Note: This page contains sample records for the topic landing budgerigars melopsittacus from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Experimental toxoplasmosis in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

The susceptibility of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) to graded doses of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts was studied. Sixteen budgerigars were divided into 4 groups (A-D) of 4 each. Birds in groups A-C were fed 100,000, 1,000, or 100 infective oocysts of the VEG strain of T. gondii, respectively. Budgerigars in group D were not fed oocysts and served as controls. All 4 birds in group A died (or were killed) because of acute severe enteritis 5 or 6 days after feeding oocysts (DAFO). Three of the 4 birds in group B were killed (or died) because of toxoplasmosis 9 or 14 DAFO. One budgerigar in group C and the 4 budgerigars in group D remained healthy and were killed 35 or 39 DAFO. Toxoplasma gondii was demonstrated in tissues of all budgerigars fed oocysts. The control budgerigars remained clinically normal and showed no evidence of T. gondii exposure. These results indicate that, compared to other passerines, budgerigars are relatively resistant to clinical toxoplasmosis. PMID:12099420

Dubey, J P; Hamir, A N

2002-06-01

2

Color vision of the budgerigar ( Melopsittacus undulatus ): hue matches, tetrachromacy, and intensity discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were trained to discriminate monochromatic lights from mixtures of two comparison lights. The addition of small amounts\\u000a of UV (365 nm) to blue or yellow lights dramatically changed the color for the birds. Hue matches showed the birds to be dichromatic\\u000a both at long wavelengths (only P565 and P508 active) and at short wavelengths (only P370 and P445

Timothy H. Goldsmith; Byron K. Butler

2005-01-01

3

The effect of magnetic field-free space on the acoustic behavior of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulafus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of magnetic field-free space (MFFS) on the acoustic behavior of budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulafus) is obvious. The daily frequency of their cries in uniform MFFS (UMFFS) and non-uniform MFFS (NMFFS) decreases by 44.7±10.0% as compared with that in the geomagnetic field (GMF) on the average. The occupation rate of protesting cries (R op) in NMFFS decreases by 8.5% 20.3% as compared with that in GMF on the average and shows an adaptability variation. In 75% of the observation days, the R op in UMFFS increases by 16.2% 23.3% as compared with that in GMF. As for the effect of MFFS on the rhythmic habits of budgerigars, only the ending time of crying is affected to certain extent, 67 minutes earlier than in GMF on the average.

Jiang, Jin-Chang; Jin, Hai-Qiang; Lin, Yun-Fang; Chen, Hao; Yang, Xin-Yu; Zeng, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Xun

1998-07-01

4

Validation of a fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assay to assess stress in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

PubMed Central

The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) is a small parrot native to Australia that is commonly held in zoos, laboratories, and private homes. Assessment of budgerigar stress levels would aid welfare monitoring and improve our understanding of their biology. Analyzing fecal glucocorticoid metabolites provides a non-invasive method to measure stress levels in birds. For this method to be reliable, the antibody to be used in an immunoassay must be carefully selected for each species, and validation must be performed. A common limitation in many existing assays is the inability to accurately detect variable fecal glucocorticoid metabolites levels in minute quantities of feces, requiring small samples to be combined. We have developed a double antibody radioimmunoassay protocol based on a commercially available 125I-corticosterone radioimmunoassay kit for use in detecting fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in small quantities (< 20 mg) of budgerigar droppings. The assay was validated pharmacologically with an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and with oral administration of corticosterone. Our validation has demonstrated our assay is both sensitive and a reliable approach to non-invasive monitoring of stress in budgerigars.

Young, Anna M.; Hallford, Dennis M.

2012-01-01

5

Validation of a fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assay to assess stress in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) is a small parrot native to Australia that is commonly held in zoos, laboratories, and private homes. Assessment of budgerigar stress levels would aid welfare monitoring and improve our understanding of their biology. Analyzing fecal glucocorticoid metabolites provides a noninvasive method to measure stress levels in birds. For this method to be reliable, the antibody to be used in an immunoassay must be carefully selected for each species, and validation must be performed. A common limitation in many existing assays is the inability to accurately detect variable fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in minute quantities of feces, requiring small samples to be combined. We have developed a double antibody radioimmunoassay protocol based on a commercially available (125) I-corticosterone radioimmunoassay kit for use in detecting fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in small quantities (<20 mg) of budgerigar droppings. The assay was validated pharmacologically with an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and with oral administration of corticosterone. Our validation has demonstrated our assay is both sensitive and a reliable approach to noninvasive monitoring of stress in budgerigars. PMID:22907869

Young, Anna M; Hallford, Dennis M

2013-01-01

6

Learned vocalizations in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): The relationship between contact calls and warble song  

PubMed Central

The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) has an extraordinarily complex, learned, vocal repertoire consisting of both the long rambling warble song of males and a number of short calls produced by both sexes. In warble, the most common elements (>30%) bear a strong resemblance to the highly frequency-modulated, learned contact calls that the birds produce as single utterances. However, aside from this apparent similarity, little else is known about the relationship between contact calls and warble call elements. Here, both types of calls were recorded from four male budgerigars. Signal analysis and psychophysical testing procedures showed that the acoustic features of these two vocalizations were acoustically different and perceived as distinctive vocalizations by birds. This suggests that warble call elements are not simple insertions of contact calls but are most likely different acoustic elements, created de novo, and used solely in warble. Results show that, like contact calls, warble call elements contain information about signaler identity. The fact that contact calls and warble call elements are acoustically and perceptually distinct suggests that they probably represent two phonological systems in the budgerigar vocal repertoire, both of which arise by production learning.

Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Osmanski, Michael S.; Dooling, Robert J.

2011-01-01

7

Effects of two diets on the haematology, plasma chemistry and intestinal flora of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed

Two groups of 22 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were housed for 12 months under identical conditions. One group was fed a commercial seed mixture plus carrots and a mineral supplement, and the other group was fed a commercially formulated diet plus carrots. Samples of blood and faeces were collected initially and after three, six, nine and 12 months. There were no significant differences between the haematological values of the two groups. The group fed the seed mixture had significantly higher concentrations of glucose, albumin, triglycerides and uric acid, and higher activity of aspartate aminotransferase, but the values were within the published reference ranges for normal birds. There were no significant differences between the faecal samples from the two groups, except that the fungus Macrorhabdus ornithogaster was identified in 48.3 per cent of the samples from the group fed the commercially formulated diet but from only 3.4 per cent of the samples from the group fed the seed mixture. PMID:17028249

Fischer, I; Christen, C; Lutz, H; Gerlach, H; Hässig, M; Hatt, J-M

2006-10-01

8

New record of Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) from Karachi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Chewing lice of the species Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) were collected from captive budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw) in Pakistan. This is the first record of amblyceran lice from this host. It is also the first record of the genus Afrimenopon from Pakistani region. The primary host species of Afrimenopon waar is the rosy-faced lovebird Agapornis roseicollis (Vieillot). The finding of A. waar on budgerigars is, most likely, a result of a contamination in captivity. Morphological variation and origin of these lice are discussed. PMID:17334969

Sychra, Oldrich; Naz, Saima; Rizvi, S Anser

2007-08-01

9

Experimental Inoculation of BFDV-Positive Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Isolates.  

PubMed

Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group. PMID:24738057

Ledwo?, Aleksandra; Sapierzy?ski, Rafa?; Augustynowicz-Kope?, Ewa; Szeleszczuk, Piotr; Kozak, Marcin

2014-01-01

10

Ultraviolet vision, fluorescence and mate choice in a parrot, the budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus.  

PubMed Central

As in many parrots, the plumage of the budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus reflects near-ultraviolet (UVA) wavelengths (300-400 nm) and exhibits UVA-induced fluorescence. However, there have, to our knowledge, been no tests of whether the yellow fluorescence observed under intense UVA illumination has any role in signalling. Four experiments were carried out on wild-type budgerigars, where the presence and absence of UV reflectance and fluorescence were manipulated using filters. Few studies have attempted to separate the contribution of UV reflectance to plumage hue as opposed to brightness or distinguish between a role in sexual as opposed to social preferences. However, our first experiments show that not only do females consistently prefer UV-reflecting males, but also that the observed preferences are due to removal of UV affecting the perceived hue rather than brightness. Furthermore, we found no effect of the light environment on male response to females, suggesting that the female preferences relate to plumage colour per se. Whilst UV reflectance appears important in heterosexual choice by females, it has no detectable influence on same-sex association preferences. The results from the second series of experiments suggest that enhancement of the budgerigar's yellow coloration through fluorescence has no effect on male attractiveness. However, the fluorescent plumage may play a role in signalling by virtue of the fact that it absorbs UVA and so increases contrast with nearby UV-reflecting plumage. Our study provides convincing evidence that UV reflectances can play a role in mate choice in non-passerines, but no evidence that the yellow fluorescence observed under UVA illumination is itself important as a signal.

Pearn, S. M.; Bennett, A. T.; Cuthill, I. C.

2001-01-01

11

Quantitative study on characteristic parameters of acoustic behavior habits in budgerigars ( Melopsittacus undula fus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the bases of the studies of acoustic behavior and pattern recognition of budgerigar calls, the quantitative study on characteristic parameters of acoustic behavior habits in budgerigars is further given in this paper. These results open up a new knowledge for comprehensive analyses of abnormalities of acoustic behavior habits in budgerigars prior to earthquakes. Under indoor lighting, the song calls in budgerigars are possessed of the beginning and ending singing time with the natural characteristics, and of the rhythmic habit of daylight singings and night rests. In daily daylight and night calls, single calls, vari-toned calls, mono-syllabic and multi-syllabic protest calls are respectively possessed of the occupation habit corresponding to behavior activities, and have close acrophases and regular following properties corresponding to half-value phases, and the acrophases delay half-value phases by about half an hour on an average. After reversing lighting, the acrophases of budgerigar calls delay those of the normal lighting by about 12 hours on an average, and the following properties corresponding to half-value phases are irregular.

Jiang, Jin-Chang; Chen, Hao; Xu, Mu-Ling; Zhang, Hong

1994-08-01

12

Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.  

PubMed

Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented. PMID:24758122

Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

2014-03-01

13

Effect of Syringeal Denervation in the Budgerigar ( Melopsittacus undulatus): The Role of the Syrinx in Call Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the budgerigar, the left and right tracheosyringeal nerves (ts) were sectioned both above and below the common anastomosis in order to assess the roles of the hypoglossal nuclei and syringeal muscle halves in the control of call production. Signal processing software was used to quantify changes in contact call fundamental frequency and duration, and similarity analysis for pre- and

J. T. Heaton; S. M. Farabaugh; S. E. Brauth

1995-01-01

14

[Spinocellular epithelioma of the skin: etiology of the eczema syndrome in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and lovebirds (Agapornis sp.)].  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma in the axilla, unilaterally as well as bilaterally, is described pathologically in three love-birds and two budgerigars. The deep, hemorrhagic ulceration with secondary bacterial and/or mycotic infection corresponds to the "EMA-Syndrome". PMID:2270455

Müller, M; Zangger, N; Rytz, U

1990-01-01

15

Changing the average frequency of contact calls is associated with changes in other acoustic parameters in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most-often produced vocalization of the budgerigar, a small parrot native to Australia, is the short (100-150 ms) frequency-modulated contact call. These calls play a role in maintaining flock dynamics and are believed to act as vocal signatures in these birds. Previous findings in our lab have shown that budgerigars can control the intensity of their vocal behavior and exhibit a robust Lombard effect (Manabe et al., 1998). Recently, we have shown that there is a high degree of stereotypy in contact calls across a number of acoustic parameters (Osmanski and Dooling, 2004). Questions arise concerning the limits of plasticity in these calls and the relation or interdependence among the various parameters. As a first approach to answering these questions, four budgerigars were trained using operant conditioning methods to change the average peak frequency of their contact calls (both upward and downward in frequency) to obtain access to a food reward. Results show that these birds can both increase and decrease the average frequency of their contact calls. Such changes are associated with modifications in a number of other acoustic parameters, suggesting constraints on vocal plasticity. [Work supported by NIH DC-00198 to RJD and NIDCD Training Grant DC-00046.

Osmanski, Michael; Dooling, Robert

2001-05-01

16

Contact Call-Driven Zenk Protein Induction and Habituation in Telencephalic Auditory Pathways in the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus Undulatus): Implications For Understanding Vocal Learning Processes  

PubMed Central

Expression of the immediate early gene protein Zenk (zif 268, egr-1, NGF1A, Krox24) was induced in forebrain auditory nuclei in a vocal learning parrot species, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), when the subjects either listened to playbacks of an unfamiliar contact call or to a contact call with which they had been familiarized previously. Auditory nuclei included the Field L complex (L1, L2a, and L3), the neostriatum intermedium pars ventrolateralis (NIVL), the neostriatum adjacent to caudal nucleus basalis (peri-basalis or pBas), an area in the frontal lateral neostriatum (NFl), the supracentral nucleus of the lateral neostriatum (NLs), and the ventromedial hyperstriatum ventrale (HVvm). The latter three nuclei are main sources of auditory input to the vocal system. Two patterns of nuclear staining were induced by contact call stimulation—staining throughout cell nuclei, which was exhibited by at least some neurons in all areas examined except L2a and perinucleolar staining, which was the only kind of staining exhibited in field L2a. The different patterns of Zenk staining indicate that auditory stimulation may regulate the Zenk-dependent transcription of different subsets of genes in different auditory nuclei. The numbers of neurons expressing Zenk staining increased from seven- to 43-fold over control levels when the birds listened to a repeating unfamiliar call. Familiarization of the subjects with the call stimulus, through repeated playbacks, greatly reduced the induction of Zenk expression to the call when it was presented again after an intervening 24-h interval. To determine if neurons exhibiting contact call-driven Zenk expression project to the vocal control system, call stimulation was coupled with dextran amines pathway tracing. The results indicated that tracer injections in the vocal nucleus HVo (oval nucleus of the hyperstriatum ventrale), in fields lateral to HVo and in NLs labeled many Zenk-positive neurons in HVvm, NFl, and NLs. These results support the idea that, in these neurons, egr-1 couples auditory stimulation to the synthesis of proteins involved in either the storing of new perceptual engrams for vocal learning or the processing of novel and/or meaningful acoustic stimuli related to vocal learning or the context in which it occurs.

Brauth, Steven; Liang, Wenru; Roberts, Todd F.; Scott, Lindsey L.; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.

2002-01-01

17

The molecular basis for UV vision in birds: spectral characteristics, cDNA sequence and retinal localization of the UV-sensitive visual pigment of the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus).  

PubMed Central

Microspectrophotometric (msp) studies have shown that the colour-vision system of many bird species is based on four pigments with absorption peaks in the red, green, blue and UV regions of the spectrum. The existence of a fourth pigment (UV) is the major difference between the trichromacy of humans and the tetrachromacy of such birds, and recent studies have shown that it may play a determining role in such diverse aspects of behaviour as mate selection and detection of food. Avian visual pigments are composed of an opsin protein covalently bound via a Schiff-base linkage to the chromophore 11-cis-retinal. Here we report the cDNA sequence of a UV opsin isolated from an avian species, Melopsittacus undulatus (budgerigar or small parakeet). This sequence has been expressed using the recombinant baculovirus system; the pigment generated from the expressed protein on addition of 11-cis-retinal yielded an absorption spectrum typical of a UV photopigment, with lambdamax 365+/-3 nm. This is the first UV opsin from an avian species to be sequenced and expressed in a heterologous system. In situ hybridization of this sequence to budgerigar retinas selectively labelled a sub-set of UV cones, representing approx. 9% of the total cone population, that are distributed in a semi-regular pattern across the entire retina.

Wilkie, S E; Vissers, P M; Das, D; Degrip, W J; Bowmaker, J K; Hunt, D M

1998-01-01

18

Occurrences of candidiasis in a Fisher's lovebird and a budgerigar.  

PubMed

Two cage birds, a two-month-old Fisher's lovebird (Agapornis fischeri) and a one-year-old budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), manifested clinical symptoms with general weakness, loss of appetite and ruffled feathers, then died. Pathological findings revealed a large quantity of yellowish-white pseudomembrane on the mucosal membrane of the esophagus and crop in these two birds. Histopathologically, blastospores (5.5 microm long x 3.4 microm wide) and pseudohyphae were detected in the lesions of conspicuous parakeratosis and moderate acanthosis in the stratified squamous epithelium. These two birds were diagnosed as having had candidiasis. PMID:11558556

Sato, Y; Aoyagi, T; Kobayashi, T; Inoue, J

2001-08-01

19

Behavioural Lateralization in Budgerigars Varies with the Task and the Individual  

PubMed Central

Handedness/footedness and side biases are a well-known phenomenon in many animals, including humans. However, these so-called biases have mostly been studied at the population level - individual biases have received less attention, especially with regard to consistency over different tasks. Here we investigate behavioral lateralization in 12 male Budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, a social parrot inhabiting the Australian bushlands. We performed 5 types of experiments to investigate lateralization, in tasks that involved climbing onto a perch, or landing on perches arranged in various configurations. The birds displayed highly significant, individually varying biases. The bias displayed by any particular individual varied with the task, in strength as well as polarity. Analysis of the data revealed that the preferred foot used for climbing did not coincide with the foot that was used while landing. Thus, landing choices are probably not determined by foot bias. Furthermore, these individual preferences were overridden completely when a bird had to perform a task simultaneously with another bird.

Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

2013-01-01

20

Brain lesions that impair vocal imitation in adult budgerigars.  

PubMed

Vocal imitation is a complex form of imitative learning that is well developed only in humans, dolphins, and birds. Among birds, only some species are able to imitate sounds in adulthood. Of these, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) has been studied in most detail. Previous studies suggested that the vocal motor system in budgerigars receives auditory information from the lateral frontal neostriatum (NFl). In the present study, we confirm this hypothesis by showing that infusions of the GABA agonist muscimol into NFl reduce the strength of auditory responses in a telencephalic vocal motor nucleus, the central nucleus of the lateral neostriatum (NLc). To test whether the auditory information conveyed from NFl to NLc plays a role in vocal imitation, we lesioned parts of NFl and the overlying ventral hyperstriatum (HVl) in seven adult male budgerigars and then examined whether the lesioned males would imitate the calls of females with whom they were paired. We found that, compared to sham-lesioned controls, the lesioned birds were significantly impaired in their imitation of female calls. Yet, the lesioned males were clearly not deaf (e.g., their previously learned calls did not degrade as they do after deafening). Therefore, the data suggest that NFl/HVl lesions impair vocal imitation by reducing the amount of auditory information that reaches the vocal motor system. Interestingly, the females that were paired with lesioned males displayed more vocal plasticity than the females in the control group, and some even imitated their male's prepairing calls. PMID:12382268

Plummer, Thane K; Striedter, Georg F

2002-11-15

21

Neuronal activation in female budgerigars is localized and related to male song complexity.  

PubMed

Females of several songbird species have been shown to respond preferentially to a more complex song. The male budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) sings complex songs consisting of discrete components, known as syllables. We exposed female budgerigars to either standard male song, complex song, or simple song, the iteration of only one syllable (either frequency-modulated or unmodulated). Using immunocytochemistry, we analysed the expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene ZENK in a number of forebrain regions. The level of Zenk protein expression caused by song stimuli varied among each of the brain regions. Expression was highest in the caudomedial neostriatum (NCM), lower in the caudomedial hyperstriatum ventrale (CMHV), and lowest in the hippocampus. There was a significant effect of song complexity on the number of Zenk-immunoreactive cells in the NCM, but not in the hippocampus. Zenk protein expression correlated significantly and positively with the number of different syllables to which the females were exposed in the NCM and to a lesser extent in the CMHV, but not in the hippocampus. For the NCM this correlation was also significant within the group exposed to natural song. These results suggest that the NCM is involved in the perception of song complexity in female budgerigars. PMID:12534978

Eda-Fujiwara, Hiroko; Satoh, Ryohei; Bolhuis, Johan J; Kimura, Takeji

2003-01-01

22

Uropygial gland-secreted alkanols contribute to olfactory sex signals in budgerigars.  

PubMed

The possible role of uropygial gland-secreted compounds in olfactory discrimination of sex or sex attractants in the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus, was investigated using behavioral 2-choice tests and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Our data showed that female budgerigars were capable of distinguishing males from females in a Y maze via body odor, indicating its sexual dimorphism. When we conducted a chemical assay of the uropygial preen gland secretions, we found 4 times more volatile octadecanol, nonadecanol, and eicosanol in ratios in males than in females, making them putative male pheromone candidates. Female birds also showed overt preferences for the odor of male preen gland secretions or the 3-alkanol blend equivalent preened onto the plumage of a male over that of female counterparts. Removal of any one alkanol was associated with a loss of attractiveness to the female. In another test device (a test cage) with visible male bird stimulus, females chose the male with the 3-alkanol blend of males over the other male with female preen gland secretion, whereas did not differentiate their responses between the males with either this blend or male preen gland secretions. The behavioral data robustly suggested that the 3 alkanols synergistically created a female attractant odor or male pheromone in the budgerigar and that bird uropygial glands have broader implications in sexual behavior than previously known. This is the first investigation with bioassay of components of the gland in a bird species. PMID:20212012

Zhang, Jian-Xu; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Yang, Wei-He

2010-06-01

23

High-coverage sequencing and annotated assemblies of the budgerigar genome  

PubMed Central

Background Parrots belong to a group of behaviorally advanced vertebrates and have an advanced ability of vocal learning relative to other vocal-learning birds. They can imitate human speech, synchronize their body movements to a rhythmic beat, and understand complex concepts of referential meaning to sounds. However, little is known about the genetics of these traits. Elucidating the genetic bases would require whole genome sequencing and a robust assembly of a parrot genome. Findings We present a genomic resource for the budgerigar, an Australian Parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) -- the most widely studied parrot species in neuroscience and behavior. We present genomic sequence data that includes over 300× raw read coverage from multiple sequencing technologies and chromosome optical maps from a single male animal. The reads and optical maps were used to create three hybrid assemblies representing some of the largest genomic scaffolds to date for a bird; two of which were annotated based on similarities to reference sets of non-redundant human, zebra finch and chicken proteins, and budgerigar transcriptome sequence assemblies. The sequence reads for this project were in part generated and used for both the Assemblathon 2 competition and the first de novo assembly of a giga-scale vertebrate genome utilizing PacBio single-molecule sequencing. Conclusions Across several quality metrics, these budgerigar assemblies are comparable to or better than the chicken and zebra finch genome assemblies built from traditional Sanger sequencing reads, and are sufficient to analyze regions that are difficult to sequence and assemble, including those not yet assembled in prior bird genomes, and promoter regions of genes differentially regulated in vocal learning brain regions. This work provides valuable data and material for genome technology development and for investigating the genomics of complex behavioral traits.

2014-01-01

24

Outbreaks of budgerigar fledgling disease in three aviaries in Ontario  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) occurred in three budgerigar aviaries in Ontario. Acute death in seven to ten-day-old nestlings and feather abnormalities in birds over three weeks of age were common findings. Ascites, hepatomegaly and hydropericardium were prominent gross lesions. Histologically, basophilic intranuclear inclusions were seen in many tissues. A severe drop in hatchability occurred in one aviary—a finding not previously reported with BFD. Interruption of breeding controlled the disease in aviary 1, but failed in two consecutive attempts in aviary 2. A third outbreak occurred in aviary 2 after depopulation and restocking. In aviary 3, the spread of disease was very rapid; 90% of the nestlings died within a few weeks. A papovavirus similar to a previously described isolate was recovered in this outbreak.

Gough, Joan F.

1989-01-01

25

Behavioral lateralization and optimal route choice in flying budgerigars.  

PubMed

Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to continue their transit to the end of the tunnel, regardless of whether this passage was on the right or the left. Evidently, the birds were selecting the safest and quickest route. However, when the two passages were of equal or nearly equal width, some individuals consistently preferred the left-hand passage, while others consistently preferred the passage on the right. Thus, the birds displayed idiosyncratic biases when choosing between alternative routes. Surprisingly--and unlike most of the instances in which behavioral lateralization has previously been discovered--the bias was found to vary from individual to individual, in its direction as well as its magnitude. This is very different from handedness in humans, where the majority of humans are right-handed, giving rise to a so-called 'population' bias. Our experimental results and mathematical model of this behavior suggest that individually varying lateralization, working in concert with a tendency to choose the wider aperture, can expedite the passage of a flock of birds through a cluttered environment. PMID:24603285

Bhagavatula, Partha S; Claudianos, Charles; Ibbotson, Michael R; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

2014-03-01

26

Investigations of the precedence effect in budgerigars: Effects of stimulus type, intensity, duration, and location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auditory experiments on the localization of sounds in the presence of reflections, or echoes, that arrive later and from different directions are important to understanding hearing in natural environments. The perceived location of the auditory image can change with the time delay between the presentations of a leading and lagging sound. These changes in perceived location, encompassing the precedence effect, have been examined behaviorally or physiologically in humans and a number of animals. Here, these results are extended to include budgerigars. Behavioral methods were used to measure the discrimination performance between a stimulus presented at + and -90° azimuth with a delay (left-), from the same two stimuli presented with the opposite delay (right-left). At short delays, where humans experience summing localization, budgerigars have difficulty discriminating between the two presentation types. With increasing delays, where humans experience localization dominance, budgerigars show improved discrimination performance. At even longer delays, where echo thresholds are found in humans, discrimination performance worsens again. The shapes of the discrimination functions are affected by the intensity, locations, and durations of the stimuli, and are subject to a buildup effect. These results show that budgerigars exhibit the phases of the precedence effect similar to humans and other animals.

Dent, Micheal L.; Dooling, Robert J.

2003-04-01

27

Developmental Species Differences in Brain Cell Cycle Rates between Northern Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus) and Parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus): Implications for Mosaic Brain Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult brains differ among species in the proportional sizes of their major subdivisions. For example, the telencephalon occupies 71% of the entire brain in parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) but only 54% in quail (Colinus virginianus). In contrast, the tectum is smaller in parakeets than in quail. To determine whether these differences in brain region size arise because of species differences in

Christine J. Charvet; Georg F. Striedter

2008-01-01

28

Phosphorylation of the budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP1.  

