These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Brightness Discrimination in Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

PubMed Central

Birds have excellent spatial acuity and colour vision compared to other vertebrates while spatial contrast sensitivity is relatively poor for unknown reasons. Contrast sensitivity describes the detection of gratings of varying spatial frequency. It is unclear whether bird brightness discrimination between large uniform fields is poor as well. Here we show that budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) need a Michelson contrast of 0.09 to discriminate between large spatially separated achromatic fields in bright light conditions. This is similar to the peak contrast sensitivity of 10.2 (0.098 Michelson contrast) for achromatic grating stimuli established in earlier studies. The brightness discrimination threshold described in Weber fractions is 0.18, which is modest compared to other vertebrates. PMID:23349946

Lind, Olle; Karlsson, Sandra; Kelber, Almut

2013-01-01

2

Luminance-dependence of spatial vision in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii).  

PubMed

Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii) are closely related birds with different activity patterns. Budgerigars are strictly diurnal while Bourke's parrots are active in dim twilight. Earlier studies show that the intensity threshold of colour vision is similar in both species while Bourke's parrots have larger eyes with a higher density of rods than budgerigars. In this study, we investigate whether this could be an adaptation for better spatial vision in dim light. We used two alternative forced-choice experiments to determine the spatial acuity of both species at light intensities ranging from 0.08 to 73 cd/m(2). We also determined the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for bright light in Bourke's parrots and compare it to existing data for budgerigars. The spatial acuity of Bourke's parrots was found to be similar to that of budgerigars at all light levels. Also the CSF of Bourke's parrots is similar to that of budgerigars with a sensitivity peak located between 2.1 and 2.6 cycles/degree. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Bourke's parrots have superior spatial acuity in dim light compared to budgerigars and the adaptive value of the relatively rod-rich and large eyes of Bourke's parrots remains unclear. PMID:22001888

Lind, Olle; Sunesson, Tony; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Kelber, Almut

2012-01-01

3

Vocal production mechanisms in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): the presence and implications of amplitude modulation.  

PubMed

In this paper acoustic evidence is presented for the presence of amplitude modulation in budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) contact calls and learned English vocalizations. Previously, acoustic analyses of budgerigar vocalizations have consisted solely of visual inspection of spectrograms or power spectra (derived from Fourier transformation). Such analyses have led researchers to conclude that budgerigar vocalizations are primarily frequency-modulated, harmonic vocalizations. Although budgerigar calls have been shown to contain regions that are modulated in amplitude, the implications of this fact have been largely ignored. Amplitude modulation, the nonlinear interaction between two separate signals that results in the creation of new, heterodyne (sum and difference) frequencies, can produce a very complex Fourier spectrum that may resemble that produced by a harmonic vocalization. In this paper, the acoustic principles necessary for identifying amplitude modulation present in signals are outlined, and followed by data demonstrating that amplitude modulation is a prominent feature not only of natural budgerigar contact calls, but also of their learned English vocalizations. It is illustrated how analyzing a vocalization that contains amplitude modulation as if it were harmonic can result in misinterpretations of the acoustic and physical properties of the sound and sound source. The implications of amplitude modulation for studies of the ontogenetic, physical, and neural basis of budgerigar vocalizations are discussed, and a potential model for how the budgerigar syrinx may function to produce amplitude modulation is proposed. PMID:10420639

Lavenex, P B

1999-07-01

4

A case of cutaneous angiolipoleiomyoma (angiomyolipoma) in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

We report a case of cutaneous angiolipoleiomyoma (angiomyolipoma) found on the anterior wall of the ventral part of the abdomen of a three-year-old female budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Histologic examination of the well-circumscribed, surgically removed tumour (1.5 cm in diameter) showed a benign admixed proliferation of blood vessels of different size, smooth muscle bundles, and mature adipose tissue, without evidence of malignancy. Endothelial cells of the haemangioma component were positive for claudin-5 endothelium-specific immunohistochemical marker, and the leiomyoma component was positive for ?-smooth muscle actin. The differentiated lipocytes showed S-100 protein positivity. The Ki-67 labelling index was 2 to 3%. The mesenchymal tumour was negative for HMB45 melanocytic immunhistochemical marker. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a cutaneous angiolipoleiomyoma in a budgerigar with histological and immunohistochemical analyses. PMID:24106747

Jakab, Csaba; Balka, Gyula; Szabára, Agnes; Csaba, Csintalan; Pazár, Péter

2013-12-01

5

Validation of a fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assay to assess stress in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

PubMed Central

The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) is a small parrot native to Australia that is commonly held in zoos, laboratories, and private homes. Assessment of budgerigar stress levels would aid welfare monitoring and improve our understanding of their biology. Analyzing fecal glucocorticoid metabolites provides a non-invasive method to measure stress levels in birds. For this method to be reliable, the antibody to be used in an immunoassay must be carefully selected for each species, and validation must be performed. A common limitation in many existing assays is the inability to accurately detect variable fecal glucocorticoid metabolites levels in minute quantities of feces, requiring small samples to be combined. We have developed a double antibody radioimmunoassay protocol based on a commercially available 125I-corticosterone radioimmunoassay kit for use in detecting fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in small quantities (< 20 mg) of budgerigar droppings. The assay was validated pharmacologically with an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and with oral administration of corticosterone. Our validation has demonstrated our assay is both sensitive and a reliable approach to non-invasive monitoring of stress in budgerigars. PMID:22907869

Young, Anna M.; Hallford, Dennis M.

2012-01-01

6

Morphological and morphometric study of the pecten oculi in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

The pecten oculi is a highly vascular and pigmented organ placed in the vitreous body of the avian eye. As no data are currently available on the morphological organization of the pecten in the Psittaciformes, the pecten oculi of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) was studied. The eyes from adult male budgerigars were examined by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy and a morphometric study on both light and transmission electron microscopy specimens was also performed in the different parts of the organ. In the budgerigar, the type of the pecten oculi was pleated. Its basal part had a cranio-caudal and postero-anterior course; its body consisted of 10-12-folds joined apically by a densely pigmented bridge. The pecten showed many capillaries, whose wall was thick and formed by pericytes and endothelial cells. These latter had a large number of microfolds, rectilinear on their luminal surface and tortuous on their abluminal surface. Interstitial pigment cells were placed among the capillaries, filled with melanin granules and showed many cytoplasmic processes. The morphometric analysis demonstrated significant differences among the three parts of the organ relative to the length of the endothelial processes and to the number and size of the pigment granules. The morphological and morphometric analysis showed that the bridge of the budgerigar, different from the other birds, had a large number of capillaries, so that this part of the organ could also play a trophic role for the retina in addition to the choriocapillaris. PMID:22266789

Micali, Antonio; Pisani, Antonina; Ventrici, Claudia; Puzzolo, Domenico; Roszkowska, Anna Maria; Spinella, Rosaria; Aragona, Pasquale

2012-03-01

7

A unique isolate of beak and feather disease virus isolated from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in South Africa.  

PubMed

Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), the causative agent of psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) infects psittaciformes worldwide. We provide an annotated sequence record of three full-length unique genomes of BFDV isolates from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) from a breeding farm in South Africa. The isolates share >99% nucleotide sequence identity with each other and approximately 96% nucleotide sequence identity to two recent isolates (Melopsittacus undulatus) from Thailand but only between 91.6 and 86.6% identity with all other full-length BFDV sequences. Maximum-likelihood analysis and recombination analysis suggest that the South African budgerigar BFDV isolates are unique to budgerigars, are non-recombinant in origin, and represent a new genotype of BFDV. PMID:20127375

Varsani, Arvind; de Villiers, Gillian K; Regnard, Guy L; Bragg, Robert R; Kondiah, Kulsum; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

2010-03-01

8

Experimental Inoculation of BFDV-Positive Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Isolates  

PubMed Central

Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group. PMID:24738057

Sapierzynski, Rafal; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

2014-01-01

9

Functional anatomy of forebrain auditory pathways in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

Interconnections of forebrain auditory and vocal control nuclei were mapped in the budgerigar using pathway tracing techniques. The anatomical results indicate four circuits by which auditory information may influence the vocal motor system: (1) direct auditory thalamic projections from nucleus dorsomedialis posterior (DMP) to both the neostriatal higher vocal center (HVC) and robust archistriatal nucleus (RA); (2) direct projections from a neostriatal projection field of DMP (i.e., MAN, the magnocellular nucleus of the neostriatum) to HVC and RA; (3) projections from DMP and other 'accessory' auditory thalamic nuclei to the ventral paleostriatum (VP), which in turn projects to MAN and RA; (4) projections to HVC from the lateral hyperstriatum ventrale (HV), which receives input from nucleus basalis (Bas) as well as from the oval nucleus of the HV (HVo), which receives direct input from RA. Lesion methods were used to evaluate the roles of auditory pathways in call learning and production. The results show that pathways associated with Bas are essential for call production in both adult and unfledged budgerigars, while VP efferents influence vocalization only in young, unfledged budgerigars. Lesions centered in either the primary auditory neostriatum (Field L2a) or the neostriatal area in receipt of Field L input (the ventrolateral neostriatum intermedium or NIVL) did not affect vocalization in juvenile or adult budgerigars. PMID:7842282

Brauth, S E; Heaton, J T; Durand, S E; Liang, W; Hall, W S

1994-01-01

10

Acoustic and Perceptual Categories of Vocal Elements in the Warble Song of Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

E-print Network

Acoustic and Perceptual Categories of Vocal Elements in the Warble Song of Budgerigars, variable acoustic elements that are sung by male birds in intimate courtship contexts for periods lasting up to several minutes. If these variable acoustic elements can be assigned to distinct acoustic

Hampton, Robert

11

Endogenous Hepadnaviruses in the Genome of the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and the Evolution of Avian Hepadnaviruses  

PubMed Central

Endogenous hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B viruses [HBVs]) were recently discovered in the genomes of passerine birds. We mined six additional avian genomes and discovered multiple copies of endogenous HBVs in the budgerigar (order Psittaciformes), designated eBHBV. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that the endogenous hepadnaviruses are more diverse than their exogenous counterparts and that the endogenous and exogenous hepadnaviruses form distinct lineages even when sampled from the same avian order, indicative of multiple genomic integration events. PMID:22553337

Cui, Jie

2012-01-01

12

Spatial Unmasking of Birdsong in Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

PubMed Central

Budgerigars and zebra finches were tested, using operant conditioning techniques, on their ability to identify a zebra finch song in the presence of a background masker emitted from either the same or a different location as the signal. Identification thresholds were obtained for three masker types differing in their spectrotemporal characteristics (noise, modulated noise, and a song chorus). Both bird species exhibited similar amounts of spatial unmasking across the three masker types. The amount of unmasking was greater when the masker was played continuously compared to when the target and masker were presented simultaneously. These results suggest that spatial factors are important for birds in the identification of natural signals in noisy environments. PMID:19929104

Dent, Micheal L.; McClaine, Elizabeth M.; Best, Virginia; Ozmeral, Erol; Narayan, Rajiv; Gallun, Frederick J.; Sen, Kamal; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

2009-01-01

13

Contact call-driven zenk mRNA expression in the brain of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

Contact call-driven zenk (zif268, egr1, NGF1A, Krox 24) mRNA expression was mapped with in situ hybridization histochemistry in a vocal learning parrot, the budgerigar (M. undulatus). Relative to controls, call stimulation induced high zenk mRNA expression in all auditory areas including those closely associated with the vocal system within the anterior forebrain (Brauth et al. (2001) J. Comp. Neurol. 432, 481; (2002) Learn. Memory 9, 76). Thus there is a high correspondence between the distributions of neurons exhibiting contact call-driven zenk protein and mRNA expression in budgerigars. Field L2a, an area reported previously to express only perinucleolar zenk protein localization (Brauth et al. (2002) Learn. Memory 9, 76) also showed zenk mRNA expression. PMID:14499486

Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Ye-Zhong; Liang, Wenru; Roberts, Todd F

2003-09-10

14

Changing the average frequency of contact calls is associated with changes in other acoustic parameters in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most-often produced vocalization of the budgerigar, a small parrot native to Australia, is the short (100-150 ms) frequency-modulated contact call. These calls play a role in maintaining flock dynamics and are believed to act as vocal signatures in these birds. Previous findings in our lab have shown that budgerigars can control the intensity of their vocal behavior and exhibit a robust Lombard effect (Manabe et al., 1998). Recently, we have shown that there is a high degree of stereotypy in contact calls across a number of acoustic parameters (Osmanski and Dooling, 2004). Questions arise concerning the limits of plasticity in these calls and the relation or interdependence among the various parameters. As a first approach to answering these questions, four budgerigars were trained using operant conditioning methods to change the average peak frequency of their contact calls (both upward and downward in frequency) to obtain access to a food reward. Results show that these birds can both increase and decrease the average frequency of their contact calls. Such changes are associated with modifications in a number of other acoustic parameters, suggesting constraints on vocal plasticity. [Work supported by NIH DC-00198 to RJD and NIDCD Training Grant DC-00046.

Osmanski, Michael; Dooling, Robert

2001-05-01

15

Contact call-driven Zenk protein induction and habituation in telencephalic auditory pathways in the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus): implications for understanding vocal learning processes.  

PubMed

Expression of the immediate early gene protein Zenk (zif 268, egr-1, NGF1A, Krox24) was induced in forebrain auditory nuclei in a vocal learning parrot species, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), when the subjects either listened to playbacks of an unfamiliar contact call or to a contact call with which they had been familiarized previously. Auditory nuclei included the Field L complex (L1, L2a, and L3), the neostriatum intermedium pars ventrolateralis (NIVL), the neostriatum adjacent to caudal nucleus basalis (peri-basalis or pBas), an area in the frontal lateral neostriatum (NFl), the supracentral nucleus of the lateral neostriatum (NLs), and the ventromedial hyperstriatum ventrale (HVvm). The latter three nuclei are main sources of auditory input to the vocal system. Two patterns of nuclear staining were induced by contact call stimulation-staining throughout cell nuclei, which was exhibited by at least some neurons in all areas examined except L2a and perinucleolar staining, which was the only kind of staining exhibited in field L2a. The different patterns of Zenk staining indicate that auditory stimulation may regulate the Zenk-dependent transcription of different subsets of genes in different auditory nuclei. The numbers of neurons expressing Zenk staining increased from seven- to 43-fold over control levels when the birds listened to a repeating unfamiliar call. Familiarization of the subjects with the call stimulus, through repeated playbacks, greatly reduced the induction of Zenk expression to the call when it was presented again after an intervening 24-h interval. To determine if neurons exhibiting contact call-driven Zenk expression project to the vocal control system, call stimulation was coupled with dextran amines pathway tracing. The results indicated that tracer injections in the vocal nucleus HVo (oval nucleus of the hyperstriatum ventrale), in fields lateral to HVo and in NLs labeled many Zenk-positive neurons in HVvm, NFl, and NLs. These results support the idea that, in these neurons, egr-1 couples auditory stimulation to the synthesis of proteins involved in either the storing of new perceptual engrams for vocal learning or the processing of novel and/or meaningful acoustic stimuli related to vocal learning or the context in which it occurs. PMID:11992018

Brauth, Steven; Liang, Wenru; Roberts, Todd F; Scott, Lindsey L; Quinlan, Elizabeth M

2002-01-01

16

Comparison of the effects of lesions in nucleus basalis and field 'L' on vocal learning and performance in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

Lesions were placed in either nucleus basalis (Bas) or the primary thalamorecipient portion of Field 'L' (i.e. centered in Field L2a) in budgerigars at 3-5 weeks posthatching and as adults. The calls of birds sustaining Bas lesions before fledging, or as adults, were markedly abnormal in that they showed little frequency modulation and individual distinctiveness. Call durations, however, were similar for lesioned and unlesioned birds. In contrast, the calls of Field 'L' lesioned birds were similar to those of siblings and cagemates. This implies that the roles of the isthmofrontal (i.e., direct projections from the ventrolateral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus to Bas) and thalamotelencephalic (i.e., direct projections from nucleus ovoidalis thalami to Field L2a) auditory pathways in providing auditory feedback during vocal learning and performance are different and that the isthmofrontal pathway plays an essential role in these processes throughout the life of the animal. PMID:7987662

Hall, W S; Brauth, S E; Heaton, J T

1994-01-01

17

Microscopic and ultrastructural anatomy of the trachea and bronchi of Melopsittacus undulatus (Aves, Psittaciformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The normal microscopic pattern and ultrastructure of the lower trachea and the primary and secondary bronchi of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) are described. The trachea is lined by mucociliary pseudostratified columnar epithelium with simple acinar mucous glands; epithelium in primary and secondary bronchi becomes progressively lower and less pseudostratified, and mucous cells less aggregated. The wall structure shows a parallel

Jerome H. Smith; Judy L. Meier; Cheryl Lampke; Pamela J. G. Neill; Edith Box

1987-01-01

18

Cytoarchitecture of Vocal Control Nuclei in Nestling Budgerigars: Relationships to Call Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the cytoarchitecture of vocal control nuclei were investigated in nestling budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) from hatching to fledging (five to six weeks) in relation to changes in vocalizations produced by nestlings during this period. The nuclei investigated were the hypoglossal nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular midbrain, central nucleus of the archistriatum, central nucleus of the lateral neostriatum, oval

William S. Hall; Kelly K. Cookson; James T. Heaton; Todd F. Roberts; Stephen D. Shea; Stuart K. Amateau; Steven E. Brauth

1999-01-01

19

A light and electron microscopic examination of budgerigar fledgling disease virus in tissue and in cell culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological changes induced by a newly described avian virus in budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) tissues were examined with light and electron microscopes. Infected cells viewed with the light microscope were found to have enlarged nuclei containing marginated chromatin. Cytoplasmic contents were frequently clear in appearance. Tissues affected included skin, feather, follicle, kidney, uropygial gland, crop, lung, liver, heart, bone marrow, spleen

M. J. Dykstra; L. H. Bozeman

1982-01-01

20

Unexpectedly low UV-sensitivity in a bird, the budgerigar.  

PubMed

Photoreceptor adaptation ensures appropriate visual responses during changing light conditions and contributes to colour constancy. We used behavioural tests to compare UV-sensitivity of budgerigars after adaptation to UV-rich and UV-poor backgrounds. In the latter case, we found lower UV-sensitivity than expected, which could be the result of photon-shot noise corrupting cone signal robustness or nonlinear background adaptation. We suggest that nonlinear adaptation may be necessary for allowing cones to discriminate UV-rich signals, such as bird plumage colours, against UV-poor natural backgrounds. PMID:25376799

Chavez, Johanna; Kelber, Almut; Vorobyev, Misha; Lind, Olle

2014-11-01

21

Bare-Part Color in Female Budgerigars Changes from Brown to Structural Blue following Testosterone Treatment but Is Not Strongly Masculinized  

PubMed Central

Whereas several studies have shown that experimentally increased levels of the androgenic steroid testosterone can affect female behavior, fewer studies have focused on the activational effects of exogenous testosterone on female morphology. With respect to colorful displays in birds, almost exclusively the effects of testosterone manipulation on female carotenoid-based colorations have been studied. Other color types such as structural colors (i.e. UV, blue and violet colors that result from differential light reflection in the nanostructures of the tissue) remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of exogenous testosterone on the expression of structural bare-part coloration in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In this parrot species, bare-part coloration is expressed in the cere, a structure over the beak which is brown in females and structural blue in males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and we performed weekly spectrophotometric measurements of the cere for five weeks after implantation and one measurement after ten weeks. We also estimated the extent to which testosterone masculinized female cere color by comparing the experimental females with untreated males. We found significant effects of testosterone on cere color from week four after implantation onwards. T-females expressed significantly bluer ceres than C-females with higher values for brightness and UV reflectance. T-female cere color, however, remained significantly less blue than in males, while values for brightness and UV reflectance were significantly higher in T-females than in males. Our quantitative results show that exogenous testosterone induces the expression of structural blue color in females but does not strongly masculinize female cere coloration. We provide several potential pathways for the action of testosterone on structural color. PMID:24475184

Lahaye, Stefanie E. P.; Eens, Marcel; Darras, Veerle M.; Pinxten, Rianne

2014-01-01

22

Behavioral Lateralization and Optimal Route Choice in Flying Budgerigars  

PubMed Central

Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to continue their transit to the end of the tunnel, regardless of whether this passage was on the right or the left. Evidently, the birds were selecting the safest and quickest route. However, when the two passages were of equal or nearly equal width, some individuals consistently preferred the left-hand passage, while others consistently preferred the passage on the right. Thus, the birds displayed idiosyncratic biases when choosing between alternative routes. Surprisingly - and unlike most of the instances in which behavioral lateralization has previously been discovered - the bias was found to vary from individual to individual, in its direction as well as its magnitude. This is very different from handedness in humans, where the majority of humans are right-handed, giving rise to a so-called ‘population’ bias. Our experimental results and mathematical model of this behavior suggest that individually varying lateralization, working in concert with a tendency to choose the wider aperture, can expedite the passage of a flock of birds through a cluttered environment. PMID:24603285

Bhagavatula, Partha S.; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

2014-01-01

23

Anim. Behav., 1998, 55, 215222 Begging signals and biparental care: nestling choice between parental feeding  

E-print Network

). In budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, and tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, male parents preferentially feed large and female parents small nestlings (Stamps et al. 1985

Richner, Heinz

24

Über den Einfluss der Bewegungsrichtung der Basilarmembran auf die Ausbildung der Cochlea-Potentiale von Strix varia (Barton) und Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die vom runden Fenster abgeleiteten Cochlea-Potentiale von „Barred Owl“ (Strix varia) und Wellensittich (Melopsittacus undulatus) werden in einer ursprünglich für Säuger entwickelten Apparatur untersucht. Verbesserungen der schon früher erarbeiteten präparativen Technik für Kleinvögel werden angegeben.

J. Schwartzkopff

1958-01-01

25

Quantitative analysis of the respiratory system of the house sparrow, budgerigar and violet-eared hummingbird.  

PubMed

In the house sparrow, the budgerigar and the violet-eared hummingbird the volumes of the lungs and air sacs are estimated from silicone casts. The quantitative composition of the lungs and of their compartments are measured on lung slices, the relative volumes of the parabronchi on histological sections, and the volume composition of the blood-air capillary network of the parabronchi on electron micrographs. On electron micrographs the exchange surface and the thickness of the air-blood diffusion barrier are also measured. From these data the morphological membrane diffusion capacity is calculated and related to several organ weights. The volume of the lungs and air sacs makes up 14-22% of the total body volume, the lungs only 2.3-2.9%. The exchange surface varies from 61 cm2/g (budgerigar) over 70 cm2/g (house sparrow) to 99 cm2/g (violet-eared hummingbird). The very thin barrier in these small birds results in a membrane diffusion capacity of 0.122 in budgerigars up to 0.271 ml O2/mm Hg . min . g in violet-eared hummingbirds. The various parameters are compared with those of corresponding mammals, and the quantitative advantages of the avian respiratory system are discussed. PMID:7330491

Dubach, M

1981-10-01

26

Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

27

Purification of recombinant budgerigar fledgling disease virus VP1 capsid protein and its ability for in vitro capsid assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recombinant system for the major capsid VP1 protein of budgerigar fledgling disease virus has been established. The VP1 gene was inserted into a truncated form of the pFlag-1 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The budgerigar fledgling disease virus VP1 protein was purified to near homogeneity by immunoaffinity chromatography. Fractions containing highly purified VP1 were pooled and found to constitute 3.3% of the original E. coli-expressed VP1 protein. Electron microscopy revealed that the VP1 protein was isolated as pentameric capsomeres. Electron microscopy also revealed that capsid-like particles were formed in vitro from purified VP1 capsomeres with the addition of Ca2+ ions and the removal of chelating and reducing agents.

Rodgers, R. E.; Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

28

Developmental Species Differences in Brain Cell Cycle Rates between Northern Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus) and Parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus): Implications for Mosaic Brain Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult brains differ among species in the proportional sizes of their major subdivisions. For example, the telencephalon occupies 71% of the entire brain in parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) but only 54% in quail (Colinus virginianus). In contrast, the tectum is smaller in parakeets than in quail. To determine whether these differences in brain region size arise because of species differences in

Christine J. Charvet; Georg F. Striedter

2008-01-01

29

Phosphorylation of the budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural proteins of the budgerigar fledgling disease virus, the first known nonmammalian polyomavirus, were analyzed by isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The major capsid protein VP1 was found to be composed of at least five distinct species having isoelectric points ranging from pH 6.45 to 5.85. By analogy with the murine polyomavirus, these species apparently result from different modifications of an initial translation product. Primary chicken embryo cells were infected in the presence of 32Pi to determine whether the virus structural proteins were modified by phosphorylation. SDS-PAGE of the purified virus structural proteins demonstrated that VP1 (along with both minor capsid proteins) was phosphorylated. Two-dimensional analysis of the radiolabeled virus showed phosphorylation of only the two most acidic isoelectric species of VP1, indicating that this posttranslational modification contributes to VP1 species heterogeneity. Phosphoamino acid analysis of 32P-labeled VP1 revealed that phosphoserine is the only phosphoamino acid present in the VP1 protein.

Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

30

Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus) and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus)  

PubMed Central

Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs), segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+) MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird): the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+ MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order) and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order). We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+ MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail), but also between close vocal learner bird families. PMID:24391552

Garcia-Calero, Elena; Bahamonde, Olga; Martinez, Salvador

2013-01-01

31

Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus) and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus).  

PubMed

Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs), segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+) MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird): the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+ MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order) and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order). We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+ MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail), but also between close vocal learner bird families. PMID:24391552

Garcia-Calero, Elena; Bahamonde, Olga; Martinez, Salvador

2013-01-01

32

Hot or Not: The Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Female Attractiveness to Male Conspecifics in the Budgerigar  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of studies indicate that not only females but also males can be selective when choosing a mate. In species exhibiting male or mutual mate choice, females may benefit from being attractive. While male attractiveness is often positively influenced by higher plasma levels of the androgenic hormone testosterone, it has been shown that testosterone can masculinise female behavior and morphology in several bird species, potentially rendering them less attractive. In this study, we investigated whether female budgerigars, Melopsittacusundulatus, suffer from increased plasma testosterone levels through a negative effect on their attractiveness to males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females) compared to controls (C-females) and allowed males to choose between a T- and a C-female in a two-way choice situation. Although testosterone treatment significantly affected female behavioral and morphological characteristics, males did not show a significant difference in preference between T- and C-females. These results suggest that experimentally increasing testosterone levels in females does not appear to influence male preference during initial mate choice. Our findings indicate that selection for higher levels of testosterone in male budgerigars is probably not constrained by a correlated response to selection causing negative effects on female attractiveness during initial mate choice. Evaluating whether or not a potential constraint may arise from negative testosterone-induced effects on other fitness related traits in females requires further work. PMID:23951365

Lahaye, Stefanie E. P.; Eens, Marcel; Darras, Veerle M.; Pinxten, Rianne

2013-01-01

33

Comparative Gene Expression Analysis Among Vocal Learners (Bengalese Finch and Budgerigar) and Non-Learners (Quail and Ring Dove) Reveals Variable Cadherin Expressions in the Vocal System  

PubMed Central

Birds use various vocalizations to communicate with one another, and some are acquired through learning. So far, three families of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds) have been identified as having vocal learning ability. Previously, we found that cadherins, a large family of cell-adhesion molecules, show vocal control-area-related expression in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. To investigate the molecular basis of evolution in avian species, we conducted comparative analysis of cadherin expressions in the vocal and other neural systems among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and a non-learner (quail and ring dove). The gene expression analysis revealed that cadherin expressions were more variable in vocal and auditory areas compared to vocally unrelated areas such as the visual areas among these species. Thus, it appears that such diverse cadherin expressions might have been related to generating species diversity in vocal behavior during the evolution of avian vocal learning. PMID:21541260

Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

2010-01-01

34

Experimental induction of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses using Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts from the opossum ( Didelphis virginiana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts isolated from eight feral opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were pooled and fed to 18 commercially reared budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 14 wild-caught sparrows (Passer domesticus), one wild-caught slate-colored Junco (Junco hyemalis) and five weanling horses (Equus caballus). All budgerigars died within 5 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Histologic examination revealed meronts within the pulmonary epithelia and typical Sarcocystis falcatula sarcocysts

Clara K. Fenger; David E. Granstrom; Alvin A. Gajadhar; Neil M. Williams; Shani A. McCrillis; Shelby Stamper; John L. Langemeier; J. P. Dubey

1997-01-01

35

Developmental species differences in brain cell cycle rates between northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus): implications for mosaic brain evolution.  

