing labour availability and mobility. Special attention will thereby be given to the difference between land scarcity and fertile soil scarcity and their relation to labour availability.

  1. Consequences of land use and land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

  2. Forum on land use and land Cover: Summary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Geological Survey

    1992-01-01

    This report includes the agenda and abstracts of presentations from the Forum on Land Use and Land Cover Data, cohosted by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), February 25-27,1992 at the USGS National Center in Reston, Virginia. The Forum was conducted under the auspices of the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and was attended by Federal and State managers of programs that produce and use land use and land cover maps and data in support of environmental analysis, monitoring, and policy development. The goal was to improve opportunities for Federal and State coordination, information exchange, data sharing, and work sharing in land use and land cover mapping.

  3. Stewardship of public school land by the General Land Office

    E-print Network

    Zechiel, Tod Peter

    1987-01-01

    for the degree of NASTER OF AGRICULTURE August 1987 Range Science Department of Range Sciences STEWARDSHIP OF PUBLIC SCHOOL LAND BY THE G~~ LAND OFFICE A Professional Paper by TOD PETER ZECHIEL Approved as to style and content by: Wayne d. Hamilton..., knowledge, and skills that helped me learn much about the management of resources and people as well as things about myself. INTRODUCTION The General Land Office (GLO) is part of Texas state government responsible for the stewardship of state lands...

  4. Food Calories and Land

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Pratte

    Obesity is on the rise in the United States, due primarily to the size and composition of the American diet. Discussion topics include lack of exercise, changes in calorie intake over time, and environmental impacts of these increases in consumption. Each student will particpate in an activity in which they investigate how their own diets affect the agricultural demands of a hypothetical country. They will record their calorie intake, categorize the calories as coming from either plants or animals, and estimate the amount of land that is needed to provide their daily intake. Links to related sites are provided.

  5. Landing impact of seaplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pabst, Wilhelm

    1931-01-01

    The theory of landing impact is briefly stated and the applicability of a previously suggested formula is extended. Theoretical considerations regarding impact measurements on models and actual seaplanes are followed by a brief description of the instruments used in actual flight tests. The report contains a description of the strength conditions and deals exhaustively with force measurements on the float gear of an "HE 9a" with flat-bottom and with V-bottom floats. The experimental data are given and compared with the theoretical results.

  6. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  7. To Land on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirley, James H.; Carlson, Robert W.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Sabahi, Dara

    2005-01-01

    The Science Definition Team (SDT) for NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission recommends including a lander as an integral part of the science payload of the JIMO Mission. The Europa Surface Science Package (ESSP) could comprise up to 25% of science payload resources. We have identified several key scientific and technical issues for such a lander, including 1) the potential effects of propellant contamination of the landng site, 2) the likely macroscopic surface roughness of potential landing sites, and 3) the desire to sample materials from depths of approximately 1 m beneath the surface. Discussion and consensus building on these issues within the science community is a prerequisite for establishing design requirements.

  8. LSRA landing with tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

  9. Biogeochemical Cycles in Degraded Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Vieira, Ima Celia G.; ReisdeCarvalho, Claudio Jose; DeanedeAbreuSa, Tatiana; deSouzaMoutinho, Paulo R.; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.; Stone, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to define and describe the types of landscapes that fall under the broad category of "degraded lands" and to study biogeochemical cycles across this range of degradation found in secondary forests. We define degraded land as that which has lost part of its capacity of renovation of a productive ecosystem, either in the context of agroecosystems or as native communities of vegetation. This definition of degradation permits evaluation of biogeochemical constraints to future land uses.

  10. UrbanLand

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-17

    Urban Land is an online magazine created and maintained by the staff members and affiliates of the Urban Land Institute. The magazine also has a print edition (published six times a year), and the goal of both publications is to provide timely articles and reports that deal with a wide range of topics, including real estate, international planning trends, and municipal finances. On the homepage, visitors can read the New Developments area which contains succinct data reports offered each business day, along with updates on topics such as Economy, Markets & Trends, Infrastructure/Transit, and Residential. Visitors can view the Institute's 75th Anniversary page for details about their past work and also use the Most Read feature to see what other visitors are finding most compelling. Given today's design and planning climate in cities, the Sustainability area is one that professionals and policy types will find most useful. Also, visitors can use the search feature to look for particular news updates, data reports, and so on.

  11. Vertical landing on an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harel, D.; Geulman, M.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the final approach phase and vertical landing on an asteroid with a power-limited, electrically propelled spacecraft. With gravitational effects taken into account, a new solution to the fuel optimal vertical landing on an asteroid was obtained. In this solution, the spacecraft commanded acceleration is explicitly expressed as a function of vehicle velocity and time to go. Based on qualitative methods of analysis, the guidance strategy and the resulting trajectories were studied. It is shown that these fuel-optimal trajectories effectively assure a vertical soft landing on the asteroid. Results of numerical simulations for the vertical landing, starting from an elliptical orbit are presented.

  12. Molecular Mapping of Brain Areas Involved in Parrot Vocal Communication

    PubMed Central

    JARVIS, ERICH D.; MELLO, CLAUDIO V.

    2008-01-01

    Auditory and vocal regulation of gene expression occurs in separate discrete regions of the songbird brain. Here we demonstrate that regulated gene expression also occurs during vocal communication in a parrot, belonging to an order whose ability to learn vocalizations is thought to have evolved independently of songbirds. Adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were stimulated to vocalize with playbacks of conspecific vocalizations (warbles), and their brains were analyzed for expression of the transcriptional regulator ZENK. The results showed that there was distinct separation of brain areas that had hearing- or vocalizing-induced ZENK expression. Hearing warbles resulted in ZENK induction in large parts of the caudal medial forebrain and in 1 midbrain region, with a pattern highly reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Vocalizing resulted in ZENK induction in nine brain structures, seven restricted to the lateral and anterior telencephalon, one in the thalamus, and one in the midbrain, with a pattern partially reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Five of the telencephalic structures had been previously described as part of the budgerigar vocal control pathway. However, functional boundaries defined by the gene expression patterns for some of these structures were much larger and different in shape than previously reported anatomical boundaries. Our results provide the first functional demonstration of brain areas involved in vocalizing and auditory processing of conspecific sounds in budgerigars. They also indicate that, whether or not vocal learning evolved independently, some of the gene regulatory mechanisms that accompany learned vocal communication are similar in songbirds and parrots. PMID:10717637

  13. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications. PMID:1297009

  14. 78 FR 37164 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...IA000113; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land...consultation@bia.gov. Include the number 1076-AF15 in the subject line of the message...Washington, DC 20240. Include the number 1076-AF15 in the submission. --Hand...

  15. LAND USE/LAND COVER, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED (BUFFERED)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EOSAT and the North Carolina State University Computer Graphics Center, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Land Use/Land Cover digital data to enhance planning, siting and impact analysis in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Stu...

  16. National Land Cover Data National Land Cover Data

    E-print Network

    _Presentation_Form: raster digital data Other_Citation_Details: Classification and processing of the orginal remote sensingNational Land Cover Data National Land Cover Data Metadata also available as Metadata: q Identification_Information q Data_Quality_Information q Spatial_Data_Organization_Information q Spatial

  17. Access to Land Data Products Through the Land Processes DAAC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Klaassen; C. K. Gacke

    2004-01-01

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) was established as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) initiative to process, archive, and distribute land-related data collected by EOS sensors, thereby promoting the inter-disciplinary study and understanding of the integrated Earth system. The LP DAAC is responsible for archiving, product development, distribution, and user

  18. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

  19. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

  20. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

  1. 43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

  2. Guidance and control for lunar landing system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shohei Niwa; Masayuki Suzuki; Jun Zhou; Takahiro Kawasaki; Shunichiro Nakai; Kazuyuki Higashino

    1992-01-01

    Fundamental considerations on guidance and control problems are presented for the lunar landing system which will be developed in Japan in several years. The guidance and control system for the lunar landing system includes functions such as attitude and position control during descent, searching for optimum landing position, guidance to the landing position, and deceleration control for soft landing. Fundamental

  3. Language of the Land

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using maps and photographs from the collections of the Library of Congress (LOC), this exhibition documents the connections between America's geography and its literature. The exhibit was inspired by LOC's collection of literary maps, and it begins with several of these accompanied by quotations, such as Gertrude Stein's observation, "In the United States there is more space where nobody is than where anybody is. That is what makes America what it is." The remainder of the exhibition consists of four regional sections, Northeast, South, Midwest (featuring an opening quote from Jack Kerouac and a drawing that looks like Laura from Little House on the Prairie), and West. To make requesting reproductions easy, negative numbers and call numbers are included for all items, as well as ordering information for the exhibition's companion book, Language of the Land: The Library of Congress Book of Literary Maps, by Martha Hopkins and Michael Buscher.

  4. Weather, land satellite sale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

  5. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  6. CONVERTING ABANDONED LANDS TO CROPLAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of economic conditions, areas of cropland in Ukraine have been left unused for several years. These abandoned lands are now infested with perennial weeds. Producers are interested in converting these lands back to cropland with no-till systems to preserve soil benefits gained by not tillin...

  7. Land Access, Protection and Permits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsell, Steve

    This paper summarizes a panel discussion that included 25 students and outdoor education and recreation professionals on issues related to land use and outdoor education and recreation programs. Many participants expressed frustration over inconsistent management policies related to educational and recreational use of public lands. Participants…

  8. MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products Users' Guide Zhengming Wan ICESS, University of California, Santa Barbara March 2006 #12;ALERT --- This document is a living document that describes the MODIS Land of the LST products. Described is the current state of the MODIS LST products. The purpose of the document

  9. Land use/land cover and scale influences on in-stream nitrogen uptake kinetics

    E-print Network

    Covino, Tim

    Land use/land cover and scale influences on in-stream nitrogen uptake kinetics Tim Covino,1 Brian February 2012; published 17 April 2012. [1] Land use/land cover change often leads to increased nutrient maintain watershed export at low levels during base flow. Our results indicate that land use/land cover

  10. Exploring subtle land use and land cover changes: a framework for future landscape studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Exploring subtle land use and land cover changes: a framework for future landscape studies Thomas studies can provide a framework to forecast how land use and land cover changes is likely to react demonstrate that relatively subtle land cover and land use changes can have a large impact on future

  11. MONITORING LAND USE CHANGES AROUND THE INDIGENOUS LANDS OF THE XINGU BASIN IN MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    E-print Network

    Brest, Université de

    MONITORING LAND USE CHANGES AROUND THE INDIGENOUS LANDS OF THE XINGU BASIN IN MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL the land use changes occuring in its surroundings. We quantified the land use changes in the Xingu basin EVI, Amazonia, indigenous land, land use changes, soybean 1. INTRODUCTION The State of Mato Grosso

  12. 7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

  13. 7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

  14. 7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs, or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

  15. 7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

  16. 7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

  17. Which Gets Hotter, Land or Water?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christine McLelland

    1999-04-01

    This activity illustrates how dark land surfaces, light land surfaces and water all heat at different rates. Students determine whether land or water absorbs heat more quickly and how this difference affects weather and climate.

  18. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)

  19. Land cover: national inventory of vegetation and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa

    2013-01-01

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) produces data and tools that help meet critical national challenges such as biodiversity conservation, renewable energy development, climate change adaptation, and infrastructure investment. The GAP national land cover includes data on the vegetation and land-use patterns of the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. This national dataset combines land cover data generated by regional GAP projects with Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE) data. LANDFIRE is an interagency vegetation, fire, and fuel characteristics mapping program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

  20. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  1. Terrain at Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Portions of Mars Pathfinder's deflated airbags (seen in the foreground), a large rock in mid-field, and a hill in the background were taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) aboard Mars Pathfinder during the spacecraft's first day on the Red Planet. Pathfinder successfully landed on Mars at 10:07 a.m. PDT earlier today.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  2. Lands and natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The Tenth Circuit has historically played a major role in the development of Indian law. Among the court's numerous decisions affecting Indians were those involving the standard of proof in cases seeking to disestablish Indian reservations, the duty owed by the Secretary of the Interior to the Indians in the administration of oil and gas leasing on Indian lands, the effect of state gas price control acts on Indian royalties, the necessary standard of compliance with acts allowing non-Indians to obtain interests in Indian real property, the conflict between Indian sovereign immunity and the Federal Rule of Civil Procedure requiring joinder of all necessary parties to an action, and the Indians' power to tax non-Indians who develop the Indians' natural resources. Additionally, this article discusses the enforcement power of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission under the Natural Gas Act; the construction of oil and gas operating agreements as to deep geologic horizons; and finally, the consequences of conveyancing real property when a predecessor in interest has suffered due process violations in the form of defective tax sales or condemnation proceedings.

  3. Evaluating biodiversity of mineral lands

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, G.L. [USDA Forest Service, Burlington, VT (United States); Tritton, L.M.

    1997-12-31

    Increasingly, lands intended for mining, or lands that have been mined and reclaimed, are being evaluated in terms of biological diversity (biodiversity). The concept of biodiversity includes die variety and number of living organisms, their organizations, and the environments that support them. This paper presents a framework for discussing and evaluating biodiversity and for constructing checklists for evaluating biodiversity before and after mining. This framework identifies some of the different types of biodiversity applicable to mineral lands, die ranges of scale at which they are applicable, and the social stakes and stakeholders relevant across scale and diversity types.

  4. X-15 landing on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    In this 17-second video clip, the X-15 is shown in flight and then landing on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Edwards Air Force Base. It is followed by an F-104A chase aircraft, whose pilot provided a second set of eyes to the X-15 pilot on landing in case of any problems. The video shows the skids on the back of the X-15 contacting the lakebed, with the aircraft's nose then rotating downward until the nose landing gear was on the lakebed.

  5. Land use change and land degradation in southeastern Mediterranean Spain.

    PubMed

    Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall "recuperating" trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management. PMID:17530333

  6. Land Use Change and Land Degradation in Southeastern Mediterranean Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

    2007-07-01

    The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall “recuperating” trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management.

  7. Polarization in the land distribution, land use and land cover change in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    D'ANTONA, Alvaro; VANWEY, Leah; LUDEWIGS, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present Polarization of Agrarian Structure as a single, more complete representation than models emphasizing rural exodus and consolidation of land into large agropastoral enterprises of the dynamics of changing land distribution, land use / cover, and thus the rural milieu of Amazonia. Data were collected in 2003 using social surveys on a sample of 587 lots randomly selected from among 5,086 lots on a cadastral map produced in the 1970s. Georeferencing of current property boundaries in the location of these previously demarcated lots allows us to relate sociodemographic and biophysical variables of the surveyed properties to the changes in boundaries that have occurred since the 1970s. As have other authors in other Amazonian regions, we found concentration of land ownership into larger properties. The approach we took, however, showed that changes in the distribution of land ownership is not limited to the appearance of larger properties, those with 200 ha or more; there also exists substantial division of earlier lots into properties with fewer than five hectares, many without any agropastoral use. These two trends are juxtaposed against the decline in establishments with between five and 200 ha. The variation across groups in land use / land cover and population distribution shows the necessity of developing conceptual models, whether from socioeconomic, demographic or environmental perspectives, look beyond a single group of people or properties. PMID:24639597

  8. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach. A number of case studies justify the schemes developed to explain this approach.

  9. Mars Landing Site Analysis Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian Hynek

    Brian Hynek, University of Colorado Summary Students use recent data acquired from Mars orbiters to assess the safety and scientific value of various proposed landing sites for a future Mars lander. Context Type ...

  10. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

  11. Apollo lunar landing commerative artwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Apollo lunar landing commerative artwork. View depicts an Apollo era astronaut standing on the lunar surface, facing the viewer, with an Earthrise reflected in his visor. Directly behind him, is the lunar lander.

  12. Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew (editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Project is an approved Discovery-class mission that will place a lander and rover on the surface of the Red Planet in July 1997. The Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop was designed to allow the Mars scientific community to provide input as to where to land Pathfinder on Mars. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from around the United States and from Europe. Over 20 landing sites were proposed at the workshop, and the scientific questions and problems concerning each were addressed. The workshop and the discussion that occured during and afterward have significantly improved the ability to select a scientifically exciting but safe landing site on Mars.

  13. Christmas in Physics Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    A short story of everyday folk for the Yuletide season It was a beautiful scene. Children were sledging, or at least adults were sledging whilst the children waited for a go. Snow flakes were falling gently to the ground. The physicist was extremely content. All the snow flakes had a perfectly symmetric hexagonal crystal structure; the sledges were all reaching the bottom of the slope at just the correct velocity, neglecting heat loss due to friction. A skater went past. The physicist smiled. The change in melting point under the blades was just as it should have been, and angular momentum was completely conserved in the pirouette. A snowball hit the physicist squarely in the face, probably thrown by a geographer. But even this made the physicist laugh, as the trajectory was perfect, as long as you accounted for the changing mass. How different to last year when the physicist had spent Christmas in the real world. How glad he was that he had come to Physics Land for the festive season where everything was just as it ought to be. Someone in the crowd barged into him, but it didn't matter, he was a boson, so they just ignored each other. How horrid it had been last Christmas.... As a young man carrying a light ladder went past, whistling merrily and enjoying the experience of the Doppler effect, the physicist leant back against the perfectly smooth wall, revelling in the joy of resolving his forces on the rough ground... and began to think dark thoughts about the previous year. You see the problem with the real world was that it didn't understand physicists at all. Probably the worst place of all for a physicist was at a party. So often things would go wrong and he would leave early in disgrace. How well he remembered the evening when he had been curious whether it was a pnp or npn type semiconductor controlling the disco lights. It had taken barely three hours to reassemble the lights, and indeed improve on the flashing sequence by altering the reverse bias voltage, but no-one thanked him. Oh no, they were all just annoyed that he had dismantled the lights at all. That was the real world for you. Conversation had been difficult. People kept asking questions, but then didn't appear to be interested in the answer. One host had commented on the weather and then very rudely drifted off to another guest just as the physicist was making a clear distinction between rotating and inertial reference frames as the fundamental cause of the geostrophic wind. Another guest had made an equally bad impression by being clearly uninterested in a small digression on energy balance which seemed the obvious response to his comment about how warm the room had become as people began to dance. The physicist came out of his day dream. An old man was walking a dog on the end of a light inextensible string. A young girl on a swing was executing simple harmonic motion using a small-angle approximation in the park. Two older boys were investigating moments on a see-saw. A boisterous teenager was having a great time with the centripetal force on a roundabout. Yes, this was the life. In Physics Land, it would be a very merry Christmas. Philip Britton

  14. Are agricultural land-use models able to predict changes in land-use intensity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Lambin; M. D. A Rounsevell; H. J Geist

    2000-01-01

    Land-use and land-cover change research needs to pay more attention to processes of land-cover modification, and especially to agricultural land intensification. The objective of this paper is to review the different modelling approaches that have been used in land-use\\/land-cover change research from the perspective of their utility for the study and prediction of changes in land-use intensification. After clarifying the

  15. Land Use and Public Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Physicians for Social Responsibility

    This site provides an overview of how public and private land use and development affect environmental and human health. Special topics include hazardous waste sites such as Superfund sites and "brownfields," sprawl and transportation issues, development of antibiotic resistance in humans due to antibiotic use on farm animals, and how land use can contaminate surface waters. The site also features links to current news and related resources and organizations.