PubMed Central

The structural proteins of the budgerigar fledgling disease virus, the first known nonmammalian polyomavirus, were analyzed by isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The major capsid protein VP1 was found to be composed of at least five distinct species having isoelectric points ranging from pH 6.45 to 5.85. By analogy with the murine polyomavirus, these species apparently result from different modifications of an initial translation product. Primary chicken embryo cells were infected in the presence of 32Pi to determine whether the virus structural proteins were modified by phosphorylation. SDS-PAGE of the purified virus structural proteins demonstrated that VP1 (along with both minor capsid proteins) was phosphorylated. Two-dimensional analysis of the radiolabeled virus showed phosphorylation of only the two most acidic isoelectric species of VP1, indicating that this posttranslational modification contributes to VP1 species heterogeneity. Phosphoamino acid analysis of 32P-labeled VP1 revealed that phosphoserine is the only phosphoamino acid present in the VP1 protein. Images

Haynes, J I; Consigli, R A

1992-01-01

29

Isolation of Sarcocystis falcatula from the South American opossum ( Didelphis albiventris) from Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis sporocysts from the intestines of four opossums (Didelphis albiventris) from Argentina were identified as Sarcocystis falcatula based on schizogonic stages and pathogenicity to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Seven budgerigars fed sporocysts from the opossum feces died of acute sarcocystosis 8, 9, 11, 12, and 14 days after inoculation. Schizonts and merozoites found in the lungs and other organs of the

J. P. Dubey; L. Venturini; C. Venturini; W. Basso; J. Unzaga

1999-01-01

30

Comparative Gene Expression Analysis Among Vocal Learners (Bengalese Finch and Budgerigar) and Non-Learners (Quail and Ring Dove) Reveals Variable Cadherin Expressions in the Vocal System  

PubMed Central

Birds use various vocalizations to communicate with one another, and some are acquired through learning. So far, three families of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds) have been identified as having vocal learning ability. Previously, we found that cadherins, a large family of cell-adhesion molecules, show vocal control-area-related expression in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. To investigate the molecular basis of evolution in avian species, we conducted comparative analysis of cadherin expressions in the vocal and other neural systems among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and a non-learner (quail and ring dove). The gene expression analysis revealed that cadherin expressions were more variable in vocal and auditory areas compared to vocally unrelated areas such as the visual areas among these species. Thus, it appears that such diverse cadherin expressions might have been related to generating species diversity in vocal behavior during the evolution of avian vocal learning.

Matsunaga, Eiji; Okanoya, Kazuo

2010-01-01

31

Land Capability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to study the relationship between land capability, or the relative potential for development or non-development, and the actual development of the land that has so far taken place. In this way, a more rational formulation of a...

1969-01-01

32

This Land Is Your Land, This Land Is My Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will review and evaluate the ways land is covered and used in their local community. They will also consider the environmental effects of the different types of land use. Students will act as community planning engineers to determine where to place a new structure that will have the least affect on the environment.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

33

Agricultural Land Fragmentation and Land Consolidation Rationality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adopted about one year after the 1989 Revolution, Land Law (Law 18\\/1991) represented the starting point of land reform in Romania. As a result of this law implementation, at the beginning of the year 2000 the private sector owned 84% of total agricultural land: 82% of arable land, 74% of land under vineyards, 67% of land under orchards and 87%

Marioara Rusu

2002-01-01

34

Visual pigments and oil droplets from six classes of photoreceptor in the retinas of birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microspectrophotometric examination of the retinal photoreceptors of the budgerigar (shell parakeet), Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittaciformes) and the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata (Passeriformes), demonstrate the presence of four, spectrally distinct classes of single cone that contain visual pigments absorbing maximally at about 565, 507, 430–445 and 360–380 nm. The three longer-wave cone classes contain coloured oil droplets acting as long pass filters

J. K. Bowmaker; L. A. Heath; S. E. Wilkie; D. M. Hunt

1997-01-01

35

Land Assembly: Problems and Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: National land commission; Regional land development authorities; Private condemnation; Land purchase; Land and urban expansion; Urban renewal and new towns; Land assembly--the foreign experience; The effect of technology and design on land costs...

G. Edwards

1968-01-01

36

Sarcocystis lindsayi-like (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystinae) of the opossum (Didelphis aurita) from Southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Sporocysts of Sarcocystis were obtained from intestinal scrapings of three out of five opossums (Didelphis aurita) trapped in the southeastern region, of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fifteen caged budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) received, orally, twenty-six sporocysts in 500 mL PBS, but only five belonging to one of the groups developed clinical signs, that consisted of anorexia, lethargy, ruffled feathers and dyspnoea, and parasitism in tissues. Two of the five budgerigars died on the 25th and 29th days after infection (DAI). The other three budgerigars were posted on the 30th DAI. In all the five infected birds were observed meronts in the capillaries of the lungs and cysts in muscles, mainly in the tongue and legs. PMID:20059875

Stabenow, Cristiane S; De Oliveira, Francisco C R; Albuquerque, George R; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

2008-09-01

37

Public Lands: Hidden Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is about American public lands including parks, monuments, refuges, wilderness areas, underground mineral reserves, marine sanctuaries, historic and scenic trails, forests, and seashores. Throughout this lesson, students will explore and share with others the hidden histories and stories of these lands about wildlife, cultures, governments, and people who have lived on, enjoyed, protected, or influenced them. Students will identify the economic, scientific, recreational, and spiritual values of public lands; interpret Native American quotes that demonstrate the unique relationship between Native Americans and the land; identify important historic facts about select public lands; and develop a creative way to share information with others about a select public land.

38

Lunar Landing Research Vehicle  

NASA Video Gallery

The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

39

Land surface interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered include the following: land and climate modeling; sensitivity studies; the process of a land model; model-specific parameterizations; water stress; within-canopy resistances; partial vegetation; canopy temperature; and present experience with a land model coupled to a general circulation model.

Dickinson, Robert E.

1992-01-01

40

Changing the Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students compare historical aerial photographs with current aerial photographs and determine what factors influenced land use decisions, evaluate the impacts of different land uses on an area, and consider future changes in land use and possible effects on a community.

41

State of the Land.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Americas Private Land, A Geography of Hope is a call to action - a call to renew our national commitment to Americas private land and private landowners. In 1935, this Nation made an historic commitment to the stewardship of private land in the Soil Conse...

2000-01-01

42

Alaska Natives & the Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

43

Land Treatment Digital Library  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

Pilliod, David;Welty, Justin L.

2013-01-01

44

National land cover dataset  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

2000-01-01

45

Landing gear noise attenuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

2011-01-01

46

Land Use Plan, Brentwood, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains written and mapped recommendations for future land use based upon survey and analysis of land use, land capability, and area economic-demographic projections fitted within a framework of local community development objectives and land ...

1972-01-01

47

Land use and mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This summary is divided into two basic sections-one dealing with land use classification and delineation, and the other dealing with mapping. The term land use classification is used in respect to the actual use of land rather than land capability, land suitability, or the potential use of land. The classification of actual use of the land, as defined by man's activities that are related to the land, may be only inferred, rather than directly interpreted, in the case of the identification and classification of some surface features or vegetation cover types. Also, in the case of some surface features or vegetational cover types, the specific activity involving man's use of the land may not be designated in a four-level classification system until level 3 or level 4 is reached. Most investigations employed or implied a hierarchial land use classification scheme with more than two levels, but mainly addressed themselves to classifying and delineating surface features (land use) that would fall in the first two levels of a three- or four-level hierarchial scheme. Although not all investigators used a hierarchial classification scheme or concurred with the idea (computer-implemented classifications with digital data are not conducive to a hierarchial classification approach), the classification system proposed by the U.S. Department of the Interior is used as reference.

Joyce, A. T.

1974-01-01

48

Land Tenure Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1962, the Land Tenure Center (LTC) is perhaps one of the most well-regarded university-based institutions to deal specifically with land policy across the world. Essentially, the LTC "serves as a global resource institution on issues relating to land ownership, land rights, land access, and land use." The LTC is also highly regarded for its interdisciplinary research approach which places a premium on working collaboratively with host-country institutions and individuals in the areas of policy analysis, research, and training. On the organization's site, visitors can learn about their various ongoing research programs, its staff members and affiliates, and the lectures and events it sponsors. Of course, the publications area is quite strong, and all documents created since 1996 are available online. These papers include such titles as "Patterns of Tenure Insecurity in Guyana" and "Indigenous Land and Community Security: A (Radical) Planning Agenda."

49

Newcastle Disease in Parrots and Budgerigars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first indication of the susceptibility of the order of psittacines (parrots and parakeets) to the virus of Newcastle disease (ND) is found in the work of Farinas (1930). The infectious occurrence of ND in parrot-quarantine stations in Europe, South Am...

W. Luthgen

1988-01-01

50

Land Treatment Digital Library  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A dynamic system to enter, store, retrieve, and analyze Federal land-treatment data. More information and access to data available at: http://greatbasin.wr.usgs.gov/ltdl Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

Pilliod, David

2009-01-01

51

Land Plants Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In response to a growing interest regarding evolutionary relationships of green plants in recent years, Dan Nickrent and Karen Renzaglia--of Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC)--developed Land Plants Online (LPO). LPO was also designed to provide researchers and students with a centralized source for new information resulting from technological advancements in the field. LPO's stated goal "is to bring together, from a variety of disciplines, the available information on evolutionary relationships in land plants including their most likely outgroup, charophycean algae." The heart of LPO is the Phylum Pages, which are organized by Non Vascular plants (Bryophytes), and Vascular Plants (Tracheophytes). The site also includes sections for Phylogenetic Relationships among Land Plants, and Character Matrices for Land Plants. In addition, site visitors will find a collection of general references for basal land plants, contact information for plant specialists, information on SIUC land plant research, and related links.

Nickrent, Daniel L.; Renzaglia, Karen S.

2007-09-04

52

Pilot land data system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the fall of 1983, the Information Systems Office of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications assembled a Working Group to develop initial plans for a Pilot Land Data System (PLDS). Workshops coordinated planning and concept development activities between land-related and computer science disciplines, and examined land research requirements, information science technology requirements, PLDS architecture, and methodologies for system evaluation. The PLDS will be a limited-scale distributed information system to explore scientific, technical and management approaches to satisfy land science research needs. PLDS will pave the way for a Land Data System to improve data access, processing, transfer and analysis, fostering an environment in which land science information synthesis can occur on a scale not previously possible owing to limits to data assembly and access and efficiency of processing.

Cressy, P. J.; Estes, J. E.

1984-01-01

53

Land Surface Phenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Land surface phenology (LSP) is a key indicator of ecosystem dynamics under a changing environment. Over the last few decades,\\u000a numerous studies have used the time series data of vegetation indices derived from land surface reflectance acquired by satellite-based\\u000a optical sensors to delineate land surface phenology. Recent progress and data accumulation from CO2 eddy flux towers offers a new perspective

Xiangming Xiao; Junhui Zhang; Huimin Yan; Weixing Wu; Chandrashekhar Biradar

54

Land use planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

1975-01-01

55

Landing-gear impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report deals with the impact forces in landing gears. Both the landing impact and the taxiing impact have been considered, but drag forces have so far been excluded. The differential equations are developed and their numerical integration is shown, considering the nonlinear properties of the oleo shock strut. A way is shown for determining the dimensions of the metering pin from a given load-time diagram. A review of German literature on landing-gear impact is also presented.

Flugge, W

1952-01-01

56

Landing the Rover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this team design challenge (page 19-24 of PDF), learners "land" a model Lunar Rover in a model Landing Pod (both previously built in activities #3 and #4 in PDF). Learners drop the pods containing the rovers from a prescribed height and record their observations. Learners improve (re-design and re-build) their Landing Pods based on their observations from the first drop.

Administration, National A.

2013-01-30

57

Competition for land  

PubMed Central

A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future.

Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlik, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

2010-01-01

58

Landing on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

here have been five fully successful robotic landings on Mars. The systems used to deliver these robots to the surface have shown large design diversity and continue to evolve. How will future Mars landing systems evolve to eventually deliver precious human cargo? We do not yet know the answers, but current trends tell us an interesting and daunting tale.

Manning, Robert M.; Adler, Mark

2005-01-01

59

THE LAND MONITOR PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Monitor Project is providing information over the southwest agricultural region of WA. It is assembling and processing sequences of Landsat TM data, a new high- resolution digital elevation model (DEM) and other spatial data to provide monitoring information on the area of salt-affected land, and on changes in the area and status of perennial vegetation over the period

Peter Caccetta; Adrian Allen; Ian Watson; Brian Beetson; Graeme Behn; Norm Campbell; Peter Eddy; Fiona Evans; Suzanne Furby; Harri Kiiveri; Geoff Mauger; Don McFarlane; Jerome Goh; Colin Pearce; Richard Smith; Jeremy Wallace; Ray Wallis

60

All That Unplowed Land  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

MOSAIC, 1975

1975-01-01

61

Tims Ford Land Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tims Ford Analysis was developed to aid TVA and the Tennessee Elk River Development Agency in making land use and land management decisions. Spatially located data were used to identify sensitive resource areas and to provide a basis for site specific...

E. E. Howard

1975-01-01

62

Apollo Landing Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the siting and geology of the six Apollo lunar landings. Learners use latitude and longitude to identify potential landing sites and study the geology of lunar samples collected from those sites. This activity is in Unit 2 of the "Exploring the Moon" teacherâs guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

63

Petroleum lands and leasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a reference book for the lessor, lessee, royalty owner, PLM student and landman. Contents: A historical background; Rights of ownership; Instruments of conveyance; Who owns this land. The oil and gas lease and leasing procedures; Curing titles; Pooling and utilization; Contracts and agreements; Lease maintenance; Land measurements and descriptions; Code of ethics; American Association of Petroleum Landmen; Glossary.

Burk

1984-01-01

64

Scaling the land use system  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use\\/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity through deforestation or soil degradation through unsustainable land use, increasing importance is given to the

K. Kok

2001-01-01

65

PUBLIC LANDS AND LAND USE COMMITTEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislative activity during the year include the establishment of an independent Federal Emergency Management Agency by merging parts of existing agencies. Other legislative topics covered by the committee report include the Coastal Energy Impact Program, Housing and Community Development Amendments, and the Public Rangelands Improvement Act. Court decisions concerning land use planning covered exclusionary zoning, vested rights, and historic landmark

Ernest C. Baynard III; R. Anthony Rogers; David T. Deal; Harry Freehan; Patricia M. McEvoy; Frank Schnidman

1979-01-01

66

Land Surface Data Assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information about land surface water, energy and carbon conditions is of critical importance to real-world applications such as agricultural production, water resource management, flood prediction, water supply, weather and climate forecasting, and environmental preservation. While ground-based observational networks are improving, the only practical way to observe these land surface states on continental to global scales is via satellites. Remote sensing can make spatially comprehensive measurements of various components of the terrestrial system, but it cannot provide information on the entire system (e.g. evaporation), and the observations represent only an instant in time. Land surface process models may be used to predict temporal and spatial terrestrial dynamics, but these predictions are often poor, due to model initialization, parameter and forcing, and physics errors. Therefore, an attractive prospect is to combine the strengths of land surface models and observations (and minimize the weaknesses) to provide a superior terrestrial state estimate. This is the goal of land surface data assimilation. Data Assimilation combines observations into a dynamical model, using the model's equations to provide time continuity and coupling between the estimated fields. Land surface data assimilation aims to utilize both our land surface process knowledge, as embodied in a land surface model, and information that can be gained from observations. Both model predictions and observations are imperfect and we wish to use both synergistically to obtain a more accurate result. Moreover, both contain different kinds of information, that when used together, provide an accuracy level that cannot be obtained individually. Model biases can be mitigated using a complementary calibration and parameterization process. Limited point measurements are often used to calibrate the model(s) and validate the assimilation results. This presentation will provide a brief background on land surface observation, modeling and data assimilation, followed by a discussion of various hydrologic data assimilation challenges, and finally conclude with several land surface data assimilation case studies.

Houser, P. R.

2012-12-01

67

The land and its people  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large tracts of agricultural land are being bought up by external investors. Turning the land into a commodity can have detrimental effects, for generations to come, on the local communities that sell or lease the land.

D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

2014-05-01

68

Lands Directorate of Canada Publications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This list of publications available from Environment Canada contains the bibliographic material of the publications in the following subjects: Canada Land Inventory Program, Canada Land Inventory Maps, Canada Land Inventory Reports, Map Folios, Maps, Nort...

1982-01-01

69

Land-Breeze Forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

70

Design a Landing Pod!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this team design challenge (page 11-18 of PDF), learners design and build a Landing Pod for a model Lunar Rover (previously built in activity on page 1-10 of PDF). Learners must build a Landing Pod that fits within the specified mass limit. Learners test their design by dropping it and making sure that it lands intact and right side up. Learners improve their designs by re-designing and re-building. Learners can complete a follow-up activity included in this resource.

Administration, National A.

2013-01-30

71

From land evaluation to land use planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development of acid sulphate soils requires integrated soil, water and crop- ping system management over whole landscapes. The various groups of managers and decision-makers need information at different levels of detail which is not provided by conventional soil survey and land evaluation. To help bridge the information gap between soil specialists and decision-makers, a range of knowledge-based decision support

David Dent

72

Climate and Land Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On the occasion of the Seventh session of the Conference of Parties, The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has prepared this brochure which explains the role of different climatic factors in land degradation and WMO's contribution in addressing this important subject.

2005-01-01

73

Shuttle Landing Facility  

NASA Video Gallery

The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

74

Landing of Manned Reentry Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landing characteristics were investigated using dynamic models. The landing speeds for several let-down systems are simulated. Demonstrations include: (1) the vertical landing of parachute-supported capsules on water; (2) reduction of landing acceleration by shaping the impact surface for water entry; (3) problems created by horizontal velocity due to wind; (4) the use of energy absorbers (yielding metal legs or torus bags) for land or water landings; (5) problems associated with horizontal land landings; (6) the use of a paraglider to aid in vehicle direction control; (7) a curved undersurface to serve as a skid-rocker to convert sinking-speed energy into angular energy; (8) horizontal-type landing obtained with winged vehicles on a hard runway; (9) the dangers of high-speed water landings; and (10) the positive effects of parachute support for landing winged vehicles.

1961-01-01

75

Land Use and Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial ecosystems affect climate through exchanges of energy, water, momentum, mineral aerosols, CO2, and other atmospheric gases. Changes in community composition and ecosystem structure alter these exchanges and in doing\\u000a so alter surface energy fluxes, the hydrologic cycle, and biogeochemical cycles. As a result, changes in land cover through\\u000a natural vegetation dynamics or human uses of land can alter climate.

Gordon B. Bonan; Ruth S. DeFries; Michael T. Coe; Dennis S. Ojima

76

Viking landing sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

Panagakos, N.

1973-01-01

77

New land subsidence guidebook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a project of the International Hydrological Program, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has released a new publication entitled “Guidebook to Studies of Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater Withdrawal.” This publication, which pays particular attention to measures to control and arrest subsidence, should serve as a guide to engineers, geologists, and hydrologists faced with investigation and solving of problems of land subsidence.

78

A Land Worth Loving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the BBC Nature Web site, comes the A Land Worth Loving page. The site has several interactive activities related to energy conservation and recycling including the virtual energy house. Here users get to choose energy saving items to see the resulting gains to the homeowner and the environment. The site also explains recycling and sustainable living and even offers a "green" quiz and a free downloadable "A Land Worth Living" poster.

2002-01-01

79

Lunar Landing Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is about landing on the Moon. Learners will design a spacecraft, choose a suitable lunar landing site, and present their ideas before the entire class using visual aides such as maps, diagrams, and 3-dimensional models. This activity is in Unit 2 of the Exploring the Moon teachers guide, which is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

80

Visible Earth: Land Surface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is part of Visible Earth, which is hosted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and contains a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. This section contains images pertaining to surface processes, including erosion, sedimentation, land temperature, land use, soils, topography, and more. Each image is available in a variety of resolutions and sizes, with a brief description, credit, date, and the satellite that took the image.

81

LAND USE LAND COVER (LULC) - US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Mapping Program, a component of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), produces and distributes land use and land cover maps and digitized data for the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii. Land use refers to the human activities that are directly related to the land. The int...

82

Land use land cover change detection using remote sensing application for land sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land falls into the category of prime resources. Land use and land cover changes are identified as the prime issue in global environmental changes. Thus, it is necessary to initiate the land change detection process for land sustainability as well as to develop a competent land use planning. Tropical country like Malaysia has been experiencing land use and land cover changes rapidly for the past few decades. Thus, an attempt was made to detect the land use and land cover changes in the capital of the Selangor, Malaysia, Shah Alam over 20 years period (1990 - 2010). The study has been done through remote sensing approach using Earth Sat imagery of December 1990 and SPOT satellite imageries of March 2000 and December 2010. The current study resulted that the study area experienced land cover changes rapidly where the forest area occupied about 24.4% of Shah Alam in 1990 has decreased to 13.6% in 2010. Built up land have increased to 29.18% in 2010 from 12.47% in 1990. Other land cover classes such as wet land, wasteland and agricultural land also have undergone changes. Efficient land management and planning is necessary for land sustainability in Shah Alam.

Balakeristanan, Maha Letchumy; Md Said, Md Azlin

2012-09-01

83

Anticipating land surface change  

PubMed Central

The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify “near misses,” close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management.

Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

84

Land-use Leakage  

SciTech Connect

Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

2009-12-01

85

Land Surveyor Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of Land Surveyor Reference Page Web site is "to provide reference materials that are useful in the practice of Land Surveying and to promote communication within the surveying community globally." Funded by the Huntington Technology Group, the site is periodically updated to include the latest information on state rules, regulations and statutes, federal government data sources, maps, articles of interest, college and university programs, meetings and conventions, as well as links to professional organizations, land surveying message boards, and much more. While obviously helpful to the surveying professional, the site also should appeal to researchers and others doing work that involves surveying; providing them with helpful and up-to-date information.

1995-01-01

86

Land use and energy  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

1980-07-01

87

Land & Water Conservation Fund  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1965, the US Congress created the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) "to preserve open space, develop recreation opportunities, and assure that all Americans have access to quality outdoor recreation." The Land and Water Conservation Fund receives $900 million annually, mainly from ocean oil drilling revenues. However, as much as 85 percent of each year's Fund is diverted for purposes other than conservation and recreation. The National Park Service provides this site, which gives technical information on the State and Federal components of the LWCF, with some historical information. For those interested in the future of natural places in this country, this site will be of great interest.

88

Urban land teleconnections and sustainability  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces urban land teleconnections as a conceptual framework that explicitly links land changes to underlying urbanization dynamics. We illustrate how three key themes that are currently addressed separately in the urban sustainability and land change literatures can lead to incorrect conclusions and misleading results when they are not examined jointly: the traditional system of land classification that is based on discrete categories and reinforces the false idea of a rural–urban dichotomy; the spatial quantification of land change that is based on place-based relationships, ignoring the connections between distant places, especially between urban functions and rural land uses; and the implicit assumptions about path dependency and sequential land changes that underlie current conceptualizations of land transitions. We then examine several environmental “grand challenges” and discuss how urban land teleconnections could help research communities frame scientific inquiries. Finally, we point to existing analytical approaches that can be used to advance development and application of the concept.

Seto, Karen C.; Reenberg, Anette; Boone, Christopher G.; Fragkias, Michail; Haase, Dagmar; Langanke, Tobias; Marcotullio, Peter; Munroe, Darla K.; Olah, Branislav; Simon, David

2012-01-01

89

Public Lands: Preserve or Develop?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces students to the various ways that public lands are valued, used, and managed in the United States. Students will compare and contrast different types of public lands, then simulate the decision-making and communication involved in converting private land to public land, taking into consideration the location, terrain, and climate of the land, as well as the needs and desires of residents of the region. Students will imagine that they are able to bequeath a parcel of land to their state for public use, then create an argument for the best use of the property.

90

Land Use in Saskatchewan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

91

LEAN LANDING GEAR DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lean design involves carefully establishing the functionality required in a mechanism or structure and then embodying only that functionality and nothing else, in the design. This approach is applied to the design of the torque links in the main landing gear system of the Airbus family of aircraft. Different possible mechanism arrangements are explored and for each, the optimum material

M J Platts

2000-01-01

92

X-15 landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This roughly 30-second video clip shows an X-15 landing on lakebed runway 18 adjacent to Edwards Air Force Base. The aircraft appears to be closer to the facilities at the base than it is because of the camera angle.

1960-01-01

93

MAPPING INDIGENOUS LANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mapping of indigenous lands to secure tenure, manage natural resources, and strengthen cultures is a recent phenomenon, having begun in Canada and Alaska in the 1960s and in other regions during the last decade and a half. A variety of methodologies have made their appearance, ranging from highly participatory approaches involving village sketch maps to more technical efforts with

Mac Chapin; Zachary Lamb; Bill Threlkeld

2005-01-01

94

The Common Land Model.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Common Land Model (CLM) was developed for community use by a grassroots collaboration of scientists who have an interest in making a general land model available for public use and further development. The major model characteristics include enough unevenly spaced layers to adequately represent soil temperature and soil moisture, and a multilayer parameterization of snow processes; an explicit treatment of the mass of liquid water and ice water and their phase change within the snow and soil system; a runoff parameterization following the TOPMODEL concept; a canopy photosynthesis-conductance model that describes the simultaneous transfer of CO2 and water vapor into and out of vegetation; and a tiled treatment of the subgrid fraction of energy and water balance. CLM has been extensively evaluated in offline mode and coupling runs with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). The results of two offline runs, presented as examples, are compared with observations and with the simulation of three other land models [the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), Bonan's Land Surface Model (LSM), and the 1994 version of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Atmospheric Physics LSM (IAP94)].

Dai, Yongjiu; Zeng, Xubin; Dickinson, Robert E.; Baker, Ian; Bonan, Gordon B.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Denning, A. Scott; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Houser, Paul R.; Niu, Guoyue; Oleson, Keith W.; Schlosser, C. Adam; Yang, Zong-Liang

2003-08-01

95

Lab 3: Land Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first part of this lab, students learn about land ice and the processes and timescales involved in glaciation. In Part B, they use an online interactive to explore how glaciers provide scientists with evidence for climate change. Finally, students use image processing software to measure how much area a real glacier has lost over time due to rising temperatures.

96

Retractable Airplane Landing Gear.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given of a rectractable aircraft landing gear consisting of two wheels located one behind the other, a shock absorber (used for both wheels, placed parallel to the longitudinal axis of the fuselage, and having two rods coming out the ends...

R. Lucien

1969-01-01

97

Windy land owners' guide  

SciTech Connect

This is a guide for landowners who are considering allowing a developer to use their land for a wind farm. The ten chapters are titled: wind industry, wind farming, putting together a wind farm, choosing a developer, legal instruments, determining value and payment for the wind resource, and daily operations, environmental impacts, permitting process, and summary. (DLC)

Sadler, S.; Walters, M.; Adams, R.; Bain, D.

1984-04-01

98

Windy land owners' guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a guide for landowners who are considering allowing a developer to use their land for a wind farm. The ten chapters are titled: wind industry, wind farming, putting together a wind farm, choosing a developer, legal instruments, determining value and payment for the wind resource, and daily operations, environmental impacts, permitting process, and summary. (DLC)

S. Sadler; M. Walters; R. Adams; D. Bain

1984-01-01

99

Agricultural Land Values.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The January 1, 1999 U.S. farm real estate value, including land and buildings, averaged $992 per acre up 1.8 percent from 1998. The average U.S. farm real estate value rose $18 per acre from $974 in 1998 to $992 per acre, the smallest increase since 1992....

1999-01-01

100

Land Values, 2012 Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States farm real estate value, a measurement of the value of all land and buildings on farms, averaged $2,650 per acre for 2012, up 10.9 percent from revised 2011 values. Regional changes in the average value of farm real estate ranged from a 2...