PubMed

Adult brains differ among species in the proportional sizes of their major subdivisions. For example, the telencephalon occupies 71% of the entire brain in parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) but only 54% in quail (Colinus virginianus). In contrast, the tectum is smaller in parakeets than in quail. To determine whether these differences in brain region size arise because of species differences in cell cycle rates, parakeet and quail embryos were collected at various stages of development (HH24-HH37) and stained with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which labels all dividing cells, and phosphorylated histone-3 (pH3), which labels M-phase cells. Analysis of pH3+ cell densities and pH3+/PCNA+ cell ratios were used to compare cell cycle rates across stages and species. Cumulative labeling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was also used to compare cell cycle rates at stages 24 and 28 in quail. We found that telencephalic cell cycle rates lengthen with age in both species, but that they lengthen significantly later in parakeets than in quail. This species difference in cell cycle rates explains, at least partly, why adult parakeets have a proportionately larger telencephalon. Tectal cell cycle rates also remain elevated for a prolonged period of time in parakeets compared to quail. This seems paradoxical at first, given that the parakeet's adult tectum is relatively small. However, the tectum is initially much smaller but then grows more extensively in parakeets than in quail. Thus, species differences in adult brain proportions can be traced back to species differences in cell cycle kinetics. PMID:19088470

Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

2008-01-01

36

Invasive Birds in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of exotic birds has been increasing throughout the world. We conducted inquiry investigations in order to reveal the spread of introduced bird species in Japan. Forty-three exotic species are known to breed or are regarded as breeding. The Feral Pigeon (Columba livia), Chinese Bamboo Partridge (Bambusicola thoracica), Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Red Avadavat (Amandava amandava)

Kazuhiro EGUCHI; Hitoha E. AMANO

2004-01-01

37

Neural song control system of hummingbirds: comparison to swifts, vocal learning (Songbirds) and nonlearning (Suboscines) passerines, and vocal learning (Budgerigars) and nonlearning (Dove, owl, gull, quail, chicken) nonpasserines.  

PubMed

Males of certain hummingbird species such as Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) learn their song during postnatal development. Here we report that male Anna's hummingbirds and male Amazilia hummingbirds (Amazilia amazilia), two singing hummingbird species, possess forebrain areas that are similar in morphological appearance, location, and connectivity to the song control areas RA (nucleus robustus archistriatalis), HVC (nucleus hyperstriatalis ventrale, pars caudale, or higher vocal center), and LMAN (lateral part of nucleus mangnocellularis anterioris) of oscine passerines (songbirds). The vocal control areas of songbirds are further defined by the expression of androgen receptors. Similarly, the singing hummingbird species express androgen receptors in the LMAN-like area and in the HVC-like area. The hummingbird RA projects to the medullary syringeal motonucleus nXIIts (nucleus hypoglossus pars tracheosyringealis) and the respiratory premotonucleus RAm (nucleus retroambigualis). The HVC-, RA-, and LMAN-like areas are rudimentary in adult male ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) and Allen's hummingbirds (Selasphorus sasin) and not distinguishable in female hummingbirds, none of which sing. Vocal-area-like forebrain areas (delineated by the cytoarchitecture or androgen receptor expression) were not found in vocal nonlearning swifts and suboscines, the taxonomic sister groups of hummingbirds and songbirds, respectively. These areas were also missing in owls, ring doves, gulls, and gallinaceous species, nonpasserines that do not learn vocalizations. Budgerigars (vocal learners) are known to have forebrain vocal areas, but these areas do not express sex steroid receptors. These data suggest that hummingbirds and songbirds belong to two groups of birds that have common forebrain circuits. Parts of this circuit are organized as nuclear-like structures (LMAN, HVC, RA) in species that learn to sing. PMID:10982462

Gahr, M

2000-10-16

38

This Land Is Your Land, This Land Is My Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will review and evaluate the ways land is covered and used in their local community. They will also consider the environmental effects of the different types of land use. Students will act as community planning engineers to determine where to place a new structure that will have the least affect on the environment.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

39

Land Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, forests and pastures on which agriculture depends. It assesses the interactions between land resources and wider aspects of development, including population and poverty. It provides a strong critique of current methods of assessing land degradation and placing an economic value on land. It should be read by all involved in rural development, including scientists, economists, geographers, sociologists, planners, and students of development studies.

Young, Anthony

2000-07-01

40

Land Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, forests and pastures on which agriculture depends. It assesses the interactions between land resources and wider aspects of development, including population and poverty. It provides a strong critique of current methods of assessing land degradation and placing an economic value on land. It should be read by all involved in rural development, including scientists, economists, geographers, sociologists, planners, and students of development studies.

Young, Anthony

1998-08-01

41

National Forest Land Scheme  

E-print Network

National Forest Land Scheme Guidance #12;National Forest Land Scheme National Forest Land Scheme | 32 | National Forest Land Scheme Contents National Forest Land Scheme 3 Community Acquisition 7 Land national forest land a community can use its rights under Community Right to Buy to apply to buy it

42

Mars Landing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning (PBL) module, students take on the role of Captain aboard the fictional good ship Low Bid, the first manned spacecraft to orbit Mars. Their challenge: to choose a safe, interesting landing spot, using old Viking images taken in the 1970s to guide them. Students download and analyze digital images using NIH image software. This module is part of exploring the environment.

43

water transport land runoff  

E-print Network

Monitoring station Land to water transport Urban runoff Cultivated land runoff Wastewater discharges Pasture land runoff Instream transport and removal Land to water transport Monitoring station Benefits of Integrated Monitoring and Modeling Successful management of our Nation's water resources

Torgersen, Christian

44

Land and water snails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Land snails live on the land and water snails make water their habitat. Land snails have shells to protect them and so do water snails. Land snails have two sets of antennae, while water snails only have one set.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

45

University Endowment Lands Collection /  

E-print Network

University Endowment Lands Collection / various collectors Compiled by Christopher Hives and Erwin of the University Endowment Lands series o University Marine Foreshore Development Committee File List Catalogue entry (UBC Library catalogue) #12;Collection Description University Endowment Lands Collection / various

Handy, Todd C.

46

Primitive Land Plants 37 PRIMITIVE LAND PLANTS  

E-print Network

Primitive Land Plants 37 PRIMITIVE LAND PLANTS These are the plants that were present soon after land was colonized, over 400 mil- lion years ago. A few plants living today are closely related to those ancient plants, and we often call them "living fossils". Two major lineages of plants evolved

Koptur, Suzanne

47

Pinpoint Landing Technology Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the technology developments required to achieve pinpoint landing for a Mars landing of a future unmanned vehicle. It addresses some of the challenges to achieving accurate landing (i.e., to 2-3 kilometers) of a designated landing site. The major challenge though is to reduce the possible propellant requirement to achieve this pinpoint landing capability which requires minimizing delivery error at powered descent ignition.

Wolf, Aron A.

2008-01-01

48

Bureau of Land Management: Public Land Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) manages over 264 million acres of public land, most of which is located in the western United States. The BLM works diligently to get information on these lands out to a variety of stakeholders, including other government agencies, private landowners, and other organizations. This website brings together the BLM's formal land statistics and reports. Visitors can view the complete reports dating from the present year all the way back to 1996, and they are also encouraged to look over the site's other sections. As these reports are quite lengthy, the other sections may be a bit more useful as they break out the reports' statistics into themes like Healthy Lands, Commercial Uses, Recreation, and Natural and Cultural. These separate themes contain tables like "Estimated Recreational Use of Public Lands Administered by the BLM" and "National Historic and Scenic Trails."

2012-03-09

49

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Forestry Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Forestry Data Creator / Copyright Owner: National/A Series Title: Land Capability Classification for Forestry Abstract: The Canada Land Inventory of land and water. The Land Capability for Forestry rates land into 7 classes depending on its capability

50

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM ________________________________________________________________________ Preparing a Conservation Plan INTRODUCTION Conservation of land, water and other natural features. Examples of goals might include protecting the water resources of a town, maintaining or improving local

New Hampshire, University of

51

LANDMARC [land mine detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the detection of land mines. For this purpose the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LANL) has combined its micropower impulse radar and imaging technologies. The system is called the land-mine detection advanced radar concept, or LANDMARC

S. Azevedo

1998-01-01

52

Alaska Natives & the Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

53

Land and World Order.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

1982-01-01

54

Autonomous Landing Guidance Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

All weather tactical aircraft recovery and high sortie generation rates from forward, possibly battle damaged landing areas will reqire autonomous landing guidance systems which are independent of ground-based cooperative aids. A recently completed study has examined the operational requirements and assessed current and near term technology for an answer to this need. The Landing Systems Requirements\\/Synthesis Study has defined the

Edmond F. Roy; John W. Davison

1986-01-01

55

Landing gear noise attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

2011-01-01

56

Land Tenure Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1962, the Land Tenure Center (LTC) is perhaps one of the most well-regarded university-based institutions to deal specifically with land policy across the world. Essentially, the LTC "serves as a global resource institution on issues relating to land ownership, land rights, land access, and land use." The LTC is also highly regarded for its interdisciplinary research approach which places a premium on working collaboratively with host-country institutions and individuals in the areas of policy analysis, research, and training. On the organization's site, visitors can learn about their various ongoing research programs, its staff members and affiliates, and the lectures and events it sponsors. Of course, the publications area is quite strong, and all documents created since 1996 are available online. These papers include such titles as "Patterns of Tenure Insecurity in Guyana" and "Indigenous Land and Community Security: A (Radical) Planning Agenda."

57

Sensing land pollution.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

Bowden, L. W.

1971-01-01

58

Landing the Rover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this team design challenge (page 19-24 of PDF), learners "land" a model Lunar Rover in a model Landing Pod (both previously built in activities #3 and #4 in PDF). Learners drop the pods containing the rovers from a prescribed height and record their observations. Learners improve (re-design and re-build) their Landing Pods based on their observations from the first drop.

Administration, National A.

2013-01-30

59

Competition for land  

PubMed Central

A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlik, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

2010-01-01

60

State of the Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent new site, from the US Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service, "provides data on land use and change, soil erosion and soil quality, water quality, wetlands, and other issues regarding the conservation and use of natural resources on non-Federal land in the United States." The site is searchable by keyword and is organized into five main sections: People on the Land; Analysis Maps & Publications; Water Quality, Wetlands; Cropping, Grazing Land; and NRCS National Conservation Priorities. Each main section offers further information on that topic, and hyperlinks take readers to related sites.

61

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Agriculture Data Creator /  

E-print Network

square kilometers of land and water. The Land Capability for Agriculture shows the varying potentialTitle: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Agriculture Data Creator / Copyright Owner Updates: N/A Series Title: Soil Capability Classification for Agriculture Abstract: The Canada Land

62

All That Unplowed Land  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

MOSAIC, 1975

1975-01-01

63

Property in Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because human beings are fated to live mostly on the surface of the earth, the pattern of entitlements to use land is a central issue in social organization. As the epigraphs suggest, this issue has been the subject of fierce ideological controversy. Blackstone's paean to private property comports with the mainstream Anglo-American exaltation of decentralized ownership of land. This vision

Robert C. Ellickson

1993-01-01

64

External Resource: Lunar Landing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This AP Physics problem set presents learners/students with background information regarding lunar landings and the necessary information to apply equations of motion and force. Landing safely and learning to live on the Moon will give NASA a head start i

1900-01-01

65

Apollo Landing Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the siting and geology of the six Apollo lunar landings. Learners use latitude and longitude to identify potential landing sites and study the geology of lunar samples collected from those sites. This activity is in Unit 2 of the "Exploring the Moon" teacherâs guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

66

Tales From Silver Lands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are about "strange…

Finger, Charles J.

67

Airplane landing gear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents an investigation of the design and construction of various types of landing gears. Some of the items discussed include: chassises, wheels, shock absorbers (rubber disk and rubber cord), as well as oleopneumatic shock absorbers. Various types of landing gears are also discussed such as the Messier, Bendix, Vickers, and Bleriot.

Maiorca, Salvatore

1931-01-01

68

THE LAND MONITOR PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Monitor Project is providing information over the southwest agricultural region of WA. It is assembling and processing sequences of Landsat TM data, a new high- resolution digital elevation model (DEM) and other spatial data to provide monitoring information on the area of salt-affected land, and on changes in the area and status of perennial vegetation over the period

Peter Caccetta; Adrian Allen; Ian Watson; Brian Beetson; Graeme Behn; Norm Campbell; Peter Eddy; Fiona Evans; Suzanne Furby; Harri Kiiveri; Geoff Mauger; Don McFarlane; Jerome Goh; Colin Pearce; Richard Smith; Jeremy Wallace; Ray Wallis

69

Modeling Land-Use and Land -Cover Change 1 MODELING LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGE  

E-print Network

Modeling Land-Use and Land -Cover Change 1 MODELING LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGE Daniel G. Brown1 Introduction Models are used in a variety of fields, including land change science, to better understand/or evaluate scenarios for use in assessment activities. Modeling is an important component of each

Brown, Daniel G.

70

The land and its people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large tracts of agricultural land are being bought up by external investors. Turning the land into a commodity can have detrimental effects, for generations to come, on the local communities that sell or lease the land.

D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

2014-05-01

71

Ambient ion soft landing.  

PubMed

Ambient ion soft landing, a process in which polyatomic ions are deposited from air onto a surface at a specified location under atmospheric pressure, is described. Ions generated by electrospray ionization are passed pneumatically through a heated metal drying tube, their ion polarity is selected using ion deflectors, and the dry selected ions are soft-landed onto a selected surface. Unlike the corresponding vacuum soft-landing experiment, where ions are mass-selected and soft-landed within a mass spectrometer, here the ions to be deposited are selected through the choice of a compound that gives predominantly one ionic species upon ambient ionization; no mass analysis is performed during the soft landing experiment. The desired dry ions, after electrical separation from neutrals and counterions, are deposited on a surface. Characterization of the landed material was achieved by dissolution and analysis using mass spectrometry or spectrofluorimetry. The treated surface was also characterized using fluorescence microscopy, which allowed surfaces patterned with fluorescent compounds to be imaged. The pure dry ions were used as reagents in heterogeneous ion/surface reactions including the reaction of pyrylium cations with d-lysine to form the N-substituted pyridinium cation. The charged microdroplets associated with incompletely dried ions could be selected for soft landing or surface reaction by choice of the temperature of a drying tube inserted between the ion source and the electrical ion deflectors. PMID:21410137

Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Wu, Chunping; Cooks, R Graham

2011-04-01

72

Algorithm for Autonomous Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of their small size, high maneuverability, and easy deployment, micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) are used for a wide variety of both civilian and military missions. One of their current drawbacks is the vast array of sensors (such as GPS, altimeter, radar, and the like) required to make a landing. Due to the MAV s small payload size, this is a major concern. Replacing the imaging sensors with a single monocular camera is sufficient to land a MAV. By applying optical flow algorithms to images obtained from the camera, time-to-collision can be measured. This is a measurement of position and velocity (but not of absolute distance), and can avoid obstacles as well as facilitate a landing on a flat surface given a set of initial conditions. The key to this approach is to calculate time-to-collision based on some image on the ground. By holding the angular velocity constant, horizontal speed decreases linearly with the height, resulting in a smooth landing. Mathematical proofs show that even with actuator saturation or modeling/ measurement uncertainties, MAVs can land safely. Landings of this nature may have a higher velocity than is desirable, but this can be compensated for by a cushioning or dampening system, or by using a system of legs to grab onto a surface. Such a monocular camera system can increase vehicle payload size (or correspondingly reduce vehicle size), increase speed of descent, and guarantee a safe landing by directly correlating speed to height from the ground.

Kuwata, Yoshiaki

2011-01-01

73

Design a Landing Pod!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this team design challenge (page 11-18 of PDF), learners design and build a Landing Pod for a model Lunar Rover (previously built in activity on page 1-10 of PDF). Learners must build a Landing Pod that fits within the specified mass limit. Learners test their design by dropping it and making sure that it lands intact and right side up. Learners improve their designs by re-designing and re-building. Learners can complete a follow-up activity included in this resource.

Administration, National A.

2013-01-30

74

The White Promised Land  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describing Bolivia's interest in encouraging Caucasian immigrants from South Africa, for purposes of settling and developing traditionally Indian lands, this article details the miserable conditions of slavery and cultural/physical genocide currently operative in Bolivia. (JC)

Lewis, Norman

1978-01-01

75

Shuttle Landing Facility  

NASA Video Gallery

The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

76

A Land Worth Loving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the BBC Nature Web site, comes the A Land Worth Loving page. The site has several interactive activities related to energy conservation and recycling including the virtual energy house. Here users get to choose energy saving items to see the resulting gains to the homeowner and the environment. The site also explains recycling and sustainable living and even offers a "green" quiz and a free downloadable "A Land Worth Living" poster.

2002-01-01

77

Land Use and Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial ecosystems affect climate through exchanges of energy, water, momentum, mineral aerosols, CO2, and other atmospheric gases. Changes in community composition and ecosystem structure alter these exchanges and in doing\\u000a so alter surface energy fluxes, the hydrologic cycle, and biogeochemical cycles. As a result, changes in land cover through\\u000a natural vegetation dynamics or human uses of land can alter climate.

Gordon B. Bonan; Ruth S. DeFries; Michael T. Coe; Dennis S. Ojima

78

Lunar Landing Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about landing on the Moon. Learners will design a spacecraft, choose a suitable lunar landing site, and present their ideas before the entire class using visual aides such as maps, diagrams, and 3-dimensional models. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

79

Survey of Critical Wetlands Bureau of Land Management Lands  

E-print Network

Survey of Critical Wetlands Bureau of Land Management Lands South Park, Park County, Colorado 2003 Delivery Colorado State University #12;Survey of Critical Wetlands Bureau of Land Management Lands South place from unique wetlands to high quality grasslands to the bristlecone pine forests to its alpine

80

STS-82 Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the cover of darkness, the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery glides in for a landing on Runway 15 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at the conclusion of a 10-day mission to service the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). New runway centerline lights provide an additional visual aid for the nighttime landings. STS-82 is the ninth Shuttle nighttime landing, and the fourth nighttime landing at KSC. The seven-member crew performed a record-tying five back-to-back extravehicular activities (EVAs) or spacewalks to service the telescope, which has been in orbit for nearly seven years. Two new scientific instruments were installed, replacing two outdated instruments. Five spacewalks also were performed on the first servicing mission, STS-61, in December 1993. Only four spacewalks were scheduled for STS-82, but a fifth one was added during the flight to install several thermal blankets over some aging insulation covering three HST compartments containing key data processing, electronics and scientific instrument telemetry packages. Crew members are Mission Commander Kenneth D. Bowersox, Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Gregory J. Harbaugh, Joseph R. 'Joe' Tanner and Steven A. Hawley. STS-82 was the 82nd Space Shuttle flight and the second mission of 1997.

1997-01-01

81

Anticipating land surface change.  

PubMed

The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify "near misses," close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management. PMID:23530230

Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J

2013-04-01

82

Energy and land use  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

Not Available

1981-12-01

83

Anticipating land surface change  

PubMed Central

The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify “near misses,” close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management. PMID:23530230

Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

84

Land Mines Removal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

1999-01-01

85

Land Mines Removal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

1999-01-01

86

Land Surveyor Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of Land Surveyor Reference Page Web site is "to provide reference materials that are useful in the practice of Land Surveying and to promote communication within the surveying community globally." Funded by the Huntington Technology Group, the site is periodically updated to include the latest information on state rules, regulations and statutes, federal government data sources, maps, articles of interest, college and university programs, meetings and conventions, as well as links to professional organizations, land surveying message boards, and much more. While obviously helpful to the surveying professional, the site also should appeal to researchers and others doing work that involves surveying; providing them with helpful and up-to-date information.

1995-01-01

87

LichenLand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LichenLand offers a way to learn about lichen biology and taxonomy that's much more engaging than leafing through a textbook. This Web site, provided by Oregon State University, offers a number of features to help students become familiar with the subject. First-time users should visit LichenLand Lite for a quick introduction to lichens and instructions for using the Web site. LichenLand Main Door contains an illustrated set of characters that can be queried with simple drop-down menus. Query results yield a list of lichens that exhibit the characters selected, with information and photos for each species. The Web site could complement related coursework for a range of grade levels.

88

Land Use History  

E-print Network

This study focuses on the cultural-historical environment of the 88,900-acre (35,560-ha) Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) over the past four centuries of Spanish, Mexican, and U.S. governance. It includes a review and synthesis of available published and unpublished historical, ethnohistorical, and ethnographic literature about the human occupation of the area now contained within the VCNP. Documents include historical maps, texts, letters, diaries, business records, photographs, land and mineral patents, and court testimony. This study presents a cultural-historical framework of VCNP land use that will be useful to land managers and researchers in assessing the historical ecology of the property. It provides VCNP administrators and agents the cultural-historical background needed to develop management plans that acknowledge traditional associations with the Preserve, and offers managers additional background for structuring and acting on consultations with affiliated communities.

United States; Forest Service; Kurt F. Anschuetz

2007-01-01

89

Land use and energy  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

1980-07-01

90

Regional land use studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing technology and data from instrumented satellites and high altitude aircraft are proposed for mapping land use on a current national basis, for monitoring changes and trends, and for creating statistical models which can be manipulated to demonstrate the probable effects of proposed land use and of environmental changes over large areas. Both Apollo spacecraft and aircraft photography were used; the spacecraft pictures delineated the cropland and urban boundaries more clearly. A computer model is also proposed for statistical analysis and for printing out updated maps automatically; this model will include a data bank which can be updated rapidly with changes detected by the computer.

Place, J. L.

1970-01-01

91

STS-82 Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery touches down in darkness on Runway 15 of the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility, bringing to a close the 10-day STS-82 mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Main gear touchdown was at 3:32:26 a.m. EST on February 21, 1997. It was the ninth nighttime landing in the history of the Shuttle program and the 35th landing at KSC. The first landing opportunity at KSC was waved off because of low clouds in the area. The seven-member crew performed a record- tying five back-to-back extravehicular activities (EVAs) or spacewalks to service the telescope, which has been in orbit for nearly seven years. Two new scientific instruments were installed, replacing two outdated instruments. Five spacewalks also were performed on the first servicing mission, STS-61, in December 1993. Only four spacewalks were scheduled for STS-82, but a fifth one was added during the flight to install several thermal blankets over some aging insulation covering three HST compartments containing key data processing, electronics and scientific instrument telemetry packages. Crew members are Mission Commander Kenneth D. Bowersox, Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Gregory J. Harbaugh, Joseph R. 'Joe' Tanner and Steven A. Hawley. STS-82 was the 82nd Space Shuttle flight and the second mission of 1997.

1997-01-01

92

Living Off the Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the

Gamberg, Maryellen; Dickerson, Peg

2010-02-01

93

MERIS Land Products Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over land, the aerosol remote sensing is based on the observation of Dense Dark Vegetation (DDV) and this concept is applied on MERIS with a spectral index (ARVI, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index) to detect the DDV and the use of the bands at 412, 443 and 670 nm to characterize the aerosols. The aerosol size distribution is assumed to follow

D. Ramon; R. Santer; E. Dilligeard; D. Jolivet; J. Vidot

2004-01-01

94

MAPPING INDIGENOUS LANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mapping of indigenous lands to secure tenure, manage natural resources, and strengthen cultures is a recent phenomenon, having begun in Canada and Alaska in the 1960s and in other regions during the last decade and a half. A variety of methodologies have made their appearance, ranging from highly participatory approaches involving village sketch maps to more technical efforts with

Mac Chapin; Zachary Lamb; Bill Threlkeld

2005-01-01

95

Land Product Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

96

Living off the Land  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth-grade students at Cutchogue East Elementary School in Cutchogue, New York learned about dependence on natural resources for survival on a visit to Downs Farm Preserve at Fort Corchaug. This is a slice of preserved land just eight minutes beyond the classroom walls. Its inhabitants date back to the first hunting and gathering settlers--the…

Dickerson, Peg; Gamberg, Maryellen

2010-01-01

97

Land Use in Saskatchewan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

98

Public Lands: Preserve or Develop?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces students to the various ways that public lands are valued, used, and managed in the United States. Students will compare and contrast different types of public lands, then simulate the decision-making and communication involved in converting private land to public land, taking into consideration the location, terrain, and climate of the land, as well as the needs and desires of residents of the region. Students will imagine that they are able to bequeath a parcel of land to their state for public use, then create an argument for the best use of the property.

99

By Land, Sea or Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn that navigational techniques change when people travel to different places â land, sea, air and space. For example, an explorer traveling by land uses different navigation methods and tools than a sailor or an astronaut.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

100

LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, LAND DEGRADATION  

E-print Network

& Sons, Ltd. 1 INTRODUCTION In West Africa, campaigns against land degradation and poor agriculturalLOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, LAND DEGRADATION AND THE `GESTION DES TERROIRS ' APPROACH IN WEST AFRICA: POLICIES AND PITFALLS SIMON BATTERBURY* Department of Geography & Earth Sciences, Brunel

Batterbury, Simon

101

Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

1987-01-01

102

The Land-Grant Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides an overview and history of the land-grant system, as well as copies of the original and amended legislation affecting the land-grant colleges. Land-grant colleges or universities have been designated by their state legislatures or Congress to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862, 1890 and 1994. The original…

National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2008

2008-01-01

103

Hazardous-waste land treatment  

SciTech Connect

This report provides state-of-the-art information on hazardous-waste land treatment units. Information is provided on site selection, waste characterization, treatment-demonstration studies; land-treatment unit design, operation, and closure, and other topics useful for design and management of land treatment units.

Brown, K.W.; Evans, G.B.; Frentrup, B.D.; Anderson, D.C.; Smith, C.

1983-04-01

104

Access to federal lands  

SciTech Connect

Many Westerners concur with Interior Secretary James G. Watt that federal laws enacted in recent years have led to costly lawsuits and lengthy environmental studies, stalling public resource development. But Watt's plans to curb national park expansion, open Rocky Mountain wilderness to mineral exploration and encourage more West Coast offshore drilling have convinced conservationists and many westerners that he intends to go too far. Congress has rebuffed his requests to fund some of these projects, but he still has strong support in the West, especially among Republican officials, ranchers, businessmen, and miners who depend on public lands for their livelihood. The administration's policies respond to the resentment that had been building against increased federal land and resources restrictions and that led to the Sagebrush Rebellion. 16 references, 3 figures.

Arrandale, T.

1981-09-18

105

Agriculture in Gloria Land.  

PubMed

A farming system has been developed on the Gloria Land farm at the Sri Aurobindo Ashram that uses purely organic materials and achieves yields comparable with or better than those on conventional farms under similar agroclimatic conditions. The stimulus for the conversion to organic farming came from observations of the toxicity of chemical pesticides and their apparent ineffectiveness in reducing the impact of pests and diseases. On the Gloria Land farm, a carefully integrated mixture of activities includes crop growing, animal husbandry, fish rearing and sericulture. Sufficient organic waste is produced to fulfill at the needs of the farm's crops. Energy is partially supplied by biogas produced on the farm. This system is economically viable and ecologically sustainable. PMID:8149819

Pal, M

1993-01-01

106

Evaluation of the VIIRS Land Algorithms at Land PEATE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (Land PEATE), a component of the Science Data Segment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), is being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The primary task of the Land PEATE is to assess the quality of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land data products made by the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) using the Operational (OPS) Code during the NPP era and to recommend improvements to the algorithms in the IDPS OPS code. The Land PEATE uses a version of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), NPPDAPS, that has been modified to produce products from the IDPS OPS code and software provided by the VIIRS Science Team, and uses the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team for evaluation of the data records generated by the NPPDAPS. Land PEATE evaluates the algorithms by comparing data products generated using different versions of the algorithm and also by comparing to heritage products generated from different instrument such as MODIS using various quality assessment tools developed at LDOPE. This paper describes the Land PEATE system and some of the approaches used by the Land PEATE for evaluating the VIIRS Land algorithms during the pre-launch period of the NPP mission and the proposed plan for long term monitoring of the quality of the VIIRS Land products post-launch.