  16. 18 CFR 11.2 - Use of government lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Tribal Lands and Other Government Lands, and Use of Government Dams § 11.2 Use of government lands. (a) Reasonable...lands (other than lands adjoining or pertaining to Government dams or other structures owned by the United States...

  17. 18 CFR 11.2 - Use of government lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Tribal Lands and Other Government Lands, and Use of Government Dams § 11.2 Use of government lands. (a) Reasonable...lands (other than lands adjoining or pertaining to Government dams or other structures owned by the United States...

  18. 18 CFR 11.2 - Use of government lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Tribal Lands and Other Government Lands, and Use of Government Dams § 11.2 Use of government lands. (a) Reasonable...lands (other than lands adjoining or pertaining to Government dams or other structures owned by the United States...

  19. 18 CFR 11.2 - Use of government lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Tribal Lands and Other Government Lands, and Use of Government Dams § 11.2 Use of government lands. (a) Reasonable...lands (other than lands adjoining or pertaining to Government dams or other structures owned by the United States...

  20. 18 CFR 11.2 - Use of government lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Tribal Lands and Other Government Lands, and Use of Government Dams § 11.2 Use of government lands. (a) Reasonable...lands (other than lands adjoining or pertaining to Government dams or other structures owned by the United States...

  1. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-05-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing; RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects and land surface albedo. We simulate historical changes to terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo from LULCC using the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF from LULCC impacts on atmospheric chemistry and changes in aerosol concentrations. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We calculate total RFs between 1 to 2 W m-2 from LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a preindustrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget we include a fifth scenario in which all arable land is cultivated by 2100. This "worst-case scenario" leads to a LULCC RF of 4.3 W m-2 (±1.0 W m-2), suggesting that not only energy policy but land policy is necessary to minimize future increases in RF and associated climate changes.

  2. Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present-day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing, RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We attribute historical changes in terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo to LULCC using simulations with the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF of changes in atmospheric chemistry and aerosol concentrations attributed to LULCC. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 40% (±16%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We attribute total RFs between 0.9 and 1.9 W m-2 to LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a pre-industrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget, we include a fifth scenario in which all arable land is cultivated by 2100. This theoretical extreme case leads to a LULCC RF of 3.9 W m-2 (±0.9 W m-2), suggesting that not only energy policy but also land policy is necessary to minimize future increases in RF and associated climate changes.

  3. Forty Years of Land Use and Land Ownership Change in Central Sierra Nevada

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Forty Years of Land Use and Land Ownership Change in Central Sierra Nevada Oak Woodlands1 Matt owned, and, therefore, highly susceptible to changes in land use and ownership as well as land fragmentation. This is particularly true in the Central Sierra Nevada, where significant changes in land use

  4. International Symposium on Urban Land Policies and Land Use Systems Center for Urban Studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 International Symposium on Urban Land Policies and Land Use Systems Center for Urban Studies original land-use tools, such as the Legal Density Ceiling, a kind of land tax that the Brazilian. Furthermore, the strong land-use control policy enforced after the second World War in France has enabled

  5. Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and

    E-print Network

    1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

  6. Scheduling Aircraft Landings - The Static Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Beasley; Mohan Krishnamoorthy; Yazid M. Sharaiha; D. Abramson

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper we consider the problem,of scheduling aircraft (plane) landings at an airport. This problem,is one of deciding a landing time for each plane such that each plane lands within a predetermined,time window,and separation criteria between,the landing of a plane, and the landing of all successive planes, are respected. We present a mixed-integer zero-one formulation of the problem,for

  7. 77 FR 4058 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in Mesa County, CO Under the Federal Lands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ...Land in Mesa County, CO Under the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION...to applicable provisions of the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act (REA), the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM)...

  8. Enabling Pinpoint Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Phil; George, Sean; Wolf, Aron A.

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the entry, descent and landing (EDL) of a pinpoint landing (PPL) on Mars. These PPL missions will be required to deliver about 1000 kg of useful payload to the surface of Mars, therefore soft landings are of primary interest. The landing sites will be in a mid to to high latitude with possible sites about 2.5 km above the martian mean surface altitude. The applicable EDL is described and reviewed in phases. The evaluation approach is reviewed and the requirements for an accurate landing are reviewed. The descent of the unguided aeroshell entry phase dispersion due to trajectory and ballistic coefficient variations are shown in charts. These charts view the dispersions from three entries, Entry from orbit, and two types of direct entry. There is discussion of the differences in steerable subsonic parachute control vs dispersions, and the propulsive phase delta velocity vs dispersions. Data is presented for the three trajectory phases (i.e., Aeroshell, supersonic and subsonic chute) for Direct entry and low orbit entry. The results of the analysis is presented, including possibilities for mitigation of dispersions. The analysis of the navigation error is summarized, and the trajectory biasing for martian winds is assessed.

  9. Safe Landings in Extreme Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivellini, Tom; Ortiz, Gary; Steltzner, Adam

    2000-01-01

    Following the failure of the Mars Polar Lander and the re-evaluation of the Mars Sample Return mission status, a Safe Landing Tiger team was established on January 7, 2000. The charter of the team was to re-evaluate large scale (1000-2000 Kg) Mars lander designs with the principal objective being the assurance of safe landing in hazardous terrain. The tiger team developed a number of concepts, two of the most notable and promising concepts, are both based on a Mobile Lander paradigm. Unlike the Pathfinder and Surveyor class landers, this paradigm groups all of the landed equipment into one of two categories: (1) EDL only equipment (i.e., not used after touchdown) and (2) multi-use equipment, those used during and or after touchdown. The objective is to maximize the use of all equipment being brought to the surface by placing the bulk of the avionics and mechanical systems onto a much larger 'rover' and leaving only the bare essentials on a 'dead-on-arrival' landing system. All of the hardware that the surface roving mission needs is enlisted into performing the EDL tasks. Any EDL specific avionics not used after touchdown are placed on the landing system.

  10. X-31 landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at the Rockwell International facility, Palmdale, California, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on October 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an airplane with a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft's body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the exhaust nozzle of the X-31 aircraft directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31 aircraft were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. This understanding is expected to lead to design methods that provide better maneuverability in future high performance aircraft and make them safer to fly. An international test organization of about 110 people, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), conducted the flight operations at NASA Dryden. The ARPA had requested flight research for the X-31 aircraft be moved there in February 1992. In addition to ARPA and NASA, the international test organization (ITO) included the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell International, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace). NASA was responsible for flight research operations, aircraft maintenance, and research engineering once the program moved to Dryden. The No. 1 X-31 aircraft was lost in an accident January 19, 1995. The pilot, Karl Heinz-Lang, of the Federal Republic of Germany, ejected safely before the aircraft crashed in an unpopulated desert area just north of Edwards. The X-31 program logged an X-plane record of 580 flights during the program, including 555 research missions and 21 in Europe for the 1995 Paris Air Show. A total of 14 pilots representing all agencies of the ITO flew the aircraft. The X-31 aircraft shown on approach with a high angle of attack, touches down with its speed brakes, which can be seen extended just above and behind the wing. The aircraft then begins to rotate the nosegear down to runway contact and deploys a braking parachute that assists in slowing the aircraft after landing.

  11. 76 FR 52346 - Public Land Order No. 7775; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6870; Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management...Washington AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...values at the Steamboat Mountain Research Natural Area...Charles R. Roy, Bureau of Land Management...or Dianne Torpin, United States Forest Service,...

  12. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  13. Visiting the Scene of Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera focuses on the rock dubbed 'Bounce,' which the rover's airbag-wrapped lander hit upon landing. Though the plains surrounding Opportunity's 'Eagle Crater' landing site are relatively free of any hazards that would have hindered landing, the packaged rover managed to bounce down on one of the only rocks in the vicinity. The rock measures approximately 40 centimeters (about 16 inches) across.

    Bounce -- a rock that differs significantly from the light rocks in the Eagle Crater outcrop -- is currently being investigated by Opportunity. So far, the rover's miniature thermal emission spectrometer has revealed that it is rich in hematite. In the coming sols, a target yet to be chosen on the rock will be examined by the rover's spectrometers, then ground into by the rock abrasion tool. After the grind, the spectrometers will assess the chemical content of the exposed rock.

  14. Manual Land Cover Mapping Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students produce a land cover map of a 15 km x 15 km GLOBE study site from hard copies of Landsat satellite images. Students place clear transparencies over the Landsat TM images and use markers to outline and classify areas of different land cover using the MUC System. Students use their local expertise of their GLOBE study site and their sample site measurements to create and assess the accuracy of their maps. The resource includes a sample Landsat image, an example of an accuracy assessment work sheet, and a difference-error matrix to validate the degree of accuracy of the student product. This resource is a procedural tutorial supporting the protocol within the Land Cover/Biology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide.

  15. A Lunar Landing Guidance System for Soft-Precision Landings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Vaeth; M. D. Sarles

    1964-01-01

    A logical development of a novel, minimum-complexity guidance system for precise and soft lunar landing is presented together with an evaluation of predominant error sensitivities. Selection of this minimum-complexity system is influenced by its ability to handle a wide range of initial condition, sensor, propulsion and control system errors with minimum fuel and accuracy penalty. The trajectory control technique allows

  16. The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  17. The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.

    PubMed

    Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas. PMID:22419398

  18. 10.1177/0160017604266026 ARTICLEINTERNATIONAL REGIONAL SCIENCE REVIEW (Vol. 27, No. 3, 2004)Walker / THEORIZING LAND-COVER AND LAND-USE CHANGE THEORIZING LAND-COVER AND

    E-print Network

    Walker, Robert T.

    / THEORIZING LAND-COVER AND LAND-USE CHANGE THEORIZING LAND-COVER AND LAND-USE CHANGE: THE CASE OF TROPICAL@msu.edu This article addresses land-cover and land-use dynamics from the perspective of regional sci- ence and economic to evaluate the potential utility of von Thünen to the dis- course on land-cover and land-use change. After

  19. Second generation Mars landed missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, J.; Rivellini, T.; Sabahi, D.; Thurman, S.; Eisen, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the candidate missions being considered for the next generation projects, discusses the new approaches being developed to implement safe and accurate entry, descent and landing to the Martian surface, and describes the rover technology that enables the long distance and duration surface mission.

  20. The Physics of Land Yachting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-16

    In this lesson, students will explore motion related to an object in terms of its change in position over time compared to a reference point. Students will be given a variety of simple materials to create and test their very own land yachts to explore motion.

  1. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  2. California List land disposal rules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dowd

    1987-01-01

    In December 1986 EPA published the second in a series of proposed regulations banning land-based disposal of untreated hazardous wastes, as mandated by the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the 1976 Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA). This proposal covers liquid hazardous wastes on the California List; so called because it was originally developed by the California Department

  3. Utilizing Land-Livestock Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amator, Fred

    1971-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in Arizona for the purpose of utilizing land-livestock laboratories based upon a model concept. The concept, as proposed, was identified as an organizational plan which demands the involvement of all students in a specific organized class-laboratory activity of production agriculture. (Author)

  4. Global Consequences of Land Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan A. Foley; Ruth DeFries; Gregory P. Asner; Carol Barford; Gordon Bonan; Stephen R. Carpenter; F. Stuart Chapin; Michael T. Coe; Gretchen C. Daily; Holly K. Gibbs; Joseph H. Helkowski; Tracey Holloway; Erica A. Howard; Christopher J. Kucharik; Chad Monfreda; Jonathan A. Patz; I. Colin Prentice; Navin Ramankutty; Peter K. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by

  5. A Simple Reclassification Method for Correcting Uncertainty in Land Use\\/Land Cover Data Sets Used with Land Surface Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Alfieri; Dev Niyogi; Margaret A. LeMone; Fei Chen; Souleymane Fall

    2007-01-01

    With increasing computational resources, environmental models are run at finer grid spacing to resolve the land surface characteristics.\\u000a The land use\\/land cover (LULC) data sets input into land surface models are used to assign various default parameters from\\u000a a look-up tables. The objective of this study is to assess the potential uncertainty in the LULC data and to present a

  6. A Simple Reclassification Method for Correcting Uncertainty in Land Use\\/Land Cover Data Sets Used with Land Surface Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Alfieri; Dev Niyogi; Margaret A. Lemone; Fei Chen; Souleymane Fall

    With increasing computational resources, environmental models are run at finer grid spacing to resolve the land surface characteristics.\\u000a The land use\\/land cover (LULC) data sets input into land surface models are used to assign various default parameters from\\u000a a look-up tables. The objective of this study is to assess the potential uncertainty in the LULC data and to present a

  7. Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions?

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

  8. The American Land. Its History, Soil, Water, Wildlife, Agricultural Land Planning, and Land Problems of Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Presented in this booklet is the commentary for "The American Land," a television series prepared by the Soil Conservation Service and the Graduate School, United States Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with WETA - TV, Washington, D.C. It explores the resource of land in America, its history, soil, water, wildlife, agricultural land

  9. Land use, land management and soil organic carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wesemael, B.; Stevens, A.; Montanarella, L.

    2012-04-01

    Although the agricultural sector is considered to have one of the greatest greenhouse gas mitigation potential, largely via soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, it remains a challenge to accurately quantify SOC stock changes at regional to national scales. SOC stock changes resulting from SOC inventory systems vary widely between studies, even for a single country. Process-based models can provide insight in the drivers of SOC changes, but accurate input data, in particular historic data, is currently not available at these spatial scales. Here we illustrate the effects of historic land management (1960-2005) on SOC dynamics in the major soil types and agricultural regions in Belgium using region-specific land use and management data and a process-based model. The largest decreases in SOC stocks occurred in poorly drained grassland soils (-25 to -40 Mg C ha-1 in clays and floodplain soils), consistent with drainage improvements post-1960. Large increases in SOC in well-drained grassland soils (+ 12 Mg C ha-1) appear to be a legacy effect of widespread conversion of cropland to grassland prior to 1960. SOC in cropland increased only in sandy lowland soils (+ 10 Mg C ha-1), driven by increasing manure additions. New techniques and approaches are currently being developed to update the trends in SOC of agricultural soils. At the regional scale a combination of hyperspectral remote sensing and spatial modelling provides detailed SOC maps and inventories of croplands showing within field variation that can be used for geostatistical analysis. At the European scale LUCAS-soil (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) survey was implemented in 23 Member States of the EU. About 21,000 soil samples were collected and analysed for basic soil properties at the sites where land use and land cover have been registered annually since 2001. LUCAS-soil is the first harmonized survey conducted at EU level. Sampling techniques providing high resolution SOC data, uniform SOC monitoring networks with land cover and management data are crucial steps in predicting SOC changes in agricultural soils.

  10. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle - Duration: 49 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  11. 23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...lands. 752.9 Section 752.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of...

  12. 7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

  13. 7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

  14. GEORGE LEA FOUNDER'S SCHOLARSHIP PUBLIC LANDS FOUNDATION

    E-print Network

    1 GEORGE LEA FOUNDER'S SCHOLARSHIP PUBLIC LANDS FOUNDATION P.O. Box 7226 Arlington, VA 22207 Scholarship Application Form This scholarship is being offered by the Public Lands Foundation, a national non

  15. Land-ocean contrasts under climate change

    E-print Network

    Byrne, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Observations and climate models show a pronounced land-ocean contrast in the responses of surface temperature and the hydrological cycle to global warming: Land temperatures increase more than ocean temperatures, low-level ...

  16. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will be compatible with such use as permitted by...

  17. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing...inflight emergency may land at any Air Force airfield without prior...

  18. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing...inflight emergency may land at any Air Force airfield without prior...

  19. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing...inflight emergency may land at any Air Force airfield without prior...

  20. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing...inflight emergency may land at any Air Force airfield without prior...

  1. 32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing...inflight emergency may land at any Air Force airfield without prior...

