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1

Edge Detection in Landing Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

PubMed Central

Background While considerable scientific effort has been devoted to studying how birds navigate over long distances, relatively little is known about how targets are detected, obstacles are avoided and smooth landings are orchestrated. Here we examine how visual features in the environment, such as contrasting edges, determine where a bird will land. Methodology/Principal Findings Landing in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) was investigated by training them to fly from a perch to a feeder, and video-filming their landings. The feeder was placed on a grey disc that produced a contrasting edge against a uniformly blue background. We found that the birds tended to land primarily at the edge of the disc and walk to the feeder, even though the feeder was in the middle of the disc. This suggests that the birds were using the visual contrast at the boundary of the disc to target their landings. When the grey level of the disc was varied systematically, whilst keeping the blue background constant, there was one intermediate grey level at which the budgerigar's preference for the disc boundary disappeared. The budgerigars then landed randomly all over the test surface. Even though this disc is (for humans) clearly distinguishable from the blue background, it offers very little contrast against the background, in the red and green regions of the spectrum. Conclusions We conclude that budgerigars use visual edges to target and guide landings. Calculations of photoreceptor excitation reveal that edge detection in landing budgerigars is performed by a color-blind luminance channel that sums the signals from the red and green photoreceptors, or, alternatively, receives input from the red double-cones. This finding has close parallels to vision in honeybees and primates, where edge detection and motion perception are also largely color-blind.

Bhagavatula, Partha; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael; Srinivasan, Mandyam

2009-01-01

2

Keratoacanthoma causing beak deformity in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a keratoacanthoma causing abnormal maxillary beak growth in a 6-year-old male budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulates). Although the bird was still capable of eating, it had recently been demonstrating signs of respiratory distress and euthanasia was recommended. On histological examination, the neoplasm was dramatically effacing the normal structure of the maxilla and infiltrating into the rostral nasal sinuses. The

H. C. Owen; R. J. T. Doneley; R. E. Schmidt; J. C. Patterson-Kane

2007-01-01

3

Pathomorphological, immunohistochemical and bacteriological findings in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) naturally infected with S. Gallinarum.  

PubMed

The present study describes the pathological and bacteriological findings and diagnosis by immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence methods in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) naturally infected with Salmonella gallinarum obtained from three commercial budgerigar rearing farms. The course of the disease in young budgerigars was peracute or acute, whereas in adult budgerigars the disease was acute or chronic. Clinically, yellow-white diarrhoea was observed in the young budgerigars with the acute form. In the adult budgerigars with the acute and chronic forms, a decrease in feed and water consumption with loss in body condition together with greenish-yellow diarrhoea was generally noted. Peritonitis and pericarditis were the most common findings in young budgerigars at necropsy, while in adult budgerigars scattered grey-white necrotic foci were found in the livers. Histopathologically, the lesions in young budgerigars were characterized with fibrinonecrotic peritonitis and/or pericarditis and necrotic hepatitis. In adult budgerigars with acute infection, hepatic necrosis with focal heterophil infiltration was present; whilst lesions in the chronic cases were granulomatous in nature with the infiltration of macrophages, lymphocytes and histiocytes. For the detection of S. Gallinarum in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex and immunofluorescence methods were used. Both methods showed bacteria to be localized in the liver, kidney, peritoneum, heart, spleen and intestines of both young and adult budgerigars. The results of the present study indicate that the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method was more sensitive than the immunofluorescence method in the detection of the bacteria. PMID:22515538

Tunca, R; Toplu, N; K?rkan, S; Avci, H; Aydo?an, A; Epikmen, E T; Tekbiyik, S

2012-01-01

4

Effects of Deafening on the Development of Nestling and Juvenile Vocalizations in Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of complete and partial cochlear extirpation at ages 9–11 days posthatch were assessed in 5 nestling budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to determine if auditory feedback is necessary for the production of nestling vocalizations. Although early deafening had no effect on the production of food-begging calls produced during the first 2 weeks posthatch, deafening did disrupt the expected transition from

James T. Heaton; Steven E. Brauth

1999-01-01

5

Auditory Disturbances Promote Temporal Clustering of Yawning and Stretching in Small Groups of Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yawning may serve both social and nonsocial functions. When budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) are briefly held, simulating capture by a predator, the temporal pattern of yawning changes. When this species is observed in a naturalistic setting (undisturbed flock), yawning and also stretching, a related behavior, are mildly contagious. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that a stressful event would

Michael L. Miller; Andrew C. Gallup; Andrea R. Vogel; Anne B. Clark

2012-01-01

6

The Direction and Range of Ambient Temperature Change Influences Yawning in Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative research suggests that yawning is a thermoregulatory behavior in homeotherms. Our previous experiments revealed that yawning increased in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) as ambient temperature was raised toward body temperature (22?34 °C). In this study, we identify the range of temperatures that triggers yawning to rule out the possible effect of changing temperature in any range. To corroborate its thermoregulatory

Andrew C. Gallup; Michael L. Miller; Anne B. Clark

2010-01-01

7

Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) Copy Virtual Demonstrators in a Two-Action Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) observed thin film transistor video playback of a virtual conspecific demonstrator using its beak to remove a stopper from a food box, either by pulling the object upward or by pushing it downward. Simultaneously (Experiment 1) or subsequently (Experiment 2), the observers were offered a similar stopper box and rewarded with access to food for each

Kieron Mottley; Cecilia Heyes

2003-01-01

8

The effect of magnetic field-free space on the acoustic behavior of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulafus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of magnetic field-free space (MFFS) on the acoustic behavior of budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulafus) is obvious. The daily frequency of their cries in uniform MFFS (UMFFS) and non-uniform MFFS (NMFFS) decreases by 44.7±10.0% as compared with that in the geomagnetic field (GMF) on the average. The occupation rate of protesting cries (R op) in NMFFS decreases by 8.5% 20.3% as compared with that in GMF on the average and shows an adaptability variation. In 75% of the observation days, the R op in UMFFS increases by 16.2% 23.3% as compared with that in GMF. As for the effect of MFFS on the rhythmic habits of budgerigars, only the ending time of crying is affected to certain extent, 67 minutes earlier than in GMF on the average.

Jiang, Jin-Chang; Jin, Hai-Qiang; Lin, Yun-Fang; Chen, Hao; Yang, Xin-Yu; Zeng, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Xun

1998-07-01

9

Speech perception by budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus ): Spoken vowels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrimination of natural, sustained vowels was studied in 5 budgerigars. The birds were trained using operant conditioning\\u000a procedures on asame-different task, which was structured so that response latencies would provide a measure of stimulus similarity. These response latencies\\u000a were used to construct similarity matrices, which were then analyzed by multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedures. MDS produced\\u000a spatial maps of these speech

Robert J. Dooling; Susan D. Brown

1990-01-01

10

A unique isolate of beak and feather disease virus isolated from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in South Africa.  

PubMed

Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), the causative agent of psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) infects psittaciformes worldwide. We provide an annotated sequence record of three full-length unique genomes of BFDV isolates from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) from a breeding farm in South Africa. The isolates share >99% nucleotide sequence identity with each other and approximately 96% nucleotide sequence identity to two recent isolates (Melopsittacus undulatus) from Thailand but only between 91.6 and 86.6% identity with all other full-length BFDV sequences. Maximum-likelihood analysis and recombination analysis suggest that the South African budgerigar BFDV isolates are unique to budgerigars, are non-recombinant in origin, and represent a new genotype of BFDV. PMID:20127375

Varsani, Arvind; de Villiers, Gillian K; Regnard, Guy L; Bragg, Robert R; Kondiah, Kulsum; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

2010-02-03

11

Evidence for contagious behaviors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): an observational study of yawning and stretching.  

PubMed

Yawning is contagious in humans and some non-human primates. If there are social functions to contagious behaviors, such as yawning, they might occur in other highly social vertebrates. To investigate this possibility, we conducted an observational study of yawning and an associated behavior, stretching, in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a social, flock-living parrot. Flock-housed budgerigars were videotaped for 1.5h at three time-blocks during the day (early morning, afternoon and early evening), and the times of all yawns and stretches for each bird were recorded. Both yawning and stretching were temporally clumped within sessions, but were uniformly distributed across the trials of a particular time-block. This suggests that clumping was not a result of circadian patterning and that both behaviors could be contagious. There was additional evidence of contagion in stretching, which occurred in two forms - a posterior-dorsal extension of either one foot or both feet. Birds that could have observed a conspecific stretch, and that then stretched themselves within 20s, replicated the form of the earlier stretch significantly more often than expected by chance. This study provides the first detailed description of temporal patterns of yawning under social conditions in a flock-living species as well as the first support for contagious yawning and stretching in a non-primate species in a natural context. Experimental evidence will be necessary to confirm the extent of contagion in either behavior. PMID:22209955

Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Vicario, Shannon M; Clark, Anne B

2011-12-28

12

Perception of distance calls by budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and zebra finches (Poephila guttata): assessing species-specific advantages.  

PubMed

Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and zebra finches (Poephila guttata) share a common functional class of vocalizations called distance calls. The perception of species-specific distance calls by both species was measured with a habituation-dishabituation operant paradigm. Changes in discrimination performance were noted as listening conditions were modified or stimulus properties were altered. Both species showed better performance for calls of their own species. For zebra finches this tendency increased slightly when a background noise was added to the testing environment. Shifting the frequency region of the calls affected the discrimination performance of male budgerigars but not females or zebra finches. Reversing the temporal order of the calls affected the perceptual advantage for conspecific vocalizations in zebra finches but not in budgerigars. These results highlight species differences in perceiving acoustic communication signals. PMID:2032457

Okanoya, K; Dooling, R J

1991-03-01

13

Auditory disturbances promote temporal clustering of yawning and stretching in small groups of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

Yawning may serve both social and nonsocial functions. When budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) are briefly held, simulating capture by a predator, the temporal pattern of yawning changes. When this species is observed in a naturalistic setting (undisturbed flock), yawning and also stretching, a related behavior, are mildly contagious. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that a stressful event would be followed by the clustering of these behaviors in a group of birds, which may be facilitated both by a standard pattern of responding to a startling stressor and also contagion. In this study, we measured yawning and stretching in 4-bird groups following a nonspecific stressor (loud white noise) for a period of 1 hr, determining whether auditory disturbances alter the timing and frequency of these behaviors. Our results show that stretching, and to a lesser degree yawning, were nonrandomly clumped in time following the auditory disturbances, indicating that the temporal clustering is sensitive to, and enhanced by, environmental stressors while in small groups. No decrease in yawning such as found after handling stress was observed immediately after the loud noise but a similar increase in yawning 20 min after was observed. Future research is required to tease apart the roles of behavioral contagion and a time-setting effect following a startle in this species. This research is of interest because of the potential role that temporal clumping of yawning and stretching could play in both the collective detection of, and response to, local disturbances or predation threats. PMID:22268553

Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Clark, Anne B

2012-01-23

14

A novel genotype of beak and feather disease virus in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is a causative agent for psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), which shows a characteristic feather disorder in psittacine birds. Nineteen budgerigars, which were clinically suspected to have PBFD, were examined by two polymerase chain reactions (PCR), which target each of open reading frames (ORFs) V1 and C1. All of the 19 samples were detected BFDV by the PCR targeting ORF C1, whereas only two of them were detected by the PCR targeting ORF V1. It was assumed that BFDV derived from budgerigar (budgerigar BFDV) has two genotypes, which are tentatively classified as budgerigar BFDV genotype 1 and genotype 2 by the PCR amplification patterns. Whole genome sequences of six budgerigar BFDVs were determined to reveal the existence of two genotypes. In the phylogenic analysis, six budgerigar BFDV sequences formed a unique group branched from the other 23 published BFDV sequences. The budgerigar BFDV genotype 1 and genotype 2 were also segregated each other, and budgerigar BFDV genotype 2 was particularly distantly related with the other BFDVs. These results suggest budgerigar BFDV is a unique in the known BFDVs and is divided into two genotypes. PMID:20658313

Ogawa, Hirohito; Katoh, Hiroshi; Sanada, Naoko; Sanada, Yasuyuki; Ohya, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto

2010-07-25

15

Quantitative study on characteristic parameters of acoustic behavior habits in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undula fus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the bases of the studies of acoustic behavior and pattern recognition of budgerigar calls, the quantitative study on characteristic parameters of acoustic behavior habits in budgerigars is further given in this paper. These results open up a new knowledge for comprehensive analyses of abnormalities of acoustic behavior habits in budgerigars prior to earthquakes. Under indoor lighting, the song calls in budgerigars are possessed of the beginning and ending singing time with the natural characteristics, and of the rhythmic habit of daylight singings and night rests. In daily daylight and night calls, single calls, vari-toned calls, mono-syllabic and multi-syllabic protest calls are respectively possessed of the occupation habit corresponding to behavior activities, and have close acrophases and regular following properties corresponding to half-value phases, and the acrophases delay half-value phases by about half an hour on an average. After reversing lighting, the acrophases of budgerigar calls delay those of the normal lighting by about 12 hours on an average, and the following properties corresponding to half-value phases are irregular.

Jiang, Jin-Chang; Chen, Hao; Xu, Mu-Ling; Zhang, Hong

1994-08-01

16

Relative contributions of pigments and biophotonic nanostructures to natural color production: a case study in budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) feathers.  

PubMed

Understanding the mechanistic bases of natural color diversity can provide insight into its evolution and inspiration for biomimetic optical structures. Metazoans can be colored by absorption of light from pigments or by scattering of light from biophotonic nanostructures, and these mechanisms have largely been treated as distinct. However, the interactions between them have rarely been examined. Captive breeding of budgerigars (Aves, Psittacidae, Melopsittacus undulatus) has produced a wide variety of color morphs spanning the majority of the spectrum visible to birds, including the ultraviolet, and thus they have been used as examples of hypothesized structure-pigment interactions. However, empirical data testing these interactions in this excellent model system are lacking. Here we used ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, light and electron microscopy, pigment extraction experiments and optical modeling to examine the physical bases of color production in seven budgerigar morphs, including grey and chromatic (purple to yellow) colors. Feathers from all morphs contained quasi-ordered air-keratin 'spongy layer' matrices, but these were highly reduced and irregular in grey and yellow feathers. Similarly, all feathers but yellow and grey had a layer of melanin-containing melanosomes basal to the spongy layer. The presence of melanosomes likely increases color saturation produced by spongy layers whereas their absence may allow increased expression of yellow colors. Finally, extraction of yellow pigments caused some degree of color change in all feathers except purple and grey, suggesting that their presence and contribution to color production is more widespread than previously thought. These data illustrate how interactions between structures and pigments can increase the range of colors attainable in birds and potentially in synthetic systems. PMID:22442364

D'Alba, Liliana; Kieffer, Leah; Shawkey, Matthew D

2012-04-15

17

A novel genotype of beak and feather disease virus in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undulatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is a causative agent for psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), which shows a characteristic\\u000a feather disorder in psittacine birds. Nineteen budgerigars, which were clinically suspected to have PBFD, were examined by\\u000a two polymerase chain reactions (PCR), which target each of open reading frames (ORFs) V1 and C1. All of the 19 samples were

Hirohito Ogawa; Hiroshi Katoh; Naoko Sanada; Yasuyuki Sanada; Kenji Ohya; Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi; Hideto Fukushi

2010-01-01

18

Endogenous Hepadnaviruses in the Genome of the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and the Evolution of Avian Hepadnaviruses  

PubMed Central

Endogenous hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B viruses [HBVs]) were recently discovered in the genomes of passerine birds. We mined six additional avian genomes and discovered multiple copies of endogenous HBVs in the budgerigar (order Psittaciformes), designated eBHBV. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that the endogenous hepadnaviruses are more diverse than their exogenous counterparts and that the endogenous and exogenous hepadnaviruses form distinct lineages even when sampled from the same avian order, indicative of multiple genomic integration events.

Cui, Jie

2012-01-01

19

Spatial Unmasking of Birdsong in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

PubMed Central

Budgerigars and zebra finches were tested, using operant conditioning techniques, on their ability to identify a zebra finch song in the presence of a background masker emitted from either the same or a different location as the signal. Identification thresholds were obtained for three masker types differing in their spectrotemporal characteristics (noise, modulated noise, and a song chorus). Both bird species exhibited similar amounts of spatial unmasking across the three masker types. The amount of unmasking was greater when the masker was played continuously compared to when the target and masker were presented simultaneously. These results suggest that spatial factors are important for birds in the identification of natural signals in noisy environments.

Dent, Micheal L.; McClaine, Elizabeth M.; Best, Virginia; Ozmeral, Erol; Narayan, Rajiv; Gallun, Frederick J.; Sen, Kamal; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

2009-01-01

20

The effect of altered auditory feedback on control of vocal production in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

PubMed Central

Budgerigars learn their vocalizations by reference to auditory information and they retain the ability to learn new vocalizations throughout life. Auditory feedback of these vocalizations was manipulated in three experiments by training birds to produce vocalizations while wearing small earphones. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of background noise level (Lombard effect) and the effect of manipulating feedback level from self-produced vocalizations (Fletcher effect), respectively. Results show that birds exhibit both a Lombard effect and a Fletcher effect. Further analysis showed that changes in vocal intensity were accompanied by changes in call fundamental frequency and duration. Experiment 3 tested the effect of delaying or altering auditory feedback during vocal production. Results showed subsequent production of incomplete and distorted calls in both feedback conditions. These distortions included changes in the peak fundamental frequency, amplitude, duration, and spectrotemporal structure of calls. Delayed auditory feedback was most disruptive to subsequent calls when the delay was 25 ms. Longer delays resulted in fewer errors.

Osmanski, Michael S.; Dooling, Robert J.

2009-01-01

21

Contact Call-Driven Zenk Protein Induction and Habituation in Telencephalic Auditory Pathways in the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus Undulatus): Implications For Understanding Vocal Learning Processes  

PubMed Central

Expression of the immediate early gene protein Zenk (zif 268, egr-1, NGF1A, Krox24) was induced in forebrain auditory nuclei in a vocal learning parrot species, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), when the subjects either listened to playbacks of an unfamiliar contact call or to a contact call with which they had been familiarized previously. Auditory nuclei included the Field L complex (L1, L2a, and L3), the neostriatum intermedium pars ventrolateralis (NIVL), the neostriatum adjacent to caudal nucleus basalis (peri-basalis or pBas), an area in the frontal lateral neostriatum (NFl), the supracentral nucleus of the lateral neostriatum (NLs), and the ventromedial hyperstriatum ventrale (HVvm). The latter three nuclei are main sources of auditory input to the vocal system. Two patterns of nuclear staining were induced by contact call stimulation—staining throughout cell nuclei, which was exhibited by at least some neurons in all areas examined except L2a and perinucleolar staining, which was the only kind of staining exhibited in field L2a. The different patterns of Zenk staining indicate that auditory stimulation may regulate the Zenk-dependent transcription of different subsets of genes in different auditory nuclei. The numbers of neurons expressing Zenk staining increased from seven- to 43-fold over control levels when the birds listened to a repeating unfamiliar call. Familiarization of the subjects with the call stimulus, through repeated playbacks, greatly reduced the induction of Zenk expression to the call when it was presented again after an intervening 24-h interval. To determine if neurons exhibiting contact call-driven Zenk expression project to the vocal control system, call stimulation was coupled with dextran amines pathway tracing. The results indicated that tracer injections in the vocal nucleus HVo (oval nucleus of the hyperstriatum ventrale), in fields lateral to HVo and in NLs labeled many Zenk-positive neurons in HVvm, NFl, and NLs. These results support the idea that, in these neurons, egr-1 couples auditory stimulation to the synthesis of proteins involved in either the storing of new perceptual engrams for vocal learning or the processing of novel and/or meaningful acoustic stimuli related to vocal learning or the context in which it occurs.

Brauth, Steven; Liang, Wenru; Roberts, Todd F.; Scott, Lindsey L.; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.

2002-01-01

22

Comparison of the Effects of Lesions in Nucleus Basalis and Field 'L' on Vocal Learning and Performance in the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesions were placed in either nucleus basalis (Bas) or the primary thalamorecipient portion of Field 'L'(i.e. centered in Field L2a) in budgerigars at 3–5 weeks posthatching and as adults. The calls of birds sustaining Bas lesions before fledging, or as adults, were markedly abnormal in that they showed little frequency modulation and individual distinctiveness. Call durations, however, were similar for

William S. Hall; Steven E. Brauth; James T. Heaton

1994-01-01

23

Brain lesions that impair vocal imitation in adult budgerigars.  

PubMed

Vocal imitation is a complex form of imitative learning that is well developed only in humans, dolphins, and birds. Among birds, only some species are able to imitate sounds in adulthood. Of these, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) has been studied in most detail. Previous studies suggested that the vocal motor system in budgerigars receives auditory information from the lateral frontal neostriatum (NFl). In the present study, we confirm this hypothesis by showing that infusions of the GABA agonist muscimol into NFl reduce the strength of auditory responses in a telencephalic vocal motor nucleus, the central nucleus of the lateral neostriatum (NLc). To test whether the auditory information conveyed from NFl to NLc plays a role in vocal imitation, we lesioned parts of NFl and the overlying ventral hyperstriatum (HVl) in seven adult male budgerigars and then examined whether the lesioned males would imitate the calls of females with whom they were paired. We found that, compared to sham-lesioned controls, the lesioned birds were significantly impaired in their imitation of female calls. Yet, the lesioned males were clearly not deaf (e.g., their previously learned calls did not degrade as they do after deafening). Therefore, the data suggest that NFl/HVl lesions impair vocal imitation by reducing the amount of auditory information that reaches the vocal motor system. Interestingly, the females that were paired with lesioned males displayed more vocal plasticity than the females in the control group, and some even imitated their male's prepairing calls. PMID:12382268

Plummer, Thane K; Striedter, Georg F

2002-11-15

24

Differential vocalization in budgerigars: towards an experimental analysis of naming.  

PubMed Central

In Experiment 1, 3 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were trained with food reinforcement to make low- or high-frequency calls in response to different color stimuli, C1 and C2 (a color-naming task), using a gradual response-differentiation procedure and an automatic call-recognition system. Thus, a call within a certain frequency band was reinforced in the presence of C1 ("C1 call"), and a call within a different band was reinforced in the presence of C2 ("C2 call"). In Experiment 2, all 3 budgerigars were trained in a form-to-color matching-to-sample task, alternating trial by trial with either the color-naming task (2 birds) or an identity color matching-to-sample task (1 bird). Sample stimuli for the new matching-to-sample task were forms (F1 or F2) and comparisons were the same two colors (C1 and C2). Given Sample F1 or F2, birds had to make a call to produce Comparison Pair C1 and C2. With F1 as the sample, a peck on C1 was reinforced; with F2 as the sample, a peck on C2 was reinforced. Although no particular call was specified in the presence of F1 and F2, 2 birds made the C1 call in the presence of F1 and the C2 call in the presence of F2. In Experiment 3, the bird that failed to match form and color calls in Experiment 2 and another bird were first trained in a color-to-form matching-to-sample task: C1 to F3 and C2 to F4. In this task, to produce the comparison pair of forms, a high call (or low for the other bird) was required in the presence of C1, and a low call (or high) was required in the presence of C2. Both birds were then trained with an identity matching-to-sample task in which sample and comparison stimuli were the same two forms, F3 and F4. Trials on the identity task alternated with the color-to-form trials. Although no particular call was required in the presence of Samples F3 and F4, both birds came to make the C1 call in the presence of F3 and the C2 call in the presence of F4. Our technique promises to be useful for the study of emergent vocal relations in budgerigars and other animals.

Manabe, K; Kawashima, T; Staddon, J E

1995-01-01

25

Prevalence and genetic characterization of avian polyomavirus and psittacine beak and feather disease virus isolated from budgerigars in Mainland China.  

PubMed

Budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) and psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) are caused by avian polyomavirus (APV) and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), respectively. These diseases frequently infect psittacine birds and result in similar clinical manifestations. In this study, we observed the prevalence of PBFDV infection and a dual infection of APV and PBFDV in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) in Mainland China for the first time. One PBFDV isolate and two APV isolates were harvested using chicken embryos. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of the two APV isolates revealed nucleotide similarity ranging from 99.0% to 99.6% to other sequences in GenBank, and a 14-bp insertion was observed in the genome of one APV isolate. The results of complete genome analysis of the PBFDV isolate showed nucleotide similarity ranging from 83.0% to 95.0% with other PBFDV sequences in GenBank. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the APV and PBFDV strains isolated in this study indicated that the isolates from China were closely related to their Japanese counterparts. The results of this study will help to identify molecular determinants and will aid further research on the prevention and control of APV and PBFD infection. PMID:22002652

Zhuang, Qingye; Chen, Jiming; Mushtaq, Muhammad Hassan; Chen, Jie; Liu, Shuo; Hou, Guangyu; Li, Jinping; Huang, Baoxu; Jiang, Wenming

2011-10-15

26

Evaluation of selected plants for acute toxicosis in budgerigars.  

PubMed

Pairs of budgerigars were given samples, by gavage, of plants considered potentially toxic to pet birds. Samples were prepared by flash-freezing and powdering fresh plant material in liquid nitrogen and resuspending the material in deionized water for administration. Of the 19 plants tested, only 6 induced clinical signs of illness; these plants included yew, oleander, clematis, avocado, black locust, and Virginia creeper (Taxus media, Nerium oleander, Clematis sp, Persea americana, Robinia pseudoacacia, Parthenocissus quinquefolio). PMID:1577644

Shropshire, C M; Stauber, E; Arai, M

1992-04-01

27

50 CFR 15.33 - Species included in the approved list.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Forpus coelestis (blue form) Pacific parrotlet (blue form). Forpus coelestis (cinnamon form) Pacific parrotlet (cinnamon form). Melopsittacus undulatus Budgerigar. Neophema bourkii Bourke's parrot....

2009-10-01

28

Haematological findings in budgerigars with megabacterium and Trichomonas infections associated with 'going light'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen budgerigars with clinical signs of 'going light' were euthanased and examined post mortem; ingluvitis caused by Trichomonas gallinae infection was present in seven birds, proventriculitis associated with the presence of megabacteria in eight birds and in three birds both conditions were present. Haematological examinations of blood taken from the living birds showed that those with T gallinae infection had

GM Henderson; FM Gulland; CM Hawkey

1988-01-01

29

Psittacine beak and feather disease virus in budgerigars and ring-neck parakeets in South Africa.  

PubMed

Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) is a common disease of the psittacine species and is caused by the psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV). In this study the occurrence of the disease in ring-neck parakeets and budgerigars in South Africa suffering from feathering problems, using polymerase chain reaction as a diagnostic test was investigated. The genetic variation between viral isolates was also studied. Results indicate that PBFDV can be attributed to being the cause of feathering problems in some of the ring-neck parakeets and budgerigars in South Africa. Genetic variation of isolates occurs between species and individuals. A cheap and easy to use method of blood sample collection on filter paper for diagnostic purposes was also evaluated. It proved to be less stressful to the birds and did not inhibit further processes. PMID:15185572

Albertyn, J; Tajbhai, K M; Bragg, R R

2004-03-01

30

Characterization of a calcium binding domain in the VP1 protein of the avian polyomavirus, budgerigar fledgling disease virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium ions appear to play a major role in maintaining the structural integrity and assembly of papovavirus virions and are likely involved in the process of viral uncoating. Recently it was reported that the purified recombinant VP1 protein of budgerigar fledgling disease virus (BFDV) was capable of assembling into capsid-like particles in the presence of calcium. It is now reported

Rebecca E. D. Rodgers; Richard A. Consigli

1996-01-01

31

Detection thresholds for amplitude modulations of tones in budgerigar, rabbit, and human.  