Wolfe, Robert E.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Ye, Gang; Masuoka, Edward J.; Schweiss, Robert J.

2010-01-01

107

The Land Credit Problem  

E-print Network

: Minnesota Iowa Missouri North Dakota South Dakota Nebraska Kansas South Atlantic: Delaware Maryland Virginia West Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia Florida East South Central: Kentucky. Tennessee Alabama Mississippi West South Central... in the settlement of the public lands. Since the close of the last century, vast areas have been made available to settlers in Oklahoma, Florida, North Dakota, Wyoming, Mon tana, New Mexico, and the Pacific Coast States. And in nearly every instance where...

Putnam, George E.

1916-12-01

108

Settling in New Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You and your group are explorers out to start a settlement in new land. Third Grade Social Studies Standard 1 Students will understand how geography influences community location and development. Objective 1 Determine the relationships between human settlement and geography. Identify the geographic features common to areas where human settlements exist. a. Use map features to make logical inferences and describe relationships between human settlement and physical ...

Mgubler

2009-11-18

109

Paresev 1 in Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot and Paresev 1 preparing for a landing on the Rogers dry lakebed in 1962 at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The flight program began with ground tow tests. Several tows were made before liftoff was attempted to check the control rigging and to familiarize the pilot with the vehicle's ground stability. As the pilot's confidence and experience increased, tow speeds were also increased until liftoff was attained. Liftoff was at about 40 knots indicated airspeed (kias).

1962-01-01

110

Land Product Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: 1) to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation; 2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites.

Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

111

CSIRO Land and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSIRO Land and Water is an Australian research organization working with government and industry to solve some of Australia's environmental challenges. The Current Issues section of this Web siteoffers some understanding of the resource management and ecosystem issues facing Australia, including agricultural and aquatic ecosystem issues. The site also offers an Image Gallery containing almost 1,200 downloadable images that visitors can browse by category or search by keyword.

2001-01-01

112

Egg-cellent Landing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners recreate the classic egg-drop experiment with an analogy to the Mars rover landing. The concept of terminal velocity will be introduced, and learners perform several velocity calculations. Also, learners design and build their lander within a pre-determined budget to help reinforce a real-world design scenario. Materials list can be expanded to include a great variety of items as desired.

Yakacki, Chris; Hill, Geoffrey; Kotys-Schwartz, Daria; Zarske, Malinda S.; Yowell, Janet

2004-01-01

113

Land Use Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer technology, aerial photography and space imagery are being combined in a NASA community services program designed to help solve land use and natural resource planning problems. As urban areas grow, so grows the need for comprehensive, up-to-date information on which to base intelligent decisions regarding land use. State and local planners need information such as the nature of urban change, where the changes are occurring, how they affect public safety, transportation, the economy, tax assessment, sewer systems, water quality, flood hazard, noise impact and a great variety of other considerations. Most importantly they need continually updated maps. Preparing timely maps, gathering the essential data and maintaining it in orderly fashion are becoming matters of increasing difficulty. The NASA project, which has nationwide potential for improving efficiency in the planning process, is a pilot program focused on Tacoma, Washington and surrounding Pierce County. Its key element, developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a computerized Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS).

1978-01-01

114

Modeling land-use change  

SciTech Connect

Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

NONE

1995-12-31

115

43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

2010-10-01

116

Aggressive landing maneuvers for unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) vehicle landing is considered to be a critically difficult task for both land, marine, and urban operations. This thesis describes one possible control approach to enable landing of ...

Bayraktar, Selcuk

2006-01-01

117

7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.  

...return the land to productive agricultural use. Conservation problems...Land expected to have annual agricultural production, (ii...considered to be in annual agricultural production, such as land...location of the land, the history of damage to the...

2014-01-01

118

7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...return the land to productive agricultural use. Conservation problems...Land expected to have annual agricultural production, (ii...considered to be in annual agricultural production, such as land...location of the land, the history of damage to the...

2012-01-01

119

7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...return the land to productive agricultural use. Conservation problems...Land expected to have annual agricultural production, (ii...considered to be in annual agricultural production, such as land...location of the land, the history of damage to the...

2013-01-01

120

7 CFR 701.105 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...return the land to productive agricultural use. Conservation problems...Land expected to have annual agricultural production, (ii...considered to be in annual agricultural production, such as land...location of the land, the history of damage to the...

2011-01-01

121

Molecular Mapping of Brain Areas Involved in Parrot Vocal Communication  

PubMed Central

Auditory and vocal regulation of gene expression occurs in separate discrete regions of the songbird brain. Here we demonstrate that regulated gene expression also occurs during vocal communication in a parrot, belonging to an order whose ability to learn vocalizations is thought to have evolved independently of songbirds. Adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were stimulated to vocalize with playbacks of conspecific vocalizations (warbles), and their brains were analyzed for expression of the transcriptional regulator ZENK. The results showed that there was distinct separation of brain areas that had hearing- or vocalizing-induced ZENK expression. Hearing warbles resulted in ZENK induction in large parts of the caudal medial forebrain and in 1 midbrain region, with a pattern highly reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Vocalizing resulted in ZENK induction in nine brain structures, seven restricted to the lateral and anterior telencephalon, one in the thalamus, and one in the midbrain, with a pattern partially reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Five of the telencephalic structures had been previously described as part of the budgerigar vocal control pathway. However, functional boundaries defined by the gene expression patterns for some of these structures were much larger and different in shape than previously reported anatomical boundaries. Our results provide the first functional demonstration of brain areas involved in vocalizing and auditory processing of conspecific sounds in budgerigars. They also indicate that, whether or not vocal learning evolved independently, some of the gene regulatory mechanisms that accompany learned vocal communication are similar in songbirds and parrots. PMID:10717637

JARVIS, ERICH D.; MELLO, CLAUDIO V.

2008-01-01

122

To Land on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Science Definition Team (SDT) for NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission recommends including a lander as an integral part of the science payload of the JIMO Mission. The Europa Surface Science Package (ESSP) could comprise up to 25% of science payload resources. We have identified several key scientific and technical issues for such a lander, including 1) the potential effects of propellant contamination of the landng site, 2) the likely macroscopic surface roughness of potential landing sites, and 3) the desire to sample materials from depths of approximately 1 m beneath the surface. Discussion and consensus building on these issues within the science community is a prerequisite for establishing design requirements.

Shirley, James H.; Carlson, Robert W.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Sabahi, Dara

2005-01-01

123

Land mobile communications satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic value and salient technical and operational characteristics of a European Land Mobile Communication Satellite (LMCS) to complement and supplement the demand for mobile services of Western European countries in the 1995 to 2005 time frames were assessed. A significant future expansion of demand for LCMS services on the part of the public is anticipated. Important augmentations of current service capabilities could be achieved by a satellite service, improving the overall system performances and/or assisting the PTT's in containing their investments in the required infrastructure. The satellite service itself could represent a profitable revenue producer.

Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.

1986-09-01

124

Food Calories and Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity is on the rise in the United States, due primarily to the size and composition of the American diet. Discussion topics include lack of exercise, changes in calorie intake over time, and environmental impacts of these increases in consumption. Each student will particpate in an activity in which they investigate how their own diets affect the agricultural demands of a hypothetical country. They will record their calorie intake, categorize the calories as coming from either plants or animals, and estimate the amount of land that is needed to provide their daily intake. Links to related sites are provided.

Pratte, John

125

Happy Fun Communication Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Happy Fun Communication Land (HFCL) is a felicitous learning realm created by Richard W. Dillman, Professor of Communication at Western Maryland College. Designed for undergraduates, HFCL is the home of several self-study opportunities for students of communication theory. Seven online tutorials -- on such topics as Self and Society, Signs and Language, and Mass Communication -- provide succinct overviews of the methods, theories, and history of human communications. A large collection of study questions, most linked directly to the tutorials, allows students to test their knowledge. HFCL also includes a useful glossary of terms and an extensive list of bibliographic citations.

126

Arid Lands Biofuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark colored viscous gum. At this point, when methylated and the mixture analyzed by gas chromatography, grindelic acid methyl ester composes approximately 60-80% of the hydrocarbons present which is the actual available portion for biodiesel. Based on two years of crop data, we can say that we can produce in between 85-126 gallons of biofuel per acre of land. While agronomic issues remain still to be solved, crops can be grown, harvested and extracted using conventional methods. Further research is being undertaken to select optimal strains of gumweed, as well as methods of conversion of grindelic acid to a diesel fuel directly.

Neupane, B. P.

2013-05-01

127

Atmospheric Pressure During Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

1997-01-01

128

Finding GIS data: Land cover and land use in Kansas  

E-print Network

be done in hard copy without computers, by printing the relevant web pages. 1. http://arcdata.esri.com/data/tiger2000/tiger_download.cfm 2. http://factfinder.census.gov 3. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cob/bdy_files.html ArcLessons Template... to grades 5 through 8 Students will use a print aerial photograph of their town/city or school grounds to create their own ?land cover, land use? map, delineating the land surface into classes. Students will produce a paper land cover map...

Houser, Rhonda

2006-12-08

129

UrbanLand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Urban Land is an online magazine created and maintained by the staff members and affiliates of the Urban Land Institute. The magazine also has a print edition (published six times a year), and the goal of both publications is to provide timely articles and reports that deal with a wide range of topics, including real estate, international planning trends, and municipal finances. On the homepage, visitors can read the New Developments area which contains succinct data reports offered each business day, along with updates on topics such as Economy, Markets & Trends, Infrastructure/Transit, and Residential. Visitors can view the Institute's 75th Anniversary page for details about their past work and also use the Most Read feature to see what other visitors are finding most compelling. Given today's design and planning climate in cities, the Sustainability area is one that professionals and policy types will find most useful. Also, visitors can use the search feature to look for particular news updates, data reports, and so on.

2012-08-17

130

Regulation of land attitudes in Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land relations play an important role in the life of any state. The article is devoted to the questions of the land relations development in Kazakhstan. Tasks, stages and results of land reform are considered in it. The analysis has shown that land reform has not affected on a condition of land fund in a good way: the huge areas have been transmitted into stock lands, arable land has sharply decreased, fallow lands that have negatively affected on a quality of the lands and economy of republic was formed. In addition, the problems and ways of land relations perfection in republic were considered.

Kurmanova, Gulnara

2014-06-01

131

The future of land warfare  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

Bellamy, C.

1987-01-01

132

LSRA landing with tire test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

1994-01-01

133

Access to Land Data Products Through the Land Processes DAAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) was established as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) initiative to process, archive, and distribute land-related data collected by EOS sensors, thereby promoting the inter-disciplinary study and understanding of the integrated Earth system. The LP DAAC is responsible for archiving, product development, distribution, and user

A. L. Klaassen; C. K. Gacke

2004-01-01

134

Title: Canada Land Inventory: Land Capability for Ungulates Data Creator /  

E-print Network

of rural Canada, covering over 2.5 million square kilometers of land and water. The Land Capability of food, protective cover, and space to meet the needs for survival, growth and reproduction. Data Type: Vector Digital Data Format: e00, WMF, GIF Datum / Map Projection: NAD27 Resolution: N/A Coordinates: -128

135

LAND USE/LAND COVER, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED (BUFFERED)  

EPA Science Inventory

EOSAT and the North Carolina State University Computer Graphics Center, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Land Use/Land Cover digital data to enhance planning, siting and impact analysis in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Stu...

136

The Barren Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The area west of Hudson Bay in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan is known as the Barren Lands region, and it was thoroughly documented and explored by J.B. Tyrrell in 1893 and 1894. Tyrell was a geologist working in the service of the Geological Survey of Canada when he led two separate expeditions to the region. This thoughtful digital collection from the University of Toronto's Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library includes over 5000 images from the original field notebooks from the expedition, along with written correspondence, photographs, maps, and published reports. A great place to start is the "Expedition Overview" area. Here visitors can read a brief overview of each expedition, and then follow along the path of the original expedition route on period maps. The site also includes a biographical sketch of Tyrell and his younger brother, James.

137

Canada's Polar Environments: Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Arctic lands of Canada, which have been divided into three ecozones: the Arctic Cordillera, which encompasses the northeastern fringe of Nunavut and northern Labrador and is defined by the Arctic Cordillera Mountain Range; the Northern Arctic, which is a polar desert that comprises the non-mountainous portions of the Arctic Islands as well as the northernmost areas of Quebec; and the Southern Arctic, which covers much of the northern mainland of Canada, from the Richardson Mountains in the Yukon Territory to northern Quebec. The site discusses topography, glacial features, freeze/thaw features, geology, and permafrost and soils. The discussion of glaciers includes their origin and classification as well as glaciers, past and present, their retreat and glacial cores. A section called cool facts contrasts the North Magnetic Pole with the geographic North Pole, discusses polar wandering, and tells of the smoking hills where the ground is burning.

138

Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

2008-01-01

139

Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants  

E-print Network

Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants Ray Ming,1 Abdelhafid Bendahmane,2,3 and Susanne S. Renner4 1 chromosomes, suppression of recombination Abstract Sex chromosomes in land plants can evolve as a consequence chromosomes in hepatics, mosses, and gymnosperms are morphologically heteromor- phic. In angiosperms

Renner, Susanne

140

Global land and water grabbing  

PubMed Central

Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as “land grabbing,” this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 1012 m3?y?1 of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 1012 m3?y?1 of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 106 ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

2013-01-01

141

COLONIAL LAND POLICY IN NATAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The settlement of Natal in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by colonists from other parts of South Africa and from Europe resulted in a conflict of ideas. The country was seen as excellent pastoral land by the Cape Trekkers, who entered from the interior of South Africa, and as good arable land by the British, who entered by sea

A. J. CHRISTOPHER

1971-01-01

142

Urban Land Intensive Utilization Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main problems, such as evaluation index is not unified, standard worth evaluation is not unified and evaluation result is also not unified, are existing in the study of China's urban land intensive use evaluation. This paper aims to provide a new approach for the evaluation of China's urban land intensive use according to the problems above. In this paper,

Shang Tian-cheng; Li Xiangpeng; Liu Pei-hong; Liu Pei-jie

2009-01-01

143

Global land and water grabbing.  

PubMed

Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as "land grabbing," this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 10(12) m(3) · y(-1) of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 10(6) ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

2013-01-15

144

7 CFR 701.5 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...return the land to productive agricultural use. Conservation problems...Land expected to have annual agricultural production, (ii...considered to be in annual agricultural production, such as land...location of the land, the history of damage to the land,...

2010-01-01

145

43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

2011-10-01

146

Land reclamation research  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy has assigned its Office of Environment the task of developing methods that will prevent or reduce damages caused by surface mining. Before that task can be accomplished, more must be learned about the functioning of organisms and their surroundings-the ecosystems threatened by disruptions from surface mining. While new federal and state laws require the full reclamation of mine sites, there is no assurance now that reclaimed areas can be self-sustaining, especially in the arid and semiarid West. To these ends, the Ecological Research Division within the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department's Office of Environment has begun a number of related programs aimed at understanding more clearly soils, plants, animals, and other components of the ecosystem so that ways may be found to improve environmental quality or to prevent damage from mining. Another aim is to produce efficient and cost-effective techniques for returning to productive use land that has been scarred by mining. Two national laboratories and six universities carry out these research programs. The work extends from broadly based studies, such as the effects of mining on the hydrologic balance, to very specific studies, such as evaluation of the reproductive cycle of a native grass.

None

1980-09-01

147

Global Land Vegetation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this NASA Earth Science Enterprise-funded project is to increase the use of satellite data in high school and college science classrooms by developing classroom materials linked to guided inquiry computer exercises. This Global Land Vegetation module is one of four Studying Earth's Environment from Space (SEES) modules. Each module consists of three sections: Class Resources, Computer Lab Resources and a Glossary and Acronym List. Class Resources is an electronic textbook viewable by a Web browser. Computer Lab Resources contains an instructor's guide, data and software. The instructor's guide contains exercises for using the data and software. The public domain software, a version of NIH-Image for the Macintosh that was modified by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center especially for SEES, is for data display, analysis and tutorial of satellite data. The software will also work on Windows machines with a Mac emulator. Image2000, a cross-platform Java version of the software, is expected to be available by the end of the year 2000. Each module section can stand-alone (e.g. you don't have to use the Class Resources in order to complete the Computer Lab Resources). Students and instructors may continue their own scientific discovery by accessing archived and current data from various NASA Earth Science data centers.

Smith, Elizabeth

148

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2013-10-01

149

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2014-10-01

150

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2011-10-01

151

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2012-10-01

152

Which Gets Hotter, Land or Water?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity illustrates how dark land surfaces, light land surfaces and water all heat at different rates. Students determine whether land or water absorbs heat more quickly and how this difference affects weather and climate.

Mclelland, Christine

1999-04-01

153

7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

2012-01-01

154

7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.  

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

2014-01-01

155

7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

2011-01-01

156

7 CFR 1415.5 - Land eligibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.5 Land eligibility...determines that the land is: (1) Grassland, land that contains forbs or shrubland...that has been historically dominated by grassland, forbs, or shrubland, and the...

2013-01-01

157

[The sinuatrial node of the avian heart (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Comparative histologic observations were made of the sinuatrial nodes of avian hearts from a short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris), a black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), two ducks (Anas platyrhycha domestica), eight Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica), a pigeon (Columba livia domestica), a macaw (Ara macao), three budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and a jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). The node lies between the right atrial myocardium and epicardium at the right caudal region of the orifice of right anterior vena cava, where the right and left sinuatrial valves come close each and fuse with the right atrial wall. The sinuatrial node is well developed in the duck, black-crowned night heron and budgerigar and enters into the both sinuatrial valves and, in the budgerigar, further into the sinus septum. In the duck and black-crowned night heron, the node is composed of two types of cells; the one is atrial muscle-like cells and the other has morphologic characteristics intermediate between atrial muscle fiber and the Purkinje fiber. The node cells of the budgerigar are of the intermediate cells, while the nodal cells in the jungle crow, macaw, short-tailed shearwater, pigeon and Japanese quail are totally atrial muscle-like cells. The nodal cells of these birds are continuous with the adjacent ordinary cardiac muscle fibers and subendocardial Purkinje fibers of the right atrium, but do not reach to the atrioventricular node. There is an extensive network of Purkinje fibers beneath the endocardium and around arteries in both atrial walls, though not as far as to the atrioventricular node, nor to the ventricle. PMID:7318931

Murakami, T; Saito, I; Mochizuki, K

1981-07-01

158

The Biogeohydroclimatology of Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When John Donne wrote his Meditation XVII, which includes the famous"No man is an island" passage, he was thinking about connections between people; no human being is isolated from another. Donne might just as well have been writing about the science of land use, however. What happens on one plot of land clearly affects what happens on another, whether downhill, downstream, or downwind. I will explore the consequences of land use for mass and energy fluxes, focusing on pasture, crop, and forest transitions in the Americas. I'll discuss my own work, some work of collaborators, and a few examples from the literature. No man is an island.

Jackson, R. B.

2008-05-01

159

Balanced future for public lands  

SciTech Connect

A transcription of remarks made by Robert F. Burford to the Interstate Oil Compact Commission was presented. General policies of the U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management under the direction of James Watt were discussed. The Bureau will attempt to streamline the process for management and use of public lands and delegate decision-making authority to state and district offices. The goal of the Bureau was to achieve an environmental and economic balance in the administration of public lands through the orderly development and enhancement of non-renewable resources.

Burford, R.F.

1981-12-01

160

Geographic Patterns of Land Use and Land Intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses census-tract-level data from the Censo Agropecuario 1995-96 to map indicators ofcurrent land use and agricultural productivity across the Legal Amazon of Brazil. These data permitgeographical resolution about 10 times freer than afforded by municipio data used in previousstudies. The paper focuses on the extent and productivity of pasture, the dominant land use inAmaz6nia today.

Kenneth M. Chomitz; Timothy S. Thomas

161

Biofuel on contaminated land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also contributed to the biofuel impacts. The net CO2 equivalent emission on a 100 year basis per MJ energy in the Salix Vinimalis was between -0.02 and -0.1 kgCO2e/MJ. The fate of the stubble and roots of the salix was crucial for the carbon footprint. While stubble and roots remain in the soil (as increased soil organic matter), the carbon dioxide they took up while growing is not contributing to global warming. This pool was much larger than the CO2 emissions from soil transport and other processes. Biodiversity was difficult to include, and the results are uncertain. But the results indicated that biodiversity impact of biofuel cultivation may be large compared to "easier" categories like global warming and human health, and the net impact of biofuel cultivation may well be benifical to the environment instead of damaging.

Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

2010-05-01

162

Space Shuttle Flyout: Landing Convoy  

NASA Video Gallery

A team of trained technicians and specialized trucks and equipment is vital for getting a space shuttle safed after landing, helping the astronauts off the spacecraft and returning the shuttle to i...

163

SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP LAND COVER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Gap Analysis Program is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify gaps in biodiversity protection. GAP uses remote satellite imag...

164

Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Pathfinder Project is an approved Discovery-class mission that will place a lander and rover on the surface of the Red Planet in July 1997. The Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop was designed to allow the Mars scientific community to provide input as to where to land Pathfinder on Mars. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from around the United States and from Europe. Over 20 landing sites were proposed at the workshop, and the scientific questions and problems concerning each were addressed. The workshop and the discussion that occured during and afterward have significantly improved the ability to select a scientifically exciting but safe landing site on Mars.

Golombek, Matthew (editor)

1994-01-01

165

Agricultural land reform in Moldova  

Microsoft Academic Search

During transition, Moldova has pursued a policy of small-scale land privatisiation and a sucession of decollectivisation initiatives. Small-scale land reform has been important for bolstering the real incomes of rural households but living standards have continued to fall. While initial political resistance to decollectivisation has been overcome, serious challenges remain for co-ordinating agricultural production, procurement and marketing from a newly

Matthew Gorton

2001-01-01

166

NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL DURING GYMNASTIC LANDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze muscular activity of the lower extremity during gymnastic landings from four different heights. Twelve female gymnasts at two training levels performed landings from heights of 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.5 m and 2.0 m. Myoelectric activity of specific muscles of the left leg, pressure distribution under the left foot and kin- ematics

Lars Janshen

167

Person Landing After a Jump  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab uses Tracker 4.0 video analysis software to measure and analyze the center of mass motion of a person landing after a jump. Students measure the acceleration of the person in free-fall and his acceleration while he is landing and slowing down. Students use the data to calculate the force of impact by the floor on the student during the landing. There are two video files: (1) the student bends his knees a maximum amount during the landing in order to decrease the force of impact by the floor; and (2) the student bends his knees a small amount in order to increase the force of impact on the floor. The zip file contains two folders: (1) a long time interval during the landing and (2) a short time interval during the landing. Each folder includes the lab handout, a video, and a Tracker 4.0 file. The video was recorded by Aaron Titus at High Point University. To open the Tracker file, download and run Tracker from http://www.cabrillo.edu/~dbrown/tracker/. Tracker is free. The videos can be used with other video analysis software; however, the handout has screen captures from Tracker 4.0 and instructions specifically written for Tracker 4.0.

Titus, Aaron

2011-07-03

168

Are agricultural land-use models able to predict changes in land-use intensity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use and land-cover change research needs to pay more attention to processes of land-cover modification, and especially to agricultural land intensification. The objective of this paper is to review the different modelling approaches that have been used in land-use\\/land-cover change research from the perspective of their utility for the study and prediction of changes in land-use intensification. After clarifying the

E. F. Lambin; M. D. A Rounsevell; H. J Geist

2000-01-01

169

Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing; RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects and land surface albedo. We simulate historical changes to terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo from LULCC using the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF from LULCC impacts on atmospheric chemistry and changes in aerosol concentrations. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We calculate total RFs between 1 to 2 W m-2 from LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a preindustrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget we include a fifth scenario in which all arable land is cultivated by 2100. This "worst-case scenario" leads to a LULCC RF of 4.3 W m-2 (±1.0 W m-2), suggesting that not only energy policy but land policy is necessary to minimize future increases in RF and associated climate changes.

Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

2014-05-01

170

Managing Land Use, Protecting Land and Mitigating Land Degradation: Tanzania Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the United Republic of Tanzania, efforts to combat desertification and land degradation generally, are part and parcel\\u000a of the national efforts to address poverty and ensure sustainable development. More concerted efforts to ensure sustainable\\u000a land management and combat desertification came after the Rio Conference in 1992. Since then, major milestones include: the\\u000a 1994 National Environment Action Plan (NEAP) prepared

R. Muyungi

171

The Global Land Data Assimilation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) has been developed. Its purpose is to ingest satellite- and ground-based observational data products, using advanced land surface modeling and data assimilation techniques, in order to generate optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. GLDAS is unique in that it is an uncoupled land surface modeling system that drives multiple models, integrates

M. Rodell; U. Jambor; J. Gottschalck; K. Mitchell; C.-J. Meng; K. Arsenault; B. Cosgrove; J. Radakovich; M. Bosilovich; J. K. Entin; J. P. Walker; D. Lohmann; D. Toll

2004-01-01

172

Land Use and Marriage Timing in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine the relationship between patterns of land use and marriage timing in the Chitwan Valley, a rural area in south-central Nepal. In this setting, I conceptualize a relevant dimension of land use as the portion of land in each neighborhood devoted to agriculture. Using discrete-time event history models, I examine the relationship between the proportion of land devoted to

Scott T. Yabiku

2006-01-01

173

ALASKA GENERAL LAND STATUS (STAT1)  

EPA Science Inventory

AKSTATUS is a statewide summary of land ownership in Alaska. It includes the major categories of state, native, and federal holdings. Activity on state land is recorded, by section, in DRSs Land Adminstration System (LAS). Information on state land status is extracted from LAS...

174

Cooperate with Other Land Protection Programs  

E-print Network

to the Internet, contact the Purdue University Cooperative Extension Office, or the Soil and Water Conservation forest land. Permanent Protection with Conservation Easements There may be a need for conservationCooperate with Other Land Protection Programs Forest land is mixed with agricultural land in most

175

Land Cover, Land Use of twoLand Cover, Land Use of two bioluminescent bays in Puerto Ricobioluminescent bays in Puerto Ricobioluminescent bays in Puerto Ricobioluminescent bays in Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Rico areare usedused toto produceproduce LandLand Use/Use/ LandLand CoverCover mapsmaps.. LandLand useuse isis defineddefined asas thethe useuse ofof landland byby humanshumans.. LandLand covercover isis designatesdesignates Cover Maps, 1999 Linda Velez,1999 #12;TheThe BioluminescenceBioluminescence isis thethe emissionemission

Gilbes, Fernando

176

A new method for landing on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to now, the only means to land payloads on Mars have involved a heavy, complicated, expensive retro-rocket landing system. Another method to land payloads is to use a novel solar heated hot-air balloon, or Solar Montgolfiere, which looks promising to replace the retro-rocket landing system, while increasing usable landed payload.The Solar Montgolfiere is a simple device that deploys like

Jacques Blamont; Jack A. Jones

2002-01-01

177

MODIS Land Data Image Browsing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) group automatically generates a set of browse images and time series plots of science data statistics from MODIS land products. Web interfaces allow the science community and the public to visualize these images and plots. The global browse images are generated from the coarse 5km versions of selected MODIS land products and climate modeling grid (CMG) products. These products are projected into a global coordinate system defined with a 20km pixel sizes. These global browse images are generated with fixed contrast stretching and color look-up tables to enable consistent temporal comparison to support interactive selection of browse products and zooming and panning at 5km resolution. Users can view individual granule information and order selected products through LADS (Land Archive and Distribution System) and ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse) system. Full resolution browse images are also made for all the gridded MODIS Land products at nine fixed globally distributed locations representing the variability of the products - golden tiles. A time series of summary statistics of various science parameters derived from these tiles is made available on a systematic basis through the web. Product time series analyses are important because they capture algorithm sensitivity to surface (e.g., vegetation phonology), atmospheric (e.g., aerosol loading) and remote sensing (e.g., sun-surface-sensor geometry) conditions that change temporally, and because they allow changes in the instrument characteristics and calibration to be examined.