  2. Catarrhal proventriculitis associated with a filamentous organism in pet birds.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    Catarrhal proventriculitis due to infection by an unidentified organism was diagnosed in 79 of 534 pet birds examined histologically. It was more prevalent in domestic birds (70 cases) than in imported ones (9 cases). A high incidence of the disease was encountered in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and it was occasionally found in finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), parakeets (Psittacula Krameri manillensis), Amazona parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). The agent was a large filamentous rod, and was stained positively with Gram, GMS and PAS methods. Histologically, it induced a mild to moderate exudative or proliferative inflammation in the proventriculus. All the cases had an erosion in the gizzard. Ultrastructurally, the organism had a eukaryotic nucleus and three cell-wall layers. Concurrent infections were very common, including adenoviruses (37 cases), giardiasis (31 cases), candidiasis (13 cases), papovaviruses (11 cases) and knemidocoptic mites (11 cases). PMID:1297007

  3. Enhanced vision for adverse weather aircraft landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Firooz Sadjadi; Mike Helgeson; Jeff Radke; Gunter Stein

    1996-01-01

    Landing in poor weather is a crucial problem for the air transportation system of the future. To aid the pilots for these conditions several solutions have been suggested and\\/or implemented including instrument landing system(ILS) and microwave landing system(MLS) that put the responsibility of the landing to a large extent in the hands of the airport facilities. These systems even though

  4. State Council bans misuse of arable land.

    PubMed

    1992-11-23

    This 1992 Circular was issued by the State Council of China to reinforce earlier enactments that require all localities to curb the arbitrary occupation and indiscriminate use of arable land. The Circular outlines various objectives and strategies for 1) increasing public awareness of the need to protect arable land, 2) urging localities to enforce all existing land control laws, 3) the proper management of construction in development zones, and 4) additional regulation and standardization of the landed property market. PMID:12320237

  5. Major Land Clearing Fires, Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    These many and intense land clearing fires in the Kalimantan region of the island of Borneo, Indonesia (3.5S, 113.5E) are indicative of the many deforestation activities on a worldwide scale. In order to feed and house ever increasing populations, more cleared land is required for agriculture to feed ever increasing populations. More pasture lands are needed for livestock. And, more cleared lands are needed for housing.

  6. Integrated sight: future improvement for Land Warrior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe S. Randello; Lawrence T. Marshall; Mario E. Velez; Bob Frink

    1998-01-01

    The Integrated Sight (IS) is a Technology Demonstration program within the Force XXI Land Warrior Program. Like the other Force XXI Land Warrior components, the IS is a candidate for future technology insertion into the Land Warrior (LW) program. The IS integrates an uncooled thermal imager, eye- safe laser rangefinder, electronic compass, CCD camera and infrared laser pointer into a

  7. Revitalizing the Land Grant University: An Abridgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, G. Edward

    The institutional mission orientation of land grant universities and problems faced by these institutions are discussed, along with five tasks involved in redefining and revitalizing the land grant university. A traditional responsibility of land grant universities was to apply science and technology to solve societal problems. Faculty were…

  8. Presented by LandScan Population Research

    E-print Network

    of Energy Bhaduri_LandScan_SC10 What is LandScan? Population distribution model, database, and tool developed from census and other spatial data using a uniform regular grid Improving knowledge of where people are located #12;3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Bhaduri_LandScan_SC10

  9. Mars exobiology landing sites for future exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landheim, Ragnhild; Greeley, Ronald; Desmarais, David; Farmer, Jack D.; Klein, Harold

    1993-01-01

    The selection of landing sites for Exobiology is an important issue for planning for future Mars missions. Results of a recent site selection study which focused on potential landing sites described in the Mars Landing Site Catalog are presented. In addition, basic Exobiology science objectives in Mars exploration are reviewed, and the procedures used in site evaluation and prioritization are outlined.

  10. LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Binford, Michael W.

    FLORIDA LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM HANDBOOK JANUARY 1999 DEPARTMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SURVEYING AND MAPPING OFFICE GEOGRPAHIC MAPPING LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM ABOUT THIS EDITION: This is an updated FLORIDA LAND USE

  11. Scheduling Aircraft Landings The Dynamic Case

    E-print Network

    Scheduling Aircraft Landings The Dynamic Case Master Thesis April 2007 Supervisor: Jens Clausen #12;Abstract This Master Theses is about solving the aircraft landing problem dynamically. Given an original landing schedule for the incoming aircraft this schedule are rescheduled whenever an aircraft

  12. Mars Exploration Entry, Descent and Landing Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Manning, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States has successfully landed five robotic systems on the surface of Mars. These systems all had landed mass below 0.6 metric tons (t), had landed footprints on the order of hundreds of km and landed at sites below -1.4 km MOLA elevation due the need to perform entry, descent and landing operations in an environment with sufficient atmospheric density. At present, robotic exploration systems engineers are struggling with the challenges of increasing landed mass capability to 0.8 t while improving landed accuracy to tens of km and landing at a site as high as +2 km MOLA elevation for the Mars Science Laboratory project. Meanwhile, current plans for human exploration of Mars call for the landing of 40-80 t surface elements at scientifically interesting locations within close proximity (tens of m) of pre-positioned robotic assets. This paper summarizes past successful entry, descent and landing systems and approaches being developed by the robotic Mars exploration program to increased landed performance (mass, accuracy and surface elevation). In addition, the entry, descent and landing sequence for a human exploration system will be reviewed, highlighting the technology and systems advances required.

  13. Mars exobiology landing sites for future exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragnhild Landheim; Ronald Greeley; David Desmarais; Jack D. Farmer; Harold Klein

    1993-01-01

    The selection of landing sites for Exobiology is an important issue for planning for future Mars missions. Results of a recent site selection study which focused on potential landing sites described in the Mars Landing Site Catalog are presented. In addition, basic Exobiology science objectives in Mars exploration are reviewed, and the procedures used in site evaluation and prioritization are

  14. Major land uses in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschner, Francis J.; Anderson, James R.

    1967-01-01

    This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159, which was adapted from U.S. Department of Agriculture, "Major Land Uses in the United States," by Francis J. Marschner, revised by James R. Anderson, 1967.

  15. New frontiers of land control: Introduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Lee Peluso; Christian Lund

    2011-01-01

    Land questions have invigorated agrarian studies and economic history, with particular emphases on its control, since Marx. Words such as ‘exclusion’, ‘alienation’, ‘expropriation’, ‘dispossession’, and ‘violence’ describe processes that animate land histories and those of resources, property rights, and territories created, extracted, produced, or protected on land. Primitive and on-going forms of accumulation, frontiers, enclosures, territories, grabs, and racializations have

  16. Land treatment: safe disposal of petroleum wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zwicker

    1984-01-01

    The controlled decomposition of petroleum wastes by soil organisms is called land treatment, land-farming, biodisposal farming, and many other names. All describe the simple process of cultivating wastes into specially prepared soil plots. The wastes are consumed and transformed into various byproducts by the bacteria, fungi, and other organisms that exist naturally in the soil. Today, about 200 industrial land

  17. Hazard Detection Methods for Lunar Landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tye Brady; Edward Robertson; Chirold Epp; Stephen Paschall; Doug Zimpfer

    2009-01-01

    The methods and experiences from the Apollo Program are fundamental building blocks for the development of lunar landing strategies for the constellation program. Each of the six lunar landing Apollo missions landed under near ideal lighting conditions. The astronauts visually performed terrain relative navigation while looking out of windows, and were greatly aided by external communication and well lit scenes.

  18. UBC Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    UBC Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands fonds Compiled by Erwin Wodarczak (2001 Description UBC Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands fonds. ­ 1982-2001. 12 cm of textual materials. Administrative History The Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands was established by UBC in 1981. Its basic

  19. Testing Microwave Landing Systems With Satellite Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Less time and equipment needed to perform tests. Satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measures accuracy of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at airports used to support Shuttle landings. Provides time and three-dimensional information on position and velocity with unprecedented accuracy. Useful for testing other electronic navigation aids like LORAN, TACAN and microwave landing systems (MLS).

  20. Land Use. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    Land use is the subject of the student resource unit to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Uses of the land in an urban environment, suburban environment, rural environment (as cropland, forest, and others), recreation and parks, and other environments are described. The supply of and demand for land is discussed.…

  1. Intermountain West Military Lands Planting Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This guide provides recommendations on plant materials for Department of Defense (DoD) land restoration at military facilties in the Intermountain West of the United States. These guidelines provide military land managers new options for revegetating military training lands. Most other guides for l...

  2. Approach phase ?V considerations for lunar landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babak E. Cohanim; Thomas J. Fill; Stephen Paschall II; Laura M. Major; Tye Brady

    2009-01-01

    The autonomous landing and hazard avoidance technology (ALHAT) project is studying the lunar landing descent phase from lunar orbit to the surface. In this paper, we give an overview of the timing and DeltaV implications for key activities during the lunar landing approach phase. Timing and DeltaV performance are evaluated while varying the approach phase design and key hazard detection

  3. Conceptual design of lunar landing module

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Kawazoe; Toshiyuki Tanaka; Kouhei Katou; Kazuhisa Kaneko; Masaya Yamamoto

    1991-01-01

    Analyses on mission operations and systems for lunar landing modules are conducted. The results of the review are presented. The main subjects of the review are as follows: (1) mission operation analyses (orbits); (2) attitudes; (3) methods of detecting the barrier at landing; (4) stability at landing; (5) system configurations, weight, and power balances; (6) main propulsion system thrust and

  4. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...agrees to dispose of the excess land to an eligible buyer, excluding...for the disposition of excess land, that must be within 5 years...Reclamation (except for the Central Arizona Project wherein the time period...water becomes available to the land); and (ii) A clause...

  5. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...agrees to dispose of the excess land to an eligible buyer, excluding...for the disposition of excess land, that must be within 5 years...Reclamation (except for the Central Arizona Project wherein the time period...water becomes available to the land); and (ii) A clause...

  6. Land Use Planning (3cr.) Spring 2007

    E-print Network

    Brown, Gregory G.

    ENV 3016 Land Use Planning (3cr.) Spring 2007 Tuesday 2:30-5:30 Bogue 17 Instructor Greg Brown Juergensmeyer, J.C. and T.E. Roberts. (2003). Land Use Planning and Development Regulation Law. St. Paul, MN: West Group. Randolph, J. (2004). Environmental Land Use Planning and Management. Washington, DC: Island

  7. Reforming Land and Real Estate Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Galal; Omar Razzaz

    1999-01-01

    Some World Bank-supported efforts at land and real estate reform have too narrow a technical focus, at the expense of institutional reform. Some emphasize one set of reforms (such as mortgage finance) while ignoring others essential to those reforms (such as clear property rights and land registration). Some emphasize one sector (such as urban land) while ignoring its interaction with

  8. Trading Land Development Rights under a Planned Land Use System: The “Zhejiang Model”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Wang; Ran Tao; Juer Tong

    2009-01-01

    AbstractChina's state planned land use system, including regulations such as setting planned quotas for land use, basic cropland preservation, and pursuing a balance between the conversion of arable land into non-agricultural use and the supplement of new agricultural land, has substantially constrained the economic growth of industrial provinces in China. This article explores the innovative reforms adopted by Zhejiang Province

  9. Land use, land cover change analysis with multitemporal remote sensing data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Suzanchi; R. N. Sahoo; N. Kalra; S. Pandey

    2006-01-01

    Presently, unplanned changes of land use have become a major problem. Most land use changes occur without a clear and logical planning with little attention to their environmental impacts. In last four-decade, urban growth in Delhi has occurred rapidly in some unwanted direction and destroyed valuable agriculture lands in its surround. Rapid changes in land use \\/ cover occurring over

  10. MARS IN A MINUTE: How Do You Land on Mars? How do you land on Mars?

    E-print Network

    MARS IN A MINUTE: How Do You Land on Mars? How do you land on Mars? Very carefully! Your spacecraft of entry into the atmosphere. Friction slows you down over 90%, but not enough to land safely. Use to land safely! Here are some options: 1. With a small- to mid-size rover, use a cushion of airbags along

  11. 1.0 Purpose To establish a financial accounting capitalization policy for land, land improvements,

    E-print Network

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    1 1.0 Purpose To establish a financial accounting capitalization policy for land, land improvements will be utilized, a portion of the cost should be allocated to land and a portion to the buildings. The fair market value of the land should be recorded, and the value assigned to the building will be the difference

  12. Prescriptive Land Surface Phenologies: Modeling Possible Futures Arising from Land and Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Henebry; C. K. Wright; M. C. Wimberly; M. C. Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Much of the contemporary literature on land surface phenologies (LSPs) is descriptive and retrospective. Here we explore prescriptive LSPs that project possible futures given regional climate change and variability and land cover \\/ land use change scenarios. Land cover change across the Northern Great Plains of North America over the past three decades has been driven by changes in agricultural

  13. 77 FR 17091 - Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...Agreement established a trust land consolidation fund to be used for consolidating Indian trust and restricted lands and acquiring fractional interests in these lands. We are reopening the period for commenting on the Cobell Land Consolidation Program Draft...

  14. 43 CFR 2561.0-8 - Lands subject to allotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Native Allotments § 2561.0-8 Lands subject to allotment. (a) A Native...

  15. 43 CFR 2565.5 - Sale of the land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Non-native Townsites § 2565.5 Sale of the land. (a) Public sale of unclaimed...

  16. 43 CFR 2561.0-8 - Lands subject to allotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Native Allotments § 2561.0-8 Lands subject to allotment. (a) A Native...

  17. 43 CFR 2565.5 - Sale of the land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Non-native Townsites § 2565.5 Sale of the land. (a) Public sale of unclaimed...

  18. 43 CFR 2561.0-8 - Lands subject to allotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Native Allotments § 2561.0-8 Lands subject to allotment. (a) A Native...

  19. 43 CFR 2565.5 - Sale of the land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Non-native Townsites § 2565.5 Sale of the land. (a) Public sale of unclaimed...

  20. 43 CFR 2561.0-8 - Lands subject to allotment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA OCCUPANCY AND USE Native Allotments § 2561.0-8 Lands subject to allotment. (a) A Native...

  1. Land availability and land value assessment for solar ponds in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The land availability and land values for solar ponds in the United States as they concern the residential, commercial, and institutional land use categories were investigated. Solar ponds were identified as efficient and economical means for collecting and storing direct and diffuse solar energy. Innovative methodologies were applied to arrive at regional projections regarding the amount of land that might potentially be available for retrofit or future solar pond applications. Regional land values were also documented and analyzed.

  2. DYNAMICS OF LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGE IN TROPICAL REGIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric F. Lambin; Helmut J. Geist; Erika Lepers

    2003-01-01

    We highlight the complexity of land-use\\/cover change and propose a framework for a more general understanding of the issue, with emphasis on tropical regions. The review summarizes recent estimates on changes in cropland, agricultural intensification, tropical deforestation, pasture expansion, and urbanization and identifies the still unmeasured land-cover changes. Climate-driven land-cover modifications interact with land-use changes. Land-use change is driven by

  3. Vertical motion requirements for landing simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the significance of vertical acceleration cues in the simulation of the visual approach and landing maneuver. Landing performance measures were obtained for four subject pilots operating a visual landing simulation device which provides up to plus or minus 40 feet of vertical motion. Test results indicate that vertical motion cues are utilized in the landing task, and that they are particularly important in the simulation of aircraft with marginal longitudinal handling qualities. To assure vertical motion cues of the desired fidelity in the landing tasks, it appears that a simulator must have excursion capabilities of at least plus or minus 20 feet.

  4. STS-38: Post Landing News Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Live footage shows the STS-38 Post Landing News Conference. Dick Young of NASA Public Affairs office is seen introducing the panel members. The panelists include: Forrest McCartney, Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Director; William B. Lenoir, Associate Administrator Space Flight; and Robert B. Sieck, Space Shuttle Processing Director. Atlantis lands at KSC, which marks the first landing since 1985 to this location. The panelists mention the status of the landing, the success of the flight, and the historic implication that this landing carries. They also answer questions from the participating audience.

  5. Biological consequences of land use.

    PubMed Central

    Munn, R E

    1975-01-01

    The primary goals of land-use planning are enunciated. A plea is made for consideration of the total biosphere and not just its separate components. The environmental impact statement process is reviewed and some suggestions made for its strengthening. Moves for international adoption of this process are noted, as well as the concept of eco-development currently under examination by UN agencies. PMID:1157793

  6. Approach and Landing Test emblem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This circular, red, white, and blue emblem has been chosen as the Official insignia for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Test (ALT) flights. A picture of the Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' is superimposed over a red triangle, which in turn is superimposed over a large inner circle of dark blue. The surnames of the members of the two ALT crews are in white in the field of blue.

  7. Biological consequences of land use.

    PubMed

    Munn, R E

    1975-04-01

    The primary goals of land-use planning are enunciated. A plea is made for consideration of the total biosphere and not just its separate components. The environmental impact statement process is reviewed and some suggestions made for its strengthening. Moves for international adoption of this process are noted, as well as the concept of eco-development currently under examination by UN agencies. PMID:1157793

  8. Lunar Landing Re-enactment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The re-enactment of astronaut Neil Armstrong's first steps off the lunar lander provided quite the occasion for many of the on-lookers at the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL, during the celebration of the 30th arniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing. The celebration in Huntsville lasted over the weekend with visitors including Buzz Aldrin and other Apollo astronauts.

  9. Land cover trends dataset, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Auch, Roger F.; Sohl, Terry L.; Drummond, Mark A.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sorenson, Daniel G.; Kambly, Steven; Wilson, Tamara S.; Taylor, Janis L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stier, Michael P.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Methven, Steven C.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Headley, Rachel; Brooks, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends Project is releasing a 1973–2000 time-series land-use/land-cover dataset for the conterminous United States. The dataset contains 5 dates of land-use/land-cover data for 2,688 sample blocks randomly selected within 84 ecological regions. The nominal dates of the land-use/land-cover maps are 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000. The land-use/land-cover maps were classified manually from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery using a modified Anderson Level I classification scheme. The resulting land-use/land-cover data has a 60-meter resolution and the projection is set to Albers Equal-Area Conic, North American Datum of 1983. The files are labeled using a standard file naming convention that contains the number of the ecoregion, sample block, and Landsat year. The downloadable files are organized by ecoregion, and are available in the ERDAS IMAGINETM (.img) raster file format.