PubMed

Envelope fluctuations of complex sounds carry information that is -essential for many types of discrimination and for detection in noise. To study the neural representation of envelope information and mechanisms for processing of this temporal aspect of sounds, it is useful to identify an animal model that can -sensitively detect amplitude modulations (AM). Low modulation frequencies, which dominate speech sounds, are of particular interest. Yet, most animal -models studied previously are relatively insensitive to AM at low modulation -frequencies. Rabbits have high thresholds for low-frequency modulations, -especially for tone carriers. Rhesus macaques are less sensitive than humans to low-frequency -modulations of wideband noise (O'Conner et al. Hear Res 277, 37-43, 2011). Rats and -chinchilla also have higher thresholds than humans for amplitude -modulations of noise (Kelly et al. J Comp Psychol 120, 98-105, 2006; Henderson et al. J Acoust Soc Am 75, -1177-1183, 1984). In contrast, the budgerigar has thresholds for AM detection of wideband noise similar to those of human listeners at low -modulation frequencies (Dooling and Searcy. Percept Psychophys 46, 65-71, 1981). A -one-interval, two-alternative operant conditioning procedure was used to estimate AM -detection thresholds for 4-kHz tone carriers at low modulation -frequencies (4-256 Hz). Budgerigar thresholds are comparable to those of human subjects in a comparable task. Implications of these comparative results for temporal coding of complex sounds are discussed. Comparative results for masked AM detection are also presented. PMID:23716245

Carney, Laurel H; Ketterer, Angela D; Abrams, Kristina S; Schwarz, Douglas M; Idrobo, Fabio

2013-01-01

32

Duplex shuttle PCR for differential diagnosis of budgerigar fledgling disease and psittacine beak and feather disease.  

PubMed

Two common viral diseases in psittacine birds including budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD), generally called avian polyomavirus (APV) infection, and psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) have similar clinical manifestations characterized by feather disorders. A duplex shuttle PCR was developed for detection of APV and PBFD virus (PBFDV). Two pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify a 298-bp fragment of the t/T antigen region of APV genome and a 495-bp fragment of the capsid protein region encoded by open reading frame (ORF) C1 of PBFDV genome, respectively. In the present study, APV and PBFDV were detected simultaneously in one tube by duplex shuttle PCR using these two pairs of primers. The detection limits were 2 viral copies of APV and 3 viral copies of PBFDV. In the clinical application, we detected 16 APV-positive, 15 PBFDV-positive, and 3 mixed infected samples in 39 samples examined. Sequences of the amplified products were read. The t/T antigen region was conserved in the APV-positive samples as expected. ORF C1 of PBFDV genome showed diversity. Phylogenic analysis indicated that PBFDV ORF C1 consisted of 6 clusters which were related to subfamilies of psittacine birds. Our duplex shuttle PCR could be a useful method for differential diagnosis and molecular epidemiology of BFD and PBFD. PMID:15781996

Ogawa, Hirohito; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Fukushi, Hideto

2005-01-01

33

Detection and discrimination of natural calls in masking noise by birds: estimating the active space of a signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the ability of birds to detect and discriminate natural vocal signals in the presence of masking noise using operant conditioning. Masked thresholds were measured for budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, and zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, on natural contact calls of budgerigars, zebra finches and canaries, Serinus canaria. Thresholds increased with increasing call bandwidth, the presence of amplitude modulation and high

Bernard Lohr; Timothy F. Wright; Robert J. Dooling

2003-01-01

34

Comparative Gene Expression Analysis Among Vocal Learners (Bengalese Finch and Budgerigar) and Non-Learners (Quail and Ring Dove) Reveals Variable Cadherin Expressions in the Vocal System  

PubMed Central

Birds use various vocalizations to communicate with one another, and some are acquired through learning. So far, three families of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds) have been identified as having vocal learning ability. Previously, we found that cadherins, a large family of cell-adhesion molecules, show vocal control-area-related expression in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. To investigate the molecular basis of evolution in avian species, we conducted comparative analysis of cadherin expressions in the vocal and other neural systems among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and a non-learner (quail and ring dove). The gene expression analysis revealed that cadherin expressions were more variable in vocal and auditory areas compared to vocally unrelated areas such as the visual areas among these species. Thus, it appears that such diverse cadherin expressions might have been related to generating species diversity in vocal behavior during the evolution of avian vocal learning.

Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

2010-01-01

35

Experimental induction of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses using Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts from the opossum ( Didelphis virginiana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts isolated from eight feral opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were pooled and fed to 18 commercially reared budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 14 wild-caught sparrows (Passer domesticus), one wild-caught slate-colored Junco (Junco hyemalis) and five weanling horses (Equus caballus). All budgerigars died within 5 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Histologic examination revealed meronts within the pulmonary epithelia and typical Sarcocystis falcatula sarcocysts

Clara K. Fenger; David E. Granstrom; Alvin A. Gajadhar; Neil M. Williams; Shani A. McCrillis; Shelby Stamper; John L. Langemeier; J. P. Dubey

1997-01-01

36

The First Full-Length Endogenous Hepadnaviruses: Identification and Analysis  

PubMed Central

In silico screening of metazoan genome data identified multiple endogenous hepadnaviral elements in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) genome, most notably two elements comprising about 1.3× and 1.0× the full-length genome. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses show that endogenous budgerigar hepatitis B viruses (eBHBV) share an ancestor with extant avihepadnaviruses and infiltrated the budgerigar genome millions of years ago. Identification of full-length genomes with preserved key features like ? signals could enable resurrection of ancient BHBV.

Liu, Wei; Pan, Shaokun; Yang, Huijuan; Bai, Weiya; Shen, Zhongliang

2012-01-01

37

Invasive Birds in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of exotic birds has been increasing throughout the world. We conducted inquiry investigations in order to reveal the spread of introduced bird species in Japan. Forty-three exotic species are known to breed or are regarded as breeding. The Feral Pigeon (Columba livia), Chinese Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Red Avadavat (Amandava amandava)

Kazuhiro EGUCHI; Hitoha E. AMANO

2004-01-01

38

Land Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent literature in development economics has focused renewed attention on land redistribution. Driven in part by political events in countries like Zimbabwe, the literature has sought to understand the economic implications of land reform. Much of this literature focuses on credit market imperfections and the role of land as collateral. Redistribution of land allows poor farmers to borrow, invest,

Douglas Gollin

2004-01-01

39

Circumpolar Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a previous letter* I have endeavoured to show that the land surrounding the North Pole is rising in a continuous and definite area. I find that what I there said about the land north of America is very scanty and unsatisfactory, and before proceeding to the next part of my subject, I wish to strengthen it somewhat. Speaking of

H. H. HOWORTH H. H

1872-01-01

40

Land Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Land Institute is devoted to researching sustainable agriculture. This site contains archives of present and past research activities along with down-loadable publications for use by scientists or the general public.

2008-12-02

41

State Land Resources and Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: State government organization for state land administration; Source of state land and agency authority; State land ownership; Revenues from state land use; Policies applicable to state lands.

M. A. Pearl E. E. Hughes J. M. McDonald

1970-01-01

42

Arable Lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Three different, state-of-the-art biogeochemical models are adapted in order to quantify the carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) exchanges between arable lands and the atmosphere. Biome-BGC and MOD17 are validated using the long-term measurement results\\u000a from Hegyhátsál tall tower site (Western Hungary). After a simple bias correction, it was found that Biome-BGC is capable\\u000a to describe the

Balázs Grosz; Györgyi Gelybó; Galina Churkina; László Haszpra; Dóra Hidy; László Horváth; Anikó Kern; Natascha Kljun; Attila Machon; László Pásztor; Zoltán Barcza

43

Land subsidence  

SciTech Connect

The most important of man's activities that cause land subsidence in the US include (1) subsurface mining of both metals and nonmetals, but mostly coal, (2) withdrawal of both ground water and petroleum from unconsolidated sediment, (3) drainage of peat and muck soils, (4) ground-water withdrawal from limestone, (5) solution mining, and (6) surface application of water to undercompacted sediments. Examples of subsidence from each of these activities are cited, giving estimates of the extent of the problem and the predicted cost of correction. To comprehensively address the Nation's subsidence problem four aspects must be considered: prediction, control, hazard avoidance, and a more equitable system of cost distribution. These are briefly discussed.

Holzer, T.L.

1986-01-01

44

Rainfall and Land Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of the notion ‘land’ and its scale features leads to many different definitions of land and land degradation.\\u000a Among the components of land degradation are desertification, soil degradation and erosion. There is a wealth of literature\\u000a claiming that land degradation is serious. These so-called doom papers are based on ‘hard’ facts from remote sensing, computer\\u000a models and measurements.

Leo Stroosnijder

2007-01-01

45

Bureau of Land Management: Public Land Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) manages over 264 million acres of public land, most of which is located in the western United States. The BLM works diligently to get information on these lands out to a variety of stakeholders, including other government agencies, private landowners, and other organizations. This website brings together the BLM's formal land statistics and reports. Visitors can view the complete reports dating from the present year all the way back to 1996, and they are also encouraged to look over the site's other sections. As these reports are quite lengthy, the other sections may be a bit more useful as they break out the reports' statistics into themes like Healthy Lands, Commercial Uses, Recreation, and Natural and Cultural. These separate themes contain tables like "Estimated Recreational Use of Public Lands Administered by the BLM" and "National Historic and Scenic Trails."

2012-03-09

46

Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the detected obstacles we select a safe landing zone for the UAV. The motion and structure detection uses background estimation of stabilized video. The background variation is measured and used to enhance the moving objects if necessary. In the motion and structure map a distance transform is calculated to find a suitable location for landing.

Eendebak, P. T.; van Eekeren, A. W. M.; den Hollander, R. J. M.

2013-05-01

47

Public Lands: Hidden Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is about American public lands including parks, monuments, refuges, wilderness areas, underground mineral reserves, marine sanctuaries, historic and scenic trails, forests, and seashores. Throughout this lesson, students will explore and share with others the hidden histories and stories of these lands about wildlife, cultures, governments, and people who have lived on, enjoyed, protected, or influenced them. Students will identify the economic, scientific, recreational, and spiritual values of public lands; interpret Native American quotes that demonstrate the unique relationship between Native Americans and the land; identify important historic facts about select public lands; and develop a creative way to share information with others about a select public land.

48

Lands and natural resources  

SciTech Connect

The Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals decided a surprisingly small number of controversies involving lands and natural resources during the time period covered by the Tenth Annual Tenth Circuit Survey. The subject matter of the few land and resource decisions was also limited. Whereas in recent years the court has considered a wide variety of resource and land issues, the past year is distinguished by its lack of variety. Of the eight land and resource decisions published by the court, six concerned public lands, one involved Indian lands, and one resolved an environmental law question. This survey highlights the issues resolved in each of these cases.

Crane, J.

1984-01-01

49

Land-Breeze Forecasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability...

J. L. Case M. M. Wheeler

2002-01-01

50

Grenada: Land Tenure Situation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report has the following major objectives: 1) To provide USAID (and its partners) with a more in-depth understanding of how land tenure and land administration issues will impede successful implementation of housing reconstruction and construction in...

R. Gomez

2005-01-01

51

Alaska Natives & the Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

52

Land reform in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper begins with an ethical case for land redistribution in Zimbabwe, based on principles of social justice and equity, drawing from a brief history of land in Zimbabwe from the first European expulsions up to independence. Both the moral and economic arguments for land redistribution are widely and fiercely contested. The paper considers and rejects two specific criticisms of

Neil H Thomas

2003-01-01

53

Land and World Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

1982-01-01

54

Regulating Controversial Land Uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the definition of what may constitute a controversial land use differs from community to community, the bottom line is that land use controls have been attempting to regulate these uses since the advent of zoning (and through nuisance law before that). When regulating many types of controversial land uses, constitutional issues may come into play and federal and state

Patricia E. Salkin

2011-01-01

55

State of the Land.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Americas Private Land, A Geography of Hope is a call to action - a call to renew our national commitment to Americas private land and private landowners. In 1935, this Nation made an historic commitment to the stewardship of private land in the Soil Conse...

2000-01-01

56

Land and World Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications…

Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

1982-01-01

57

Land Use Plan, Brentwood, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains written and mapped recommendations for future land use based upon survey and analysis of land use, land capability, and area economic-demographic projections fitted within a framework of local community development objectives and land ...

1972-01-01

58

National land cover dataset  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2000-01-01

59

Land Tenure Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1962, the Land Tenure Center (LTC) is perhaps one of the most well-regarded university-based institutions to deal specifically with land policy across the world. Essentially, the LTC "serves as a global resource institution on issues relating to land ownership, land rights, land access, and land use." The LTC is also highly regarded for its interdisciplinary research approach which places a premium on working collaboratively with host-country institutions and individuals in the areas of policy analysis, research, and training. On the organization's site, visitors can learn about their various ongoing research programs, its staff members and affiliates, and the lectures and events it sponsors. Of course, the publications area is quite strong, and all documents created since 1996 are available online. These papers include such titles as "Patterns of Tenure Insecurity in Guyana" and "Indigenous Land and Community Security: A (Radical) Planning Agenda."

60

Land Treatment Digital Library  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A dynamic system to enter, store, retrieve, and analyze Federal land-treatment data. More information and access to data available at: http://greatbasin.wr.usgs.gov/ltdl Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

Pilliod, David

2009-01-01

61

Land Plants Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In response to a growing interest regarding evolutionary relationships of green plants in recent years, Dan Nickrent and Karen Renzaglia--of Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC)--developed Land Plants Online (LPO). LPO was also designed to provide researchers and students with a centralized source for new information resulting from technological advancements in the field. LPO's stated goal "is to bring together, from a variety of disciplines, the available information on evolutionary relationships in land plants including their most likely outgroup, charophycean algae." The heart of LPO is the Phylum Pages, which are organized by Non Vascular plants (Bryophytes), and Vascular Plants (Tracheophytes). The site also includes sections for Phylogenetic Relationships among Land Plants, and Character Matrices for Land Plants. In addition, site visitors will find a collection of general references for basal land plants, contact information for plant specialists, information on SIUC land plant research, and related links.

Nickrent, Daniel L.; Renzaglia, Karen S.

2007-09-04

62

Landing the Rover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this team design challenge (page 19-24 of PDF), learners "land" a model Lunar Rover in a model Landing Pod (both previously built in activities #3 and #4 in PDF). Learners drop the pods containing the rovers from a prescribed height and record their observations. Learners improve (re-design and re-build) their Landing Pods based on their observations from the first drop.

Administration, National A.

2013-01-30

63

Lunar Landing Research Vehicle  

NASA Video Gallery

The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first glance it seemed that a helicopter could be used to simulate flying the LM, but early test flights proved that it was not even close. Helicopters, or any vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, are

Marty Curry

2010-05-11

64

State of the Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent new site, from the US Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service, "provides data on land use and change, soil erosion and soil quality, water quality, wetlands, and other issues regarding the conservation and use of natural resources on non-Federal land in the United States." The site is searchable by keyword and is organized into five main sections: People on the Land; Analysis Maps & Publications; Water Quality, Wetlands; Cropping, Grazing Land; and NRCS National Conservation Priorities. Each main section offers further information on that topic, and hyperlinks take readers to related sites.

65

Competition for land  

PubMed Central

A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future.

Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlik, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

2010-01-01

66

Land Tenure, Agrarian Structure, and Comparative Land Use Efficiency in Zimbabwe: Options for Land Tenure Reform and Land Redistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zimbabwe reached a crucial crossroads in its land reform with the expiration of the Lancaster House Constitution in April 1990, which opened the door for policy debate on alternative land-redistribution options. Proponents of the land reform have aggressively called for an expansion of the resettlement program to help redress the unequal distribution of land resources and to rectify acute land

Michael J. Roth; John W. Bruce

1994-01-01

67

Land reform in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newly?elected South African government began in 1994 to make laws and implement a programme for land reform. It consisted of three dimensions: redistribution (transferring white?owned commercial farm land to African users); restitution (settling claims for land lost under apartheid measures by restoration of holdings or compensation); and land tenure reform (to provide more secure access to land in the

Lionel Cliffe

2000-01-01

68

Scaling the land use system  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use\\/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity through deforestation or soil degradation through unsustainable land use, increasing importance is given to the

K. Kok

2001-01-01

69

THE LAND MONITOR PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Monitor Project is providing information over the southwest agricultural region of WA. It is assembling and processing sequences of Landsat TM data, a new high- resolution digital elevation model (DEM) and other spatial data to provide monitoring information on the area of salt-affected land, and on changes in the area and status of perennial vegetation over the period

Peter Caccetta; Adrian Allen; Ian Watson; Brian Beetson; Graeme Behn; Norm Campbell; Peter Eddy; Fiona Evans; Suzanne Furby; Harri Kiiveri; Geoff Mauger; Don McFarlane; Jerome Goh; Colin Pearce; Richard Smith; Jeremy Wallace; Ray Wallis

70

Tims Ford Land Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tims Ford Analysis was developed to aid TVA and the Tennessee Elk River Development Agency in making land use and land management decisions. Spatially located data were used to identify sensitive resource areas and to provide a basis for site specific...

E. E. Howard

1975-01-01

71

Land reform in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is widespread agreement on the need for land reform in Zimbabwe as a means of reducing poverty. This paper assesses the potential consequences of a land-reform scheme that draws on proposals from Zimbabwe's government in 1998 and 1999. The authors analyze the impact of the reform on resettled farm households and as a development project for which they conduct

Anne-Sophie Robilliard; Chrispen Sukume; Yukitsugu Yanoma; Hans Löfgren

2001-01-01

72

The Common Land Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Land Model (CLM) was developed for community use by a grassroots collaboration of scientists who have an interest in making a general land model available for public use and further development. The major model characteristics include enough unevenly spaced layers to adequately represent soil temperature and soil moisture, and a multilayer parameterization of snow processes; an explicit treatment

Yongjiu Dai; Xubin Zeng; Robert E. Dickinson; Ian Baker; Gordon B. Bonan; Michael G. Bosilovich; A. Scott Denning; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Guoyue Niu; Keith W. Oleson; C. Adam Schlosser; Zong-Liang Yang

2003-01-01

73

All That Unplowed Land  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)|

MOSAIC, 1975

1975-01-01

74

Land Cover Trends Project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

Acevedo, William

2006-01-01

75

Yankee Lands: A Land Use Curriculum Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to issues surrounding the acquisition and planning of Pisgah State Park, New Hampshire, the Antioch/New England Graduate School has produced this set of activities related to land use decisions. Contained are learning experiences designed to help students appreciate New England's natural and cultural history in order to encourage a…

Antioch/New England Graduate School, Keene, NH.

76

Setting Priorities for Land Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, Congress must decide how much money should be appropriated for the acquisition of public lands under the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF). Four federal agencies are responsible for most of the federal government's land acquisition: the B...

1993-01-01

77

Depicting Coastal Louisiana Land Loss  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Coastal Louisiana Land Loss map depicts historical (1932-2000) changes of land to water and water to land, as well as projected changes (2000-2050). Projections are based on the assumption of no future restoration.

Smith, Gregory J.

2005-01-01

78

The White Promised Land  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describing Bolivia's interest in encouraging Caucasian immigrants from South Africa, for purposes of settling and developing traditionally Indian lands, this article details the miserable conditions of slavery and cultural/physical genocide currently operative in Bolivia. (JC)|

Lewis, Norman

1978-01-01

79

X-15 Landing  

NASA Video Gallery

1960s X-15 landing. Three X-15s made 199 flights during a research program which lasted from 1960 through 1968. It was a daring, yet highly successful program that resulted in hundreds of technical reports.

Marty Curry

2010-05-12

80

Climate and Land Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On the occasion of the Seventh session of the Conference of Parties, The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has prepared this brochure which explains the role of different climatic factors in land degradation and WMO's contribution in addressing this important subject.

2005-01-01

81

Alaska's Land-1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1974 annual report reviews the Commission's activities. A statewide Resources inventory of Alaska was completed and the Commission's structure was reorganized to better develop policies on anticipated land use planning issues.

1975-01-01

82

LAND USE LAND COVER (LULC) - US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Mapping Program, a component of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), produces and distributes land use and land cover maps and digitized data for the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii. Land use refers to the human activities that are directly related to the land. The int...

83

Communication Across Random Landings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea to do this project began with a simple question: Suppose that people carrying communication radios parachute out of a plane, if each device has a certain range, what is the probability that once everyone lands they will be able to communicate. To study this problem I assumed that the spot where each individual lands is normally distributed.\\u000aWe

Kerron Joseph; Jay Walbran

2009-01-01

84

A Land Worth Loving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the BBC Nature Web site, comes the A Land Worth Loving page. The site has several interactive activities related to energy conservation and recycling including the virtual energy house. Here users get to choose energy saving items to see the resulting gains to the homeowner and the environment. The site also explains recycling and sustainable living and even offers a "green" quiz and a free downloadable "A Land Worth Living" poster.

2002-01-01

85

Major Land Resource Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map from the US Department of Agriculture displays US land use areas by color. Clicking on a region of the map takes you to a page featuring a blown-up map and a paragraph describing the major land use of the area (e.g., agriculture, residential, industrial, etc.). From there, you can also access regional elevation, climate, water, and soil information.

2000-01-01

86

Hands On The Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hands On The Land (HOL) is a national network of field classrooms linking students, teachers, and parents to their public lands. Through the HOL network, Federal agencies are providing a diverse array of hands-on learning opportunities for teachers and students. In addition to the field activities at each site, teachers and students are learning from each other through the HOL website, which allows teachers and students to share information and learn about their local ecosystems.

87

Aircraft landing using GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

Lawrence, David Gary

88

Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

2012-09-01

89

The land assembly problem revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

As in the standard land assembly problem, a developer wants to buy two adjacent blocks of land belonging to two different owners. The value of the two blocks of land to the developer is greater than the sum of the individual values of the blocks for each owner. Unlike the land assembly literature, however, our focus is on the incentive

Flavio Menezes; Rohan Pitchford

2004-01-01

90

The land potential knowledge system (LandPKS): Increasing land productivity and resilience  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Africa must significantly increase agricultural production to meet the needs of a growing population. Current efforts focus on intensifying production on currently used lands and expanding to un- or under-utilized lands. The success of both strategies requires understanding the land’s potential prod...

91

Anticipating land surface change.  

PubMed

The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify "near misses," close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management. PMID:23530230

Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J

2013-03-25

92

Land-use Leakage  

SciTech Connect

Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

2009-12-01

93

Energy and land use  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

Not Available

1981-12-01

94

Anticipating land surface change  

PubMed Central

The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify “near misses,” close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management.

Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

95

Land Surveyor Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of Land Surveyor Reference Page Web site is "to provide reference materials that are useful in the practice of Land Surveying and to promote communication within the surveying community globally." Funded by the Huntington Technology Group, the site is periodically updated to include the latest information on state rules, regulations and statutes, federal government data sources, maps, articles of interest, college and university programs, meetings and conventions, as well as links to professional organizations, land surveying message boards, and much more. While obviously helpful to the surveying professional, the site also should appeal to researchers and others doing work that involves surveying; providing them with helpful and up-to-date information.

1995-01-01

96

LichenLand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LichenLand offers a way to learn about lichen biology and taxonomy that's much more engaging than leafing through a textbook. This Web site, provided by Oregon State University, offers a number of features to help students become familiar with the subject. First-time users should visit LichenLand Lite for a quick introduction to lichens and instructions for using the Web site. LichenLand Main Door contains an illustrated set of characters that can be queried with simple drop-down menus. Query results yield a list of lichens that exhibit the characters selected, with information and photos for each species. The Web site could complement related coursework for a range of grade levels.

97

Public Lands: Preserve or Develop?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces students to the various ways that public lands are valued, used, and managed in the United States. Students will compare and contrast different types of public lands, then simulate the decision-making and communication involved in converting private land to public land, taking into consideration the location, terrain, and climate of the land, as well as the needs and desires of residents of the region. Students will imagine that they are able to bequeath a parcel of land to their state for public use, then create an argument for the best use of the property.

98

Land subsidence session  

Microsoft Academic Search

A session on land subsidence caused by withdrawal of groundwater was held December 10, 1985, in San Francisco, Calif., at the AGU Fall Meeting. The symposium was organized by William E. Strange (National Geodetic Survey, Rockville, Md.) and Thomas L. Holzer (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, Calif.) and was cosponsored by the AGU Geodesy and Hydrology sections. Nine papers

Thomas L. Holzer

1986-01-01

99

Lab 3: Land Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first part of this lab, students learn about land ice and the processes and timescales involved in glaciation. In Part B, they use an online interactive to explore how glaciers provide scientists with evidence for climate change. Finally, students use image processing software to measure how much area a real glacier has lost over time due to rising temperatures.

100

Understanding Our Environment: Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

101

Understanding Our Environment: Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

102

Living off the Land  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the classroom walls. Its inhabitants date back to the first hunting and gathering settlers--the…

Dickerson, Peg; Gamberg, Maryellen

2010-01-01

103

Biofuel on contaminated land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation \\/ removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and

Pascal Suer; Yvonne Andersson-Sköld; Sonja Blom; Paul Bardos; Marcel Polland; Thomas Track

2010-01-01

104

Living off the Land  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the classroom walls. Its inhabitants date back to the first hunting and gathering settlers--the…

Dickerson, Peg; Gamberg, Maryellen

2010-01-01

105

Land Use and Nitrogen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students explore the impacts of concentrated development and sprawl on water quality and land use. The concept of a watershed is introduced, along with information on basins and tributaries and the impacts of growth and nitrogen loading. The students are able to develop a plan to reduce nitrogen runoff to a targeted level. Several handouts and maps are included.

106

Aquarius Land Use Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statement identifies and evaluates the probable effects of implementing the proposed land use plan and alternative to this plan for the Aquarius Planning Unit, Dixie National Forest, Utah. The Planning Unit covers an area of 252,000 acres of National ...

1973-01-01

107

EnviroLand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This software package contains several Visual Basic simulations of wet laboratory experiments for environmental chemistry (i.e. alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, etc.), a theoretical calculation/simulator (pC-pH diagram), and seven pollutant fate and transport simulators. EnviroLand only works on PC machines. Zipped file size: 12 Mb

Dunnivant, Frank

2008-02-20

108

Farmers Land Cooperatives Mechanism of Land Compensation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the comparison of different forms of land compensation in China. A comprehensive analysis based on questionnaire surveys and case studies points out that the current compensation approach, lump sum payments is inefficient for its underestimate of benefits that land conveyed to farmers, which results in its inabilities in securing land-loss farmers' long-term living. To solve this

Xuefeng Pan

2010-01-01

109

By Land, Sea or Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn that navigational techniques change when people travel to different places â land, sea, air and space. For example, an explorer traveling by land uses different navigation methods and tools than a sailor or an astronaut.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

110

STS-135 Landing: Runway Remarks  

NASA Video Gallery

The STS-135 astronauts get a close-up look at space shuttle Atlantis, hear from NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and speak to assembled employees, guests and media after landing at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility.

KSC Web Team

2011-07-22

111

Public Domain and State Lands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Historical background of land acquisition, management, disposal programs, and policies; Existing land use, types of holdings, lease arrangements, etc.; Timber, agriculture, grazing capacities, revenues, policies and regulations, and management o...

W. O. Jordan

1966-01-01

112

The NASA Land-Cover/Land-Use Change Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of changes in land cover and land use is emerging as a major focus of global change research. The research is aimed at determining the drivers and processes of land cover change, understanding the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of land use change and providing an assessment of future land use change. Recognizing that satellite remote sensing provides a unique means for mapping and monitoring land cover change, NASA includes a Land-Cover and Land-Use Change (LCLUC) program as an essential element of the Earth Science Enterprise. The NASA satellite systems provide improved tools for the multi-scale monitoring of land-cover change. MODIS instrument provides moderate resolution data in many spectral bands for mapping land cover and snow, and detection and monitoring of fires. Landsat 7 provides high resolution global coverage of the Earth's changing biosphere. The commercial hyper-spatial resolution Ikonos sensor provides information for land-cover characterization on a local scale, assisting in identifying features unresolved by MODIS and Landsat-7. The exploratory mission EO-1 with the imaging spectrometer Hyperion onboard provides new potential for repeated observations and spectrometry analysis of various areas of the globe. This talk will provide examples of how the new data are being used for tackling the science questions formulated in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise strategic plan: 1) what changes are occurring in global land cover and land use, and what are their causes? and 2) what are the consequences of land-cover and land-use change for human societies and the sustainability of ecosystems?

Gutman, G.

113

Agriculture in Gloria Land.  

PubMed

A farming system has been developed on the Gloria Land farm at the Sri Aurobindo Ashram that uses purely organic materials and achieves yields comparable with or better than those on conventional farms under similar agroclimatic conditions. The stimulus for the conversion to organic farming came from observations of the toxicity of chemical pesticides and their apparent ineffectiveness in reducing the impact of pests and diseases. On the Gloria Land farm, a carefully integrated mixture of activities includes crop growing, animal husbandry, fish rearing and sericulture. Sufficient organic waste is produced to fulfill at the needs of the farm's crops. Energy is partially supplied by biogas produced on the farm. This system is economically viable and ecologically sustainable. PMID:8149819

Pal, M

1993-01-01

114

Dyersburg Land Use Plan Report 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains an introduction to land use data application; a projection of land use data and quantities, together with a comparison of projected and estimated future land use requirements; supporting analysis, and the recommended land use plan. (Au...