2012-01-01

101

Landing techniques in volleyball  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knee injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament lesions and patellar tendonitis are very frequent in volleyball, and are often attributed to micro traumas that occur during the landing phase of airborne actions. The aim of the present study was to compare different jumping activities during official men's and women's volleyball games. Twelve top-level matches from the Italian men's and women's

Roberto Lobietti; Simon Coleman; Eduardo Pizzichillo; Franco Merni

2010-01-01

102

Land Fragmentation and Land Consolidation in Romania1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Romania as a result of Land Laws application, the ownership system has changed. Private property became prevailing with an average area of 2 ha. Furthermore, land property is extremely fragmented, into about 50 million parcels, and one third of agricultural land belong to people who do not live in the rural areas. The establishment of private ownership right upon

Marioara Rusu

103

Human Interactive Landing Point Redesignation for Lunar Landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to achieve safe and precise landings anywhere on the lunar surface without the heavy involvement of mission operations required during Apollo, an autonomous flight manager (AFM) is needed to assist the crew in managing the landing mission. An essential algorithm within the AFM is the landing point redesignation (LPR) function, which determines a prioritized list of safe and

L. M. Forest; B. E. Cohanim; T. Brady

2008-01-01

104

By Land, Sea or Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn that navigational techniques change when people travel to different places â land, sea, air and space. For example, an explorer traveling by land uses different navigation methods and tools than a sailor or an astronaut.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

105

Improving Land Title Registration Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The land title recordation system, unique to the United States and Canada, maintains that title to land is registered with the government, and the government's determination of title is conclusive on all persons. However, title recordation is costly to co...

1979-01-01

106

Ferry Landing Design. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A procedure is developed for selecting design criteria for the berthing energy fender systems at ferry landings. In particular, end berthing arrangements are considered. A sample of 568 landing events are reviewed to find the distribution of approach velo...

C. T. Jahren R. Jones

1993-01-01

107

Land Reform - Experience from Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In Africa, land tenure system has generally been broadly described as rigid, creating obstacles in the way of development. Solutions to the land tenure system have involved the adoptions of some institutional changes such as the promulgation of legislation or the adoption of some revolutionary principles. In Nigeria, the intervention into the land problem involves the promulgation of the

Lasun Mykail; Olufemi ADELEYE

108

Landing of Manned Reentry Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landing of Manned Reentry Vehicles. Landing characteristics were investigated using dynamic models. The landing speeds for several let-down systems are simulated. Demonstrations include: (1) the vertical landing of parachute-supported capsules on water; (2) reduction of landing acceleration by shaping the impact surface for water entry; (3) problems created by horizontal velocity due to wind; (4) the use of energy absorbers (yielding metal legs or torus bags) for land or water landings; (5) problems associated with horizontal land landings; (6) the use of a paraglider to aid in vehicle direction control; (7) a curved undersurface to serve as a skid-rocker to convert sinking-speed energy into angular energy; (8) horizontal-type landing obtained with winged vehicles on a hard runway; (9) the dangers of high-speed water landings; and (10) the positive effects of parachute support for landing winged vehicles. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030969. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1961-01-01

109

Evaluation of the VIIRS Land Algorithms at Land PEATE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (Land PEATE), a component of the Science Data Segment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), is being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The primary task of the Land PEATE is to assess the quality of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land data products made by the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) using the Operational (OPS) Code during the NPP era and to recommend improvements to the algorithms in the IDPS OPS code. The Land PEATE uses a version of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), NPPDAPS, that has been modified to produce products from the IDPS OPS code and software provided by the VIIRS Science Team, and uses the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team for evaluation of the data records generated by the NPPDAPS. Land PEATE evaluates the algorithms by comparing data products generated using different versions of the algorithm and also by comparing to heritage products generated from different instrument such as MODIS using various quality assessment tools developed at LDOPE. This paper describes the Land PEATE system and some of the approaches used by the Land PEATE for evaluating the VIIRS Land algorithms during the pre-launch period of the NPP mission and the proposed plan for long term monitoring of the quality of the VIIRS Land products post-launch.

Wolfe, Robert E.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Ye, Gang; Masuoka, Edward J.; Schweiss, Robert J.

2010-01-01

110

Chlorophyta on Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Familiar examples of green algae (Chlorophyta) on land include those that participate in symbiotic associations with fungi,\\u000a forming lichens (e.g., Coccomyxa, Myrmecia, Stichococcus, Trebouxia, Ahmadjian, 1958; Friedl, 1997), and taxa that grow richly on natural and man-made surfaces or on leaves of citrus and magnolia\\u000a trees (e.g., Prasiola, Trentepohlia, Cephaleuros, Rindi and Guiry, 2004; Rindi et al., 2005). Besides these

Louise A. Lewis

111

Paresev 1 in Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pilot and Paresev 1 preparing for a landing on the Rogers dry lakebed in 1962 at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The flight program began with ground tow tests. Several tows were made before liftoff was attempted to check the control rigging and to familiarize the pilot with the vehicle's ground stability. As the pilot's confidence and experience increased, tow speeds were also increased until liftoff was attained. Liftoff was at about 40 knots indicated airspeed (kias).

1962-01-01

112

Settling in New Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You and your group are explorers out to start a settlement in new land. Third Grade Social Studies Standard 1 Students will understand how geography influences community location and development. Objective 1 Determine the relationships between human settlement and geography. Identify the geographic features common to areas where human settlements exist. a. Use map features to make logical inferences and describe relationships between human settlement and physical ...

Mgubler

2009-11-18

113

Modeling land-use change  

SciTech Connect

Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

NONE

1995-12-31

114

Helicopter brown-out landing  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An electromagnetic emissions free optical signal based helicopter landing assistance arrangement wherein helicopter rotor wash dust cloud-caused obfuscation of the intended landing site and other landing threats are overcome. Real time optical sourced data is collected early and used during helicopter approach to the intended landing site. Upgrading of this data for use during dust cloud presence is accomplished with image processing techniques applied in response to such inputs as helicopter flight data. Military use of the invention especially in current theatre conflict environments is contemplated. Dust cloud related landing hazards are disclosed as a significant difficulty in such environments and generate need for the invention.

2010-01-05

115

32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unauthorized landings. 855.14 Section 855.14 National...STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.14 Unauthorized landings. (a) Unauthorized landing...

2010-07-01

116

43 CFR 2547.3 - Price of land; payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Omitted Lands: General § 2547.3 Price of land; payment. (a) The land...

2013-10-01

117

Specifications for updating USGS land use and land cover maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To meet the increasing demands for up-to-date land use and land cover information, a primary goal of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) national land use and land cover mapping program is to provide for periodic updating of maps and data in a timely and uniform manner. The technical specifications for updating existing USGS land use and land cover maps that are presented here cover both the interpretive aspects of detecting and identifying land use and land cover changes and the cartographic aspects of mapping and presenting the change data in conventional map format. They provide the map compiler with the procedures and techniques necessary to then use these change data to update existing land use and land cover maps in a manner that is both standardized and repeatable. Included are specifications for the acquisition of remotely sensed source materials, selection of compilation map bases, handling of data base corrections, editing and quality control operations, generation of map update products for USGS open file, and the reproduction and distribution of open file materials. These specifications are planned to become part of the National Mapping Division's Technical Instructions.

Milazzo, Valerie A.

1983-01-01

118

Consequences of land use and land cover change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

2013-01-01

119

Land Use and Land Surface Heterogeneity in GFDL LM3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To capture the influence the land surface heterogeneity on land-atmosphere-climate interactions, GFDL LM3 explicitly represents heterogeneity of the land, both aboveground and beloground. Separate portions (tiles) of grid cells represent lakes, glaciers, and different kinds of vegetation cover. In LM3 the land heterogeneity is represented explicitly not just allowing different land use (LU) categories within each grid, but also through the entire soil column, so that each LU tile has hydrology, temperature, carbon and nitrogen. Also the heterogeneity of the vegetation surface in LM3 is dynamic: in response to perturbations the vegetation tile areas change, and the physical properties of the tiles change as the vegetation grows or re-grows after the disturbances. In this study we examine the influence of the land heterogeneity arising from LU changes on water, energy, and carbon balance of the system. Even though the atmospheric input is the same for all the tiles in each grid cell of the model, different tiles have distinct surface properties, which leads to differences in energy and water flow through the soil-canopy system, and consequent changes in carbon balance and land properties. We examine the tile-specific behavior in the framework of long-term fully coupled Earth System Model simulations. We compare the simulations of historical period with and without land use to see how differences in the land heterogeneity affect land-atmosphere interactions. In particular, we look at the flux and state differences at the land grid cells tiles that were never touched directly by the human land use, and therefore must represent the indirect effect of heterogeneity. The results indicate that surface heterogeneity above and below the ground can be important for both physical interactions between land and the atmosphere, as well as for the carbon balances.

Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Stouffer, R. J.; Pacala, S. W.

2011-12-01

120

Forum on land use and land Cover: Summary report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report includes the agenda and abstracts of presentations from the Forum on Land Use and Land Cover Data, cohosted by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), February 25-27,1992 at the USGS National Center in Reston, Virginia. The Forum was conducted under the auspices of the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and was attended by Federal and State managers of programs that produce and use land use and land cover maps and data in support of environmental analysis, monitoring, and policy development. The goal was to improve opportunities for Federal and State coordination, information exchange, data sharing, and work sharing in land use and land cover mapping.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Geological Survey

1992-01-01

121

Camera for landing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the Enhanced Video System (EVS) camera, built by OPGAL as subcontractor of Kollsman Inc. The EVS contains a Head up Display built by Honeywell, a special design camera for landing applications, and the external window installed on the plane together with the electronic control box built by Kollsman. The special design camera for lending applications is the subject of this paper. The entire system was installed on a Gulfstream V plane and passed the FAA proof of concept during August and September 2000.

Grimberg, Ernest

2001-08-01

122

Land and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past few weeks we have studied the movement of water through the land. We have talked about the water cycle and erosion. Today, you will see more models about water's movement on the earth. Each activity today will open in a new link. Make sure you close the link when you finish the activity or video so that you don't have so many pages open at once. This first video, from the Environmental Protection Agency, will give you a review of the water cycle. Click ...

Petersen, Mrs.

2013-02-18

123

Landing Site Mission Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is intended to provide the Mars Surveyor 2001 Project Science Group (PSG) with an overview of all the significant impacts of landing site location on the flight system, mission design, and science return. In order to facilitate the design of the Rover and Lander systems, the Project has requested that the PSG select a 15 latitude band within the 15S to 30N region, at the site selection workshop to be held at NASA Ames Research Center on January 26-27, 1998.

Spencer, D.

1998-01-01

124

To Land on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Science Definition Team (SDT) for NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission recommends including a lander as an integral part of the science payload of the JIMO Mission. The Europa Surface Science Package (ESSP) could comprise up to 25% of science payload resources. We have identified several key scientific and technical issues for such a lander, including 1) the potential effects of propellant contamination of the landng site, 2) the likely macroscopic surface roughness of potential landing sites, and 3) the desire to sample materials from depths of approximately 1 m beneath the surface. Discussion and consensus building on these issues within the science community is a prerequisite for establishing design requirements.

Shirley, James H.; Carlson, Robert W.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Sabahi, Dara

2005-01-01

125

Arid Lands Biofuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark colored viscous gum. At this point, when methylated and the mixture analyzed by gas chromatography, grindelic acid methyl ester composes approximately 60-80% of the hydrocarbons present which is the actual available portion for biodiesel. Based on two years of crop data, we can say that we can produce in between 85-126 gallons of biofuel per acre of land. While agronomic issues remain still to be solved, crops can be grown, harvested and extracted using conventional methods. Further research is being undertaken to select optimal strains of gumweed, as well as methods of conversion of grindelic acid to a diesel fuel directly.

Neupane, B. P.

2013-05-01

126

Food Calories and Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity is on the rise in the United States, due primarily to the size and composition of the American diet. Discussion topics include lack of exercise, changes in calorie intake over time, and environmental impacts of these increases in consumption. Each student will particpate in an activity in which they investigate how their own diets affect the agricultural demands of a hypothetical country. They will record their calorie intake, categorize the calories as coming from either plants or animals, and estimate the amount of land that is needed to provide their daily intake. Links to related sites are provided.

Pratte, John

127

LSRA landing with tire test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space shuttle landing gear system is visible between the two main landing gear components on this NASA CV-990, modified as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA). The space shuttle landing gear test unit, operated by a high-pressure hydraulic system, allowed engineers to assess and document the performance of space shuttle main and nose landing gear systems, tires and wheel assemblies, plus braking and nose wheel steering performance. The series of 155 test missions for the space shuttle program, conducted at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided extensive data about the life and endurance of the shuttle tire systems and helped raise the shuttle crosswind landing limits at Kennedy.

1994-01-01

128

The future of land warfare  

SciTech Connect

Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

Bellamy, C.

1987-01-01

129

Landing techniques in beach volleyball.  

PubMed

The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (?(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

2013-01-01

130

Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball  

PubMed Central

The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (?2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (?2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (?2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions.

Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

2013-01-01

131

Manned Spacecraft Landing and Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As recent history has tragically demonstrated, a successful space mission is not complete until the crew has safely returned to earth and has been successfully recovered. It is noted that a safe return to earth does not guarantee a successful recovery. The focus of this presentation will be a discussion of the ground operation assets involved in a successful recovery. The author's experience in land and water-based recovery of crewed vehicles and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Edwards Air Force Base, international landing sites, and the Atlantic Ocean provides for some unique insight into this topic. He has participated in many aspects of Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations including activation of Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites and Emergency Landing Sites (ELS) as an Operations Test Director, execution of post landing convoy operations as an Orbiter Move Director, Operations Test Director, and Landing and Recovery Director, and recovery of solid rocket boosters, frustum and their parachutes 140 miles offshore in a wide range of sea states as a Retrieval Diver/Engineer. The recovery operations for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were similar from a landing and recovery perspective in th t they all were capsules with limited "flying" capability and had a planned End of Mission (EOM) in an ocean with a descent slowed by parachutes. The general process was to deploy swim teams via helicopters to prepare the capsule for recovery and assist with crew extraction when required. The capsule was then hoisted onto the deck of a naval vessel. This approach required the extensive use and deployment of military assets to support the primary landing zone as well as alternate and contingency locations. The Russian Soyuz capsule also has limited "flying" capability; however, the planned EOM is terrestrial. In addition to use of parachutes to slow the reentry descent, soft-landing rockets on the bottom of the vehicle are employed to cushion the landing. The recovery forces are deployed via helicopters and the capsule is transported by a specialized all-terrain vehicle. The Space Shuttle Orbiter landing and recovery process is considerably different. The added lift capability and maneuverability allow the Orbiter to land at an exact location/runway for a nominal EOM. This allows for a timely response of recovery/contingency rescue forces, centralized staging of personnel and equipment, and assured access by ground vehicles. The well defined landing zone also provides for far more options when selecting landing sites for EOM and emergency returns and the relatively large cross-range capability increases the number of landing opportunities at the preferred sites.

Hammel, Don

2004-01-01

132

A domain model for land administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

75% or the “people to land relationships” worldwide are not documented. This concerns about 4.5 billion cases. With a growing population this situation results in land disputes, land grabbing and neglecting of rights of local people.\\u000aLand Administration provides documentation on people to land relationships. Land Administration is an instrument for implementation of Land Policies - part of governmental policy

C. H. J. Lemmen

2012-01-01

133

LAND USE/LAND COVER, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED (BUFFERED)  

EPA Science Inventory

EOSAT and the North Carolina State University Computer Graphics Center, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, developed the Land Use/Land Cover digital data to enhance planning, siting and impact analysis in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Stu...

134

Orion Crew Member Injury Predictions during Land and Water Landings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

Lawrence, Charles; Littell, Justin D.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala

2008-01-01

135

China's land resources and land-use change: insights from the 1996 land survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of land-use change in China have long been hampered by the lack of accurate and reliable data. This research analyzes systematic data on land use gathered in the 1996 survey, the first nation-wide land survey ever conducted in the history of the People's Republic. The actual size of the Chinese territory on the mainland in 1996 was 9.5 million

George C. S Lin; Samuel P. S Ho

2003-01-01

136

Weather, land satellite sale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

Richman, Barbara T.

137

Canada's Polar Environments: Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the Arctic lands of Canada, which have been divided into three ecozones: the Arctic Cordillera, which encompasses the northeastern fringe of Nunavut and northern Labrador and is defined by the Arctic Cordillera Mountain Range; the Northern Arctic, which is a polar desert that comprises the non-mountainous portions of the Arctic Islands as well as the northernmost areas of Quebec; and the Southern Arctic, which covers much of the northern mainland of Canada, from the Richardson Mountains in the Yukon Territory to northern Quebec. The site discusses topography, glacial features, freeze/thaw features, geology, and permafrost and soils. The discussion of glaciers includes their origin and classification as well as glaciers, past and present, their retreat and glacial cores. A section called cool facts contrasts the North Magnetic Pole with the geographic North Pole, discusses polar wandering, and tells of the smoking hills where the ground is burning.

138

Land Use and Nitrogen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will examine the challenges of balancing development and land conversion with the fiscal, technical and political challenges of addressing nutrient loading. They will have the opportunity to examine these issues based on real data and maps from their own watersheds. In Activities 1 and 2 students will compare the nitrogen loads when development occurs inside and outside the growth area, and on differing wastewater treatment options (e.g. central sewer versus septic systems). In Activity 3, students will select best management practices and set implementation targets based on available acres within their tributary basin in order to offset the impacts of new development and meet nitrogen goals. Finally, in Activity 4, students will discuss their recommendations for reducing nitrogen in their tributaries in the face of future growth and discuss the feasibility, cost and political acceptability of these options.

139

Language of the Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using maps and photographs from the collections of the Library of Congress (LOC), this exhibition documents the connections between America's geography and its literature. The exhibit was inspired by LOC's collection of literary maps, and it begins with several of these accompanied by quotations, such as Gertrude Stein's observation, "In the United States there is more space where nobody is than where anybody is. That is what makes America what it is." The remainder of the exhibition consists of four regional sections, Northeast, South, Midwest (featuring an opening quote from Jack Kerouac and a drawing that looks like Laura from Little House on the Prairie), and West. To make requesting reproductions easy, negative numbers and call numbers are included for all items, as well as ordering information for the exhibition's companion book, Language of the Land: The Library of Congress Book of Literary Maps, by Martha Hopkins and Michael Buscher.

140

Land use, biodiversity, and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We focus on the effects of deforestation for agricultural purposes on biodiversity. This topic has been dealt with in the recent literature where “forested land” and “biodiversity” are treated as synonyms. In contrast to that, this paper distinguishes between “forested land” and “forest” itself, the latter being interpreted as a measure of biodiversity. The regenerative capacity of forests is modeled

Alfred Endres; Volker Radke

1999-01-01

141

Watershed Modeling Using Land Classifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison was made between using a lumped hydrological model and using a version of the same model applied successively to different land uses within subbasins. A watershed in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia was divided into three contributing subbasins, and each of these was further subdivided by land cover classification using Landsat images. A hydrological model was applied

G. W. Kite; N. Kouwen

1992-01-01

142

Autonomous landing-functional requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

For military aviation, an autonomous landing (AL) capability is sought to enable operations out of landing fields which are battle-damaged, or have less than adequate approach aids or lighting. The author focus on an AL capability for future transport and special operations aircraft. Attention is given to AL requirements, the satisfaction of approach requirements, vision systems, and functional capability requirements

K. Fitschen; A. Zembower

1991-01-01

143

Remote sensing. [land use mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

Jinich, A.

1979-01-01

144

Multiple criteria land use analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1980s, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) have been collaborating on expanding FAO's Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) methodology of land resources appraisal by incorporating decision support tools for optimizing the use of land resources. Initially, these tools consisted of the application of linear optimization techniques

Marek Makowski; Jacques Antoine

1997-01-01

145

Ecosystems and Land Use Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use is at the center of one of the most vexing challenges for the coming decades: to provide enough food, fiber and shelter for the world's population; raise the standard of living for the billion people currently below the poverty line; and simultaneously sustain the world's ecosystems for use by humans and other species. The intended consequence of cropland expansion, urban growth, and other land use changes is to satisfy demands from the increasing appetite of the world's population. Unintended consequences, however, can alter ecological processes and have far-reaching and long-term effects that potentially compromise the basic functioning of ecosystems. Recently, the scientific community has begun to confront such issues. Several national and international programs have been at the forefront of scientific enquiry on the causes and consequences of land use change, including: the Land Use and Land Cover Change Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Land Use program element in the interagency U.S. Climate Change Science Program, and the International Geosphere-Biosphere's Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) core project. The result has been significant advances in understanding the complex socioeconomic, technological, and biophysical factors that drive land use change worldwide.

DeFries, Ruth S.; Asner, Gregory P.; Houghton, Richard A.

146

Land reclamation beautifies coal mines  

SciTech Connect

The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

Coblentz, B. [MSU Ag Communications (United States)

2009-07-15

147

Land Access, Protection and Permits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes a panel discussion that included 25 students and outdoor education and recreation professionals on issues related to land use and outdoor education and recreation programs. Many participants expressed frustration over inconsistent management policies related to educational and recreational use of public lands. Participants…

Munsell, Steve

148

Urban Land Intensive Utilization Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main problems, such as evaluation index is not unified, standard worth evaluation is not unified and evaluation result is also not unified, are existing in the study of China's urban land intensive use evaluation. This paper aims to provide a new approach for the evaluation of China's urban land intensive use according to the problems above. In this paper,

Shang Tian-cheng; Li Xiangpeng; Liu Pei-hong; Liu Pei-jie

2009-01-01

149

Access to Land in Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

May 1999Access to land is deeply important in rural India, where the incidence of poverty is highly correlated with lack of access to land. The author provides a framework for assessing alternative approaches to improving access to land by India's rural poor. He considers India's record implementing land reform and identifies an approach that includes incremental reforms in public land

Robin Mearns

1999-01-01

150

Guidance and control for lunar landing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental considerations on guidance and control problems are presented for the lunar landing system which will be developed in Japan in several years. The guidance and control system for the lunar landing system includes functions such as attitude and position control during descent, searching for optimum landing position, guidance to the landing position, and deceleration control for soft landing. Fundamental

Shohei Niwa; Masayuki Suzuki; Jun Zhou; Takahiro Kawasaki; Shunichiro Nakai; Kazuyuki Higashino

1992-01-01

151

Land Use Analysis, Vigo County Area, Indiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study concentrates upon 1960-1971 land use data. It provides the resources required to analyze the areas land usage and to develop a land use plan. This study concerns general land use trends and compilation and development of land use data relating t...

J. Sheehan

1972-01-01

152

43 CFR 2544.2 - Appraisal of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Erroneously Meandered Lands: Louisiana § 2544.2 Appraisal of land. When an...

2013-10-01

153

43 CFR 2543.2 - Appraisal of land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Erroneously Meandered Lands: Arkansas § 2543.2 Appraisal of land. When an...

2013-10-01

154

Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product  

EPA Science Inventory

The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

155

75 FR 2438 - Safety Zone; Havasu Landing Annual Regatta; Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Landing Annual Regatta; Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA AGENCY: Coast...established and marked course on Lake Havasu, CA. This temporary safety...Landing Annual Regatta; Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA. (a)...

2010-01-15

156

76 FR 9227 - Safety Zone; Havasu Landing Regatta, Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Havasu Landing Regatta, Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA AGENCY: Coast...Havasu Landing Regatta, Colorado River, Lake Havasu Landing, CA. (a) Location...will be the navigable waters of Lake Havasu bounded by the...

2011-02-17

157

43 CFR 2920.3 - Bureau of Land Management initiated land use proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS Leases...that proposals for utilizing the land through a lease, permit or easement will be...

2013-10-01

158

Land cover: national inventory of vegetation and land use  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) produces data and tools that help meet critical national challenges such as biodiversity conservation, renewable energy development, climate change adaptation, and infrastructure investment. The GAP national land cover includes data on the vegetation and land-use patterns of the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. This national dataset combines land cover data generated by regional GAP projects with Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE) data. LANDFIRE is an interagency vegetation, fire, and fuel characteristics mapping program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Gergely, Kevin J.; McKerrow, Alexa

2013-01-01

159

Agricultural Land Markets and Land Leasing in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to identify the driving forces that shape agricultural land structures, land market and land leasing in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). Institutional developments and land reforms have so far been modest in the FYROM, and have not contributed to significant changes in agricultural ownership, operational structures, or land market and land leasing

Neda Petroska Angelovska; Marija Ackovska; Štefan Bojnec

2012-01-01

160

Land Tenure and Land Management Technology: A Case Study from the Central Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land in Ethiopia is a public property. Farmers have use right to transfer or lease use rights of agricultural land. Thus, land tenure systems under the existing public ownership of land derive from official allocation by local government authorities and\\/or through transfer of land use rights. Farmers' practice of leasing agricultural land in the country is mostly limited to a

Workneh Negatu

161

Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both ...

P. C. Knocke G. G. Wawrzyniak B. M. Kennedy P. N. Desai T. I. J. Parker M. P. Golombek T. C. Duxbury D. M. Kass

2004-01-01

162

43 CFR 3901.10 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Land Descriptions and Acreage § 3901.10 Land descriptions. (a) All lands in an oil shale lease must be described by the legal subdivisions...

2013-10-01

163

Peripheral Land Study: Economics, Esthetics, and Highways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study related land value changes to four chosen independent variables: sign density, zoning regulation, land use intensity, and average daily traffic. The major finding was that the presence of signs did not contribute measurably to land value change...

T. J. Norton C. Arenas R. D. Shinn

1967-01-01

164

Estimating Evapotranspiration with Land Data Assimilation Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advancements in both land surface models (LSM) and land surface data assimilation, especially over the last decade, have substantially advanced the ability of land data assimilation systems (LDAS) to estimate evapotranspiration (ET). This article provides...

C. D. Peters-Lidard D. M. Mocko S. V. Kumar Y. Tian

2011-01-01

165

77 FR 39724 - Land Acquisitions: 19 Pueblos  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...agency determination to take land into trust...approximately 8.43 acres of land into trust for the 19 pueblos on January 31...Santa Fe, New Mexico. The land taken into trust shall remain subject to any...

2012-07-05

166

32 CFR 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AIRFIELDS] [Subpart B - Civil Aircraft Landing Permits] [Sec. 855.14 - Unauthorized landings.] 32 NATIONAL DEFENSE 6 2009-07-01...STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits Sec. 855.14 Unauthorized...

2009-07-01

167

76 FR 32866 - Cable Landing Licenses; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 [DA 11-668] Cable Landing Licenses; Correction AGENCY: Federal...requesting streamlined processing of cable landing license applications. Need for Correction...read as follows: Sec. 1.767 Cable landing licenses. * * * * * (j)...

2011-06-07

168

14 CFR 29.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 29.1383 Section 29.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2014-01-01

169

14 CFR 25.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 25.1383 Section 25.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each landing light must be...