  10. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Loureiro, F. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  11. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Loureiro, F. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  12. Environmental Land Management in Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhmudov, Zafar; Ergashev, Murod

    2015-04-01

    Tackling Environmental Land Management in Tajikistan "Project approach" Khayrullo Ibodzoda, Zafar Mahmoudov, Murod Ergashev, Kamoliddin Abdulloev Among 28 countries in Europe and Central Asia, Tajikistan is estimated to be the most vulnerable to the climate change impacts depending on its high exposure and sensitivity combined with a very low adaptive capacity. The agricultural sector of Tajikistan is subject to lower and more erratic rainfalls, as well as dryness of water resources due to the possible temperature rising in the region, high evaporation, reducing the accumulation of snow in the mountain glaciers and increased frequency of extreme events. Climate change and variability are likely to pose certain risks, especially for those who prefer natural agriculture or pasture management that just reinforces the need for sound, adapted to new climatic conditions and improved principles of land management. Adoption of new strategies and best practices on sustainable land and water management for agricultural ecosystems will help the farmers and communities in addressing the abovementioned problems, adapt and become more resilient to changing climate by increasing wellbeing of local population, and contributing to food security and restoring productive natural resources. The Environmental Land Management and Rural Livelihoods Project is being financed by the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) and Global Environment Facility (GEF). The Project goal is to enable the rural population to increase their productive assets by improving management of natural resources and building resilience to climate change in selected climate vulnerable sites. The project will facilitate introduction of innovative measures on land use and agricultural production by providing small grants at the village level and grants for the Pasture User Groups (PUGs) at jamoat level in order to implement joint plans of pasture management and wellbred livestock, also for the Water User Associations (WUAs) to introduce sustainable on-farm water management practices. The Project comprises three components to be implemented in five years: 1. Rural Production and Land Resource Management Investments; 2. Knowledge Management and Institutional Support, and 3. Project Management and Coordination. These components include a set of grants from the PPCR and GEF that betrays the particular importance of the grant sources for the Project funding. This innovative combination of the PPCR and GEF grant funding will help in scheduling a scope of work under the Project and enable to implement certain activities on a pilot basis that otherwise could not be implemented at this level. Key partners are the Committee for Environmental Protection (Implementing Agency), the Ministry of Finance, the PPCR Secretariat in Tajikistan, Farkhor, Kulyab, Khovaling, Baljuvan, Tavildara and Jirgatal districts, the German Agency for International Development (GIZ) with its GREAT program which provides additional support to the community-based Project planning and institutional development, as well as technical agricultural advisory services. Currently the project has Project Implementation Group and most of its Facilitating Organizations in place that will carry out financial management, disbursements, procurement process, environmental management, social development, monitoring and evaluation. Workshops on coordinating the Project were held in the districts, as well as a series of Trainings of trainings and meetings were conducted for specialists and technical personnel. Next step is to initiate supporting local initiatives for climate adaptive land management and improved livelihoods based on Community Action Plans.

  13. Impact Dynamics Landing Facility - Lunar Landing Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Construction of backstop. Originally intended for use in conjunction with one of the various apparatuses used to simulate astronauts walking on the moon, this backstop was eventually used as a backdrop for the various aircraft crashworthiness studies. By 1972 the Lunar Landing Research Facility was no longer in use for its original purpose. The 23 story structure was swiftly modified to allow engineers to study the dynamics of aircraft crashes. The 'backstop' with its painted grid has become a backdrop for films and videos of numerous crash tests.

  14. Stewardship of public school land by the General Land Office 

    E-print Network

    Zechiel, Tod Peter

    1987-01-01

    administered by the Alpine Field Office and wi 1 1 be reviewed. The largest land transaction was not an appropr1ation but rather a comprom1se with the United States. Texas was admitted into the Union on December 29, 1845. However, after this date... IEU Bf smBITI(SI Il Pass P(5/59(-(292 Hnty Hives sandra llut(uec Nec. l Laha BI/70(-(IN Lorene Suites hfcudn 512/5(5-Ill( Beards senator ln htnlo 5(2/9)2-7( 4osl ~ Vi I I areal hntas 71)/9ID-2B2 Nobis Jess(i-kilty Sensa 2(9/)S...

  15. Monitoring 1985-2005 land use and land cover change in the Phoenix metropolitan area: distance and direction

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Monitoring 1985-2005 land use and land cover change in the Phoenix metropolitan area: distance changed the land surfaces in Phoenix. Changes of land use and land cover, especially from the expansion converted into some category of urban use, 54% was agricultural and 40% was desert land. Of the converted

  16. Land

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The solid Earth is the foundation upon which the entire system rests, and provides the critical substrate and reservoir of raw materials the rest of the system. The solid Earth also records the past in the ...

  17. Lesson 2: Land Use/Land Cover Data In this lesson you will work with polygon data describing the types of natural land covers

    E-print Network

    Lesson 2: Land Use/Land Cover Data In this lesson you will work with polygon data describing settlements. This lesson is only our first step in working with land use/land cover (LULC) data. We will use a raster form of LULC in lesson 4 when we do some spatial analysis to see where urban land use might expand

  18. Cultivated land conversion and bioproductivity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jikun; Deng, Xiangzheng; Rozelle, Scott

    2004-11-01

    International experience shows that rapid economic growth is accompanied by a large shift of agricultural land to other uses. The overall goal of this study is to examine the changes of the area and bioproductivity of cultivated land in China where the size of the economy doubled every 8 years. Based on Landsat TM/ETM digital images covering China"s territory in the past 15 years and by utilizing the AEZ methodology, our study finds that contrary to many people"s expectations, China recorded a net increase of cultivated land by 2.65 million hectares in 1986-2000 and accounted for nearly 2% of all cultivated land. We also found that the average productivity of cultivated land declined by about 0.31%, as the bioproductivity of new cultivated land converted from other uses was generally lower than that of cultivated land converted to other uses. Despite a decline in land bioproductivity in the past and a likely decline in total cultivated land in the future, their impact on agricultural production will be minimal. China can maintain a healthy cultivated land base for food and agricultural production in the long term.

  19. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  20. Land mobile satellite demonstration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooch, Guy M.; Nicholas, David C.

    1988-01-01

    A land mobile satellite demonstration system is described. It ulilizes the INMARSAT MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W. The system provides data transmission using a poll-response protocol with error detection and retransmission at 200 b/s rate. For most tests a 1.8 inch monopole antenna was used, along with a satellite EIRP normally used for four voice channels. A brief summary of the results are given and the overall system consisting of three elements in addition to the satellite (the mobile unit, the base station, and the office terminal and map display) is described. Throughput statistics from one trip are summarized.

  1. Land mobile satellite propagation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, David C.

    1988-01-01

    During the Fall of 1987 a land mobile satellite demonstration using the MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W was performed. While all the data have not been digested, some observations are in order. First, the system worked remarkably well for the margins indicated. Second, when the system worked poorly, the experimenters could almost always identify terrain or other obstacles causing blockage. Third, the forward link seems relatively more reliable than the return link, and occasional return link problems occured which have not been entirely explained.

  2. Phoenix Landing Ellipse Over San Francisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This map compares the size of the area where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is expected to land, called the landing ellipse (red), to the size of the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Phoenix has a 99.9 percent probability of landing within the area denoted by its landing ellipse, a region in the northern plains of Mars centered at approximately 68 degrees north latitude, 233 degrees east longitude. The ellipse is about 70 kilometers (44 miles) long. Phoenix is most likely to land near the center of the ellipse, and least likely to land at its very edges.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Analysis of Landing-Gear Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milwitzky, Benjamin; Cook, Francis E

    1953-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.

  4. Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities.

    PubMed

    Diffendorfer, Jay E; Compton, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here. PMID:24558449

  5. Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation. An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of a reentry vehicle using a passive landing system to alleviate the landing-impact loads. The passive landing system consisted of a flexible heat shield with a small section of aluminum honeycomb placed between the heat shield and the crew compartment at the point that would be the first to contact the landing surface. The model was landed on concrete and sand landing surfaces at parachute letdown velocities. The investigations simulated a vertical velocity of 30 ft/sec (full scale), horizontal velocities of 0, 15, 30, 40, and 50 ft/sec (full scale), and landing attitudes ranging from -30 degrees to 20 degrees. The model investigation indicated that stable landings could be made on a concrete surface at horizontal velocities up to about 30 ft/sec, but the stable landing-attitude range at these speeds was small. The aluminum honeycomb bottomed occasionally during landings on concrete. When bottoming did not occur, maximum normal and longitudinal accelerations at the center of gravity of the vehicle were approximately 50g and 30g, respectively. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030981. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  6. Land Cover and Topography Affect the Land Transformation Caused by Wind Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

    2014-01-01

    Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here. PMID:24558449

  7. Apollo Project - Lunar Landing Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Aerial view of the Lunar Landing Research Facility under construction. James Hansen noted that '[the facility] was conceived in 1962 by engineer Donald Hewes and built under the careful direction of his quiet but ingenious division chief, W. Hewitt Phillips, this gigantic facility designed to develop techniques for landing the rocket-powered LEM on the moon's surface.' (p. 373) Behind the Facility is the Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility.

  8. THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, St John's Land,

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, St John's Land, Holyrood Campus. A GUIDE TO ACCESS AND FACILITIES, Address. St John's Land. University of Edinburgh. Holyrood. Edinburgh, E,H,8,8,A,Q, United Kingdom, Telephone. 0,1,3,1,. 6,5,1, 6,1,3,8, Web address. http://www.ed.ac.uk/maps/buildings/st-johns-land #12;Page

  9. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  10. Apollo command module land impact tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccullough, J. E.; Lands, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Full-scale-model and actual spacecraft were impact tested to define the emergency land-landing capability of the Apollo command module. Structural accelerations and strains were recorded on analog instrumentation, and a summary to these data is included. The landing kinematics were obtained from high-speed photography. Photographs of the structural damage caused during the tests are included. Even though extensive damage can be expected, the crew will receive nothing more than minor injuries during the majority of the probable landing conditions.

  11. Radar Observations of Recent Mars Landing Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, K. W.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity will arrive at their respective landing sites of Gusev Crater and Terra Meridiani in January 2004. During the 2001 and 2003 Mars Oppositions both landing sites were targeted for a series of radar observations using the telescopes of the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC). This paper will present results of terrestrial delay- Doppler radar observations of the landing sites, predictions for the surface properties that will be encountered, and, after successful landings, correlation between the predicted and observed surface properties. The in-situ observations made by both missions serve as ground truth for the validation of the high resolution radar mapping results.

  12. Mars Exploration Rover Landing Site Boulder Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, R. D.; Golombek, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    As an aid in constraining the rock size-frequency distributions at the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing sites, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of all potential MER landing sites were systematically searched for boulder fields. Low-Sun angle MOC images can be used to identify boulders larger than 1.5 m diameter, which can be used to determine the shape of the rock size-frequency distributions. These distributions can be compared with the rock size-frequency distributions measured at the Viking and Mars Pathfinder landing sites to better quantify potentially hazardous rocks at the MER landing sites.

  13. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...1) Will have new conservation problems caused...land to productive agricultural use. Conservation problems existing...expected to have annual agricultural production, ...4) Adjacent to water impoundment...

  14. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...1) Will have new conservation problems caused...land to productive agricultural use. Conservation problems existing...expected to have annual agricultural production, ...4) Adjacent to water impoundment...

  15. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...1) Will have new conservation problems caused...land to productive agricultural use. Conservation problems existing...expected to have annual agricultural production, ...4) Adjacent to water impoundment...

  16. 7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...1) Will have new conservation problems caused...land to productive agricultural use. Conservation problems existing...expected to have annual agricultural production, ...4) Adjacent to water impoundment...

  17. Alaska interim land cover mapping program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1987-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) for comprehensive resource and management plans from all major land management agencies in Alaska, the USGS has begun a program to classify land cover for the entire State using Landsat digital data. Vegetation and land cover classifications, generated in cooperation with other agencies, currently exist for 115 million acres of Alaska. Using these as a base, the USGS has prepared a comprehensive plan for classifying the remaining areas of the State. The development of this program will lead to a complete interim vegetation and land cover classification system for Alaska and allow the dissemination of digital data for those areas classified. At completion, 153 Alaska 1:250,000-scale quadrangles will be published and will include land cover from digital Landsat classifications, statistical summaries of all land cover by township, and computer-compatible tapes. An interagency working group has established an Alaska classification system (table 1) composed of 18 classes modified from "A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data" (Anderson and others, 1976), and from "Revision of a preliminary classification system for vegetation of Alaska" (Viereck and Dyrness, 1982) for the unique ecoregions which are found in Alaska.

  18. Land resource impacts of alternative strategies

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report deals primarily with the direct effects to land resources resulting from the implementation of the new power generation strategies. Discussion has been limited to a general level, and more detailed discussions will follow from the environmental reviews performed for new facilities as they are sited. Issues considered in this section include land consumption, land use changes, and land disturbance. The analysis was conducted at two levels: (1) potential effects resulting from siting, and (2) potential consequences associated with fuel sourcing, power generation, and waste.

  19. 7 CFR 205.202 - Land requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.202 Land requirements. Any field or...

  20. Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

  1. Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

  2. Chesapeake bay watershed land cover data series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irani, Frederick M.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand how the land is changing and to relate those changes to water quality trends, the USGS EGSC funded the production of a Chesapeake Bay Watershed Land Cover Data Series (CBLCD) representing four dates: 1984, 1992, 2001, and 2006. EGSC will publish land change forecasts based on observed trends in the CBLCD over the coming year. They are in the process of interpreting and publishing statistics on the extent, type and patterns of land cover change for 1984-2006 in the Bay watershed, major tributaries and counties.

  3. Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?rsi, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

  4. STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Atlantis approaches runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the STS-66 mission dedicated to the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3), part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. The astronauts also deployed and retrieved a free-flying satellite designed to study the middle and lower thermospheres and perform a series of experiments covering life sciences research and microgravity processing. The landing was at 7:34 a.m. (PST) 14 November 1994, after being waved off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, due to adverse weather. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining

  5. Localized Brain Activation Related to the Strength of Auditory Learning in a Parrot

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Masanori; Matsuda, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Satoh, Ryohei; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Manabe, Kazuchika; Kawashima, Takashi; Bolhuis, Johan J.

    2012-01-01

    Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory. PMID:22701714

  6. 43 CFR 3838.2 - How are SRHA lands different from other Federal lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS General Provisions § 3838.2 How are SRHA lands different from...

  7. 43 CFR 3838.2 - How are SRHA lands different from other Federal lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS General Provisions § 3838.2 How are SRHA lands different from...

  8. 43 CFR 3838.2 - How are SRHA lands different from other Federal lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS General Provisions § 3838.2 How are SRHA lands different from...

  9. 43 CFR 3838.2 - How are SRHA lands different from other Federal lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS General Provisions § 3838.2 How are SRHA lands different from...

  10. STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavour concludes mission STS-49 at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, with a 1:57 p.m. (PDT) landing May 16 on Edward's concrete runway 22. The planned 7-day mission, which began with a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:41 p.m. (PFT), 7 May, was extended two days to allow extra time to rescue the Intelsat VI satellite and complete Space Station assembly techniques originally planned. After a perfect rendezvous in orbit and numerous attempts to grab the satellite, space walking astronauts Pierre Thuot, Rick Hieb and Tom Akers successfully rescued it by hand on the third space walk with the support of mission specialists Kathy Thornton and Bruce Melnick. The three astronauts, on a record space walk, took hold of the satellite and directed it to the shuttle where a booster motor was attached to launch it to its proper orbit. Commander Dan Brandenstein and Pilot Kevin Chilton brought Endeavours's record setting maiden voyage to a perfect landing at Edwards with the first deployment of a drag chute on a shuttle mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000

  11. STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavour concludes mission STS-49 at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, with a 1:57 p.m. (PDT) landing 16 May on Edward's concrete runway 22. The planned 7-day mission, which began with a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:41 p.m. (PFT), 7 May, was extended two days to allow extra time to rescue the Intelsat VI satellite and complete Space Station assembly techniques originally planned. After a perfect rendezvous in orbit and numerous attempts to grab the satellite, space walking astronauts Pierre Thuot, Rick Hieb and Tom Akers successfully rescued it by hand on the third space walk with the support of mission specialists Kathy Thornton and Bruce Melnick. The three astronauts, on a record space walk, took hold of the satellite and directed it to the shuttle where a booster motor was attached to launch it to its proper orbit. Commander Dan Brandenstein and Pilot Kevin Chilton brought Endeavours's record setting maiden voyage to a perfect landing at Edwards AFB with the first deployment of a drag chute on a shuttle mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,

  12. Leave No Trace! Land Ethics [and] Tread Lightly! On Public and Private Land. A National Land Use Ethics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This document consists of two brochures that provide land ethics guidelines for outdoor recreationists. The brochures provide techniques that visitors can use to help reduce evidence of their presence in the back country, designated "Wilderness" areas. The first brochure, titled "Leave no Trace! Land Ethics," provides guidelines for planning back…

  13. Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration

    E-print Network

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration carbon sequestration Climate change Soil carbon change Historically, Florida soils stored the largest in Florida (FL) have acted as a sink for carbon (C) over the last 40 years. · Climate interacting with land

  14. Minimum-Landing-Error Powered-Descent Guidance for Mars Landing Using Convex Optimization

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brian C.

    Minimum-Landing-Error Powered-Descent Guidance for Mars Landing Using Convex Optimization Lars Rovers [2]. The 2009 Mars Science Laboratory mission aims to achieve a landing ellipse of around 10 km [3 to Mars and to enable sample return missions, the accuracy with which a lander can be delivered

  15. An overview of regional land-use and land-cover impacts on rainfall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Pielke; J. Adegoke; A. Beltrán-Przekurat; C. A. Hiemstra; J. Lin; D. Niyogi; T. E. Nobis

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the diverse role of land-use\\/land-cover change on precipitation. Since land conversion continues at a rapid pace, this type of human disturbance of the climate system will continue and become even more significant in the coming decades.