1969-01-01

115

33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...landings. (a) Sufficient personnel landings shall be provided...to special construction personnel landings are not feasible, then suitable transfer facilities to provide...installed. (b) The personnel landings shall be...

2013-07-01

116

Chlorophyta on Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Familiar examples of green algae (Chlorophyta) on land include those that participate in symbiotic associations with fungi,\\u000a forming lichens (e.g., Coccomyxa, Myrmecia, Stichococcus, Trebouxia, Ahmadjian, 1958; Friedl, 1997), and taxa that grow richly on natural and man-made surfaces or on leaves of citrus and magnolia\\u000a trees (e.g., Prasiola, Trentepohlia, Cephaleuros, Rindi and Guiry, 2004; Rindi et al., 2005). Besides these

Louise A. Lewis

117

Settling in New Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You and your group are explorers out to start a settlement in new land. Third Grade Social Studies Standard 1 Students will understand how geography influences community location and development. Objective 1 Determine the relationships between human settlement and geography. Identify the geographic features common to areas where human settlements exist. a. Use map features to make logical inferences and describe relationships between human settlement and physical ...

Mgubler

2009-11-18

118

Alaska: the great land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alaska, ''The Great Land,'' is in the early stage of its oil potential. Only 0.01% (50,000 acres) of its total acreage have been proven productive. Yet oil and gas production has increased several hundredfold since 1958. Proved oil reserves are about 1 billion bbl and proved gas reserves about 4-1\\/2 trillion cu ft. Economic return on Alaskan oil exploitation activities

1968-01-01

119

CSIRO Land and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSIRO Land and Water is an Australian research organization working with government and industry to solve some of Australia's environmental challenges. The Current Issues section of this Web siteoffers some understanding of the resource management and ecosystem issues facing Australia, including agricultural and aquatic ecosystem issues. The site also offers an Image Gallery containing almost 1,200 downloadable images that visitors can browse by category or search by keyword.

2001-01-01

120

Modeling land-use change  

SciTech Connect

Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

NONE

1995-12-31

121

Land Use and Land Cover Analysis in Indian Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on land use/land cover in the form of maps and statistical data is very vital for spatial planning, management and utilization of land. Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) scenario in India has undergone a radical change since the onset of economic revolution in early 1990s. These changes involve a series of complex interaction between biophysical and socioeconomic variables. LULC follows a set of scientific themes which includes detection and monitoring, carbon and biogeochemical cycle, ecosystems and biodiversity, water and energy cycle, predictive land use modeling and climate variability and change. With the changing times and increasing demand on the availability of information on land use/land cover, it becomes necessary to have a standard classification system, precise definition of land use/land cover and its categories, uniform procedures of data collection and mapping on different scales over Indian region. The current review thus attempts to focus on development of a national goal towards changes in LULC as a necessary step for an interdisciplinary research program involving climate, ecological and socioeconomic drives, the processes of change and the responses and consequences of change.

Roy, P. S.; Giriraj, A.

122

Forum on land use and land Cover: Summary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report includes the agenda and abstracts of presentations from the Forum on Land Use and Land Cover Data, cohosted by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), February 25-27,1992 at the USGS National Center in Reston, Virginia. The Forum was conducted under the auspices of the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and was attended by Federal and State managers of programs that produce and use land use and land cover maps and data in support of environmental analysis, monitoring, and policy development. The goal was to improve opportunities for Federal and State coordination, information exchange, data sharing, and work sharing in land use and land cover mapping.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Geological Survey

1992-01-01

123

Camera for landing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the Enhanced Video System (EVS) camera, built by OPGAL as subcontractor of Kollsman Inc. The EVS contains a Head up Display built by Honeywell, a special design camera for landing applications, and the external window installed on the plane together with the electronic control box built by Kollsman. The special design camera for lending applications is the subject of this paper. The entire system was installed on a Gulfstream V plane and passed the FAA proof of concept during August and September 2000.

Grimberg, Ernest

2001-08-01

124

Zona Land: Wave Adder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is an interactive Java simulation that models the addition and subtraction of waves. You can set amplitude, frequency, and phase shift of two waves, then push the "Add" button to see the wave addition on a coordinate plane. The student may select either addition or subtraction and may opt for either sine or cosine functions. These buttons are at the lower left (their text is hard to see). SEE RELATED ITEMS ON THIS PAGE for a link to the full set of Zona Land Waves tutorials.

Zobel, Edward

2009-03-22

125

Food Calories and Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity is on the rise in the United States, due primarily to the size and composition of the American diet. Discussion topics include lack of exercise, changes in calorie intake over time, and environmental impacts of these increases in consumption. Each student will particpate in an activity in which they investigate how their own diets affect the agricultural demands of a hypothetical country. They will record their calorie intake, categorize the calories as coming from either plants or animals, and estimate the amount of land that is needed to provide their daily intake. Links to related sites are provided.

Pratte, John

126

Land subsidence session  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A session on land subsidence caused by withdrawal of groundwater was held December 10, 1985, in San Francisco, Calif., at the AGU Fall Meeting. The symposium was organized by William E. Strange (National Geodetic Survey, Rockville, Md.) and Thomas L. Holzer (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Menlo Park, Calif.) and was cosponsored by the AGU Geodesy and Hydrology sections. Nine papers were presented on topics that ranged from evaluations of the suitability of the new satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) to theoretical analyses of land subsidence.T. N. Narasimhan (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, Berkeley, Calif.) introduced the general subject of subsidence with a review of relevant physical processes. Compaction, although conceptually simple, involves several complexities, including plastic deformation and translation of deep-seated deformation through the overburden. Sashi Mathur (Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Tex.), in a paper coauthored with M. Yavuz Corapcioglu (City College of New York, New York), analyzed deformation in the unsaturated zone above a falling water table. Their theoretical formulation was able to reproduce results from laboratory studies of sand columns.

Holzer, Thomas L.

127

Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball  

PubMed Central

The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (?2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions.

Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

2013-01-01

128

Introduction to Land Mines and the Land Mine Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 60 years land mines have become a ubiquitous weapon. Ease of employment, cost, and effectiveness of the land mine has resulted in its widespread use both in a classic military sense and as a tool for harassment of both combatants and non-combatants. The result of this is a devastating humanitarian problem worldwide. Current estimates of casualties resulting

Thomas W. Altshuler

2004-01-01

129

The land-cover cascade: relationships coupling land and water.  

PubMed

We introduce the land-cover cascade (LCC) as a conceptual framework to quantify the transfer of land-cover-disturbance effects to stream biota. We hypothesize that disturbance is propagated through multivariate systems through key variables that transform a disturbance and pass a reorganized disturbance effect to the next hierarchical level where the process repeats until ultimately affecting biota. We measured 31 hydrologic, geomorphic, erosional, and substrate variables and 26 biotic responses that have been associated with land-use disturbance in third- and fourth-order streams in the Blue Ridge physiographic province in western North Carolina (USA). Regression analyses reduced this set of variables to include only those that responded to land cover and/or affected biota. From this reduced variable set, hypotheses were generated that predicted the disturbance pathways affecting each biotic response following the land-cover-cascade design. Cascade pathways began with land cover and ended with biotic responses, passing through at least one intermediate ecosystem abiotic component. Cascade models were tested for predictive ability and goodness-of-fit using path analysis. Biota were influenced by near-stream urban, agricultural, and forest land cover as propagated by hydrologic (e.g., discharge), geomorphic (e.g., stream bank height), erosional (e.g., suspended sediments), and depositional streambed (e.g., substrate size) features occurring along LCC pathways, reflecting abiotic mechanisms mediating land-cover disturbance. Our results suggest that communities are influenced by land-cover change indirectly through a hierarchy of associated abiotic components that propagate disturbance to biota. More generally, the land-cover cascade concept and experimental framework demonstrate an organized approach to the generic study of cascades and the complex relationships between landscapes and streams. PMID:17489471

Burcher, C L; Valett, H M; Benfield, E F

2007-01-01

130

Language of the Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using maps and photographs from the collections of the Library of Congress (LOC), this exhibition documents the connections between America's geography and its literature. The exhibit was inspired by LOC's collection of literary maps, and it begins with several of these accompanied by quotations, such as Gertrude Stein's observation, "In the United States there is more space where nobody is than where anybody is. That is what makes America what it is." The remainder of the exhibition consists of four regional sections, Northeast, South, Midwest (featuring an opening quote from Jack Kerouac and a drawing that looks like Laura from Little House on the Prairie), and West. To make requesting reproductions easy, negative numbers and call numbers are included for all items, as well as ordering information for the exhibition's companion book, Language of the Land: The Library of Congress Book of Literary Maps, by Martha Hopkins and Michael Buscher.

131

UK land use and soil carbon sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review explores the role of land use and land use change as a determinant of the soil's ability to sequester and store carbon in the UK. Over 95 percent of the UK land carbon stock is located in soils which are subjected to a range of land uses and global changes. Land use change can result in rapid soil

N. J. Ostle; P. E. Levy; C. D. Evans; P. Smith

2009-01-01

132

Multiple criteria land use analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1980s, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) have been collaborating on expanding FAO's Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) methodology of land resources appraisal by incorporating decision support tools for optimizing the use of land resources. Initially, these tools consisted of the application of linear optimization techniques

Marek Makowski; Jacques Antoine

1997-01-01

133

CONVERTING ABANDONED LANDS TO CROPLAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of economic conditions, areas of cropland in Ukraine have been left unused for several years. These abandoned lands are now infested with perennial weeds. Producers are interested in converting these lands back to cropland with no-till systems to preserve soil benefits gained by not tillin...

134

Commercial land remote sensing market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land remote sensing in the United States is in a state of flux, due largely to the confusion resulting from the Landsat commercialization process. The land remote sensing marketplace, comprised of raw data and value-added commodities such as consulting services and computer hardware and software has been hit not only by the disarray of the Landsat commercialization, but also by

1988-01-01

135

Monitoring urban land cover change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal distribution of land cover is a fundamental dataset for urban ecological research. An expert (or hypothesis testing) system has been used with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to derive a land cover classification for the semiarid Phoenix metropolitan portion of the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) site. Expert systems allow for the integration

William L. Stefanov; Michael S. Ramsey; Philip R. Christensen

2001-01-01

136

Sustainable land application: an overview.  

PubMed

Man has land-applied societal nonhazardous wastes for centuries as a means of disposal and to improve the soil via the recycling of nutrients and the addition of organic matter. Nonhazardous wastes include a vast array of materials, including manures, biosolids, composts, wastewater effluents, food-processing wastes, industrial by-products; these are collectively referred to herein as residuals. Because of economic restraints and environmental concerns about land-filling and incineration, interest in land application continues to grow. A major lesson that has been learned, however, is that the traditional definition of land application that emphasizes applying residuals to land in a manner that protects human and animal health, safeguards soil and water resources, and maintains long-term ecosystem quality is incomplete unless the earning of public trust in the practices is included. This overview provides an introduction to a subset of papers and posters presented at the conference, "Sustainable Land Application," held in Orlando, FL, in January 2004. The USEPA, USDA, and multiple national and state organizations with interest in, and/or responsibilities for, ensuring the sustainability of the practice sponsored the conference. The overriding conference objectives were to highlight significant developments in land treatment theory and practice, and to identify future research needs to address critical gaps in the knowledge base that must be addressed to ensure sustainable land application of residuals. PMID:15647530

O'Connor, G A; Elliott, H A; Basta, N T; Bastian, R K; Pierzynski, G M; Sims, R C; Smith, J E

137

Coal mining on federal lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal miners whose operations affect federally owned land may be justified in feeling they are caught in a regulatory version of Abbott and Costello's ''Who's on First.''. Regulation of coal mining on federal lands has been plagued by false starts, delays, rule changes and confusion about which agencies govern what activities. The Department of the Interior is the principal agency

Pendergrass

2009-01-01

138

75 FR 2438 - Safety Zone; Havasu Landing Annual Regatta; Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Havasu Landing Annual Regatta; Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...T11-283 Safety Zone; Havasu Landing Annual Regatta; Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA. (a) Location. The...

2010-01-15

139

76 FR 9227 - Safety Zone; Havasu Landing Regatta, Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Havasu Landing Regatta, Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...T11-392 Safety Zone; Havasu Landing Regatta, Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA. (a) Location. The...

2011-02-17

140

Agricultural Land Availability. Papers on the Supply and Demand for Agricultural Lands in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part I includes the following topics: Agricultural Land in National and Regional Economies; Sociodemographic influences on land use in non-metropolitan America; Competition for agricultural land to the year 2000; The dynamics of agricultural land use, and...

1981-01-01

141

Introduction to Land Mines and the Land Mine Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 60 years land mines have become a ubiquitous weapon. Ease of employment, cost, and effectiveness of the land mine has resulted in its widespread use both in a classic military sense and as a tool for harassment of both combatants and non-combatants. The result of this is a devastating humanitarian problem worldwide. Current estimates of casualties resulting from land mines exceed 15,000 per year. A significant fraction of these victims are civilian, many children. Land mines are deployed in as many as 90 countries, throughout the world, including controlled military deployments, targeted harassment of militaries, militias and non-combatants, and as post conflict waste. Estimates for the total numbers of land mines that pose a threat is in excess of 45 million. And the problem appears to be only getting more severe since the current rate of clearance is more than an order of magnitude less that the rate of emplacement. This talk will provide an overview of the extent of the land mine problem. An introduction to land mine technology will be presented. Both military and non-military use will be discussed. Examples of critical technical issues that currently impede attempts to alleviate this worldwide problem will be provided.

Altshuler, Thomas W.

2004-03-01

142

Amplitude modulation thresholds for the parakeet ( Melopsittacus undulatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parakeets were tested for the ability to detect sinusoidal amplitude modulation of broad band noise. Instrumental avoidance conditioning and a psychophysical modified method of limits procedure were used to measure the threshold for detecting amplitude modulation at 10 modulation frequencies between 2 and 2,048 Hz. Below about 40 Hz, modulation threshold is independent of modulation rate and noise level. Above

Robert J. Dooling; Margaret H. Searcy

1981-01-01

143

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2013-01-01

144

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be...

2013-01-01

145

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2013-01-01

146

Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)|

Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

2002-01-01

147

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2012-10-01

148

Which Gets Hotter, Land or Water?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity illustrates how dark land surfaces, light land surfaces and water all heat at different rates. Students determine whether land or water absorbs heat more quickly and how this difference affects weather and climate.

Mclelland, Christine

1999-04-01

149

Country Profiles of Land Tenure: Africa 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brief profiles of land tenure issues for each of the 40 countries comprising sub-Saharan Africa are presented. Each profile covers three major topics - land tenure systems, land administration, and tenure issues affecting national (especially agricultural...

J. C. Riddell C. Dickerman G. Barnes A. Beileh J. W. Bruce

1986-01-01

150

43 CFR Lands - Conservation System Units (CSU)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Conservation System Units (CSU) Lands Available Lands Public...reacquire former Federal land in order to convey it to a Native veteran. Available LandsâConservation System Units...

2009-10-01

151

43 CFR Lands - Conservation System Units (CSU)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Conservation System Units (CSU) Lands Available Lands Public...reacquire former Federal land in order to convey it to a Native veteran. Available LandsâConservation System Units...

2010-10-01

152

7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and national conservation priorities. (c) Incidental lands, in conjunction...values and related conservation values, or its...efficiencies in land surveying, easement...grassland and related conservation values. This land becomes...

2013-01-01

153

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be approved, and must be installed... (2) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night landing. (b)...

2010-01-01

154

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be approved, and must be installed... (2) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night landing. (b)...

2009-01-01

155

Research response of land surface water and heat flux to land use land cover changes in Laizhou Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the influence of the global change and human activity, the land use/land cover change (LUCC) is remarkable. The evapotranspiration is one of the key taches of the water cycle. And it's the component of both water balance and energy balance, which embodiments the balance of the substance, energy and the information system. The evapotranspiration is closely related to the land use and land cover change. In this paper, we first gives the dynamic characteristics of the land use and land cover change; and then, the distribution of the land surface water and heat flux and evapotranspiration, by means of the SEBAL equation, based on the radiation balance equation and energy balance equation; and finally, based on the tempo-spatial characteristics of evapotranspiration, we discusses the influence of land use/cover change to the land surface evapotranspiration from two aspects: land use/land cover type and fresh/salt water.

Zhou, Xiaoyan; Cao, Xiaoming; Chen, Maosi; Gao, Zhiqiang

2008-08-01

156

Land and Stream Salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil salinity and salinity in water supplies are two major problems facing agricultural production in many arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Salt, in varying concentrations, occurs naturally in both soils and aquifers. However, salinity problems usually result from man's interference with natural processes and disturbance of the hydrologic balance. For example, the clearing of trees in southwestern Australia and the breaking of native sod on the Great Plains of North America for wheat cropping have reduced evapotranspiration. At the same time, over irrigation in dry regions concentrates dissolved salts in the soil profile, while irrigation return flows add to downstream salinity problems. These problems are of great economic significance, and opportunities are being sought for improved drainage and for interception and disposal of saline groundwater. However, these structural solutions are capital-intensive and quite expensive to say the least. The most cost-effective measures, but also the most challenging, are in the areas of improved on-farm water management to reduce losses, modified cropping patterns, selected retirement of marginally productive lands, and basin-wide water resource management with regard to both quantity and quality objectives.

El-Ashry, Mohamed T.

157

Lands and natural resources  

SciTech Connect

The Tenth Circuit has historically played a major role in the development of Indian law. Among the court's numerous decisions affecting Indians were those involving the standard of proof in cases seeking to disestablish Indian reservations, the duty owed by the Secretary of the Interior to the Indians in the administration of oil and gas leasing on Indian lands, the effect of state gas price control acts on Indian royalties, the necessary standard of compliance with acts allowing non-Indians to obtain interests in Indian real property, the conflict between Indian sovereign immunity and the Federal Rule of Civil Procedure requiring joinder of all necessary parties to an action, and the Indians' power to tax non-Indians who develop the Indians' natural resources. Additionally, this article discusses the enforcement power of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission under the Natural Gas Act; the construction of oil and gas operating agreements as to deep geologic horizons; and finally, the consequences of conveyancing real property when a predecessor in interest has suffered due process violations in the form of defective tax sales or condemnation proceedings.

Sorensen, A.K.

1985-01-01

158

Global Land Vegetation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this NASA Earth Science Enterprise-funded project is to increase the use of satellite data in high school and college science classrooms by developing classroom materials linked to guided inquiry computer exercises. This Global Land Vegetation module is one of four Studying Earth's Environment from Space (SEES) modules. Each module consists of three sections: Class Resources, Computer Lab Resources and a Glossary and Acronym List. Class Resources is an electronic textbook viewable by a Web browser. Computer Lab Resources contains an instructor's guide, data and software. The instructor's guide contains exercises for using the data and software. The public domain software, a version of NIH-Image for the Macintosh that was modified by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center especially for SEES, is for data display, analysis and tutorial of satellite data. The software will also work on Windows machines with a Mac emulator. Image2000, a cross-platform Java version of the software, is expected to be available by the end of the year 2000. Each module section can stand-alone (e.g. you don't have to use the Class Resources in order to complete the Computer Lab Resources). Students and instructors may continue their own scientific discovery by accessing archived and current data from various NASA Earth Science data centers.

Smith, Elizabeth

159

Autonomous landing guidance program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

Brown, John A.

1996-05-01

160

Exploring The Waste Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Almost certainly the most commented-upon poem in the English Language, T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land has puzzled undergraduate English students and seasoned scholars for eight decades. While Rikard Parker's Website will not end this puzzlement, it offers an innovative use of Web technology to explore a poem that many consider to have anticipated hypertext in its themes and format. Parker's site features a number of versions of a multi-framed approach to the text (more than are necessary, really) with each one a variation on a format that lets readers place portions of the original published poem side-by-side with one or more of the following: Eliot's notes to the poem; Parker's explanations of allusions; other lines in the poem evoking related themes such as seasons, weather, death, etc.; earlier manuscript versions of selected portions; and Parker's commentary on possible textual meanings. Parker's text allows one to do much more easily and with less confusion what a critical edition of the poem is supposed to help one do, i.e., read analytically. With its spatial, fragmented approach, perhaps this version would have been welcomed by Eliot as its truest manifestation. Perhaps not. In any case, we suggest that users select the link "my recommended entry point to the framed sub-site" as the most pleasing and comprehensive version of the text on-site. Parker is a full-time software engineer and part-time amateur scholar of Eliot's great poem.

161

18 CFR 367.55 - Land and land rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...secure possession of land. (8) Removing...reconstructing, property of others, such as...cemeteries, churches, telephone and power lines...improvements on the basis of benefits for new roads, new...improvements. (11) Surveys in connection...

2013-04-01

162

Land Resource and Land Use Classification Concepts and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the concepts and methods used by the Comprehensive Resource Inventory and Evaluation System (CRIES) Project to classify and evaluate land for national planning and policy analysis. The classification system uses two components -- soi...

J. Putman K. Ackerson S. Witter

1982-01-01

163

The Biogeohydroclimatology of Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When John Donne wrote his Meditation XVII, which includes the famous"No man is an island" passage, he was thinking about connections between people; no human being is isolated from another. Donne might just as well have been writing about the science of land use, however. What happens on one plot of land clearly affects what happens on another, whether downhill, downstream, or downwind. I will explore the consequences of land use for mass and energy fluxes, focusing on pasture, crop, and forest transitions in the Americas. I'll discuss my own work, some work of collaborators, and a few examples from the literature. No man is an island.

Jackson, R. B.

2008-05-01

164

Modeling Land-Use and Land-Cover Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models are used in a variety of fields, including land change science, to better understand the dynamics of systems, to develop\\u000a hypotheses that can be tested empirically, and to make predictions and\\/or evaluate scenarios for use in assessment activities.\\u000a Modeling is an important component of each of the three foci outlined in the science plan of the Land use and

Daniel G. Brown; Robert Walker; Steven Manson; Karen C. Seto

165

THE LAND-COVER CASCADE: RELATIONSHIPS COUPLING LAND AND WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the land-cover cascade (LCC) as a conceptual framework to quantify the transfer of land-cover-disturbance effects to stream biota. We hypothesize that disturbance is propagated through multivariate systems through key variables that transform a disturbance and pass a reorganized disturbance effect to the next hierarchical level where the process repeats until ultimately affecting biota. We measured 31 hydrologic, geomorphic,

C. L. Burcher; H. M. Valett; E. F. Benfield

2007-01-01

166

Christmas in Physics Land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short story of everyday folk for the Yuletide season It was a beautiful scene. Children were sledging, or at least adults were sledging whilst the children waited for a go. Snow flakes were falling gently to the ground. The physicist was extremely content. All the snow flakes had a perfectly symmetric hexagonal crystal structure; the sledges were all reaching the bottom of the slope at just the correct velocity, neglecting heat loss due to friction. A skater went past. The physicist smiled. The change in melting point under the blades was just as it should have been, and angular momentum was completely conserved in the pirouette. A snowball hit the physicist squarely in the face, probably thrown by a geographer. But even this made the physicist laugh, as the trajectory was perfect, as long as you accounted for the changing mass. How different to last year when the physicist had spent Christmas in the real world. How glad he was that he had come to Physics Land for the festive season where everything was just as it ought to be. Someone in the crowd barged into him, but it didn't matter, he was a boson, so they just ignored each other. How horrid it had been last Christmas.... As a young man carrying a light ladder went past, whistling merrily and enjoying the experience of the Doppler effect, the physicist leant back against the perfectly smooth wall, revelling in the joy of resolving his forces on the rough ground... and began to think dark thoughts about the previous year. You see the problem with the real world was that it didn't understand physicists at all. Probably the worst place of all for a physicist was at a party. So often things would go wrong and he would leave early in disgrace. How well he remembered the evening when he had been curious whether it was a pnp or npn type semiconductor controlling the disco lights. It had taken barely three hours to reassemble the lights, and indeed improve on the flashing sequence by altering the reverse bias voltage, but no-one thanked him. Oh no, they were all just annoyed that he had dismantled the lights at all. That was the real world for you. Conversation had been difficult. People kept asking questions, but then didn't appear to be interested in the answer. One host had commented on the weather and then very rudely drifted off to another guest just as the physicist was making a clear distinction between rotating and inertial reference frames as the fundamental cause of the geostrophic wind. Another guest had made an equally bad impression by being clearly uninterested in a small digression on energy balance which seemed the obvious response to his comment about how warm the room had become as people began to dance. The physicist came out of his day dream. An old man was walking a dog on the end of a light inextensible string. A young girl on a swing was executing simple harmonic motion using a small-angle approximation in the park. Two older boys were investigating moments on a see-saw. A boisterous teenager was having a great time with the centripetal force on a roundabout. Yes, this was the life. In Physics Land, it would be a very merry Christmas. Philip Britton

1999-01-01

167

Learning to classify land plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are four main groups of land plants: bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, angiosperms (flowering), and gymnosperms (cone-producing). The four groups are distinguished by structural and reproductive traits.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

168

Geomorphology: Flood-built land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeastern US coastline is under threat as land subsides and sea level rises. Measurements of the 2011 Mississippi River flood suggest that the river carries enough sandy sediment to offset some of this coastal drowning.

Kim, Wonsuck

2012-08-01

169

Land Breezes and Nocturnal Thunderstorms  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. NeumannIsrael Meteorological ServiceAfter extension of the definition of land breeze and introductory discussion of the problem of nocturnal thunderstorms, tables are presented for Lydda Airport, Israel, showing the diurnal variation of thunderstorms and the associated surface wind-directions. There is a notable excess of nocturnal thunderstorms with wind directions in the quadrant from which the land breeze blows.The fundamental fact

J. Neumann

1951-01-01

170

Agricultural land reform in Moldova  

Microsoft Academic Search

During transition, Moldova has pursued a policy of small-scale land privatisiation and a sucession of decollectivisation initiatives. Small-scale land reform has been important for bolstering the real incomes of rural households but living standards have continued to fall. While initial political resistance to decollectivisation has been overcome, serious challenges remain for co-ordinating agricultural production, procurement and marketing from a newly

Matthew Gorton

2001-01-01

171

Fire Weather and Land Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed a global increase in more intense, widespread and frequent fires that threaten human security\\u000a and ecosystems and contribute to green house gas emissions which result in climate change with feed-backs on both fire patterns\\u000a and land degradation. The interplay between fire weather-risk and land degradation is complex and involves several non linear\\u000a inter-actions that influence trends

Opha Pauline Dube

172

Aircraft Landing Gear Dynamics: Simulation and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The landing gear is an inevitable system for the aircraft. It absorbs the energy of the landing impact and carries the aircraft weight at all ground operations, including take off, taxiing, and towing. Numerical simulation has become an invaluable tool for the assessment of landing gear dynamics as well as of aircraft\\/landing gear interaction. This paper gives an overview of

W. KRÜGER; I. BESSELINK; D. COWLING; D. B. DOAN; W. KORTÜM; W. KRABACHER

1997-01-01

173

Private land management for biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As human influences fragment native communities and ecosystems, remaining land must be better managed to conserve many elements of biodiversity. Much of this land is privately held, yet traditional private land-use management practices often further diminish biodiversity by promoting favored or edge-adapted species. Today, private land stewards are increasingly aware of and concerned about biodiversity, but little guidance exists for

Michael A. O'Connell; Reed F. Noss

1992-01-01

174

Land Use and Marriage Timing in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine the relationship between patterns of land use and marriage timing in the Chitwan Valley, a rural area in south-central Nepal. In this setting, I conceptualize a relevant dimension of land use as the portion of land in each neighborhood devoted to agriculture. Using discrete-time event history models, I examine the relationship between the proportion of land devoted to

Scott T. Yabiku

2006-01-01

175

Nominal Asset Land Valuation Technique by GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Land valuation is the process of assessing the characteristics of a given piece of land. The process may be described as a carefully considered estimate of the worth of landed property based on experience and judgment..However, the objective of land valuation is to determine value; a term generally prefaced by some description such as market value or benefit value.