Zheng, M.; Devadiga, S.; Roy, D.; Wolfe, R.; Masuoka, E.

2005-12-01

178

Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

179

Cryptosporidium infections in birds and mammals and attempted cross-transmission studies.  

PubMed

Infections by Cryptosporidium were detected in association with clinical disease in 11 humans (Homo sapiens), 19 calves (Bos taurus), nine common quail (Coturnix coturnix), six mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), five ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and a single budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Infections in mammals were accompanied by transient diarrhoea and anorexia, whereas infected birds exhibited clinical signs of respiratory distress. Repeated cross-transmission studies revealed apparent strain differences or differences in the host specificity of several mammalian and avian isolates for homologous vertebrate classes only. Oocysts from humans and calves were infective to mice, pigs or lambs, but not to chickens, whereas oocysts from quail and pheasant were infective to chickens, but not to mice. PMID:2964117

O'Donoghue, P J; Tham, V L; de Saram, W G; Paull, K L; McDermott, S

1987-12-01

180

Land degradation analysis based on the land use changes and land degradation evaluation in the Huan Beijing area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using remote sensing data of TM and ETM+ in 1992 and 2002, land degradation based on land use changes, especially sand changes were analyzed and land degradation status in 2002 was evaluated in the Huan Beijing Area. The area of sand in 2002 is 6669.6 km2, increased 716.2 km2 compared to that in 1991, and most of the newly-produced sand came from grassland. Land degradation status in 2002 was evaluated by the combination of vegetation, soil and topography information and the region was divided by 1km ×1km cell as the evaluation unit by the application of the GIS. The indicators of land degradation evaluation included soil organic, soil depth, vegetation cover (NDVI) and slope. Land degradation index (DI) was computed, considering the contribution of different indicators to land degradation. The land degradation status was divided into four types according to DI, no-degradation (DI > = 55), slight degradation (50 = < DI < 55), moderate degradation (40 = < DI < 50) and severe degradation (DI < 40). The results showed that the area of degraded land is 132900 km2, which occupied the percent 58.2 of the whole Huan Beijing Area and the proportion of slightly-degraded land to degraded land is about 0.47. The political county taken as an evaluation unit, the partition of land degradation in this area was also analyzed based on land degradation area proportion and degree. Six types of land degradation partition were got.

Guo, Xudong; Wang, Jing; Xie, Junqi; He, Ting; Lian, Gang; Lv, Chunyan

2005-10-01

181

Manual Land Cover Mapping Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students produce a land cover map of a 15 km x 15 km GLOBE study site from hard copies of Landsat satellite images. Students place clear transparencies over the Landsat TM images and use markers to outline and classify areas of different land cover using the MUC System. Students use their local expertise of their GLOBE study site and their sample site measurements to create and assess the accuracy of their maps. The resource includes a sample Landsat image, an example of an accuracy assessment work sheet, and a difference-error matrix to validate the degree of accuracy of the student product. This resource is a procedural tutorial supporting the protocol within the Land Cover/Biology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide.

182

Land use management in Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of bulk imagery suggests that the forty-acre data cell used in the Minnesota Land Management Information Systems (MLMIS) can be utilized in interpretation of ERTS-1 data. High quality bulk images of the Twin Cities metropolitan area suggest that detail in urban land use patterns is much greater than originally anticipated. This implies a greater work effort in this area than was planned. Furthermore, the forest classes of land use can also be usefully divided into subcategories. Preliminary analysis of one rather low quality image also indicates that subclasses of wetlands can be identified. Prospects are bright for improving the potential detail that ERTS-1 can contribute to MLMIS.

Sizer, J. E. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

183

The Emergency Landing Planner Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous work, we described an Emergency Landing Planner (ELP) designed to assist pilots in choosing the best emergency landing site when damage or failures occur in an aircraft. In this paper, we briefly describe the system, but focus on the integration of this system into the cockpit of a 6 DOF full-motion simulator and a study designed to evaluate the ELP. We discuss the results of this study, the lessons learned, and some of the issues involved in advancing this work further.

Meuleau, Nocolas F.; Neukom, Christian; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.; Smith, Tristan B.

2011-01-01

184

Relation of land use/land cover to resource demands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predictive models for forecasting residential energy demand are investigated. The models are examined in the context of implementation through manipulation of geographic information systems containing land use/cover information. Remotely sensed data is examined as a possible component in this process.

Clayton, C.

1981-01-01

185

Land Prices and Land Assembly in the CBD  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial empirical evidence of price concavity in the parcel-size dimension across land-use types and across urban regions. This article examines the degree to which concavity varies between the Central Business District (CBD) and the rest of the urban area. The article provides strong empirical support that the degree of concavity within the CBD is lower than in the

Peter F. Colwell; Henry J. Munneke

1999-01-01

186

76 FR 52347 - Public Land Order No. 7774; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6868; Oregon  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLOR936000-14300000-ET0000; HAG-11-0195; OROR-16124] Public Land Order No. 7774; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6868; Oregon AGENCY: Bureau of...

2011-08-22

187

Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

2004-01-01

188

The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

2012-05-01

189

New Mexico State Land Office  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trust property is located within the Volcano Heights Master Plan area, adjacent to the Petroglyph National Monument, and southwest of the Albuquerque Public Schools education complex which includes Volcano Vista High School, athletic fields and planned middle and elementary schools. (The site for the middle and elementary schools is currently on trust land, but a trade agreement with APS

Patrick H. Lyons

190

Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

2010-01-01

191

Zimbabwe Land Crisis Turns Violent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This weekend the land crisis in Zimbabwe was marked by violence as one white farmer was killed and two members of the country's opposition party were the victims of a firebombing. In the past week, Zimbabwe veterans of the country's war for independence began occupying prime farmland owned exclusively by whites. These squatters have demanded that land redistribution promised for years by President Mugabe's government be enacted immediately. Mugabe himself, with an eye on upcoming elections in May, has supported the squatters, warning white farmers that he cannot protect them if they "provoke the war veterans." Early Monday, perhaps in response to international pressure, Mugabe modified his position somewhat, promising to maintain peace in the region, but stopping short of telling squatters to vacate the farms. Land reform has been a major issue in the country since it won its independence from Britain. Currently, about 4,500 white farmers own 11 million hectares of prime agricultural land while one million blacks divide 16 million hectares-typically in drought-prone areas. The political situation in the country also worsened with the firebombing death of two prominent members of the country's opposition party, Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). The killings were an ominous sign for the upcoming elections, especially since Mugabe did not condemn the attacks. Diplomats and observers are concerned that the elections next month may be marred by coercion, corruption, and violence. Not surprisingly, many whites in Zimbabwe have recently sought to reclaim their UK passports in possible preparation for fleeing the country.

Charbonneau, David D.

192

2011LandesBioscience. Donotdistribute.  

E-print Network

Landes Bioscience RepoRt 3016 Cell Cycle Volume 10 Issue 17 *Correspondence to: I. King Jordan and Victoria V. Lunyak; Email: king.jordan@biology.gatech.edu and vlunyak@buckinstitute.org Submitted: 07,1 peter J. Cook,3,4 Bogdan pasaniuc,5 Goli Shariat,7 eran Halperin,5,8 Marek Dobke,6 Michael G

Jordan, King

193

This Land Is Our Land? This Land Is Your Land: The Decolonizing Journeys of White Outdoor Environmental Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across Canada, many Aboriginal peoples and communities are actively resisting environmental destruction and communicating to settler-Canadians traditions of respect for the land. Moreover, some Indigenous scholars and educators are calling for a foregrounding of Indigenous ways of knowing in environmental education for all students. However,…

Root, Emily

2010-01-01

194

LAND USE AND NATURAL RESOURCES  

E-print Network

: Design Tools for Non-Design Professionals LEED Building Certification Overview of Environmental and community design, renewable energy, environmental quality and climate change. Yet, here I was, driving more in a white Cadillac. It was worth the trip. We in the Land Use and Natural Resources and Sustainability

Ferrara, Katherine W.

195

Land use, land management and soil organic carbon dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the agricultural sector is considered to have one of the greatest greenhouse gas mitigation potential, largely via soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, it remains a challenge to accurately quantify SOC stock changes at regional to national scales. SOC stock changes resulting from SOC inventory systems vary widely between studies, even for a single country. Process-based models can provide insight in the drivers of SOC changes, but accurate input data, in particular historic data, is currently not available at these spatial scales. Here we illustrate the effects of historic land management (1960-2005) on SOC dynamics in the major soil types and agricultural regions in Belgium using region-specific land use and management data and a process-based model. The largest decreases in SOC stocks occurred in poorly drained grassland soils (-25 to -40 Mg C ha-1 in clays and floodplain soils), consistent with drainage improvements post-1960. Large increases in SOC in well-drained grassland soils (+ 12 Mg C ha-1) appear to be a legacy effect of widespread conversion of cropland to grassland prior to 1960. SOC in cropland increased only in sandy lowland soils (+ 10 Mg C ha-1), driven by increasing manure additions. New techniques and approaches are currently being developed to update the trends in SOC of agricultural soils. At the regional scale a combination of hyperspectral remote sensing and spatial modelling provides detailed SOC maps and inventories of croplands showing within field variation that can be used for geostatistical analysis. At the European scale LUCAS-soil (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) survey was implemented in 23 Member States of the EU. About 21,000 soil samples were collected and analysed for basic soil properties at the sites where land use and land cover have been registered annually since 2001. LUCAS-soil is the first harmonized survey conducted at EU level. Sampling techniques providing high resolution SOC data, uniform SOC monitoring networks with land cover and management data are crucial steps in predicting SOC changes in agricultural soils.

van Wesemael, B.; Stevens, A.; Montanarella, L.

2012-04-01

196

Integrating land management and land-cover classes to assess impacts of land use change on ecosystem services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a case study in which land use strategies to mitigate Climate Change effects are developed for a model in Saxony, Germany. In this region, the degree of freedom to respond to Climate Change with land-cover changes is very small. Based on a participatory process, an approach was developed to extend land-cover classes (e.g. forest, agriculture) by land

Christine Fürst; Carsten Lorz; Franz Makeschin

2011-01-01

197

Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions?  

PubMed Central

Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

2013-01-01

198

CORINE Land Cover 2000 in Nation-wide and Regional Monitoring of Urban Land Use and Land Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas remarkable efforts have been made to implement environmental information sys- tems, the observation of urban land use change within nation-wide or regional monitoring approaches still remains dissatisfying. One key problem is the absence of land use data which allows the analysis of land use trends over longer periods of time and with appropriate spatial resolution. This paper asks to

Stefan Siedentop; Gotthard Meinel

199

The American Land. Its History, Soil, Water, Wildlife, Agricultural Land Planning, and Land Problems of Today and Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in this booklet is the commentary for "The American Land," a television series prepared by the Soil Conservation Service and the Graduate School, United States Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with WETA - TV, Washington, D.C. It explores the resource of land in America, its history, soil, water, wildlife, agricultural land

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

200

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2011-01-01

201

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2012-01-01

202

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5 Ineligible...commodities or the alternation of existing wetland hydrologic conditions; (d) Land...or (e) Land that was restored to wetland conditions, as required under Part...

2013-01-01

203

Video Landing Parameter Survey - Honolulu International Airport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) William J. Hughes Technical Center is conducting a series of video landing parameter surveys at high- activity commercial airports to acquire a better understanding of typical landing contact conditions for a wide...

T. Barnes, T. DeFiore, R. Micklos

2001-01-01

204

14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition of land or any interest therein, or of any...

2010-01-01

205

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2010-07-01

206

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2013-07-01

207

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2011-07-01

208

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2012-07-01

209

14 CFR 23.75 - Landing distance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...feet above the landing surface must be determined, for standard temperatures at each weight and altitude within the operational limits established for landing, as follows: (a) A steady approach at not less than VREF , determined in...

2010-01-01

210

14 CFR 23.75 - Landing distance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...stop from a point 50 feet above the landing surface must be determined, for standard temperatures at each weight and altitude within the...maximum landing weight for altitude and temperature of § 23.63 (c)(2) or...

2011-01-01

211

14 CFR 23.75 - Landing distance.  

...stop from a point 50 feet above the landing surface must be determined, for standard temperatures at each weight and altitude within the...maximum landing weight for altitude and temperature of § 23.63 (c)(2) or...

2014-01-01

212

33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.  

...shall be installed. (b) The personnel landings shall be provided with satisfactory illumination. The minimum shall be one-foot candle of artificial illumination as measured at the landing floor and guards and...

2014-07-01

213

33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shall be installed. (b) The personnel landings shall be provided with satisfactory illumination. The minimum shall be one-foot candle of artificial illumination as measured at the landing floor and guards and...

2012-07-01

214

33 CFR 143.105 - Personnel landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be installed. (b) The personnel landings shall be provided with satisfactory illumination. The minimum shall be one-foot candle of artificial illumination as measured at the landing floor and guards and...

2013-07-01

215

LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM  

E-print Network

FLORIDA LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM HANDBOOK JANUARY 1999 DEPARTMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SURVEYING AND MAPPING OFFICE GEOGRPAHIC MAPPING LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM ABOUT THIS EDITION: This is an updated FLORIDA LAND USE

Binford, Michael W.

216

Black Rural Land Decline in the South  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that it is widely accepted that millions of blacks who migrated from the South contributed significantly to the decline of black rural land ownership. However, the less than altruistic behavior patterns of land officials has also contributed to the loss of rural land by blacks. (Author/AM)

McGee, Leo; Boone, Robert

1977-01-01

217

Women and Land Rights Reforms in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Land rights are usually conceived of as the rights to use, enjoy and exploit land including information about, decision - making around and benefits from the latter. Women's land rights are fragile and transient, being dependent upon age and marital status (including type of marriage and the success of that marriage), whether they had children (including the number and

Bioye Tajudeen ALUKO; Abdul-Rasheed AMIDU

2006-01-01

218

A model of coherent radar land backscatter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of targets in a land clutter background is a problem for most ground based and airborne pulse Doppler radars. Understanding how ground clutter behaves can lead to modified clutter suppression techniques for improving radar target detection performance. Presented here is a model of land clutter which was validated against a number of different land types observed at different

G. C. Sarno

1991-01-01

219

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians...ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA...Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or...

2010-04-01

220

LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

Chapter PM LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN By T.T. Taber and S.A. Kinney In U........................................PM-1 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Land Use and Land Cover map...........................................................PM-2 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Subsurface Ownership map

221

NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is a unique facility with the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A brief historical overview of the original Landing Loads Track (LLT) is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

Davis, Pamela A.

1993-01-01

222

21 Sustainable Land Management and Global Development  

E-print Network

of land-related themes such as food security, climate change, and desertification. Other key causes on desertification, climate change, and biodiversity ­ UNCCD, UNFCC, and UNCBD. Indeed, SLM contributes substantially of a major international programme. Adop- tion of sustainable land management practices by land users can

Richner, Heinz

223

UBC Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands  

E-print Network

UBC Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands fonds Compiled by Erwin Wodarczak (2001 Description UBC Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands fonds. ­ 1982-2001. 12 cm of textual materials. Administrative History The Technical Committee on the Endowment Lands was established by UBC in 1981. Its basic

Handy, Todd C.

224

Land use dynamics and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We build a model to study optimal land use, encompassing land use activities, pollution and climate change. This benchmark set-up allows us to identify the spatial drivers behind the interaction between land use and the environment. Pollution generates local and global damages since it flows across locations following a Gaussian Plume. In constrast to the previous literature on spatial dynamics,

Carmen Camacho; Agustín Pérez-Barahona

2012-01-01

225

SPECIES COMPOSITION OF INDUSTRIAL TRAWL FISH LANDINGS  

E-print Network

. I., 1958 3 2. Landings and number of trips, by month, ofindustrial trawl-fish vessels at New Bedford-fish, landings from the No Mans area, by months, 1958 9 9. Species composition, in pounds, of New Bedford346; SPECIES COMPOSITION OF INDUSTRIAL TRAWL FISH LANDINGS IN NEW ENGLAND, 1958 SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC

226

Land application of wastes. Volume II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of carefully engineered land treatment systems for municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastes is discussed. Volume II presents scientific and engineering information that can be used in the formulation of the practical land treatment systems. The role nitrogen plays in land treatment systems, organic and inorganic transformations, methods for determining nitrogen loading, and ways existing systems deal with nitrogen

R. C. Loehr; W. J. Jewell; J. D. Novak; W. W. Clarkson; G. S. Friedman

1979-01-01

227

Discovering the Effect Mining has on Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an investigation where students observe what happens to land after it is mined. Students will create a hypothesis, observe their model, conclude what happens to land after it is mined, and discover the role humans play in land conservation.

Olson, Debra

228

Corruption, Poverty and Tropical Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth in crop production in many developing economies continues to require new land to be converted and brought into production. In addition, “marginal” land expansion appears to serve as an outlet for the rural poor. Evidence shows that the rural poor are increasingly concentrated in low productivity and fragile environments. Cross-country analysis of tropical agricultural land expansion supports these links

Edward B. Barbier

2011-01-01

229

Corruption, Poverty and Tropical Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth in crop production in many developing economies continues to require new land to be converted and brought into production. In addition, “marginal” land expansion appears to serve as an outlet for the rural poor. Evidence shows that the rural poor are increasingly concentrated in low productivity and fragile environments. Cross-country analysis of tropical agricultural land expansion supports these links

Edward B. Barbier

2012-01-01

230

The Closest Living Relatives of Land Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The embryophytes (land plants) have long been thought to be related to the green algal group Charophyta, though the nature of this relationship and the origin of the land plants have remained unresolved. A four-gene phylogenetic analysis was conducted to investigate these relationships. This analysis supports the hypothesis that the land plants are placed phylogenetically within the Charophyta, identifies the

Kenneth G. Karol; Richard M. McCourt; Matthew T. Cimino; Charles F. Delwiche

2001-01-01

231

33 CFR 401.8 - Landing booms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Landing booms. 401.8 Section 401.8 Navigation...Condition of Vessels § 401.8 Landing booms. (a) Vessels of more than 50 m in...equipped with at least one adequate landing boom on each side. (b) Vessels'...

2010-07-01

232

USGS releases comprehensive land surface data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has released the latest edition of its National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2011), the nation's most comprehensive look at land surface conditions. The database divides the lower 48 states into 9 billion geographic cells, providing consistent information about land conditions on regional and nationwide scales.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-04-01

233

Global Consequences of Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.

Foley, Jonathan A.; DeFries, Ruth; Asner, Gregory P.; Barford, Carol; Bonan, Gordon; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Coe, Michael T.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Helkowski, Joseph H.; Holloway, Tracey; Howard, Erica A.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Monfreda, Chad; Patz, Jonathan A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Ramankutty, Navin; Snyder, Peter K.

2005-07-01

234

Land Banking as Metropolitan Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the United States continues to grapple with a financial crisis, many scholars and policy pundits are looking at ways to improve the lot of American cities. One recently proposed idea is land banking, which is "the process or policy by which local governments acquire surplus properties and convert them to productive use or hold them for long term strategic public purposes." In this 39-page paper released in October 2008, Frank S. Alexander of The Brookings Institution offers a lucid and compelling exploration of how land banking might be used at the federal level in order to support the millions of properties that are currently in the process of foreclosure, or those which are already vacant and abandoned. The report contains an executive summary and nine chapters (including a conclusion) which discuss the ways in which such a policy might be implemented over the short and long term.

235

Exploring subtle land use and land cover changes: a framework for future landscape studies  

E-print Network

use changes can have a wide variety of ecological effects, including significant35 impacts on soils, and frequency of land use and land cover to appropriately assess environmental impacts on water pollution biodiversity and biogeochemical cycles (Vitousek et al. 1997). For example, land use and land cover changes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

18 CFR 367.3890 - Account 389, Land and land rights.  

...PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Service Company Property Chart of Accounts § 367.3890 Account 389, Land and land rights. This account must include the cost of land and land...

2014-04-01

237

Parcel-Level Land Architecture and Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area  

E-print Network

in urban heat island research, especially for desert cities. In this study, we explore the effects of land surface temperature (LST) and characteristics of the urban land system has received increasing attentionParcel-Level Land Architecture and Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

Hall, Sharon J.

238

Contextualising land grabbing: contemporary land deals, the global subsistence crisis and the world food system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analytically contextualises the spate of contemporary land deals popularly known as ‘land grabbing’ by locating such deals within the processes that simultaneously underpin the capitalist restructuring of global agriculture and deepen the global subsistence crisis. The article situates contemporary land deals within the context of recent rises in food prices, offers a precise definition of land grabbing and

A. Haroon Akram-Lodhi

2012-01-01

239

Autonomous landing guidance system validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALG is a combination of raster imaging sensor, head-up displays, flight guidance and procedures which allow pilots to perform hand flown aircraft maneuvers in adverse weather, at night, or in low visibility conditions at facilities with minimal or no ground aids. Maneuvers in the context of ALG relate to takeoff, landing, rollout, taxi and terminal parking. Commercial needs are driven by potential revenue savings since today only 43 Type III and 80 Type II instrumented landing system (ILS) runway ends in the United States are equipped for lower minimum flight operations. Additionally, most of these ILS facilities are clustered at major gateway airports which further impacts on dispatch authority and general ATC regional delays. Infrastructure consists to upgrade additional runways must not only account for the high integrity ground instrumentation, but also the installation of lights and markers mandated for Cat III operations. The military services ability to train under realistic battlefield conditions, to project power globally in support of national interests, while providing humanitarian aid, is significantly impaired by the inability to conduct precision approaches and landings in low visibility conditions to either instrumented runways or to a more tactical environment with operations into and out of unprepared landing strips, particularly when time does not permit deployment of ground aids and the verification of their integrity. Recently, Lear Astronics, in cooperation with Consortium members of the ALG Program, concluded a flight test program which evaluated the utility of the ALG system in meeting both civil and military needs. Those results are the subject of this paper.

Bui, Long Q.; Franklin, Michael R.; Taylor, Christopher; Neilson, Graham

1997-06-01

240

15 Most Endangered Wild Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, recently released by the Wilderness Society, describes the "15 most endangered wild lands" and the threats to each. The list includes Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Badger-Two Medicine, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Cascade Crest, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges, Mojave Desert, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Owyhee Canyonlands, Petroglyph National Monument, Routt National Forest, Utah Wilderness, and Western Maine Woods.

241

Biological consequences of land use.  

PubMed

The primary goals of land-use planning are enunciated. A plea is made for consideration of the total biosphere and not just its separate components. The environmental impact statement process is reviewed and some suggestions made for its strengthening. Moves for international adoption of this process are noted, as well as the concept of eco-development currently under examination by UN agencies. PMID:1157793

Munn, R E

1975-04-01

242

Zooming in on Landing Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Zooming in on Landing Site

This animation zooms in on the area on Mars where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will touchdown on May 25, 2008. The image was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

The first shot shows the spacecraft's landing ellipse in green, the area where Phoenix has a high probability of landing. It then zooms in to show the region's arctic terrain. This polar landscape is relatively free of rocks, with only about 1 to 2 rocks 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) or larger in an area about as big as two football fields.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo.

2008-01-01

243

STS-38: Post Landing News Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Live footage shows the STS-38 Post Landing News Conference. Dick Young of NASA Public Affairs office is seen introducing the panel members. The panelists include: Forrest McCartney, Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Director; William B. Lenoir, Associate Administrator Space Flight; and Robert B. Sieck, Space Shuttle Processing Director. Atlantis lands at KSC, which marks the first landing since 1985 to this location. The panelists mention the status of the landing, the success of the flight, and the historic implication that this landing carries. They also answer questions from the participating audience.

1990-01-01

244

Land availability and land value assessment for solar ponds in the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The land availability and land values for solar ponds in the United States as they concern the residential, commercial, and institutional land use categories were investigated. Solar ponds were identified as efficient and economical means for collecting and storing direct and diffuse solar energy. Innovative methodologies were applied to arrive at regional projections regarding the amount of land that might potentially be available for retrofit or future solar pond applications. Regional land values were also documented and analyzed.

1982-01-01

245

43 CFR 418.8 - Types of eligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of eligible land. 418.8 Section 418.8 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2010-10-01

246

30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land eligible for acquisition. 879.11 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.11 Land eligible...

2010-07-01

247

25 CFR 292.11 - What are “restored lands”?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES GAMING ON TRUST LANDS ACQUIRED AFTER OCTOBER 17, 1988 Exceptions...Prohibitions on Gaming on Newly Acquired Lands Restored Landsâ Exception § 292.11 What are “restored lands”? For newly acquired lands to...

2010-04-01

248

43 CFR 426.4 - Attribution of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attribution of land. 426.4 Section 426.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

2010-10-01

249

36 CFR 292.22 - Land category assignments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land category assignments. 292.22 Section 292.22...AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Private Lands § 292.22 Land category assignments. (a) Land categories....

2010-07-01

250

43 CFR 2543.2 - Appraisal of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2543.2 Section 2543.2 Public Lands...Erroneously Meandered Lands: Arkansas § 2543.2 Appraisal of land. When an application is received it...

2012-10-01

251

43 CFR 2544.2 - Appraisal of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2544.2 Section 2544.2 Public Lands...Erroneously Meandered Lands: Louisiana § 2544.2 Appraisal of land. When an application is received it...

2012-10-01

252

43 CFR 2543.2 - Appraisal of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2543.2 Section 2543.2 Public Lands...Erroneously Meandered Lands: Arkansas § 2543.2 Appraisal of land. When an application is received it...

2013-10-01

253

43 CFR 2544.2 - Appraisal of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2544.2 Section 2544.2 Public Lands...Erroneously Meandered Lands: Louisiana § 2544.2 Appraisal of land. When an application is received it...

2013-10-01

254

43 CFR 2543.2 - Appraisal of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2543.2 Section 2543.2 Public Lands...Erroneously Meandered Lands: Arkansas § 2543.2 Appraisal of land. When an application is received it...

2011-10-01

255

43 CFR 2544.2 - Appraisal of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appraisal of land. 2544.2 Section 2544.2 Public Lands...Erroneously Meandered Lands: Louisiana § 2544.2 Appraisal of land. When an application is received it...

2011-10-01

256

Land cover trends dataset, 1973-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends Project is releasing a 1973–2000 time-series land-use/land-cover dataset for the conterminous United States. The dataset contains 5 dates of land-use/land-cover data for 2,688 sample blocks randomly selected within 84 ecological regions. The nominal dates of the land-use/land-cover maps are 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000. The land-use/land-cover maps were classified manually from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery using a modified Anderson Level I classification scheme. The resulting land-use/land-cover data has a 60-meter resolution and the projection is set to Albers Equal-Area Conic, North American Datum of 1983. The files are labeled using a standard file naming convention that contains the number of the ecoregion, sample block, and Landsat year. The downloadable files are organized by ecoregion, and are available in the ERDAS IMAGINETM (.img) raster file format.

Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Auch, Roger F.; Sohl, Terry L.; Drummond, Mark A.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sorenson, Daniel G.; Kambly, Steven; Wilson, Tamara S.; Taylor, Janis L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stier, Michael P.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Methven, Steven C.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Headley, Rachel; Brooks, Mark S.