  16. Comprehensive data set of global land cover change for land surface model applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon Sterling; Agnès Ducharne

    2008-01-01

    To increase our understanding of how humans have altered the Earth's surface and to facilitate land surface modeling experiments aimed to elucidate the direct impact of land cover change on the Earth system, we create and analyze a database of global land use\\/cover change (LUCC). From a combination of sources including satellite imagery and other remote sensing, ecological modeling, and

  17. Influence of Land Related Factors on Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Ritsema, Coen

    2014-05-01

    Land is a scarce resource in the highlands of Ethiopia. Its sustainable use is highly affected among other factors by bio-physical and institutional aspects of land. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems on interrelated sustainable land management (SLM) investments in the North Western Ethiopian Highlands. A multivariate probit regression model is used to analyse interdependent investment decisions of SLM practices using a multiple parcel-level observations. The analysis indicates that farmers invest a combination of practices at parcels levels by considering substitution and complementarity effects of the practices. The results also reveal that land quality (e.g. slope and soil fertility status), land fragmentation (parcel size and distance of parcel from homestead) and tenure arrangements influence farmers' investments in SLM practices. The overall results indicate that farm land attributes promote or hinder investments, and tenure systems regulate the decisions about investments. Policy makers should take into consideration these various land related factors in designing and implementing SLM policies and programmes. Key words: Land quality, land fragmentation, tenure arrangements, sustainable land management, multivariate probit

  18. Land Tenure and Land Administration Issues in Guatemala Danielle Kelly Donovan

    E-print Network

    Onsrud, Harlan J.

    Land Tenure and Land Administration Issues in Guatemala Danielle Kelly Donovan danielle.donovan@spatial.maine.edu May 2002 1. Abstract The evolution of land tenure in Guatemala is a mix of the native Mayan implementation stage, when the CIA began "Operation Success". The operation sent mercenaries into Guatemala

  19. Household land tenure reform in China: Its impact on farming land use and agro-environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Hu

    1997-01-01

    Post-Mao rural reform has stimulated farmers' incentives for agricultural production. Yet, the short period of 15 years' land tenure, coupled with the ambiguous land property rights between collectives and individual households has also encouraged short-sighted decisions and the irresponsible use of land resources. Capital investment in farmland, and maintenance of irrigation facilities have been neglected. Farmers are “digging” soil and

  20. Using neural networks and GIS to forecast land use changes: a Land Transformation Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan C. Pijanowski; Daniel G. Brown; Bradley A. Shellito; Gaurav A. Manik

    The Land Transformation Model (LTM), which couples geographic information systems (GIS) with artificial neural networks (ANNs) to forecast land use changes, is presented here. A variety of social, political, and environmental factors contribute to the model's predictor variables of land use change. This paper presents a version of the LTMparameterized for Michigan's Grand Traverse Bay Watershed and explores how factors

  1. Towards a global land subsidence map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; Sutanudjaja, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    Human activities have intensified large and growing global groundwater depletion problems. Groundwater depletion under cities in delta regions or river valleys is in many cases leading to significant land subsidence, causing damage to infrastructure and increases in the risk of flooding. Yet, a global land subsidence map is not available. Such map is crucial to raise global awareness of land subsidence. Land subsidence is costly (probably in the order of billions of dollars annually). One of the most prominent causes for land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. For instance, the Vietnamese Mekong Delta sinks on average 1.6 cm/yr, attributed to groundwater extraction. Crucially, in many coastal mega-cities, land subsidence is accelerated by ongoing urbanization. In Jakarta land subsidence is up to 20 cm/yr. With ongoing economic development and related increased demands for water, the expectation is that land subsidence rates and areas affected will accelerate and expand in the near future. A global land subsidence map would not only locate current land subsidence hotspots but also help to identify future sinking areas under different socio-economic development scenarios. A global hydrological model, PCR-GLOBWB, serves as the starting point. The hydrological model includes a global simulation of spatio-temporal groundwater head dynamics under abstractions for the period 1960-2100. The hydrological model is coupled to a land subsidence module, iMOD-SUB-CR, which is an extension of the MOD-FLOW SUB-WT module developed by the USGS. The required subsurface information is unavailable at this time, but will be approached by using different scenarios of subsurface build-up. The outcomes will be compared to measured or modeled land level lowering in well-known damaging case study areas, such as Jakarta and the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, as well as in well-known recovering areas, such as Venice and Tokyo, which have managed to stop land subsidence problems by ceasing groundwater abstraction. The final map will include also future land subsidence rates under different development scenarios for the entire earth, and includes a sensitivity test for different subsurface build-up. The entire map will be used as input for a global flood risk model. Moreover, with the global land subsidence map relative sea level rise predictions may be improved as well.

  2. Research of Autonomous landing control of unmanned combat air vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaoyan Li; Zongji Chen

    2003-01-01

    This paper is to present a robust controller design method for developing autonomous landing systems of Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV). We first analyze the characteristic of autonomous landing of UCAV, and put forward its landing performance specifications. Structure singular value mu| synthesis is used to develop autonomous landing systems to accurately follow the pre-designed ideal landing track or online

  3. In Brief: Moon landing anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    To commemorate the Apollo program and the fortieth anniversary of the first lunar landing, NASA has announced a nearly month-long series of activities at various locations around the United States during July. Events include a 16 July roundtable discussion about the Apollo program at NASA headquarters in Washington, D. C.; Moonfest 2009 at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., on 19 July; a First Footprint Celebration at the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Ala., on 20 July; and an Apollo 11 Splashdown Celebration at Johnson Space Center on 24 July. NASA Television will broadcast some of the events live. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/40th/events.html.

  4. Newfoundland tests land exploration interest

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1991-09-09

    This paper reports that the government of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is inviting the industry to take another look at onshore western Newfoundland. A 1989 study by the Petroleum Resource Development Division of the Department of Mines and Energy stated that an area of about 30,000 sq km with widespread oil and gas seeps and hydrocarbon shows in shallow wells remains virtually unexplored in western Newfoundland. The report further concluded, a systematic exploration program utilizing modern exploratory techniques is warranted in this area and could potentially lead to the discovery of commercial accumulations of hydrocarbons. Success of the Canada- Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board's 1990 land sale, in which oil and gas rights were issued for 1.6 million hectares of adjoining offshore parcels, attests to growing interest in the area.

  5. Limbless undulatory propulsion on land.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z V; Mahadevan, L

    2008-03-01

    We analyze the lateral undulatory motion of a natural or artificial snake or other slender organism that "swims" on land by propagating retrograde flexural waves. The governing equations for the planar lateral undulation of a thin filament that interacts frictionally with its environment lead to an incomplete system. Closures accounting for the forces generated by the internal muscles and the interaction of the filament with its environment lead to a nonlinear boundary value problem, which we solve using a combination of analytical and numerical methods. We find that the primary determinant of the shape of the organism is its interaction with the external environment, whereas the speed of the organism is determined primarily by the internal muscular forces, consistent with prior qualitative observations. Our model also allows us to pose and solve a variety of optimization problems such as those associated with maximum speed and mechanical efficiency, thus defining the performance envelope of this mode of locomotion. PMID:18308928

  6. Influenza A Virus Infections in Land

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    Influenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People's Republic of China A. Townsend Peterson, Sarah­PCR testing of 939 Asian land birds of 153 species. Influenza A infection was found, particularly among influenza virus ecology has long regarded water- birds as a primary reservoir. Although the benchmark study

  7. Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Taddese, G

    2001-06-01

    Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of agrobiodiversity. Utilization of dung and crop residues for fuel and other uses disturbs the sustainability of land resources. The supply of inputs such as fertilizer, farm machinery and credits are very low. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. For environmentally and socially sustainable development, there is an urgent need to promote awareness and understanding of the interdependence of natural, socioeconomic, and political systems at local and national levels. Understanding the current status and causes of land degradation is very important. This paper reveals the important elements of land degradation in Ethiopia and suggests possible solutions that may help to ameliorate the situation. PMID:11393316

  8. A Journey to a New Land

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SFU Museum of Archaeolgy and Ethnology

    This page is part of an exhibit in the Simon Fraser University Museum entitled "A Journey to a New Land" about the coming of the first humans to North and South America. The page presents an animation of the effects of post-glacial seal level rise on the area known as Beringia and the Bering Land Bridge

  9. ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This brochure describes NASA's ICESat mission ((Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite), which was launched January 12, 2003. ICESat is the benchmark Earth Observing System mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics.

  10. Lakes representation in a land surface model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Dutra; V. M. Stepanenko; G. Balsamo; P. Viterbo; P. M. A. Miranda; D. Mironov

    2009-01-01

    Lakes and other inland water bodies can, in certain areas, compose a large fraction of the land surface. Inland waters have an important role in determining local and regional climates, primarily because of large differences in albedo, heat capacity, roughness, and energy exchange compared to vegetated land surfaces. Despite the radically different physical characteristics of inland waters when compared to

  11. Land Ethics--Who Needs Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, B.

    1985-01-01

    Identifies land degradation as Australia's most urgent environmental problem and recommends the development of a land ethic for soil conservation. Presents a 15-point conservation education plan that encourages a sustainable ecological basis for rural production and also cultivates ecologically sound habits toward nature. (ML)

  12. Biofuels and indirect land use change

    E-print Network

    Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation October 2011 #12;About this study), Malaysian Palm Oil Board, National Farmers Union, Novozymes, Northeast Biofuels Collaborative, Patagonia Bio contributed views on a confidential basis. #12;1Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation

  13. Land use policy as an international issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynton K. Caldwell

    1984-01-01

    Land use is not an end in itself; it is a means to the realization of a broad range of social, economic and political objectives. Few public issues appear to be more strictly national. In environment-related United Nations conferences, Third World representatives in particular have asserted the absolute control of nations over their land and natural resources. Nevertheless, international concern

  14. Land uplift due to subsurface fluid injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pietro Teatini; Giuseppe Gambolati; Massimiliano Ferronato; Dale Walters

    2011-01-01

    The subsurface injection of fluid (water, gas, vapour) occurs worldwide for a variety of purposes, e.g. to enhance oil production (EOR), store gas in depleted gas\\/oil fields, recharge overdrafted aquifer systems (ASR), and mitigate anthropogenic land subsidence. Irrespective of the injection target, some areas have experienced an observed land uplift ranging from a few millimetres to tens of centimetres over

  15. Sinte Gleska University Reclaims Land from Loneliness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2000-01-01

    Sinte Gleska University's (SGU) model for community development includes transformation of an old boarding school site, community-based collaborations in gardening and nutrition, and a bison restoration project. Tribal members learn to work with the land in harmony with tribal stewardship models as well as Western land use and agricultural…

  16. TIRE MODELS IN AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR SIMULATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. P. van Slagmaat

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the development of a simulation model of an aircraft landing gear describing its typical non-linear behaviour. The development of the design tool -which correlates the actual design parameters with the performance of the gear- is a part of the research project that investigates the estimation of the nonlinear dynamical system, which an aircraft landing gear is. This

  17. Land treatment of petroleum refining wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Jr

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of land treatment as practiced by the petroleum refining industry for both hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. The author focuses on the documented performance and environmental risks, especially potential air emissions, associated with the technology. The term land treatment evokes a variety of images, and indeed encompasses a broad range of management objectives, unit configurations, and

  18. Monitoring land surface fluxes using ASTER observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Schmugge; William P. Kustas; Karen S. Humes

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a review of methods for using remotely sensed data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) to estimate the energy fluxes from the land surface. The basic concepts of the energy balance at the land surface are presented along with an example of how remotely sensed surface brightness temperatures can be used to estimate

  19. Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Lloyd J., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations have been made to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices discussed are crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact. It appears feasible to readily evaluate landing-gear systems for internal or external application in hard-surface or water landings by using computational procedures and free-body landing techniques with dynamic models. The systems investigated have shown very interesting energy-dissipation characteristics over a considerable range of landing parameters. Acceptable gear can be developed along lines similar to those presented if stroke requirements and human-tolerance limits are considered.

  20. Land Subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Approximate point of maximum subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Land surface subsided ~9 m from 1925 to 1977 due to aquifer-system compaction. Signs on the telephone pole indicate the former elevations of the land surface in 1925 and 1955....

  1. APOLLO MANNED LUNAR LANDING SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT PROPOSAL

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    APOLLO MANNED LUNAR LANDING SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT PROPOSAL GEOLOGICAL FIELD INVESTIGATION IN EARLY APOLLO MANNED LUNAR LANDING MISSIONS Abstract and Techi~icalSection E. M.Shoemaker, U. S-investigator November 1965 #12;APOLLO MANNED 1,UNAR I,ANDING SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT PROPOSAL GEOLOGICAL FIETADINi

  2. Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation Jiu Jimmy Jiao Department ofEarth Sciences, The University ofHong Kong, P. R. China Abstract JJ.Jiao Land reclamation has played a significant role in the urban development process in many coastal areas in the world. While reclamation

  3. NATIVE AMERICAN LANDS IN REGION 10

    EPA Science Inventory

    The .dbf file is standalone ArcView coverage contained within the American Indian Lands Environmental Support Project (AILESP) data base. Data supports scales at multiple resolutions although ambiguities can be seen when combined with other coverages such as general land ownersh...

  4. Ecologically based municipal land use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Honachefsky, W.B.

    2000-07-01

    The book presents compelling evidence and sound arguments that make the case for sound land use policies that will reduce sprawl. The book provides easily understood solutions for municipal land planners dealing with urban sprawl; discusses ecological resources; emphasizes the use of new environmental indicators; and includes the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) to problem solving.

  5. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  6. The land management and operations database (LMOD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents the design, implementation, deployment, and application of the Land Management and Operations Database (LMOD). LMOD is the single authoritative source for reference land management and operation reference data within the USDA enterprise data warehouse. LMOD supports modeling appl...

  7. BIOREMEDIATION USING THE LAND TREATMENT CONCEPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is designed to be used by those who are involved with the use of land treatment technologies for the remediation of contaminated solid phase materials. In addition to a discussion of the basic processes which drive land treatment applications, the parameters involv...

  8. Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chirold D. Epp; Edward A. Robertson; T. Brady

    2008-01-01

    The ALHAT project is funded by NASA to develop an integrated AGNC (autonomous guidance, navigation and control) hardware and software system capable of detecting and avoiding surface hazards and guiding humans and cargo safely, precisely and repeatedly to designated lunar landing sites. There are important interdependencies driving the design of a lunar landing system including such things as lander hazard

  9. Coastal land loss in Texas - An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Morton; J. G. Paine

    1990-01-01

    Each year in Texas more than 1,500 acres of prime real estate and productive wetlands are destroyed along the Gulf shoreline and near the bay margins primarily as a result of coastal erosion and submergence. Wetland losses constitute about half of the total land losses. Historical analyses of maps and aerial photographs since the mid-1800s indicate that land losses are

  10. Report from the land of the Olmec

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Webster

    1982-01-01

    Michael Coe and Richard Diehl, eds. In the Land of the Olmec, Volume I: The Archaeology of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan. Austin: The University of Texas Press, 1980. 416 pp.Michael Coe and Richard Diehl, eds. In the Land of the Olmec, Volume II: People of the River. Austin: The University of Texas Press. 1980. 198 pp. Maps. $100 (2 vols.).

  11. 7 CFR 1410.6 - Eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...determined by the Deputy Administrator; or (2) Marginal pasture land, as determined by the Deputy Administrator, that...Deputy Administrator. A field or portion of a field of marginal pasture land may be considered to be suitable for use as a...

  12. PLANT SUCCESSION ON DEGRADED LAND IN SINGAPORE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Corlett

    CORLETT, R.T. 1991. Plant succession on degraded land in Singapore. The course of secondary succession on land degraded by prolonged cultivation is described. On the most degraded sites, the pioneer vascular flora consists of only 13 non-parasitic species and is independent of the proximity of forest seed sources. This pioneer community is replaced after 20 to 50 y by a

  13. State Lands Management Plan Rosemary Hill Observatory

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    State Lands Management Plan For Rosemary Hill Observatory DRAFT: January 2002 prepared by Office MANAGEMENT PLAN ROSEMARY HILL OBSERVATORY LEVY COUNTY PREPARED BY OFFICE OF FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION;ROSEMARY HILL OBSERVATORY LAND MANAGEMENT PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  14. PLACES: A Tool For Sustainable Land Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid development of the human made environment to meet human needs and expand the economy is largely responsible for environmental losses. Because all land uses will incrementally and cumulatively degrade ecosystems that sustain human life, site-level land use decisions must ac...

  15. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour glides to a landing on runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the highly successful STS-68 mission dedicated to radar imaging of the earth's surface as part of NASA's Mission To Planet Earth program. The landing was at 10:02 a.m. (PDT) 11 October 1994, after waiving off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, earlier that morning due to adverse weather at Kennedy. The Endeavour crew was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy the morning of October 10, but mission planners decided early in the flight to extend the mission by one day. Mission commander was Michael A. Baker, making his third flight, and the pilot was Terrence W. Wilcutt, on his first mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Sh

  16. Biofuels on the landscape: Is "land sharing" preferable to "land sparing"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, E. H.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Duval, B. D.; Long, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    Widespread land use changes—and ensuing effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services—are expected as a result of expanding bioenergy production. Although almost all US production of ethanol today is from corn, it is envisaged that future ethanol production will also draw from cellulosic sources such as perennial grasses. In selecting optimal bioenergy crops, there is debate as to whether it is preferable from an environmental standpoint to cultivate bioenergy crops with high ecosystem services (a "land sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand (a "land sparing" strategy). Here, we develop a simple model to address this question. Assuming that bioenergy crops are competing with uncultivated land, our model calculates land requirements to meet a given bioenergy demand intensity based upon the yields of bioenergy crops and combines fractional land cover of each ecosystem type with its associated ecosystem services to determine whether land sharing or land sparing strategies maximize ecosystem services at the landscape level. We apply this model to a case in which climate protection through GHG regulation—an ecosystem's greenhouse gas value (GHGV)—is the ecosystem service of interest. We consider five bioenergy crops competing for land area with five unfarmed ecosystem types in the central and eastern US. Our results show that the relative advantages of land sparing and land sharing depend upon the type of ecosystem with which the bioenergy crop is competing for land; as the GHGV value of the unfarmed land increases, the preferable strategy shifts from land sharing to land sparing. This implies that, while it may be preferable to replace ecologically degraded land with high-GHGV, lower yielding bioenergy crops, average landscape GHGV will most often be maximized through high yielding bioenergy crops that leave more land for uncultivated, high-GHGV ecosystems. While our case study focuses on GHGV, the same principles will be generally applicable to any ecosystem service whose value does not depend upon the spatial configuration of the landscape. Whenever bioenergy crops have substantially lower ecosystem services than the ecosystems with which they are competing for land, the most effective strategy for meeting bioenergy demand while maximizing ecosystem services on a landscape level is one of land sparing—that is, focusing simultaneously on maximizing the yield of bioenergy crops while preserving or restoring natural ecosystems.