Recep NISANCI

2004-01-01

176

Impact of Drought on Land Surface Albedo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albedo controls radiation partitioning of a surface and affects its physical, biological, and biogeochemical processes. Recent studies have indicated that climate change induced by the land surface albedo change due to land cover and land use changes can have similar or even greater magnitude than that induced by doubling atmospheric CO2 concentration. Land surface albedo can be changed by anthropogenic

S. Wang; A. Davidson; R. Latifovic

2004-01-01

177

You Can Accurately Predict Land Acquisition Costs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land acquisition costs were tested for predictability based upon the 1962 assessed valuations of privately held land acquired for campus expansion by the University of Wisconsin from 1963-1965. By correlating the land acquisition costs of 108 properties acquired during the 3 year period with--(1) the assessed value of the land, (2) the assessed…

Garrigan, Richard

1967-01-01

178

Managing Land Use, Protecting Land and Mitigating Land Degradation: Tanzania Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the United Republic of Tanzania, efforts to combat desertification and land degradation generally, are part and parcel\\u000a of the national efforts to address poverty and ensure sustainable development. More concerted efforts to ensure sustainable\\u000a land management and combat desertification came after the Rio Conference in 1992. Since then, major milestones include: the\\u000a 1994 National Environment Action Plan (NEAP) prepared

R. Muyungi

179

43 CFR 2091.6 - Opening of withdrawn lands: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.6 Opening of withdrawn lands: General....

2012-10-01

180

The Official Land Patent Records Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) General Land Office, this site currently provides public access to over two million Federal land title records, issued between 1820 and 1908, for twelve Eastern Public Land States. The databases for each state enable researchers to conduct sophisticated cross-field queries to trace the initial transfer of land titles from the Federal government to individuals. Historians may conduct genealogical searches to associate an individual with a particular location during a specific time. The site allows users to order certified copies of land patents at a nominal cost. Note: electronic images for land patent records are viewable as TIF files only.

1999-01-01

181

Impact of Land Use and Land Cover Changes in the Surface Fluxes of an Atmospheric Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution numerical weather prediction models are sensitive to changes in the prescribed land use data. The land use and land cover (LULC) information, derived from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors, has been substituted for the Global Land Cover Characterization (GLCC) land use data based on 1-km AVHRR observations in the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS),

Valentine G. Anantharaj; Patrick J. Fitzpatrick; Yongzuo Li; Roger L. King; Gueorgui V. Mostovoy

2006-01-01

182

Does Land Use Planning Slow the Conversion of Forest and FarmLands?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use planning often is implemented to control development on forests and farmland, but its impact on land use remains untested. Previous studies evaluating such programs have relied on anecdotal evidence rather than on data describing actual land use change. A model of land use is specified as a function of socioeconomic factors, land rent, and landowners' characteristics, to examine

Jeffrey D. Kline; Ralph J. Alig

1999-01-01

183

76 FR 52346 - Public Land Order No. 7760; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6839; Alaska; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...individual. You will receive a reply during normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Public Land Order 6839 used a metes and bounds land description for the encumbered land. Public Land Order 6839 as extended by Public Land Order No. 7760...

2011-08-22

184

Landing gear energy absorption system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

Hansen, Christopher P.

1993-12-01

185

25 CFR 162.102 - What land, or interests in land, are subject to these regulations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What land, or interests in land, are subject to these regulations? 162.102...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS General...

2011-04-01

186

76 FR 36573 - Public Land Order No. 7770; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6884; Alaska  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLAK-963000-L1410000-FQ0000; AA-5964, AA-3060, AA-5934] Public Land Order No. 7770; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6884; Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of...

2011-06-22

187

76 FR 52347 - Public Land Order No. 7774; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6868; Oregon  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLOR936000-14300000-ET0000; HAG-11-0195; OROR-16124] Public Land Order No. 7774; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6868; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of...

2011-08-22

188

Land Tenure in the Middle Jubba: Customary Tenure and the Effect of Land. Registration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Land tenure in Somalia is currently characterized by two contrasting systems regulating access to land: customary tenure, in which individuals obtain rights to land through membership in a community, and state leasehold tenure, the only legal form of tenu...

C. Besteman

1989-01-01

189

National Agricultural Lands Study. Agricultural Land Retention and Availability: A Bibliographic Source Book.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Publications obtainable resulting from the national agricultural lands study are described. The book is divided into 5 chapters: agricultural land within a changing context; agricultural land base-limitations and capabilities; competition for and allocati...

1981-01-01

190

FEDERAL MINERAL LAND INFORMATION SYSTEM.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ability of geographic information systems to combine point, line, and areal data has been widely documented, although the establishment of a particular data base presents its own unique problems. The U. S. Geological Survey is developing a geographic information system consisting of information on Federal surface ownership, Federal subsurface mineral rights, location of actual mineral occurrences and (or) known potential, and formal restrictions to mineral development. By utilizing information already compiled or soon to be collected by other agencies, the Federal Mineral Land Information System should be able to provide answers relating to mineral availability on public lands.

Kleckner, Richard, L.

1984-01-01

191

Conserving Land Privately: Spontaneous Markets for Land Conservation in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation and administration of national parks has traditionally been the sole responsibility of the government. It entails substantial costs and is seldom fully manageable. However, the free market may provide unexpected help. In Chile, for example, private landowners are buying land for conservation purposes, at their own cost. This article explores this spontaneous market phenomenon, its roots, characteristics, benefits

Elisa Corcuera; Claudia Sepúlveda; Guillermo Geisse

192

Land-use planning of Minoo Island, Iran, towards sustainable land-use management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use planning is one aspect of sustainable development that determines the integrity of socioeconomic and ecological nuance. Land evaluation is an approach to sustainable land-use planning, which predicts the capability of the land-use system. This means that a specific land area should be under specific use, considering certain factors and characteristics of the land and its location. In other words,

Sara Kaffashi; Mandana Yavari

2011-01-01

193

The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

2012-05-01

194

The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.  

PubMed

In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas. PMID:22419398

Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

2012-03-15

195

Global Challenges for Land Administration and Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important government activity of all nation states is building and maintaining a land administration system (LAS) with the primary objective of supporting an efficient and effective land market. This includes cadastral surveys to identify and subdivide land, land registry systems to support simple land trading (buying, selling, mortgaging and leasing land) and land information systems to facilitate access to

Ian Williamson

196

The future of land warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of

Bellamy

1987-01-01

197

Crosswind Landing Gear Position Indicator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instrument for use on an aircraft equipped with a cross wind landing gear system is described. The instrument indicates on the pilot's display panel of the aircraft the alinement or misalinement of the wheels of the aircraft relative to the runway and ...

R. A. Champine

1977-01-01

198

Monitoring Changes in Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Besides big cities strongly effected by industrialization and urbanization, many areas in the suburbs are not exceptional cases. Apart from advantages brought by the development process such as economic growth and social life improvement, they are deeply under pressure between two trends: development and conservation; economic interests and environmental protection and cultural values. Agricultural land uses for different purpose

THU Trinh; Thi Hoai

199

Carbon sequestration and land degradation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter is not only a viable strategy to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, but is vital for improving the quality of soil. This presentation describes (1) C sequestration concepts and rationale, (2) relevant management approaches to avoid land degradation and fo...

200

Lunar orbiting and landing missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbits for a lunar orbiting spacecraft and unmanned lunar surface rovers are identified. The orbit to the moon is divided into two phases: one is the lunar transfer phase and the other is the landing phase. For each phase standard orbits are designed, and mission profiles are presented. The minimum weight of the lunar orbiting spacecraft is estimated to be

Tsutomu Iwata; Kazumi Okuda; Yutaka Kaneko

1989-01-01

201

In Brief: Moon landing anniversary  

Microsoft Academic Search

To commemorate the Apollo program and the fortieth anniversary of the first lunar landing, NASA has announced a nearly month-long series of activities at various locations around the United States during July. Events include a 16 July roundtable discussion about the Apollo program at NASA headquarters in Washington, D. C.; Moonfest 2009 at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field,

Randy Showstack

2009-01-01

202

Teacher in the Promised Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The promised land is our own bodies, our own senses, our own minds and imaginations. Those who accept this inheritance are qualified to be teachers, for in teaching we either replenish or frustrate a wondrous expectation. Ultimately, teaching is aimed at one thing--celebration. (Author/IRT)|

Starratt, Robert J.

1979-01-01

203

Land Subsidence and Soil Ripening.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Land subsidence is due to various causes. In reclaiming sediments, deposited by the sea, by rivers or in lakes, having a high porosity, the two main causes for subsidence are the increase of the intergranular pressures, resulting from the lowering of the ...

R. J. de Glopper

1989-01-01

204

Land use and biodiversity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between land use and biodiversity are fundamental to understanding the links between people and their environment. Biodiversity can be measured in many ways. The concept covers not only the overall richness of species present in a particular area but also the diversity of genotypes, functional groups, communities, habitats and ecosystems there. As a result, the relationships between biodiversity

Roy Haines-Young

2009-01-01

205

Landings Throughout the Solar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valuable in situ observations provided by landers and probes are a pri- mary way we learn about other environments in our Solar System. This paper will discuss the successes and failures over the years in human kind's attempts to land spacecraft on objects in the Solar System, excluding the Moon. From the first successful lander, Venera 7 on Venus,

E. Bowsher

206

Coordinating Transportation and Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 2004, a group of transportation professionals participated in a series of site visits on transportation and growth. The objectives of the visits were to identify factors leading to successful practices in transportation-land use integration, to investigate key challenges and how agencies have worked to overcome these challenges, and to disseminate these findings to a broader audience. This article

Christopher D Porter

2006-01-01

207

Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions?  

PubMed Central

Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production.

Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

2013-01-01

208

The American Land. Its History, Soil, Water, Wildlife, Agricultural Land Planning, and Land Problems of Today and Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented in this booklet is the commentary for "The American Land," a television series prepared by the Soil Conservation Service and the Graduate School, United States Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with WETA - TV, Washington, D.C. It explores the resource of land in America, its history, soil, water, wildlife, agricultural land

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

209

The American Land. Its History, Soil, Water, Wildlife, Agricultural Land Planning, and Land Problems of Today and Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in this booklet is the commentary for "The American Land," a television series prepared by the Soil Conservation Service and the Graduate School, United States Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with WETA - TV, Washington, D.C. It explores the resource of land in America, its history, soil, water, wildlife, agricultural land

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

210

32 CFR 766.12 - Unauthorized landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT ...landings. An aircraft that lands at a Navy/Marine Corps aviation facility...

2013-07-01

211

14 CFR 23.75 - Landing distance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...23.75 Landing distance. The horizontal distance necessary to...instrument. (b) A constant configuration must...excessive vertical acceleration or tendency to bounce...and the landing distance would be...

2009-01-01

212

14 CFR 23.75 - Landing distance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...23.75 Landing distance. The horizontal distance necessary to...instrument. (b) A constant configuration must...excessive vertical acceleration or tendency to bounce...and the landing distance would be...

2010-01-01

213

Inventory Information of Public Lands. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume 1 of the study on public lands includes introductory materials and Chapters A through L, which present data for each major function or commodity area. Chapter A covers land status, cessions and acquisitions to the public domain, exchanges, disposit...

M. A. Pearl

1970-01-01

214

7 CFR 1948.90 - Land transfers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Land transfers. 1948.90 Section 1948...RURAL DEVELOPMENT Section 601 Energy Impacted Area Development Assistance...Program § 1948.90 Land transfers. (a) Transfers of real property acquired...

2013-01-01

215

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so thatâ ...2) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night operation,...

2010-01-01

216

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so thatâ ...2) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night operation,...

2009-01-01

217

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so thatâ ...2) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night operation,...

2009-01-01

218

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Each required landing or hovering light must be approved. (b) Each landing light must be installed so thatâ ...2) The pilot is not adversely affected by halation; and (3) It provides enough light for night operation,...

2010-01-01

219

Urban Transportation and Land Use: A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliographic reference guide to urban transportation and land use literature contains publications that synthesize the relationships among people, movement systems, and land uses in medium-size urban areas. It also samples literature on diverse topi...

S. B. Edwins J. A. Deacon H. M. Leggett R. B. Harris

1975-01-01

220

Land Condition Trend Analysis Data: Power Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) program is the Army's standard for land inventory and monitoring, employing standardized methods of natural resources data collection, analyses, and reporting designed to meet multiple goals and objectives. LCTA da...

A. B. Anderson P. J. Guertin D. L. Price

1996-01-01

221

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2013-01-01

222

Climate and Land Degradation — an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of land degradation in the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) gives explicit recognition\\u000a to climatic variations as one of the major factors contributing to land degradation. In order to accurately assess sustainable\\u000a land management practices, the climate resources and the risk of climate-related or induced natural disasters in a region\\u000a must be known. Land surface is

Mannava V. K. Sivakumar; Robert Stefanski

223

Private land management for biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As human influences fragment native communities and ecosystems, remaining land must be better managed to conserve many elements\\u000a of biodiversity. Much of this land is privately held, yet traditional private land-use management practices often further\\u000a diminish biodiversity by promoting favored or edge-adapted species.\\u000a \\u000a Today, private land stewards are increasingly aware of and concerned about biodiversity, but little guidance exists for

Michael A. O'Connell; Reed F. Noss

1992-01-01

224

Housing Supply, Land Costs and Price Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze relationships between housing supply elasticities, land costs and house price dynamics, contributing three main insights. First, higher housing supply elasticities help contain short-run price spikes following demand shocks. Second, land price dynamics influence this relationship; supply responses are lessened and house price spikes are exacerbated as land prices increase. Third, we estimate a system of regional equations modeling

Arthur Grimes; Andrew Aitken

2010-01-01

225

Intermountain West Military Lands Planting Guide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This guide provides recommendations on plant materials for Department of Defense (DoD) land restoration at military facilties in the Intermountain West of the United States. These guidelines provide military land managers new options for revegetating military training lands. Most other guides for l...

226

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians...ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA...Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or...

2011-04-01

227

Discovering the Effect Mining has on Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an investigation where students observe what happens to land after it is mined. Students will create a hypothesis, observe their model, conclude what happens to land after it is mined, and discover the role humans play in land conservation.

Olson, Debra

228

Integrated land history and global change science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land histories originate in multiple disciplines. The corpus of this research, however, does not link well to the science of global environmental change, despite explicit recognition by that science to incorporate land history. History and global change science would both benefit by such linkages, which necessitates the development of “integrated land history.” This interdisciplinary research subject is identified here, illustrated

Peter Klepeis; B. L Turner II

2001-01-01

229

Implementation of the First Asteroid Landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacecraft have successfully landed on the Moon, Venus, and Mars, and have penetrated the atmosphere of Jupiter. On 2001 February 12, the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker spacecraft landed on the surface of the asteroid (433) Eros after a year of observations in orbit about the asteroid. NEAR Shoemaker was not designed to land on an asteroid, complicating the design

David W. Dunham; Robert W. Farquhar; James V. McAdams; Mark Holdridge; Robert Nelson; Karl Whittenburg; Peter Antreasian; Steven Chesley; Clifford Helfrich; William M. Owen; Bobby Williams; Joseph Veverka; Ann Harch

2002-01-01

230

Autonomous Landing of Miniature Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a simple algorithm for automated landing of miniature aerial vehicles (MAVs). Utilizing estimates of height above ground from barometric pressure and optic ?ow measurements, repeated landings were performed with a 1.5 m wingspan MAV. With height above ground estimated from barometric pressure measurements alone, landing errors averaged 7.6 m. When optic ?ow and barometric pressure measurements were

D. Blake; Barber Stephen; R. Gri-ths; Timothy W. McLain; Randal W. Beard

231

GRAPPLING WITH LAND REFORM IN PASTORAL NAMIBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

households. Today, about 44 per cent of the country is freehold land, occupied by surveyed and fenced commercial farms. The remaining 43 per cent is communal land, most of it unsurveyed and unfenced, lying mainly in the north of Namibia. About 13 per cent of Namibia is state land, unsuitable for agriculture and designated as desert. It is mainly in

Martin E Adams; Paul Devitt

232

Land Tenure and Allocative Efficiency in Niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using field-level data, we investigate whether traditional land tenure systems are an impediment to allocative efficiency in Niger. We find that yields are strongly influenced by the manpower available to farming households, an indication that marginal returns to labor and land are not equalized across households. We uncover no relationship between manuring and whether or not local customs allow land

Sarah Gavian; Marcel Fafchamps

1996-01-01

233

14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...icing conditions with the landing ice accretion defined in appendix...23 VSR0 with the landing ice accretion defined in appendix...143(h) with the landing ice accretion defined in appendix...determined on a level, smooth, dry, hard-surfaced runway. In...

2013-01-01

234

Agricultural Land Conversion: Background and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes forces contributing to the conversion of agricultural land for other uses, causes for the depletion of the land, major issues surrounding the loss of farmland, and current policies designed to control haphazard land conversion. Concludes that the United States lacks a national farmland protection policy. (KC)|

Furuseth, Owen J.

1982-01-01

235

ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS OF FARMING ON PEAT LAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aceh is one of the provinces in Indonesia undergoing a rapid development that entails the conversion of forest lands, including the marginally suitable peat lands, to agriculture. The peat land of Aceh has an area of about 0.27 million ha and stores as much as 561 million ton (Mt) of C or about 2000 t C ha-1 underground. Carbon stocks

Fahmuddin Agus

2008-01-01

236

Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)|

Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

1974-01-01

237

Conservation charity land ownership in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land ownership in Scotland has been the subject of increasing public debate. This paper traces the establishment of the conservation land ownership movement in Scotland from 1931. Charitable donations influence and affect the ability of voluntary bodies to acquire land. Voluntary ownership increased dramatically from the 1960s and the growth in outdoor recreation focused attention on the way mountain estates

Trevor A. Croft

2004-01-01

238

PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE ON LAND  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this paper is to discuss the acceptance of municipal wastewater sludge on land in the United States. Application to land has been an economical disposal method for cities and a means of increasing soil productivity. Use of land for sludge disposal is increasing. ...

239

Aircraft landing control in wind shear condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most aircraft accidents occurred during final approach or landing. This study proposes cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) to improve the performance of automatic landing system (ALS). The atmospheric disturbances affect not only flying qualities of an airplane but also flight safety. If the flight conditions are beyond the preset envelope, the automatic landing system (ALS) is disabled and the pilot

Chia-Lin Lee; Jih-Gau Juang

2011-01-01

240

[Impacts of cultivated land conversion on cultivated land productivity in China: prediction and analysis].  

PubMed

This paper simulated the spatial patterns of cultivated land in China under the future scenario by using the Dynamics of Land System (DLS) model, and then estimated the cultivated land productivity at the grid pixel dimensions based on the Estimation System of Land Production (ESLP). In addition, the spatial patterns of cultivated land productivity in each of China agro-ecological zones were analyzed. On this basis, this paper predicted the impacts of cultivated land conversion on the cultivated land production in China in 2000-2020, and identified the major affecting factors on the cultivated land production. The research results indicated that the impact of improving the cultivated land productivity on the cultivated land production would be wunch more remarkable than that from the magnitude of cultivated land conversion in regions where there were high potential to imrprove the cultivated land productivity. However, in the regions with nearly no room to improve the productivity, cultivated land conversion would produce more apparent impacts on the total cultivated land production. In this sense, it was of significance for the national food security in China to adjust the cultivated land conversion to ensure the 0.12 billion hm2 of cultivated land, and to increase investment and improve management level to increase per unit grain yield. PMID:21442997

Jiang, Qun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Lin, Ying-zhi; Cui, Yong-wei

2010-12-01

241

Sensitivity of Land Surface Simulations to Model Physics, Land Characteristics, and Forcings, at Four CEOP Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical land surface models (LSMs) are abundant and in many cases highly sophisticated, yet their output has not converged towards a consensus depiction of reality. Addressing this matter is complicated by the huge number of possible combinations of input land characteristics, forcings, and physics packages available. The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and its sister project the Land Information

Hiroko KATO; Matthew RODELL; Frank BEYRICH; Helen CLEUGH; Eva van GORSEL; Huizhi LIU; Tilden P. MEYERS

2007-01-01

242

Land Use\\/Land Cover of two bioluminescent bays in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Use\\/Land Cover maps have the capacity to illustrate the interaction between humans and the surroundings and are also available to see different conditions in the same or similar environments. Puerto Mosquito Bay in Vieques and La Parguera Bioluminescence Bay in Lajas, Puerto Rico (two bioluminescence bays) are used to produce Land Use\\/Land Cover maps, which show environmental and

Yadira Soto Viruet

243

Land quality indicators for sustainable land management: proposed method for yield gap and soil nutrient balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The required increase in agricultural production to meet future food demand will further increase pressure on land resources. Integrative indicators of the current status of the agricultural production capacity of land and their change over time are needed for promoting land management practices to maintain or improve land productivity and a sustainable use of natural resources. It is argued that

P. S. Bindraban; J. J. Stoorvogel; D. M. Jansen; J. Vlaming; J. J. R. Groot

2000-01-01

244

Research on urban land grade adjustment based on digital land price model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the Digital Land Price Model was proposed to adjust the land grade based on the problem of benchmark price during rectify the land grade. Chose the reasonable interpolation method and then make grid treatment, the three-dimension land price model was obtained using the bargaining land price, which supported by the Arcview GIS. The model provided the structure of land price. The price of each unit was calculated after interpolation, and then the map of the land grade was estimated that compared with the original to make adjust.

Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Shi-Jian; Guan, Yunlan

2009-10-01

245

The effect of land surface heterogeneity on land- atmosphere interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on the question: 'How does land surface heterogeneity affect exchanges of heat and moisture between the atmosphere and land surface?' The proper representation of heat and moisture transfer has been shown to be important in both numerical weather prediction and climate modeling. In the context of this question, we investigate an existing water and energy balance model and find that errors in the representation of ground heat flux are responsible for significant errors both in sensible heat flux and in surface temperature spatial variability. We recommend a new parameterization of thermal conductivity designed for easy implementation by land surface modelers. Incorporation of this parameterization as well as environmental controls on stomatal conductance, stability corrections, and a new moisture diffusion approximation into the model provides a good representation of heat and moisture dynamics on time scales of hours to months. The second model application involves data collected during an August, 1994 Oklahoma field experiment. This experiment is described along with analyses of the distributions, variability and spatial scales associated with important parameters affecting land-atmosphere interactions. In general, the underlying parameter distributions are found to be skewed and represent multiple spatial scales. In addition, the range of dominant scales found for topography and vegetation parameters suggest that these processes operate on smaller spatial scales (less than 1 km) than what the range of scales found for soil parameters suggests (1-4 km). Topography, soils and vegetation are all found to exert significant controls on soil temperatures, while they are found to be insignificant for air temperature and humidity. This implies that land surface heterogeneity is the dominant control on spatial variability of energy fluxes. Finally, modeled fluxes and states are analyzed to determine their spatial structure and scaling properties. The dominant scales are shown to vary with moisture condition, and the 5 cm soil moisture and latent heat flux are shown to exhibit multiscaling behavior. Empirical relationships for this behavior as a function of soil moisture are presented, which should be tested against future remotely sensed and in situ datsets.

Peters-Lidard, Christa Dianne

1997-06-01

246

Land Banking as Metropolitan Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the United States continues to grapple with a financial crisis, many scholars and policy pundits are looking at ways to improve the lot of American cities. One recently proposed idea is land banking, which is "the process or policy by which local governments acquire surplus properties and convert them to productive use or hold them for long term strategic public purposes." In this 39-page paper released in October 2008, Frank S. Alexander of The Brookings Institution offers a lucid and compelling exploration of how land banking might be used at the federal level in order to support the millions of properties that are currently in the process of foreclosure, or those which are already vacant and abandoned. The report contains an executive summary and nine chapters (including a conclusion) which discuss the ways in which such a policy might be implemented over the short and long term.

247

43 CFR 2911.0-8 - Lands available for leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Airport § 2911.0-8 Lands available for leasing. Any contiguous...

2012-10-01

248

43 CFR 418.8 - Types of eligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Types of eligible land. 418.8 Section 418.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2011-10-01

249

43 CFR 426.4 - Attribution of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Attribution of land. 426.4 Section 426.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2011-10-01

250

43 CFR 2544.2 - Appraisal of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2544.2 Section 2544...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...received it will be assigned for investigation and appraisement of the land in accordance with...

2012-10-01

251

43 CFR 2543.2 - Appraisal of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2543.2 Section 2543...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...received it will be assigned for investigation and appraisement of the land in accordance with...

2012-10-01

252

25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Land management districts. 167.5...THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management districts. The Commissioner...retain the present land management districts within the...

2011-04-01

253

The last of the lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

On some unknown date in the first half of the first millennium AD, a flotilla of Polynesian pirogues, probably coming from\\u000a the Marquese Islands, landed on a very small island lost in the immensity of the Pacific Ocean, formed a million years earlier\\u000a by volcanic eruptions and never before inhabited.\\u000a \\u000a According to a legend the discoverers called the island Te-Pito-te-Henua:

Giulio Magli

254

Autonomous landing guidance system validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALG is a combination of raster imaging sensor, head-up displays, flight guidance and procedures which allow pilots to perform hand flown aircraft maneuvers in adverse weather, at night, or in low visibility conditions at facilities with minimal or no ground aids. Maneuvers in the context of ALG relate to takeoff, landing, rollout, taxi and terminal parking. Commercial needs are driven by potential revenue savings since today only 43 Type III and 80 Type II instrumented landing system (ILS) runway ends in the United States are equipped for lower minimum flight operations. Additionally, most of these ILS facilities are clustered at major gateway airports which further impacts on dispatch authority and general ATC regional delays. Infrastructure consists to upgrade additional runways must not only account for the high integrity ground instrumentation, but also the installation of lights and markers mandated for Cat III operations. The military services ability to train under realistic battlefield conditions, to project power globally in support of national interests, while providing humanitarian aid, is significantly impaired by the inability to conduct precision approaches and landings in low visibility conditions to either instrumented runways or to a more tactical environment with operations into and out of unprepared landing strips, particularly when time does not permit deployment of ground aids and the verification of their integrity. Recently, Lear Astronics, in cooperation with Consortium members of the ALG Program, concluded a flight test program which evaluated the utility of the ALG system in meeting both civil and military needs. Those results are the subject of this paper.

Bui, Long Q.; Franklin, Michael R.; Taylor, Christopher; Neilson, Graham

1997-06-01

255

Carbon Sequestration and Land Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter is not only a viable strategy to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, but is vital for improving the quality of soil. This presentation describes (1) C sequestration concepts\\u000a and rationale, (2) relevant management approaches to avoid land degradation and foster C sequestration, and (3) a summary\\u000a of research quantifying soil C sequestration.

Alan J. Franzluebbers; Paul C. Doraiswamy

256

LULUs: locally unwanted land uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A LULU is a locally unwanted land use. It may be an old-age home or a nuclear-waste-disposal site. People need it but do not want to live next to it. Some characteristics LULUs have in common are: opposition (more or less organized), costs to the neighborhood (real or perceived), support from conservatives for LULUs of the right, support from liberals

Popper

1983-01-01

257

USGS MODERATE RESOLUTION LAND IMAGING  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past 37 years, the Landsat series of satellites has provided continuous data of the Earth’s land masses, coastal boundaries, and coral reefs creating an unprecedented comprehensive record of landscape dynamics. Landsat 5 and 7 continue to capture hundreds of images of the Earth’s surface each day. In mid-December 2008, the USGS made the entire Landsat archive available to everyone, anywhere, at anytime via the Internet at no cost to the user. The opening of the Landsat archive, the longest record of the terrestrial environment, is a revolution that will affect the future of moderate resolution Earth observations, enabling scientists to address research questions and develop operational applications that were previously cost prohibitive. In addition, the time-series data richness of the archive allows for the development of essential climate variables used to monitor the causes and consequences of lands cover change as a function of climate variability and anthropogenic influences. Landsat is unique as a single source of systematic, global land observations in terms of the number of spectral bands, global collection capacity, image quality, and the proven fidelity of its calibrated sensors. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 and the Presidential Decision Direct/NSTC-3 (1994), as amended on October 16, 2000, the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) is charged to ensure the continuity of Landsat data. To accomplish this, the USGS, in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is currently preparing for the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in December 2012, the eighth satellite in the Landsat Program. The LDCM will ensure the continuation of the Landsat record and will consist of significant improvements in radiometric response and additional spectral bands, from which high quality data products will be generated and accessible to users at no cost.

Dwyer, J. L.; Willems, J. S.