2014-01-01

170

14 CFR 27.1383 - Landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing lights. 27.1383 Section 27.1383 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1383 Landing lights. (a) Each required landing or hovering...

2014-01-01

171

Exploring The Waste Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Almost certainly the most commented-upon poem in the English Language, T.S. Eliot's The Waste Land has puzzled undergraduate English students and seasoned scholars for eight decades. While Rikard Parker's Website will not end this puzzlement, it offers an innovative use of Web technology to explore a poem that many consider to have anticipated hypertext in its themes and format. Parker's site features a number of versions of a multi-framed approach to the text (more than are necessary, really) with each one a variation on a format that lets readers place portions of the original published poem side-by-side with one or more of the following: Eliot's notes to the poem; Parker's explanations of allusions; other lines in the poem evoking related themes such as seasons, weather, death, etc.; earlier manuscript versions of selected portions; and Parker's commentary on possible textual meanings. Parker's text allows one to do much more easily and with less confusion what a critical edition of the poem is supposed to help one do, i.e., read analytically. With its spatial, fragmented approach, perhaps this version would have been welcomed by Eliot as its truest manifestation. Perhaps not. In any case, we suggest that users select the link "my recommended entry point to the framed sub-site" as the most pleasing and comprehensive version of the text on-site. Parker is a full-time software engineer and part-time amateur scholar of Eliot's great poem.

172

Land reclamation research  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy has assigned its Office of Environment the task of developing methods that will prevent or reduce damages caused by surface mining. Before that task can be accomplished, more must be learned about the functioning of organisms and their surroundings-the ecosystems threatened by disruptions from surface mining. While new federal and state laws require the full reclamation of mine sites, there is no assurance now that reclaimed areas can be self-sustaining, especially in the arid and semiarid West. To these ends, the Ecological Research Division within the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department's Office of Environment has begun a number of related programs aimed at understanding more clearly soils, plants, animals, and other components of the ecosystem so that ways may be found to improve environmental quality or to prevent damage from mining. Another aim is to produce efficient and cost-effective techniques for returning to productive use land that has been scarred by mining. Two national laboratories and six universities carry out these research programs. The work extends from broadly based studies, such as the effects of mining on the hydrologic balance, to very specific studies, such as evaluation of the reproductive cycle of a native grass.

None

1980-09-01

173

Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

2007-01-01

174

X-15 landing on lakebed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this 17-second video clip, the X-15 is shown in flight and then landing on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Edwards Air Force Base. It is followed by an F-104A chase aircraft, whose pilot provided a second set of eyes to the X-15 pilot on landing in case of any problems. The video shows the skids on the back of the X-15 contacting the lakebed, with the aircraft's nose then rotating downward until the nose landing gear was on the lakebed.

1960-01-01

175

Land use and land cover tools for climate adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use and land cover interact with atmospheric conditions to determine current climate conditions, as well, as the impact\\u000a of climate change and environmental variability on ecological systems. Such interactions are ubiquitous, yet changes in LULC\\u000a are generally made without regard to their biophysical implications. This review considers the potential for LULC to compound,\\u000a confound, or even contradict changes expected

Christopher R. Pyke; Sandy J. Andelman

2007-01-01

176

Geographic Patterns of Land Use and Land Intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses census-tract-level data from the Censo Agropecuario 1995-96 to map indicators ofcurrent land use and agricultural productivity across the Legal Amazon of Brazil. These data permitgeographical resolution about 10 times freer than afforded by municipio data used in previousstudies. The paper focuses on the extent and productivity of pasture, the dominant land use inAmaz6nia today.

Kenneth M. Chomitz; Timothy S. Thomas

177

Land use change and land degradation in southeastern Mediterranean Spain.  

PubMed

The magnitude of the environmental and social consequences of soil erosion and land degradation in semiarid areas of the Mediterranean region has long been recognized and studied. This paper investigates the interrelationship between land use/cover (LULC) changes and land degradation using remotely sensed and ancillary data for southeastern Spain. The area of study, the Xaló River catchment situated in the north of the Alicante Province, has been subjected to a number of LULC changes during the second half of the 20th century such as agricultural abandonment, forest fires, and tourist development. Aerial photographs dating back to 1956 were used for the delineation of historic LULC types; Landsat ETM+ data were used for the analysis and mapping of current conditions. Two important indicators of land degradation, namely, susceptibility to surface runoff and soil erosion, were estimated for the two dates using easily parametrizable models. The comparison of 1956 to 2000 conditions shows an overall "recuperating" trend over the catchment and increased susceptibility to soil erosion only in 3% of the catchment area. The results also identify potential degradation hot-spots where mitigation measures should be taken to prevent further degradation. The readily implemented methodology, based on modest data requirements demonstrated by this study, is a useful tool for catchment to regional scale land use change and land degradation studies and strategic planning for environmental management. PMID:17530333

Symeonakis, Elias; Calvo-Cases, Adolfo; Arnau-Rosalen, Eva

2007-07-01

178

STS-135 Landing: Runway Remarks  

NASA Video Gallery

The STS-135 astronauts get a close-up look at space shuttle Atlantis, hear from NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and speak to assembled employees, guests and media after landing at Kennedy Space C...

179

47 CFR Procedures - Land Stations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Land Stations Procedures Operating Procedures Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures-General §...

2010-10-01

180

Expedition 28 Crew Lands Safely  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 28 Commander Andrey Borisenko and Flight Engineers Alexander Samokutyaev and Ron Garan land their Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft in Kazakhstan. Russian recovery teams were on hand to help the c...

181

Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Pathfinder Project is an approved Discovery-class mission that will place a lander and rover on the surface of the Red Planet in July 1997. The Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop was designed to allow the Mars scientific community to provide input as to where to land Pathfinder on Mars. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from around the United States and from Europe. Over 20 landing sites were proposed at the workshop, and the scientific questions and problems concerning each were addressed. The workshop and the discussion that occured during and afterward have significantly improved the ability to select a scientifically exciting but safe landing site on Mars.

Golombek, Matthew (editor)

1994-01-01

182

Filling Apparatuses, Chemical Land Mine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The engineering test procedure describes test methods and techniques for evaluating technical performance and characteristics of chemical land mine filling apparatuses. The evaluation is related to criteria established by applicable qualitative materiel r...

1970-01-01

183

Land tenure, disasters and vulnerability.  

PubMed

Although often overlooked, land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to disaster. Vulnerability can occur either where land tenure is perceived to be insecure, or where insecure tenure results in the loss of land, especially when alternative livelihood and housing options are limited. Disasters often provide the catalyst for such loss. This paper avoids making generalisations about the security of particular types of tenure, but instead explores factors that mediate tenure security, particularly in the wake of a disaster. The paper identifies five mediating factors: (1) the local legal system; (2) government administrative authority; (3) the economy; (4) evidence of tenure, and; (5) custom and dominant social attitudes. It is shown that some mediating factors are more salient for particular types of tenure than others. The paper will highlight the importance of land tenure in any assessment of vulnerability, and conclude with suggestions for further research. PMID:20735460

Reale, Andreana; Handmer, John

2011-01-01

184

Learning to classify land plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are four main groups of land plants: bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, angiosperms (flowering), and gymnosperms (cone-producing). The four groups are distinguished by structural and reproductive traits.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

185

Mars Landing Site Analysis Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brian Hynek, University of Colorado Summary Students use recent data acquired from Mars orbiters to assess the safety and scientific value of various proposed landing sites for a future Mars lander. Context Type ...

Hynek, Brian

186

Apollo lunar landing commerative artwork  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo lunar landing commerative artwork. View depicts an Apollo era astronaut standing on the lunar surface, facing the viewer, with an Earthrise reflected in his visor. Directly behind him, is the lunar lander.

1989-01-01

187

Land Use and Public Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of how public and private land use and development affect environmental and human health. Special topics include hazardous waste sites such as Superfund sites and "brownfields," sprawl and transportation issues, development of antibiotic resistance in humans due to antibiotic use on farm animals, and how land use can contaminate surface waters. The site also features links to current news and related resources and organizations.

Responsibility, Physicians F.; Envirohealthaction

188

An integrated land navigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory development model of an optimally integrated system for Artic land navigation has been designed, implemented, and tested. This system, called PLANS (Primary Land Arctic Navigation System) was designed and built to be a highly reliable, moderately accurate and moderately priced, nonradiating automatic navigation system for all-weather off-the-road use. It combines several self-contained sensors with two satellite receivers, using

J. C. McMillan

1988-01-01

189

Sustainable Principles for Land Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maria Cahill and Doug Paul used this document in their presentation at Portland Community College's 2009 Summer Sustainability Institute. The presentation is mostly visual, but would support learners with a background in the basic concepts related to sustainable land development. The steps involved with sustainable land development, a few examples of best management practices, stormwater management tips and other important topics are included. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Cahill, Maria; Paul, Doug

2012-01-11

190

Person Landing After a Jump  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab uses Tracker 4.0 video analysis software to measure and analyze the center of mass motion of a person landing after a jump. Students measure the acceleration of the person in free-fall and his acceleration while he is landing and slowing down. Students use the data to calculate the force of impact by the floor on the student during the landing. There are two video files: (1) the student bends his knees a maximum amount during the landing in order to decrease the force of impact by the floor; and (2) the student bends his knees a small amount in order to increase the force of impact on the floor. The zip file contains two folders: (1) a long time interval during the landing and (2) a short time interval during the landing. Each folder includes the lab handout, a video, and a Tracker 4.0 file. The video was recorded by Aaron Titus at High Point University. To open the Tracker file, download and run Tracker from http://www.cabrillo.edu/~dbrown/tracker/. Tracker is free. The videos can be used with other video analysis software; however, the handout has screen captures from Tracker 4.0 and instructions specifically written for Tracker 4.0.

Titus, Aaron

2011-07-03

191

Are agricultural land-use models able to predict changes in land-use intensity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use and land-cover change research needs to pay more attention to processes of land-cover modification, and especially to agricultural land intensification. The objective of this paper is to review the different modelling approaches that have been used in land-use\\/land-cover change research from the perspective of their utility for the study and prediction of changes in land-use intensification. After clarifying the

E. F. Lambin; M. D. A Rounsevell; H. J Geist

2000-01-01

192

Trenton, Tennessee. Population, Economy, Land Use Survey, Land Use Standards, Land Use Analysis and Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After a brief introduction, the site characteristics are discussed. The population trends, characteristics, change, projections and distribution are analyzed to aid the community in planning services and future land use requirements. The local economy is ...

1972-01-01

193

Potential climate forcing of land use and land cover change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure on land resources is expected to increase as global population continues to climb and the world becomes more affluent, swelling the demand for food. Changing climate may exert additional pressures on natural lands as present day productive regions may shift, or soil quality may degrade, and the recent rise in demand for biofuels increases competition with edible crops for arable land. Given these projected trends there is a need to understand the global climate impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify the climate impacts of global LULCC in terms of modifications to the balance between incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (radiative forcing; RF) that are caused by changes in long-lived and short-lived greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects and land surface albedo. We simulate historical changes to terrestrial carbon storage, global fire emissions, secondary organic aerosol emissions, and surface albedo from LULCC using the Community Land Model version 3.5. These LULCC emissions are combined with estimates of agricultural emissions of important trace gases and mineral dust in two sets of Community Atmosphere Model simulations to calculate the RF from LULCC impacts on atmospheric chemistry and changes in aerosol concentrations. With all forcing agents considered together, we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day anthropogenic RF can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC RF by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the LULCC RF from CO2 alone. This enhancement factor also applies to projected LULCC RF, which we compute for four future scenarios associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We calculate total RFs between 1 to 2 W m-2 from LULCC for the year 2100 (relative to a preindustrial state). To place an upper bound on the potential of LULCC to alter the global radiation budget we include a fifth scenario in which all arable land is cultivated by 2100. This "worst-case scenario" leads to a LULCC RF of 4.3 W m-2 (±1.0 W m-2), suggesting that not only energy policy but land policy is necessary to minimize future increases in RF and associated climate changes.

Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

2014-05-01

194

ALASKA GENERAL LAND STATUS (STAT1)  

EPA Science Inventory

AKSTATUS is a statewide summary of land ownership in Alaska. It includes the major categories of state, native, and federal holdings. Activity on state land is recorded, by section, in DRSs Land Adminstration System (LAS). Information on state land status is extracted from LAS...

195

Land Use and Marriage Timing in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine the relationship between patterns of land use and marriage timing in the Chitwan Valley, a rural area in south-central Nepal. In this setting, I conceptualize a relevant dimension of land use as the portion of land in each neighborhood devoted to agriculture. Using discrete-time event history models, I examine the relationship between the proportion of land devoted to

Scott T. Yabiku

2006-01-01

196

Landing Pad Assembly for Aerospace Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The landing gear forms part of a space vehicle designed for a lunar landing. The landing pad itself is in the form of a hollow spherical curved pad having radially collapsible ribs or spokes formed in it. The ribs absorb the shock of landing by collapsing...

J. F. Blumrich

1965-01-01

197

The Official Land Patent Records Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) General Land Office, this site currently provides public access to over two million Federal land title records, issued between 1820 and 1908, for twelve Eastern Public Land States. The databases for each state enable researchers to conduct sophisticated cross-field queries to trace the initial transfer of land titles from the Federal government to individuals. Historians may conduct genealogical searches to associate an individual with a particular location during a specific time. The site allows users to order certified copies of land patents at a nominal cost. Note: electronic images for land patent records are viewable as TIF files only.

1999-01-01

198

X-31 landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrators were flown at the Rockwell International facility, Palmdale, California, and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to obtain data that may apply to the design of highly-maneuverable next-generation fighters. The program had its first flight on October 11, 1990, in Palmdale; it ended in June 1995. The X-31 program demonstrated the value of thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight during close-in air combat at very high angles of attack. The result of this increased maneuverability is an airplane with a significant advantage over conventional fighters. 'Angle-of-attack' (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft's body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots often fly at extreme angles of attack -- with the nose pitched up while the aircraft continues in its original direction. This can lead to loss of control and result in the loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy mounted on the exhaust nozzle of the X-31 aircraft directed the exhaust flow to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve control. The paddles can sustain heat of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition the X-31 aircraft were configured with movable forward canards and fixed aft strakes. The canards were small wing-like structures set on the wing line between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. The strakes were set on the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. Both supplied additional control in tight maneuvering situations. The X-31 research program produced technical data at high angles of attack. This information is giving engineers and aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. This understanding is expected to lead to design methods that provide better maneuverability in future high performance aircraft and make them safer to fly. An international test organization of about 110 people, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), conducted the flight operations at NASA Dryden. The ARPA had requested flight research for the X-31 aircraft be moved there in February 1992. In addition to ARPA and NASA, the international test organization (ITO) included the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell International, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace). NASA was responsible for flight research operations, aircraft maintenance, and research engineering once the program moved to Dryden. The No. 1 X-31 aircraft was lost in an accident January 19, 1995. The pilot, Karl Heinz-Lang, of the Federal Republic of Germany, ejected safely before the aircraft crashed in an unpopulated desert area just north of Edwards. The X-31 program logged an X-plane record of 580 flights during the program, including 555 research missions and 21 in Europe for the 1995 Paris Air Show. A total of 14 pilots representing all agencies of the ITO flew the aircraft. The X-31 aircraft shown on approach with a high angle of attack, touches down with its speed brakes, which can be seen extended just above and behind the wing. The aircraft then begins to rotate the nosegear down to runway contact and deploys a braking parachute that assists in slowing the aircraft after landing.

1995-01-01

199

43 CFR 2541.4 - Price of land; payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Color-of-Title Act § 2541.4 Price of land; payment. (a) Price of land. The...

2013-10-01

200

Management of Arid Lands: An Agenda for Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Characteristics of arid lands, arid lands under stress, and issues in arid lands policy are considered. The inherent environmental variability of arid lands and the modes of adaptation evolved by arid lands peoples are discussed. Forces effecting rapid ch...

H. Ingram R. Nichols A. Gault P. Rosenfield

1978-01-01

201

ILS as an independent landing monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government press releases and known FAA activities are clearly heralding the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) as the landing system of the future. A need for redundancy is addressed, especially for low-visibility landings. The designation, landing system of the future, implies all-weather capability, i.e., landing capability when visibilities are less than 700 feet horizontally. This landing capability must

Richard H. McFarland

1998-01-01

202

Scheduling Aircraft Landings - The Static Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In this paper we consider the problem,of scheduling aircraft (plane) landings at an airport. This problem,is one of deciding a landing time for each plane such that each plane lands within a predetermined,time window,and separation criteria between,the landing of a plane, and the landing of all successive planes, are respected. We present a mixed-integer zero-one formulation of the problem,for

John E. Beasley; Mohan Krishnamoorthy; Yazid M. Sharaiha; D. Abramson

2000-01-01

203

A land use decision methodology for mine lands in Appalachia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the issues associated with the development of methodology for determining appropriate land uses for mined lands in Appalachia. The methodology which has been developed presents a framework which is useful for examining land use options for previously mined land, currently active mine sites and unmined land which has a high value or likelihood for future mining.

Yuill, C.; Gorton, W.T.; Frakes, M.

1981-05-01

204

Land Cover, Rainfall and Land-Surface Albedo in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land surface albedo is an important variable in General Circulation Models (GCMs). When land cover is modified through anthropogenic land use, changes in land-surface albedo may produce atmospheric subsidence and reduction of rainfall. In this study we examined albedo time series and their relationships with rainfall, land cover, and population in West Africa. This particular region was selected because it

Douglas O. Fuller; Christian Ottke

2002-01-01

205

Land leasing and land sale as an infrastructure-financing option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal land sales provide one option for financing urban infrastructure investment. In countries where land is owned by the public sector, land is by far the most valuable asset on the municipal balance sheet. Selling land or long-term leasing rights to land use while investing the proceeds in infrastructure facilities can be viewed as a type of portfolio asset adjustment.

George E. Peterson

2006-01-01

206

Land use land cover change and atmospheric feedback: Impact on regional water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change, such as conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural land and urbanization, is a major global change phenomenon. Between 1700 and 2000, the global extent of natural vegetation has decreased by 45%, and agricultural land area has increased five fold. LULC change impacts hydrology by changing regional climate (temperature and precipitation) and land surface

Sanjiv Kumar

2011-01-01

207

Land Tenure Confused; Past, Present and Future of Land Management in Zanzibar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The government's land management system has not been able to respond to the growing demands on land. Therefore in the 1980s a land policy and a commission, to respond to all land questions, were created and a new land legislation was prepared. The princip...

M. P. Toerhoenen

1997-01-01

208

Monitoring land use changes around the indigenous lands of the Xingu basin in Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous lands represent an efficient way to protect indigenous communities and environment in Brazil. However, these lands are also highly affected y the land use changes occuring in its surroundings. We quantified the land use changes in the Xingu basin based on MODIS EVI data between 2000 and 2006. We estimated the deforested area inside and outside the indigenous lands,

Damien Arvor; Margareth Simoes Penello Meirelles; Rafaela Vargas; Ladislau Araujo Skorupa; Elaine Cristina Cardoso Fidalgo; Vincent Dubreuil; Isabelle Herlin; Jean-Paul Berroir

2010-01-01

209

Safe Landings in Extreme Terrain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the failure of the Mars Polar Lander and the re-evaluation of the Mars Sample Return mission status, a Safe Landing Tiger team was established on January 7, 2000. The charter of the team was to re-evaluate large scale (1000-2000 Kg) Mars lander designs with the principal objective being the assurance of safe landing in hazardous terrain. The tiger team developed a number of concepts, two of the most notable and promising concepts, are both based on a Mobile Lander paradigm. Unlike the Pathfinder and Surveyor class landers, this paradigm groups all of the landed equipment into one of two categories: (1) EDL only equipment (i.e., not used after touchdown) and (2) multi-use equipment, those used during and or after touchdown. The objective is to maximize the use of all equipment being brought to the surface by placing the bulk of the avionics and mechanical systems onto a much larger 'rover' and leaving only the bare essentials on a 'dead-on-arrival' landing system. All of the hardware that the surface roving mission needs is enlisted into performing the EDL tasks. Any EDL specific avionics not used after touchdown are placed on the landing system.

Rivellini, Tom; Ortiz, Gary; Steltzner, Adam

2000-01-01

210

Florida Memory Spanish Land Grants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For several centuries, Spain established a presence in the area that is now Florida. After the land was transferred to the United States in 1821, European settlers filed land grants to prove land ownership. Interestingly enough, in 1790 Spain had started offering land grants to encourage settlement to the sparsely populated and vulnerable Florida colony. Of course, those who had filed claims had to prove to the United States that they had valid claims via documentation and testimonials. The Florida Memory project has digitized these documents and placed them online here for use by the general public. These documents provide information about the settlement and cultivation of Florida during this period via descriptions of the land, copies of royal grants, and so on. Visitors can browse all of the grants here or look at the five volume history of these documents created as part of the WPA's work in the 1930s. Finally, there is information here about how to order the maps for closer consideration.

211

Didelphis aurita (Marsupialia: Didelphidae): a new host for Sarcocystis lindsayi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae).  

PubMed

Nine opossums, Didelphis aurita , were captured in the city of Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and examined for species of Sarcocystis. Sporocysts were observed in the mucosal scrapings of the small intestine from 3 opossums. Five budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus , were infected with sporocysts from each of these infected opossums and 5 budgerigars were used as controls. Of the 15 sporocyst-treated budgerigars, 5 birds that received sporocysts from 1 of the infected opossums developed tissue parasites. Meronts in the vascular endothelium of the lung venous capillaries and cysts in the skeletal and cardiac muscle cells were observed in histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The microscopic cysts, which were predominantly in the tongue and leg muscles, ranged from 65.3 to 118.1 ?m in length and 14.0 to 29.4 ?m in width and from 0.9 to 1.9 ?m in thickness of the cystic wall. Sections examined by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cyst wall contained numerous slender and jagged-shaped protrusions, each with a finger-like formation at the end. The morphology, especially of the cyst wall, and the morphometry of the tissue cysts indicate that the parasite is Sarcocystis lindsayi and, therefore, the opossum, D. aurita , is now considered a definitive host for this species in Brazil. PMID:22571294

da Silva Stabenow, Cristiane; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

2012-12-01

212

Molecular Mapping of Brain Areas Involved in Parrot Vocal Communication  

PubMed Central

Auditory and vocal regulation of gene expression occurs in separate discrete regions of the songbird brain. Here we demonstrate that regulated gene expression also occurs during vocal communication in a parrot, belonging to an order whose ability to learn vocalizations is thought to have evolved independently of songbirds. Adult male budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were stimulated to vocalize with playbacks of conspecific vocalizations (warbles), and their brains were analyzed for expression of the transcriptional regulator ZENK. The results showed that there was distinct separation of brain areas that had hearing- or vocalizing-induced ZENK expression. Hearing warbles resulted in ZENK induction in large parts of the caudal medial forebrain and in 1 midbrain region, with a pattern highly reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Vocalizing resulted in ZENK induction in nine brain structures, seven restricted to the lateral and anterior telencephalon, one in the thalamus, and one in the midbrain, with a pattern partially reminiscent of that observed in songbirds. Five of the telencephalic structures had been previously described as part of the budgerigar vocal control pathway. However, functional boundaries defined by the gene expression patterns for some of these structures were much larger and different in shape than previously reported anatomical boundaries. Our results provide the first functional demonstration of brain areas involved in vocalizing and auditory processing of conspecific sounds in budgerigars. They also indicate that, whether or not vocal learning evolved independently, some of the gene regulatory mechanisms that accompany learned vocal communication are similar in songbirds and parrots.

JARVIS, ERICH D.; MELLO, CLAUDIO V.

2008-01-01

213

Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.  

PubMed

A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications. PMID:1297009

Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

1992-12-01

214

75 FR 32968 - Final Supplementary Rules for Public Land Administered by the Bureau of Land Management in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Occupancy of Public Lands AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION...supplementary rules for public lands in Colorado...Bureau of Land Management (BLM) issues these...supplementary rules for public lands managed...

2010-06-10

215

Land use management in Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of bulk imagery suggests that the forty-acre data cell used in the Minnesota Land Management Information Systems (MLMIS) can be utilized in interpretation of ERTS-1 data. High quality bulk images of the Twin Cities metropolitan area suggest that detail in urban land use patterns is much greater than originally anticipated. This implies a greater work effort in this area than was planned. Furthermore, the forest classes of land use can also be usefully divided into subcategories. Preliminary analysis of one rather low quality image also indicates that subclasses of wetlands can be identified. Prospects are bright for improving the potential detail that ERTS-1 can contribute to MLMIS.

Sizer, J. E. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

216

Landing gear energy absorption system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

Hansen, Christopher P. (inventor)

1994-01-01

217

Manual Land Cover Mapping Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students produce a land cover map of a 15 km x 15 km GLOBE study site from hard copies of Landsat satellite images. Students place clear transparencies over the Landsat TM images and use markers to outline and classify areas of different land cover using the MUC System. Students use their local expertise of their GLOBE study site and their sample site measurements to create and assess the accuracy of their maps. The resource includes a sample Landsat image, an example of an accuracy assessment work sheet, and a difference-error matrix to validate the degree of accuracy of the student product. This resource is a procedural tutorial supporting the protocol within the Land Cover/Biology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide.

218

The Emergency Landing Planner Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous work, we described an Emergency Landing Planner (ELP) designed to assist pilots in choosing the best emergency landing site when damage or failures occur in an aircraft. In this paper, we briefly describe the system, but focus on the integration of this system into the cockpit of a 6 DOF full-motion simulator and a study designed to evaluate the ELP. We discuss the results of this study, the lessons learned, and some of the issues involved in advancing this work further.

Meuleau, Nocolas F.; Neukom, Christian; Plaunt, Christian John; Smith, David E.; Smith, Tristan B.

2011-01-01

219

A Lunar Landing Guidance System for Soft-Precision Landings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A logical development of a novel, minimum-complexity guidance system for precise and soft lunar landing is presented together with an evaluation of predominant error sensitivities. Selection of this minimum-complexity system is influenced by its ability to handle a wide range of initial condition, sensor, propulsion and control system errors with minimum fuel and accuracy penalty. The trajectory control technique allows

J. E. Vaeth; M. D. Sarles

1964-01-01

220

Future Landing Capabilities of the Mars 2020 Entry, Descent, and Landing System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines landing site elevation capability as a function of landing season, for a future mission using the heritage MSL/Mars 2020 EDL system. Results are presented for a 1200kg landed mass with different parachute technology assumptions.

Kipp, K. A.; Hines, E. K.; Chen, A.