  17. Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles. The film shows experimental investigations to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices include crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030945. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  18. Mars Exploration Rover Landing Site Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Parker, T.; Kass, D.; Crisp, J.; Squyres, S.; Adler, M.; Haldemann, H.; Carr, M.; Arvidson, A.

    2003-01-01

    Selection of the landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers has involved over 2 years of research and analysis effort that has included the participation of broad sections of the planetary sciences community through a series of open landing site workshops. The effort has included the definition of the engineering constraints based on the landing system, mapping those engineering constraints into acceptable regions and prospective sites, the acquisition of new information from Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters, the evaluation of science and safety criteria for the sites, and the downselection and final site selection based on the sites science potential and safety. The final landing sites (Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater) were selected by NASA Headquarters on April 11, 2003, prior to launch in June. This paper presents engineering requirements, and potential landing sites for Mars Exploration Rovers.

  19. A universal strategy for visually guided landing

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Emily; Boeddeker, Norbert; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2013-01-01

    Landing is a challenging aspect of flight because, to land safely, speed must be decreased to a value close to zero at touchdown. The mechanisms by which animals achieve this remain unclear. When landing on horizontal surfaces, honey bees control their speed by holding constant the rate of front-to-back image motion (optic flow) generated by the surface as they reduce altitude. As inclination increases, however, this simple pattern of optic flow becomes increasingly complex. How do honey bees control speed when landing on surfaces that have different orientations? To answer this, we analyze the trajectories of honey bees landing on a vertical surface that produces various patterns of motion. We find that landing honey bees control their speed by holding the rate of expansion of the image constant. We then test and confirm this hypothesis rigorously by analyzing landings when the apparent rate of expansion generated by the surface is manipulated artificially. This strategy ensures that speed is reduced, gradually and automatically, as the surface is approached. We then develop a mathematical model of this strategy and show that it can effectively be used to guide smooth landings on surfaces of any orientation, including horizontal surfaces. This biological strategy for guiding landings does not require knowledge about either the distance to the surface or the speed at which it is approached. The simplicity and generality of this landing strategy suggests that it is likely to be exploited by other flying animals and makes it ideal for implementation in the guidance systems of flying robots. PMID:24167269

  20. 77 FR 13683 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...Administration Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan AGENCY: Federal Highway...of the draft Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTP) for public...to the Alaska Federal Lands draft Long Range Transportation Plans. The draft...

  1. 30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.11 Land eligible for acquisition...Interests in improvements on the land, mineral rights, or associated water rights may be acquired if— (1) The customary...

  2. 30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.11 Land eligible for acquisition...Interests in improvements on the land, mineral rights, or associated water rights may be acquired if— (1) The customary...

  3. 30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.11 Land eligible for acquisition...Interests in improvements on the land, mineral rights, or associated water rights may be acquired if— (1) The customary...

  4. 30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.11 Land eligible for acquisition...Interests in improvements on the land, mineral rights, or associated water rights may be acquired if— (1) The customary...

  5. 30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.11 Land eligible for acquisition...Interests in improvements on the land, mineral rights, or associated water rights may be acquired if— (1) The customary...

  6. 64 FR 32978 - Revised Landing Gear Shock Absorption Test Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-06-18

    ...14 CFR Part 25 Revised Landing Gear Shock Absorption Test Requirements and...99-08] RIN 2120-AG72 Revised Landing Gear Shock Absorption Test Requirements AGENCY...document proposes to revise the landing gear shock absorption test requirements...

  7. 66 FR 27390 - Revised Landing Gear Shock Absorption Test Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-05-16

    ...14 CFR Part 25 Revised Landing Gear Shock Absorption Test Requirements; Final...25-103] RIN 2120-AG72 Revised Landing Gear Shock Absorption Test Requirements AGENCY...the airworthiness standards for landing gear shock absorption test requirements...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100 ...Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100 ...Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

  10. 43 CFR 3141.3 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.3 Land use plans. No lease shall be issued under this subpart unless the lands...

  11. 43 CFR 3141.3 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.3 Land use plans. No lease shall be issued under this subpart unless the lands...

  12. 43 CFR 3141.3 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.3 Land use plans. No lease shall be issued under this subpart unless the lands...

  13. 43 CFR 3141.3 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.3 Land use plans. No lease shall be issued under this subpart unless the lands...

  14. 77 FR 5528 - Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...Agreement established a trust land consolidation fund to be used for consolidating Indian trust and restricted lands and acquiring fractional interests in these lands. We are seeking comments on the draft plan for accomplishing these goals. DATES: Submit...

  15. 43 CFR 3838.1 - What are SRHA lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS General Provisions § 3838.1 What are SRHA lands? SRHA lands...

  16. 43 CFR 3838.1 - What are SRHA lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS General Provisions § 3838.1 What are SRHA lands? SRHA lands...

  17. 43 CFR 3838.1 - What are SRHA lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS General Provisions § 3838.1 What are SRHA lands? SRHA lands...

  18. 43 CFR 3838.1 - What are SRHA lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS General Provisions § 3838.1 What are SRHA lands? SRHA lands...

  19. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands... Introduction: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of §...

  20. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands... Introduction: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of §...

  1. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands... Introduction: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of §...

  2. 43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands... Introduction: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of §...

  3. 7 CFR 632.13 - Eligible lands and water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01...Eligible lands and water. 632.13 Section 632.13 Agriculture Regulations of the...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING...Eligible lands and water. Lands...

  4. 44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

  5. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168.10...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall...

  6. 12 CFR 1010.209 - Title and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Title and land use. 1010.209 Section 1010.209...OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting...Requirements § 1010.209 Title and land use. (a) General...

  7. 50 CFR 29.2 - Cooperative land management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative land management. 29.2 Section 29.2 ...THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules § 29.2 Cooperative land management. Cooperative agreements...

  8. 50 CFR 29.2 - Cooperative land management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative land management. 29.2 Section 29.2 ...THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules § 29.2 Cooperative land management. Cooperative agreements...

  9. 50 CFR 29.2 - Cooperative land management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative land management. 29.2 Section 29.2 ...THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules § 29.2 Cooperative land management. Cooperative agreements...

  10. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN MEETING CALIFORNIA'S ENERGY AND

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN MEETING CALIFORNIA'S ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE. The Role of Land Use in Meeting California's Energy and Climate Change Goals. California Energy Commission .....................................................................................................1 Examples of Better Land Use Planning

  11. 44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

  12. CALIFORNIA ENERGY EFFECT OF LAND USE CHOICES ON

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION EFFECT OF LAND USE CHOICES ON TRANSPORTATION FUEL DEMAND IN SUPPORT ................................................................................................................... 1 Current Approach to Transportation Fuel Demand and Land Use Planning........... 1 Obstacles to Efficient Land Use Planning .................................................................. 2 Trends

  13. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168.10...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall...

  14. 50 CFR 29.2 - Cooperative land management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative land management. 29.2 Section 29.2 ...THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules § 29.2 Cooperative land management. Cooperative agreements...

  15. 44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

  16. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168.10...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall...

  17. 50 CFR 29.2 - Cooperative land management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative land management. 29.2 Section 29.2 ...THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM LAND USE MANAGEMENT General Rules § 29.2 Cooperative land management. Cooperative agreements...

  18. 12 CFR 1010.209 - Title and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Title and land use. 1010.209 Section 1010.209...OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting...Requirements § 1010.209 Title and land use. (a) General...

  19. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168.10...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall...

  20. 44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

  1. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 true Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168.10...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall...

  2. 44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...true Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

  3. 12 CFR 1010.209 - Title and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Title and land use. 1010.209 Section 1010.209...OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting...Requirements § 1010.209 Title and land use. (a) General...

  4. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644...Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers...for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or...

  5. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644...Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers...for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or...

  6. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644...Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers...for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or...

  7. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644...Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers...for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or...

  8. 19 CFR 122.35 - Emergency or forced landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Emergency or forced landing. 122.35 Section 122...Requirements § 122.35 Emergency or forced landing. (a) Application. This section applies to emergency or forced landings made by aircraft when...

  9. 19 CFR 122.35 - Emergency or forced landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Emergency or forced landing. 122.35 Section 122...Requirements § 122.35 Emergency or forced landing. (a) Application. This section applies to emergency or forced landings made by aircraft when...

  10. 19 CFR 122.35 - Emergency or forced landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Emergency or forced landing. 122.35 Section 122...Requirements § 122.35 Emergency or forced landing. (a) Application. This section applies to emergency or forced landings made by aircraft when...

  11. 19 CFR 122.14 - Landing rights airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Assistant Commissioner, Office of Field Operations, Headquarters. (6) Emergency or forced landing. Permission to land is not required for an emergency or forced landing (covered under § 122.35). (b) Payment of expenses. In the...

  12. 19 CFR 122.35 - Emergency or forced landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Emergency or forced landing. 122.35 Section 122...Requirements § 122.35 Emergency or forced landing. (a) Application. This section applies to emergency or forced landings made by aircraft when...

  13. 19 CFR 122.14 - Landing rights airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Assistant Commissioner, Office of Field Operations, Headquarters. (6) Emergency or forced landing. Permission to land is not required for an emergency or forced landing (covered under § 122.35). (b) Payment of expenses. In the...

  14. 19 CFR 122.35 - Emergency or forced landing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Emergency or forced landing. 122.35 Section 122...Requirements § 122.35 Emergency or forced landing. (a) Application. This section applies to emergency or forced landings made by aircraft when...

  15. 19 CFR 122.14 - Landing rights airport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Assistant Commissioner, Office of Field Operations, Headquarters. (6) Emergency or forced landing. Permission to land is not required for an emergency or forced landing (covered under § 122.35). (b) Payment of expenses. In the...

  16. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A drag chute slows the shuttle Endeavour after landing on runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the highly successful STS-68 mission dedicated to radar imaging of the earth's surface as part of NASA's Mission To Planet Earth program. The landing was at 10:02 a.m. (PDT) 11 October 1994, after waiving off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, earlier that morning due to adverse weather at Kennedy. The Endeavour crew was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy the morning of 10 October, but mission planners decided early in the flight to extend the mission by one day. Mission commander was Michael A. Baker and the pilot was Terrence W. Wilcutt. The four mission specialists were Thomas D. Jones, payload; Steven L. Smith; Daniel W. Bursch; and Peter J.K. Wisoff. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight

  17. STS-55 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia completes the STS-55 Spacelab D-2 mission 6 May with a landing at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, at 7:30 a.m. (PDT). The landing was scheduled for the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but was diverted to Dryden during the final hours of flight because of unacceptable weather at the Florida facility. The STS-55 mission began with the launch from Kennedy at 7:50 a.m. (PDT), 26 April. Aboard Columbia were commander Steve Nagel; pilot Tom Henricks; mission specialists Jerry Ross, Charles Precourt, and Bernard Harris; and payload specialists Hans Schlegel and Ulrich Walter, both from Germany. During Columbia's flight the NASA space shuttle fleet logged more than one year of combined flight time in space, including the time of all previous orbiters and Columbia on this flight. That mark was reached at 7:01:42 (PDT) on 5 May, and with Columbia's landing the total flight time had reached 365 days, 23 hours, and 28 minutes. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and

  18. STS-68 Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The shuttle Endeavour comes in for a landing on runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the highly successful STS-68 mission dedicated to radar imaging of the earth's surface as part of NASA's Mission To Planet Earth program. The landing was at 10:02 a.m. (PDT) 11 October 1994, after waiving off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, earlier that morning due to adverse weather at Kennedy. The Endeavour crew was originally scheduled to land at Kennedy the morning of 10 October, but mission planners decided early in the flight to extend the mission by one day. Mission commander was Michael A. Baker making his third flight and the pilot was Terrence W. Wilcutt on his first mission. The four mission specialists were Thomas D. Jones, payload commander making his second flight; Steven L. Smith on his first flight; Daniel W. Bursch making his second flight; and Peter J.K. Wisoff making his second flight. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking abou

  19. Biomechanics and control of landing in toads.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Gary; Ekstrom, Laura; Azizi, Emanuel

    2014-12-01

    Anything that jumps must land, but unlike during jumping when muscles produce energy to accelerate the body into the air, controlled landing requires muscles to dissipate energy and decelerate the body. Among anurans, toads (genus Bufo) exhibit highly coordinated landing behaviors, using their forelimbs to stabilize the body after touch-down as they lower their hindlimbs to the ground. Moreover, toads land frequently, as they cover distances by stringing together long series of relatively short hops. We have been using toads as a model to understand the biomechanics and motor control strategies of coordinated landing. Our results show that toads prepare for landing differently depending on how far they hop. For example, the forelimbs are extended farther prior to impact after long hops than after short ones. Such kinematic alterations are mirrored by predictable modulation of the recruitment intensity of forelimb muscles before impact, such that longer hops lead to higher levels of pre-landing recruitment of muscles. These differences in kinematics and muscular activity help to control the most flexed configuration of the elbow that is achieved after impact, which in turn constrains the extent to which muscles involved in dissipating energy are stretched. Indeed, a combination of in vivo and in vitro experiments has shown that the elbow-extending anconeus muscle, which is stretched during landing as the elbow flexes, rarely reaches lengths longer than those on the plateau of the muscle's length-tension curve (where damage becomes more likely). We have also been studying how movements of the hindlimbs after take-off help to stabilize animals during landing. In particular, the immediate and rapid flexion of a toad's knees after take-off leads to a repositioning of the animal's center of mass (COM) that better aligns it with ground-reaction forces (GRFs) at impact and reduces torques that would destabilize the animal. Finally, recent work on sensory feedback involved in preparation for landing demonstrates that vision is not required for coordinated landing. Toads can effectively utilize proprioceptive and/or vestibular information during take-off to help inform themselves about landing conditions, but may also use other sensory modalities after take-off to modulate landing behavior. PMID:24876195

  20. Mining Standard Land Price with Tension Spline Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanning Yuan; Wenzhong Shi; Jiabing Sun

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a Standard land price is an economical indicator for measuring land value. In this paper, we propose to use the tension spline\\u000a interpolation function to mine standard land price. First, we extend the definition of standard land price, which is based\\u000a on land region composed of several neighboring land parcels with the same or similar features. Second, the regional factors\\u000a that

  1. 75 FR 41237 - Public Land Order No. 7746; Withdrawal of Public Lands, South Fork of the American River; California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAC08000-L1430000-ET0000; CACA 41334] Public Land Order No. 7746; Withdrawal of Public Lands, South Fork of the American River; California AGENCY:...

  2. Monitoring land subsidence in Semarang, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfai, Muh Aris; King, Lorenz

    2007-11-01

    Semarang is one of the biggest cities in Indonesia and nowadays suffering from extended land subsidence, which is due to groundwater withdrawal, to natural consolidation of alluvium soil and to the load of constructions. Land subsidence causes damages to infrastructure, buildings, and results in tides moving into low-lying areas. Up to the present, there has been no comprehensive information about the land subsidence and its monitoring in Semarang. This paper examines digital elevation model (DEM) and benchmark data in Geographic Information System (GIS) raster operation for the monitoring of the land subsidence in Semarang. This method will predict and quantify the extent of subsidence in future years. The future land subsidence prediction is generated from the expected future DEM in GIS environment using ILWIS package. The procedure is useful especially in areas with scarce data. The resulting maps designate the area of land subsidence that increases rapidly and it is predicted that in 2020, an area of 27.5 ha will be situated 1.5 2.0 m below sea level. This calculation is based on the assumption that the rate of land subsidence is linear and no action is taken to protect the area from subsidence.

  3. X-38 Landing Gear Skid Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gafka, George K.; Daugherty, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    NASA incorporates skid-equipped landing gear on its series of X-38 flight test vehicles. The X-38 test program is the proving ground for the Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) a gliding parafoil-equipped vehicle designed to land at relatively low speeds. The skid-equipped landing gear is designed to attenuate the vertical landing energy of the vehicle at touchdown using crushable materials within the struts themselves. The vehicle then slides out as the vehicle horizontal energy is dissipated through the skids. A series of tests was conducted at Edwards Airforce Base (EAFB) in an attempt to quantify the drag force produced while "dragging" various X-38 landing gear skids across lakebed regions of varying surface properties. These data were then used to calculate coefficients of friction for each condition. Coefficient of friction information is critical for landing analyses as well as for landing gear load and interface load analysis. The skid specimens included full- and sub-scale V201 (space test vehicle) nose and main gear designs, a V131/V 132 (atmospheric flight test vehicles) main gear skid (actual flight hardware), and a newly modified, full-scale V201 nose -ear skid with substantially increased edge curvature as compared to its original design. Results of the testing are discussed along with comments on the relative importance of various parameters that influence skid stability and other dynamic behavior.

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  5. Urban land cover classification using hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, G.; Ahamed, J. Mohammed; Hebbar, R.; Raj, U.

    2014-11-01

    Urban land cover classification using remote sensing data is quite challenging due to spectrally and spatially complex urban features. The present study describes the potential use of hyperspectral data for urban land cover classification and its comparison with multispectral data. EO-1 Hyperion data of October 05, 2012 covering parts of Bengaluru city was analyzed for land cover classification. The hyperspectral data was initially corrected for atmospheric effects using MODTRAN based FLAASH module and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformation was applied to reduce data dimensionality. The threshold Eigen value of 1.76 in VNIR region and 1.68 in the SWIR region was used for selection of 145 stable bands. Advanced per pixel classifiers viz., Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used for general urban land cover classification. Accuracy assessment of the classified data revealed that SVM was quite superior (82.4 per cent) for urban land cover classification as compared to SAM (67.1 per cent). Selecting training samples using end members significantly improved the classification accuracy by 20.1 per cent in SVM. The land cover classification using multispectral LISS-III data using SVM showed lower accuracy mainly due to limitation of spectral resolution. The study indicated the requirement of additional narrow bands for achieving reasonable classification accuracy of urban land cover. Future research is focused on generating hyperspectral library for different urban features.