2009-12-01

258

Changes in Land Use and Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use change is one of the main drivers of many processes of environmental change, as it influences basic resources of the landscape including the soil. Poor land management can rapidly deteriorate vast amounts of land, which frequently becomes a major threat to rural subsistence in many developing countries. Conversely, impact of land use changes on soil also can occur so unnoticed that land managers hardly contemplate initiating ameliorative measures. Subsequently, changes in land use affect soil properties and processes at a variety of scales. For example, forest conversion to cropland and reduction of tillage intensity can prevail as main changes of land use in some regions, whereas abandon of agricultural fields can be a major concern in other regions. In non-agricultural context, changes of land use of major interest are driven by urbanization, landscaping, engineering, mining, contamination, etc. Disturbed soils are not necessarily lost to agriculture, forestry, amenity or other alternative uses. Knowledge and understanding of soil properties and processes ensures remediation or reclamation of disturbed or damaged soils. Therefore, we focus mainly on how soil properties and processes can be managed and controlled to mitigate the impact of changes in land use. Moreover, land use changes occur at different spatial and temporal scales. Currently, the most promising approaches to evaluate the complex interaction between land use and soil heterogeneity at various scales apply advanced statistical and mathematical methods.

Paz-González, A.; Tarquis, A.; de Abreu, C. A.; Olechko, K.; Sáa, A.; Gobin, A.; Gómez, J. A.; Kutilek, M.

2012-04-01

259

Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change  

SciTech Connect

Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

Dale, V.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Loureiro, F. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1992-01-01

260

Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change  

SciTech Connect

Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

Dale, V.H.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Loureiro, F. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1992-07-01

261

76 FR 23334 - Public Land Order No. 7763; Partial Revocation of Public Land Order No. 3708; Alaska  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLAK-963000-L1410000-FQ0000; F-025943] Public Land Order No. 7763; Partial Revocation of Public Land Order No. 3708; Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

2011-04-26

262

75 FR 57061 - Public Land Order No. 7749; Extension of Public Land Order Nos. 6801 and 6812; Arizona  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [AZA22647 and AZA23294] Public Land Order No. 7749; Extension of Public Land Order Nos. 6801 and 6812; Arizona AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management,...

2010-09-17

263

43 CFR 3503.30 - How should I describe surveyed lands or lands shown on protraction or amended protraction...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...states which are part of the Public Land Survey System? 3503.30 Section 3503.30 Public Lands...states which are part of the Public Land Survey System? Describe the lands by legal subdivision, section, township, and...

2012-10-01

264

TIM: Assessing the sustainability of agricultural land management  

Microsoft Academic Search

TIM (Threat Identification Model) is a framework for the ex ante assessment of agricultural land management sustainability at the land unit scale that identifies sources of unsustainability within agricultural land management systems. The model explicitly links defined hazards to land productivity and environmental integrity, land resource data and information, and land management practice options using expert and local knowledge on

C. S Smith; G. T McDonald; R. N Thwaites

2000-01-01

265

The discrimination of temporal fine structure in call-like harmonic sounds by birds.  

PubMed

Thresholds for discriminating changes in the temporal fine structure of call-like, harmonic sounds were measured in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Birds could detect changes in periods as short as 1.225 ms at near 100% accuracy even when spectral and envelope cues were identical, as in time-reversed stimuli. Humans performed poorly on such stimuli, paralleling results from previous studies. Bird thresholds were in the range of those reported in neurophysiological studies of the songbird high vocal center (HVC) to temporally modified conspecific songs. Taken together, these results show that birds can hear differences in temporal fine structure in their natural vocalizations that go beyond human capabilities, but whether these abilities have communicative relevance remains to be seen. PMID:16893261

Lohr, Bernard; Dooling, Robert J; Bartone, Suzanne

2006-08-01

266

Responsiveness of Rural and Urban Land Uses to Land Rent Determinants in the U.S. South  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ricardian and von Thunen land rent models are combined into a single land use share model including farm, forest, and urban land uses. The land share model is applied to the Southern United States, and elasticities are extracted that measure land share response to changes in population, income, land values, prices, and costs in counties with different degrees of urbanizationT.

Ian Hat-die; Peter Parks; Peter Gottleib; David Wear

2000-01-01

267

The Land Gini Coefficient and Its Application for Land Use Structure Analysis in China  

PubMed Central

We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types–farmland, built-up land and unused land–was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient.

Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

2013-01-01

268

The land gini coefficient and its application for land use structure analysis in china.  

PubMed

We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types-farmland, built-up land and unused land-was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764

Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

2013-10-09

269

Connecting Indicators with land degradation and desertification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of 72 selected candidate indicators corresponding to the physical environment, social, economic, and land management characteristics were defined in 1672 field sites located in 17 study sites in the Mediterranean and eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The selected indicators refer to specific farm characteristics such as family status, land tenure, present and previous types of land use, period of existing type of land use, soil depth, slope gradient, tillage operations, tillage depth and direction, etc., as well as to regional characteristics such as annual rainfall, rain seasonality, water availability, water quality and quantity, rate of land abandonment, rate of burned area, etc. Based on existing geo-referenced database, classes have been designated for each indicator and presented in a tabulated form. Weighing indices have been assigned to each class based on existing research or empirically assessing the importance to land degradation and desertification. Various processes or causes related to land degradation and desertification important for the study sites have been studied and the most relevant indicators have been defined. Questionnaires for each process or cause have been prepared and data were collected at field site level in collaboration with land users. The obtained data were statistically analyzed to identify the most important indicators related to each process or cause affecting land degradation and desertification. The analyses have shown that indicators may be widely, even globally, used for assessing the various land degradation and desertification processes or causes at field level. Of course, some indicators related to agriculture, social, and institutional characteristics in some cases show trends that are opposite to what happens in other study sites. These trends can be explained by further investigation including other indicators or processes affecting land degradation and desertification that it was not possible to consider in this effort. Efficiency and performance indicators seem the most promising for further research, particularly combined with economic principles for assessing land degradation and desertification. Key words: Indicators, land degradation, desertification

Kosmas, C.

2012-04-01

270

Land-use planning: One geologist's viewpoint  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Planning for the best use of land and its resources should take fully into consideration the long-term consequences of each type of use in order to stretch out most beneficially the well-being of society in the future, and to protect the integrity of the land and its biota. Three kinds of land-use can be distinguished for planning purposes. Reversible land-use leaves the land, after use, essentially as it was before; little or no man-induced modification remains. An example of reversible use in the United States is the designation of certain public lands as Wilderness. Terminal land-use commits the land to a chosen particular use, and any attempt at reversal requires either time-scales that are long compared with the expected lifespan of the social and political institution, or a commitment of resources that is too high for society to consider worth bearing. Examples of terminal land-use are location of metropolises and sites of toxic and/or radioactive waste disposals; by its nature the list grows monotonically. A current source of some social tension arises from the fact that Wilderness designation appears to assign a terminal-use status by legislative fiat, whereas in fact the land is being used reversibly. In between these two extremes of reversible and terminal land-use, the bulk of land-use is sequential, in which each use of land changes its potentials and configurations, and these changes are mainly irreversible. One goal of geologic input to land-use planning is to identify the various pathways along which a given land may be used, in order to extract the greatest benefit to society with the least harm to the land and its life. The proposed planning format consists of identification of (1) types of land, (2) types of use, (3) nature of consumption of resources when (2) acts upon (1), (4) identification of alternative pathways of land recovery to the original or some new state, and (5) due consideration of potentials for future use. Some consumptions are tangible; others, such as consumption of future options, are not. However, all must be considered in deciding how the land should be used, and both internal and environmental costs need to be included in the planning. Predictive methodology for land-use planning and for estimations of uncertainties must be developed to allow for the needs and consequences of both land-use and land recovery. Hardin (1968) spoke of the tragedy of the commons; White (1967) discussed the constraints of the western cultural heritage on our attitude towards our land and its resources. Land-use presents an archetype of the problem of the commons; only by community awareness of the dire consequences of the latent tragedy can effective societal action begin for the stewardship of the commons. Land-use decisions involve value judgement and are problems without technical solutions; but they require technical input, and earth scientists have a major role to play in both providing the input and in pointing out the implications of alternative decisions. ?? 1983.

Zen, E. -a.

1983-01-01

271

Warm Oceans Raise Land Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2004, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were the third warmest in the past 125 years, land surface temperatures were the fourth warmest, and globaly averaged temperatures likewise ranked fourth highest [Levinson, 2005]. This article presents evidence that SSTs contributed significantly to the widespread terrestrial and global tropospheric warmth. Every ocean witnessed warm sea surface conditions in 2004, with only the middle latitudes of the Southern Ocean experiencing below average values (Figure 1, top). Much of this warmth was concentrated north of 30°S and included a weak El Nińo event in the tropical central Pacific. Terrestrial warmth in 2004 was seen at all locations between 45°N and 45°S. The greatest departures from average temperatures occurred over interior Eurasia and western North America, which experienced increases of up to 2°C (Figure 1, middle). Consistent with the considerable warmth of ocean and land surfaces, much of the global troposphere was also warm in 2004. The thermal expansion of the tropospheric column, whose top is roughly at the 200-milli-bar pressure surface, is demonstrated by the increase in elevation of that surface world-wide (Figure 1, bottom).

Hoerling, Martin P.; Xu, TaiYi; Bates, Gary; Kumar, Arun; Jha, Bhaskar

2006-05-01

272

Microwave land emissivity calculations using AMSU measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric parameter retrievals over land from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) measurements, such as atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles, could be possible using a reliable estimate of the land emissivity. The land surface emissivities have been calculated using six months of data, for 30 beam positions (observation zenith angles from -58° to +58°) and the 23.8-, 31.4-, 50.3-, 89-, and

Fatima Karbou; Catherine Prigent; Laurence Eymard; Juan R. Pardo

2005-01-01

273

Assessment of land use impact on biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  Land use and changes in land use have a significant impact on biodiversity. Still, there is no agreed upon methodology for\\u000a how this impact should be assessed and included in LCA. This paper presents a methodology for including land use impact on\\u000a biodiversity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment and provides a case example from forestry operations in

Ottar Michelsen

2008-01-01

274

Land use system evaluation: Concepts and methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of land use systems can be conveniently performed through partial analyses of the bio-physical and the socio-economic sub-systems, followed by their integration. The place of land use practices in both sub-systems is discussed and a format for the description of the bio-physical components of land use practices is proposed. This new operation sequence approach is a deviation from the

T. J. Stomph; L. O. Fresco; H. van Keulen

1994-01-01

275

7 CFR 205.202 - Land requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.202 Land requirements. Any...

2013-01-01

276

Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

1996-06-01

277

Updated Land Use Analysis and Land Development Plan, Reidsville, North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document compares land use and development changes in Reidsville, North Carolina, over the seven years since the original planning studies were completed. As a result of these comparisons, the land development plan is revised and updated with recommen...

1970-01-01

278

BIVOUAC OF DEAD TABLET, ?YOUR OWN PROUD LAND?S,? AND RETAINING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BIVOUAC OF DEAD TABLET, ?YOUR OWN PROUD LAND?S,? AND RETAINING WALLS, SECTION 3. VIEW TO EAST. - Hot Springs National Cemetery, Virginia Medical Center 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

279

Delivering Land and Securing Rural Livelihoods: Post-Independence Land Reform and Resettlement in Zimbabwe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume is directed at professional researchers and development practitioners with an interest in land and agrarian reform. Land issues have significant currency in the southern Africa region and globally, and while capturing lessons from Zimbabwe, th...

F. Gonese M. Roth

2003-01-01

280

Study on temporal and spatial variations of urban land use based on land change data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of urbanization, demands of urban land increase in succession, hence, to analyze temporal and spatial variations of urban land use becomes more and more important. In this paper, the principle of trend surface analysis and formula of urban land sprawl index ( ULSI) are expatiated at first, and then based on land change data of Jiayu county, the author fits quadratic trend surface by choosing urban land area as dependent variable and urbanization and GDP as independent variables from 1996 to 2006, draws isoline of trend surface and residual values; and then urban land sprawl indexes of towns are calculated on the basis of urban land area of 1996 and 2006 and distribution map of ULSI is plotted. After analyzing those results, we can conclude that there is consanguineous relationship between urban land area and urbanization, economic level etc.

Jiang, Ping; Liu, Yanfang; Fan, Min; Zhang, Yang

2009-10-01

281

Rhea County, Tennessee: Population Study, Economic Study, Existing Land Use Analysis, Land Use Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document contains analyses of the population, economy, and land use. County goals and standards of development are defined, population and labor force projections are developed, and a land use plan was prepared.

1973-01-01

282

76 FR 38207 - Public Land Order No. 7771; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6865; Oregon  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Land Management, Oregon/Washington State Office, 503-808-6189, or Sarah LeCompte, Bureau of Land Management Oregon Vale Field Office, 541-523- 1825. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The purpose for which the withdrawal was first made requires...

2011-06-29

283

A Quantitative Investigation of the Population-Land Inequality-Land Clearance Nexus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a quantitative investigation of the population-land inequality-land clearance nexus. Drawing on the literature on farmer optimization behaviour, the study formalizes and empirically tests a model of population-induced agricultural land clearance. The model makes several assumptions about this process: (a) The rate at which agricultural land is brought into production due to rising population pressures accelerates with the

Lise Tole

2004-01-01

284

Land-Use and Land-Cover Change Pathways and Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the challenges facing the Earth over the next century, land use and land cover changes are likely to be the most significant.\\u000a This anthropogenic process affects many parts of the earth’s system (e.g., climate, hydrology), global biodiversity, and the\\u000a fundamental sustainability of lands. Various estimates indicate that 50 percent of the ice-free land surface has been affected\\u000a or modified

John F. Mustard; Ruth S. DeFries; Thomas R. Fisher; Emilio F. Moran

285

Options on Land Management and Land Use for Coping with Climate Change in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The South Asia region is characterized by high population density and scarcely available land for sustainable agriculture.\\u000a The region has a land area of 642 million ha (Mha) and a population of 1,587 million. The agricultural population is 786 million,\\u000a 49% of the total. The area of agricultural land is 230 Mha, 36% of the total land area. The average

Yuji Niino

286

Impact of Historical Land-use/Land-cover Change on US Summer Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 300 year (1700-1990) time series of U.S. land-use/land-cover was created using the Ecosystem dynamics (ED) model constrained by available data. The RAMS model was used to simulate 3 case scenarios with 3 different surface vegetation distributions -- 1700 (pristine), 1910 (maximum deforestation) and 1990 (current conditions). We found that changing land-use/land-cover pattern can lead to several degrees of warming/cooling at the surface accompanied by significant changes in precipitation patterns.

Baidya Roy, S.; Weaver, C. P.; Pacala, S. W.; Hurtt, G.

2002-05-01

287

Identifying land cover variability distinct from land cover change: Cheatgrass in the Great Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of land use\\/land cover change at local, regional, and global scales is important in an increasingly human-dominated biosphere. Here, we report on an under-appreciated complexity in the analysis of land cover change important in arid and semi-arid environments. In these environments, some land cover types show a high degree of inter-annual variability in productivity. In this study, we

Bethany A. Bradley; John F. Mustard

2005-01-01

288

Land use and land cover mapping from diverse data sources for an arid urban environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and up-to-date data describing land use and land cover change support studies of urban growth such as quantifying the amount of rural to urban change and identifying change trajectories. This paper compares three methods for identifying urban land use\\/land cover, based on aerial photography, satellite imagery, and ground observations. While it might be natural to assume that classification based

Elizabeth A. Wentz; William L. Stefanov; Corinna Gries; Diane Hope

2006-01-01

289

Research response of land surface water and heat flux to land use land cover changes in Laizhou Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the influence of the global change and human activity, the land use\\/land cover change (LUCC) is remarkable. The evapotranspiration is one of the key taches of the water cycle. And it's the component of both water balance and energy balance, which embodiments the balance of the substance, energy and the information system. The evapotranspiration is closely related to the

Xiaoyan Zhou; Xiaoming Cao; Maosi Chen; Zhiqiang Gao

2008-01-01

290

The impact of land policy on the relation between housing and land prices: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the evolution of Chinese land policy over the past two decades and examines its impact on the dynamic relationship between housing and land prices in the Chinese real estate market. Using panel datasets from Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing, we find that there exists a long-run equilibrium between Chinese urban housing and land markets. At the same

Hongyan Du; Yongkai Ma; Yunbi An

2011-01-01

291

Land-Cover and Land-Use Change under Changing Climate in the Eurasian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the studies conducted in the framework of the NASA Land-Cover\\/Land- Use Change Program focused on the Eurasian Arctic will be presented. It includes discussion of vegetation changes under climate warming and implications to carbon cycle, changes in environmental pollution, hydrologic cycle, and impacts on society. Climate change can affect land cover in the Arctic through changes in

G. Gutman

2009-01-01

292

Land-Cover and Land-Use Change Under Changing Climate in the Eurasian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is an overview of the studies conducted in the framework of the NASA Land-Cover\\/Land- Use Change Program focused on the Eurasian Arctic. It includes discussion of vegetation changes under climate warming and implications to carbon cycle, changes in environmental pollution, hydrologic cycle, and impacts on society. Climate change can affect land cover in the Arctic through changes in

G. Gutman; P. Groisman; A. Reissell

2008-01-01

293

The State, Land System, and Land Development Processes in Contemporary China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the era of state socialism under Mao, land in China was treated as a means of production and was allocated administratively by the state free of charge. To accommodate the interests of foreign investors without violating the socialist principle of public ownership, the Chinese state has, since the 1980s, separated land use rights from land ownership and opened up

George C. S. Lin; Samuel P. S. Ho

2005-01-01

294

Influence of land use\\/cover change on land surface temperature of Laizhou Bay Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many costal regions in China are confronted with challenging problems of limited land resources and increasing population. Saline lands, tidelands and wetlands have been enclosed for agricultural land uses and urbanization buffer zones under a series of reclamation programs. A combined approach of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) was used in this study to identify the impact

Jicai Ning; Zhiqiang Gao; Zulu Zhang; Zijun Li

2007-01-01

295

Geographic Resources Decision Support System for land use, land cover dynamics analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change detection is the measure of the distinct data framework and thematic change information that can guide to more tangible insights into underlying process involving land cover and land use changes than the information obtained from continuous change. Digital change detection is the process that helps in determining the changes associated with landuse and land cover properties with reference to

T. V. Ramachandra; Uttam Kumar

296

Determining Land System Sustainability through a Land Architecture Approach: Example of Southern Yucatán (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable land systems involve an array of tradeoffs, not only among ecosystem services, but between those services and human outcomes. These tradeoffs are affected by the architecture of the land system---the kind, size, pattern, and distribution of land uses and covers. Working towards a model capable of handling a full array of ecosystem services and human outcomes, the concept of

B. L. Turner II

2009-01-01

297

Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

298

Land Cover Classification and Change Analysis in the Horqin Sandy Land From 1975 to 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations over the last three decades show that desertification poses a serious threat to the livelihood and productivity of inhabitants of the Horqin Sandy Land region of China. We evaluated the dynamics and trends of changes of land cover in the Horqin Sandy Land by using Landsat archive images from 1975, 1987, 1999, and 2007. We applied two supervised classification

Hasi Bagan; Wataru Takeuchi; Tsuguki Kinoshita; Yuhai Bao; Yoshiki Yamagata

2010-01-01

299

AAG/HDGC Learning Module: Land Use/Land Cover (LULC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces students to the impacts humans have on land use/land cover change throughout the world. It illustrates the central role of the study of land use/cover change within the larger field of global environmental and climatic change, and is thus a good unit to introduce the latter topic. The module concentrates on what forces drive land use/land cover change, but also investigates the impacts of land use/land cover change on the environment and human societies, and additionally, how humans can respond to these changes most effectively. In the first unit of the module students are introduced to the human dimensions of global change, and they learn about the central role that the study of land use/land cover change plays within the larger field of global environmental and climatic change. In the second unit, students learn about selected land use/land cover areas and take a critical look at the data available for their study. In the third unit, students relate land use changes to human driving forces, and link changes at a global scale to those at a local scale, thus making global change a personal concern. The module includes supporting materials such as links to relevant organizations, external data sources, supporting research projects, a glossary, references for additional readings, and notes on active pedagogy.

1997-06-07

300

Bureau of Land Management Annual Report, FY 2003. Shared Community Stewardship for America's Public Lands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is the mission of the Bureau of Land Management to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations. To achieve its mission, the Bureau of Land Management follows these prin...

2003-01-01

301

Bureau of Land Management Annual Report, FY 2002. Balancing Today's Needs for Tomorrow's Public Lands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is the mission of the Bureau of Land Management to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations. To achieve its mission, the Bureau of Land Management follows these prin...

2002-01-01

302

Revealing Long Term Land Use and Land Cover Change in a Severely Disturbed Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use and land cover change (LUCC) is one of the important drivers of environmental change on all spatial and temporal scales. LUCC contributes significantly to earth atmosphere interactions, forest fragmentation, and biodiversity loss. It has become one of the major issues for environmental change monitoring and natural resource management. This study aims to reveal the long term land use

Zhenyu Zhang; Jim Peterson; Xuan Zhu; Wendy Wright

2008-01-01

303

Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

304

Land abandonment and slope gradient as key factors of soil erosion in Mediterranean terraced lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important land use change recorded in the Mediterranean basin comprises the abandonment of agricultural lands due to economic and social changes, which is followed by significant impacts on soil erosion. Observed land abandonment may have positive or negative impacts on soil protection from erosion because fundamental ecosystem processes are influenced by changes in agricultural practices and soil resources management.

M. Koulouri; Chr. Giourga

2007-01-01

305

Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while simultaneously ensuring long-term productive potential of natural resources

Vung Setha; Jan-Peter Mund

2008-01-01

306

Understanding Hydrological Cycle Dynamics Due to Changing Land Use and Land Cover: Congo Basin Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use and land cover changes (LULCC) significantly modify the hydrological flow regime of the watersheds, affecting water resources and environment from regional to global scale. In recent years, with an increased number of launched satellites, regular updates of land-cover databases are available. This study seeks to advance and integrate water and energy cycle observation, scientific understanding, and its prediction

Namrata Batra; Yi-Chen E. Yang; Hyun Il Choi; Praveen Kumar; Ximing Cai; Charlotte De Fraiture

2008-01-01

307

A land surface data assimilation framework using the land information system: Description and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Information System (LIS) is an established land surface modeling framework that integrates various community land surface models, ground measurements, satellite-based observations, high performance computing and data management tools. The use of advanced software engineering principles in LIS allows interoperability of individual system components and thus enables assessment and prediction of hydrologic conditions at various spatial and temporal scales.

Sujay V. Kumar; Rolf H. Reichle; Christa D. Peters-Lidard; Randal D. Koster; Xiwu Zhan; Wade T. Crow; John B. Eylander; Paul R. Houser

2008-01-01

308

MODIS Collection 5 Land Cover Type and Land Cover Dynamics: Algorithm Refinements and Early Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua spacecraft provides land surface data at global scales that are useful for a wide array of scientific applications related to land surface properties and processes. In the past year, land products from collection 5 MODIS reprocessing have become available. In this paper, we describe algorithm refinements and recent results

D. Sulla-Menashe; M. A. Friedl

2007-01-01

309

Using neural networks and GIS to forecast land use changes: a Land Transformation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Transformation Model (LTM), which couples geographic information systems (GIS) with artificial neural networks (ANNs) to forecast land use changes, is presented here. A variety of social, political, and environmental factors contribute to the model's predictor variables of land use change. This paper presents a version of the LTMparameterized for Michigan's Grand Traverse Bay Watershed and explores how factors

Bryan C. Pijanowski; Daniel G. Brown; Bradley A. Shellito; Gaurav A. Manik

310

Land surface phenology, climatic variation, and institutional change: Analyzing agricultural land cover change in Kazakhstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kazakhstan is the second largest country to emerge from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Consequent to the abrupt institutional changes surrounding the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, Kazakhstan has reportedly undergone extensive land cover\\/land use change. Were the institutional changes sufficiently great to affect land surface phenology at spatial resolutions and extents relevant to mesoscale

Kirsten M de Beurs; Geoffrey M Henebry

2004-01-01

311

Extending land navigation applications to support off road based on elevation and land characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most used software tools for land navigation don't have the ability to calculate optimal path outside road network. They show direct Euclidian path from start and goal to nearest road facility. In this paper, we propose an extension for software tools of land navigation to calculate optimal Least Cost Path (LCP) outside road networks using land characteristics and\\/or digital elevation

Gamal Selim; Ahmed Abdel Sabour

2010-01-01

312

Land Degradation and Migration in a Dry Land Region in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration literature has always considered environmental constraints as one of the prime movers of populations, especially from dry regions, where water rather than land is the primary limiting factor. In this study, we seek to analyze the impact of degradation of private land, as well as common pool land resources, on migration decisions. We focus on three dryland districts in

Amita Shah

313

Approving communitization agreements covering Native American lands  

SciTech Connect

A series of recent cases in the US Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit has created a great deal of confusion about the role of the Secretary of the Interior in approving oil and gas communitization agreements where Native American tribal or allotted lands are involved. In each case, the court was confronted with an operator who was attempting to extend an oil and gas lease covering tribal or allotted lands beyond its primary term by requesting to unitize the tribal or allotted lands with adjacent non-Native American lands on which a well had been drilled and completed or where drilling was taking place. All of the tribal and allotted leases involved in these cases contained {open_quotes}commence drilling{close_quotes} clauses, as well as {open_quotes}unit operation{close_quotes} clauses that authorized communitization of the lands covered by the leases with adjacent lands upon approval by the Secretary. While the Secretary clearly is required to approve communitization agreements covering tribal or allotted lands before such agreements are deemed effective, the scope of the Secretary`s approval authority has been the subject of continuing controversy. Communitization refers to the pooling of oil and gas interests in separate tracts, including federal and nonfederal properties, into a size sufficient to grant a well permit under applicable well-spacing rules. When lands have been communitized, production achieved on one oil and gas lease is allocated among all of the communitized leases. Thus, a lease of tribal or allotted lands that is communitized with a fee lease on which a producing well has been drilled is considered a producing lease even though there is no well on such lease. Such tribal or allotted lands lease therefore does not expire at the end of its stated primary term, but is extended until the well on the communitized land ceases to produce oil or gas in paying quantities. This article discusses the problem.

Hook, J. [Dorsey & Whitney, Denver, CO (United States)

1997-06-01

314

Land mobile satellite system requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

Kiesling, J. D.

1983-05-01

315

Oil shale land transfers finalized  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of the Interior agreed to settle decades-long litigation over unpatented oil shale claims in the Piceance Creek basin by granting patents on some 82,000 acres of claims. The announcement of the settlement immediately invoked storms of protest from Congress and Colorado state officials. In the face of this controversy, the Interior Department then announced a delay in the actual transfer of title to the lands. However, when the Colorado appeals failed and the Congressional amendment proved inoperative, Interior again moved forward in October to complete the transfer of 64,000 acres. Some 18,000 acres were delayed because of incomplete survey information. A table presents a summary of the current status of the patent applications.

Not Available

1986-12-01

316

Newfoundland tests land exploration interest  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the government of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is inviting the industry to take another look at onshore western Newfoundland. A 1989 study by the Petroleum Resource Development Division of the Department of Mines and Energy stated that an area of about 30,000 sq km with widespread oil and gas seeps and hydrocarbon shows in shallow wells remains virtually unexplored in western Newfoundland. The report further concluded, a systematic exploration program utilizing modern exploratory techniques is warranted in this area and could potentially lead to the discovery of commercial accumulations of hydrocarbons. Success of the Canada- Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board's 1990 land sale, in which oil and gas rights were issued for 1.6 million hectares of adjoining offshore parcels, attests to growing interest in the area.

Petzet, G.A.

1991-09-09

317

In Brief: Moon landing anniversary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To commemorate the Apollo program and the fortieth anniversary of the first lunar landing, NASA has announced a nearly month-long series of activities at various locations around the United States during July. Events include a 16 July roundtable discussion about the Apollo program at NASA headquarters in Washington, D. C.; Moonfest 2009 at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., on 19 July; a First Footprint Celebration at the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Ala., on 20 July; and an Apollo 11 Splashdown Celebration at Johnson Space Center on 24 July. NASA Television will broadcast some of the events live. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/40th/events.html.

Showstack, Randy

2009-07-01

318

43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may be entered as desert land. (1) As the desert-land law requires the artificial irrigation of any land entered...allowed. In order to be subject to entry under the desert-land law, public lands must be not only irrigable but...

2010-10-01

319

43 CFR 2520.0-8 - Land subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may be entered as desert land. (1) As the desert-land law requires the artificial irrigation of any land entered...allowed. In order to be subject to entry under the desert-land law, public lands must be not only irrigable but...