2014-06-01

221

Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

2004-01-01

222

Design and implementation of land reservation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land reservation is defined as a land management policy for insuring the government to control primary land market. It requires the government to obtain the land first, according to plan, by purchase, confiscation and exchanging, and then exploit and consolidate the land for reservation. Underlying this policy, it is possible for the government to satisfy and manipulate the needs of land for urban development. The author designs and develops "Land Reservation System for Eastern Lake Development District" (LRSELDD), which deals with the realistic land requirement problems in Wuhan Eastern Lake Development Districts. The LRSELDD utilizes modern technologies and solutions of computer science and GIS to process multiple source data related with land. Based on experiments on the system, this paper will first analyze workflow land reservation system and design the system structure based on its principles, then illustrate the approach of organization and management of spatial data, describe the system functions according to the characteristics of land reservation and consolidation finally. The system is running to serve for current work in Eastern Lake Development Districts. It is able to scientifically manage both current and planning land information, as well as the information about land supplying. We use the LRSELDD in our routine work, and with such information, decisions on land confiscation and allocation will be made wisely and scientifically.

Gao, Yurong; Gao, Qingqiang

2009-10-01

223

Extralegal land market dynamics on a Guatemalan agricultural frontier: Implications for neoliberal land policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoliberal land policies such as land administration seek to improve property rights and the efficiency of land markets to boost rural economic production. Quantitative studies of pre-existing land markets can help planners to tailor these policies to local conditions. In this article we examine an extra-legal land market currently being modernized by a World Bank-sponsored land administration effort. Specifically, we

Kevin A. Gould; Douglas R. Carter; Ram K. Shrestha

2006-01-01

224

Land-use planning of Minoo Island, Iran, towards sustainable land-use management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use planning is one aspect of sustainable development that determines the integrity of socioeconomic and ecological nuance. Land evaluation is an approach to sustainable land-use planning, which predicts the capability of the land-use system. This means that a specific land area should be under specific use, considering certain factors and characteristics of the land and its location. In other words,

Sara Kaffashi; Mandana Yavari

2011-01-01

225

The Physics of Land Yachting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will explore motion related to an object in terms of its change in position over time compared to a reference point. Students will be given a variety of simple materials to create and test their very own land yachts to explore motion.

2012-10-16

226

Mothering in a Foreign Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of becoming a mother in an adopted land presents unique challenges in identity formation of immigrant mothers. The bidirectional influence of the mother's own transformation and that of the larger family system has significant implications for child development. This article addresses the ways in which cultural displacement has an impact on the dilemmas of motherhood, as evident in

Pratyusha Tummala-Narra

2004-01-01

227

Predation behaviour of land planarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predatory behaviour of land planarians is seldom observed or reported. Aspects reported are (1) finding prey; (2) attack behaviour; (3) capture using adhesive mucus, pharyngeal action, poisonous secretions, physical embrace; (4) feeding by extension of pharynx, releasing copious digestive fluid. The species Bipalium kewense, B. adventitium and B. pennsylvanicum attack earthworms, immobilizing them by physical holding, digesting by pharyngeal secretions

Robert E. Ogren

1995-01-01

228

Polymorphism in pleistocene land snails.  

PubMed

Under suitable conditions the colors and patterns of the shells of land snails may be preserved for thousands of years. In a late Pleistocene population of Limicolaria martensiana all the major color forms that occur in modern living snails may be distinguished, and the basic polymorphism is at least 8,000 to 10,000 year old. PMID:17830234

Owen, D F

1966-04-01

229

This Land Is Our Land? This Land Is Your Land: The Decolonizing Journeys of White Outdoor Environmental Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across Canada, many Aboriginal peoples and communities are actively resisting environmental destruction and communicating to settler-Canadians traditions of respect for the land. Moreover, some Indigenous scholars and educators are calling for a foregrounding of Indigenous ways of knowing in environmental education for all students. However,…

Root, Emily

2010-01-01

230

In Brief: Moon landing anniversary  

Microsoft Academic Search

To commemorate the Apollo program and the fortieth anniversary of the first lunar landing, NASA has announced a nearly month-long series of activities at various locations around the United States during July. Events include a 16 July roundtable discussion about the Apollo program at NASA headquarters in Washington, D. C.; Moonfest 2009 at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field,

Randy Showstack

2009-01-01

231

Global Consequences of Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by

Jonathan A. Foley; Ruth DeFries; Gregory P. Asner; Carol Barford; Gordon Bonan; Stephen R. Carpenter; F. Stuart Chapin; Michael T. Coe; Gretchen C. Daily; Holly K. Gibbs; Joseph H. Helkowski; Tracey Holloway; Erica A. Howard; Christopher J. Kucharik; Chad Monfreda; Jonathan A. Patz; I. Colin Prentice; Navin Ramankutty; Peter K. Snyder

2005-01-01

232

Zimbabwe Land Crisis Turns Violent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This weekend the land crisis in Zimbabwe was marked by violence as one white farmer was killed and two members of the country's opposition party were the victims of a firebombing. In the past week, Zimbabwe veterans of the country's war for independence began occupying prime farmland owned exclusively by whites. These squatters have demanded that land redistribution promised for years by President Mugabe's government be enacted immediately. Mugabe himself, with an eye on upcoming elections in May, has supported the squatters, warning white farmers that he cannot protect them if they "provoke the war veterans." Early Monday, perhaps in response to international pressure, Mugabe modified his position somewhat, promising to maintain peace in the region, but stopping short of telling squatters to vacate the farms. Land reform has been a major issue in the country since it won its independence from Britain. Currently, about 4,500 white farmers own 11 million hectares of prime agricultural land while one million blacks divide 16 million hectares-typically in drought-prone areas. The political situation in the country also worsened with the firebombing death of two prominent members of the country's opposition party, Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). The killings were an ominous sign for the upcoming elections, especially since Mugabe did not condemn the attacks. Diplomats and observers are concerned that the elections next month may be marred by coercion, corruption, and violence. Not surprisingly, many whites in Zimbabwe have recently sought to reclaim their UK passports in possible preparation for fleeing the country.

Charbonneau, David D.

233

Deforestation and the frontier lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the degradation of Costa Rica's forests and soils during the 1970s and early 1980s illustrates one facet of the concept of sustainable development: a troubled economy can lead to a degraded environment. Almost 70 percent of Costa Rica's total land area is suitable only for forests; yet, because of rapid deforestation during the past two decades, today

2009-01-01

234

Minnesota's Land Use Planning Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals for Minnesota's land use planning process are described in the State Planning Agency's Overall Program Design and the biennual budget of other state agencies. They represent broad statements of what is to be achieved in major functional and coor...

1978-01-01

235

Land Use Planning after Earthquakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study identifies and analyzes factors in post-earthquake land use planning which can effectively reduce further earthquake risk in urban areas. Case studies are evaluated for earthquakes in San Fernando, Santa Rosa, Laguna Beach, and Alaska. A wide va...

G. G. Mader, M. L. Blair, R. L. Meehan, S. W. Bilodeau, W. E. Spangle

1980-01-01

236

Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

2010-01-01

237

Teacher in the Promised Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The promised land is our own bodies, our own senses, our own minds and imaginations. Those who accept this inheritance are qualified to be teachers, for in teaching we either replenish or frustrate a wondrous expectation. Ultimately, teaching is aimed at one thing--celebration. (Author/IRT)

Starratt, Robert J.

1979-01-01

238

Corrosion of Landing Gear Steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted on the corrosion behavior of landing gear steels, AerMet 100, 300M, AF1410, HYTUF and 4340. This study included investigations of stress corrosion cracking and immersion corrosion in an aqueous 3.5 percent NaCl solution, salt spray c...

E. U. Lee J. Kozol J. B. Boodey J. Waldman

1995-01-01

239

Land use planning in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India was the first country to provide for the protection and improvement of environment in its constitution. Land use planning (LUP) or siting of industries has been taken up at the State and Central (Federal) levels over the last few decades. LUP is critical for all types of industries and new residential colonies, but is especially so for the chemical

J. P. Gupta

2006-01-01

240

Western Land Use Trends and Policy: Implications for Water Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part I, 'Land Use and Land Use Policy', discusses what is 'land use' and 'land cover', land use theory, the land use policy regime, and some environmental protection policy cases. Part II, 'General Land Use Trends: Global, National, and Western U.S.,' con...

W. E. Riebsame J. Wescoat P. Morrisette

1997-01-01

241

Modeling the relationships between land use and land cover on private lands in the Upper Midwest, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to modeling land-cover change as a function of land-use change. We argue that, in order to model the link between socio-economic change and changes in forest cover in a region that is experiencing residential and recreational development and agricultural abandonment, land-use and land-cover change need to be represented as separate processes. Forest-cover change is represented

D. G. Brown; B. C. Pijanowski; J. D. Duh

2000-01-01

242

The American Land. Its History, Soil, Water, Wildlife, Agricultural Land Planning, and Land Problems of Today and Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in this booklet is the commentary for "The American Land," a television series prepared by the Soil Conservation Service and the Graduate School, United States Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with WETA - TV, Washington, D.C. It explores the resource of land in America, its history, soil, water, wildlife, agricultural land

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

243

How Does Changing Land Cover and Land Use in New Zealand relate to Land Use Capability and Slope?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land cover and use are critical for climate change, water quality and use, biodiversity and soil conservation as well as important drivers of rural economic activity and the evolution of rural communities. The Land Use in Rural New Zealand (LURNZ) model is a simulation model that predicts overall shifts in land use at a national scale and then allocates those

Suzi Kerr; Maribeth Todd

2009-01-01

244

Land-use/land-cover drives variation in the specific inherent optical properties of estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use/land-cover change impacts the exports of biogeochemically active constituents to estuaries. Specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs) are directly related to the composition of optically active water constituent in estuaries, and are important inputs for semi-analytical ocean color remote sensing algorithms. Studying the relationship between land-use/land-cover and SIOPs may help us to better understand how land-use/land-cover change affects the biological properties in the estuaries, and assist to optimize and tune local ocean color remote sensing algorithms for water quality retrieval. Using data from six estuaries on the northeast coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the relationships between land-use/land-cover and SIOPs were analyzed in this study. The results showed that land-use/land-cover change significantly affected the SIOPs in the six systems. Changing vegetation (Evergreen+Wetland) cover to developed land cover (Urban+Agriculture) decreased specific phytoplankton absorption (a*ph), but increased the slope of absorption spectral from detrital particles (Sd) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (Sg). These trends indicated that land-use/land-cover change significantly influenced the phytoplankton cell size distribution, organic particle concentration, and the ratio of dissolved organic matter to dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DOC/DIN) in these systems by enhancing the nutrient loading and organic matter transport. The strong relationships between SIOPs and land-use/land-cover implied that the variation of SIOPs may be predictable in different systems with knowledge of land-use/land-cover.

Le, C.; Lehrter, J. C.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Hu, C.

2013-12-01

245

STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A fire rescue truck stands by for safety reasons as Space Shuttle Atlantis slows to a stop on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

2002-01-01

246

STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis approaches the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

2002-01-01

247

STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Its shadow precedes it as Space Shuttle Atlantis drops to the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

2002-01-01

248

STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis is close to touchdown at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

2002-01-01

249

STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis stirs up dust as it touches down on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

2002-01-01

250

STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis casts a needle-shaped shadow as it drops to the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

2002-01-01

251

STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis drops to the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

2002-01-01

252

STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Its drag chute deployed, Space Shuttle Atlantis slows to a stop after touchdown on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

2002-01-01

253

STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis kicks up dust as it touches down at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

2002-01-01

254

STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis approaches the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

2002-01-01

255

Land Use Change, 1970s (on Diskette).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Paired sample point data of land use change in 135 fast population growth, 36 cropland loss, and 20 cropland gain counties in the United States. Data cover 15 major land uses including agricultural, forest, urban, and wetlands.

1988-01-01

256

Shrimp Landings, January 1977-December 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report, Current Fisheries Statistics for Shrimp Landings has been compiled for January 1977 through December 1978. The Annual Summary issues for 1977 and 1978 are included. Data includes commercial shrimp landings by type and region, specified periods...

1978-01-01

257

25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to prevent loss or waste, leases on undivided inherited...

2011-04-01

258

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2010-07-01

259

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2012-07-01

260

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2011-07-01

261

Video Landing Parameter Survey, London Heathrow Airport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) William J. Hughes Technical Center have been conducting a series of video landing parameter surveys at high-activity commercial airports to acquire a better understanding of typical landing contac...

R. Micklos T. DeFiore

2007-01-01

262

Climate and Land Degradation — an Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of land degradation in the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) gives explicit recognition\\u000a to climatic variations as one of the major factors contributing to land degradation. In order to accurately assess sustainable\\u000a land management practices, the climate resources and the risk of climate-related or induced natural disasters in a region\\u000a must be known. Land surface is

Mannava V. K. Sivakumar; Robert Stefanski

263

State Council bans misuse of arable land.  

PubMed

This 1992 Circular was issued by the State Council of China to reinforce earlier enactments that require all localities to curb the arbitrary occupation and indiscriminate use of arable land. The Circular outlines various objectives and strategies for 1) increasing public awareness of the need to protect arable land, 2) urging localities to enforce all existing land control laws, 3) the proper management of construction in development zones, and 4) additional regulation and standardization of the landed property market. PMID:12320237

1992-11-23

264

Major Land Clearing Fires, Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These many and intense land clearing fires in the Kalimantan region of the island of Borneo, Indonesia (3.5S, 113.5E) are indicative of the many deforestation activities on a worldwide scale. In order to feed and house ever increasing populations, more cleared land is required for agriculture to feed ever increasing populations. More pasture lands are needed for livestock. And, more cleared lands are needed for housing.

1991-01-01

265

Women and Land Rights Reforms in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Land rights are usually conceived of as the rights to use, enjoy and exploit land including information about, decision - making around and benefits from the latter. Women's land rights are fragile and transient, being dependent upon age and marital status (including type of marriage and the success of that marriage), whether they had children (including the number and

Bioye Tajudeen ALUKO; Abdul-Rasheed AMIDU

2006-01-01

266

Hazard Detection Methods for Lunar Landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods and experiences from the Apollo Program are fundamental building blocks for the development of lunar landing strategies for the constellation program. Each of the six lunar landing Apollo missions landed under near ideal lighting conditions. The astronauts visually performed terrain relative navigation while looking out of windows, and were greatly aided by external communication and well lit scenes.

Tye Brady; Edward Robertson; Chirold Epp; Stephen Paschall; Doug Zimpfer

2009-01-01

267

Discovering the Effect Mining has on Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an investigation where students observe what happens to land after it is mined. Students will create a hypothesis, observe their model, conclude what happens to land after it is mined, and discover the role humans play in land conservation.

Olson, Debra

268

Implementation of the First Asteroid Landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacecraft have successfully landed on the Moon, Venus, and Mars, and have penetrated the atmosphere of Jupiter. On 2001 February 12, the Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker spacecraft landed on the surface of the asteroid (433) Eros after a year of observations in orbit about the asteroid. NEAR Shoemaker was not designed to land on an asteroid, complicating the design

David W. Dunham; Robert W. Farquhar; James V. McAdams; Mark Holdridge; Robert Nelson; Karl Whittenburg; Peter Antreasian; Steven Chesley; Clifford Helfrich; William M. Owen; Bobby Williams; Joseph Veverka; Ann Harch

2002-01-01

269

Optimal soft landing control for moon lander  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the soft landing problem of a moon lander. The main purpose is to design the optimal control law to ensure the soft landing of the lander with the least fuel consumption. It is formulated as a constrained optimal control problem, where specific requirements of this soft landing problem are all incorporated in the problem formulation. Then, by

Xing-long Liu; Guang-ren Duan; Kok-Lay Teo

2008-01-01

270

Variations in land requirements for meat production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of meat requires substantial amounts of feed grains which in turn require vast amounts of land. Future population growth and increase in consumption will raise the demand for meat and with it the land required for meat production. This paper analyses the various factors that affect land requirements for meat production. Meat production by Dutch broilers, pigs and beef

E. V. Elferink; S. Nonhebel

2007-01-01

271

Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

1974-01-01

272

Crater Deposits in 2003 MER Landing Sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the Mars Exploration Rover Hematite landing site, impact melt and lake deposits from a 140 km diameter crater have been excavated by an 18 km diameter crater and probably deposited at the surface of the landing site ellipse. Crater deposits may also be present in the Gusev and Isidis landing sites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Newsom, H. E.; Barber, C. A.; Thorsos, I. E.

2002-01-01

273

From soil survey interpretation to land evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

History The increasing and competitive demand for land, both for agricultural production and for other purposes requires that decisions be made on the most beneficial use of limited land resources, whilst at the same time conserving these re- sources for the future. The function of land eva- luation is to bring about an understanding of the relationships between the condition

K. J. BEEK

274

43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...surveyor will make a land survey. The United States will pay for the survey initially, but such...sales price for the land. The United States...of the appraisal, survey, and advertising...Reclamation will sell the land by auction for...

2013-10-01

275

MODIS land validation activities: status and review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MODIS land team is responsible for both the production of global products characterizing the Earth's land surface and uncertainty estimates of these products. The uncertainty estimates be determined through land validation activities. Validation activities can be summarized by a framework comprised of three major components: 1) reference measurements needed to validate the product, 2) field sites where these measurements

Jeff Morisette; Jeff Privette; Chris Justice; David Starr

2000-01-01

276

A theoretical framework for land evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land evaluation is the process of predicting the use potential of land on the basis of its attributes. A variety of analytical models can be used in these predictions, ranging from qualitative to quantitative, functional to mechanistic, and specific to general. This paper classifies land evaluation models by how they take time and space into account, and whether they use

David G. Rossiter; J. Bouma; P. A. Burrough; J. J. de Gruijter; E. Van Ranst; A. K. L. Johnson; A. B. McBratney

1996-01-01

277

LAND FRAGMENTATION AND CONSOLIDATION IN ALBANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1945 agrarian reform in Albania changed the distribution of landownership. The land of the largest landlords was distributed to 70,000 families who either did not own any land or owned very little. Since this agrarian reform, land tenure structures have continually changed according to the organizational form of the agricultural sector. In the early 1990s, when the centralized economy

Sherif Lusho; Dhimiter Papa

1998-01-01

278

Black Rural Land Decline in the South  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that it is widely accepted that millions of blacks who migrated from the South contributed significantly to the decline of black rural land ownership. However, the less than altruistic behavior patterns of land officials has also contributed to the loss of rural land by blacks. (Author/AM)

McGee, Leo; Boone, Robert

1977-01-01

279

Conceptual design of lunar landing module  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses on mission operations and systems for lunar landing modules are conducted. The results of the review are presented. The main subjects of the review are as follows: (1) mission operation analyses (orbits); (2) attitudes; (3) methods of detecting the barrier at landing; (4) stability at landing; (5) system configurations, weight, and power balances; (6) main propulsion system thrust and

Takeshi Kawazoe; Toshiyuki Tanaka; Kouhei Katou; Kazuhisa Kaneko; Masaya Yamamoto

1991-01-01

280

Approach phase ?V considerations for lunar landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomous landing and hazard avoidance technology (ALHAT) project is studying the lunar landing descent phase from lunar orbit to the surface. In this paper, we give an overview of the timing and DeltaV implications for key activities during the lunar landing approach phase. Timing and DeltaV performance are evaluated while varying the approach phase design and key hazard detection

Babak E. Cohanim; Thomas J. Fill; Stephen Paschall II; Laura M. Major; Tye Brady

2009-01-01

281

The Effect of Land Masses on Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video describes the complex connections between land (the lithosphere) and other parts of Earth's climate system. Animations from NOAA show how distance from the equator affects average temperature in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The video emphasizes five land factors that influence climate: latitude, elevation, topography, surface reflectivity, and land use.

Thinktv; Domain, Teachers'

282

Land Use. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land use is the subject of the student resource unit to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Uses of the land in an urban environment, suburban environment, rural environment (as cropland, forest, and others), recreation and parks, and other environments are described. The supply of and demand for land is discussed.…

Tulloch, Rodney W.

283

Sustainable land use evaluation spatialization analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed about the process and method of sustainable land use spatialization. Divide the indicator into statistical indicator and geospatial indicator. Take Guyuan County, Kangbao County and Zhangbei County in Bashang region of Hebei province, China as examples, build a sustainable land use evaluation indicator. Evaluate the sustainable land use in Bashang region in 2003; the result can describe

Bin Zhao; Jia-cun Li; Wen-ji Zhao

2010-01-01

284

Improving institutional incentives for public land management: an econometric analysis of school trust land leases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable interest in the proper management of public lands in the United States, but questions arise over what institutional arrangements may ensure proper land stewardship. Recently, the trust doctrine has been heralded as a way to motivate prudent decision making by land managers. School trust lands, which are managed to generate revenues for public schools, represent a long-standing

MATTHEW H. BONDS; JEFFREY J. POMPE

2005-01-01

285

Scenarios of land use change for agriculture: the role of Land Evaluation in improving model simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated scenarios of future climate and land use represent a useful input for impact studies about global changes. In particular, improving future land use simulations is essential for the agricultural sector, which is influenced by both biogeophysical constraints and human needs. Often land use change models are mainly based on statistical relationships between known land use distribution and biophysical or

V. Mereu; M. Santini; G. Dettori; P. Muresu; D. Spano; P. Duce

2009-01-01

286

United States Land Cover Land Use Change, Albedo and Surface Radiative Forcing 1973 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research responds to the recent recommendations made by the U.S. National Research Council for regional forcing studies to better understand climatic responses to land cover land use change. Surface albedo affects the earth's radiative energy balance, by controlling how much incoming solar radiation is absorbed and reflected. It is well established that Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change results

C. A. Barnes; D. P. Roy

2007-01-01

287

Agricultural land fragmentation: the spatial effects of three land protection strategies in the eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragmentation of agricultural land by urban sprawl affects both the agricultural production capacity of the land and its rural scenic quality. In order to assess the resulting fragmentation of the three most common types of agricultural land conservation tools in the United States, this study analyzes the spatial form of three land protection strategies: a purchase of development rights (PDR)

Elizabeth Brabec; Chip Smith

2002-01-01

288

Land Fragmentation and the Need for the Land Consolidation in Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As of 31 March 2006 altogether 80.9 percent of the area of Estonia (4522.7 thousand hectares) has been registered in the Land Cadastre. The total number of registered parcels (cadastral units) is approximately 500 thousand (by cadastral data of Estonian Land Board). The reasons of land fragmentation in Estonia are different but the ideology of land reform is playing notable

Siim Maasikamäe

289

Potential Supply of Cultivated Land under the Land Consolidation of Rural Residential Areas Based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land consolidation of rural residential areas is an important step for dynamic equilibrium of the total cultivated land. As a case of Jiayu county in Hubei province, an evaluation model of land consolidation potential was established based on 3 factors of policy index, households' willingness and spatial distribution, analyzed the realistic potential of land consolidation in consolidating areas and planning

Kong Xuesong; Liu Yanfang; Zou Yafeng; Chen Yiyun

2010-01-01

290

Using Geometrical, Textural, and Contextual Information of Land Parcels for Classification of Detailed Urban Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed urban land use data are important to government officials, researchers, and businesspeople for a variety of purposes. This article presents an approach to classifying detailed urban land use based on geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels. An area of 6 by 14 km in Austin, Texas, with land parcel boundaries delineated by the Travis Central Appraisal District

Shuo-Sheng Wu; Xiaomin Qiu; E. Lynn Usery; Le Wang

2009-01-01

291

Global Consequences of Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.

Foley, Jonathan A.; DeFries, Ruth; Asner, Gregory P.; Barford, Carol; Bonan, Gordon; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Coe, Michael T.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Helkowski, Joseph H.; Holloway, Tracey; Howard, Erica A.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Monfreda, Chad; Patz, Jonathan A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Ramankutty, Navin; Snyder, Peter K.

2005-07-01

292

Land Banking as Metropolitan Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the United States continues to grapple with a financial crisis, many scholars and policy pundits are looking at ways to improve the lot of American cities. One recently proposed idea is land banking, which is "the process or policy by which local governments acquire surplus properties and convert them to productive use or hold them for long term strategic public purposes." In this 39-page paper released in October 2008, Frank S. Alexander of The Brookings Institution offers a lucid and compelling exploration of how land banking might be used at the federal level in order to support the millions of properties that are currently in the process of foreclosure, or those which are already vacant and abandoned. The report contains an executive summary and nine chapters (including a conclusion) which discuss the ways in which such a policy might be implemented over the short and long term.

293

Accurate Inventories Of Irrigated Land  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System for taking land-use inventories overcomes two problems in estimating extent of irrigated land: only small portion of large state surveyed in given year, and aerial photographs made on 1 day out of year do not provide adequate picture of areas growing more than one crop per year. Developed for state of California as guide to controlling, protecting, conserving, and distributing water within state. Adapted to any large area in which large amounts of irrigation water needed for agriculture. Combination of satellite images, aerial photography, and ground surveys yields data for computer analysis. Analyst also consults agricultural statistics, current farm reports, weather reports, and maps. These information sources aid in interpreting patterns, colors, textures, and shapes on Landsat-images.

Wall, S.; Thomas, R.; Brown, C.

1992-01-01

294

Land use change suppresses precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feedback loop between regional scale deforestation and climate change was investigated in an experiment using novel, small size airborne platforms and instrument setups. Experiments were performed in a worldwide unique natural laboratory in Western Australia, characterized by two adjacent homogeneous observation areas with distinctly different land use characteristics. Conversion of several ten thousand square km of forests into agricultural land began more than a century ago. Changes in albedo, surface roughness, the soil water budget and the planetary boundary layer evolved over decades. Besides different meteorology, we found a significant up to now overlooked source of aerosol over the agriculture area. The enhanced number of cloud condensation nuclei is coupled through the hydrological groundwater cycle with deforestation. Modification of surface properties and aerosol number concentrations are key factors for the observed reduction of precipitation. The results document the importance of aerosol indirect effects on climate due to nanometer size biogenic aerosol and human impact on aerosol sources.

Junkermann, W.; Hacker, J.; Lyons, T.; Nair, U.

2009-09-01

295

Land use change suppresses precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feedback loop between regional scale deforestation and climate change was investigated in an experiment using novel, small size airborne platforms and instrument setups. Experiments were performed in a worldwide unique natural laboratory in Western Australia, characterized by two adjacent homogeneous observation areas with distinctly different land use characteristics. Conversion of several ten thousand square km of forests into agricultural land began more than a century ago. Changes in albedo and surface roughness and the water budget of soil and the planetary boundary layer evolved over decades. Besides different meteorology we found a significant up to now overseen source of aerosol over the agriculture. The enhanced number of cloud condensation nuclei is coupled through the hydrological groundwater cycle with deforestation. Modification of surface properties and aerosol number concentrations are key factors for the observed reduction of precipitation. The results document the importance of aerosol indirect effects on climate due to nanometer size biogenic aerosol and human impact on aerosol sources.

Junkermann, W.; Hacker, J.; Lyons, T.; Nair, U.

2009-05-01

296

Carbon Sequestration and Land Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storing carbon (C) in soil as organic matter is not only a viable strategy to sequester CO2 from the atmosphere, but is vital for improving the quality of soil. This presentation describes (1) C sequestration concepts\\u000a and rationale, (2) relevant management approaches to avoid land degradation and foster C sequestration, and (3) a summary\\u000a of research quantifying soil C sequestration.