  6. Land Measurement from Future Landsat Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, J. R.; Masek, J. G.; Ochs, W. R.; Gao, F.

    2005-12-01

    The current strategy for implementing a successor mission to Landsat 7 involves the integration of Landsat sensors onto satellites under development for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Unlike the data from other sensors planned for NPOESS satellites, Landsat data are not yet incorporated into algorithms for the generation of environmental data records. Placing the Landsat program into the NPOESS system creates the opportunity for defining and implementing environmental data records which fuse high resolution Landsat data with coarser resolution observations from the other sensors to create a suite of useful land measurement products. For example, a prototype product has been developed merging Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) data with Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to create synthetic "daily" high resolution land reflectance images. This product is regarded as a preliminary step in creating annual, global land cover and land cover change maps meeting the needs of the Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) and other national and international environmental monitoring programs. The strategy for continuing the Landsat mission, the prototype land reflectance product, and the potential for using Landsat data to operationally produce a suite of land cover / land use change data records will be discussed.

  7. Apollo experience report: Lunar module landing gear subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the lunar module landing gear subsystem through the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission is presented. The landing gear design evolved from the design requirement, which had to satisfy the structural, mechanical, and landing performance constraints of the vehicle. Extensive analyses and tests were undertaken to verify the design adequacy. Techniques of the landing performance analysis served as a primary tool in developing the subsystem hardware and in determining the adequacy of the landing gear for toppling stability and energy absorption. The successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission provided the first opportunity for a complete flight test of the landing gear under both natural and induced environments.

  8. Research of autonomous landing control of unmanned combat air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaoyan; Chen, Zongji

    2003-09-01

    This paper is to present a robust controller design method for developing autonomous landing systems of Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV). We first analyze the characteristic of autonomous landing of UCAV, and put forward its landing performance specifications. Structure singular value ?| synthesis is used to develop autonomous landing systems to accurately follow the pre-designed ideal landing track or online generated optimal landing track. The robust performance of system is analyzed. The simulation results demonstrate that the designed autonomous landing system satisfies the performance requirements of autonomous landing of UCAV when there are uncertainties of UCAV aircraft model, measurement noises and exogenous disturbances.

  9. Impacts of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change over South America: a modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, M. G. D.; Herdies, D. L.; Souza, D. O. D.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in patterns of land use and land cover have great influence on hydrology, climate and biogeochemical cycles. In this work the influences caused by changes in patterns of land cover and land use in Brazil on the behavior of the water balance over South America were evaluated. To fulfill this objective numerical experiments were carried out with the regional model ETA for the period between 1979 and 2008, in which three different conditions of land use and land cover in Brazil was used: 1) Potential Experiment, which are not included the anthropogenic changes in vegetation cover; 2) Control Experiment, in which the map of land use and land cover used the conditions of the 90s; 3) New Experiment, which represents the current conditions of land use and land cover. The results show clearly that the constant changes in patterns of land cover and land use in Brazil cause an increase in precipitation and moisture convergence, and reduced evapotranspiration over the Amazon Region. In other words, it can be stated that with the advance of changes in patterns of land use and land cover, Amazon further intensified their behavior as a sink of moisture, mainly due to increased precipitation and significant reduction in evapotranspiration, noting also that reduction of moisture available in the atmosphere was not offset by increased moisture convergence. The results on the La Plata Basin shows that initially (CONTROL) there is an increase in precipitation and evapotranspiration over the region and reduction in moisture convergence, which is later (NEW) modified to a pattern of reduction in precipitation and evapotranspiration followed by an increase in moisture convergence. These changes in the patterns of land use and land cover of the 90s make the area potentially source of moisture to the atmosphere, even with the reduction in moisture convergence, but reversing their behavior to sink moisture by inserting current vegetation cover modifications, mainly due to reduced precipitation and evapotranspiration over the basin. Thus, we can conclude that the constant changes in the land use and land cover in Brazil have direct influence on the continent water balance, influencing directly the availability of moisture to the atmosphere and moisture transport between the tropics and extratropics.

  10. Biofuels on the landscape: is "land sharing" preferable to "land sparing"?

    PubMed

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Duval, Benjamin D; Long, Stephen P; DeLucia, Evan H

    2012-12-01

    Widespread land use changes, and ensuing effects on ecosystem services, are expected from expanding bioenergy production. Although most U.S. production of ethanol is from corn, it is envisaged that future ethanol production will also draw from cellulosic sources such as perennial grasses. In selecting optimal bioenergy crops, there is debate as to whether it is preferable from an environmental standpoint to cultivate bioenergy crops with high ecosystem services (a "land-sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand (a "land-sparing" strategy). Here, we develop a simple model to address this question. Assuming that bioenergy crops are competing with uncultivated land, our model calculates land requirements to meet a given bioenergy demand intensity based upon the yields of bioenergy crops. The model combines fractional land cover of each ecosystem type with its associated ecosystem services to determine whether land-sharing or land-sparing strategies maximize ecosystem services at the landscape level. We apply this model to a case in which climate protection through GHG regulation--an ecosystem's greenhouse gas value (GHGV)--is the ecosystem service of interest. Our results show that the relative advantages of land sparing and land sharing depend upon the type of ecosystem displaced by the bioenergy crop; as the GHGV of the unfarmed land increases, the preferable strategy shifts from land sharing to land sparing. Although it may be preferable to replace ecologically degraded land with high-GHGV, lower yielding bioenergy crops, average landscape GHGV will most often be maximized through high-yielding bioenergy crops that leave more land for uncultivated, high-GHGV ecosystems. Although our case study focuses on GHGV, the same principles will be applicable to any ecosystem service whose value does not depend upon the spatial configuration of the landscape. Whenever bioenergy crops have substantially lower ecosystem services than the ecosystems with which they are competing for land, the most effective strategy for meeting bioenergy demand while maximizing ecosystem services on a landscape level is one of land sparing: focusing simultaneously on maximizing the yield of bioenergy crops while preserving or restoring natural ecosystems. PMID:23387108

  11. Perseus B Landing on Runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Perseus B high-altitude, remotely piloted research vehicle touches down on the runway at Edwards AFB, adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, after a test flight in September 1999. The Perseus B was the third version of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under the Dryden-managed Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate

  12. Large boulders at landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Large boulders are visible in this enlargement of pictures taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) lander camera on July 4, 1997. The landing site is in the dry flood channel named Ares Valles. The boulders probably represent deposits from one of the catastrophic floods that carved the ancient channel. Between the rocks is brownish windblown soil. The gray-tan sky results from dust particles in the atmosphere.

    Pathfinder, a low-cost Discovery mission, is the first of a new fleet of spacecraft that are planned to explore Mars over the next ten years. Mars Global Surveyor, already en route, arrives at Mars on September 11 to begin a two year orbital reconnaissance of the planet's composition, topography, and climate. Additional orbiters and landers will follow every 26 months.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  13. Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Earth Resources Observation Systems' Data Center of the US Geological Survey also maintains the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center to "process, archive, and distribute land-related data". The Center disseminates this data, collected by various satellite and aerial sensors, which include surface reflectances, land surface temperature, global geolocation angle, vegetation indices, thermal anomalies, leaf area index, net vegetation production, pointer files, and more. The data come in various forms and include complete descriptions as well as links to have it ordered or downloaded.

  14. Mars Dead or Alive: Where to Land?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    It is not easy to get to Mars. Dozens of past missions have failed, with only a handful even attempting to land on the planet's surface. However, in January 2004, careful planning paid off when the Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, describes the history of Mars exploration, the many failed missions, the process of choosing landing sites and procedures for the Rover mission, and the new focus on looking for evidence that water was once present.

  15. The Public Lands Commission of 1879

    E-print Network

    Odom, Danna Evelyn

    1971-01-01

    THE PDSLIC LANDS CGI'IEISSION GE 1B79 A Thesis by DANNA Eb'ELAN ODOYi Su'omitted to the Oradvat, . College of Texas ALAI University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for tl. e d. egree of HAS TEII OE ~HTS August 1971 Najor Subject...& History THE PUBLIC LANDS COMM ISS ION OF 1879 A Thesis by DANNA EVELYN ODOM Approved as to sty1e and content by ~ Chairman of Commit e Member He of Department Mem r August 1971 ABS TRACT The Public Lands Commission of 1879. C, August 1971...

  16. Edwards plateau: Analysis of land cover trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, B.A.; Hester, D.J.; Casey, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends project studies the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) change in land use and land cover in the United States on an ecoregional basis. The Edwards Plateau ecoregion is the focus of this report. Landsat imagery from five dates during a nearly 30-year period are interpreted for randomly selected sample blocks. The resulting data provide the foundation for estimating change. Along with the image analysis, site visits to 90% of the sampled areas, geographical profiles, and socioeconomic data for the ecoregion are synthesized to assess regional driving forces and consequences of change. Complete project methodology can be found in Loveland et al [1].

  17. Making land fly : the institutionalization of China's land quota markets and its implications for urbanization, property rights, and intergovernmental politics

    E-print Network

    Xiao, Yuan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigates China's land quota markets, a recent land policy innovation that virtually transfers urbanization permission from the countryside to cities. To circumvent national government's quota restrictions ...

  18. Global land use data for integrated assessment modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ramankutty, Navin

    2005-12-12

    Changes in land use and land cover have been one of the major drivers of global change over the last three centuries. Detailed spatially-explicit data sets characterizing these historical land cover changes are now emerging. By synthesizing remotely-sensed land cover classification data sets with historical land use census data, our research group has developed comprehensive databases of historical land use and land cover change. Moreover, we are building estimates of the land suitability for agriculture to predict the constraints on future land use. In this project, we have interacted with the Global Trade and Analysis Project (GTAP) at Purdue University, to adapt our land use data for use with the GTAP database, a baseline database widely used by the integrated assessment modeling community. Moreover, we have developed an interactive website for providing these newly emerging land use data products for the integrated assessment (IA) community and to the climate modeling community.

  19. Mars Exploration Rover Landing Site Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Golombek; J. Grant; T. Parker; D. Kass; J. Crisp; S. Squyres; M. Adler; A. Haldemann; M. Carr; R. Arvidson; C. Weitz; R. Zurek

    2003-01-01

    After over two years of research and analysis, sites in Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater have been selected for landing the Mars Exploration Rovers. Both sites appear acceptably safe and have strong indicators of liquid water in their past.

  20. Detection of land degradation with polarimetric SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-08-01

    Land degradation is a crucial problem facing the human race. With an ever-increasing population placing increasing stress on agricultural lands, land impoverishment has the potential for adversely impacting the food supply in many regions of the world. The Manix Basin Area of the Mojave desert has been cropped using center pivot irrigation, but since 1973 many fields have been abandoned for economic reasons. Data were collected using the JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), a multi-spectral radar polarimeter. Analysis of these data revealed unusual polarization responses which we attribute to the formation of wind ripples on the surfaces of fields which had been abandoned for more than 5 years. This conjecture was confirmed through field observations, and the observed polarization responses were effectively modelled using a second-order small perturbation model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing techniques supported by limited field work for study of land degradation at synoptic scales.

  1. Gravity, lignification, and land plant evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.; Chen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Vascular plants began their occupation of the wetlands interfacing both terrestrial and marine environments at some point in early Paleozoic time. Chemical differences between green algae and vascular land plants are mainly related to an abundance of lignins in the land plants. Answers to questions relating to the phylogeny and adaptive significance of the lignins must depend on experiments and observations using contemporary plant material. A summary is provided of a series of such observations. It is found that the differences between modern Chlorophyta and vascular land plants cannot be explained in full on the basis of lignification alone. Nevertheless, the data point to the emergence of the primitive land populations into an oxygen-rich terrestrial world where the need for mechanical support and water conservation could be met by a single aerobic biochemical process connected to essential aromatic amino acids likely to be found in every cell

  2. Land Application of Organic Fertilizers or Amendments

    E-print Network

    Harmel, Daren; Mechell, Justin; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2007-12-13

    Applying organic materials to your land can add beneficial nutrients to the soil. But when too much is applied, or when it is applied incorrectly, organic material can cause environmental problems. This publication will help you select the proper...

  3. Outdoors America: recreational opportunites on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1992-01-01

    What comes to your mind when you think of outdoor recreation? Boating? Camping? Hiking or backpacking? Horse-back riding? Hunting or fishing? Chances are, if you can name an outdoor activity, you can do it on public lands.

  4. Land and its uses - actual and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Last, F.T.; Bell, B.G.; Holz, M.C.B.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses information on the following topics: identification of ecological factors characterizing the range of terrestrial habitats (urban, rural); land classifications; water resources; conservation and landscape; remote sensing; and case studies.

  5. Environment and Land in Bushbuckridge, South Africa

    E-print Network

    Environment and Land in Bushbuckridge, South Africa © 2002, Professor Robert Thornton Department of Anthropology University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Acknowledgements: Research), and by the Centre for Science Development, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa. Printed:24 April

  6. The cost of landing man on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, H. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In a period where the space program budget is generally static at about 1/3 of the level reached during the Apollo program, manned planetary flight is not considered by NASA planners to be a realistic near term goal. Much of NASA's current planning is based on the perception that manned planetary flight would be more costly than the Apollo lunar landing. This paper demonstrates that with current technological improvements in avionics, structure, and space transportation, the landing of an American on Mars would cost only 1/3 to 2/3 of the lunar landing; on a per capita basis such a program would cost less than $200, compared to Apollo's $325 (all dollars in 1981 base). Given the fact that a manned Mars landing is the last such exploration feat left to this generation, the cost should clearly not be a major deterrent.

  7. Biomass Energy and Competition for Land

    E-print Network

    Reilly, John

    We describe an approach for incorporating biomass energy production and competition for land into the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy, ...

  8. 8 CFR 234.2 - Landing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Airport, Jamaica, New York; the Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, California; or the Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, unless advance permission to land elsewhere has been obtained from the Office of Field...

  9. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Vacant public surveyed or unsurveyed lands are open to prospecting, and upon discovery of mineral, to location and...entered under other agricultural laws but not perfected, where prospecting can be done peaceably are open to...

  10. 43 CFR 3811.1 - Lands: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Vacant public surveyed or unsurveyed lands are open to prospecting, and upon discovery of mineral, to location and...entered under other agricultural laws but not perfected, where prospecting can be done peaceably are open to...

  11. HEALTH RISKS OF ORGANICS IN LAND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential health problems associated with the presence of persistent organic chemicals in wastewater and sludge, when applied to agricultural lands, are reviewed. The topics considered include: the type and amounts of organic chemicals present in wastewater and sludge, their ...

  12. A land based radar polarimeter processing system 

    E-print Network

    Kronke, Chester William

    1984-01-01

    Operations Utility Package. 64 CHAPTER I PROJECT BACKGROUND The Remote Sensing Center (RSC) at Texas ARM University was con- tracted by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and put into operation a mobile land based radar polarimeter [I...

  13. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Water Landing Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.; Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.

    2007-01-01

    Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) water splashdowns were simulated in order to find maximum acceleration loads on the astronauts and spacecraft under various landing conditions. The acceleration loads were used in a Dynamic Risk Index (DRI) program to find the potential risk for injury posed on the astronauts for a range of landing conditions. The DRI results showed that greater risks for injury occurred for two landing conditions; when the vertical velocity was large and the contact angle between the spacecraft and the water impact surface was zero, and when the spacecraft was in a toe down configuration and both the vertical and horizontal landing velocities were large. Rollover was also predicted to occur for cases where there is high horizontal velocity and low contact angles in a toe up configuration, and cases where there was a high horizontal velocity with high contact angles in a toe down configuration.

  14. Impacts of Regional Land Use and Land Cover on Rainfall: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. PIELKE; A. BELTRÁN-PRZEKURAT; C. A. HIEMSTRA; J. LIN; T. E. NOBIS; J. ADEGOKE; D. NIYOGI

    This paper documents the diverse role of land-use\\/land-cover change on precipitation. Since land conversion continues at a rapid pace (e.g., see Table 1 in Pielke et al. 2006a), this type of human disturbance of the climate system will continue and become even more significant in the coming decades. The regional alteration of landscape also has global climate effects through teleconnections

  15. The Land Cover Dynamics and Conversion of Agricultural Land in Northwestern Bangladesh, 1973-2003.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, M.; Seelan, S. K.; Rundquist, B. C.

    2006-05-01

    The importance of land cover information describing the nature and extent of land resources and changes over time is increasing; this is especially true in Bangladesh, where land cover is changing rapidly. This paper presents research into the land cover dynamics of northwestern Bangladesh for the period 1973-2003 using Landsat satellite images in combination with field survey data collected in January and February 2005. Land cover maps were produced for eight different years during the study period with an average 73 percent overall classification accuracy. The classification results and post-classification change analysis showed that agriculture is the dominant land cover (occupying 74.5 percent of the study area) and is being reduced at a rate of about 3,000 ha per year. In addition, 6.7 percent of the agricultural land is vulnerable to temporary water logging annually. Despite this loss of agricultural land, irrigated agriculture increased substantially until 2000, but has since declined because of diminishing water availability and uncontrolled extraction of groundwater driven by population pressures and the extended need for food. A good agreement (r = 0.73) was found between increases in irrigated land and the depletion of the shallow groundwater table, a factor affecting widely practiced small-scale irrigation in northwestern Bangladesh. Results quantified the land cover change patterns and the stresses placed on natural resources; additionally, they demonstrated an accurate and economical means to map and analyze changes in land cover over time at a regional scale, which can assist decision makers in land and natural resources management decisions.

  16. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasim Latifovic; Zhi-Liang ZhuSUPbSU; Josef Cihlar; Chandra Giri; Ian Olthof

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan\\/CCRS and USGS\\/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4\\/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined.