2009-10-01

320

Land Privatization Practices in Different Countries - Lessons on Transparency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainty SUMMARY Many researchers and international organizations such as the World Bank, FAO, ADB, UN\\/ECE and USAID have implemented projects and published numerous papers to support land reform programs or land privatization in transition economies. However, compared to the early stage of transition, many countries completed land reforms and land titles have been issued, but land administration is still lacking

Renchin TSOLMON

2009-01-01

321

Gender Implications of Decentralised Land Reform: The Case of Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bolder policy approach and more vigorous implementation are needed to support women's empowerment, transfer of land rights to women, and to ensure their productive utilisation of land. The land reform programme focussed on racial imbalances of highly skewed land holdings and discriminatory land tenure systems while failing to mainstream the interests of women.

Jeanette Manjengwa

322

Land expropriation and displacement in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines land grabbing in Bangladesh and views such seizures through the lens of displacement and land encroachment. Two different but potentially interacting displacement processes are examined. The first, the char riverine and coastal sediment regions that are in a constant state of formation and erosion, are contested sites ripe for power plays that uproot small producers on their

Shelley Feldman; Charles Geisler

2012-01-01

323

Effects of Spacecraft Landings on the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rocket exhaust of spacecraft landing on the Moon causes a number of observable effects that need to be quantified, including: disturbance of the regolith and volatiles at the landing site; damage to surrounding hardware such as the historic Apollo sit...

J. E. Lane P. T. Metzger

2013-01-01

324

Trends in Land Degradation in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a brief introduction to various land degradation processes. It then gives an overview of the trends in land degradation in Chile and other South American countries. An important tendency of agriculture has been the conversion of traditional cultivations like beans and corn to new export cultivations, in particular soybeans and sorghum. Observers have noticed an obvious relationship

Gualterio Hugo

325

PLACES: A Tool For Sustainable Land Use  

EPA Science Inventory

Rapid development of the human made environment to meet human needs and expand the economy is largely responsible for environmental losses. Because all land uses will incrementally and cumulatively degrade ecosystems that sustain human life, site-level land use decisions must ac...

326

Land Titles, Credit Markets and Wealth Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does the existence of formal title to land and real estate matter for the distribution of wealth? This paper reviews the empirical literature on the economic impact of land and real estate administration systems across countries. This paper argues that a functioning credit market for secured credit is necessary to realize the full benefits of legal title to private real

James C. MacGee

2006-01-01

327

Acoustic sounding of land and sea breezes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodar measurements have been made at La Spezia, Italy during land- and sea-breeze conditions. The backscatter returns are discussed qualitatively, including their relation to the vertical structure of the boundary layer as revealed by vertical soundings of wind and temperature. During inversion conditions, the sodar signals may be difficult to interpret especially when there is a land breeze flowing over

P. Bacci; C. Giraud; A. Longhetto; R. Richiardone

1984-01-01

328

A Journey to a New Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of an exhibit in the Simon Fraser University Museum entitled "A Journey to a New Land" about the coming of the first humans to North and South America. The page presents an animation of the effects of post-glacial seal level rise on the area known as Beringia and the Bering Land Bridge

Ethnology, Sfu M.

329

Future Land Use Plan: Orion Township, Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Orion Township Future Land Use Plan is the culmination of two years of study by the Orion Township Planning Commission. Inventory for the Township indicated a large amount of the developed land as residential (27.9%). Basic problems areas were noted a...

1970-01-01

330

The Early History of Life on Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses evidence suggesting that the earliest land plants (small simple forms in damp areas during the Silurian period) preceeded the earliest land animals (including such small arthropods as millipedes and mites). Close animal-plant interactions occurred at the onset with more complex terrestrial ecosystems developing by the Devonian. (DH)|

Scott, Andrew C.

1984-01-01

331

Private land management for biodiversity conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As human influences fragment native communities and ecosystems, remaining land must be better managed to conserve many elements of biodiversity. Much of this land is privately held, yet traditional private land-use management practices often further diminish biodiversity by promoting favored or edge-adapted species. Today, private land stewards are increasingly aware of and concerned about biodiversity, but little guidance exists for them to make land-use decisions incorporating principles and knowledge from conservation biology. Consequently, most management strategies are highly subjective. This article addresses that problem by introducing current conservation wisdom to management and use of private lands. The result is a model program for developing land management plans, with the goal of maintaining viable populations and natural distributions of native species and communities from a landscape perspective. The program establishes a protocol for classifying sites according to the importance of their species, communities, and other elements to global and regional biodiversity. These site classifications are based on the management objectives necessary to maintain important elements. Once managers classify a site, the program provides management standards, general stewardship principles, examples of land management strategies, and basic monitoring and evaluation procedures.

O'Connell, Michael A.; Noss, Reed F.

1992-07-01

332

ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure describes NASA's ICESat mission ((Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite), which was launched January 12, 2003. ICESat is the benchmark Earth Observing System mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics.

2007-11-01

333

SRP Meeting: Land Remediation - Liabilities and Practicalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

London, 19 January 2000 The morning session of the SRP Conference on Land Remediation - Liabilities and Practicalities, held at the Scientific Societies Lecture Theatre in London on the 19 January 2000, concerned the legal background relating to liability for radioactively contaminated land and the development of standards for remediation. The chairman of this session was Mr David Bennett (Environment

Simon Clark; Eileen Cowling

2000-01-01

334

Moral Minimalism in American Indian Land Claims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is an essay about Indian claims for the return of historically stolen lands, written from the perspective of a "Western" academic moral philosopher. I want to try to outline points of agreement and disagreement between Indian and Western moral conceptions and to seek common ground on which land claims can be more clearly evaluated and…

Hendrix, Burke A.

2005-01-01

335

Sustainable land use and agricultural soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustainable land use is the management of the natural environment and the built environment to conserve the resources that help to sustain the current human population of the area and that of future generations. This concept of sustainable land use requires an analysis of the existing resources, the...

336

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2013-07-01

337

Zimbabwe's land reform: challenging the myths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most commentary on Zimbabwe's land reform insists that agricultural production has almost totally collapsed, that food insecurity is rife, that rural economies are in precipitous decline, that political ‘cronies’ have taken over the land and that farm labour has all been displaced. This paper however argues that the story is not simply one of collapse and catastrophe; it is much

Ian Scoones; Nelson Marongwe; Blasio Mavedzenge; Felix Murimbarimba; Jacob Mahenehene; Chrispen Sukume

2011-01-01

338

Glaciological Studies in Johan Dahl Land 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Johan Dahl Land is situated at approximately 61deg20'N, 45deg24'W, in South Greenland, 20 km north of Narssarssuaq. The glaciological investigations in Johan Dahl Land - undertaken by GGU since 1978 - have concentrated on measurements of mass balance, cli...

P. Clement

1983-01-01

339

Spectrally Balanced Chromatic Landing Approach Lighting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A landing approach lighting system which corrects for the effects of chromatic aberration of the human eye to help prevent a pilot from making misjudgments leading to landings short of a runway threshold is described. The system utilizes red warning light...

W. D. Chase

1976-01-01

340

Intergovernmental relationships in coastal land management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the tensions among federal, state, and local governments for control over coastal land management, and argues that, to the extent feasible, primary responsibility for coastal land planning and regulation should be kept at the lowest level of government. First, the article delineates the sources of regulatory power. Second, it traces the legislative and administrative evolution of California's

Finnel; G. L. Jr

1985-01-01

341

CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL LAND REFORM IN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land reform has traditionally had two objectives: equity and productivity. Food insecurity and the need for agriculture to contribute to development emphasise the need to maintain and improve productivity while improving equitability. Land must foster production and agriculture must attract good human material. The main problem involves policy formulation and delivery Necessary conditions include: (1) A proper institutional framework involving

Jan A. Groenewald

2003-01-01

342

National Agricultural Lands Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interagency study was launched in 1979 to determine the availability of the nation's agricultural lands, the extent and causes of their conversion to other uses, and ways in which these lands might be retained for agricultural purposes. The seven prima...

1982-01-01

343

National Agricultural Lands Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report probes the availability of the Nation's agricultural lands, the extent and causes of its conversion to other uses, and ways in which these lands might be retained for agricultural purposes. To obtain the views of the public, 17 workshops...

1981-01-01

344

Obtaining Institutional Access to Federal Lands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Access to federal lands is becoming more difficult for institutional outdoor programs. The Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service are drafting rules to address institutional users, and the U.S. Forest Service is reviewing institutional use and sees a need for some type of permitting for this population. A 1996 study of federal…

Beiser, Mike

345

Forests and competing land uses in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

1989-03-01

346

DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A rational procedure is presented in this manual for the design of municipal sludge land application systems. he utilization of sludge in agriculture and forestry, reclamation of disturbed and marginal lands, and dedicated high-rate surface disposal practices are discussed in det...

347

Mars Surveyor Project Landing Site Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key aspect of the program is the selection of landing sites. This abstract reports on status of landing site selection process beginning with the 2001 mission and outlines opportunities for the Mars community to provide input into the selection process.

V. C. Gulick; G. Briggs; R. S. Saunders; M. Gilmore; L. Soderblom

1999-01-01

348

Land Use History of North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book describes the historical and ongoing changes in land use and land cover for several regions around the U.S. Issues which are addressed include the types of changes that are occurring now and how fast they are occurring; a comparison of these changes with those in the past; and the consequences for future environmental quality and the habitability of the planet.

349

The Spatial Productivity of Industrial Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Louw E., van der Krabben E. and van Amsterdam H. The spatial productivity of industrial land, Regional Studies. This paper presents a theoretical approach to analysing the concept of spatial productivity and the meaning of land as a production factor in regional science. It presents the results of an empirical study that aims to determine and explain regional differences in

Erik Louw; Erwin van der Krabben; Hans van Amsterdam

2012-01-01

350

The Spatial Productivity of Industrial Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Louw E., van der Krabben E. and van Amsterdam H. The spatial productivity of industrial land, Regional Studies. This paper presents a theoretical approach to analysing the concept of spatial productivity and the meaning of land as a production factor in regional science. It presents the results of an empirical study that aims to determine and explain regional differences in

Erik Louw; Erwin Van Der Krabben; Hans Van Amsterdam

2011-01-01

351

The optimal timing of urban land development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion A modified Wicksell model has been used to explain optimal timing decisions concerning the development of land from a lower to a higher urban use. The analysis has shown that, within the context of the assumptions, the optimal date for development or redevelopment of urban land depends on (1) the discount rate applying in the real estate market, (2)

Donald C. Shoup

1970-01-01

352

Conflict and Land Tenure in Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the historical relation between conflict and land tenure in Rwanda, a country that experienced a harsh civil war and genocide in the mid-1990s. The victory of the Tutsi-led rebel, Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) at that time triggered a massive return of refugees and a drastic change in land tenure policy.

Shinichi Takeuchi; Jean Marara

2009-01-01

353

Land Ethics--Who Needs Them?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies land degradation as Australia's most urgent environmental problem and recommends the development of a land ethic for soil conservation. Presents a 15-point conservation education plan that encourages a sustainable ecological basis for rural production and also cultivates ecologically sound habits toward nature. (ML)

Roberts, B.

1985-01-01

354

ENDANGERED SPECIES CONSERVATION ON PRIVATE LAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the effect of alternative institutional arrangements on the conservation of endangered species and economic activity on private land. Because a landowner does not capture the full value of species conservation, her preferences on land use will not coincide with social preferences. Under current law, the landowner has incentives to invest in lowering conservation value and to deny

STEPHEN POLASKY; HOLLY DOREMUS; BRUCE RETTIG

1997-01-01

355

GOVERNING OF LAND SUPPLY IN BULGARIAN FARMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an attempt has been made to identify dominant forms and factors for land supply in Bulgarian farms. The New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics framework is adapted to transitional agrarian economy. Institutional, behavioral, and transaction costs factors for evolution and sustainability of different forms of subsistent, cooperative, and commercial land supply in Bulgaria have been analyzed. Comparative

Hrabrin Bachev

2005-01-01

356

Land resource impact indicators of urban sprawl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sprawl has been loosely defined as dispersed and inefficient urban growth. We propose a series of five indicators that examine the per capita consumption of land taken in new development in relation to several critical land resource impacts associated to sprawl including: (1) density of new urbanization; (2) loss of prime farmland; (3) loss of natural wetlands; (4) loss of

John E. Hasse; Richard G. Lathrop

2003-01-01

357

Ecologically based municipal land use planning  

SciTech Connect

The book presents compelling evidence and sound arguments that make the case for sound land use policies that will reduce sprawl. The book provides easily understood solutions for municipal land planners dealing with urban sprawl; discusses ecological resources; emphasizes the use of new environmental indicators; and includes the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) to problem solving.

Honachefsky, W.B.

2000-07-01

358

The welfare economics of land use planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical methodology for the evaluation of the benefits and costs of land use planning. The technique is applied in the context of the Town and Country Planning System of the UK, and examines the gross and net benefits of land use regulation and their distribution across income groups. The results show that the welfare and distributional

Paul Cheshire; Stephen Sheppard

2002-01-01

359

Aircraft landing control based on adaptive CMAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an intelligent control scheme that uses an adaptive cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) in aircraft automatic landing system. The proposed intelligent controller can act as an experienced pilot and guide the aircraft to a safe landing in severe turbulence environment. Current flight control law is adopted in the intelligent design. Lyapunov theory is applied to obtain adaptive

Teng-Chieh Yang; Jih-Gau Juang

2009-01-01

360

PLANT SUCCESSION ON DEGRADED LAND IN SINGAPORE  

Microsoft Academic Search

CORLETT, R.T. 1991. Plant succession on degraded land in Singapore. The course of secondary succession on land degraded by prolonged cultivation is described. On the most degraded sites, the pioneer vascular flora consists of only 13 non-parasitic species and is independent of the proximity of forest seed sources. This pioneer community is replaced after 20 to 50 y by a

R. T. Corlett

361

NATIVE AMERICAN LANDS IN REGION 10  

EPA Science Inventory

The .dbf file is standalone ArcView coverage contained within the American Indian Lands Environmental Support Project (AILESP) data base. Data supports scales at multiple resolutions although ambiguities can be seen when combined with other coverages such as general land ownersh...

362

Heilougjiang adopts measures to strengthen land management-each square millimeter of land is utterly cherished and rationally used  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on how a Chinese province with a large area of land and a small population has adopted a series of measures to strengthen land management, to stop the illegal occupying of land, and to protect land resources. Investigations of land resources and of the state of land use, as well as soil surveys, have been launched in order to determine the rights of land ownership and use. Many counties and cities have experimented with dividing farm areas into districts and comprehensive land planning, established land files, trained key personnel in land management skills, and have launched scientific land research. Illegal occupation, waste and destruction of land have risen with the increase in population and construction. Per capita cultivated acreage has declined to 4.1 mu. An effort has been made to reach the people in urban and rural areas with this message: ''Cherish every square millimeter of land utterly and use it rationally''.

Tan Peiquan; Liu, Y.

1983-07-30

363

Data Acquisition for Land Subsidence Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For controlling land subsidence caused by groundwater over-exploitation, loading of engineered structures, mining and other anthropogenic activities in this fast changing world, a large variety of different data of various scales of concerning areas are needed for scientific study and administrative operational purposes. The economical, social and environmental impacts of anthropogenic land subsidence have long been recognized by many scientific institutions and management authorities based on results of monitoring and analysis at an interdisciplinary level. The land subsidence information systems composed of the surface and subsurface monitoring nets (monitoring and development wells, GPS stations and other facilities) and local data processing centers as a system management tool in Shanghai City was started with the use of GPS technology to monitor land subsidence in 1998. After years of experiences with a set of initiatives by adopting adequate countermeasures, the particular attention given to new improved methodologies to monitor and model the process of land subsidence in a simple and timely way, this is going to be promoted in the whole Yangtze River Delta region in China, where land subsidence expands in the entire region of urban cluster. The Delta land subsidence monitoring network construction aims to establish an efficient and coordinated water resource management system. The land subsidence monitoring network records "living history" of land subsidence, produces detailed scheduled reports and environmental impact statements. For the different areas with local factors and site characteristics, parallel packages need to be designed for predicting changes, land sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, especially for the risk analysis in the rapid growth of megacities and urban areas. In such cases, the new models with new types of local data and the new ways of data acquisition provide the best information for the decision makers for their mitigating decisions. The problems with outputs to professional and non-professional users, planning vs exploitation conflicts, 3D modeling and visualization are not yet solved due to the complex issues.

Zhu, Y.; Balke, K.

2009-12-01

364

14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23.1383 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be...

2013-01-01

365

75 FR 57813 - Proposed Supplementary Rules on Public Land, Idaho  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLID9900000.L1210000.NU0000; G0-00] Proposed Supplementary Rules on Public Land, Idaho AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Proposed...

2010-09-22

366

43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE...

2011-10-01

367

25 CFR 135.20 - Private contract lands; assessments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Private contract lands; assessments. 135.20 Section...Charges Assessed Against Non-Indian Lands Not Included in an Irrigation District § 135.20 Private contract lands; assessments. In addition to...

2011-04-01

368

25 CFR 163.35 - Indian forest land assistance account.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Indian forest land assistance account. 163.35 Section...INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS...Operations § 163.35 Indian forest land assistance account. (a) At...

2011-04-01

369

25 CFR 158.54 - Exchanges of restrictive lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Exchanges of restrictive lands. 158.54 Section 158.54 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER OSAGE LANDS § 158.54 Exchanges of restrictive...

2011-04-01

370

14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be designed and...

2009-01-01

371

43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3 Section...Purchase § 3811.2-3 Lands in Indian reservations. All lands contained within the boundaries of an established Indian Reservation are withdrawn from...

2012-10-01

372

43 CFR 2710.0-8 - Lands subject to sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Lands subject to sale. 2710.0-8 Section 2710.0-8 Public...INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SALES: FEDERAL LAND POLICY AND MANAGEMENT ACT Sales: General Provisions § 2710.0-8...

2012-10-01

373

43 CFR 2741.1 - Lands subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public Purposes...forests, national parks and monuments...Land Policy and Management Act of...

2012-10-01

374

75 FR 56501 - Information Collection; Land Management Agency Volunteer Surveys  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...natural resource (land) management agencies (LMA). Through...ability to provide land management services to the public...agencies that have a land management function such as parks, forests, recreation areas, or wildlife...

2010-09-16

375

7 CFR 1468.8 - Land eligibility provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General...Provisions § 1468.8 Land eligibility provisions...of 1996 and if the land upon which the CFO conservation practice, will be...determined to be eligible land as determined by...

2012-01-01

376

7 CFR 1468.8 - Land eligibility provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General...Provisions § 1468.8 Land eligibility provisions...of 1996 and if the land upon which the CFO conservation practice, will be...determined to be eligible land as determined by...

2013-01-01

377

30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must make a finding that the land acquisition is necessary for successful...thatâ (1) The acquired land will serve recreation, historic, conservation, and reclamation purposes...facilities will be constructed on the land for the restoration,...

2013-07-01

378

25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing...

2009-04-01

379

25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing...

2010-04-01

380

25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing...

2013-04-01

381

14 CFR 437.33 - Landing and impact locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...each location for nominal landing or any contingency abort landing of the reusable suborbital rocket, and each location for any nominal or contingency impact or landing of a component of that rocket, satisfies §...

2013-01-01

382

Silvicultural Biomass Farms. Volume III. Land Suitability and Availability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Land suitability criteria were developed and used to identify potentially available land for silvicultural biomass farms. Six land availability scenarios were chosen for analysis. The annual potential production of biomass energy was estimated on a region...

D. J. Salo R. E. Inman B. J. McGurk J. Verhoeff

1977-01-01

383

Additional Investigations into the Aircraft Landing Process: Test Distributions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The landing times for the 10 German civil airports, without waiting times due to aircraft allocations to holding areas, were investigated using a simulation model for the landing process. Test distributions were developed. Results are synthetic landing ti...

H. Peters

1988-01-01

384

77 FR 13683 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan AGENCY: Federal Highway...of the draft Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTP) for public...to the Alaska Federal Lands draft Long Range Transportation Plans. The draft...

2012-03-07

385

43 CFR 2742.1 - Lands subject to disposition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Omitted Lands and Unsurveyed Islands § 2742.1 Lands subject to disposition. Omitted lands and unsurveyed islands may be conveyed to States and their local political subdivisions under...

2012-10-01

386

Stream Biodiversity: The Ghost of Land Use Past  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of past land use on the present-day diversity of stream invertebrates and fish was investigated by comparing watersheds with different land-use history. Whole watershed land use in the 1950s was the best predictor of present-day diversity, whereas riparian land use and watershed land use in the 1990s were comparatively poor indicators. Our findings indicate that past land-use activity,

J. S. Harding; E. F. Benfield; P. V. Bolstad; G. S. Helfman; E. B. D. Jones

1998-01-01

387

Forest conservation and land development in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico, rapid land-use changes over the past century have included recent land-cover conversion to urban\\/built-up lands. Observations of this land development adjacent to reserves or replacing dense forest call into question how the changes relate to forests or reserved lands. Using existing maps, this study first summarizes island-wide land-cover change between 1977-78 and 1991-92.

E. H. Helmer

2004-01-01

388

Addressing Issues for Land Change Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workshop on Vulnerability and Resilience of Land Systems in Asia; Beijing, China, 15-17 June 2009; There is a growing international community of scholars who work within the interdisciplinary field of land change science, a scientific domain that seeks to understand the dynamics of the land system as a coupled human-environment system. A coupled human-environment system is one in which the social and biophysical subsystems are intertwined so that the system's condition and responses to external forcing are based on the synergy of the two subsystems. Research on land system vulnerability, defined as a function of exposure and sensitivity to natural and anthropogenic perturbations, such as climate variability and sudden changes in macroeconomic conditions and the ability to cope with the impacts of those perturbations, is a fundamental component of land change science. To address issues related to land system vulnerability, the Global Land Project (GLP; http://www.glp-beijing.org.cn/index.php and http://www.glp.hokudai.ac.jp) brought together an interdisciplinary group of researchers with backgrounds ranging from environmental to social sciences. Participants came from both developed and developing countries. The workshop sought to (1) improve knowledge of the causal processes that affect a system's vulnerability and capacity to cope with different perturbations and (2) identify factors that hinder the integration of vulnerability assessment into policies and decision making.

Braimoh, Ademola; Huang, He Qing

2009-09-01

389

25 CFR 152.22 - Secretarial approval necessary to convey individual-owned trust or restricted lands or land owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...necessary to convey individual-owned trust or restricted lands or land owned by a tribe. 152.22 Section 152.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE,...

2011-04-01

390

78 FR 58555 - Public Land Order No. 7821; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Steamboat Rock Picnic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [SDM 99842] Public Land Order No. 7821; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of...

2013-09-24

391

77 FR 2563 - Public Land Order No. 7787; Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands in the Grand...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLAZ91000.L14300000.ET0000.LXSIURAM0000, AZA 35138] Public Land Order No. 7787; Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands in the Grand Canyon Watershed;...

2012-01-18

392

25 CFR 292.5 - When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a settlement of a land claim?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a settlement of a land claim? 292.5 Section 292.5 Indians ...INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES GAMING ON TRUST LANDS ACQUIRED AFTER OCTOBER 17, 1988 Exceptions...

2011-04-01

393

Automatic detection of aircraft emergency landing sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automatic landing site detection algorithm is proposed for aircraft emergency landing. Emergency landing is an unplanned event in response to emergency situations. If, as is unfortunately usually the case, there is no airstrip or airfield that can be reached by the un-powered aircraft, a crash landing or ditching has to be carried out. Identifying a safe landing site is critical to the survival of passengers and crew. Conventionally, the pilot chooses the landing site visually by looking at the terrain through the cockpit. The success of this vital decision greatly depends on the external environmental factors that can impair human vision, and on the pilot's flight experience that can vary significantly among pilots. Therefore, we propose a robust, reliable and efficient algorithm that is expected to alleviate the negative impact of these factors. We present only the detection mechanism of the proposed algorithm and assume that the image enhancement for increased visibility, and image stitching for a larger field-of-view have already been performed on the images acquired by aircraftmounted cameras. Specifically, we describe an elastic bound detection method which is designed to position the horizon. The terrain image is divided into non-overlapping blocks which are then clustered according to a "roughness" measure. Adjacent smooth blocks are merged to form potential landing sites whose dimensions are measured with principal component analysis and geometric transformations. If the dimensions of the candidate region exceed the minimum requirement for safe landing, the potential landing site is considered a safe candidate and highlighted on the human machine interface. At the end, the pilot makes the final decision by confirming one of the candidates, also considering other factors such as wind speed and wind direction, etc. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

Shen, Yu-Fei; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Krusienski, Dean; Li, Jiang

2011-05-01

394

43 CFR 3471.1 - Land description requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL MANAGEMENT PROVISIONS AND LIMITATIONS Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.1 Land description...

2012-10-01

395

Lake Land College GIS Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer visualization technology that stores maps as parts of a database, and allows the user to ask questions about the maps. Currently, GIS is being applied to a wide spectrum of industries such as government, communications, telecommunications, utilities, engineering, natural resource management, forestry-environmental science, health and human services, education, and agriculture. GIS and its database management system have been targeted as a key technology that will impact the state labor market. Students who complete this program will be familiar with industry standard GIS software and have the skills to work with diverse data sets and analysis. This certificate will greatly increase the opportunities for students to compete for professional positions in diverse fields. Lake Land College students enrolled in both technical and transfer curricula in an associate of arts or science degree program would be strongly advised to add this certificate to their degree. GIS technology is being used in many upper division courses in bachelor degree programs such as environmental science (natural resource management), geography, engineering, agriculture, sociology, and life sciences. This certificate would allow many transfer students the opportunity to complete course work in techniques and technologies that will be needed to be successful at the university level.

2011-07-19

396

Localized Brain Activation Related to the Strength of Auditory Learning in a Parrot  

PubMed Central

Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory.

Matsushita, Masanori; Matsuda, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Satoh, Ryohei; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Manabe, Kazuchika; Kawashima, Takashi; Bolhuis, Johan J.

2012-01-01

397

The plight of arid land agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This book analyses the problems of the agricultural environment worldwide and possible solutions. Problems covered include the following: famines caused by agricultural land mismanegment in Subsaharan Africa and population increase; improved productivity leading to salinity, erosion, and water depletion; toxic wastes; loging, deforestation, and over-grazing. Agricultural practices, both ancient and modern, in arid lands are described. Food crops suited for arid lands, potential industrial crops, oil extraction from seed and rubber extraction, and biomass as a source of energy are discussed in different chapters. Finally the book deals with optimization of water use, prevention of salinization, and the prospect of global warming.

Hinman, C. W.; Hinman, K.W.

1992-01-01

398

Mars Dead or Alive: Where to Land?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is not easy to get to Mars. Dozens of past missions have failed, with only a handful even attempting to land on the planet's surface. However, in January 2004, careful planning paid off when the Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, describes the history of Mars exploration, the many failed missions, the process of choosing landing sites and procedures for the Rover mission, and the new focus on looking for evidence that water was once present.

399

Mars Dead or Alive: Where to Land?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is not easy to get to Mars. Dozens of past missions have failed, with only a handful even attempting to land on the planet's surface. However, in January 2004, careful planning paid off when the Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, describes the history of Mars exploration, the many failed missions, the process of choosing landing sites and procedures for the Rover mission, and the new focus on looking for evidence that water was once present.

2010-11-29

400

Minimum Fuel Trajectories with Soft Landings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minimum fuel trajectories for rocket flights with soft landings in a uniform gravitational field are presented as functions of two parameters. The solutions are valid for any uniform gravitational field, rocket fuel, and burning rate. The problem is formu...

O. J. Manci

1964-01-01

401

Remote Measurement of Haze Layers Over Land.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research objective is to develop a method using satellite based radiation data to measure haze layers over land. Satellite radiation measurements, four bands of different wave lengths, and computed haze indices were analyzed in the San Joaquin Valley ...

E. L. Peck

1984-01-01

402

HEALTH RISKS OF ORGANICS IN LAND APPLICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential health problems associated with the presence of persistent organic chemicals in wastewater and sludge, when applied to agricultural lands, are reviewed. The topics considered include: the type and amounts of organic chemicals present in wastewater and sludge, their ...

403

32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Only the unauthorized landing fee may be waived by the installation commander or a designated representative if, after interviewing the pilot-in-command and appropriate Government personnel, it is determined that flying safety was not...