2014-01-01

257

Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change  

SciTech Connect

Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

Dale, V.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Loureiro, F. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1992-01-01

258

Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change  

SciTech Connect

Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

Dale, V.H.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Loureiro, F. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1992-07-01

259

Land use/land cover change in Yellow River Delta, China during fast development period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial eco-system in coastal zones is unstable and land-use and Land-cover of its land resource are crucial for its sustainability. Therefore it is necessary to understand distribution of land use/cover changes in those tender areas. This paper was to analyze changes of land use/cover in Yellow River Delta in China during recent ten years, which was its fast development period, by remote sensing monitoring. Two Landsat TM images in October of 1995 and 2004 were processed using ERDAS software and supervised classification method in study for the land use and land cover of those two years. The two land use/cover maps were overlaid to discover the changes. It was showed that lots of land use/cover changes in the Yellow River Delta had taken place in past ten years. Because abundant sand that carried by river water filled up at estuary of the Yellow River, new land increased fleetly. The rates that foreshore were turned into fishery land was high for aquaculture with salt water had been developed quickly. Another important effect of human activity was that part of waste land and grassland had been cultivated for crops. With industry and economy development, land for urbanization had been outspreaded. Although fast exploitation had been carried out in Yellow River Delta going though those years, some human activities on land use were inharmonious for sustainable development of land resource in this area. This must be pay attention to by local government and people.

Zhou, Wenzuo; Tian, Yongzhong; Zhu, Lifen

2007-09-01

260

Stewardship of public school land by the General Land Office  

E-print Network

Land is found in the Mixed Prairie type. The Desert Grassland type consists of the Yucca-Juniper Savannah association occurring on foothills around 4, 000 feet elevation and the Desert Grassland association found below it on large, nearly level..., ' i') \\ f ~ t / ip I (1 jfj '; I I shal low to shal low soils over limestone parent material. Shrubs are the predominate form of vegetation, consisting of lechuguil la, yucca, sotol, and cande 1 i 1 1 a. Wildlife values for both associations...

Zechiel, Tod Peter

2012-06-07

261

Landscape predictors of tick-borne encephalitis in Latvia: land cover, land use, and land ownership.  

PubMed

Although the presence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus circulating in tick populations depends on large-scale patterns of climate, and the local density of infected ticks depends on the abundance of mammalian hosts, the risk of human infection depends on the access and use by human populations of tick-infested habitats, particularly forests, at the landscape level. We investigated the incidence of reported TBE cases in rural parishes (i.e., municipalities) in Latvia. The following major characteristics of parishes were considered: whether their environment is suitable for tick and tick-host populations (depending on land cover); whether the local human population is likely to enter the forest on a regular base (depending on land use); and whether the spatial distributions of these two aspects are likely to intersect, through access rules (as a function of land ownership). The results indicated that all three aspects are important in explaining and predicting the spatial distribution of TBE cases in the rural areas of Latvia. The concept of landscape is here given new depth by consideration of its physical structure, its use by human populations, and its accessibility as modulated by ownership. PMID:19877818

Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Sumilo, Dana; Bormane, Antra; Lambin, Eric F; Randolph, Sarah E

2010-06-01

262

Localized Brain Activation Related to the Strength of Auditory Learning in a Parrot  

PubMed Central

Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory. PMID:22701714

Matsushita, Masanori; Matsuda, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Satoh, Ryohei; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Manabe, Kazuchika; Kawashima, Takashi; Bolhuis, Johan J.

2012-01-01

263

Localized brain activation related to the strength of auditory learning in a parrot.  

PubMed

Parrots and songbirds learn their vocalizations from a conspecific tutor, much like human infants acquire spoken language. Parrots can learn human words and it has been suggested that they can use them to communicate with humans. The caudomedial pallium in the parrot brain is homologous with that of songbirds, and analogous to the human auditory association cortex, involved in speech processing. Here we investigated neuronal activation, measured as expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK, in relation to auditory learning in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), a parrot. Budgerigar males successfully learned to discriminate two Japanese words spoken by another male conspecific. Re-exposure to the two discriminanda led to increased neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium, but not in the hippocampus, compared to untrained birds that were exposed to the same words, or were not exposed to words. Neuronal activation in the caudomedial pallium of the experimental birds was correlated significantly and positively with the percentage of correct responses in the discrimination task. These results suggest that in a parrot, the caudomedial pallium is involved in auditory learning. Thus, in parrots, songbirds and humans, analogous brain regions may contain the neural substrate for auditory learning and memory. PMID:22701714

Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Imagawa, Takuya; Matsushita, Masanori; Matsuda, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Satoh, Ryohei; Watanabe, Aiko; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Manabe, Kazuchika; Kawashima, Takashi; Bolhuis, Johan J

2012-01-01

264

76 FR 21914 - Public Land Order No. 7762; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6845; New Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLNMA02000-L1430000.ET0000; NMNM77967] Public Land Order No. 7762; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6845; New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

2011-04-19

265

Global land use data for integrated assessment modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in land use and land cover have been one of the major drivers of global change over the last three centuries. Detailed spatially-explicit data sets characterizing these historical land cover changes are now emerging. By synthesizing remotely-sensed land cover classification data sets with historical land use census data, our research group has developed comprehensive databases of historical land use

Ramankutty; Navin

2005-01-01

266

Wind Development on Tribal Lands  

SciTech Connect

Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

2008-01-18

267

Featured Videos: Urban Land Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Land Institute (ULI) offers up high-quality seminars, conferences, research materials, and long term planning information for real estate professionals, urbanologists, public leaders, and others. Its Featured Videos include observations from professionals in Europe talking about large scale megaprojects to conversations about transit planning in Chicago. A good place to start is with "The Changing World: A ULI Speaker Series," which includes conversations on "The Power of Face-to-Face Crowdfunding" and renegade urban gardening. Other great videos highlight infrastructure challenges in African cities and how communities rebuild after major environmental disasters.

268

Connecting Indicators with land degradation and desertification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of 72 selected candidate indicators corresponding to the physical environment, social, economic, and land management characteristics were defined in 1672 field sites located in 17 study sites in the Mediterranean and eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The selected indicators refer to specific farm characteristics such as family status, land tenure, present and previous types of land use, period of existing type of land use, soil depth, slope gradient, tillage operations, tillage depth and direction, etc., as well as to regional characteristics such as annual rainfall, rain seasonality, water availability, water quality and quantity, rate of land abandonment, rate of burned area, etc. Based on existing geo-referenced database, classes have been designated for each indicator and presented in a tabulated form. Weighing indices have been assigned to each class based on existing research or empirically assessing the importance to land degradation and desertification. Various processes or causes related to land degradation and desertification important for the study sites have been studied and the most relevant indicators have been defined. Questionnaires for each process or cause have been prepared and data were collected at field site level in collaboration with land users. The obtained data were statistically analyzed to identify the most important indicators related to each process or cause affecting land degradation and desertification. The analyses have shown that indicators may be widely, even globally, used for assessing the various land degradation and desertification processes or causes at field level. Of course, some indicators related to agriculture, social, and institutional characteristics in some cases show trends that are opposite to what happens in other study sites. These trends can be explained by further investigation including other indicators or processes affecting land degradation and desertification that it was not possible to consider in this effort. Efficiency and performance indicators seem the most promising for further research, particularly combined with economic principles for assessing land degradation and desertification. Key words: Indicators, land degradation, desertification

Kosmas, C.

2012-04-01

269

The Land Gini Coefficient and Its Application for Land Use Structure Analysis in China  

PubMed Central

We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types–farmland, built-up land and unused land–was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764

Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

2013-01-01

270

Lesson 2: Land Use/Land Cover Data In this lesson you will work with polygon data describing the types of natural land covers  

E-print Network

. Rangeland ­ grazing lands not part of intensive agriculture. Forest ­ this includes all types of forestLesson 2: Land Use/Land Cover Data In this lesson you will work with polygon data describing the types of natural land covers and human land uses in each watershed. We will view and explore this data

271

Evaluation of historical land cover, land use, and land-use change emissions in the GCAM integrated assessment model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are often used as science-based decision-support tools for evaluating the consequences of climate and energy policies, and their use in this framework is likely to increase in the future. However, quantitative evaluation of these models has been somewhat limited for a variety of reasons, including data availability, data quality, and the inherent challenges in projections of societal values and decision-making. In this analysis, we identify and confront methodological challenges involved in evaluating the agriculture and land use component of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. GCAM then calculates both emissions from land-use practices, and long-term changes in carbon stocks in different land uses, thus providing simulation information that can be compared to observed historical data. In this work, we compare GCAM results, both in recent historic and future time periods, to historical data sets. We focus on land use, land cover, land-use change emissions, and albedo.

Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Janetos, A. C.; Zhou, Y.

2012-12-01

272

Advanced Land Imager Assessment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

2008-01-01

273

STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Atlantis approaches runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the STS-66 mission dedicated to the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3), part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. The astronauts also deployed and retrieved a free-flying satellite designed to study the middle and lower thermospheres and perform a series of experiments covering life sciences research and microgravity processing. The landing was at 7:34 a.m. (PST) 14 November 1994, after being waved off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, due to adverse weather. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining

1994-01-01

274

Analysis of Landing-Gear Behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.

Milwitzky, Benjamin; Cook, Francis E

1953-01-01

275

Monitoring land use on military installations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The US Geological Survey's Land Cover Trends is a research projects aimed to understand the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary US land use and land-cover change. The project is using the EPA Level III eco-regions as a geographic framework to process geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000 to characterize ecosystem responses to land-use changes. The results are expected to be used for collaborative environmental change consequences research with various partners including the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The Land Cover project can provide geographic understanding of the state of the nation's ecosystems. The project is scheduled to be completed by 2010 and expected to provide an unbiased, national synthesis of land-cover changes.

Karstensen, K.A.; Loveland, T.R.

2009-01-01

276

STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Endeavour concludes mission STS-49 at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, with a 1:57 p.m. (PDT) landing May 16 on Edward's concrete runway 22. The planned 7-day mission, which began with a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:41 p.m. (PFT), 7 May, was extended two days to allow extra time to rescue the Intelsat VI satellite and complete Space Station assembly techniques originally planned. After a perfect rendezvous in orbit and numerous attempts to grab the satellite, space walking astronauts Pierre Thuot, Rick Hieb and Tom Akers successfully rescued it by hand on the third space walk with the support of mission specialists Kathy Thornton and Bruce Melnick. The three astronauts, on a record space walk, took hold of the satellite and directed it to the shuttle where a booster motor was attached to launch it to its proper orbit. Commander Dan Brandenstein and Pilot Kevin Chilton brought Endeavours's record setting maiden voyage to a perfect landing at Edwards with the first deployment of a drag chute on a shuttle mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000

1992-01-01

277

STS-49 Landing at Edwards with First Drag Chute Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Endeavour concludes mission STS-49 at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, with a 1:57 p.m. (PDT) landing 16 May on Edward's concrete runway 22. The planned 7-day mission, which began with a launch from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 4:41 p.m. (PFT), 7 May, was extended two days to allow extra time to rescue the Intelsat VI satellite and complete Space Station assembly techniques originally planned. After a perfect rendezvous in orbit and numerous attempts to grab the satellite, space walking astronauts Pierre Thuot, Rick Hieb and Tom Akers successfully rescued it by hand on the third space walk with the support of mission specialists Kathy Thornton and Bruce Melnick. The three astronauts, on a record space walk, took hold of the satellite and directed it to the shuttle where a booster motor was attached to launch it to its proper orbit. Commander Dan Brandenstein and Pilot Kevin Chilton brought Endeavours's record setting maiden voyage to a perfect landing at Edwards AFB with the first deployment of a drag chute on a shuttle mission. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,

1992-01-01

278

A model of coherent radar land backscatter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of targets in a land clutter background is a problem for most ground based and airborne pulse Doppler radars. Understanding how ground clutter behaves can lead to modified clutter suppression techniques for improving radar target detection performance. Presented here is a model of land clutter which was validated against a number of different land types observed at different frequencies. The characteristics of the clutter which limit target detection are discussed.

Sarno, G. C.

1991-09-01

279

Timed-neutron detection for land mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new and novel means for detecting nonmetallic land mines. Timed neutron detection (TND) utilizes the unique neutron-moderating properties common to most explosives and all polymers and incorporates timing aspects to improve the measurement process. TND offers the possibility of a low-cost detector for non-metallic land mines with small radiation exposure. Experimental results with actual land mines and

J. A. Bamberger; R. A. Craig; T. Y. Colgan; A. J. Peurrung; B. E. Schmitt; D. C. Stromswold

2003-01-01

280

Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation. An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of a reentry vehicle using a passive landing system to alleviate the landing-impact loads. The passive landing system consisted of a flexible heat shield with a small section of aluminum honeycomb placed between the heat shield and the crew compartment at the point that would be the first to contact the landing surface. The model was landed on concrete and sand landing surfaces at parachute letdown velocities. The investigations simulated a vertical velocity of 30 ft/sec (full scale), horizontal velocities of 0, 15, 30, 40, and 50 ft/sec (full scale), and landing attitudes ranging from -30 degrees to 20 degrees. The model investigation indicated that stable landings could be made on a concrete surface at horizontal velocities up to about 30 ft/sec, but the stable landing-attitude range at these speeds was small. The aluminum honeycomb bottomed occasionally during landings on concrete. When bottoming did not occur, maximum normal and longitudinal accelerations at the center of gravity of the vehicle were approximately 50g and 30g, respectively. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030981. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1963-01-01

281

Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here.

Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

2014-01-01

282

Alaska interim land cover mapping program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In order to meet the requirements of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) for comprehensive resource and management plans from all major land management agencies in Alaska, the USGS has begun a program to classify land cover for the entire State using Landsat digital data. Vegetation and land cover classifications, generated in cooperation with other agencies, currently exist for 115 million acres of Alaska. Using these as a base, the USGS has prepared a comprehensive plan for classifying the remaining areas of the State. The development of this program will lead to a complete interim vegetation and land cover classification system for Alaska and allow the dissemination of digital data for those areas classified. At completion, 153 Alaska 1:250,000-scale quadrangles will be published and will include land cover from digital Landsat classifications, statistical summaries of all land cover by township, and computer-compatible tapes. An interagency working group has established an Alaska classification system (table 1) composed of 18 classes modified from "A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data" (Anderson and others, 1976), and from "Revision of a preliminary classification system for vegetation of Alaska" (Viereck and Dyrness, 1982) for the unique ecoregions which are found in Alaska.

U.S. Geological Survey

1987-01-01

283

Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

Epp, Chirold

2007-01-01

284

7 CFR 205.202 - Land requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.202 Land requirements. Any...

2012-01-01

285

7 CFR 205.202 - Land requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.202 Land requirements. Any...

2013-01-01

286

7 CFR 205.202 - Land requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.202 Land requirements. Any...

2011-01-01

287

7 CFR 205.202 - Land requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.202 Land requirements. Any...

2010-01-01

288

7 CFR 205.202 - Land requirements.  

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.202 Land requirements. Any...

2014-01-01

289

Apollo command module land impact tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full-scale-model and actual spacecraft were impact tested to define the emergency land-landing capability of the Apollo command module. Structural accelerations and strains were recorded on analog instrumentation, and a summary to these data is included. The landing kinematics were obtained from high-speed photography. Photographs of the structural damage caused during the tests are included. Even though extensive damage can be expected, the crew will receive nothing more than minor injuries during the majority of the probable landing conditions.

Mccullough, J. E.; Lands, J. F., Jr.

1972-01-01

290

7 CFR 1450.204 - Eligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Establishment Payments and Annual Payments § 1450.204 Eligible land....

2011-01-01

291

7 CFR 1450.204 - Eligible land.  

...Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Establishment Payments and Annual Payments § 1450.204 Eligible land....

2014-01-01

292

7 CFR 1450.204 - Eligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Establishment Payments and Annual Payments § 1450.204 Eligible land....

2012-01-01

293

7 CFR 1450.204 - Eligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Establishment Payments and Annual Payments § 1450.204 Eligible land....

2013-01-01

294

STS-77 crew examine tires after landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-77 Mission Specialists Daniel W. Bursch, Andrew S. W. Thomas and Marc Garneau (who represents the Canadian Space Agency) examine the orbiter Endeavour's tires after an end-of-mission landing at 7:09:18 a.m. EDT, May 29, on Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Assisting them at left is Lockheed Martin Space Operations mechanical technician Mark Seawright, who as a member of the Orbiter Recovery Convoy team is involved with post-landing safety assessments and landing gear checkout.

1996-01-01

295

Foreign Fishery Developments Canadian marinel'lsh landings and landed values, January-December 1978.  

E-print Network

. Source: Intelligence Services Division, Marketing Services Branch, Fisheries and Oceans, Canada. 3ValuesForeign Fishery Developments Canadian marinel'lsh landings and landed values, January-December 1978

296

43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...application to close lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of...application to close lands to mineral leasing. Offers filed...

2012-10-01

297

43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...application to close lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of...application to close lands to mineral leasing. Offers filed...

2011-10-01

298

43 CFR 3101.4 - Lands covered by application to close lands to mineral leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...application to close lands to mineral leasing. 3101.4 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of...application to close lands to mineral leasing. Offers filed...

2013-10-01

299

Impacts of Land Use Land Cover Change on the Indian Monsoon Rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation discusses the role of land surface feedback as an important modulator of the heavy rains and convection climatology over the Indian monsoon region. Recent results on detecting the impacts of land use change on multidecadal rainfall and temperature analysis and observations will be discussed along with the elucidation of the mechanisms by which land surface affects regional convection and heavy rains over the Indian monsoon region. Using multidecadal insitu and remote sensed observations, and results from land data assimilation system and coupled land atmosphere models, this presentation will provide a summary of results that contribute to an improved definition, attribution and prediction of the Indian Monsoon rainfall changes. The results have implications for improving the understanding of the mechanisms of monsoonal convective processes and its predictability, including the impacts of land use land cover change and land surface variability.

Niyogi, D.

2009-12-01

300

Leave No Trace! Land Ethics [and] Tread Lightly! On Public and Private Land. A National Land Use Ethics Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two brochures that provide land ethics guidelines for outdoor recreationists. The brochures provide techniques that visitors can use to help reduce evidence of their presence in the back country, designated "Wilderness" areas. The first brochure, titled "Leave no Trace! Land Ethics," provides guidelines for planning back…

Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

301

Oil shale land transfers finalized  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of the Interior agreed to settle decades-long litigation over unpatented oil shale claims in the Piceance Creek basin by granting patents on some 82,000 acres of claims. The announcement of the settlement immediately invoked storms of protest from Congress and Colorado state officials. In the face of this controversy, the Interior Department then announced a delay in the actual transfer of title to the lands. However, when the Colorado appeals failed and the Congressional amendment proved inoperative, Interior again moved forward in October to complete the transfer of 64,000 acres. Some 18,000 acres were delayed because of incomplete survey information. A table presents a summary of the current status of the patent applications.

Not Available

1986-12-01

302

Land use planning in India.  

PubMed

India was the first country to provide for the protection and improvement of environment in its constitution. Land use planning (LUP) or siting of industries has been taken up at the State and Central (Federal) levels over the last few decades. LUP is critical for all types of industries and new residential colonies, but is especially so for the chemical industries. With the experience gained, more coherence in LUP policies is emerging. A few prominent cases of siting of industry, some mixed with public outcry, that have affected the policies are noted in the text. Various factors which affect LUP in India are: population density, infrastructure (roads, power, communication, etc.), level of industrialization in different parts, need for creation of jobs, eco-sensitive regions, tribal regions, historical monuments, etc. This paper discusses the current scene in India and the near future aspects. PMID:16111811

Gupta, J P

2006-03-31

303

Land mobile satellite system requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

Kiesling, J. D.

1983-01-01

304

Land mobile satellite system requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

Kiesling, J. D.

1983-05-01

305

In Brief: Moon landing anniversary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To commemorate the Apollo program and the fortieth anniversary of the first lunar landing, NASA has announced a nearly month-long series of activities at various locations around the United States during July. Events include a 16 July roundtable discussion about the Apollo program at NASA headquarters in Washington, D. C.; Moonfest 2009 at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., on 19 July; a First Footprint Celebration at the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Ala., on 20 July; and an Apollo 11 Splashdown Celebration at Johnson Space Center on 24 July. NASA Television will broadcast some of the events live. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/40th/events.html.

Showstack, Randy

2009-07-01

306

Approving communitization agreements covering Native American lands  

SciTech Connect

A series of recent cases in the US Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit has created a great deal of confusion about the role of the Secretary of the Interior in approving oil and gas communitization agreements where Native American tribal or allotted lands are involved. In each case, the court was confronted with an operator who was attempting to extend an oil and gas lease covering tribal or allotted lands beyond its primary term by requesting to unitize the tribal or allotted lands with adjacent non-Native American lands on which a well had been drilled and completed or where drilling was taking place. All of the tribal and allotted leases involved in these cases contained {open_quotes}commence drilling{close_quotes} clauses, as well as {open_quotes}unit operation{close_quotes} clauses that authorized communitization of the lands covered by the leases with adjacent lands upon approval by the Secretary. While the Secretary clearly is required to approve communitization agreements covering tribal or allotted lands before such agreements are deemed effective, the scope of the Secretary`s approval authority has been the subject of continuing controversy. Communitization refers to the pooling of oil and gas interests in separate tracts, including federal and nonfederal properties, into a size sufficient to grant a well permit under applicable well-spacing rules. When lands have been communitized, production achieved on one oil and gas lease is allocated among all of the communitized leases. Thus, a lease of tribal or allotted lands that is communitized with a fee lease on which a producing well has been drilled is considered a producing lease even though there is no well on such lease. Such tribal or allotted lands lease therefore does not expire at the end of its stated primary term, but is extended until the well on the communitized land ceases to produce oil or gas in paying quantities. This article discusses the problem.

Hook, J. [Dorsey & Whitney, Denver, CO (United States)

1997-06-01

307

Oblique Photogrammetry and Usage on Land Administration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projects based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have started within the body of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC) by the Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (LRCIS) in the beginning of 2000s. LRCIS was followed by other projects which are Turkish National Geographic Information System (TNGIS), Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (CORS-TR), Geo Metadata Portal (GMP), Orthophoto Web Services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastre Renovation Project (CRP), 2B and Land Registry Achieve Information System (LRAIS). When examining the projects generated by GDLRC, it is realized that they include basic functions of land administration required for sustainable development. Sustainable development is obtained through effective land administration as is known. Nowadays, land use becomes more intense as a result of rapid population increase. The importance of land ownership has increased accordingly. At this point, the necessity of cadastre appears. In Turkey, cadastral registration is carried out by the detection of parcels. In other words, it is obtained through the division of land surface into 2D boundaries and mapping of them. However, existing land administration systems have begun to lose their efficiency while coping with rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) belonging to land which become more complicated day by day. Overlapping and interlocking constructions appear particularly in urban areas with dense housing and consequently, the problem of how to project these structures onto the surface in 2D cadastral systems has arisen. Herein, the necessity of 3D cadastre concept and 3D property data is confronted. In recent years, oblique photogrammetry, whose applications are gradually spreading, is used as an effective method for producing 3D data. In this study, applications of oblique photogrammetry and usability of oblique images as base for 3D Cadastre and Land Administration projects are examined.

Kisa, A.; Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Ates, H. B.; Bakici, S.

2013-08-01

308

Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Atlantis touches down at 3:35 p.m. PST on 6 December 1988 at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at the conclusion of the STS-27 Department of Defense mission. Landing took place on runway 17 of the Rogers Dry Lake, concluding the 4-day, 9-hour, 6-minute mission. The five-man crew was led by Commander Robert L. Gibson and included Pilot Guy S. Gardner; Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross, William M. Sheperd, and Richard M. Mullane. Atlantis was launched on December 2 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

1988-01-01

309

Land surface albedo and its impact on modeling land-surface-atmosphere interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface albedo is one of the key parameters in modeling land-surface-atmosphere interactions. Compared to many other land surface variables, e.g. surface humidity, water vapor flux and aerodynamic resistance, land surface albedo has a direct and distinct impact on determining land-surface energy/water budget through the partition between reflected and absorbed solar flux, and thus plays a key role in the estimation of atmospheric boundary-layer properties (e.g., diurnal cycles of temperature/humidity and energy/water-vapor fluxes). Those atmospheric boundary-layer properties are in turn the critical conditions for land-surface vegetation. This study first synthesizes knowledge of land surface albedo, and then uses a radiative transfer model to examine the direct effect of land surface albedo on modeling land-surface-atmosphere interactions, with focus on energy/water-vapor fluxes. Observations from different platforms (e.g., ground-based, airborne, satellite) are summarized for various land surface types, and used for the comparison with the model results. The impact of land surface albedo on modeling the energy and water-vapor fluxes of land-surface vegetation is also discussed.

Xie, Y.; Wu, W.

2012-12-01

310

Valuing agricultural land standard prices based on agricultural land gradation and evaluation information system (ALGEIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture land is the most fundamental material of production, and is man's indispensable living condition for existence. Agricultural land prices reflect not only the uses of agricultural land, but the potential uses as well. This paper reviews the valuation on agricultural land prices in western developed countries and the development courses of agricultural land appraisal, especially valuation on agricultural land standard prices in China. The problems in the valuation at present are analyzed. According to the thinking of "first gradating and then evaluating," "Agriculture Land Gradation and Evaluation Information System" (ALGEIS) based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is developed. As a case study, the proposed method is applied to value agricultural land standard prices in Yunan County, Guangdong Province, China. The case study shows that the proposed method is a practical and satisfactory one. The applications of achievements of valuation on agricultural land prices are discussed, which effectively promote the reform and development of land resources administration. Developing agriculture land gradation and evaluation information system based on GIS, can satisfy spatial, dynamic, quantitive and comprehensive requests in valuation on agriculture land.

Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Kun; Liu, Yanfang; Deng, Nianchao; Liu, Yang

2008-10-01

311

Health input into land use planning experiences in a land use program.  

PubMed Central

The experiences of a health professional in a land use program in a California County are described: providing health input into the land use planning process by counseling elected and appointed government officials, individual developers, and citizen groups; interpreting existing standards and evaluating proposed ordinances and land use proposals. The significance of such input and the need for guiding standards are emphasized. PMID:645998

Kaplan, O B

1978-01-01

312

Agricultural Intensification: Will Land Spared from Farming be Land Spared for Nature?  

E-print Network

with inten- sive agriculture and if the relationship between land-use intensity and measures of diversityAgricultural Intensification: Will Land Spared from Farming be Land Spared for Nature? PAMELA A-5020, U.S.A. How can intensive agricultural systems be designed so that they have fewer and smaller

Johnson, Matthew

313

Wilderness designation of Bureau of Land Management lands and impacts on the availability of energy resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1964 Congress mandated the establishment of the National Wilderness Preservation System - a collection of federal lands dedicated to the preservation of selected parts of our once vast wilderness. Because wilderness management precludes many traditional land uses, controversy has plagued the efforts of land-management agencies to select and recommend areas for wilderness inclusion. This study examines potential impacts on

E. H. Oakes; A. H. Voelker

1983-01-01

314

Interior Secretary Formally Designates BLM Lands the National System of Public Lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

He also said that the designation will emphasize the interconnectedness and interdependence of the public lands and all who benefit from them; better convey the diversity of interests and values associated with the public lands and how these are served through balanced, comprehensive, management; and increase the critical importance of enlightened citizen stewardship to the preservation of these lands and

Frank Quimby

2009-01-01

315

Relationships between aerodynamic roughness and land use and land cover in Baltimore, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urbanization changes the radiative, thermal, hydrologic, and aerodynamic properties of the Earth's surface. Knowledge of these surface characteristics, therefore, is essential to urban climate analysis. Aerodynamic or surface roughness of urban areas is not well documented, however, because of practical constraints in measuring the wind profile in the presence of large buildings. Using an empirical method designed by Lettau, and an analysis of variance of surface roughness values calculated for 324 samples averaging 0.8 hectare (ha) of land use and land cover sample in Baltimore, Md., a strong statistical relation was found between aerodynamic roughness and urban land use and land cover types. Assessment of three land use and land cover systems indicates that some of these types have significantly different surface roughness characteristics. The tests further indicate that statistically significant differences exist in estimated surface roughness values when categories (classes) from different land use and land cover classification systems are used as surrogates. A Level III extension of the U.S. Geological Survey Level II land use and land cover classification system provided the most reliable results. An evaluation of the physical association between the aerodynamic properties of land use and land cover and the surface climate by numerical simulation of the surface energy balance indicates that changes in surface roughness within the range of values typical of the Level III categories induce important changes in the surface climate.

Nicholas, F.W.; Lewis, J.E., Jr.