  17. Precipitation and global land surface hydrology in the MERRA-Land and MERRA-2 reanalysis datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichle, Rolf; Liu, Qing

    2015-04-01

    Multi-decadal reanalysis datasets have been widely used to study the global terrestrial water cycle. Examples include atmospheric reanalysis datasets (e.g., MERRA and ERA-Interim), coupled atmosphere-ocean reanalysis datasets (e.g., CFSR), and land-surface only reanalysis datasets (e.g., MERRA-Land and ERA-Interim/Land). The driving component of the land surface water budget is the incoming precipitation forcing. Traditionally, e.g. in ERA-Interim and MERRA, the reanalysis precipitation over land is generated by the atmospheric general circulation model component of the reanalysis system. By contrast, MERRA-Land, ERA-Interim/Land, CSFR, and the forthcoming MERRA-2 atmospheric reanalysis essentially use precipitation observations from satellites and/or gauges to force the land surface, which typically results in improved estimates of large-scale hydrological conditions. This presentation first reviews the approach by which the precipitation observations are introduced in MERRA-Land and MERRA-2. Precipitation in MERRA-Land relies on a global, daily, 0.5 degree gauge product from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC). But this product is based on a very limited number of measurements at high latitudes and over Africa. Therefore, MERRA-2 relies on a mix of (i) model-generated precipitation at high-latitudes, (ii) a pentad, 2.5 degree satellite product from CPC over Africa, and (iii) the daily, 0.5 degree gauge-based precipitation product elsewhere. Next, the precipitation climatologies and the resulting land surface hydrological conditions are compared regionally and for the reanalysis time period (1980-present). The more sophisticated approach of MERRA-2 precipitation results in generally improved land surface conditions. But MERRA-2 also suffers from adverse spin-up effects in soil moisture conditions at high latitudes.

  18. The causes of land-use and land-cover change: moving beyond the myths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric F. Lambin; B. L. Turner; Helmut J. Geist; Samuel B. Agbola; Arild Angelsen; John W. Bruce; Oliver T. Coomes; Rodolfo Dirzo; Günther Fischer; Carl Folke; P. S. George; Katherine Homewood; Jacques Imbernon; Rik Leemans; Xiubin Li; Emilio F. Moran; Michael Mortimore; P. S. Ramakrishnan; John F. Richards; Helle Skånes; Will Steffen; Glenn D. Stone; Uno Svedin; Tom A. Veldkamp; Coleen Vogel; Jianchu Xu

    2001-01-01

    Common understanding of the causes of land-use and land-cover change is dominated by simplifications which, in turn, underlie many environment-development policies. This article tracks some of the major myths on driving forces of land-cover change and proposes alternative pathways of change that are better supported by case study evidence. Cases reviewed support the conclusion that neither population nor poverty alone

  19. Impact of Land Model Calibration on Coupled Land-Atmosphere Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Ken; Zhou, Shujia

    2012-01-01

    Land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface heat and moisture budgets, as well as controlling feedbacks with clouds and precipitation that lead to the persistence of dry and wet regimes. Recent efforts to quantify the strength of L-A coupling in prediction models have produced diagnostics that integrate across both the land and PBL components of the system. In this study, we examine the impact of improved specification of land surface states, anomalies, and fluxes on coupled WRF forecasts during the summers of extreme dry and wet land surface conditions in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. The improved land initialization and surface flux parameterizations are obtained through calibration of the Noah land surface model using the new optimization and uncertainty estimation subsystem in NASA's Land Information System (LIS-OPT/UE). The impact of the calibration on the a) spinup of the land surface used as initial conditions, and b) the simulated heat and moisture states and fluxes of the coupled WRF simulations is then assessed. Changes in ambient weather and land-atmosphere coupling are evaluated along with measures of uncertainty propagation into the forecasts. In addition, the sensitivity of this approach to the period of calibration (dry, wet, average) is investigated. Results indicate that the offline calibration leads to systematic improvements in land-PBL fluxes and near-surface temperature and humidity, and in the process provide guidance on the questions of what, how, and when to calibrate land surface models for coupled model prediction.

  20. Shallow land burial technology: humid

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Yeh, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    Applying engineered modifications to present shallow land burial (SLB) practices is one method of ensuring safe operation and improving overall disposal-site performance. Two such engineered modifications, trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Engineered Test Facility (ETF), using nine 28-m/sup 3/ experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste (LLW). Concurrent to this field demonstration experiment, two finite-element hydrologic models have been developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. This paper covers progress made in these two areas during FY 1984. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining (lining costs were 33% lower at this demonstration scale), results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests, combined with observed intratrench water-level fluctuations, suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. In addition, trench-cover subsidence of approx. 2% of the total trench depth has been measured over two of the three lined trenches but has not occurred over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. The evaluation of the two trench treatments is continuing. However, results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment, implemented at a cost of $160/m/sup 3/ of grout, provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at SLB sites with water-related problems. 11 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Modem for the land mobile satellite channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henely, Steven J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a modem which has been developed and implemented using a digital signal processor (DSP) for a land mobile satellite demonstration system. The requirements of this digital modem were determined by the characteristics of the land mobile satellite channel. This paper discusses the algorithms which implement the differentiated phase shift keying (DPSK) demodulator. An algorithm is included which estimates symbol timing independent of carrier phase without the use of a square-law nonlinearity.

  2. The impact on seaplane floats during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Karman, TH

    1929-01-01

    In order to make a stress analysis of seaplane floats, and especially of the members connecting the floats with the fuselage, it is of great importance to determine the maximum pressure acting on the floats during landing. Here, the author gives a formula for maximum pressures during landing that permits one to apply experimental results to different bodies and different velocities. The author notes that the formula checks very well with experimental results.

  3. Convection wave studies over land and sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuettner, Joachim; Grossmann, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of recent case studies conducted over land and sea are given. Two dimensional convection (roll vortex/cloudstreet) and three dimensional convection in the underlying boundary layer are dealt with. Vertical momentum flux profiles and time series of important parameters and vertical soundings taken in the experiment area are shown. The three cases described show that convection waves occur over land and over ocean, over three dimensional convection and over two dimensional convection.

  4. Land-vehicle navigation using GPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIC ABBOTT; DAVID POWELL

    1999-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has made navigation systems practical for a number of land-vehicle navigation applications. Today, GPS-based navigation systems can be found in motor vehicles, farming and mining equipment, and a variety of other land-based vehicles (e.g., golf carts and mobile robots). Each of these applications is discussed and the reader is introduced to some of the issues

  5. The CEOS constellation for land surface imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, G.B.; Berger, M.; Jeanjean, H.; Gallo, K.P.

    2007-01-01

    A constellation of satellites that routinely and frequently images the Earth's land surface in consistently calibrated wavelengths from the visible through the microwave and in spatial detail that ranges from sub-meter to hundreds of meters would offer enormous potential benefits to society. A well-designed and effectively operated land surface imaging satellite constellation could have great positive impact not only on the quality of life for citizens of all nations, but also on mankind's very ability to sustain life as we know it on this planet long into the future. The primary objective of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Land Surface Imaging (LSI) Constellation is to define standards (or guidelines) that describe optimal future LSI Constellation capabilities, characteristics, and practices. Standards defined for a LSI Constellation will be based on a thorough understanding of user requirements, and they will address at least three fundamental areas of the systems comprising a Land Surface Imaging Constellation: the space segments, the ground segments, and relevant policies and plans. Studies conducted by the LSI Constellation Study Team also will address current and shorter-term problems and issues facing the land remote sensing community today, such as seeking ways to work more cooperatively in the operation of existing land surface imaging systems and helping to accomplish tangible benefits to society through application of land surface image data acquired by existing systems. 2007 LSI Constellation studies are designed to establish initial international agreements, develop preliminary standards for a mid-resolution land surface imaging constellation, and contribute data to a global forest assessment.

  6. Stomata and sterome in early land plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Edwards; U. Fanning; J. B. Richardson

    1986-01-01

    Recognition of pioneering land plants in the fossil record is highly contentious. Because vascular plants possess numerous structural modifications which maintain an internally hydrated environment, attempts to demonstrate the vascular status of megafossils have traditionally dominated research, although more recently evidence from microfossils suggests that Ordovician and Silurian land vegetation may have included plants with some attributes of bryo-phytes1,2 and

  7. Technical procedures for land use, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Land Use Site Study Plan including land use data acquisition, land use/land cover map compilation, verification of land use/land cover map accuracy, and land use/land cover data analysis. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  8. INDEX OF MAPS AND DIAGRAMS LAND USE: CAMPUS & SURROUNDING AREAS 6

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    INDEX OF MAPS AND DIAGRAMS KEY PLAN LAND USE: CAMPUS & SURROUNDING AREAS 6 LAND USE: PATTERNS ARBOR: LAND USE 38 LAND USE: CAMPUS & SURROUNDING AREAS 40 LAND USE: SCIENCES 41 LAND USE: HOUSING 42 LAND USE: RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS 43 LAND USE: UM ADMINISTRATION 44 UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS: CLASSROOM & 45

  9. Characteristics of a Lunar Landing Configuration Having Various Multiple-Leg Landing-Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Characteristics of a Lunar Landing Configuration Having Various Multiple-Leg Landing-Gear Arrangements. An experimental investigation has been made of some lunar-landing characteristics of a 1/6-scale dynamic model of a landing module having multiple-leg landing-gear systems. Symmetric four-point and five-point systems and an asymmetric four-point system were investigated. The landing-gear legs were inverted tripod arrangements having a telescoping main strut which incorporated a yielding-metal strap for energy dissipation, hinged V-struts, and circular pads. The landing tests were made by launching a free model onto an impenetrable hard surface (concrete) and onto a powdered-pumice overlay of various depths. Landing motion and acceleration data were obtained for a range of touchdown speeds, touchdown speeds, touch attitudes, and landing-surface conditions. Symmetric four-point and five-point systems and an Maximum normal acceleration experienced at the module center of gravity during landings on hard surface or pumice was 2g (full-scale lunar value in terms of earth's gravity) over a wide range of touchdown conditions. Maximum angular acceleration experienced was 12-1/2 radians/sec(exp 2) and maximum longitudinal acceleration was 1-3/4 g. The module was very stable with all gear configurations during landings on hard surface (coefficient of friction, microns=0.4) at all conditions tested. Some overturn instability occurred during landings on powdered pumice (microns=0.7 to 1.0) depending upon flight path, pitch and yaw attitude, depth of pumice, surface topography, and landing-gear configuration. The effect of stability of roll attitude for the limited amount of roll-attitude landing data obtained was insignificant. Compared with the four-point system, the five-point system with equal maximum gear radius increased landing stability slightly and improved the static stability for subsequent lunar launch. A considerable increase in landing stability in the direction of motion was obtained with an asymmetric four-point gear having two pads offset to increase gear radius by 33 percent in the direction of horizontal flight. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030982. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  10. Land use and land cover mapping: City of Palm Bay, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, D. D.; Pierce, R.

    1977-01-01

    Two different computer systems were compared for use in making land use and land cover maps. The Honeywell 635 with the LANDSAT signature development program (LSDP) produced a map depicting general patterns, but themes were difficult to classify as specific land use. Urban areas were unclassified. The General Electric Image 100 produced a map depicting eight land cover categories classifying 68 percent of the total area. Ground truth, LSDP, and Image 100 maps were all made to the same scale for comparison. LSDP agreed with the ground truth 60 percent and 64 percent within the two test areas compared and Image 100 was in agreement 70 percent and 80 percent.

  11. Magnetorheological landing gear: 1. A design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterbee, D. C.; Sims, N. D.; Stanway, R.; Wolejsza, Zbigniew

    2007-12-01

    Aircraft landing gears are subjected to a wide range of excitation conditions, which result in conflicting damping requirements. A novel solution to this problem is to implement semi-active damping using magnetorheological (MR) fluids. This paper presents a design methodology that enables an MR landing gear to be optimized, both in terms of its damping and magnetic circuit performance, whilst adhering to stringent packaging constraints. Such constraints are vital in landing gear, if MR technology is to be considered as feasible in commercial applications. The design approach focuses on the impact or landing phase of an aircraft's flight, where large variations in sink speed, angle of attack and aircraft mass makes an MR device potentially very attractive. In this study, an equivalent MR model of an existing aircraft landing gear is developed. This includes a dynamic model of an MR shock strut, which accounts for the effects of fluid compressibility. This is important in impulsive loading applications such as landing gear, as fluid compression will reduce device controllability. Using the model, numerical impact simulations are performed to illustrate the performance of the optimized MR shock strut, and hence the effectiveness of the proposed design methodology. Part 2 of this contribution focuses on experimental validation.

  12. Hazard Detection Methods for Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Tye; Zimpfer, Doug; Robertson, Edward; Epp, Chirold; Paschall, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The methods and experiences from the Apollo Program are fundamental building blocks for the development of lunar landing strategies for the Constellation Program. Each of the six lunar landing Apollo missions landed under near ideal lighting conditions. The astronauts visually performed terrain relative navigation while looking out of windows, and were greatly aided by external communication and well lit scenes. As the LM approached the landing site, the astronauts performed visual hazard detection and avoidance, also under near-ideal lighting conditions. The astronauts were looking out of the windows trying to the best of their ability to avoid rocks, slopes, and craters and find a safe landing location. NASA has expressed a desire for global lunar access for both crewed and robotic sortie lunar exploration missions (Cook, 2007) (Dale, 2006). Early NASA architecture studies have identified the lunar poles as desirable locations for early lunar missions. These polar missions have less than ideal lighting conditions and will significantly affect the way a crewed vehicle plans to land at such locales. Consequently, a variety of hazard identification methods should be considered for use by the crew to ensure a high degree of safety. This paper discusses such identification methods applicable to the poorly lit polar lunar environment, better ensuring global access for the soon to be designed Lunar Lander Vehicle (LLV).

  13. Scheduling Aircraft Landings under Constrained Position Shifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Chandran, Bala

    2006-01-01

    Optimal scheduling of airport runway operations can play an important role in improving the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Methods that compute the optimal landing sequence and landing times of aircraft must accommodate practical issues that affect the implementation of the schedule. One such practical consideration, known as Constrained Position Shifting (CPS), is the restriction that each aircraft must land within a pre-specified number of positions of its place in the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) sequence. We consider the problem of scheduling landings of aircraft in a CPS environment in order to maximize runway throughput (minimize the completion time of the landing sequence), subject to operational constraints such as FAA-specified minimum inter-arrival spacing restrictions, precedence relationships among aircraft that arise either from airline preferences or air traffic control procedures that prevent overtaking, and time windows (representing possible control actions) during which each aircraft landing can occur. We present a Dynamic Programming-based approach that scales linearly in the number of aircraft, and describe our computational experience with a prototype implementation on realistic data for Denver International Airport.

  14. Pastoralism within land administration in Kenya—The missing link

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Lengoiboni; Arnold K. Bregt; Paul van der Molen

    2010-01-01

    In land administration (LA), the right to exercising property\\/ownership rights on land is based on cadastral processes of adjudication, survey and rights registration. Private ownership rights are now being taken up in pastoral areas, where they must contend with pastoralists’ land rights. Pastoral land use requires seasonal migrations determined by climatic conditions. This study aimed to find out how well

  15. Towards vision-based safe landing for an autonomous helicopter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro J. Garcia-pardo; Gaurav S. Sukhatme; James F. Montgomery

    2002-01-01

    Autonomous landing is a challenging problem for aerial robots. An autonomous landing manoeuver depends largely on two capabilities: the decision of where to land and the generation of control signals to guide the vehicle to a safe landing. We focus on the first capability here by presenting a strategy and an underlying fast algorithm as the computer vision basis to

  16. Hanford Federal Facility state of Washington leased land

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report was prepared to provide information concerning past solid and hazardous waste management practices for all leased land at the US DOE Hanford Reservation. This report contains sections including land description; land usage; ground water, air and soil monitoring data; and land uses after 1963. Numerous appendices are included which provide documentation of lease agreements and amendments, environmental assessments, and site surveys.

  17. Research on land registration procedure ontology of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhongjun; Du, Qingyun; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Tao

    2009-10-01

    Land registration is public act which is to record the state-owned land use right, collective land ownership, collective land use right and land mortgage, servitude, as well as other land rights required the registration according to laws and regulations onto land registering books. Land registration is one of the important government affairs , so it is very important to standardize, optimize and humanize the process of land registration. The management works of organization are realized through a variety of workflows. Process knowledge is in essence a kind of methodology knowledge and a system which including the core and the relational knowledge. In this paper, the ontology is introduced into the field of land registration and management, trying to optimize the flow of land registration, to promote the automation-building and intelligent Service of land registration affairs, to provide humanized and intelligent service for multi-types of users . This paper tries to build land registration procedure ontology by defining the land registration procedure ontology's key concepts which represent the kinds of processes of land registration and mapping the kinds of processes to OWL-S. The land registration procedure ontology shall be the start and the basis of the Web service.

  18. Numerical simulation of human orientation perception during lunar landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torin K. Clark; Laurence R. Young; Alexander J. Stimpson; Kevin R. Duda; Charles M. Oman

    2011-01-01

    In lunar landing it is necessary to select a suitable landing point and then control a stable descent to the surface. In manned landings, astronauts will play a critical role in monitoring systems and adjusting the descent trajectory through either supervisory control and landing point designations, or by direct manual control. For the astronauts to ensure vehicle performance and safety,

  19. Autonomous navigation and guidance for pinpoint lunar soft landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangyu Huang; Dayi Wang

    2007-01-01

    An autonomous navigation and guidance system scheme for pinpoint lunar soft landing is studied in this paper. First, the descriptions of outline of lunar soft landing process are provided. Second, a GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing spacecraft is described. Third, the autonomous navigation based on measurement-updated IMU for lunar soft landing is presented. Fourth, the autonomous explicit guidance

  20. Overview of Terrain Relative Navigation Approaches for Precise Lunar Landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew E. Johnson; James F. Montgomery

    2008-01-01

    The driving precision landing requirement for the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology project is to autonomously land within 100 m of a predetermined location on the lunar surface. Traditional lunar landing approaches based on inertial sensing do not have the navigational precision to meet this requirement. The purpose of Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) is to augment inertial navigation by