2013-07-01

404

Camden County Land Use Update, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the 1980 planning process, the county adopted a set of general goals concerning Resource Protection, Resource Production, and Economic and Community Development. The information contained in the 1980 Land Use Plan provided the starting point for th...

1988-01-01

405

Land Mobile Base Station Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The file contains data provided by common carriers in the Land Mobile Base Station Industry. The data is categorized under three phases: pending, under construction, and licensed. Each applicant/communication system is described according to ownership, lo...

J. M. Giuli

1979-01-01

406

Database for compliance with land disposal restrictions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The new restrictions on land disposal introduce additional challenges to hazardous waste managers. Laboratory waste streams consisting of small volumes of diverse waste types will be particularly difficult to manage due to the large number of possible tre...

M. W. McCoy

1990-01-01

407

Outdoors America: recreational opportunites on public lands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

What comes to your mind when you think of outdoor recreation? Boating? Camping? Hiking or backpacking? Horse-back riding? Hunting or fishing? Chances are, if you can name an outdoor activity, you can do it on public lands.

U.S. Geological Survey

1992-01-01

408

7 CFR 1450.204 - Eligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Establishment Payments and Annual Payments § 1450.204 Eligible land....

2013-01-01

409

Specification Writers' Guide for Federal Lands Highway.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains guidelines to help writers develop specifications for the Federal Highway Administrations Federal Lands Highway program. Topics addressed include: Specification writing style; Organization and format, Proper terminology and phrasing...

L. Konrath L. Marsiglio S. Scott

2008-01-01

410

Urban Land and the Urban Prospect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Urban Land and the Urban Prospect; The Changing Geography of Opportunity; What Our Strategy Should Be; What We Have To Build On; How Government Should Build on these Trends; Summary; Note; References.

H. G. Cisneros

1996-01-01

411

Securing Agricultural Land for Wastewater Irrigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the result of a study on the methods and their impacts for securing agricultural land for a municipal wastewater irrigation system. Emphasis is on wastewater irrigation rather than wastewater disposal. Nine major methods of securing l...

1977-01-01

412

Origin and early evolution of land plants  

PubMed Central

The origin of the sporophyte in land plants represents a fundamental phase in plant evolution. Today this subject is controversial, and scarcely considered in textbooks and journals of botany, in spite of its importance. There are two conflicting theories concerning the origin of the alternating generations in land-plants: the “antithetic” theory and the “homologous” theory. These have never been fully resolved, although, on the ground of the evidences on the probable ancestors of land plants, the antithetic theory is considered more plausible than the homologous theory. However, additional phylogenetic dilemmas are the evolution of bryophytes from algae and the transition from these first land plants to the pteridophytes. All these very large evolutionary jumps are discussed on the basis of the phyletic gradualist neo-Darwinian theory and other genetic evolutionary mechanisms.

2008-01-01

413

Geohydrological Considerations in Land Disposal of LLW.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The geohydrological and geochemical factors that affect the transport, transfer, and transformation of the waste in the aquifer system as a result of shallow land burial practices are discussed. They include surface topography and its character, the exten...

G. T. Yeh T. Tamura

1981-01-01

414

Land Degradation and Property Regimes. Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common pr...

P. M. Beaumont R. T. Walker

1996-01-01

415

Tritium at the Steel Creek Landing  

SciTech Connect

In December 1997 and January 1998, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) collected routine weekly grab samples from the Savannah River near the Steel Creek Boat Landing.

Arnett, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Heffner, J.D.; Fledderman, P.D.; Littrell, J.W.; Hayes, D.W.; Dodgen, M.S.

1998-01-01

416

PASSIVE MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING FOR LAND APPLILCATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Passive microwave remote sensing has made major contributions in atmospheric and oceanic sciences. These applications have exploited higher frequencies and used low frequencies to establish background conditions. Land applications have been hampered by the availability of low frequency observations...

417

The evolution of land plant cilia.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic cilia/flagella are ancient organelles with motility and sensory functions. Cilia display significant ultrastructural conservation where present across the eukaryotic phylogeny; however, diversity in ciliary biology exists and the ability to produce cilia has been lost independently on a number of occasions. Land plants provide an excellent system for the investigation of cilia evolution and loss across a broad phylogeny, because early divergent land plant lineages produce cilia, whereas most seed plants do not. This review highlights the differences in cilia form and function across land plants and discusses how recent advances in genomics are providing novel insights into the evolutionary trajectory of ciliary proteins. We propose a renewed effort to adopt ciliated land plants as models to investigate the mechanisms underpinning complex ciliary processes, such as number control, the coordination of basal body placement and the regulation of beat patterns. PMID:22691130

Hodges, Matthew E; Wickstead, Bill; Gull, Keith; Langdale, Jane A

2012-06-12

418

Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing ...

C. Justice

1998-01-01

419

Watershed management contributions to land stewardship: A ...  

Treesearch

Title: Watershed management contributions to land stewardship: A literature review ... students, and lay persons with a keen interest in watershed management ... Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

420

Shallow land burial technology: humid  

SciTech Connect

Applying engineered modifications to present shallow land burial (SLB) practices is one method of ensuring safe operation and improving overall disposal-site performance. Two such engineered modifications, trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Engineered Test Facility (ETF), using nine 28-m/sup 3/ experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste (LLW). Concurrent to this field demonstration experiment, two finite-element hydrologic models have been developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. This paper covers progress made in these two areas during FY 1984. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining (lining costs were 33% lower at this demonstration scale), results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests, combined with observed intratrench water-level fluctuations, suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. In addition, trench-cover subsidence of approx. 2% of the total trench depth has been measured over two of the three lined trenches but has not occurred over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. The evaluation of the two trench treatments is continuing. However, results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment, implemented at a cost of $160/m/sup 3/ of grout, provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at SLB sites with water-related problems. 11 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Davis, E.C.; Yeh, G.T.

1984-01-01

421

Recent land degradation and improvement in China.  

PubMed

Land degradation is a global development and environment issue that afflicts China more than most countries in terms of the extent, economic impact, and number of people affected. Up-to-date, quantitative information is needed to support policy and action for food and water security, economic development, and environmental integrity. Data for a defined, recent period enable us to distinguish the legacy of historical land degradation from what is happening now. We define land degradation as long-term decline in ecosystem function and productivity and measure it by remote sensing of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the greenness index. NDVI may be translated to net primary productivity (NPP). Deviation from the norm serves as a proxy assessment of land degradation and improvement-if other factors that may be responsible are taken into account. These other factors include climate, which may be assessed by rain-use efficiency and energy-use efficiency. Analysis of the 23-year Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) NDVI data reveals that, in China over the period 1981-2003, NPP increased overall, but areas of declining climate-adjusted NPP comprise 23% of the country, mainly in south China. About 35% of China's population (457 million out of 1317 million) depend on the degrading land. Degrading areas suffered a loss of NPP of 12 kgC ha(-1) y(-1), amounting to almost 60 million tC not fixed from the atmosphere; loss of soil organic carbon from these areas is likely to be orders of magnitude greater. There is no correlation between land degradation and dry lands; it is more of an issue in cropland and forest: 21% of degrading land is cropland and 40% is forest, 24% of the arable and 44% of the forest, respectively. There is no simple statistical relationship between land degradation and rural population density or poverty. Most identified land degradation is in the south and east, driven by unprecedented land-use change. PMID:19580032

Bai, Zhanguo; Dent, David

2009-05-01

422

Microwave land emissivity and skin temperature for AMSU-A and B assimilation over land  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY AMSU-A and -B measurements are stillnot extensively used over land surfaces for atmospheric applications. Recent studies have shown that it should now be possible to take advantage of the information content of these instruments provided land emissivity and skin temperature estimates are improved. This paper reports on comparisons between three land-surface schemes using the Meteo-France four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) assimilation

Fatima Karbou; Élisabeth Gérard; Florence Rabier

2006-01-01

423

Land cover\\/land use change in semi-arid Inner Mongolia: 1992-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semi-arid grasslands in Inner Mongolia (IM) are under increasing stress owing to climate change and rapid socio-economic development in the recent past. We investigated changes in land cover\\/land use and landscape structure between 1992 and 2004 through the analysis of AVHRR and MODIS derived land cover data. The scale of analysis included the regional level (i.e. the whole of

Ranjeet John; Jiquan Chen; Nan Lu; Burkhard Wilske

2009-01-01

424

Impact of land use and land cover changes on ecosystem services in Menglun, Xishuangbanna, Southwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing the landscape has serious environmental impacts affecting the ecosystem services, particularly in the tropics. In\\u000a this paper, we report changes in ecosystem services in relation to land use and land cover over an 18-year period (1988–2006)\\u000a in the Menglun Township, Xishuangbanna, Southwest China. We used Landsat TM\\/ETM and Quickbird data sets to estimate changes\\u000a in ten land use and

Huabin Hu; Wenjun Liu; Min Cao

2008-01-01

425

The Land Surface Climatology of the Community Land Model Coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The land surface parameterization used with the community climate model (CCM3) and the climate system model (CSM1), the National Center for Atmospheric Research land surface model (NCAR LSM1), has been modified as part of the development of the next version of these climate models. This new model is known as the community land model (CLM2). In CLM2, the surface is

Gordon B. Bonan; Keith W. Oleson; Mariana Vertenstein; Samuel Levis; Xubin Zeng; Yongjiu Dai; Robert E. Dickinson; Zong-Liang Yang

2002-01-01

426

Strangers, spirits, and land reforms: conflicts about land in Dande, northern Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes efforts by the Zimbabwean government to enforce land reforms on African farmers in northern Zimbabwe. These efforts compounded rather than alleviated the problem of land scarcity for black small-scale farmers, a problem government now allegedly seeks to redress through invasions of white-owned farms. The book describes the similarities between the post-Independence land reforms and those attempted by

Marja J. Spierenburg

2004-01-01

427

Application of GIS for land-use\\/land-cover change analysis in a mountainous terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of remote sensing data with other spatial\\/non-spatial data was carried out using ARC\\/INFO software package. A\\u000a simple classification technique was adopted for land cover\\/land-use change analyses in relation to elevation, slope, aspect\\u000a and bio-climatic classes. Suitability assessment of land where agricultural extension occurred between 1963 and 1993 was made\\u000a using GIS software package. Expansion of agriculture and was found

S Ghosh; K K Sen; U Rana; K S Rao; K G Saxena

1996-01-01

428

Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan\\/CCRS and USGS\\/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4\\/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined.

Rasim Latifovic; Zhi-Liang ZhuSUPbSU; Josef Cihlar; Chandra Giri; Ian Olthof

2004-01-01

429

Structural patterns of land types and optimal allocation of land use in Qinling Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

s  The case study based on Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi Province of China, in virtue of the information from TM image, classifies\\u000a the land types and analyzes their spatial and temporal differential law, and puts forward three structural patterns of land\\u000a types in mountainous areas, namely, spatial, quantitative and qualitative structures of mountainous land types. Furthermore,\\u000a it has been noticed that

Liu Yan-sui; Deng Xiang-zheng

2001-01-01

430

A Mobile Landing Platform for Miniature Vertical Take-Off and Landing Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miniature vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) vehicles have limited range of operations mainly due to their limited payload capacities and power availability. To increase this range, a modified unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) is used to transport the VTOL to its target area serving as an on-site take-off\\/landing and possibly refueling base. A gimbaled landing platform design is proposed and the

K. Dalamagkidis; S. Ioannou; K. Valavanis; E. Stefanakos

2006-01-01

431

Measuring Urban Concentration and Land-use Diversity in Maps of Simulated Future Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future land use is an important theme in the preparation and evaluation of spatial planning reports. These studies typically look several decades ahead and describe the outlook of the future by means of a set of scenarios with different socio-economic conditions. Land-use models are commonly used to indicate possible future land-use patterns according to the scenario conditions. In order to

E. Koomen; Ritsema Eck van J

2007-01-01

432

Composite skid landing gear design investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Composite Skid Landing Gear Design investigation has been conducted. Limit Drop Test as per Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 27.725 and Crash test as per MIL STD 1290A (AV) were simulated using ABAQUS to evaluate performance of multiple composite fiber-matrix systems. Load factor developed during multiple landing scenarios and energy dissipated during crash were computed. Strength and stiffness based

Kshitij Shrotri

2008-01-01

433

African 6K Land Surface Conditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One degree by one degree data are available for the land cover of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa at 6,000 years BP (before present). The data are available as an ASCII text file or a Microsoft Excel (7.0) spreadsheet. Land cover data include vegetation types, open lakes, and wetlands. Channel flow data are also available. The data is provided by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Paleoclimatology Program and World Data Center A- Paleoclimatology.

434

The South Dakota Land Use Inventory System  

Microsoft Academic Search

All levels of government share the need for natural resource information. Remote Sensing and computer technology can provide a cost effective means of collecting, analyzing, and synthesizing some of this data.\\u000aOne of the principal areas where remotely sensed data is being applied in governmental natural resource planning is in the generation of land use, or more precisely, land cover

Paul A. Tessar

1975-01-01

435

Land-vehicle navigation using GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Positioning System (GPS) has made navigation systems practical for a number of land-vehicle navigation applications. Today, GPS-based navigation systems can be found in motor vehicles, farming and mining equipment, and a variety of other land-based vehicles (e.g., golf carts and mobile robots). Each of these applications is discussed and the reader is introduced to some of the issues

ERIC ABBOTT; DAVID POWELL

1999-01-01

436

A heterogeneous land surface model initialization study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate energy and water storage initialization is critical for skillful land surface model prediction. A properly initialized model has equilibrium land surface states via spin-up runs. The present study investigated aspects of spin-up runs for the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) at point stations using the 1 km grid of the Land Information System. The model is run repeatedly through a single year until a predefined equilibrium is achieved. Nine different model initialization methods were tested and compared in these spin-up runs at twelve southern Great Plains surface observation stations in the Midwestern United States. Soil moisture is used as the primary land surface state to evaluate the spin-up initializations. The model outputs are compared to evaluate the discrepancies over the annual cycle of repeated runs to learn how the model attains equilibrium land surface states. The results indicate that the climatological average state does not necessarily return the most efficient LSM initialization. Among the various tested methods, the spin-up runs initialized with the spatially heterogeneous states averaged over a short period are found to perform better than others. Heterogeneous land surface conditions are also found to play a vital role in the spin-up response. More stable land surface states are obtained through longer spin-up runs, which also produce more similar coefficient of variance, suggesting that the longer spin-up runs could yield similar heterogeneous fluxes irrespective of the initialization method. Comparing the results from different methods, a computationally economic technique for the single-year spin-up is proposed.

Shrestha, Roshan; Houser, Paul

2010-10-01

437

Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.  

PubMed

How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. PMID:23141878

Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

2012-11-09

438

Conversion of agricultural land to urban use  

SciTech Connect

The large amount of land lost each year to urbanization has led nearly all states to adopt legislation that grants tax preferences to agricultural land use. Several studies have analyzed the effects of such policies on the rate of land development and on the total amount of land eventually developed. However, these studies have only analyzed permanent tax-rate changes despite the fact that most such changes are temporary. A distinction is made in this study between temporary, permanent, anticipated, and unanticipated tax-rate increases. Using a hedonic approach, the elasticity of supply of urban fringe land in McHenry County, Illinois is estimated to be approximately 0.30, which indicates that the amount of land converted to urban use is unlikely to be affected much by these polices. The hedonic approach as usually implemented is shown to lead to inconsistent parameter estimates. A consistent estimation procedure is proposed that produces testable cross-equation restrictions. A restriction is implied in the empirical section of this study by the use of the Box-Cox transformation to generalize functional form; it is tested and is not rejected. However, little is known about the small-sample properties of this transformation. To rectify this, a Monte Carlo study is conducted of the performance of Lagrange Multiplier tests for incorrect functional form and heteroskedasticity in a model that uses this transformation.

McMillen, D.P.

1987-01-01

439

Land cover and water yield: inference problems when comparing catchments with mixed land cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled experiments provide strong evidence that changing land cover (e.g. deforestation or afforestation) can affect mean catchment streamflow (Q). By contrast, a similarly strong influence has not been found in studies that interpret Q from multiple catchments with mixed land cover. One possible reason is that there are methodological issues with the way in which the Budyko framework was used in the latter type studies. We examined this using Q data observed in 278 Australian catchments and by making inferences from synthetic Q data simulated by a hydrological process model (the Australian Water Resources Assessment system Landscape model). The previous contrasting findings could be reproduced. In the synthetic experiment, the land cover influence was still present but not accurately detected with the Budyko- framework. Likely sources of interpretation bias demonstrated include: (i) noise in land cover, precipitation and Q data; (ii) additional catchment climate characteristics more important than land cover; and (iii) covariance between Q and catchment attributes. These methodological issues caution against the use of a Budyko framework to quantify a land cover influence in Q data from mixed land-cover catchments. Importantly, however, our findings do not rule out that there may also be physical processes that modify the influence of land cover in mixed land-cover catchments. Process model simulations suggested that lateral water redistribution between vegetation types and recirculation of intercepted rainfall may be important.

van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Peńa-Arancibia, J. L.; (Sampurno) Bruijnzeel, L. A.

2012-09-01

440

Technical procedures for land use, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Final draft  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Land Use Site Study Plan including land use data acquisition, land use/land cover map compilation, verification of land use/land cover map accuracy, and land use/land cover data analysis. 22 refs., 5 figs.

Not Available

1987-09-01

441

43 CFR 2650.4-5 - National forest lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National forest lands. 2650.4-5 Section 2650...Generally § 2650.4-5 National forest lands. Every conveyance which includes lands within the boundaries of a national forest shall, as to such lands, contain...

2012-10-01

442

Visual Simulation of Aircraft Carrier Assistant Landing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex landing aid system is one of the most important differences for an aircraft to land on aircraft carrier and airport. The main components of landing aid system include Fresnel Lens, remote laser centered indicator, runway lights. Taking a full-task military aircraft simulator for example, paper describes the system structure and key technology of simulation for the landing aid

Yongjun Qiao; Xiaoming Bai; Xiaofang Xie; Yongsheng Li

2008-01-01

443

25 CFR 150.9 - Land status maps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land status maps. 150.9 Section 150.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND RECORDS AND TITLE DOCUMENTS § 150.9 Land...

2011-04-01

444

25 CFR 151.3 - Land acquisition policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Land acquisition policy. 151.3 Section 151.3 Indians...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LAND ACQUISITIONS § 151.3 Land acquisition...

2011-04-01

445

Land Policy: Founding Choices and Outcomes, 1781-1802  

Microsoft Academic Search

Victory in the War for Independence brought a vast amount of land within the grasp of the new American nation -- territory stretching from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River between the southern shores of the Great Lakes and Spanish Florida. These lands were initially claimed by several states. Pressure from states without land claims led to these lands

Farley Grubb

2009-01-01

446

A new approach to complete aircraft landing gear noise prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes a new landing gear noise prediction system developed at The Pennsylvania State University, called Landing Gear Model and Acoustic Prediction code (LGMAP). LGMAP is used to predict the noise of an isolated or installed landing gear geometry. The predictions include several techniques to approximate the aeroacoustic and aerodynamic interactions of landing gear noise generation. These include (1)

Leonard V. Lopes

2009-01-01

447

A Long-Term Forecast Analysis On Worldwide Land Uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstact  More and more lands worldwide are being cultivated for food production while forests are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. This paper aims to make a long-term forecast on land uses worldwide and provide the publics, researchers, and government officials with a clear profile for land uses in the future. Data of land uses since 1961 were used to fit historical

Wenjun Zhang; Yanhong Qi; Zhiguo Zhang

2006-01-01

448

Fast Track Land Reform, Tenure Security, and Investments in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its independence in 1980, Zimbabwe has pursued a land reform and resettlement program aimed at addressing racially skewed land distribution. The most recent phase, the Fast Track Land Reform Program, was launched in 2000 with the aim of acquiring at least five million hectares of land for redistribution. This paper investigates the impact of this program on perceptions of

Precious Zikhali

2008-01-01

449

Research on land registration procedure ontology of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land registration is public act which is to record the state-owned land use right, collective land ownership, collective land use right and land mortgage, servitude, as well as other land rights required the registration according to laws and regulations onto land registering books. Land registration is one of the important government affairs , so it is very important to standardize, optimize and humanize the process of land registration. The management works of organization are realized through a variety of workflows. Process knowledge is in essence a kind of methodology knowledge and a system which including the core and the relational knowledge. In this paper, the ontology is introduced into the field of land registration and management, trying to optimize the flow of land registration, to promote the automation-building and intelligent Service of land registration affairs, to provide humanized and intelligent service for multi-types of users . This paper tries to build land registration procedure ontology by defining the land registration procedure ontology's key concepts which represent the kinds of processes of land registration and mapping the kinds of processes to OWL-S. The land registration procedure ontology shall be the start and the basis of the Web service.

Zhao, Zhongjun; Du, Qingyun; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Tao

2009-10-01

450

43 CFR 7.35 - Permitting procedures for Indian lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-10-01 true Permitting procedures for Indian lands. 7.35 Section 7.35 ...§ 7.35 Permitting procedures for Indian lands. (a) If the lands involved in a permit application are Indian lands, the consent of the...

2012-10-01

451

Evaluating local coastal zone land use planning capacities in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local jurisdictions' coastal zone land use plans play an important role in protecting critical coastal resources and ensuring coastal communities' sustainable development. This study extends the previous national and regional measurement systems to local coastal zone land use planning. This study evaluates 46 California local jurisdictions' coastal zone land use plans and analyzes the factors influencing local coastal zone land

Zhenghong Tang

2008-01-01

452

Critical soft landing technology issues for future US space missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programmatic need for research and development to support parachute-based landing systems has not existed since the end of the Apollo missions in the mid-1970s. Now, a number of planned space programs require advanced landing capabilities for which the experience and technology base does not currently exist. New requirements for landing on land with controllable, gliding decelerators and for more

J. M. Macha; D. W. Johnson; D. D. McBride

1992-01-01

453

Silvicultural biomass farms. Volume III. Land suitability and availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land suitability criteria were developed and used to identify potentially available land for silvicultural biomass farms. Six land availability scenarios were chosen for analysis. The annual potential production of biomass energy was estimated on a regional basis assuming the use of 10 percent of the potentially available land in each of the six scenarios and estimated biomass yields. Ten hypothetical

D. J. Salo; R. E. Inman; B. J. McGurk; J. Verhoeff

1977-01-01

454

EFFECTS OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON LAND-COVER CLASS ACCURACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Utilizing land-cover data gathered as part of the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) set accuracy assessment, several logistic regression models were formulated to analyze the effects of patch size and land-cover heterogeneity on classification accuracy. Specific land-cover ...

455

The Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on land surface properties finds applications in a range of areas related to weather forecasting, environmental research, hazard management and climate monitoring. Remotely sensed observations yield the only means of supplying land surface information with adequate time sampling and a wide spatial coverage. The aim of the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis (Land-SAF) is to take full

Isabel F. Trigo; Carlos C. Dacamara; Pedro Viterbo; Jean-Louis Roujean; Folke Olesen; Carla Barroso; Fernando Camacho-de-Coca; Dominique Carrer; Sandra C. Freitas; Javier Garcia-Haro; Bernhard Geiger; Francoise Gellens-Meulenberghs; Nicolas Ghilain; Joaquin Melia; Luis Pessanha; Niilo Siljamo; Alirio Arboleda

2011-01-01

456

Assessing land reallocation decisions during transition in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The post-socialist countries underwent dramatic changes in agricultural land ownership and production system. Former socialist collective farms have been dismantled, rural land has been privatized, and land markets have been formalized. Nevertheless, more than a decade later farming associations still persist in the choices that landowners make in terms of land reallocation despite collective action problems and the availability of

Georgeta Vidican

2009-01-01

457

43 CFR 2091.7 - Segregation and opening of lands classified for a specific use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.7 Segregation and opening of lands classified...

2012-10-01

458

The current situation of cultivated land and population in China.  

PubMed

China/s current cultivated land supply will be depleted in 200 years if present land use and population pressure continue, according to Professor Liu Xuanhao of the Beijing Agriculture University in 1989. The amount of cultivated land began to decline after 1957 due to national construction projects. By 1985 the decline had reached a net annual average of 15 million mu (1 mu = 16.5% of an acre). Land lost between 1949 and 1986 amounted to a 7 million annual average. During this period, population grew from 540 million in 1949 to 1.14 billion in 1990, which meant 2.8 mu/capita in 1949 vs. 1.5mu/capita in 1990. 5 major points are made. 1) China feeds 22% of the world's population on 7% of world's land. Per capita area of cultivated land is low for China's population size. Land area is 13.3 mu/capita or 25% of US land area. 2) Of the total land area, cultivated land constitutes a small proportion, i.e., 31% is plains and basins while 69% is mountains, plateaus, and hilly areas. 1.4 billion mu is cultivatable land or 10% of the land area. In contrast, 50% of India's territory is cultivatable land. 3) East and south China have the greatest area (90%) of cultivable land. Forest reserves are in the northeast and southwest, and grasslands predominate in the northwest. 4) There is only 500 million mu of arable land. 5) There are insufficient water resources and uneven regional and seasonal distribution. Water resources are 25% of the world average. National Economic development will be impeded by the pressure between limited land resources and population growth which is expected to increase until 2020. Land management since 1986 has come under the Land Administration Law whose guidelines stipulate that land is to be valued, protected, and utilized rationally. Since 1986, there has been nationwide monitoring of land use for nonfarming purposes, which has contributed to less loss of land for cultivation. Evaluation of land resources will now permit plans for appropriate land utilization. Currently the net decrease in cultivated land is 3 million mu/year. Beginning in 1991, June 25 is set aside as Land Day. Last year Vice Premier Tian Jiyun of the State Council urged on Land Day all citizens to protect and to use the land fully. Strengthening land and resource utilization with economic development will insure future viability. PMID:12285198

Long, B

1991-10-01

459

Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally?  

PubMed Central

Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly because we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research.

Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Muller, Daniel; Verburg, Peter H; Estel, Stephan; Haberl, Helmut; Hostert, Patrick; Jepsen, Martin R.; Kastner, Thomas; Levers, Christian; Lindner, Marcus; Plutzar, Christoph; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes; van der Zanden, Emma H; Reenberg, Anette

2013-01-01

460

Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3) to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover - CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene) currently underway, and show preliminary results of REVEALS reconstructions of the regional land-cover in the Czech Republic for five selected time windows of the Holocene, and (4) to discuss the implications and future directions in climate and vegetation/land-cover modeling, and in the assessment of the effects of human-induced changes in land-cover on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. The existing ALCC scenarios show large discrepancies between them, and few cover time periods older than AD 800. When these scenarios are used to assess the impact of human land-use on climate, contrasting results are obtained. It emphasizes the need of REVEALS model-based land-cover reconstructions. They might help to fine-tune descriptions of past land-cover and lead to a better understanding of how long-term changes in ALCC might have influenced climate. The REVEALS model is proved to provide better estimates of the regional vegetation/land-cover changes than the traditional use of pollen percentages. Thus, the application of REVEALS opens up the possibility of achieving a more robust assessment of land cover at regional- to continental-spatial scale throughout the Holocene. We present maps of REVEALS estimates for the percentage cover of 10 plant functional types (PFTs) at 200 BP and 6000 BP, and of the two open-land PFTs "grassland" and "agricultural land" at five time-windows from 6000 BP to recent time. The LANDCLIM results are expected to provide crucial data to reassess ALCC estimates for a better understanding of the land suface-atmosphere interactions.

Gaillard, M.-J.; Sugita, S.; Mazier, F.; Kaplan, J. O.; Trondman, A.-K.; Broström, A.; Hickler, T.; Kjellström, E.; Kuneš, P.; Lemmen, C.; Olofsson, J.; Smith, B.; Strandberg, G.