1980-01-01

316

25 CFR 162.102 - What land, or interests in land, are subject to these regulations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...necessary to preserve the value of the land or protect the interests of the...regulations do not apply to tribal land that is leased under a corporate...this part conflict with the Indian Land Consolidation Act Amendments of 2000,...

2010-04-01

317

Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

318

CURENT LAND USE/LAND COVER ANALYSIS FOR COASTAL ALABAMA MX974176  

EPA Science Inventory

The project entails land use/land cover and classification of current LandSat 7 satellite imagery. The final products will include digital files for the classified imagery, an attributed vector polygon GIS coverage of classified areas in Arcview export and Arcview shapefile form...

319

Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration  

E-print Network

Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration carbon sequestration Climate change Soil carbon change Historically, Florida soils stored the largest in Florida (FL) have acted as a sink for carbon (C) over the last 40 years. � Climate interacting with land

Grunwald, Sabine

320

Influenza A Virus Infections in Land  

E-print Network

Influenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People's Republic of China A. Townsend Peterson, Sarah�PCR testing of 939 Asian land birds of 153 species. Influenza A infection was found, particularly among influenza virus ecology has long regarded water- birds as a primary reservoir. Although the benchmark study

Clayton, Dale H.

321

Climate effects of global land cover change  

Microsoft Academic Search

When changing from grass and croplands to forest, there are two competing effects of land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to warming and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate. We have performed simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model

S. Gibbard; K. Caldeira; G. Bala; T. J. Phillips; M. Wickett

2005-01-01

322

Ancient Land Law: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article provides an overview of the land regimes that the peoples of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Israel created by law and custom between 3000 B.C. and 500 B.C. One purpose of the endeavor is narrowly pedagogic. In the United States, students who enroll in courses on property law traditionally have found the history of land law treated in highly stylized

Robert C. Ellickson; Charles Di A. Thorland

1995-01-01

323

Model of Coherent Radar Land Backscatter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The detection of targets in a land clutter background is a problem for most ground-based and airborne pulse-Doppler radars. Understanding how land clutter behaves can lead to modified clutter suppression techniques for improving radar target detection per...

G. C. Sarno

1991-01-01

324

Biofuels and indirect land use change  

E-print Network

Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation October 2011 #12;About this study), Malaysian Palm Oil Board, National Farmers Union, Novozymes, Northeast Biofuels Collaborative, Patagonia Bio contributed views on a confidential basis. #12;1Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation

325

Conceptual Problems in Land Surface Data Assimilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A land data assimilation system (LDAS) merges observations (or satellite retrievals) of land surface hydrological conditions, including soil moisture, snow, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), into a numerical model of land surface processes. In theory, the output from such a system is superior to estimates based on the observations or the model alone, thereby enhancing our ability to understand, monitor, and predict key elements of the terrestrial water cycle. In practice, however, several conceptual problems can interfere with realizing the potential improvements from data assimilation. Of particular concern is the frequent mismatch between the assimilated observations and the land surface model variables of interest. The seminar will discuss recent research with the ensemble-based NASA GEOS-S LDAS to address various aspects of this mismatch. These aspects include (i) the assimilation of coarse-scale observations into higher-resolution land surface models, (ii) the partitioning of satellite observations (such as TWS retrievals) into their constituent water cycle components, (iii) the forward modeling of microwave brightness temperatures over land for radiance-based land surface data aSSimilation, and (iv) the selection of the most relevant types of observations for the analysis of a specific water cycle variable (such as root zone soil moisture). At its core, the solution to the above challenges involves the careful construction of an observation operator that maps from the land surface model variables of interest to the space of the assimilated observations.

Reichle, Rolf

2012-01-01

326

Analyzing Land Use Change In Urban Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This four-page fact sheet provides a brief summary of the analysis of land use in urban environments. Topics include the rapid growth in urban populations, some of the methods used to analyze land use change (mapping, databases, time series documents), and some of the concerns and possible consequences created by the rapid shift of human populations to urban centers.

327

Ecologically based municipal land use planning  

SciTech Connect

The book presents compelling evidence and sound arguments that make the case for sound land use policies that will reduce sprawl. The book provides easily understood solutions for municipal land planners dealing with urban sprawl; discusses ecological resources; emphasizes the use of new environmental indicators; and includes the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) to problem solving.

Honachefsky, W.B.

2000-07-01

328

"Lands for Life": Reading between the Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Ontario provincial government's "Lands for Life" program, which will allocate 46 million hectares of public lands to four uses: intensive forestry, multiple use, tourism, and protected areas. Expresses skepticism about government statements by juxtaposing the rhetoric with the record, with regard to environmental protection,…

Bell, Anne

1997-01-01

329

A Journey to a New Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of an exhibit in the Simon Fraser University Museum entitled "A Journey to a New Land" about the coming of the first humans to North and South America. The page presents an animation of the effects of post-glacial seal level rise on the area known as Beringia and the Bering Land Bridge

Ethnology, Sfu M.

330

Second Mars Surveyor Landing Site Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication presents abstracts accepted for presentation at the 2nd Mars Surveyor Landing Site Workshop, held at the State University of New York at Buffalo, June 22-23, 1999. The general theme of the conference centers on the engineering and topographical constraints placed upon the Mars Surveyor 2001 lander and proposed landing sites that fall within these constraints.

Gulick, Virginia

1999-01-01

331

[Land Use Unit, Edmonds School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 18 land use activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Biology, Horticulture, Mathematics, Social Studies, English, Industrial Arts and Physical Education. The topics to be investigated include: land use simulation games,…

Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

332

Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation  

E-print Network

Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation Jiu Jimmy Jiao Department ofEarth Sciences, The University ofHong Kong, P. R. China Abstract JJ.Jiao Land reclamation has played a significant role in the urban development process in many coastal areas in the world. While reclamation

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

333

MOLDOVA LAND TENURE SYSTEM Carlton A Brown  

E-print Network

MOLDOVA LAND TENURE SYSTEM Carlton A Brown May 2002 1. Introduction 1.1. The Moldova land tenure are encountered. A compromise between both agencies and the government of Moldova has created a cadastral system of Moldova as well as a discussion of the USAID cadastral system and the World Bank cadastral system. Next

Onsrud, Harlan J.

334

Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands  

E-print Network

Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands 1490 Campus Delivery Fort Collins, Colorado as the recognized experts in military land management, and to show our appreciation for the technical expertise for professionalism and hard work. Sincerely, Dr. Lee Barber, Director Center for Environmental Management of Military

335

Ecological land classification: A survey approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A landscape approach to ecological land mapping, as illustrated in this article, proceeds by pattern recognition based on ecological theory. The unit areas delineated are hypotheses that arise from a knowledge of what is ecologically important in the land. Units formed by the mapper are likely to be inefficient or irrelevant for ecological purposes unless he possesses a sound rationale

J. Stan Rowe; John W. Sheard

1981-01-01

336

Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan  

SciTech Connect

This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

1980-03-01

337

North Landing (can also deck along  

E-print Network

and dissected on south half. Wood north of creek goes to north landing; wood south of creek goes to south - conifers/hardwoods PB6 - Paper Birch S6 - Spruce Open Creek Haul Road New Ski Trails Landing#0 Temp Bridge

338

CONDUCT ON UNIVERSITY LANDS CHAPTER UWS 18  

E-print Network

pollutants into storm sewers" means placing pollutants or water containing pollutants into any storm sewer on or serving university lands. (6) "Discharge pollutants to storm water" means placing pollutants onto university lands so that they are carried by storm water to waters of the state. (7) "Pollutants" has

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

339

Regional land use schemes generated by TOPAZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dickey J. W. and Najafi F. T. (1973) Regional land use schemes generated by TOPAZ, Reg. Studies7, 373–386. TOPAZ, which is the Technique for the Optimal Placement of Activities in Zones, was developed to provide the urban planner with a series of alternative solutions from which he could determine the land use pattern with the least amount of cost involved.

J. W. Dickey; F. T. Najafi

1973-01-01

340

BIOREMEDIATION USING THE LAND TREATMENT CONCEPT  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is designed to be used by those who are involved with the use of land treatment technologies for the remediation of contaminated solid phase materials. In addition to a discussion of the basic processes which drive land treatment applications, the parameters involv...

341

APOLLO MANNED LUNAR LANDING SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT PROPOSAL  

E-print Network

APOLLO MANNED LUNAR LANDING SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT PROPOSAL GEOLOGICAL FIELD INVESTIGATION IN EARLY APOLLO MANNED LUNAR LANDING MISSIONS Abstract and Techi~icalSection E. M.Shoemaker, U. S-investigator November 1965 #12;APOLLO MANNED 1,UNAR I,ANDING SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT PROPOSAL GEOLOGICAL FIETADINi

Rathbun, Julie A.

342

Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of agrobiodiversity. Utilization of dung and crop residues for fuel and other uses disturbs the sustainability of land resources. The supply of inputs such as fertilizer, farm machinery and credits are very low. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. For environmentally and socially sustainable development, there is an urgent need to promote awareness and understanding of the interdependence of natural, socioeconomic, and political systems at local and national levels. Understanding the current status and causes of land degradation is very important. This paper reveals the important elements of land degradation in Ethiopia and suggests possible solutions that may help to ameliorate the situation. PMID:11393316

Taddese, G

2001-06-01

343

Mars Exploration Rover Landing Site Selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selection of the landing sites for the Mars Exploration Rovers has involved over 2 years of research and analysis effort that has included the participation of broad sections of the planetary sciences community through a series of open landing site workshops. The effort has included the definition of the engineering constraints based on the landing system, mapping those engineering constraints into acceptable regions and prospective sites, the acquisition of new information from Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters, the evaluation of science and safety criteria for the sites, and the downselection and final site selection based on the sites science potential and safety. The final landing sites (Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater) were selected by NASA Headquarters on April 11, 2003, prior to launch in June. This paper presents engineering requirements, and potential landing sites for Mars Exploration Rovers.

Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Parker, T.; Kass, D.; Crisp, J.; Squyres, S.; Adler, M.; Haldemann, H.; Carr, M.; Arvidson, A.

2003-01-01

344

America's Backyard: Exploring Your Public Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

America's Backyard: Exploring Your Public Lands is the featured topic of National Geographic's Geography Action! -- an "annual conservation and awareness program designed to educate and excite people about our natural, cultural, and historic treasures." This Web site offers a number of public land-related educational activities, many of the which apply directly to the life sciences. Activities are available for grades K-12, and cover such topics as the role of forests in our daily lives, conservation issues on public lands, and pollution as a pan-political problem. Each lesson plan includes background information, procedural instructions, links to related Web sites, a list of National Geography Standards, and more. The site also offers a number of other activities related to public lands, including a tour of the Online Public Lands Museum and ways to participate in Geography Awareness Week (November 17-23, 2002).

2007-06-08

345

STS-55 Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Columbia completes the STS-55 Spacelab D-2 mission 6 May with a landing at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, at 7:30 a.m. (PDT). The landing was scheduled for the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, but was diverted to Dryden during the final hours of flight because of unacceptable weather at the Florida facility. The STS-55 mission began with the launch from Kennedy at 7:50 a.m. (PDT), 26 April. Aboard Columbia were commander Steve Nagel; pilot Tom Henricks; mission specialists Jerry Ross, Charles Precourt, and Bernard Harris; and payload specialists Hans Schlegel and Ulrich Walter, both from Germany. During Columbia's flight the NASA space shuttle fleet logged more than one year of combined flight time in space, including the time of all previous orbiters and Columbia on this flight. That mark was reached at 7:01:42 (PDT) on 5 May, and with Columbia's landing the total flight time had reached 365 days, 23 hours, and 28 minutes. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and

1993-01-01

346

Biofuels on the landscape: Is "land sharing" preferable to "land sparing"?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread land use changes—and ensuing effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services—are expected as a result of expanding bioenergy production. Although almost all US production of ethanol today is from corn, it is envisaged that future ethanol production will also draw from cellulosic sources such as perennial grasses. In selecting optimal bioenergy crops, there is debate as to whether it is preferable from an environmental standpoint to cultivate bioenergy crops with high ecosystem services (a "land sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand (a "land sparing" strategy). Here, we develop a simple model to address this question. Assuming that bioenergy crops are competing with uncultivated land, our model calculates land requirements to meet a given bioenergy demand intensity based upon the yields of bioenergy crops and combines fractional land cover of each ecosystem type with its associated ecosystem services to determine whether land sharing or land sparing strategies maximize ecosystem services at the landscape level. We apply this model to a case in which climate protection through GHG regulation—an ecosystem's greenhouse gas value (GHGV)—is the ecosystem service of interest. We consider five bioenergy crops competing for land area with five unfarmed ecosystem types in the central and eastern US. Our results show that the relative advantages of land sparing and land sharing depend upon the type of ecosystem with which the bioenergy crop is competing for land; as the GHGV value of the unfarmed land increases, the preferable strategy shifts from land sharing to land sparing. This implies that, while it may be preferable to replace ecologically degraded land with high-GHGV, lower yielding bioenergy crops, average landscape GHGV will most often be maximized through high yielding bioenergy crops that leave more land for uncultivated, high-GHGV ecosystems. While our case study focuses on GHGV, the same principles will be generally applicable to any ecosystem service whose value does not depend upon the spatial configuration of the landscape. Whenever bioenergy crops have substantially lower ecosystem services than the ecosystems with which they are competing for land, the most effective strategy for meeting bioenergy demand while maximizing ecosystem services on a landscape level is one of land sparing—that is, focusing simultaneously on maximizing the yield of bioenergy crops while preserving or restoring natural ecosystems.

DeLucia, E. H.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Duval, B. D.; Long, S. P.

2012-12-01

347

Analysis of land use and land cover change in a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro using  

E-print Network

opportunities, but require intensive resource management and environmental protection. Land use and land cover interaction areas between the land and the ocean, suffer from intense human activity and can quickly become1 Analysis of land use and land cover change in a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro using high

348

Biomechanics and control of landing in toads.  

PubMed

Anything that jumps must land, but unlike during jumping when muscles produce energy to accelerate the body into the air, controlled landing requires muscles to dissipate energy and decelerate the body. Among anurans, toads (genus Bufo) exhibit highly coordinated landing behaviors, using their forelimbs to stabilize the body after touch-down as they lower their hindlimbs to the ground. Moreover, toads land frequently, as they cover distances by stringing together long series of relatively short hops. We have been using toads as a model to understand the biomechanics and motor control strategies of coordinated landing. Our results show that toads prepare for landing differently depending on how far they hop. For example, the forelimbs are extended farther prior to impact after long hops than after short ones. Such kinematic alterations are mirrored by predictable modulation of the recruitment intensity of forelimb muscles before impact, such that longer hops lead to higher levels of pre-landing recruitment of muscles. These differences in kinematics and muscular activity help to control the most flexed configuration of the elbow that is achieved after impact, which in turn constrains the extent to which muscles involved in dissipating energy are stretched. Indeed, a combination of in vivo and in vitro experiments has shown that the elbow-extending anconeus muscle, which is stretched during landing as the elbow flexes, rarely reaches lengths longer than those on the plateau of the muscle's length-tension curve (where damage becomes more likely). We have also been studying how movements of the hindlimbs after take-off help to stabilize animals during landing. In particular, the immediate and rapid flexion of a toad's knees after take-off leads to a repositioning of the animal's center of mass (COM) that better aligns it with ground-reaction forces (GRFs) at impact and reduces torques that would destabilize the animal. Finally, recent work on sensory feedback involved in preparation for landing demonstrates that vision is not required for coordinated landing. Toads can effectively utilize proprioceptive and/or vestibular information during take-off to help inform themselves about landing conditions, but may also use other sensory modalities after take-off to modulate landing behavior. PMID:24876195

Gillis, Gary; Ekstrom, Laura; Azizi, Emanuel

2014-12-01

349

Lake Land College GIS Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer visualization technology that stores maps as parts of a database, and allows the user to ask questions about the maps. Currently, GIS is being applied to a wide spectrum of industries such as government, communications, telecommunications, utilities, engineering, natural resource management, forestry-environmental science, health and human services, education, and agriculture. GIS and its database management system have been targeted as a key technology that will impact the state labor market. Students who complete this program will be familiar with industry standard GIS software and have the skills to work with diverse data sets and analysis. This certificate will greatly increase the opportunities for students to compete for professional positions in diverse fields. Lake Land College students enrolled in both technical and transfer curricula in an associate of arts or science degree program would be strongly advised to add this certificate to their degree. GIS technology is being used in many upper division courses in bachelor degree programs such as environmental science (natural resource management), geography, engineering, agriculture, sociology, and life sciences. This certificate would allow many transfer students the opportunity to complete course work in techniques and technologies that will be needed to be successful at the university level.

2011-07-19

350

Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Original Test Carriage: A carriage catapulted by a hydraulic jet at speeds up to 150 mph for studies of ground loads on high-speed aircraft is in operation at the Langley Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A drop test rig is installed on the carriage, which is catapulted 400 feet in 3.5 seconds. The carriage travels along a track and special instruments record loads data as an aircraft landing gear or other test specimen is dropped on a concrete strip. Five cables attached to a battery of 20 Navy Mark IV arresting gears, stretched across the 2,200-foot track, bring the carriage to a halt after the test run. The carriage, when loaded to its capacity of 20,000 pounds, represents a 50-ton load. The hydraulic catapult consists of a single water jet, which roars from a nozzle at the front end of the L-shaped pressure vessel (center) and is forced into a specially-shaped bucket on the carriage. The water jet, traveling at 660 feet per second, undergoes a 180 degree change of direction and floods out of another opening in the bucket below the incoming jet stream. The momentum change produces a thrust on the carriage of 400,00 pounds.

1964-01-01

351

Large boulders at landing site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large boulders are visible in this enlargement of pictures taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) lander camera on July 4, 1997. The landing site is in the dry flood channel named Ares Valles. The boulders probably represent deposits from one of the catastrophic floods that carved the ancient channel. Between the rocks is brownish windblown soil. The gray-tan sky results from dust particles in the atmosphere.

Pathfinder, a low-cost Discovery mission, is the first of a new fleet of spacecraft that are planned to explore Mars over the next ten years. Mars Global Surveyor, already en route, arrives at Mars on September 11 to begin a two year orbital reconnaissance of the planet's composition, topography, and climate. Additional orbiters and landers will follow every 26 months.

Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

1997-01-01

352

50 CFR 622.10 - Landing fish intact--general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Landing fish intact--general. 622.10 Section...General Provisions § 622.10 Landing fish intact—-general. This section contains requirements for landing fish intact that are broadly...

2013-10-01

353

30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section 874.12 ...GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation...

2010-07-01

354

30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section 874.12 ...GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation...

2011-07-01

355

30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section 874.12 ...GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation...

2014-07-01

356

30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section 874.12 ...GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation...

2012-07-01

357

30 CFR 874.12 - Eligible coal lands and water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligible coal lands and water. 874.12 Section 874.12 ...GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.12 Eligible coal lands and water. Coal lands and water are eligible for reclamation...

2013-07-01

358

32 CFR 644.534 - Return of public domain land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Return of public domain land. 644.534 Section 644.534 National...and Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.534 Return of public domain land. (a) General. The procedures...

2010-07-01

359

30 CFR 879.15 - Disposition of reclaimed land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Disposition of reclaimed land. 879.15 Section 879.15 Mineral...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.15 Disposition...

2010-07-01

360

30 CFR 879.13 - Acceptance of gifts of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Acceptance of gifts of land. 879.13 Section 879.13 Mineral...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.13 Acceptance of...

2010-07-01

361

24 CFR 1710.107 - Risks of buying land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risks of buying land. 1710.107 Section 1710.107 Housing...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements §...

2010-04-01

362

43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE...

2010-10-01

363

7 CFR 632.13 - Eligible lands and water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01...Eligible lands and water. 632.13 Section 632.13 Agriculture Regulations of the...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING...Eligible lands and water. Lands...

2010-01-01

364

7 CFR 632.13 - Eligible lands and water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01...Eligible lands and water. 632.13 Section 632.13 Agriculture Regulations of the...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING...Eligible lands and water. Lands...

2013-01-01

365

7 CFR 632.13 - Eligible lands and water.  

7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01...Eligible lands and water. 632.13 Section 632.13 Agriculture Regulations of the...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING...Eligible lands and water. Lands...

2014-01-01

366

7 CFR 632.13 - Eligible lands and water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01...Eligible lands and water. 632.13 Section 632.13 Agriculture Regulations of the...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING...Eligible lands and water. Lands...

2012-01-01

367

30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section 900...STATE INTRODUCTION § 900.14 Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under the applicable...

2014-07-01

368

Human spatial orientation perceptions during simulated lunar landing  

E-print Network

During crewed lunar landings, astronauts are expected to guide a stable and controlled descent to a landing zone that is level and free of hazards by either making landing point (LP) redesignations or taking direct manual ...

Clark, Torin Kristofer

2010-01-01

369

77 FR 17091 - Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan AGENCY: Office...Agreement established a trust land consolidation fund to be used for consolidating...for commenting on the Cobell Land Consolidation Program Draft Plan (also...

2012-03-23

370

25 CFR 151.3 - Land acquisition policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acts of Congress which authorize land acquisitions, land may be acquired for a tribe in...thereto, or within a tribal consolidation area; or (2) When the tribe already owns an interest in the land; or (3) When the...

2010-04-01

371

77 FR 5528 - Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Office of the Secretary Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan AGENCY: Office...Agreement established a trust land consolidation fund to be used for consolidating...assets. Established a trust land consolidation fund for the voluntary...

2012-02-03

372

30 CFR 816.133 - Postmining land use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with the landowner or the land management agency having jurisdiction over the lands, if the proposed uses meet...threat of water diminution or pollution. (3) The use will not...inconsistent with applicable land use policies or plans;...

2013-07-01

373

30 CFR 816.133 - Postmining land use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...with the landowner or the land management agency having jurisdiction over the lands, if the proposed uses meet...threat of water diminution or pollution. (3) The use will not...inconsistent with applicable land use policies or plans;...

2011-07-01

374

30 CFR 816.133 - Postmining land use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...with the landowner or the land management agency having jurisdiction over the lands, if the proposed uses meet...threat of water diminution or pollution. (3) The use will not...inconsistent with applicable land use policies or plans;...

2012-07-01

375

30 CFR 816.133 - Postmining land use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...with the landowner or the land management agency having jurisdiction over the lands, if the proposed uses meet...threat of water diminution or pollution. (3) The use will not...inconsistent with applicable land use policies or plans;...

2010-07-01

376

47 CFR 74.709 - Land mobile station protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Land mobile station protection. 74.709 Section...TV Booster Stations § 74.709 Land mobile station protection. (a) Stations in the Land Mobile Radio Service, using the...

2010-10-01

377

25 CFR 167.5 - Land management districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.5 Land management...and the necessity of rehabilitating the grazing lands. District boundary changes may...necessary and advisable by the District Grazing Committees, Central Grazing...

2010-04-01

378

78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction AGENCY: Forest...revising, and monitoring land management plans (the planning rule). The National Forest...National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule Final...

2013-04-19

379

14 CFR 437.33 - Landing and impact locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

An applicant must demonstrate that each location for nominal landing or any contingency abort landing of the reusable suborbital rocket, and each location for any nominal or contingency impact or landing of a component of that rocket, satisfies §...

2010-01-01

380

43 CFR 3141.3 - Land use plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.3 Land use plans. No lease shall be issued under this subpart unless the lands...

2011-10-01

381

30 CFR 715.13 - Postmining use of land.  

... Includes rangelands and forest lands which support a cover...for livestock feed. (8) Forest land. Land with at least...least 10 percent stocked by forest trees of any size, including...as stock ponds, irrigation, fire protection, recreation,...

2014-07-01

382

30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100 ...Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2010-07-01

383

30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100 ...Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2010-07-01

384

30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100 ...Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2011-07-01

385

30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100 ...Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2012-07-01

386

30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100 ...Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2011-07-01

387

30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100 ...Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2013-07-01

388

30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100 ...Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2013-07-01

389

30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100 ...Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2012-07-01

390

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

Not Available

1993-12-01

391

Land use changes contribute to climate extremes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature extremes such as severe heat waves and cold spells are likely to occur more frequently in a warming climate as carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations rise. But land use change, such as clearing forests for agriculture, also has a large impact on extreme temperature events. To determine the relative contribution of the two effects, Avila et al. ran simulations using a climate model coupled to a sophisticated land surface model. They found that land use changes can have a significant effect on temperature extreme indices. On regional scales, land use changes in some cases amplified the effects of increased CO2 concentrations, while land use changes in other cases masked their effects. In some regions, the effects of land use changes on temperature extremes were similar in magnitude to those of doubling CO2. The authors conclude that land use changes are a major source of human influence on the climate. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2011JD016382, 2012)

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-04-01

392

Degradation of land reaching critical global proportions.  

PubMed

The Population Institute recently published a report, titled, Our Diminishing World: The Land/Population Crisis, that explains the relationship between rapid population growth and land degradation in the developing world. As populations in the poorest parts of the world increase, the percentage of land/person continues to decrease. There are approximately 32 billion acres of land, excluding Antarctica, on the planet. That equals only 5.98 acres/person; however, not all this land is suitable for habitation or food production. 1.2 acres is too steep, 1.3 acres is to arid, and 1 acre is too cold. Also, the population of the world is not spread out evenly across the land; thus, in many areas the population density is so high that the demands placed upon the land are greater than its capacity to produce. The Green Revolution that lasted from 1950 through the mid 80s did increase the total amount of yield/acre. Unfortunately the price for such productivity was a degradation of the land. Chemical inputs have contaminated ground water and sterilized the soil, irrigation has caused salinization and water logging (which is a form of decertification), and new tillage practices have eroded the top soil. Grazing cattle have caused enormous amounts of soil erosion and deforestation has removed 911 million acres of tropical forest alone to make room for a growing population. Wood is the single most important fuel source for the people of the developing world; yet, as it becomes scarce from deforestation, animal manures and crop residues have been substituted which further the diminishes the availability of fertile land. It must be understood that family planning save lives, reduces suffering, and slows the damage to the environment. Family planning is the single best way to make an impact in the attempt to end poverty and hunger. PMID:12343551

Smith, A

1992-01-01

393

Automatic detection of aircraft emergency landing sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automatic landing site detection algorithm is proposed for aircraft emergency landing. Emergency landing is an unplanned event in response to emergency situations. If, as is unfortunately usually the case, there is no airstrip or airfield that can be reached by the un-powered aircraft, a crash landing or ditching has to be carried out. Identifying a safe landing site is critical to the survival of passengers and crew. Conventionally, the pilot chooses the landing site visually by looking at the terrain through the cockpit. The success of this vital decision greatly depends on the external environmental factors that can impair human vision, and on the pilot's flight experience that can vary significantly among pilots. Therefore, we propose a robust, reliable and efficient algorithm that is expected to alleviate the negative impact of these factors. We present only the detection mechanism of the proposed algorithm and assume that the image enhancement for increased visibility, and image stitching for a larger field-of-view have already been performed on the images acquired by aircraftmounted cameras. Specifically, we describe an elastic bound detection method which is designed to position the horizon. The terrain image is divided into non-overlapping blocks which are then clustered according to a "roughness" measure. Adjacent smooth blocks are merged to form potential landing sites whose dimensions are measured with principal component analysis and geometric transformations. If the dimensions of the candidate region exceed the minimum requirement for safe landing, the potential landing site is considered a safe candidate and highlighted on the human machine interface. At the end, the pilot makes the final decision by confirming one of the candidates, also considering other factors such as wind speed and wind direction, etc. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

Shen, Yu-Fei; Rahman, Zia-ur; Krusienski, Dean; Li, Jiang

2011-06-01

394

Land reform, regional planning and socioeconomic development in Brazil  

E-print Network

the National Agrarian Reform Service Act in 1996, establishing public auctions for surplus land. Access to land was made preferential for indigenous groups and landless peasants. The Act counted on a taxation system over land use to provide local governments... Effect to rural economy Belarus ?Yes (formal land market) ?Regulation of land privatisation ?Low rates of rural economic growth Bolivia ?Mixed (public auctions of surplus land) ?Taxation system to support settlements ?Limited rural...