Alan J. Franzluebbers; Paul C. Doraiswamy

297

Autonomous landing guidance system validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALG is a combination of raster imaging sensor, head-up displays, flight guidance and procedures which allow pilots to perform hand flown aircraft maneuvers in adverse weather, at night, or in low visibility conditions at facilities with minimal or no ground aids. Maneuvers in the context of ALG relate to takeoff, landing, rollout, taxi and terminal parking. Commercial needs are driven by potential revenue savings since today only 43 Type III and 80 Type II instrumented landing system (ILS) runway ends in the United States are equipped for lower minimum flight operations. Additionally, most of these ILS facilities are clustered at major gateway airports which further impacts on dispatch authority and general ATC regional delays. Infrastructure consists to upgrade additional runways must not only account for the high integrity ground instrumentation, but also the installation of lights and markers mandated for Cat III operations. The military services ability to train under realistic battlefield conditions, to project power globally in support of national interests, while providing humanitarian aid, is significantly impaired by the inability to conduct precision approaches and landings in low visibility conditions to either instrumented runways or to a more tactical environment with operations into and out of unprepared landing strips, particularly when time does not permit deployment of ground aids and the verification of their integrity. Recently, Lear Astronics, in cooperation with Consortium members of the ALG Program, concluded a flight test program which evaluated the utility of the ALG system in meeting both civil and military needs. Those results are the subject of this paper.

Bui, Long Q.; Franklin, Michael R.; Taylor, Christopher; Neilson, Graham

1997-06-01

298

STS-53 Launch and Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Footage of various stages of the STS-53 Discovery launch is shown, including shots of the crew at breakfast, getting suited up, and departing to board the Orbiter. The launch is seen from many vantage points, as is the landing. On-orbit activities show the crew performing several medical experiments, such as taking a picture of the retina and measuring the pressure on the eyeball. One crewmember demonstrates how to use the rowing machine in an antigravity environment.

1992-01-01

299

Lunar Landing Re-enactment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The re-enactment of astronaut Neil Armstrong's first steps off the lunar lander provided quite the occasion for many of the on-lookers at the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL, during the celebration of the 30th arniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing. The celebration in Huntsville lasted over the weekend with visitors including Buzz Aldrin and other Apollo astronauts.

1999-01-01

300

15 Most Endangered Wild Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, recently released by the Wilderness Society, describes the "15 most endangered wild lands" and the threats to each. The list includes Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Badger-Two Medicine, Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, Cascade Crest, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges, Mojave Desert, Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Owyhee Canyonlands, Petroglyph National Monument, Routt National Forest, Utah Wilderness, and Western Maine Woods.

301

Research on urban land grade adjustment based on digital land price model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the Digital Land Price Model was proposed to adjust the land grade based on the problem of benchmark price during rectify the land grade. Chose the reasonable interpolation method and then make grid treatment, the three-dimension land price model was obtained using the bargaining land price, which supported by the Arcview GIS. The model provided the structure of land price. The price of each unit was calculated after interpolation, and then the map of the land grade was estimated that compared with the original to make adjust.

Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Shi-Jian; Guan, Yunlan

2009-10-01

302

Zooming in on Landing Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Zooming in on Landing Site

This animation zooms in on the area on Mars where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will touchdown on May 25, 2008. The image was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

The first shot shows the spacecraft's landing ellipse in green, the area where Phoenix has a high probability of landing. It then zooms in to show the region's arctic terrain. This polar landscape is relatively free of rocks, with only about 1 to 2 rocks 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) or larger in an area about as big as two football fields.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo.

2008-01-01

303

DYNAMICS OF LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGE IN TROPICAL REGIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We highlight the complexity of land-use\\/cover change and propose a framework for a more general understanding of the issue, with emphasis on tropical regions. The review summarizes recent estimates on changes in cropland, agricultural intensification, tropical deforestation, pasture expansion, and urbanization and identifies the still unmeasured land-cover changes. Climate-driven land-cover modifications interact with land-use changes. Land-use change is driven by

Eric F. Lambin; Helmut J. Geist; Erika Lepers

2003-01-01

304

Land availability and land value assessment for solar ponds in the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The land availability and land values for solar ponds in the United States as they concern the residential, commercial, and institutional land use categories were investigated. Solar ponds were identified as efficient and economical means for collecting and storing direct and diffuse solar energy. Innovative methodologies were applied to arrive at regional projections regarding the amount of land that might potentially be available for retrofit or future solar pond applications. Regional land values were also documented and analyzed.

1982-01-01

305

43 CFR 2610.0-8 - Lands subject to application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GRANTS Carey Act Grants, General § 2610.0-8 Lands subject to application. (a) The lands shall be unreclaimed desert lands capable of producing ordinary agricultural crops by irrigation. (b) The lands shall be nonmineral, except...

2013-10-01

306

25 CFR 158.54 - Exchanges of restrictive lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...restrictive lands. 158.54 Section 158.54 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER OSAGE LANDS § 158.54 Exchanges of restrictive lands. Upon written application of the Indians involved, the...

2011-04-01

307

43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS Leases, Permits and Easements: General...Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A...

2013-10-01

308

43 CFR 2911.0-8 - Lands available for leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Airport § 2911.0-8 Lands available for leasing. Any contiguous unreserved and...

2013-10-01

309

43 CFR 3130.6-2 - Land descriptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...General § 3130.6-2 Land descriptions. (a...the sections. (b) Leased lands shall be described according...accordance with the official survey or protraction...

2013-10-01

310

19 CFR 122.33 - Place of first landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Place of first landing. 122.33 Section 122.33 Customs...THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.33 Place of first landing. (a) The first landing of an...

2010-04-01

311

19 CFR 122.33 - Place of first landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Place of first landing. 122.33 Section 122.33 Customs...THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.33 Place of first landing. (a) The first landing of an...

2009-04-01

312

Changes in Land Use and Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use change is one of the main drivers of many processes of environmental change, as it influences basic resources of the landscape including the soil. Poor land management can rapidly deteriorate vast amounts of land, which frequently becomes a major threat to rural subsistence in many developing countries. Conversely, impact of land use changes on soil also can occur so unnoticed that land managers hardly contemplate initiating ameliorative measures. Subsequently, changes in land use affect soil properties and processes at a variety of scales. For example, forest conversion to cropland and reduction of tillage intensity can prevail as main changes of land use in some regions, whereas abandon of agricultural fields can be a major concern in other regions. In non-agricultural context, changes of land use of major interest are driven by urbanization, landscaping, engineering, mining, contamination, etc. Disturbed soils are not necessarily lost to agriculture, forestry, amenity or other alternative uses. Knowledge and understanding of soil properties and processes ensures remediation or reclamation of disturbed or damaged soils. Therefore, we focus mainly on how soil properties and processes can be managed and controlled to mitigate the impact of changes in land use. Moreover, land use changes occur at different spatial and temporal scales. Currently, the most promising approaches to evaluate the complex interaction between land use and soil heterogeneity at various scales apply advanced statistical and mathematical methods.

Paz-González, A.; Tarquis, A.; de Abreu, C. A.; Olechko, K.; Sáa, A.; Gobin, A.; Gómez, J. A.; Kutilek, M.

2012-04-01

313

Landsafe: Landing Site Risk Analysis Software Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk associated to a landing site in terms of a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operation of the lander. In addition, global illumination conditions at the landing site have to be simulated and analyzed. The Landing Site Risk Analysis software framework (LandSAfe) is a system for the analysis, selection and certification of safe landing sites on the lunar surface. LandSAfe generates several data products including high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs), hazard maps, illumination maps, temperature maps and surface reflectance maps which assist the user in evaluating potential landing site candidates. This paper presents the LandSAfe system and describes the methods and products of the different modules. For one candidate landing site on the rim of Shackleton crater at the south pole of the Moon a high resolution DTM is showcased.

Schmidt, R.; Bostelmann, J.; Cornet, Y.; Heipke, C.; Philippe, C.; Poncelet, N.; de Rosa, D.; Vandeloise, Y.

2012-08-01

314

Offshore investigations on Wilkes land-Victoria land margin, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

In January 1984, the US Geological Survey research vessel S. P. Lee carried out investigations of the Antarctic continental margin in the Wilkes Land Victoria Land areas, using 24-channel and high-resolution seismic, sonobuoy refraction, gravity, magnetic, and bottom-sampling methods. This investigation augmented previous surveys of the Dumont d'Urville area by the French Petroleum Institute and explored new areas west and east to the boundary between the onshore Wilkes basin and the Victoria Land highlands. These surveys defined sediment thickness distribution and seismic stratigraphy in this frontier area. The tectonic style of the boundary between the East Antarctic craton and the younger crust of West Antarctica in the Ross Sea is revealed by one multichannel seismic line across this important boundary. The initial breakup of Antarctical from Australia occurred as a slowly spreading phase during the middle Cretaceous. According to Deep Sea Drilling Project results on the Tasman Rise, conditions of restricted circulation existed in the growing basin between the continents before the late Eocene. After the late Eocene, the major oceanic circulation pattern was established. Before that time, conditions were favorable for preservation of organic-carbon deposits on the sea floor. Among the questions to be addressed with this data are the following. How do apparent subsidence rates of this passive margin compare with others around the world. Does the onshore subglacial Wilkes basins to the Otway and Ceduna basins of Australia exists. What is the effect of the ice cap on the stratigraphy of this margin. Do the two major Tertiary ice advances have conspicuous seismic-stratigraphic signatures.

Eittreim, S.L.

1984-04-01

315

Impact Dynamics Landing Facility - Lunar Landing Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of backstop. Originally intended for use in conjunction with one of the various apparatuses used to simulate astronauts walking on the moon, this backstop was eventually used as a backdrop for the various aircraft crashworthiness studies. By 1972 the Lunar Landing Research Facility was no longer in use for its original purpose. The 23 story structure was swiftly modified to allow engineers to study the dynamics of aircraft crashes. The 'backstop' with its painted grid has become a backdrop for films and videos of numerous crash tests.

2002-01-01

316

43 CFR 2546.1 - Offers of lands for sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Snake River, Idaho: Omitted Lands § 2546.1 Offers of lands for sale. Before any lands may be sold under the Act,...

2013-10-01

317

Capacity Building for Institutional Development in Surveying and Land Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Good governance, comprehensive land policies, and sound land administration institutions are essential components for addressing the problems related to land management and land information infrastructures. Both an efficient land market and an effective means of land-use control must be developed as the basic tools for achieving a sustainable approach. However, in many countries, and especially in developing countries and

Stig ENEMARK

2006-01-01

318

Vietnam Land Registration from Terminology to the Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Vietnam Land Administration system has implemented successfully the land policy in recent decades. In the next phase of socio-economic development plan, land is requested to become important domestic resources for many investment projects. Obviously, land registration needs further development so that land use rights or land use right certificate can be used as asset in the open market. In

Trung TRAN NHU; Dao ANH KIET; Ian HYDE; Vo DANG HUNG

319

Simulation of X-38 Landing Scenarios With Landing Gear Failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abnormal landing scenarios of the X-38 prototype Crew Rescue Vehicle (CRV) were modeled for three different cases involving non-deployment of landing gear with an explicit dynamic nonlinear finite element code, MSC/DYTRAN. The goal of this research was to develop models to predict the probability of crew injuries. The initial velocity conditions for the X-38 with chute deployed were 10 ft/s vertical and 57 ft/s longitudinal velocity. An MSC/NASTRAN structural model was supplied by JSC and was converted to a dynamic MSC/DYTRAN model. The MSC/NASTRAN model did not include seats or floor structure; thus, the acceleration of a lumped-mass attached to the bulkhead near each assumed occupant location was used to determine injury risk for each occupant. The worst case for injury was nondeployment of all gears. The mildest case was nondeployment of one main gear. Although a probability for minor injury was predicted for all cases, it is expected that the addition of energy-absorbing floor structure and seats would greatly diminish the probability of injury.

Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Stockwell, Alan E.

2000-01-01

320

The X-34 Demonstrator Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This artist's concept depicts the X-34 Demonstrator landing in a dessert. Part of the Pathfinder Program, the X-34 was a reusable technology testbed vehicle that was designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center to demonstrate technologies that were essential to lowering the cost of access to space. Powered by a LOX and RP-1 liquid Fastrac engine, the X-34 would be capable of speeds up to Mach 8 and altitudes of 250,000-feet. The X-34 program was cancelled in 2001.

2004-01-01

321

New crops for arid lands.  

PubMed

Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential of arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required. PMID:17770060

Hinman, C W

1984-09-28

322

Featured Videos: Urban Land Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Land Institute (ULI) offers up high-quality seminars, conferences, research materials, and long term planning information for real estate professionals, urbanologists, public leaders, and others. Its Featured Videos include observations from professionals in Europe talking about large scale megaprojects to conversations about transit planning in Chicago. A good place to start is with "The Changing World: A ULI Speaker Series," which includes conversations on "The Power of Face-to-Face Crowdfunding" and renegade urban gardening. Other great videos highlight infrastructure challenges in African cities and how communities rebuild after major environmental disasters.

323

Land mobile satellite demonstration system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A land mobile satellite demonstration system is described. It ulilizes the INMARSAT MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W. The system provides data transmission using a poll-response protocol with error detection and retransmission at 200 b/s rate. For most tests a 1.8 inch monopole antenna was used, along with a satellite EIRP normally used for four voice channels. A brief summary of the results are given and the overall system consisting of three elements in addition to the satellite (the mobile unit, the base station, and the office terminal and map display) is described. Throughput statistics from one trip are summarized.

Gooch, Guy M.; Nicholas, David C.

1988-01-01

324

Connecting Indicators with land degradation and desertification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of 72 selected candidate indicators corresponding to the physical environment, social, economic, and land management characteristics were defined in 1672 field sites located in 17 study sites in the Mediterranean and eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The selected indicators refer to specific farm characteristics such as family status, land tenure, present and previous types of land use, period of existing type of land use, soil depth, slope gradient, tillage operations, tillage depth and direction, etc., as well as to regional characteristics such as annual rainfall, rain seasonality, water availability, water quality and quantity, rate of land abandonment, rate of burned area, etc. Based on existing geo-referenced database, classes have been designated for each indicator and presented in a tabulated form. Weighing indices have been assigned to each class based on existing research or empirically assessing the importance to land degradation and desertification. Various processes or causes related to land degradation and desertification important for the study sites have been studied and the most relevant indicators have been defined. Questionnaires for each process or cause have been prepared and data were collected at field site level in collaboration with land users. The obtained data were statistically analyzed to identify the most important indicators related to each process or cause affecting land degradation and desertification. The analyses have shown that indicators may be widely, even globally, used for assessing the various land degradation and desertification processes or causes at field level. Of course, some indicators related to agriculture, social, and institutional characteristics in some cases show trends that are opposite to what happens in other study sites. These trends can be explained by further investigation including other indicators or processes affecting land degradation and desertification that it was not possible to consider in this effort. Efficiency and performance indicators seem the most promising for further research, particularly combined with economic principles for assessing land degradation and desertification. Key words: Indicators, land degradation, desertification

Kosmas, C.

2012-04-01

325

The land Gini coefficient and its application for land use structure analysis in China.  

PubMed

We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types-farmland, built-up land and unused land-was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764

Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

2013-01-01

326

Evaluation of historical land cover, land use, and land-use change emissions in the GCAM integrated assessment model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are often used as science-based decision-support tools for evaluating the consequences of climate and energy policies, and their use in this framework is likely to increase in the future. However, quantitative evaluation of these models has been somewhat limited for a variety of reasons, including data availability, data quality, and the inherent challenges in projections of societal values and decision-making. In this analysis, we identify and confront methodological challenges involved in evaluating the agriculture and land use component of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. GCAM then calculates both emissions from land-use practices, and long-term changes in carbon stocks in different land uses, thus providing simulation information that can be compared to observed historical data. In this work, we compare GCAM results, both in recent historic and future time periods, to historical data sets. We focus on land use, land cover, land-use change emissions, and albedo.

Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Janetos, A. C.; Zhou, Y.

2012-12-01

327

Beagle-2 landing site atlas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Beagle-2 lander of the Mars Express mission will come to rest on the surface of Isidis Planitia in late December 2003 to carry out a range of geochemistry and exobiology experi-ments. We are compiling an atlas of the presently available data products pertinent to the landing site at 11.6N 90.75E, which is intended for distribution both as a printed and an electronic resource. The atlas will include Viking and MOC-WA image mosaics, and a catalogue of high-resolution im-ages from MOC and THEMIS with location maps. There will be various MOLA topography-based products: colour-scaled, contoured, and shaded maps, slope, and detrended relief. Simulated camera panoramas from various potential landing locations may assist in determining the spacecraft’s position. Other maps, both raw, and in composites with image mosa-ics, will cover TES thermal inertia and spectroscopy, and Odyssey gamma and neutron spectroscopy. Maps at the scale of the Isidis context will additionally cover geology, tem-perature cycles, and atmospheric circulation. Sample are shown below.

Michael, G.; Chicarro, A.; Rodionova, J.; Shevchenko, V.; Ilukhina, J.; Kozlova, K.

2003-04-01

328

Advanced Land Imager Assessment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

2008-01-01

329

Phoenix Landing Ellipse over Long Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This map compares the size of the area where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is expected to land, called the landing ellipse (red), to the size of Long Island, N.Y.

Phoenix has a 99.9 percent probability of landing within the area denoted by its landing ellipse, a region in the northern plains of Mars centered at approximately 68 degrees north latitude, 233 degrees east longitude. The ellipse is about 70 kilometers (44 miles) long. Phoenix is most likely to land near the center of the ellipse, and least likely to land at its very edges.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

330

Phoenix Landing Ellipse Over San Francisco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This map compares the size of the area where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is expected to land, called the landing ellipse (red), to the size of the San Francisco Bay Area.

Phoenix has a 99.9 percent probability of landing within the area denoted by its landing ellipse, a region in the northern plains of Mars centered at approximately 68 degrees north latitude, 233 degrees east longitude. The ellipse is about 70 kilometers (44 miles) long. Phoenix is most likely to land near the center of the ellipse, and least likely to land at its very edges.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

331

Analysis of landing-gear behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.

Milwitzky, Benjamin; Cook, Francis E

1953-01-01

332

STS-66 Edwards Landing Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space shuttle Atlantis approaches runway 22 at Edwards, California, to complete the STS-66 mission dedicated to the third flight of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3), part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program. The astronauts also deployed and retrieved a free-flying satellite designed to study the middle and lower thermospheres and perform a series of experiments covering life sciences research and microgravity processing. The landing was at 7:34 a.m. (PST) 14 November 1994, after being waved off from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, due to adverse weather. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining

1994-01-01

333

Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here.

Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Compton, Roger W.

2014-01-01

334

Land cover and topography affect the land transformation caused by wind facilities.  

PubMed

Land transformation (ha of surface disturbance/MW) associated with wind facilities shows wide variation in its reported values. In addition, no studies have attempted to explain the variation across facilities. We digitized land transformation at 39 wind facilities using high resolution aerial imagery. We then modeled the effects of turbine size, configuration, land cover, and topography on the levels of land transformation at three spatial scales. The scales included strings (turbines with intervening roads only), sites (strings with roads connecting them, buried cables and other infrastructure), and entire facilities (sites and the roads or transmission lines connecting them to existing infrastructure). An information theoretic modeling approach indicated land cover and topography were well-supported variables affecting land transformation, but not turbine size or configuration. Tilled landscapes, despite larger distances between turbines, had lower average land transformation, while facilities in forested landscapes generally had the highest land transformation. At site and string scales, flat topographies had the lowest land transformation, while facilities on mesas had the largest. The results indicate the landscape in which the facilities are placed affects the levels of land transformation associated with wind energy. This creates opportunities for optimizing wind energy production while minimizing land cover change. In addition, the results indicate forecasting the impacts of wind energy on land transformation should include the geographic variables affecting land transformation reported here. PMID:24558449

Diffendorfer, Jay E; Compton, Roger W

2014-01-01

335

Implications of constant land unit boundaries for land use projection in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the impacts of changing climate on human systems and decision making is complicated by differences in spatial scales among economic and biophysical models. Earth System Models (ESMs) operate on gridded representations of the globe while Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) generally operate on coarser, geographically delineated land units. This study is a first step toward addressing the uncertainties associated with this mismatch in spatial scale by comparing the effects of different spatial initial conditions for the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) on land use projections. Three initial conditions--agricultural production, harvested area, and land rent--have different global distributions when calculated for two different sets of land units: one based on current climate (151 land units) and one based on year 2100 climate (184 land units). This results in different land use trajectories through 2100, mainly due to changes in within-land unit climate heterogeneity over time. The current climate land units become more heterogeneous and the future climate land units become less heterogeneous as time progresses. Ongoing work in a coupled model framework examines how these two land use trajectories differentially affect climate and vegetation productivity estimates in the Community ESM (CESM) and the associated feedbacks to GCAM energy and land use projections. As different land use trajectories may generate significant differences in global carbon cycling and climate, the presented results have broader implications for understanding policy scenarios and potential impacts and also for evaluating and inter-comparing IAMs and ESMs.

Di Vittorio, A. V.

2013-12-01

336

Trials on energy plantation on waste land  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a India has 93.6 million ha of waste land. Out of these 7.10 million ha of waste land is affected by salinity and alkalinity.\\u000a Thus waste land utilization and reclamation of salt affected soils can be affected by growing such hardy plants and using\\u000a them in an integrated way. Organic recycling is crucial for the maintenance of soil fertility, a key

Mira Madan; Satyawati Sharma; Rakesh Vimal

337

Climate Variability, Climate Change and Land Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective response by government and individuals to the risk of land degradation requires an understanding of regional climate\\u000a variations and the impacts of climate and management on condition and productivity of land and vegetation resources. Analysis\\u000a of past land degradation and climate variability provides some understanding of vulnerability to current and future climate\\u000a changes and the information needs for more

Beverley Henry; Greg McKeon; Jozef Syktus; John Carter; Ken Day; David Rayner

338

An economic perspective on land abandonment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Land abandonment,is the ultimate evidence of a modified economic,profit- ability in land ,use and land ownership. ,The paper first analyses how ,this phenomenon,can be assessed,using census survey,data and shows,the path ofland,use changes that occurred in Italy during the last thirty years. Sec- ond, it lists the main economic and social factors which can affect agricul- tural abandonment at macro,

Adele Coppola

339

Access to Land Data Products Through the Land Processes DAAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) was established as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) initiative to process, archive, and distribute land-related data collected by EOS sensors, thereby promoting the inter-disciplinary study and understanding of the integrated Earth system. The LP DAAC is responsible for archiving, product development, distribution, and user support of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land products derived from data acquired by the Terra and Aqua satellites and processing and distribution of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data products. These data are applied in scientific research, management of natural resources, emergency response to natural disaster, and Earth Science Education. There are several web interfaces by which the inventory may be searched and the products ordered. The LP DAAC web site (http://lpdaac.usgs.gov/) provides product-specific information and links to data access tools. The primary search and order tool is the EOS Data Gateway (EDG) (http://edcimswww.cr.usgs.gov/pub/imswelcome/) that allows users to search data holdings, retrieve descriptions of data sets, view browse images, and place orders. The EDG is the only tool to search the entire inventory of ASTER and MODIS products available from the LP DAAC. The Data Pool (http://lpdaac.usgs.gov/datapool/datapool.asp) is an online archive that provides immediate FTP access to selected LP DAAC data products. The data can be downloaded by going directly to the FTP site, where you can navigate to the desired granule, metadata file or browse image. It includes the ability to convert files from the standard HDF-EOS data format into GeoTIFF, to change the data projections, or perform spatial subsetting by using the HDF-EOS to GeoTIFF Converter (HEG) for selected data types. The Browse Tool also known as the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (http://lpdaac.usgs.gov/aster/glovis.asp) provides a easy online method to search, browse, and order the LP DAAC ASTER and MODIS land data by viewing browse images to define spatial and temporal queries. The LP DAAC User Services Office is the interface for support for the ASTER and MODIS data products and services. The user services representatives are available to answer questions, assist with ordering data, technical support and referrals, and provide information on a variety of tools available to assist in data preparation. The LP DAAC User Services contact information is: LP DAAC User Services U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center 47914 252nd Street Sioux Falls, SD 57198-0001 Voice: (605) 594-6116 Toll Free: 866-573-3222 Fax: 605-594-6963 E-mail: edc@eos.nasa.gov "This abstract was prepared under Contract number 03CRCN0001 between SAIC and U.S. Geological Survey. Abstract has not been reviewed for conformity with USGS editorial standards and has been submitted for approval by the USGS Director."

Klaassen, A. L.; Gacke, C. K.

2004-12-01

340

Geodiversity and land degradation in Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodiversity represents a variety of natural values, but they are threatened by a series of anthropogenic activities and land degradation processes. Their effect depends on the intensity of the processes and the sensitivity of the area in question. As a consequence of land degradation processes not only biodiversity but also geodiversity can be damaged and deteriorated. The appearance of the natural landscape changes and natural processes may not have a decisive role in landscape development any more. Some of the damages are irreversible because fundamental changes happen in the landscape, or the processes having created the original forms are no longer in operation. Small scale land degradation processes may be reversible if nature is still capable of reproducing the original state. The most important land degradation processes are desertification and soil erosion. Mining, waste disposal, urbanisation and construction activities, agriculture, inaccurate forest and water management, tourism, unsuitable land use can also lead to severe land degradation problems. The objective of the paper is to show Hungarian examples to all land degradation processes that threaten geodiversity. The results will be shown on a series of maps showing land degradation processes endangering geodiversity in Hungary. A detailed analysis of smaller study sites will be provided to show the effects of certain land degradation processes on landform development and on the changes of geodiversity. This research is supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), project Nr. 10875.

?rsi, Anna

2014-05-01

341

Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

Epp, Chirold

2007-01-01

342

Alaska interim land cover mapping program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In order to meet the requirements of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) for comprehensive resource and management plans from all major land management agencies in Alaska, the USGS has begun a program to classify land cover for the entire State using Landsat digital data. Vegetation and land cover classifications, generated in cooperation with other agencies, currently exist for 115 million acres of Alaska. Using these as a base, the USGS has prepared a comprehensive plan for classifying the remaining areas of the State. The development of this program will lead to a complete interim vegetation and land cover classification system for Alaska and allow the dissemination of digital data for those areas classified. At completion, 153 Alaska 1:250,000-scale quadrangles will be published and will include land cover from digital Landsat classifications, statistical summaries of all land cover by township, and computer-compatible tapes. An interagency working group has established an Alaska classification system (table 1) composed of 18 classes modified from "A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data" (Anderson and others, 1976), and from "Revision of a preliminary classification system for vegetation of Alaska" (Viereck and Dyrness, 1982) for the unique ecoregions which are found in Alaska.