2010-03-01

461

Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) developed during the last ten years, (2) to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites), to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3) to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover - CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene) currently underway, and show preliminary results of REVEALS reconstructions of the regional land-cover in the Czech Republic for five selected time windows of the Holocene, and (4) to discuss the implications and future directions in climate and vegetation/land-cover modeling, and in the assessment of the effects of human-induced changes in land-cover on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. The existing ALCC scenarios show large discrepancies between them, and few cover time periods older than AD 800. When these scenarios are used to assess the impact of human land-use on climate, contrasting results are obtained. It emphasizes the need for methods such as the REVEALS model-based land-cover reconstructions. They might help to fine-tune descriptions of past land-cover and lead to a better understanding of how long-term changes in ALCC might have influenced climate. The REVEALS model is demonstrated to provide better estimates of the regional vegetation/land-cover changes than the traditional use of pollen percentages. This will achieve a robust assessment of land cover at regional- to continental-spatial scale throughout the Holocene. We present maps of REVEALS estimates for the percentage cover of 10 plant functional types (PFTs) at 200 BP and 6000 BP, and of the two open-land PFTs "grassland" and "agricultural land" at five time-windows from 6000 BP to recent time. The LANDCLIM results are expected to provide crucial data to reassess ALCC estimates for a better understanding of the land suface-atmosphere interactions.

Gaillard, M.-J.; Sugita, S.; Mazier, F.; Trondman, A.-K.; Broström, A.; Hickler, T.; Kaplan, J. O.; Kjellström, E.; Kokfelt, U.; Kuneš, P.; Lemmen, C.; Miller, P.; Olofsson, J.; Poska, A.; Rundgren, M.; Smith, B.; Strandberg, G.; Fyfe, R.; Nielsen, A. B.; Alenius, T.; Balakauskas, L.; Barnekow, L.; Birks, H. J. B.; Bjune, A.; Björkman, L.; Giesecke, T.; Hjelle, K.; Kalnina, L.; Kangur, M.; van der Knaap, W. O.; Koff, T.; Lagerâs, P.; Lata?owa, M.; Leydet, M.; Lechterbeck, J.; Lindbladh, M.; Odgaard, B.; Peglar, S.; Segerström, U.; von Stedingk, H.; Seppä, H.

2010-07-01

462

Land degradation studies using spectroscopic techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification is a land degradation problem of major importance in the arid regions of the world. Deterioration in soil and plant cover have adversely affected nearly 70 percent of the drylands as mainly the result of human mismanagement of cultivated and range lands. Overgrazing, woodcutting, cultivation practices inducing accelerated water and wind erosion, improper water management leading to salinisation, are all causes of land degradation. In addition to vegetation deterioration, erosion, and salinisation, desertification effects can be seen in loss of soil fertility, soil compaction, and soil crusting. Combating desertification involves having an accurate knowledge on a current land degradation status and the magnitude of the potential hazard. Quantitative, high-spectral resolution remote sensing (imaging spectroscopy) can dramatically increase the accuracy of dryland monitoring. In this context, a new research project has been implemented, aiming at using the capabilities of imaging spectroscopy in order to (a) monitor land degradation processes, (b) assess land degradation status, and (c) gain indicators for characterising specific surface properties related to water cycles, erosion processes and plant productivity in drylands. In particular, hyperspectral data, coupled with field/laboratory spectroscopy and laboratory analyses, can be used to derive more quantitative and specific soil properties directly linked to soil degradation status, such as soil chemical properties, organic matter, mineralogical content, infiltration capacity, aggregation capacity, and runoff coefficient. However, further studies are needed, toward a better understanding of the desertification processes, and more detailed analyses of the spectroscopic features associated with land degradation processes. Several test sites representing different environmental conditions are being established. This presentation will focus on a test site in the Brandenburg region, a dry area in north-Eastern Germany, where open pit mine overburden dumps left from the coal-mining era in the former East Germany, not recultivated, have become "dunes" where nothing grows. Our project in this small catchment area is to explore the relationships between spectral reflectance and rainfall runoff modelling.

Chabrillat, S.; Kaufmann, H.; Merz, B.; Hill, J.; Mueller, A.

2003-04-01

463

Obtaining land-use information from a remotely sensed land cover map: results from a case study in Lebanon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of land-use information allows decision-makers to develop short to long-term plans for the conservation, sustainable use and development of natural resources. Spatial land-use information often does not exist, whereas land cover information is mostly present in the form of maps derived from remotely sensed data. The latter could provide a basis for obtaining land-use information but there is currently no comprehensive methodology for how to obtain such information in a standardised manner. In Lebanon, with its wide variety of land cover types due to the diversity in landforms and variability in rainfall, a case study was carried out to try to develop a set of decision rules to obtain the dominant land uses from the existing 1:50,000-scale land cover maps. The development of the decision rules to allow such a transformation brought several problems to light concerning spatial and temporal variation of land cover, the accuracy of the input materials, the limitations of the developed decision rules and the complexity of the relation between land cover and land use. The decision rules were also analysed as to their general applicability for acquisition of land-use information and the implications for field survey data collection. Furthermore, quantification of the land cover and land-use classes allowed the examination of the nature of the land cover/use relationships in Lebanon. In addition, these data were compared to the FAO Production Yearbook statistics in order to link annual production estimates with the extent of land involved in the production of commodities. This comparison underlines the complexity of deducing land-use information from land cover data, especially where the land cover/land-use relation is weak and additional data is limited. Assumptions used to identify the spatial extent of certain land uses need to be thoroughly tested in the field for their validity as this is vital in obtaining reliable land-use information.

Jansen, Louisa J. M.; Di Gregorio, Antonio

2004-05-01

464

Land Use Planning in Metro Manila and the Urban Fringe: Implications on the Land and Real Estate Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines land use planning in Metro Manila and the urban fringe and analyzes its effect on transactions in the urban land and real estate market. The analysis begins with a historical review of land use planning strategies in the metropolitan area and the attendant bureaucratic changes that occurred. The effects of these planning strategies on the urban land

Marife Magno Ballesteros

2000-01-01

465

Attachment to land: The case of the land of Israel for American and Israeli Jews and the role of contagion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great

Paul Rozin; Sharon Wolf

2008-01-01

466

National climate assessment technical report on the impacts of climate and land use and land cover change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This technical report responds to the recognition by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the National Climate Assessment (NCA) of the importance of understanding how land use and land cover (LULC) affects weather and climate variability and change and how that variability and change affects LULC. Current published, peer-reviewed, scientific literature and supporting data from both existing and original sources forms the basis for this report's assessment of the current state of knowledge regarding land change and climate interactions. The synthesis presented herein documents how current and future land change may alter environment processes and in turn, how those conditions may affect both land cover and land use by specifically investigating, * The primary contemporary trends in land use and land cover, * The land-use and land-cover sectors and regions which are most affected by weather and climate variability,* How land-use practices are adapting to climate change, * How land-use and land-cover patterns and conditions are affecting weather and climate, and * The key elements of an ongoing Land Resources assessment. These findings present information that can be used to better assess land change and climate interactions in order to better assess land management and adaptation strategies for future environmental change and to assist in the development of a framework for an ongoing national assessment.

Loveland, Thomas; Mahmood, Rezaul; Patel-Weynand, Toral; Karstensen, Krista; Beckendorf, Kari; Bliss, Norman; Carleton, Andrew

2012-01-01

467

Land-use changes in Illinois, ASA: The influence of landscape attributes on current and historic land use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Illinois Geographic Information System was used to compare the soil and landscape attributes of the State with its historic vegetation, current land use, and patterns of land-use change over the past 160 years. Patch structural characteristics among land types in four geographic zones were also compared. The assessment of patch characteristics revealed a highly modified State with most land

Louis R. Iverson

1988-01-01

468

Land, graves and belonging: land reform and the politics of belonging in newly resettled farms in Gutu, 2000–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The return to ancestral lands has been at the centre of the land reform rhetoric in Zimbabwe. This argument is premised on the fact that many communities were displaced from their ancestral lands during the colonial period hence they saw the Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) in 2000 as an opportunity for them to ‘return’ to their old homes.

Joseph Mujere

2011-01-01

469

Land-losing Farmers’ Citizenization in the Process of Urbanization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from the status of citizenization of land-losing farmers, problems in the citizenization are analyzed, such as the difficulty in land-losing farmers’ economic life after turning into citizens, employment difficulties of land-losing farmers after living in the city, and the prominent problems in social security of land-losing farmers. Causations for the citizenization problems of land-losing farmers are analyzed. Firstly, institutionalized

Xiao-juan Qu

2011-01-01

470

Local “Land Finance” in China's Urban Expansion: Challenges and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper considers the issue of local “land finance” in the context of China's fast urban expansion. In an analysis of China s land requisition and public leasing system we argue that low-cost land acquisition is the fundamental cause of land-related distortions that have occurred during China s urbanization. Granting farmers the power to negotiate directly with land users during

Guangzhong Cao; Changchun Feng; Ran Tao

2008-01-01

471

Radioactivity in foods grown on mined phosphate lands. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Lands mined in Florida for phosphate are required to be reclaimed after mining. A significant use of such lands is the production of food crops, on mined lands in general, but particularly on reclaimed clay lands. These lands are known to contains elevated levels of radionuclides, and this study addresses both the uptake of radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210 by the plant from the soil and also any risk presented to the consumers of such foods.

Guidry, J.J.; Roessler, C.E.; Bolch, W.E.; McClave, J.T.; Hewitt, C.C.

1990-10-01

472

Estimates of Geographically Explicit Future CO2 Emissions From Land Cover/ Land Use Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land cover and land use change activities, such as deforestation, afforestation, and agriculture management, are important sources of not only CO2, but also non-CO2 GHGs and aerosols. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential contribution of future GHGs and reactive GHGs emissions via changes in regional land use-related activities at a 0.5 degree by 0.5 degree resolution. Regional land use is downscaled to the grid cell level based on socioeconomic, biophysical, and biogeochemical factors. Socio-economic factors include population density at the grid zone level. Land sustainability and attainable crop yields, as well as terrain conditions, are biophysical and biogeochemical factors that were also determined at each grid zone level. The productivity of land was determined by the length of growing period (LGP) using the biophysical and biochemical cycles of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). Agro-ecological and economic indexes were constructed using historical and current-day cropping practices at the grid zone levels. In the future, the distribution of LGPs may be altered due to changes in carbon, nutrients, and climate. This paper uses two IPCC SRES (A2 and B1) emissions and land use scenarios during the time period 2000-2050 to evaluate the relative importance of land use emissions to future net terrestrial CO2 uptakes.

Richardson, T.; Yang, X.; Jain, A.; O'Neill, B.

2007-12-01

473

Land-use and land-cover sceneries in China: an application of Dinamica EGO model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land is an indispensable natural resource for human, without which we cannot survive and develop. Land-use change, influenced by both natural environment and human activity, has a close relationship with food security, resource utilization, biodiversity and climate change. In order to understand the process and driving mechanism of land-use change, dynamic models were developed in these years, among which Dinamica EGO is a practical one and has been widely used in the world. In this paper, we aim to use Dinamica EGO to simulate the land-use of China in 2005 with data extracted from SPOT VGT NDVI. The real land-use map was compared with the simulation result so as to verify the feasibility of Dinamica EGO. Then we supposed three sceneries under which we could analyze the land-use change of China in 2020. Results indicated that: on the basis of no extreme natural disasters or exceptional policy fluctuation, the grassland area would reduce by 22.21 million hectares averagely. However forest would increase by 19.81 billion hectares on average. Water and unused land would probably remain stable as there was little change in three sceneries. Farmland areas showed a good agreement under these sceneries whereas the greatest difference in land-use area estimations lies in built-up with an uncertainty accounting for 1.67%.

Yi, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhihua; Chen, Maosi

2012-10-01

474

Land Surface Hydrology during the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) in 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fundamental to the objectives of Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) is the understanding of the interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface. In addition, CLASIC observations and monitoring will be used to validate the multiple remote sensing products retrieved during the s...

475

Integrating Gis and Remote Sensing Techniques for Urban Land Cover and Land User Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computer-based GIS, with its remarkable ability to store, retrieve, manipulate and display vast quantities of spatial and attribute data, has become a very useful tool for urban planning. Yet the utility of GIS in urban planning and management is often hampered by a lack of current and sequential land-cover and land use information. This is because most of the

KAM Tin-Seong

1995-01-01

476

From pattern to process: landscape fragmentation and the analysis of land use\\/land cover change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of landscape ecological and fragmentation analyses within remote sensing science has expanded the inferential capabilities of such research. This issue presents a series of papers on the use of landscape ecological techniques to explore the relationship between land cover and land use spatial pattern and process in an international, comparative context. Methodologically, researchers seek to link spatial pattern

Harini Nagendra; Darla K. Munroe; Jane Southworth

2004-01-01

477

Land Reform beyond the Reformed Land: A Baseline Study of Unplanned Site Allocations in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper brings to light some of the problems deriving from not systematically using regional planning as a strategic governance tool in land reform policy. With concrete examples from land reform sites in Northeast Brazil, we argue that factors leading to suboptimal results include the lack of a suited space for planned conjunct actions as a means to propel broader

Saulo S. Souza; Elisabete A. Silva

2012-01-01

478

A Framework for Evaluating Land Use Planning Alternatives: Protecting Biodiversity on Private Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning activities by local government often seek to identify areas of land that offer particularly high value for conserving biotic resources. Because private land is being developed rapidly, there is heightened concern about identifying these areas. Although general principles on setting priorities for habitat protection are emerging, substantial ambiguity remains about how to implement these principles. Here, we offer a

David M. Theobald; N. Thompson Hobbs

2002-01-01

479

PROJECTING LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (INTERNAL GRANT)  

EPA Science Inventory

Land use change is arguably the primary driver that will impact ecological resources in the U.S. during the next 50 years. This task is developing methods to analyze potential land use changes that result from changes in human population growth, economics, public works, a...

480

Land use and land cover dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical discussion of processes linking land use decisions and land cover outcomes at household level, with an emphasis on small proceduers. Evidence from the literature substantiating the existence of domestic cycle phenomena is brought forward and interpreted for the Brazilian case. Also considered are the relative disposition of production factors in the frontier development process, implications

Robert Walker; Alfredo Kingo Oyama Homma

1996-01-01

481

Land use and land cover changes and farmer vulnerability in xishuangbanna prefecture in southwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xishuangbanna, located in southwest China neighboring Laos and Myanmar, is a biologically diverse region that covers only 0.2% of the land area of China, yet contains 25% of all plant species in the entire country. Over the last decades, forest cover in this area has decreased dramatically from 63% to 34%. Previously, cleared lands have been largely converted into rubber

Fu Kun; Chen Xingpeng; Liu Qingguang

2007-01-01

482

Projecting land use and land cover changes in a tropical mountain forest of southern Ecuador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use and land cover change (LUCC) affect local climate. Human induced deforestation is a common phenomenon of LUCC. This also holds true for the biodiversity hotspot in the Andes of Ecuador. The present study assesses the possibility to project LUCC to future time steps with a focus on deforestation in the San Francisco valley in South Ecuador. A business

Boris Thies; Hanna Meyer; Thomas Nauss; Jörg Bendix

2012-01-01

483

Projecting Large-Scale Area Changes in Land Use and Land Cover for Terrestrial Carbon Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the largest changes in US forest type areas over the last half-century has involved pine types in the South. The area of planted pine has increased more than 10-fold since 1950, mostly on private lands. Private landowners have responded to market incentives and government programs, including subsidized afforestation on marginal agricultural land. Timber harvest is a crucial disturbance

Ralph J. Alig; Brett J. Butler

2004-01-01

484

A United States View on Changes in Land Use and Land Values Affecting Sustainable Forest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing opportunity costs of keeping land in forests because of increasing values for other land uses, such as for developed uses, forest ownership may become less attractive for some landowners and the return on investment less viable for both private and public landowners. This raises the question of what will become of the forests and the resources the forest

Ralph J. Alig

2007-01-01

485

Land Use Land Cover Change in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin 1992 to 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pace of Land Use\\/Land Cover (LULC) change in the Great Lakes, particularly in urban and suburban areas, far exceeds that predicted by population growth alone. Thus, quantification of LULC and change through time may be a key factor in understanding the near-shore ecology of this system. The work described in this paper is part of a larger effort called

Peter T. Wolter; Carol A. Johnston; Gerald J. Niemi

2006-01-01

486

Radiative forcing over the conterminous United States due to contemporary land cover land use albedo change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently available satellite land cover land use (LCLU) and albedo data are used to study the impact of LCLU change from 1973 to 2000 on surface albedo and radiative forcing for 36 ecoregions covering 43% of the conterminous United States (CONUS). Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-free broadband albedo values are derived from Landsat LCLU classification maps located using a

Christopher A. Barnes; David P. Roy

2008-01-01

487

Can future land use change be usefully predicted?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been increasing recognition over the last decade that land use and land cover change is an important driver of global environmental change. Consequently, there have been growing efforts to understanding processes of land change from local-to-global scales, and to develop models to predict future changes in the land. However, we believe that such efforts are hampered by limited attention being paid to the critical points of land change. Here, we present a framework for understanding land use change by distinguishing within-regime land-use dynamics from land-use regime shifts. Illustrative historical examples reveal the significance of land-use regime shifts. We further argue that the land-use literature predominantly demonstrates a good understanding (with predictive power) of within-regime dynamics, while understanding of land-use regime shifts is limited to ex post facto explanations with limited predictive capability. The focus of land use change science needs to be redirected toward studying land-use regime shifts if we are to have any hope of making useful future projections. We present a preliminary framework for understanding land-use regime-shifts, using two case studies in Latin America as examples. We finally discuss the implications of our proposal for land change science.

Ramankutty, N.; Coomes, O.

2011-12-01

488

Enhanced vision for adverse weather aircraft landing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landing in poor weather is a crucial problem for the air transportation system of the future. To aid the pilots for these conditions several solutions have been suggested and/or implemented including instrument landing system(ILS) and microwave landing system(MLS) that put the responsibility of the landing to a large extent in the hands of the airport facilities. These systems even though useful are not available due to their high costs except in few major metropolitan airports. This shortcoming has generated interest in providing all weather capabilities not on the landing facility but on the vehicle itself. The Synthetic Vision System Technology Demonstration sponsored by the United States Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) and the US Air Force represents an effort to respond to the above needs[1,2]. In this paper we present a summary of a typical synthetic vision system. This system consists of a scanning 35GHz radar a scanning antenna, a signal/image processor and a head up display(HUD). The pilot is presented a final perspective image of the scene sensed by the radar with associated flight guidance symbology. This systems is implemented in real time hardware and has been under going tower and flight testing under a variety of weather conditions since early 1992.

Sadjadi, Firooz; Helgeson, Mike; Radke, Jeff; Stein, Gunter

1996-01-01

489

Remote sensing land use and land cover dynamics of Zhangye region in Western China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial changes in land use and land cover dynamics have occurred during the last several decades in western China, which include deforestation, desert expansion and intensified land use due primarily to an increasing population, industrialization and agricultural development. These changes have had great impact on ecosystem functions at both local and regional scales. The Gobi Desert area near Zhangye City, Gansu Province, P.R. China has been blamed for the frequent occurrence of dust and sand storms in remote areas such as the Beijing and HuaBei regions. A study was conducted to quantify the land cover dynamics using remotely sensed images from the Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+ sensors for the region near Zhangye city within the Heihe River watershed. The regional landscape ecology for 1977, 1989 and 2002 was quantified using both traditional classification techniques as well as the continuous field method, the latter being a measure of land degradation severity. These remote sensing products were used to quantify the magnitude of the land use and land cover changes over 25 years. The results indicate that agricultural areas increased from 6% to 15% due to increased human activities. At the same time, other land use areas decreased because of conversion into agriculture lands. Land degradation in the region was obvious as evidenced by the increase in lower vegetative areas (0 to 10% fractional vegetation cover) and disappearance of high vegetative areas (90% or more). One of the most noticeable changes is that Zhangye city expanded rapidly during the last 25 years and practically doubled its urban territory.

Zhao, Suling; Qi, Jiaguo; Baumeister, Richard; Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Pan, Xiaoling; Ma, Yingjun

2003-07-01

490

Modeling and assessing land-use and hydrological processes to future land-use and climate change scenarios in watershed land-use planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective information regarding environmental responses to future land-use and climate change scenarios provides useful support\\u000a for decision making in land use planning, management and policies. This study developed an approach for modeling and examining\\u000a the impacts of future land-use and climate change scenarios on streamflow, surface runoff and groundwater discharge using\\u000a an empirical land-use change model, a watershed hydrological model

Yu-Pin Lin; Nien-Ming Hong; Pei-Jung Wu; Chien-Ju Lin

2007-01-01

491

Integrating analyses of local land-use regulations, cultural perceptions and land-use\\/land cover data for assessing the success of community-based conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of land-use\\/land cover change are an important means for examining the viability of community-based programs for forest conservation, although an analysis of the social processes influencing land-use decisions is necessary to understand the factors leading to different conservation outcomes.In this paper, we demonstrate that an analysis of locally recognized land-use rules and regulations embedded in local institutions can inform

Sarah Paule Dalle; Sylvie de Blois; Javier Caballero; Timothy Johns

2006-01-01

492

Nonlinear Landing Control for Quadrotor UAVs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadrotor UAVs are one of the most preferred type of small unmanned aerial vehicles because of the very simple mechanical construction and propulsion principle. However, the nonlinear dynamic behavior requires a more advanced stabilizing control and guidance of these vehicles. In addition, the small payload reduces the amount of batteries that can be carried and thus also limits the operating range of the UAV. One possible solution for a range extension is the application of a mobile base station for recharging purpose even during operation. However, landing on a moving base station requires autonomous tracking and landing control of the UAV. In this paper, a nonlinear autopilot for quadrotor UAVs is extended with a tracking and landing controller to fulfill the required task.

Voos, Holger

493

Center for Urban Land Economics Research (CULER)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Urban Land Economics Research (CULER) is a facet of the Program in Real Estate and Urban Land Economics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that fosters research on markets for land improvements and their related capital markets. Highlights on-site include recent CULER working papers in full-text (1997-present), a bibliography of past papers (1991-1996), and a concise list of downloadable data such as the Metropolitan Data Spreadsheet (Lotus WK1,500kb), Economic Report of the President, Statistical Tables (Lotus), and Basic MSA Data (1969-94) with BEA data on employment, population, and real income per capita [.pdf]. US Metropolitan Area Maps and US County Maps with Annual Population Change (1980-1995), Annual Real House Price Change (1980-1990), Annual Nominal Income Per Capita Growth (1980-1990), and Average Annual Building Permits (1990-1995) are also given.

494

A land exchange program to protect biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

Wilderness area boundries have often been set by absence of commercial reserves such as timber, ores, oil, and gas. However, to help further the goal of conserving biological diversity, wilderness areas should be explicity managed to maintain thier species richness over time. The author presents a land exchange approach in which each addition to the public domain for wilderness and biodiversity-conservation purposes could be matched by the simultaneous deletion of land of comparable market value with species already well protected. Discussed are how the four US federal land management agencies can implement the proposal, the benefits of protecting the ecological health of the National Wilderness Preservation System, the lack of guidance from leaders, the pressures facing the wilderness, and how partnerships can be built to protect biodiversity and primative recreational opportunities while reinvigorating the wilderness-conservation movement.

Cutler, M.R. (Explore Park, Roanoke, VA (United States))

1993-02-01

495

Soft Landing of Complex Molecules on Surfaces *  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soft and reactive landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces has become a topic of substantial interest due to its promising potential for the highly controlled preparation of materials. For example, there are possible applications in the production of peptide and protein microarrays for use in high-throughput screening, protein separation and conformational enrichment of peptides, redox protein characterization, thin-film production, and the preparation of catalysts through deposition of clusters and organometallic complexes. Soft landing overcomes many of the limitations associated with conventional thin-film production techniques and offers unprecedented selectivity and specificity of preparation of deposited species. This review discusses the fundamental aspects of soft and reactive landing of mass-selected ions on surfaces that pertain to applications of these techniques in biomaterials, molecular electronics, catalysis, and interfacial chemistry.

Johnson, Grant E.; Hu, Qichi; Laskin, Julia

2011-07-01

496

Purification System for KamLAND  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KamLAND is a Japan-US one kiloton liquid scintillator neutrino detector currently under construction at the former site of the Kamiokande experiment in Kamioka, Japan. The purpose of KamLAND is the detection of reactor anti-neutrinos and solar neutrinos to observe neutrino oscillations through the disappearance of (anti-)neutrino. As the neutrinos have very low energy(several MeV), it is important to eliminate the backgrounds. The main background sources are radioactive isotopes in liquid scintillator. The purification system for liquid scintillator has therefore been developed. The purification system are to eliminate Uranium, Thorium and Potassium by water extraction and Radon, Water, Oxygen by nitrogen purging. A performance check of purification system has been done. I will describe the status of purification system for KamLAND including the performance check.

Ogawa, Hiroshi

2001-10-01

497

“Our daughters inherit our land, but our sons use their wives' fields”: matrilineal-matrilocal land tenure and the New Land Policy in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewed efforts in recent years to reform land tenure policy in Sub-Saharan African countries have – in some cases – included provisions aimed at improving women's land rights. The premise of such provisions is that women's land rights under customary tenure are fragile, threatened, and\\/or in the process of being undermined. The matrilineal-matrilocal areas in Southern Malawi described here present

Pauline E. Peters

2010-01-01

498

A framework for benchmarking land models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past few decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land model performances and, meanwhile, highlights major challenges at this infant stage of benchmark analysis. The framework includes (1) targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated, (2) a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance, (3) metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies, and (4) model improvement. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and land surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics in response to climate change across broad temporal and spatial scales. Thus, one major challenge is to select and define a limited number of benchmarks to effectively evaluate land model performance. The second challenge is to develop metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks. The metrics may include (1) a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2) a scoring system to combine data-model mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance to guide future development, thus enabling improved predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate. The near-future research effort should be on development of a set of widely acceptable benchmarks that can be used to objectively, effectively, and reliably evaluate fundamental properties of land models to improve their prediction performance skills.

Luo, Y. Q.; Randerson, J. T.; Abramowitz, G.; Bacour, C.; Blyth, E.; Carvalhais, N.; Ciais, P.; Dalmonech, D.; Fisher, J. B.; Fisher, R.; Friedlingstein, P.; Hibbard, K.; Hoffman, F.; Huntzinger, D.; Jones, C. D.; Koven, C.; Lawrence, D.; Li, D. J.; Mahecha, M.; Niu, S. L.; Norby, R.; Piao, S. L.; Qi, X.; Peylin, P.; Prentice, I. C.; Riley, W.; Reichstein, M.; Schwalm, C.; Wang, Y. P.; Xia, J. Y.; Zaehle, S.; Zhou, X. H.

2012-10-01

499

A framework for benchmarking land models  

SciTech Connect

Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past few decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land model performances and, meanwhile, highlights major challenges at this infant stage of benchmark analysis. The framework includes (1) targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated, (2) a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance, (3) metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies, and (4) model improvement. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and land surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics in response to climate change across broad temporal and spatial scales. Thus, one major challenge is to select and define a limited number of benchmarks to effectively evaluate land model performance. The second challenge is to develop metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks. The metrics may include (1) a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2) a scoring system to combine data–model mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance to guide future development, thus enabling improved predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate. The near-future research effort should be on development of a set of widely acceptable benchmarks that can be used to objectively, effectively, and reliably evaluate fundamental properties of land models to improve their prediction performance skills.

Luo, Yiqi; Randerson, J.; Abramowitz, G.; Bacour, C.; Blyth, E.; Carvalhais, N.; Ciais, Philippe; Dalmonech, D.; Fisher, J.B.; Fisher, R.; Friedlingstein, P.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Huntzinger, Deborah; Jones, C.; Koven, C.; Lawrence, David M.; Li, D.J.; Mahecha, M.; Niu, S.L.; Norby, Richard J.; Piao, S.L.; Qi, X.; Peylin, P.; Prentice, I.C.; Riley, William; Reichstein, M.; Schwalm, C.; Wang, Y.; Xia, J. Y.; Zaehle, S.; Zhou, X. H.

2012-10-09

500

A framework for benchmarking land models  

SciTech Connect

Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past few decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land model performances and, meanwhile, highlights major challenges at this infant stage of benchmark analysis. The framework includes (1) targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated, (2) a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance, (3) metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies, and (4) model improvement. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and land surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics in response to climate change across broad temporal and spatial scales. Thus, one major challenge is to select and define a limited number of benchmarks to effectively evaluate land model performance. The second challenge is to develop metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks. The metrics may include (1) a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2) a scoring system to combine data model mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance to guide future development, thus enabling improved predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate. The near-future research effort should be on development of a set of widely acceptable benchmarks that can be used to objectively, effectively, and reliably evaluate fundamental properties of land models to improve their prediction performance skills.

Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine; Hoffman, Forrest [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

2012-01-01