Souza, Saulo

2011-01-11

395

Land application of thin stillage from a grain sorghum feedstock  

E-print Network

have been done on grain sti1 lage applications to land; however, several studies have evaluated land applications of other by-prod- ucts in the fermentation industry which includes brewery, distillery, winery, and pharmaceutical waste. Land... have been done on grain sti1 lage applications to land; however, several studies have evaluated land applications of other by-prod- ucts in the fermentation industry which includes brewery, distillery, winery, and pharmaceutical waste. Land...

Jenkins, Joseph Wendell

2012-06-07

396

The plight of arid land agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This book analyses the problems of the agricultural environment worldwide and possible solutions. Problems covered include the following: famines caused by agricultural land mismanegment in Subsaharan Africa and population increase; improved productivity leading to salinity, erosion, and water depletion; toxic wastes; loging, deforestation, and over-grazing. Agricultural practices, both ancient and modern, in arid lands are described. Food crops suited for arid lands, potential industrial crops, oil extraction from seed and rubber extraction, and biomass as a source of energy are discussed in different chapters. Finally the book deals with optimization of water use, prevention of salinization, and the prospect of global warming.

Hinman, C. W.; Hinman, K.W.

1992-01-01

397

European Space Agency announces comet landing site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists believe that comets hold clues to the solar system's origins, and soon they will be one step closer to unlocking these secrets. Last week, the European Space Agency announced that the spacecraft Rosetta will deploy its lander, Philae, to land on the "head" of the comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko at candidate site J. Project scientists have been racing to choose an ideal landing site since Rosetta arrived at the comet on 6 August. This event will mark the first landing mission on a comet.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-09-01

398

Entry, Descent, and Landing With Propulsive Deceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmospheres for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions.

Palaszewski, Bryan

2012-01-01

399

Mars Dead or Alive: Where to Land?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is not easy to get to Mars. Dozens of past missions have failed, with only a handful even attempting to land on the planet's surface. However, in January 2004, careful planning paid off when the Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, describes the history of Mars exploration, the many failed missions, the process of choosing landing sites and procedures for the Rover mission, and the new focus on looking for evidence that water was once present.

2010-11-29

400

Mars Dead or Alive: Where to Land?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is not easy to get to Mars. Dozens of past missions have failed, with only a handful even attempting to land on the planet's surface. However, in January 2004, careful planning paid off when the Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, describes the history of Mars exploration, the many failed missions, the process of choosing landing sites and procedures for the Rover mission, and the new focus on looking for evidence that water was once present.

401

NASA Orbiter Extended Nose Landing Gear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the design, development, test, and evaluation of a prototype Extended Nose Landing Gear (ENLG) for NASA's Space Shuttle orbiters. The ENLG is a proposed orbiter modification developed in-house at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) by a joint government/industry team. It increases the orbiter's nose landing gear (NLG) length, thereby changing the vehicle's angle of attack during rollout, which lowers the aerodynamic forces on the vehicle. This, in combination with a dynamic elevon change, will lower the loads on the orbiter's main landing gear (MLG). The extension is accomplished by adding a telescoping section to the current NLG strut that will be pneumatically extended during NLG deployment.

King, Steven R.; Jensen, Scott A.; Hansen, Christopher P.

1999-01-01

402

Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a 'from-to' class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001.

Fry, J.A.; Coan, M.J.; Homer, C.G.; Meyer, D.K.; Wickham, J.D.

2009-01-01

403

43 CFR 3503.30 - How should I describe surveyed lands or lands shown on protraction or amended protraction...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Areas Available for Leasing Land Descriptions § 3503.30 How should I describe surveyed lands or lands...

2011-10-01

404

43 CFR 3503.30 - How should I describe surveyed lands or lands shown on protraction or amended protraction...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Areas Available for Leasing Land Descriptions § 3503.30 How should I describe surveyed lands or lands...

2012-10-01

405

77 FR 2563 - Public Land Order No. 7787; Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands in the Grand...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLAZ91000.L14300000.ET0000.LXSIURAM0000, AZA 35138] Public Land Order No. 7787; Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands in the Grand Canyon Watershed;...

2012-01-18

406

25 CFR 152.22 - Secretarial approval necessary to convey individual-owned trust or restricted lands or land owned...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...necessary to convey individual-owned trust or restricted lands or land owned by a tribe. 152.22 Section 152.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE,...

2010-04-01

407

78 FR 3913 - Public Land Order No. 7807: Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Camp Michael Monsoor Mountain...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Land Management [CACA 43949...Warfare and Training Facility, California AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION...Warfare and Training Facility. This withdrawal...Bureau of Land Management, California...

2013-01-17

408

SMOS first results over land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is ESA's (European Space Agency ) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission, launched in November 2009. It is a joint programme between ESA CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnologico Industrial). SMOS carries a single payload, an L-band 2D interferometric radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the atmosphere and hence the instrument probes the Earth surface emissivity. Surface emissivity can then be related to the moisture content in the first few centimeters of soil, and, after some surface roughness and temperature corrections, to the sea surface salinity over ocean. In order to prepare the data use and dissemination, the ground segment will produce level 1 and 2 data. Level 1 consists mainly of angular brightness temperatures while level 2 consists of geophysical products. In this context, a group of institutes prepared the soil moisture and ocean salinity Algorithm Theoretical Basis documents (ATBD) to be used to produce the operational algorithm. The principle of the soil moisture retrieval algorithm is based on an iterative approach which aims at minimizing a cost function given by the sum of the squared weighted differences between measured and modelled brightness temperature (TB) data, for a variety of incidence angles. This is achieved by finding the best suited set of the parameters which drive the direct TB model, e.g. soil moisture (SM) and vegetation characteristics. Despite the simplicity of this principle, the main reason for the complexity of the algorithm is that SMOS "pixels" can correspond to rather large, inhomogeneous surface areas whose contribution to the radiometric signal is difficult to model. Moreover, the exact description of pixels, given by a weighting function which expresses the directional pattern of the SMOS interferometric radiometer, depends on the incidence angle. The goal is to retrieve soil moisture over fairly large and thus inhomogeneous areas. The retrieval is carried out at nodes of a fixed Earth surface grid. To achieve this purpose, after checking input data quality and ingesting auxiliary data, the retrieval process per se can be initiated. This cannot be done blindly as the direct model will be dependent upon surface characteristics. It is thus necessary to first assess what is the dominant land use of a node. For this, an average weighing function (MEAN_WEF) which takes into account the "antenna"pattern is run over the high resolution land use map to assess the dominant cover type. This is used to drive the decision tree which, step by step, selects the type of model to be used as per surface conditions. All this being said and done the retrieval procedure starts if all the conditions are satisfied, ideally to retrieve 3 parameters over the dominant class (the so-called rich retrieval). If the algorithm does not converge satisfactorily, a new trial is made with less floating parameters ("poorer retrieval") until either results are satisfactory or the algorithm is considered to fail. The retrieval algorithm also delivers whenever possible a dielectric constant parameter (using the-so called cardioid approach). Finally, once the retrieval converged, it is possible to compute the brightness temperature at a given fixed angle (42.5°) using the selected forward models applied to the set of parameters obtained at the end of the retrieval process. So the output product of the level 2 soil moisture algorithm should be node position, soil moisture, dielectric constants, computed brightness temperature at 42.5°, flags and quality indices. During the presentation we will describe in more details the algorithm and accompanying work in particular decision tree principle and characteristics, the auxiliary data used and the special and "exotic"cases. We will also be more explicit on the algorithm validation and verification through the data collected during the commissioning phase. The main hurdle bein

Kerr, Yann; Waldteufel, Philippe; Cabot, François; Richaume, Philippe; Jacquette, Elsa; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Mamhoodi, Ali; Delwart, Steven; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

2010-05-01

409

Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid  

SciTech Connect

The Shallow Land Burial Technology - Humid Project is being conducted for the Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program with the objective of identifying and demonstrating improved technology for disposing of low-level solid waste in humid environments. Two improved disposal techniques are currently being evaluated using nine demonstration trenches at the Engineered Test Facility (ETF). The first is use of a cement-bentonite grout applied as a waste backfill material prior to trench closure and covering. The second is complete hydrologic isolation of waste by emplacement in a trench that is lined on all four sides, top and bottom using synthetic impermeable lining material. An economic analysis of the trench grouting and lining demonstration favored the trench lining operation ($1055/demonstration trench) over trench grouting ($1585/demonstration trench), with the cost differential becoming even greater (as much as a factor of 6 in favor of lining for typical ORNL trenches) as trench dimensions increase and trench volumes exceed those of the demonstration trenches. In addition to the evaluation of trench grouting and lining, major effort has centered on characterization of the ETF site. Though only a part of the overall study, characterization is an extremely important component of the site selection process; it is during these activities that potential problems, which may obviate the site from further consideration, are found. Characterization of the ETF has included studies of regional and site-specific geology, the physical and chemical properties of the soils in which the demonstration trenches are located, and hydrology of the small watershed of which the ETF is a part. 12 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.

1983-01-01

410

Shallow land burial technology: humid  

SciTech Connect

Applying engineered modifications to present shallow land burial (SLB) practices is one method of ensuring safe operation and improving overall disposal-site performance. Two such engineered modifications, trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Engineered Test Facility (ETF), using nine 28-m/sup 3/ experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste (LLW). Concurrent to this field demonstration experiment, two finite-element hydrologic models have been developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. This paper covers progress made in these two areas during FY 1984. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining (lining costs were 33% lower at this demonstration scale), results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests, combined with observed intratrench water-level fluctuations, suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. In addition, trench-cover subsidence of approx. 2% of the total trench depth has been measured over two of the three lined trenches but has not occurred over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. The evaluation of the two trench treatments is continuing. However, results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment, implemented at a cost of $160/m/sup 3/ of grout, provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at SLB sites with water-related problems. 11 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Davis, E.C.; Yeh, G.T.

1984-01-01

411

[Spatial heterogeneity of land use intensity].  

PubMed

To approach the spatial heterogeneity of human disturbance is of significance in researching the dynamics of land cover change, especially the characteristics of its directional structure. Jinjiang City is a "hot" region of land use change in Fujian Province, and the land has experienced intense human disturbance. This paper studied the spatial heterogeneity of land use intensity and human disturbance in this city in 1989 - 2001, with systematic grid sampling method and geostatistics in application. The results revealed that there was an obvious spatial heterogeneity of human disturbance in the study area, especially the directional structure of NE-SW caused by the traffic line from Qingyang-Anhai. Human disturbance was grown in the whole area, and the administrative centers served as the growth poles. Because of the associated influence of traffic lines and administrative centers, human disturbance was of a pole-axis structure. PMID:16836088

Wang, Guojie; Liao, Shangang

2006-04-01

412

Landing System Reliability and Safety Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total systems analysis procedure for identifying the safety hazards and risks associated with the use of a defined flight control system for low visibility approach and landing (Category III) was developed. The analysis includes the ground transmitting ...

L. Fudge, L. Gephart, G. Yingling

1979-01-01

413

Sex Differences in Knee Abduction During Landing  

PubMed Central

Background: Females suffer injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament at rates significantly higher than males. Frontal plane knee motion and load have been identified as major risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury and in turn have been examined extensively. Methods: A systematic review of MEDLINE, CINHAL, and SportDISCUS was performed (1982–June 2010). Criteria for inclusion were the use of 3-dimensional analyses of frontal plane knee motion and moments during landing between males and females. Results: Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Sixty-three percent of included studies identified sex differences in knee abduction when landing across a variety of landing conditions. Conclusions: Females appear to land with increased knee abduction motion compared with males in most biomechanics studies. PMID:23016030

Carson, Daniel W.; Ford, Kevin R.

2011-01-01

414

Sturckow Recaps Last Shuttle Landing at Edwards  

NASA Video Gallery

When Space Shuttle Discovery touched down at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California on Sept. 11, 2009 to conclude mission STS-128, no one foresaw that it would be the last of 54 such landing...

415

13 CFR 120.911 - Land contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The Borrower's contribution may be land (including buildings, structures and other site improvements which will be part of the Project Property) previously acquired by the Borrower. [68 FR 57987, Oct. 7,...

2010-01-01

416

Detection of land degradation with polarimetric SAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land degradation is a crucial problem facing the human race. With an ever-increasing population placing increasing stress on agricultural lands, land impoverishment has the potential for adversely impacting the food supply in many regions of the world. The Manix Basin Area of the Mojave desert has been cropped using center pivot irrigation, but since 1973 many fields have been abandoned for economic reasons. Data were collected using the JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), a multi-spectral radar polarimeter. Analysis of these data revealed unusual polarization responses which we attribute to the formation of wind ripples on the surfaces of fields which had been abandoned for more than 5 years. This conjecture was confirmed through field observations, and the observed polarization responses were effectively modelled using a second-order small perturbation model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing techniques supported by limited field work for study of land degradation at synoptic scales.

Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; van Zyl, Jakob J.

1992-08-01

417

Vertical Landing Aerodynamics of Reusable Rocket Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical landing rocket are affected by its engine plume in the landing phase. The influences of interaction of the engine plume with the freestream around the vehicle on the aerodynamic characteristics are studied experimentally aiming to realize safe landing of the vertical landing rocket. The aerodynamic forces and surface pressure distributions are measured using a scaled model of a reusable rocket vehicle in low-speed wind tunnels. The flow field around the vehicle model is visualized using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Results show that the aerodynamic characteristics, such as the drag force and pitching moment, are strongly affected by the change in the base pressure distributions and reattachment of a separation flow around the vehicle.

Nonaka, Satoshi; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Inatani, Yoshifumi

418

Sustainable Eco-Systems under Land Retirement  

E-print Network

the soil water salinity also affects the leaching efficiencysoil water salinity as a result of land retirement and or annual leachingsoil water retention increased, thereby decreasing the amount of water available for leaching.

Wallender, Wesley W.

2009-01-01

419

14 CFR 25.125 - Landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the landing surface must be determined (for standard temperatures, at each weight, altitude, and wind within the operational limits established by the applicant for the airplane): (1) In non-icing conditions; and (2) In icing...

2010-01-01

420

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Water Landing Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) water splashdowns were simulated in order to find maximum acceleration loads on the astronauts and spacecraft under various landing conditions. The acceleration loads were used in a Dynamic Risk Index (DRI) program to find the potential risk for injury posed on the astronauts for a range of landing conditions. The DRI results showed that greater risks for injury occurred for two landing conditions; when the vertical velocity was large and the contact angle between the spacecraft and the water impact surface was zero, and when the spacecraft was in a toe down configuration and both the vertical and horizontal landing velocities were large. Rollover was also predicted to occur for cases where there is high horizontal velocity and low contact angles in a toe up configuration, and cases where there was a high horizontal velocity with high contact angles in a toe down configuration.

Littell, Justin D.; Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.

2007-01-01

421

8 CFR 234.2 - Landing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT...shall land at the international air ports of entry enumerated in part 100 of...jurisdiction over the Customs port of entry nearest the intended...

2010-01-01

422

Gravity, lignification, and land plant evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vascular plants began their occupation of the wetlands interfacing both terrestrial and marine environments at some point in early Paleozoic time. Chemical differences between green algae and vascular land plants are mainly related to an abundance of lignins in the land plants. Answers to questions relating to the phylogeny and adaptive significance of the lignins must depend on experiments and observations using contemporary plant material. A summary is provided of a series of such observations. It is found that the differences between modern Chlorophyta and vascular land plants cannot be explained in full on the basis of lignification alone. Nevertheless, the data point to the emergence of the primitive land populations into an oxygen-rich terrestrial world where the need for mechanical support and water conservation could be met by a single aerobic biochemical process connected to essential aromatic amino acids likely to be found in every cell

Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.; Chen, J.

1981-01-01

423

Empirical Prediction of Aircraft Landing Gear Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents a semi-empirical/semi-analytical method for landing gear noise prediction. The method is based on scaling laws of the theory of aerodynamic noise generation and correlation of these scaling laws with current available test data. The former gives the method a sound theoretical foundation and the latter quantitatively determines the relations between the parameters of the landing gear assembly and the far field noise, enabling practical predictions of aircraft landing gear noise, both for parametric trends and for absolute noise levels. The prediction model is validated by wind tunnel test data for an isolated Boeing 737 landing gear and by flight data for the Boeing 777 airplane. In both cases, the predictions agree well with data, both in parametric trends and in absolute noise levels.

Golub, Robert A. (Technical Monitor); Guo, Yue-Ping

2005-01-01

424

Biomass Energy and Competition for Land  

E-print Network

We describe an approach for incorporating biomass energy production and competition for land into the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy, ...

Reilly, John

425

Origin and early evolution of land plants  

PubMed Central

The origin of the sporophyte in land plants represents a fundamental phase in plant evolution. Today this subject is controversial, and scarcely considered in textbooks and journals of botany, in spite of its importance. There are two conflicting theories concerning the origin of the alternating generations in land-plants: the “antithetic” theory and the “homologous” theory. These have never been fully resolved, although, on the ground of the evidences on the probable ancestors of land plants, the antithetic theory is considered more plausible than the homologous theory. However, additional phylogenetic dilemmas are the evolution of bryophytes from algae and the transition from these first land plants to the pteridophytes. All these very large evolutionary jumps are discussed on the basis of the phyletic gradualist neo-Darwinian theory and other genetic evolutionary mechanisms. PMID:19513262

2008-01-01

426

Environmental engineers' handbook. III. Land pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various forms of land pollution, including solid waste, noise, pesticides, radiation, thermal, and others, are discussed with emphasis on the recycling, recovery, salvaging, and reuse potentials. Special emphasis is given to the bioengineering aspects and to environmental interrelationships.

Liptak

1974-01-01

427

50 CFR 80.20 - Land control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE...WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.20 Land...improvements are made with Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Program funds....

2010-10-01

428

Land and its uses - actual and potential  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses information on the following topics: identification of ecological factors characterizing the range of terrestrial habitats (urban, rural); land classifications; water resources; conservation and landscape; remote sensing; and case studies.

Last, F.T.; Bell, B.G.; Holz, M.C.B.

1986-01-01

429

Use of composts in revegetating arid lands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Compost has been suggested as a soil amendment for arid lands at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operating contractor of the site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, requested that the Pacific Northwest Laborato...

C. A. Brandt, P. L. Hendrickson

1991-01-01

430

7 CFR 623.5 - Ineligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.5...the EWRP: (a) Land that contains either timber stands or trees established in connection with a CRP contract; (b)...

2010-01-01

431

Curiosity Landing Site Named for Ray Bradbury  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA has named the site of Curiosity's landing on Mars for the late author Ray Bradbury. In this video from November 12, 1971, Ray Bradbury takes part in a symposium at Caltech with Arthur C. Clark...

432

7 CFR 1410.6 - Eligible land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...by the Deputy Administrator, land devoted to vegetation on salinity producing areas, including any applicable recharge area...where a rising water table contributes to increased levels of salinity at or near the ground surface; (8) Have an EI of...

2010-01-01

433

The Expedition 34 Crew Lands in Kazakhstan  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford and Flight Engineers Evgeny Tarelkin and Oleg Novitskiy landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft in the steppe of Kazakhstan, northeast of the remote town of Arkalyk...

434

Wicked Challenges at Land's End: Managing Coastal  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . 66 5.3. Improved Decision Support for Adaptive Coastal Risk ManagementWicked Challenges at Land's End: Managing Coastal Vulnerability Under Climate Change Susanne C influx of large numbers of people into coastal regions, human stresses on coastal ecosystems

435

Landing gear and cavity noise prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prediction of airframe noise radiation from the landing gear and wheel wells of commercial aircraft is examined. Measurements of these components on typical aircraft are presented and potential noise sources identified. Semiempirical expressions for the sound generation by these sources are developed from available experimental data and theoretical analyses. These expressions are employed to estimate the noise radiation from the landing gear and wheel wells for a typical aircraft and to rank order the component sources.

Bliss, D. B.; Hayden, R. E.

1976-01-01

436

The impact on seaplane floats during landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to make a stress analysis of seaplane floats, and especially of the members connecting the floats with the fuselage, it is of great importance to determine the maximum pressure acting on the floats during landing. Here, the author gives a formula for maximum pressures during landing that permits one to apply experimental results to different bodies and different velocities. The author notes that the formula checks very well with experimental results.

Von Karman, TH

1929-01-01

437

Land Degradation Control in Northern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Africa sub-region represents the entire range of aridity index. The major issues of concern in the sub-region are rainfall\\u000a variability, recurrent droughts, and possible impacts of climate change. Aridity is manifested by scarcity of water resources\\u000a and arable lands which represent 26.4% of the total land area with extremely varied distribution among the countries of the\\u000a sub-region. Presently cultivated

Ismail Bagouri

438

Results from KamLAND-Zen  

E-print Network

KamLAND-Zen reports on a preliminary search for neutrinoless double-beta decay with ^{136}Xe based on 114.8 live-days after the purification of the xenon loaded liquid scintillator. In this data, the problematic ^{110m}Ag background peak identified in previous searches is reduced by more than a factor of 10. By combining the KamLAND-Zen pre- and post-purification data, we obtain a preliminary lower limit on the 0\

The KamLAND-Zen Collaboration

2014-08-30

439

Results from KamLAND-Zen  

E-print Network

KamLAND-Zen reports on a preliminary search for neutrinoless double-beta decay with ^{136}Xe based on 114.8 live-days after the purification of the xenon loaded liquid scintillator. In this data, the problematic ^{110m}Ag background peak identified in previous searches is reduced by more than a factor of 10. By combining the KamLAND-Zen pre- and post-purification data, we obtain a preliminary lower limit on the 0\

,

2014-01-01

440

Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through centuries of farming practices the farmers and pastoralists in Ethiopia were managing their land resources pertaining to the needs of prevalent populations. With an increasing population and growing demands, more land was put under cultivation. Subsequently forest areas were cleared, encroaching agriculture into steep slopes and areas that were not suitable for agricultural activities. Land degradation and particularly soil erosion by water not only reduced the productivity of the land but also aggravated the effects of drought, such as famine and migration. Obvious signs of degradation in the highlands of Ethiopia are wide gullies swallowing fertile lands and rock outcrops making farming a risky business. But also less visible sheet erosion processes result in a tremendous loss of fertile topsoil, particularly on cropland. Efforts have been made by the farming communities to mitigate land degradation by developing local practices of conserving soil and water. With keen interest and openness one can observe such indigenous practices in all corners of Ethiopia. Notwithstanding these practices, there were also efforts to introduce other soil and water conservation interventions to control erosion and retain the eroded soils. Since the early 1980s numerous campaigns were carried out to build terraces in farmlands and sloping areas. Major emphasis was given to structural technologies rather than on vegetative measures. Currently the landscape of the northern highlands is dotted with millions of hectares of terraced fields and in some places with planned watershed management interventions including exclosures. Apparently these interventions were introduced without prior investigating the detailed problems and conservation needs of the local population. Intensive research is undertaken on the processes of degradation, the impact of the different intervention measures and the role of communities in sustainably managing their land. This paper attempts to review the relevant studies undertaken with emphasis on the approaches to sustainable land management.

Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan; Araya, Tesfay

2014-05-01

441

A land based radar polarimeter processing system  

E-print Network

A LAND BASED RADAR POLARIMETER PROCESSING SYSTEM A Thesis by CHESTER WILLIAM KRONKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major... Member M. J. McFarland Member W. B. Jones Head of Department May 1984 ABSTRACT A Land Based Radar Polarimeter Processor System. (May 1984) Chester William Kronke, B. S. , Texas ABM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. A. J. Blanchard...

Kronke, Chester William

2012-06-07

442

The causes of land-use and land-cover change: moving beyond the myths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common understanding of the causes of land-use and land-cover change is dominated by simplifications which, in turn, underlie many environment-development policies. This article tracks some of the major myths on driving forces of land-cover change and proposes alternative pathways of change that are better supported by case study evidence. Cases reviewed support the conclusion that neither population nor poverty alone

Eric F. Lambina; B. L. Turnerb; Helmut J. Geista; Samuel B. Agbolac; Arild Angelsend; John W. Brucee; Xiubin Lin; Emilio F. Morano; Michael Mortimorep; John F. Richardsr; Glenn D. Stoneu; Tom A. Veldkampw; Jianchu Xuy; Louis Pasteur

443

Impacts of Regional Land Use and Land Cover on Rainfall: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the diverse role of land-use\\/land-cover change on precipitation. Since land conversion continues at a rapid pace (e.g., see Table 1 in Pielke et al. 2006a), this type of human disturbance of the climate system will continue and become even more significant in the coming decades. The regional alteration of landscape also has global climate effects through teleconnections

R. A. PIELKE; A. BELTRÁN-PRZEKURAT; C. A. HIEMSTRA; J. LIN; T. E. NOBIS; J. ADEGOKE; D. NIYOGI

444

Impact of Land Model Calibration on Coupled Land-Atmosphere Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface heat and moisture budgets, as well as controlling feedbacks with clouds and precipitation that lead to the persistence of dry and wet regimes. Recent efforts to quantify the strength of L-A coupling in prediction models have produced diagnostics that integrate across both the land and PBL components of the system. In this study, we examine the impact of improved specification of land surface states, anomalies, and fluxes on coupled WRF forecasts during the summers of extreme dry and wet land surface conditions in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. The improved land initialization and surface flux parameterizations are obtained through calibration of the Noah land surface model using the new optimization and uncertainty estimation subsystem in NASA's Land Information System (LIS-OPT/UE). The impact of the calibration on the a) spinup of the land surface used as initial conditions, and b) the simulated heat and moisture states and fluxes of the coupled WRF simulations is then assessed. Changes in ambient weather and land-atmosphere coupling are evaluated along with measures of uncertainty propagation into the forecasts. In addition, the sensitivity of this approach to the period of calibration (dry, wet, average) is investigated. Results indicate that the offline calibration leads to systematic improvements in land-PBL fluxes and near-surface temperature and humidity, and in the process provide guidance on the questions of what, how, and when to calibrate land surface models for coupled model prediction.

Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Ken; Zhou, Shujia

2012-01-01

445

Strangers, spirits, and land reforms: conflicts about land in Dande, northern Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book describes efforts by the Zimbabwean government to enforce land reforms on African farmers in northern Zimbabwe. These efforts compounded rather than alleviated the problem of land scarcity for black small-scale farmers, a problem government now allegedly seeks to redress through invasions of white-owned farms. The book describes the similarities between the post-Independence land reforms and those attempted by

Marja J. Spierenburg

2004-01-01

446

The causes of land-use and land-cover change: moving beyond the myths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common understanding of the causes of land-use and land-cover change is dominated by simplifications which, in turn, underlie many environment-development policies. This article tracks some of the major myths on driving forces of land-cover change and proposes alternative pathways of change that are better supported by case study evidence. Cases reviewed support the conclusion that neither population nor poverty alone

Eric F. Lambin; B. L. Turner; Helmut J. Geist; Samuel B. Agbola; Arild Angelsen; John W. Bruce; Oliver T. Coomes; Rodolfo Dirzo; Günther Fischer; Carl Folke; P. S. George; Katherine Homewood; Jacques Imbernon; Rik Leemans; Xiubin Li; Emilio F. Moran; Michael Mortimore; P. S. Ramakrishnan; John F. Richards; Helle Skånes; Will Steffen; Glenn D. Stone; Uno Svedin; Tom A. Veldkamp; Coleen Vogel; Jianchu Xu

2001-01-01

447

The Land Surface Climatology of the Community Land Model Coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The land surface parameterization used with the community climate model (CCM3) and the climate system model (CSM1), the National Center for Atmospheric Research land surface model (NCAR LSM1), has been modified as part of the development of the next version of these climate models. This new model is known as the community land model (CLM2). In CLM2, the surface is

Gordon B. Bonan; Keith W. Oleson; Mariana Vertenstein; Samuel Levis; Xubin Zeng; Yongjiu Dai; Robert E. Dickinson; Zong-Liang Yang

2002-01-01

448

Land-use efficiency of big solar.  