U.S. Geological Survey

1987-01-01

343

Stewardship of the public lands in Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Texas General Land Office (TGLO) is a constitutional agency with the responsibility of managing over 22 million acres of public land, including 13.5 million mineral acres. From the panhandle of Texas to the three marine league line in the Gulf of Mexico, the diversity of both the Texas environment and our mineral ownership provides challenges to the management of our valuable public lands and natural resources. Lease provisions, statutory requirements and administrative policies are continually discussed and refined within our agency. The environmental and economic vitality of state lands are also given equal focus and consideration.

Rosenbusch, W. (Energy Resources General Land Office, Austin, TX (United States))

1992-06-01

344

Apollo command module land impact tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full-scale-model and actual spacecraft were impact tested to define the emergency land-landing capability of the Apollo command module. Structural accelerations and strains were recorded on analog instrumentation, and a summary to these data is included. The landing kinematics were obtained from high-speed photography. Photographs of the structural damage caused during the tests are included. Even though extensive damage can be expected, the crew will receive nothing more than minor injuries during the majority of the probable landing conditions.

Mccullough, J. E.; Lands, J. F., Jr.

1972-01-01

345

Radar Observations of Recent Mars Landing Sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity will arrive at their respective landing sites of Gusev Crater and Terra Meridiani in January 2004. During the 2001 and 2003 Mars Oppositions both landing sites were targeted for a series of radar observations using the telescopes of the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC). This paper will present results of terrestrial delay- Doppler radar observations of the landing sites, predictions for the surface properties that will be encountered, and, after successful landings, correlation between the predicted and observed surface properties. The in-situ observations made by both missions serve as ground truth for the validation of the high resolution radar mapping results.

Larsen, K. W.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.

2004-01-01

346

Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The film shows experimental investigations to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices include crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact.

Fisher, Loyd. L.

1960-01-01

347

Evaluation of Lands for Recreational Snowmobile Use (Guidelines for Natural Resources Management and Land Use Compatibility).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a recommended method to evaluate land areas on Army installations for use by recreational snowmobiles. Personnel normally charged with land management responsibilities can perform this evaluation. The method includes recommended proc...

R. M. Lacey R. S. Baran W. D. Severinghaus D. J. Hunt

1981-01-01

348

Regional Land Potential Study and Land Development Plan: Isothermal Region, North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the recommended Land Development Plan for the four-county Isothermal Region. Based upon the analysis of physical and socio-economic development determinants, the generalized Land Potential of the Region was first determined. Using the ...

1972-01-01

349

Land Use Analysis and Land Potential Study: Cumberland County, North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains an analysis of existing land uses in Cumberland County, North Carolina. Emphasis is placed upon patterns of land development and problems resulting therefrom. Major arterial development is examined. Physiographical and man-made factors...

1970-01-01

350

Exploring parameter sensitivities of the land surface using a locally coupled land-atmosphere model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a multicriteria analysis that explores the sensitivity of the land surface to changes in both land and atmospheric parameters, in terms of reproducing surface heat fluxes and ground temperature; for the land parameters, offline sensitivity analyses were also conducted for comparison to infer the influence of land-atmosphere interactions. A simple “one-at-a-time” sensitivity analysis was conducted first to

Yuqiong Liu; Hoshin V. Gupta; Soroosh Sorooshian; Luis A. Bastidas; William J. Shuttleworth

2004-01-01

351

Leave No Trace! Land Ethics [and] Tread Lightly! On Public and Private Land. A National Land Use Ethics Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two brochures that provide land ethics guidelines for outdoor recreationists. The brochures provide techniques that visitors can use to help reduce evidence of their presence in the back country, designated "Wilderness" areas. The first brochure, titled "Leave no Trace! Land Ethics," provides guidelines for planning back…

Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

352

The impact of land use and land cover changes on land surface temperature in a karst area of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite images have been used extensively to study temporal changes in land use and land cover (LULC) in China. However, few studies have been conducted in the karst areas despite the large area and population involved and the fragile ecosystem. In this study, LULC changes were examined in part of Guizhou Province of southern China from 1991 to 2001 based

Honglin Xiao; Qihao Weng

2007-01-01

353

Shallow land burial technology: Humid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste. Two finite-element hydrologic models were developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining, results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. Trench-cover subsidence measured over two of the three lined trenches did not occur over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. Results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at shallow land burial (SLB) sites with water-related problems.

Davis, E. C.; Yeh, G. T.

354

Newfoundland tests land exploration interest  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the government of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is inviting the industry to take another look at onshore western Newfoundland. A 1989 study by the Petroleum Resource Development Division of the Department of Mines and Energy stated that an area of about 30,000 sq km with widespread oil and gas seeps and hydrocarbon shows in shallow wells remains virtually unexplored in western Newfoundland. The report further concluded, a systematic exploration program utilizing modern exploratory techniques is warranted in this area and could potentially lead to the discovery of commercial accumulations of hydrocarbons. Success of the Canada- Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board's 1990 land sale, in which oil and gas rights were issued for 1.6 million hectares of adjoining offshore parcels, attests to growing interest in the area.

Petzet, G.A.

1991-09-09

355

In Brief: Moon landing anniversary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To commemorate the Apollo program and the fortieth anniversary of the first lunar landing, NASA has announced a nearly month-long series of activities at various locations around the United States during July. Events include a 16 July roundtable discussion about the Apollo program at NASA headquarters in Washington, D. C.; Moonfest 2009 at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., on 19 July; a First Footprint Celebration at the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Ala., on 20 July; and an Apollo 11 Splashdown Celebration at Johnson Space Center on 24 July. NASA Television will broadcast some of the events live. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/40th/events.html.

Showstack, Randy

2009-07-01

356

Land mobile satellite system requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

Kiesling, J. D.

1983-05-01

357

Land mobile satellite system requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

Kiesling, J. D.

1983-01-01

358

Land use planning in India.  

PubMed

India was the first country to provide for the protection and improvement of environment in its constitution. Land use planning (LUP) or siting of industries has been taken up at the State and Central (Federal) levels over the last few decades. LUP is critical for all types of industries and new residential colonies, but is especially so for the chemical industries. With the experience gained, more coherence in LUP policies is emerging. A few prominent cases of siting of industry, some mixed with public outcry, that have affected the policies are noted in the text. Various factors which affect LUP in India are: population density, infrastructure (roads, power, communication, etc.), level of industrialization in different parts, need for creation of jobs, eco-sensitive regions, tribal regions, historical monuments, etc. This paper discusses the current scene in India and the near future aspects. PMID:16111811

Gupta, J P

2006-03-31

359

Approving communitization agreements covering Native American lands  

SciTech Connect

A series of recent cases in the US Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit has created a great deal of confusion about the role of the Secretary of the Interior in approving oil and gas communitization agreements where Native American tribal or allotted lands are involved. In each case, the court was confronted with an operator who was attempting to extend an oil and gas lease covering tribal or allotted lands beyond its primary term by requesting to unitize the tribal or allotted lands with adjacent non-Native American lands on which a well had been drilled and completed or where drilling was taking place. All of the tribal and allotted leases involved in these cases contained {open_quotes}commence drilling{close_quotes} clauses, as well as {open_quotes}unit operation{close_quotes} clauses that authorized communitization of the lands covered by the leases with adjacent lands upon approval by the Secretary. While the Secretary clearly is required to approve communitization agreements covering tribal or allotted lands before such agreements are deemed effective, the scope of the Secretary`s approval authority has been the subject of continuing controversy. Communitization refers to the pooling of oil and gas interests in separate tracts, including federal and nonfederal properties, into a size sufficient to grant a well permit under applicable well-spacing rules. When lands have been communitized, production achieved on one oil and gas lease is allocated among all of the communitized leases. Thus, a lease of tribal or allotted lands that is communitized with a fee lease on which a producing well has been drilled is considered a producing lease even though there is no well on such lease. Such tribal or allotted lands lease therefore does not expire at the end of its stated primary term, but is extended until the well on the communitized land ceases to produce oil or gas in paying quantities. This article discusses the problem.

Hook, J. [Dorsey & Whitney, Denver, CO (United States)

1997-06-01

360

Oblique Photogrammetry and Usage on Land Administration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projects based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have started within the body of the General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (GDLRC) by the Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (LRCIS) in the beginning of 2000s. LRCIS was followed by other projects which are Turkish National Geographic Information System (TNGIS), Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (CORS-TR), Geo Metadata Portal (GMP), Orthophoto Web Services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastre Renovation Project (CRP), 2B and Land Registry Achieve Information System (LRAIS). When examining the projects generated by GDLRC, it is realized that they include basic functions of land administration required for sustainable development. Sustainable development is obtained through effective land administration as is known. Nowadays, land use becomes more intense as a result of rapid population increase. The importance of land ownership has increased accordingly. At this point, the necessity of cadastre appears. In Turkey, cadastral registration is carried out by the detection of parcels. In other words, it is obtained through the division of land surface into 2D boundaries and mapping of them. However, existing land administration systems have begun to lose their efficiency while coping with rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) belonging to land which become more complicated day by day. Overlapping and interlocking constructions appear particularly in urban areas with dense housing and consequently, the problem of how to project these structures onto the surface in 2D cadastral systems has arisen. Herein, the necessity of 3D cadastre concept and 3D property data is confronted. In recent years, oblique photogrammetry, whose applications are gradually spreading, is used as an effective method for producing 3D data. In this study, applications of oblique photogrammetry and usability of oblique images as base for 3D Cadastre and Land Administration projects are examined.

Kisa, A.; Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Ates, H. B.; Bakici, S.

2013-08-01

361

Using neural networks and GIS to forecast land use changes: a Land Transformation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Transformation Model (LTM), which couples geographic information systems (GIS) with artificial neural networks (ANNs) to forecast land use changes, is presented here. A variety of social, political, and environmental factors contribute to the model's predictor variables of land use change. This paper presents a version of the LTMparameterized for Michigan's Grand Traverse Bay Watershed and explores how factors

Bryan C. Pijanowski; Daniel G. Brown; Bradley A. Shellito; Gaurav A. Manik

362

Using neural networks and GIS to forecast land use changes: a Land Transformation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Land Transformation Model (LTM), which couples geographic information systems (GIS) with artificial neural networks (ANNs) to forecast land use changes, is presented here. A variety of social, political, and environmental factors contribute to the model's predictor variables of land use change. This paper presents a version of the LTM parameterized for Michigan's Grand Traverse Bay Watershed and explores how

Bryan C. Pijanowski; Daniel G. Brown; Bradley A. Shellito; Gaurav A. Manik

2002-01-01

363

A land suitability model for the evaluation of land-use change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A land suitability model was developed to provide the planner with a quantitative tool for assessing the environmental limitations on proposed land-use changes in the area surrounding Lake Monroe in southern Indiana. The model incorporates a weighting procedure that allows the environmental evaluation of a decision to convert the present land use to another category. The data base for the

M. C. Roberts; J. C. Randolph; J. R. Chiesa

1979-01-01

364

Influence of Land Related Factors on Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land is a scarce resource in the highlands of Ethiopia. Its sustainable use is highly affected among other factors by bio-physical and institutional aspects of land. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems on interrelated sustainable land management (SLM) investments in the North Western Ethiopian Highlands. A multivariate probit regression model is used to analyse interdependent investment decisions of SLM practices using a multiple parcel-level observations. The analysis indicates that farmers invest a combination of practices at parcels levels by considering substitution and complementarity effects of the practices. The results also reveal that land quality (e.g. slope and soil fertility status), land fragmentation (parcel size and distance of parcel from homestead) and tenure arrangements influence farmers' investments in SLM practices. The overall results indicate that farm land attributes promote or hinder investments, and tenure systems regulate the decisions about investments. Policy makers should take into consideration these various land related factors in designing and implementing SLM policies and programmes. Key words: Land quality, land fragmentation, tenure arrangements, sustainable land management, multivariate probit

Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Ritsema, Coen

2014-05-01

365

Health input into land use planning experiences in a land use program.  

PubMed Central

The experiences of a health professional in a land use program in a California County are described: providing health input into the land use planning process by counseling elected and appointed government officials, individual developers, and citizen groups; interpreting existing standards and evaluating proposed ordinances and land use proposals. The significance of such input and the need for guiding standards are emphasized.

Kaplan, O B

1978-01-01

366

AAG/HDGC Learning Module: Land Use/Land Cover (LULC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces students to the impacts humans have on land use/land cover change throughout the world. It illustrates the central role of the study of land use/cover change within the larger field of global environmental and climatic change, and is thus a good unit to introduce the latter topic. The module concentrates on what forces drive land use/land cover change, but also investigates the impacts of land use/land cover change on the environment and human societies, and additionally, how humans can respond to these changes most effectively. In the first unit of the module students are introduced to the human dimensions of global change, and they learn about the central role that the study of land use/land cover change plays within the larger field of global environmental and climatic change. In the second unit, students learn about selected land use/land cover areas and take a critical look at the data available for their study. In the third unit, students relate land use changes to human driving forces, and link changes at a global scale to those at a local scale, thus making global change a personal concern. The module includes supporting materials such as links to relevant organizations, external data sources, supporting research projects, a glossary, references for additional readings, and notes on active pedagogy.

1997-06-07

367

Land abandonment and slope gradient as key factors of soil erosion in Mediterranean terraced lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important land use change recorded in the Mediterranean basin comprises the abandonment of agricultural lands due to economic and social changes, which is followed by significant impacts on soil erosion. Observed land abandonment may have positive or negative impacts on soil protection from erosion because fundamental ecosystem processes are influenced by changes in agricultural practices and soil resources management.

M. Koulouri; Chr. Giourga

2007-01-01

368

Land surface phenology, climatic variation, and institutional change: Analyzing agricultural land cover change in Kazakhstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kazakhstan is the second largest country to emerge from the collapse of the Soviet Union. Consequent to the abrupt institutional changes surrounding the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, Kazakhstan has reportedly undergone extensive land cover\\/land use change. Were the institutional changes sufficiently great to affect land surface phenology at spatial resolutions and extents relevant to mesoscale

Kirsten M de Beurs; Geoffrey M Henebry

2004-01-01

369

The Rural Land Market and Factors Affecting Land Values: South Central Louisiana, 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rural land values have climbed impressively since the early 1940's. It has been estimated that, during this 30 year period, rural land values in Louisiana have increased at an average annual compound rate of 10 percent. The increases in land values have n...

F. Ramsey F. L. Corty

1978-01-01

370

Impacts and causes of land fragmentation, and lessons learned from land consolidation in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landholdings and land parcels in South Asia are undergoing fragmentation, thereby accelerating the pace of their degradation and constraining agricultural development. Based on experiences gained in the region and elsewhere, this paper finds the fragmentation of small landholdings and tiny land parcels detrimental to land conservation and economic gain, thereby discouraging farmers from adoption of agricultural innovations. Primarily induced by

Gajendra S. Niroula; Gopal B. Thapa

2005-01-01

371

Introduction to Land Use Decision Making Kit and Economics of Land Use. [2 Units].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this set of materials are two units: (1) Introduction to Land Use Decision Making Kit, and (2) Economics of Land Use. Each unit includes student guide sheets, reference material, and tape script. A set of 35mm slides and audiotapes are usually used with the materials. The introductory unit provides an overview of land use and suggested…

Haakonsen, Harry O., Ed.; Schaefer, Larry, Ed.

372

Professional Education Programme for Land Management and Land Administration in Cambodia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land management and land administration are defined as a system of planning, management and administration methods and techniques that aims to integrate ecological with social, economic and legal principles in the management of land for urban and rural development purposes. The main objective is to meet changing and developing human needs, while…

Setha, Vung; Mund, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

373

Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Atlantis touches down at 3:35 p.m. PST on 6 December 1988 at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at the conclusion of the STS-27 Department of Defense mission. Landing took place on runway 17 of the Rogers Dry Lake, concluding the 4-day, 9-hour, 6-minute mission. The five-man crew was led by Commander Robert L. Gibson and included Pilot Guy S. Gardner; Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross, William M. Sheperd, and Richard M. Mullane. Atlantis was launched on December 2 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the Shuttles. Now Kennedy Space Center, Florida, is the primary landing site with Dryden remaining as the principal alternate landing site.

1988-01-01

374

Experimental infection of white-leghorn cockerels with Macrorhabdos ornithogaster (Megabacterium).  

PubMed

Macrorhabdos ornithogaster is a newly described anamorphic ascomycetous yeast that has been reported to cause a chronic, debilitating disease in many species of birds, including poultry. Study of this organism is complicated by the limited ability to grow M. ornithogaster in vitro. In this study, we showed that the chicken can be used to amplify this organism and as a model to study its pathogenicity. An infection rate of 100% was achieved in day-old chicks orally inoculated with 10(5) M. ornithogaster derived from the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The organism was also determined to increase in number by greater than 10-fold 14 days after oral inoculation in these chicks. Chickens infected with M. ornithogaster demonstrated no sign of illness but had decreased feed conversion efficiency and consistent and characteristic histopathologic lesions in the proventriculus and isthmus of the stomach, suggesting that M. ornithogaster may represent a potential threat to the poultry industry. PMID:12887185

Phalen, David N; Moore, Robert P

2003-01-01

375

Encephalitozoon hellem in two eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus): identification from archival tissues.  

PubMed

Members of the phylum Microspora are obligate, intracellular, single-celled parasites identified in a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Only a few cases of microsporidial infections have been documented in psittacine birds including peach-faced, masked, and Fischer's lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis, A. personata, and A. fischeri, respectively), budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), and a double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala). Parasite identification has typically been limited to phylum or genus, and no avian species of microsporidia has clearly been described. In this report, microsporidia were identified in the kidney and intestine of a new host, the eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus). Parasites were identified as Encephalitozoon hellem using morphologic, ultrastructural, and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence data obtained from archived tissues. This parasite species was first identified in immunocompromised humans and may be a potential zoonotic pathogen. The epidemiology and prevalence of this parasite in humans and birds should be further explored. PMID:9864855

Pulparampil, N; Graham, D; Phalen, D; Snowden, K

1998-01-01

376

Tyre Impact Tests on Airport Landing Lights.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements were made of 'impact factors' for a 35 x 10 x 17 in aircraft wheel rolling over a selection of airfield landing lights; the 'impact factor' being the maximum dynamic load due to the impact with the landing light divided by the normal load jus...

T. Williams

1968-01-01

377

Land Administration, Information Technology and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land administration reforms into the future are likely to be influenced by: • Society's changing priorities • Globalization • Information technology revolution The latter is an important tool in delivering land information systems that support society's changing needs. However, technology also has the potential to dominate rather than serve society. The challenge will be to harness the information revolution to

Lisa Ting; Ian Williamson

378

New Mexico: The Land of Enchantment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New Mexico, a state of brown plains and sand deserts, is nicknamed "The Land of Enchantment." One reason is that the very starkness of the land adds to its enchantment. Another reason is that the rich history of the state has resulted in a landscape filled with remnants of the Pueblo people, Spanish colonizers, and Mexican settlers.

McKay, Sandra

2009-01-01

379

NATIVE AMERICAN LANDS IN REGION 10  

EPA Science Inventory

The .dbf file is standalone ArcView coverage contained within the American Indian Lands Environmental Support Project (AILESP) data base. Data supports scales at multiple resolutions although ambiguities can be seen when combined with other coverages such as general land ownersh...

380

Land degradation studies using spectroscopic techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desertification is a land degradation problem of major importance in the arid regions of the world. Deterioration in soil and plant cover have adversely affected nearly 70 percent of the drylands as mainly the result of human mismanagement of cultivated and range lands. Overgrazing, woodcutting, cultivation practices inducing accelerated water and wind erosion, improper water management leading to salinisation, are

S. Chabrillat; H. Kaufmann; B. Merz; J. Hill; A. Mueller

2003-01-01

381

[Land Use Unit, Edmonds School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 18 land use activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Biology, Horticulture, Mathematics, Social Studies, English, Industrial Arts and Physical Education. The topics to be investigated include: land use simulation games,…

Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

382

DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

A rational procedure is presented in this manual for the design of municipal sludge land application systems. he utilization of sludge in agriculture and forestry, reclamation of disturbed and marginal lands, and dedicated high-rate surface disposal practices are discussed in det...

383

Atrophy of Land Power: A Strategic Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The debate about land power's future will always surface in the lulls between peace and war. As part of this debate on land power's role and what it provides the nation, this paper offers for consideration a disturbing byproduct of two decades of limited ...

K. L. Jacobi

2013-01-01

384

Obtaining Institutional Access to Federal Lands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to federal lands is becoming more difficult for institutional outdoor programs. The Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service are drafting rules to address institutional users, and the U.S. Forest Service is reviewing institutional use and sees a need for some type of permitting for this population. A 1996 study of federal…

Beiser, Mike

385

Land Subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Approximate point of maximum subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Land surface subsided ~9 m from 1925 to 1977 due to aquifer-system compaction. Signs on the telephone pole indicate the former elevations of the land surface in 1925 and 1955....

2010-09-15

386

Effects of Spacecraft Landings on the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rocket exhaust of spacecraft landing on the Moon causes a number of observable effects that need to be quantified, including: disturbance of the regolith and volatiles at the landing site; damage to surrounding hardware such as the historic Apollo sit...

J. E. Lane P. T. Metzger

2013-01-01

387

2007 Michigan Land Values and Leasing Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land is a natural resource that is valued for many reasons. Farmers utilize land to earn their livelihood and as a store of wealth for future retirement. Potential rural residents have increasingly sought open space for a home site and pursuit of a lifestyle. Developers seek financial opportunities to invest in and develop it for non-farm uses. Recreational needs are

Eric Wittenberg; Stephen B. Harsh

2007-01-01

388

2009 Michigan Land Values and Leasing Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land is a natural resource that is valued for many reasons. Farmers utilize land to earn their livelihood and as a store of wealth for future retirement. Potential rural residents have increasingly sought open space for a home site and pursuit of a lifestyle. Developers seek financial opportunities to invest in and develop it for non-farm uses. Recreational needs such

Eric Wittenberg; Stephen B. Harsh

2009-01-01

389

2010 Michigan Land Values and Leasing Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land is a natural resource that is valued for many reasons. Farmers utilize land to earn their livelihood and as a store of wealth for future retirement. Potential rural residents have increasingly sought open space for a home site and pursuit of a lifestyle. Developers seek financial opportunities to invest in and develop it for non-farm uses. Recreational needs such

Eric Wittenberg; Stephen B. Harsh

2010-01-01

390

2011 Michigan Land Values and Leasing Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land is a natural resource that is valued for many reasons. Farmers utilize land to earn their livelihood and as a store of wealth for future retirement. Potential rural residents have increasingly sought open space for a home site and pursuit of a lifestyle. Developers seek financial opportunities to invest in and develop it for non-farm uses. Recreational needs such

Eric Wittenberg; Stephen B. Harsh

2011-01-01

391

Conceptual Problems in Land Surface Data Assimilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A land data assimilation system (LDAS) merges observations (or satellite retrievals) of land surface hydrological conditions, including soil moisture, snow, and terrestrial water storage (TWS), into a numerical model of land surface processes. In theory, the output from such a system is superior to estimates based on the observations or the model alone, thereby enhancing our ability to understand, monitor, and predict key elements of the terrestrial water cycle. In practice, however, several conceptual problems can interfere with realizing the potential improvements from data assimilation. Of particular concern is the frequent mismatch between the assimilated observations and the land surface model variables of interest. The seminar will discuss recent research with the ensemble-based NASA GEOS-S LDAS to address various aspects of this mismatch. These aspects include (i) the assimilation of coarse-scale observations into higher-resolution land surface models, (ii) the partitioning of satellite observations (such as TWS retrievals) into their constituent water cycle components, (iii) the forward modeling of microwave brightness temperatures over land for radiance-based land surface data aSSimilation, and (iv) the selection of the most relevant types of observations for the analysis of a specific water cycle variable (such as root zone soil moisture). At its core, the solution to the above challenges involves the careful construction of an observation operator that maps from the land surface model variables of interest to the space of the assimilated observations.

Reichle, Rolf

2012-01-01

392

Infrared Thermography for Land Mine Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter introduces the application of infrared (IR) thermography in land mine detection. IR thermography in general and for remotely detecting buried land mines in particular, seems to be a promising diagnostic tool. Due to the difference in thermophysical properties of mines and the soil (mines retain or release heat at a rate different from the soil), soil-surface thermal contrasts

Nguyen Trung Thành; Dinh Nho Hào; Hichem Sahli

2009-01-01

393

Satellite radar measurements of land subsidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of satellite borne interferometric measurements for the mapping of slow land subsidence has been investigated. Two test sites, covered by the ERS-1 satellite, were selected in the Netherlands: the provinces of Groningen and Zeeland. In situ measurements on the weather and the actual subsidence were gathered. It is shown that under favourable conditions measurement accuracies for land subsidence

D. Van Halsema; M. W. A. Van Der Kooij

1996-01-01

394

Design Equations for Rainbow Optical Landing Aid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Rainbow Optical Landing Aid is a carrier-based landing display system which enables the pilot to control the rate of descent of his aircraft to a high level of accuracy. The system is purely optical-geometrical and requires no electronics. The command...

C. A. Roberts

1965-01-01

395

Land uplift due to subsurface fluid injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subsurface injection of fluid (water, gas, vapour) occurs worldwide for a variety of purposes, e.g. to enhance oil production (EOR), store gas in depleted gas\\/oil fields, recharge overdrafted aquifer systems (ASR), and mitigate anthropogenic land subsidence. Irrespective of the injection target, some areas have experienced an observed land uplift ranging from a few millimetres to tens of centimetres over

Pietro Teatini; Giuseppe Gambolati; Massimiliano Ferronato; Dale Walters

2011-01-01

396

A Model of Residential Land Values.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Memorandum presents the findings of a pilot study that deals with the determinants of residential land values in an urban area. As part of the RAND Urban Transportation effort, one primary purpose of this study was to develop a land-value submodel fo...

E. F. Brigham

1964-01-01

397

Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical and experimental investigations have been made to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices discussed are crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact. It appears feasible to readily evaluate landing-gear systems for internal or external application in hard-surface or water landings by using computational procedures and free-body landing techniques with dynamic models. The systems investigated have shown very interesting energy-dissipation characteristics over a considerable range of landing parameters. Acceptable gear can be developed along lines similar to those presented if stroke requirements and human-tolerance limits are considered.

Fisher, Lloyd J., Jr.

1960-01-01

398

Accuracy of MER landing site maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous and precision controlled photomosaic maps of the MER A Meridiani Planum and the MER B Gusev Crater landing sites were used for mission operations to target the incoming rovers to the surface of Mars during Mars approach. Sets of photomosaics were composed from Viking Orbiter images (60 m\\/pixel) and also from Odyssey THEMIS Infrared images (100 m\\/pixel). After landing,

T. Duxbury

2004-01-01

399

Ecological Land Survey for Fort Wainwright, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ecological land survey (ELS) of Fort Wainwright land was conducted to map ecosystems at three spatial scales to aid in the management of natural resources. In an ELS, an attempt is made to view landscapes not just as aggregations of separate biological...