PubMed

As utility-scale solar energy (USSE) systems increase in size and numbers globally, there is a growing interest in understanding environmental interactions between solar energy development and land-use decisions. Maximizing the efficient use of land for USSE is one of the major challenges in realizing the full potential of solar energy; however, the land-use efficiency (LUE; Wm(-2)) of USSE remains ambiguous. We quantified the capacity-based LUE of 183 USSE installations (>20 MW; planned, under construction, and operating) using California as a case study. In California, USSE installations are concentrated in the Central Valley and interior regions of southern California and have a LUE of 35.0 Wm(-2). The installations occupy approximately 86,000 ha and more land is allocated for photovoltaic schemes (72?294 ha) than for concentrating solar power (13,604 ha). Photovoltaic installations are greater in abundance (93%) than concentrating solar power, but technology type and nameplate capacity has no impact on capacity-based LUE. More USSE installations are on private land (80%) and have a significantly greater LUE (35.8 Wm(-2)) than installations on public land (25.4 Wm(-2)). Our findings can be used to better understand and improve the LUE of USSE, thereby maximizing economic, energetic, and environmental returns on investments. PMID:24351039

Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Field, Christopher B

2014-01-21

449

Reserve selection with land market feedbacks.  

PubMed

How to best site reserves is a leading question for conservation biologists. Recently, reserve selection has emphasized efficient conservation: maximizing conservation goals given the reality of limited conservation budgets, and this work indicates that land market can potentially undermine the conservation benefits of reserves by increasing property values and development probabilities near reserves. Here we propose a reserve selection methodology which optimizes conservation given both a budget constraint and land market feedbacks by using a combination of econometric models along with stochastic dynamic programming. We show that amenity based feedbacks can be accounted for in optimal reserve selection by choosing property price and land development models which exogenously estimate the effects of reserve establishment. In our empirical example, we use previously estimated models of land development and property prices to select parcels to maximize coarse woody debris along 16 lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA. Using each lake as an independent experiment, we find that including land market feedbacks in the reserve selection algorithm has only small effects on conservation efficacy. Likewise, we find that in our setting heuristic (minloss and maxgain) algorithms perform nearly as well as the optimal selection strategy. We emphasize that land market feedbacks can be included in optimal reserve selection; the extent to which this improves reserve placement will likely vary across landscapes. PMID:23141878

Butsic, Van; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

2013-01-15

450

Hazard Detection Methods for Lunar Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods and experiences from the Apollo Program are fundamental building blocks for the development of lunar landing strategies for the Constellation Program. Each of the six lunar landing Apollo missions landed under near ideal lighting conditions. The astronauts visually performed terrain relative navigation while looking out of windows, and were greatly aided by external communication and well lit scenes. As the LM approached the landing site, the astronauts performed visual hazard detection and avoidance, also under near-ideal lighting conditions. The astronauts were looking out of the windows trying to the best of their ability to avoid rocks, slopes, and craters and find a safe landing location. NASA has expressed a desire for global lunar access for both crewed and robotic sortie lunar exploration missions (Cook, 2007) (Dale, 2006). Early NASA architecture studies have identified the lunar poles as desirable locations for early lunar missions. These polar missions have less than ideal lighting conditions and will significantly affect the way a crewed vehicle plans to land at such locales. Consequently, a variety of hazard identification methods should be considered for use by the crew to ensure a high degree of safety. This paper discusses such identification methods applicable to the poorly lit polar lunar environment, better ensuring global access for the soon to be designed Lunar Lander Vehicle (LLV).

Brady, Tye; Zimpfer, Doug; Robertson, Edward; Epp, Chirold; Paschall, Stephen

2009-01-01

451

Global Precipitation Responses to Land Hydrological Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have established that soil moisture increases after adding a groundwater component in land surface models due to the additional supply of subsurface water. However, impacts of groundwater on the spatial-temporal variability of precipitation have received little attention. Through the coupled groundwater-land-atmosphere model (NCAR Community Atmosphere Model + Community Land Model) simulations, this study explores how groundwater representation in the model alters the precipitation spatiotemporal distributions. Results indicate that the effect of groundwater on the amount of precipitation is not globally homogeneous. Lower tropospheric water vapor increases due to the presence of groundwater in the model. The increased water vapor destabilizes the atmosphere and enhances the vertical upward velocity and precipitation in tropical convective regions. Precipitation, therefore, is inhibited in the descending branch of convection. As a result, an asymmetric dipole is produced over tropical land regions along the equator during the summer. This is analogous to the "rich-get-richer" mechanism proposed by previous studies. Moreover, groundwater also increased short-term (seasonal) and long-term (interannual) memory of precipitation for some regions with suitable groundwater table depth and found to be a function of water table depth. Based on the spatial distributions of the one-month-lag autocorrelation coefficients as well as Hurst coefficients, air-land interaction can occur from short (several months) to long (several years) time scales. This study indicates the importance of land hydrological processes in the climate system and the necessity of including the subsurface processes in the global climate models.

Lo, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2012-12-01

452

Conversion of agricultural land to urban use  

SciTech Connect

The large amount of land lost each year to urbanization has led nearly all states to adopt legislation that grants tax preferences to agricultural land use. Several studies have analyzed the effects of such policies on the rate of land development and on the total amount of land eventually developed. However, these studies have only analyzed permanent tax-rate changes despite the fact that most such changes are temporary. A distinction is made in this study between temporary, permanent, anticipated, and unanticipated tax-rate increases. Using a hedonic approach, the elasticity of supply of urban fringe land in McHenry County, Illinois is estimated to be approximately 0.30, which indicates that the amount of land converted to urban use is unlikely to be affected much by these polices. The hedonic approach as usually implemented is shown to lead to inconsistent parameter estimates. A consistent estimation procedure is proposed that produces testable cross-equation restrictions. A restriction is implied in the empirical section of this study by the use of the Box-Cox transformation to generalize functional form; it is tested and is not rejected. However, little is known about the small-sample properties of this transformation. To rectify this, a Monte Carlo study is conducted of the performance of Lagrange Multiplier tests for incorrect functional form and heteroskedasticity in a model that uses this transformation.

McMillen, D.P.

1987-01-01

453

Conversion of prime agricultural land to urban land uses in Kansas City  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an expanding urban environment, agriculture and urban land uses are the two primary competitors for regional land resources. As a result of an increasing awareness of the effects which urban expansion has upon the regional environment, the conversion of prime agricultural land to urban land uses has become a point of concern to urban planners. A study was undertaken for the Kansas City Metropolitan Region, to determine the rate at which prime agricultural land has been converted to urban land uses over a five year period from 1969 to 1974. Using NASA high altitude color infrared imagery acquired over the city in October, 1969 and in May, 1974 to monitor the extent and location of urban expansion in the interim period, it was revealed that 42% of that expansion had occurred upon land classified as having prime agricultural potential. This involved a total of 10,727 acres of prime agricultural land and indicated a 7% increase over the 1969 which showed that 35% of the urban area had been developed on prime agricultural land.

Shaklee, R. V.

1976-01-01

454

Characteristics of a Lunar Landing Configuration Having Various Multiple-Leg Landing-Gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of a Lunar Landing Configuration Having Various Multiple-Leg Landing-Gear Arrangements. An experimental investigation has been made of some lunar-landing characteristics of a 1/6-scale dynamic model of a landing module having multiple-leg landing-gear systems. Symmetric four-point and five-point systems and an asymmetric four-point system were investigated. The landing-gear legs were inverted tripod arrangements having a telescoping main strut which incorporated a yielding-metal strap for energy dissipation, hinged V-struts, and circular pads. The landing tests were made by launching a free model onto an impenetrable hard surface (concrete) and onto a powdered-pumice overlay of various depths. Landing motion and acceleration data were obtained for a range of touchdown speeds, touchdown speeds, touch attitudes, and landing-surface conditions. Symmetric four-point and five-point systems and an Maximum normal acceleration experienced at the module center of gravity during landings on hard surface or pumice was 2g (full-scale lunar value in terms of earth's gravity) over a wide range of touchdown conditions. Maximum angular acceleration experienced was 12-1/2 radians/sec(exp 2) and maximum longitudinal acceleration was 1-3/4 g. The module was very stable with all gear configurations during landings on hard surface (coefficient of friction, microns=0.4) at all conditions tested. Some overturn instability occurred during landings on powdered pumice (microns=0.7 to 1.0) depending upon flight path, pitch and yaw attitude, depth of pumice, surface topography, and landing-gear configuration. The effect of stability of roll attitude for the limited amount of roll-attitude landing data obtained was insignificant. Compared with the four-point system, the five-point system with equal maximum gear radius increased landing stability slightly and improved the static stability for subsequent lunar launch. A considerable increase in landing stability in the direction of motion was obtained with an asymmetric four-point gear having two pads offset to increase gear radius by 33 percent in the direction of horizontal flight. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030982. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1963-01-01

455

Land use and land cover mapping: City of Palm Bay, Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two different computer systems were compared for use in making land use and land cover maps. The Honeywell 635 with the LANDSAT signature development program (LSDP) produced a map depicting general patterns, but themes were difficult to classify as specific land use. Urban areas were unclassified. The General Electric Image 100 produced a map depicting eight land cover categories classifying 68 percent of the total area. Ground truth, LSDP, and Image 100 maps were all made to the same scale for comparison. LSDP agreed with the ground truth 60 percent and 64 percent within the two test areas compared and Image 100 was in agreement 70 percent and 80 percent.

Barile, D. D.; Pierce, R.

1977-01-01

456

Deriving a per-field land use and land cover map in an agricultural mosaic catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed data on land use and land cover constitute important information for Earth system models, environmental monitoring and ecosystem services research. Global land cover products are evolving rapidly; however, there is still a lack of information particularly for heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. We censused land use and land cover field by field in the agricultural mosaic catchment Haean in South Korea. We recorded the land cover types with additional information on agricultural practice. In this paper we introduce the data, their collection and the post-processing protocol. Furthermore, because it is important to quantitatively evaluate available land use and land cover products, we compared our data with the MODIS Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1). During the studied period, a large portion of dry fields was converted to perennial crops. Compared to our data, the forested area was underrepresented and the agricultural area overrepresented in MCD12Q1. In addition, linear landscape elements such as waterbodies were missing in the MODIS product due to its coarse spatial resolution. The data presented here can be useful for earth science and ecosystem services research. The data are available at the public repository Pangaea (doi:110.1594/PANGAEA.823677).

Seo, B.; Bogner, C.; Poppenborg, P.; Martin, E.; Hoffmeister, M.; Jun, M.; Koellner, T.; Reineking, B.; Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J.

2014-09-01

457

Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Space Shuttle Atlantis touched down on the lakebed runway at Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert Tuesday, 3 December 1985 at 1:33:49 p.m. Pacific Standard Time, concluding the STS 61-B international mission. The eight-day mission successfully deployed three communications satellites including the Mexican Morelos B, the Australian Aussat 2 and an RCA Satcom K-2 satellite. In addition, two spacewalks were performed to experiment with construction of structures in space. Crew of the 61-B mission included Commander Brewster H. Shaw, Jr.; Pilot Bryan D. O'Connor; Mission Specialists Mary L. Cleave, Sherwood C. Spring and Jerry L. Ross; and Payload Specialists Rudolfo Neri Vela of Mexico and Charles Walker of McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Resear

1985-01-01

458

STS-64 Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Discovery settles to the main runway at Edwards, California, at 2:13 p.m. (PDT) 20 September 1994, to conclude mission STS-64. The spacecraft, with a crew of six, was launched into a 57-degree high inclination orbit from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 3:23 p.m. (PDT), 9 September 1994. The mission featured the study of clouds and the atmosphere with a laser beaming system called Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), and the first untethered space walk in over ten years. A Spartan satellite was also deployed and later retrieved in the study of the sun's corona and the solar wind. The mission was scheduled to end Sunday, 18 September, but was extended one day to continue science work. Bad weather at the Kennedy Space Center on September 19, forced a one-day delay to September 20, with a weather divert that day to Edwards. Mission commander was Richard Richards, the pilot Blaine Hammond, while mission specialists were Jerry Linenger, Susan Helms, Carl Meade, and Mark Lee. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, t

1994-01-01

459

STS-40 Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space Shuttle Columbia nears its touchdown on Runway 22 at Edwards, California, at 8:39 a.m., 14 June 1991, as the STS-40 life sciences mission comes to an end at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center) after nine days of orbital flight. Aboard Columbia during the extended mission were Bryan D. O'Connor, mission commander; Sidney M. Gutierrez, pilot; mission specialists James P. Bagian, Tamara E. Jernigan, and Margaret Rhea Seddon; and payload specialists Francis Andrew Gaffney and Millie Hughes-Fulford. STS-40 was the first space shuttle mission dedicated to life sciences research to explore how the body reacts to a weightless environment and how it readjusts to gravity on return to earth. Columbia was launched on the STS-40 mission 5 June 1991, from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45

1991-01-01

460

Carbon balance of Russian agricultural land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Russia managed 218.7 mln ha agricultural land (2009) in accordance with national statistics (FSSS, 2011: http://www.gks.ru/dbscripts/Cbsd/DBInet.cgi#1). Among that, 91.75 mln ha is arable land; 92.05 mln ha - hayfield and pasture; 34.9 mln ha - abandoned arable and fallow. Abandoned arable area is not indicated directly in the statistics, but can be calculated as a difference between "arable" and "cultivated" area. We estimated carbon balance of agricultural land by accounting carbon fluxes. Carbon sink includes: net primary productivity (NPP), applying fertilizes and liming. Carbon losses include soil respiration (SR), harvest and lateral flux. The initial data (cultivated area and harvest distribution by regions and crop) was derived from national agriculture statistics (FSSS, 2011). NPP was estimated via harvest and set of regression models. Average NPP for agricultural land was estimated at 435 g C m-2 (530 g C m-2 for crops). Soil respiration was calculated by a model (Mukhortova et. al., 1011: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/forest_cdrom/Articles/Mukhortova_2011_IBFRA_SR.pdf) developed for Russia which is based on all available empirical data and accounted for climatic parameters, soil type and management practice. Average SR of agricultural land is 344 g C m-2 (372 g C m-2 for the cropland). We applied the IPCC method (National inventory, 2010; IPCC, 2006) for fertilizer and lateral fluxes assessment. The total carbon balance of agricultural land is almost in equilibrium (-0.04 t C ha-1) in spite of arable land is a carbon source (-0.84 t C ha-1). The highest sink (1.21 t C ha-1) is provided by abandoned land. Carbon fluxes vary substantially depending on seasonal weather conditions. For example grains' NPP in 2010 (dry and hot summer in major agricultural regions of European Russia) was estimated at 32% less compare to 2009 and the total carbon balance of this land category decreased by order of magnitude. We used Russian land cover (Schepaschenko et al., 2011: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1747423X.2010.511681) with 1 km resolution to produce a map of spatial distribution of agriculture related carbon fluxes. More details can be found here: www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/hlc/

Schepaschenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, M.

2012-04-01

461

LAND SYSTEMS AS SURROGATES FOR BIODIVERSITY IN CONSERVATION PLANNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental surrogates (land classes) for the distribution of biodiversity are increasingly being used for conservation planning. However, data that demonstrate coincident patterns in land classes and biodiversity are limited. We ask the overall question, ''Are land systems effective surrogates for the spatial configuration of biodiversity for conservation planning?'' and we address three specific questions: (1) Do different land systems represent

Ian Oliver; Andrew Holmes; J. Mark Dangerfield; Michael Gillings; Anthony J. Pik; David R. Britton; Marita Holley; Margaret E. Montgomery; Madeline Raison; Vicki Logan; Robert L. Pressey; Andrew J. Beattie

2004-01-01

462

Evaluation of urban land supply policy in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Islamic revolution of 1979, several urban land laws and regulations, as well as a new urban land development policy, have been initiated in Iran. The implementation of these policies was mainly based on public land ownership as a fundamental principle. This paper evaluates the process of recent urban land development policy and focuses on the effectiveness of the

Mohammad Mehdi Azizi

1998-01-01

463

Land tax, property rights and peasant insecurity in colonial India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of private property in land in the Eastern lands including India has been debated in Europe at least since the seventeenth century. It has been claimed that the British rulers had, for the first time, created private property in land and thereby conferred security on the owners. This claim is examined by analysing actually how land laws and

Amiya Kumar Bagchi

1992-01-01

464

Soil Moisture Assimilation From Remotely Sensed Land Surface State Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the land surface plays a critical role in the land-atmosphere interactions, through the dynamic evolution of moisture and energy fluxes at the land surface. The current generation of Land Surface Models (LSMs) estimating these fluxes are still constrained by the underlying approximate model physics. With the advent of a variety of hydrologically relevant remote sensing data, better

S. Chintalapati; P. Kumar

2006-01-01

465

Nature Centers and Land Trusts--Natural Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of land trusts is land preservation by purchase or other means. Land trusts generally lack the personnel, funds, and expertise to take advantage of the land's potential for education, interpretation, and research. A nature center can provide the expertise to put the property to good use. Discusses trusts, nature centers, and their…

Davis, William L.; McDonald, Brook S.

1997-01-01

466

Constructing rural culture: Family and land in Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family farm ideology encapsulates one strand of the historical relations of Americans to the land. An examination of gender differences in historical experiences of land in Iowa suggests that men and women have had different patterns of access to land and to profits from agricultural enterprises. Where men have seen the land as a resource to be exploited, women have

Deborah Fink

1986-01-01

467

MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS  

E-print Network

pollution (Wang K. et al. 2009), and land cover and land use changes (Wang et al. 2007b). The SRB is alsoChapter 6 MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS: ALGORITHMS-Chee Tsay, Robert Wolf, Crystal Schaaf, Alan Strahler 6.1 Introduction Land surface radiative fluxes

Liang, Shunlin

468

A Ghetto Land Pedagogy: An Antidote for Settler Environmentalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A ghetto land pedagogy begins with two axioms that align it with land education more broadly, and that distinguish it from the general umbrella of environmental education. First, ghetto colonialism is a specialization of settler colonialism. Second, land justice requires decolonization, not just environmental justice. A ghetto land pedagogy thus…

Paperson, La

2014-01-01

469

Women, Land Rights and the Environment: The Kenyan experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender neutral statutory law on land and environment and its interplay with customary, religious and other social norms has impacted significantly on women's rights to access land and environmental resources. To change the prevailing conditions, innovative and radical approaches to land and environmental resources' stewardship are required. Rather than focusing on ownership of land for its own sake, we suggest

Patricia Kameri-Mbote

2006-01-01

470

43 CFR 3110.5-3 - Acquired lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...lands. (a) If the lands applied for lie within and conform to the rectangular...rectangular system of public land surveys, but lie within an area of the public...document. (c) If the lands applied for lie outside an area of the public...

2012-10-01

471

43 CFR 3110.5-3 - Acquired lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...lands. (a) If the lands applied for lie within and conform to the rectangular...rectangular system of public land surveys, but lie within an area of the public...document. (c) If the lands applied for lie outside an area of the public...

2011-10-01

472

19 CFR 122.33 - Place of first landing.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Place of first landing. 122.33 Section 122.33 Customs...REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.33 Place of first landing. (a) The first landing of an aircraft entering the United...

2014-04-01

473

URBAN/INDUSTRIAL LAND PRIVATIZATION The Republic of Georgia  

E-print Network

1 URBAN/INDUSTRIAL LAND PRIVATIZATION The Republic of Georgia 1 October 1997 to 30 September 1998 I efforts to privatize urban/industrial land, especially the land under and adjacent to the privatized pursue new capital resources through the sale of excess land parcels for restructuring purposes without

Onsrud, Harlan J.

474

Hanford Federal Facility state of Washington leased land  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to provide information concerning past solid and hazardous waste management practices for all leased land at the US DOE Hanford Reservation. This report contains sections including land description; land usage; ground water, air and soil monitoring data; and land uses after 1963. Numerous appendices are included which provide documentation of lease agreements and amendments, environmental assessments, and site surveys.

Not Available

1993-11-01

475

Qualitative and quantitative physical land evaluation: an operational approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical land evaluation methods are crucial for evaluating potentials and constraints of land for intended land use. Physical resources, such as soil, climate, hydrology, and topography are evaluated. Different technical procedures are used for physical land evaluation ranging from simple methods based on expert knowledge to more complex methods based on simulation models. The expert knowledge is derived from farmers'

Lanen van H. A. J

1991-01-01

476

Land degradation studies using spectroscopic techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification is a land degradation problem of major importance in the arid regions of the world. Deterioration in soil and plant cover have adversely affected nearly 70 percent of the drylands as mainly the result of human mismanagement of cultivated and range lands. Overgrazing, woodcutting, cultivation practices inducing accelerated water and wind erosion, improper water management leading to salinisation, are all causes of land degradation. In addition to vegetation deterioration, erosion, and salinisation, desertification effects can be seen in loss of soil fertility, soil compaction, and soil crusting. Combating desertification involves having an accurate knowledge on a current land degradation status and the magnitude of the potential hazard. Quantitative, high-spectral resolution remote sensing (imaging spectroscopy) can dramatically increase the accuracy of dryland monitoring. In this context, a new research project has been implemented, aiming at using the capabilities of imaging spectroscopy in order to (a) monitor land degradation processes, (b) assess land degradation status, and (c) gain indicators for characterising specific surface properties related to water cycles, erosion processes and plant productivity in drylands. In particular, hyperspectral data, coupled with field/laboratory spectroscopy and laboratory analyses, can be used to derive more quantitative and specific soil properties directly linked to soil degradation status, such as soil chemical properties, organic matter, mineralogical content, infiltration capacity, aggregation capacity, and runoff coefficient. However, further studies are needed, toward a better understanding of the desertification processes, and more detailed analyses of the spectroscopic features associated with land degradation processes. Several test sites representing different environmental conditions are being established. This presentation will focus on a test site in the Brandenburg region, a dry area in north-Eastern Germany, where open pit mine overburden dumps left from the coal-mining era in the former East Germany, not recultivated, have become "dunes" where nothing grows. Our project in this small catchment area is to explore the relationships between spectral reflectance and rainfall runoff modelling.

Chabrillat, S.; Kaufmann, H.; Merz, B.; Hill, J.; Mueller, A.

2003-04-01

477

Exopaleontology at The Pathfinder Landing Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Pathfinder Mission is a Discovery Class mission that will place a small lander and rover on the surface of Mars in July of 1997. It is primarily a technology demonstration to test the feasibility of a direct entry-delivery system, but carries a nominal scientific payload that includes rover-lander and instrumentation for limited mineralogical analysis. The nominal landing site was selected by the Pathfinder Team under the leadership of Dr. Matthew Golombek (JPL) based input from 60 participants at a Landing Site Workshop held last Spring at the Lunar Planetary Institute in Houston. The mission constraints for the landing site were 0-30 deg. N latitude, and below the 0.0 elevation datum. Over 20 landing sites were proposed and a nominal site was selected on southern Chryse Planitia near the terminae of the Ares and Tui outflow channels. In part, the decision to land at this location was based on the opportunity to sample a potentially large number lithologies in a small area (the rover will have a range of a few tens of meters from the lander). The purpose here is to review the general geological context of the landing site and the rationale for Exobiology's recommendation of the Ares site given at the workshop last spring. Because Ares and Tui Valles are sourced within terranes that may have originated by thermokarst processes, hydrothermal processes could have operated there for some time. Hydrothermal systems are presently regarded as important sites for a fossil record on Mars. Models for the formation of the outflow channels suggest that thermal spring sinters and associated aqueous mineral deposits, high priority targets for Mars Exopaleontology, could have formed in association with thermokarst processes and subsequently been delivered to the landing site in large quantities during the periodic cataclysmic outflows that created the channels.

Farmer, Jack D.; DesMarais, David J.; Greeley, Ronald; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

478

Vgi for Land Administration - a Quality Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the use of volunteered geographic information (VGI) or crowd sourced data (Goodchild, 2007) became more common, several people proposed the use of such methods of data collection for various fields. Success stories were Wikipedia encyclopaedia and OpenStreetMap (OSM), but also using VGI in land administration has been proposed. Robin McLaren proposed crowd sourcing as a way to get a new citizen collaboration model in land administration to enhance transparency and decrease costs (McLaren, 2011). Keenja et al. discussed the perception of VGI within the Dutch cadastre (Keenja, De Vries, Bennet, & Laarakker, 2012). Basiouka and Potsiou even discuss how crowd sourcing can be used to identify errors in the Hellenic cadastre (Basiouka & Potsiou, 2012). One problem of VGI is the quality control (compare Goodchild & Li, 2012). The problem with most data in a land administration system is that there is only a small group of people that can verify the correctness of information. The correct location of a boundary, for example, can only be assessed by the owners of the pieces of land touching at the boundary (and surveyors after investigation and measurement). How shall VGI then provide reliable data? Boundaries between areas of different use may be visible but land administration is often interested in ownership boundaries. In the paper we discuss the types of data used in land administration as discussed by Dale and McLaughlin (1999). These categories are then analyzed to identify the areas where VGI can actually provide reliable input. What we hope to learn from such an analysis is how to use the methodology of crowd sourcing for land administration, even if the data collection authoritatively.

Navratil, G.; Frank, A. U.

2013-05-01

479

Extended Abstract Intelligent Landing Hazard Assessment and Avoidance for Safe Spacecraft Landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel multi-sensor information fusion methodology for landing hazard assessment and avoidance. The focus of this research is to analyze hazard characteristics of a planetary surface using imagery data obtained in real-time during spacecraft orbit, descent, or landing. This information is used to enable a spacecraft to safely touchdown on a planetary surface during mission operations. The

Ayanna Howard; Homayoun Seraji; Max Bajracharya

480

Bus Rapid Transit Impacts on Land Uses and Land Values in Seoul, Korea  

E-print Network

are turning to Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) as a way of cost- effectively expanding public transit services to help relieve traffic congestion, reduce carbon emissions, and increase mobility options for the poor. BecauseBus Rapid Transit Impacts on Land Uses and Land Values in Seoul, Korea Robert Cervero and Chang

California at Berkeley, University of

481

77 FR 33235 - Public Land Order No. 7791; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Land Order No. 6928; Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land...associated with the Crandall Creek Administrative Site...Lane Avenue, Cody, Wyoming 82414, 307-578-5151...Yellowstone Road, Cheyenne, Wyoming 82009, 307-775-6189...associated with the Crandall Creek Administrative...

2012-06-05

482

Predictive Understanding of Seasonal Hydrological Dynamics under Climate and Land Use-Land Cover Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water has always been and will continue to be an important factor in agricultural production and any alteration in the seasonal distribution of water availability due to climate and land use-land cover change (LULCC) will significantly impact the future production. To achieve the ecologic, economic and social objectives of sustainability, physical understanding of the linkages between climatic changes, LULCC and

N. Batra; Y. E. Yang; H. I. Choi; P. Kumar; X. Cai; C. D. Fraiture

2008-01-01

483

Land Valuation Increases from Recreational Opportunity: A Study of Mississippi Rural Land Sales  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a survey to evaluate sales values of private rural lands (N = 100; 13,559 ha) that were purchased for recreational uses in Mississippi from 2002-2005. Most (70%) land parcels were located near or in the Mississippi River Delta region with dominant cover types of forest (52%) or agri- cultural crops (43%). Important recreational uses included hunting, off road

W. Daryl Jones; J. Kirk Ring; Jeanne C. Jones; David W. Parvin; Ian Munn

484

Land Use Intensity Module: Land Use in Rural New Zealand Version 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document outlines the development of the dynamic functions and simple algorithms that make up the Land Use in Rural New Zealand (LURNZ) land-use intensity module. The module includes stocking rate functions for dairy, sheep, and beef livestock; fertiliser intensity functions for dairy and sheep\\/beef; and algorithms for the evolution of the age classes of the plantation forestry estate, and

Joanna Hendy; Suzi Kerr

2006-01-01

485

GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #3: IPCC SPECIAL REPORT ON "LAND USE, LAND USE CHANGE, AND FORESTRY"  

EPA Science Inventory

ORD is participating in the development of an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on "Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry." Preparation of the Special Report was requested by the Conference of the Parties(COP) to the United Nations Framework Conve...