M. T. Jorgenson J. E. Roth M. K. Raynolds M. D. Smith W. Lentz

1999-01-01

400

Ecological Land Survey for Fort Greely, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ecological land survey (ELS)of Fort Greely land was conducted to map ecosystems at three spatial scales to aid in the management of natural resources. In an ELS,an attempt is made to view landscapes not just as aggregations of separate biological and e...

M. T. Jorgenson J. E. Roth M. D. Smith S. Schlentner W. Lentz

2001-01-01

401

Ecological Land Survey for Fort Richardson, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ecological land survey (ELS) of Fort Richardson land was conducted to map ecosystems at three spatial scales to aid in the management of natural resources. In an ELS, an attempt is made to view landscapes not just as aggregations of separate biological...

M. T. Jorgenson J. E. Roth S. F. Schlentner E. R. Pullman M. Macander

2003-01-01

402

Scenarios of Central European land fragmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural land is very fragmentated in the Central European countries. This situation hampers the emergence of a private commercial farming structure. Governments and non-governmental organisations debate on programs and instruments, but these far-reaching and costly options would be unnecessary if the situation were to improve through autonomous development. This article models the causal chain connected to land fragmentation, explores alternative

Terry van Dijk

2003-01-01

403

Government and Public Land Management in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the rural population in Nepal is engaged in subsistence farming. There is a high rate of migration of poor landless people from the mountains to the plains and the rural to the urban in search of better land for farming and better job for livelihood. This has resulted in heavy encroachment on government and public land. There are

Babu Ram ACHARYA

404

36 CFR 13.1406 - State lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park § 13.1406 State lands...state-owned lands and waters within the boundary of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park under a memorandum of...

2013-07-01

405

Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ALHAT project is funded by NASA to develop an integrated AGNC (autonomous guidance, navigation and control) hardware and software system capable of detecting and avoiding surface hazards and guiding humans and cargo safely, precisely and repeatedly to designated lunar landing sites. There are important interdependencies driving the design of a lunar landing system including such things as lander hazard

Chirold D. Epp; Edward A. Robertson; T. Brady

2008-01-01

406

Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of agrobiodiversity. Utilization of dung and crop residues for fuel and other uses disturbs the sustainability of land resources. The supply of inputs such as fertilizer, farm machinery and credits are very low. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. For environmentally and socially sustainable development, there is an urgent need to promote awareness and understanding of the interdependence of natural, socioeconomic, and political systems at local and national levels. Understanding the current status and causes of land degradation is very important. This paper reveals the important elements of land degradation in Ethiopia and suggests possible solutions that may help to ameliorate the situation. PMID:11393316

Taddese, G

2001-06-01

407

Land Snails of the Lucile Caves ACEC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A land snail survey was conducted on the Lucile Caves ACES and vicinity in 1993-1994 as part of a larger survey of the Lower Salmon River valley land snail fauna. Information gathered from earlier surveys in 1989 - 1993 was also included. The area was kno...

T. J. Frest E. J. Johannes

1997-01-01

408

National Agricultural Lands Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interagency study was launched in 1979 to determine the availability of the nation's agricultural lands, the extent and causes of their conversion to other uses, and ways in which these lands might be retained for agricultural purposes. The seven prima...

1982-01-01

409

The Early History of Life on Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses evidence suggesting that the earliest land plants (small simple forms in damp areas during the Silurian period) preceeded the earliest land animals (including such small arthropods as millipedes and mites). Close animal-plant interactions occurred at the onset with more complex terrestrial ecosystems developing by the Devonian. (DH)

Scott, Andrew C.

1984-01-01

410

Ecologically based municipal land use planning  

SciTech Connect

The book presents compelling evidence and sound arguments that make the case for sound land use policies that will reduce sprawl. The book provides easily understood solutions for municipal land planners dealing with urban sprawl; discusses ecological resources; emphasizes the use of new environmental indicators; and includes the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) to problem solving.

Honachefsky, W.B.

2000-07-01

411

"Lands for Life": Reading between the Lines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Ontario provincial government's "Lands for Life" program, which will allocate 46 million hectares of public lands to four uses: intensive forestry, multiple use, tourism, and protected areas. Expresses skepticism about government statements by juxtaposing the rhetoric with the record, with regard to environmental protection,…

Bell, Anne

1997-01-01

412

BIOREMEDIATION USING THE LAND TREATMENT CONCEPT  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is designed to be used by those who are involved with the use of land treatment technologies for the remediation of contaminated solid phase materials. In addition to a discussion of the basic processes which drive land treatment applications, the parameters involv...

413

Land Suitability Research Based on GIS: Case from Hangzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land suitability is the base of land use planning and decision, especially in urban region. Current research is limited in suitability of single land use type or evaluation of unidirectional factorspsila influences, such as factors of geology environment, location & economic, or geochemistry, etc.. This article focuses on Hangzhou urban area land use suitability evaluation, in which construction land suitability

Liqin Zhang; Jiangfeng Li; Jianghong Zhu; Liping Qu; Chunfang Kong

2009-01-01

414

Reclamation Land Suitability Evaluation of Pingguo Karst Accumulative Bauxite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land reclamation is a method used to return disturbed land caused by the industry to a state where it is useful once again, and repair environmental damage. Reclaimed land suitability evaluation is basic work of land reclamation. Combined with the land reclamation project in Pingguo karst accumulative bauxite, by the factor analysis method, the result of the suitability evaluation provide

Shan Yang; Jianhong Chen; Lang Liu; Mingliu Ning

2011-01-01

415

A Spatial Quantile Regression Hedonic Model of Agricultural Land Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land price studies typically employ hedonic analysis to identify the impact of land characteristics on price. Owing to the spatial fixity of land, however, the question of possible spatial dependence in agricultural land prices arises. The presence of spatial dependence in agricultural land prices can have serious consequences for the hedonic model analysis. Ignoring spatial autocorrelation can lead to biased

Philip Kostov

2009-01-01

416

43 CFR 3471.1-2 - Land description in lease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Land description in lease. 3471.1-2 Section...Limitations § 3471.1-2 Land description in lease. (a) All unsurveyed lands...non-public land state, the land in the lease shall be described in the...

2013-10-01

417

Access to land in rural India - policy issues and options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to land is deeply important in rural India, where the incidence of poverty is highly correlated with lack of access to land. The author provides a framework for assessing alternative approaches to improving access to land by India's rural poor. He considers India's record implementing land reform and identifies an approach that includes incremental reforms in public land administration

Robin Mearns

1999-01-01

418

Spatial autocorrelation in multi-scale land use models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several land use models statistical methods are being used to analyse spatial data. Land use drivers that best describe land use patterns quantitatively are often selected through (logistic) regression analysis. A problem using conventional statistical methods, like (logistic) regression, in spatial land use analysis is that these methods assume the data to be statistically independent. But, spatial land use

K. P. Overmars; G. H. J. de Koning; A. Veldkamp

2003-01-01

419

43 CFR 3581.1 - Lands to which applicable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Land Grants § 3581.1 Lands to which applicable. The regulations in this subpart apply to lands in private land claims patented pursuant to decrees of the Court of Private Land Claims where the grant did not convey the rights to deposits of gold,...

2010-10-01

420

Simulation modelling to determine suitability of agricultural land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land suitability assesses the potential of land for a specific land use. Traditionally, interactions between land characteristics and productivity are determined using qualitative methods. In contrast, a quantitative land evaluation uses a biophysical model to estimate these interactions. This paper presents a comparison between a qualitative and quantitative evaluation.Spatial coverages of soil, climate and topography were compiled for approximately 2850

M. Littleboy; D. M. Smith; M. J. Bryant

1996-01-01

421

Tenure Insecurity, Adverse Selection, and Liquidity in Rural Land Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of land market activity is developed for settings where there is uncertainty and private information about the security of land tenure. Land sellers match with buyers in a competitive search environment, and an illiquid land market emerges as a screening mechanism. As a consequence, adverse selection and an insecure system of property rights stifle land market transactions. The

Derek Stacey

2011-01-01

422

43 CFR 2521.4 - When lands may be sold, taxed, or mortgaged.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521... (b) Lands embraced in unperfected desert-land entries are not subject to taxation...this section. (c) Lands embraced in desert-land entries within an...

2013-10-01

423

43 CFR 2547.6 - Lands not subject to disposal under this subpart.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) COLOR-OF-TITLE AND OMITTED LANDS Omitted Lands: General § 2547.6 Lands not subject to disposal under this...

2013-10-01

424

Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenario for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios ab applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained well be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities.

Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W.

1995-12-31

425

Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles. The film shows experimental investigations to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices include crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030945. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

1960-01-01

426

America's Backyard: Exploring Your Public Lands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

America's Backyard: Exploring Your Public Lands is the featured topic of National Geographic's Geography Action! -- an "annual conservation and awareness program designed to educate and excite people about our natural, cultural, and historic treasures." This Web site offers a number of public land-related educational activities, many of the which apply directly to the life sciences. Activities are available for grades K-12, and cover such topics as the role of forests in our daily lives, conservation issues on public lands, and pollution as a pan-political problem. Each lesson plan includes background information, procedural instructions, links to related Web sites, a list of National Geography Standards, and more. The site also offers a number of other activities related to public lands, including a tour of the Online Public Lands Museum and ways to participate in Geography Awareness Week (November 17-23, 2002).

2007-06-08

427

Biofuels on the landscape: Is "land sharing" preferable to "land sparing"?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread land use changes—and ensuing effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services—are expected as a result of expanding bioenergy production. Although almost all US production of ethanol today is from corn, it is envisaged that future ethanol production will also draw from cellulosic sources such as perennial grasses. In selecting optimal bioenergy crops, there is debate as to whether it is preferable from an environmental standpoint to cultivate bioenergy crops with high ecosystem services (a "land sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand (a "land sparing" strategy). Here, we develop a simple model to address this question. Assuming that bioenergy crops are competing with uncultivated land, our model calculates land requirements to meet a given bioenergy demand intensity based upon the yields of bioenergy crops and combines fractional land cover of each ecosystem type with its associated ecosystem services to determine whether land sharing or land sparing strategies maximize ecosystem services at the landscape level. We apply this model to a case in which climate protection through GHG regulation—an ecosystem's greenhouse gas value (GHGV)—is the ecosystem service of interest. We consider five bioenergy crops competing for land area with five unfarmed ecosystem types in the central and eastern US. Our results show that the relative advantages of land sparing and land sharing depend upon the type of ecosystem with which the bioenergy crop is competing for land; as the GHGV value of the unfarmed land increases, the preferable strategy shifts from land sharing to land sparing. This implies that, while it may be preferable to replace ecologically degraded land with high-GHGV, lower yielding bioenergy crops, average landscape GHGV will most often be maximized through high yielding bioenergy crops that leave more land for uncultivated, high-GHGV ecosystems. While our case study focuses on GHGV, the same principles will be generally applicable to any ecosystem service whose value does not depend upon the spatial configuration of the landscape. Whenever bioenergy crops have substantially lower ecosystem services than the ecosystems with which they are competing for land, the most effective strategy for meeting bioenergy demand while maximizing ecosystem services on a landscape level is one of land sparing—that is, focusing simultaneously on maximizing the yield of bioenergy crops while preserving or restoring natural ecosystems.

DeLucia, E. H.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Duval, B. D.; Long, S. P.

2012-12-01

428

Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission lands at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch of a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five-man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials manufacturing. Some types of satellites deployed by Space Shuttles include those involved in environmental and resources protection, astronomy, weather forecasting, navigation, oceanographic studies, and other scientific fields. The Space Shuttles can also launch spacecraft into orbits higher than the Shuttle's altitude limit through the use of Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) propulsion units. After release from the Space Shuttle payload bay, the IUS is ignited to carry the spacecraft into deep space. The Space Shuttles are also being used to carry elements of the International Space Station into space where they are assembled in orbit. The Space Shuttles were built by Rockwell International's Space Transportation Systems Division, Downey, California. Rockwell's Rocketdyne Division (now part of Boeing) builds the three main engines, and Thiokol, Brigham City, Utah, makes the solid rocket booster motors. Martin Marietta Corporation (now Lockheed Martin), New Orleans, Louisiana, makes the external tanks. Each orbiter (Space Shuttle) is 121 feet long, has a wingspan of 78 feet, and a height of 57 feet. The Space Shuttle is approximately the size of a DC-9 commercial airliner and can carry a payload of 65,000 pounds into orbit. The payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter. Each main engine is capable of producing a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds and a vacuum (orbital) thrust of 470,000 pounds. The engines burn a mixture of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In orbit, the Space Shuttles circle the earth at a speed of 17,500 miles per hour with each orbit taking about 90 minutes. A Space Shuttle crew sees a sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes. When Space Shuttle flights began in April 1981, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, was the primary landing site for the

1989-01-01

429

Heilougjiang adopts measures to strengthen land management-each square millimeter of land is utterly cherished and rationally used  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on how a Chinese province with a large area of land and a small population has adopted a series of measures to strengthen land management, to stop the illegal occupying of land, and to protect land resources. Investigations of land resources and of the state of land use, as well as soil surveys, have been launched in order to determine the rights of land ownership and use. Many counties and cities have experimented with dividing farm areas into districts and comprehensive land planning, established land files, trained key personnel in land management skills, and have launched scientific land research. Illegal occupation, waste and destruction of land have risen with the increase in population and construction. Per capita cultivated acreage has declined to 4.1 mu. An effort has been made to reach the people in urban and rural areas with this message: ''Cherish every square millimeter of land utterly and use it rationally''.

Tan Peiquan; Liu, Y.

1983-07-30

430

A universal strategy for visually guided landing  

PubMed Central

Landing is a challenging aspect of flight because, to land safely, speed must be decreased to a value close to zero at touchdown. The mechanisms by which animals achieve this remain unclear. When landing on horizontal surfaces, honey bees control their speed by holding constant the rate of front-to-back image motion (optic flow) generated by the surface as they reduce altitude. As inclination increases, however, this simple pattern of optic flow becomes increasingly complex. How do honey bees control speed when landing on surfaces that have different orientations? To answer this, we analyze the trajectories of honey bees landing on a vertical surface that produces various patterns of motion. We find that landing honey bees control their speed by holding the rate of expansion of the image constant. We then test and confirm this hypothesis rigorously by analyzing landings when the apparent rate of expansion generated by the surface is manipulated artificially. This strategy ensures that speed is reduced, gradually and automatically, as the surface is approached. We then develop a mathematical model of this strategy and show that it can effectively be used to guide smooth landings on surfaces of any orientation, including horizontal surfaces. This biological strategy for guiding landings does not require knowledge about either the distance to the surface or the speed at which it is approached. The simplicity and generality of this landing strategy suggests that it is likely to be exploited by other flying animals and makes it ideal for implementation in the guidance systems of flying robots.

Baird, Emily; Boeddeker, Norbert; Ibbotson, Michael R.; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

2013-01-01

431

The impact of land use and land cover changes on land surface temperature in a karst area of China.  

PubMed

Satellite images have been used extensively to study temporal changes in land use and land cover (LULC) in China. However, few studies have been conducted in the karst areas despite the large area and population involved and the fragile ecosystem. In this study, LULC changes were examined in part of Guizhou Province of southern China from 1991 to 2001 based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images of November 7, 1991, December 5, 1994, and December 19, 2001. Land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed based on LULC types. The results show that agricultural land decreased, while urban areas expanded dramatically, and forest land increased slightly. Barren land increased from 1991 to 1994, and then decreased from 1994 to 2001. These changes in LULC widened the temperature difference between the urban and the rural areas. The change in LST was mainly associated with changes in construction materials in the urban area and in vegetation abundance both in the urban and rural areas. Vegetation had a dual function in the temperatures of different LULC types. While it could ease the warming trend in the urban or built-up areas, it helped to keep other lands warmer in the cold weather. The study also reveals that due to the government's efforts on reforestation, rural ecosystems in some of the study area were being restored. The time required for the karst ecosystem to recover was shorter than previously thought. PMID:17126988

Xiao, Honglin; Weng, Qihao

2007-10-01

432

Theseus Landing Following Maiden Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Theseus prototype research aircraft shows off its high aspect-ratio wing as it comes in for a landing on Rogers Dry Lake after its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden's Project Manager was John Del Frate.

1996-01-01

433

43 CFR 3400.2 - Lands subject to leasing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, and oil shale reserves; and (8) National Recreation Areas designated by law; (b) Tide lands, submerged coastal lands within the Continental Shelf adjacent or littoral to any part of land within the...

2013-10-01

434

43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands... Introduction: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of §...

2010-10-01

435

43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands... Introduction: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of §...

2011-10-01

436

43 CFR 3400.3-3 - Department of Agriculture lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Department of Agriculture lands. 3400.3-3 Section 3400.3-3 Public Lands... Introduction: General § 3400.3-3 Department of Agriculture lands. Subject to the provisions of §...

2012-10-01

437

46 CFR 132.320 - Helicopter-landing decks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Helicopter-landing decks. 132.320 Section...EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.320 Helicopter-landing decks. Each vessel with a helicopter-landing deck must meet the fire...

2013-10-01

438

77 FR 17091 - Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan AGENCY...Action Settlement Agreement established a trust land consolidation fund to be used for consolidating Indian trust and restricted lands and acquiring...

2012-03-23

439

14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Tail down landing conditions. ...AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane...before the maximum vertical load is...

2010-01-01

440

14 CFR 23.481 - Tail down landing conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Tail down landing conditions. ...AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.481 Tail down landing conditions. (a) For a tail down landing, the airplane...before the maximum vertical load is...

2009-01-01

441

Silvicultural Biomass Farms. Volume III. Land Suitability and Availability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Land suitability criteria were developed and used to identify potentially available land for silvicultural biomass farms. Six land availability scenarios were chosen for analysis. The annual potential production of biomass energy was estimated on a region...

D. J. Salo R. E. Inman B. J. McGurk J. Verhoeff

1977-01-01

442

19 CFR 122.14 - Landing rights airport.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Landing rights airport. 122.14 Section 122.14 Customs Duties...TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.14 Landing rights airport. (a) Permission to land....

2013-04-01

443

30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements in section 407(h) of SMCRA. (d) Land or interests in land needed to fill voids, seal abandoned tunnels, shafts, and entryways...The OSM, State, or Indian tribe which acquires land under this part shall acquire only such...

2013-07-01

444

30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements in section 407(h) of SMCRA. (d) Land or interests in land needed to fill voids, seal abandoned tunnels, shafts, and entryways...The OSM, State, or Indian tribe which acquires land under this part shall acquire only such...

2010-07-01

445

30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements in section 407(h) of SMCRA. (d) Land or interests in land needed to fill voids, seal abandoned tunnels, shafts, and entryways...The OSM, State, or Indian tribe which acquires land under this part shall acquire only such...

2009-07-01

446

43 CFR 3164.4 - Damages on restricted Indian lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Damages on restricted Indian lands. 3164.4...OPERATIONS Special Provisions § 3164.4 Damages on restricted Indian lands. Assessments for damages to lands, crops, buildings, and to...

2013-10-01

447

Land Redistribution in South Africa: Past Performance and Future Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

South Africa's legacy of racially biased land ownership was formalised in 1913 by the Natives Land Act. This legislation restricted African land ownership to native reserves where the principal mode of tenure was customary and administered by traditional ...

M. A. G. Darroch M. C. Lyne

2003-01-01

448

43 CFR 3932.20 - Lease modification land availability criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Lease modification land availability criteria. 3932...Readjustments § 3932.20 Lease modification land availability criteria. ...the BLM will approve adding lands to the lease, the applicant must pay...

2009-10-01

449

43 CFR 3101.2-2 - Acquired lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.2-2 Acquired lands. An acreage limitation...mineral resources of the lands involved in a lease, only that part...

2013-10-01

450

43 CFR 3932.20 - Lease modification land availability criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Lease modification land availability criteria. 3932...Readjustments § 3932.20 Lease modification land availability criteria. ...the BLM will approve adding lands to the lease, the applicant must pay...

2010-10-01

451

43 CFR 3932.20 - Lease modification land availability criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Lease modification land availability criteria. 3932...Readjustments § 3932.20 Lease modification land availability criteria. ...the BLM will approve adding lands to the lease, the applicant must pay...

2013-10-01

452

30 CFR 784.15 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...statement of the condition, capability, and productivity of the land within the proposed permit... (2) A narrative of land capability and productivity, which...analyses of: (i) The capability of the land before any mining...

2009-07-01

453

30 CFR 780.23 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...statement of the condition, capability, and productivity of the land within the proposed permit... (2) A narrative of land capability and productivity, which...analyses of: (i) The capability of the land before any mining...

2009-07-01

454

30 CFR 784.15 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...statement of the condition, capability, and productivity of the land within the proposed permit... (2) A narrative of land capability and productivity, which...analyses of: (i) The capability of the land before any mining...

2010-07-01

455

30 CFR 780.23 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...statement of the condition, capability, and productivity of the land within the proposed permit... (2) A narrative of land capability and productivity, which...analyses of: (i) The capability of the land before any mining...

2010-07-01

456

43 CFR 3838.1 - What are SRHA lands?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...are SRHA lands? SRHA lands are lands that were— (a) Patented under the Stockraising Homestead Act of 1916, as amended...Originally entered under the Homestead Act of 1862, as amended, and patented under the SRHA after December 29,...

2010-10-01

457

23 CFR 710.601 - Federal land transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Federal agency exercising jurisdiction over the land and identity of the installation or activity in possession of the land; (5) A map showing the survey of the lands to be acquired; (6) A legal...

2013-04-01

458

43 CFR 2710.0-8 - Lands subject to sale.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...System of Trails. (3) Public lands classified, withdrawn, reserved...disposition. (b) Unsurveyed public lands shall not be sold under the regulations...officially surveyed under the public land survey system of the United States....

2013-10-01

459

19 CFR 122.35 - Emergency or forced landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Emergency or forced landing. 122.35 Section 122.35 Customs...THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.35 Emergency or forced landing. (a) Application. This...

2009-04-01

460

76 FR 48875 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crewman's Landing Permit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection Activities: Crewman's Landing Permit AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...Paperwork Reduction Act: Crewman's Landing Permit (CBP Form I-95). This is a...information collection: Title: Alien Crewman Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0114....

2011-08-09

461

76 FR 31353 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crewman's Landing Permit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection Activities: Crewman's Landing Permit AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...requirement concerning the: Crewman's Landing Permit (CBP Form I-95). This request...information collection: Title: Alien Crewman Landing Permit. OMB Number: 1651-0114....

2011-05-31

462

19 CFR 122.35 - Emergency or forced landing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Emergency or forced landing. 122.35 Section 122.35 Customs...THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.35 Emergency or forced landing. (a) Application. This...

2010-04-01

463

Land Use Plan for Cumberland County, North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes an analysis of a number of land development factors. Particular emphasis is given to locational and development standards for various land uses. In addition, several aspects of land development which are especially relevant to Cumber...

1971-01-01

464

14 CFR 23.1383 - Taxi and landing lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Taxi and landing lights. 23.1383 Section 23.1383 Aeronautics...AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 23.1383 Taxi and landing lights. Each taxi and landing light must be...

2014-01-01

465

Micro-Level Land Use Impacts of Bioconversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Implementation of the land intensive bio-energy technologies will involve actions that will impact existing land use at the local level. Due to the differences in crop type, yield per acre, existing land use conditions, and agricultural practices througho...

V. K. B. Parsons

1980-01-01

466

Large boulders at landing site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large boulders are visible in this enlargement of pictures taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) lander camera on July 4, 1997. The landing site is in the dry flood channel named Ares Valles. The boulders probably represent deposits from one of the catastrophic floods that carved the ancient channel. Between the rocks is brownish windblown soil. The gray-tan sky results from dust particles in the atmosphere.

Pathfinder, a low-cost Discovery mission, is the first of a new fleet of spacecraft that are planned to explore Mars over the next ten years. Mars Global Surveyor, already en route, arrives at Mars on September 11 to begin a two year orbital reconnaissance of the planet's composition, topography, and climate. Additional orbiters and landers will follow every 26 months.

Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

1997-01-01

467

Perseus B Landing on Runway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Perseus B high-altitude, remotely piloted research vehicle touches down on the runway at Edwards AFB, adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, after a test flight in September 1999. The Perseus B was the third version of the Perseus design developed by Aurora Flight Sciences under the Dryden-managed Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST project. The Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft first flew in November 1991 and made three low-altitude flights within a month to validate the Perseus aerodynamic model and flight control systems. Next came the redesigned Perseus A, which incorporated a closed-cycle combustion system that mixed oxygen carried aboard the aircraft with engine exhaust to compensate for the thin air at high altitudes. The Perseus A was towed into the air by a ground vehicle and its engine started after it became airborne. Prior to landing, the engine was stopped, the propeller locked in horizontal position, and the Perseus A glided to a landing on its unique bicycle-type landing gear. Two Perseus A aircraft were built and made 21 flights in 1993-1994. One of the Perseus A aircraft reached over 50,000 feet in altitude on its third test flight. Although one of the Perseus A aircraft was destroyed in a crash after a vertical gyroscope failed in flight, the other aircraft completed its test program and remains on display at Aurora's facility in Manassas. Perseus B first flew Oct. 7, 1994, and made two flights in 1996 before being damaged in a hard landing on the dry lakebed after a propeller shaft failure. After a number of improvements and upgrades-including extending the original 58.5-foot wingspan to 71.5 feet to enhance high-altitude performance--the Perseus B returned to Dryden in the spring of 1998 for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate

1999-01-01

468

X-38 Landing Gear Skid Test Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA incorporates skid-equipped landing gear on its series of X-38 flight test vehicles. The X-38 test program is the proving ground for the Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) a gliding parafoil-equipped vehicle designed to land at relatively low speeds. The skid-equipped landing gear is designed to attenuate the vertical landing energy of the vehicle at touchdown using crushable materials within the struts themselves. The vehicle then slides out as the vehicle horizontal energy is dissipated through the skids. A series of tests was conducted at Edwards Airforce Base (EAFB) in an attempt to quantify the drag force produced while "dragging" various X-38 landing gear skids across lakebed regions of varying surface properties. These data were then used to calculate coefficients of friction for each condition. Coefficient of friction information is critical for landing analyses as well as for landing gear load and interface load analysis. The skid specimens included full- and sub-scale V201 (space test vehicle) nose and main gear designs, a V131/V 132 (atmospheric flight test vehicles) main gear skid (actual flight hardware), and a newly modified, full-scale V201 nose -ear skid with substantially increased edge curvature as compared to its original design. Results of the testing are discussed along with comments on the relative importance of various parameters that influence skid stability and other dynamic behavior.

Gafka, George K.; Daugherty, Robert H.

2000-01-01

469

Land use changes contribute to climate extremes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature extremes such as severe heat waves and cold spells are likely to occur more frequently in a warming climate as carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations rise. But land use change, such as clearing forests for agriculture, also has a large impact on extreme temperature events. To determine the relative contribution of the two effects, Avila et al. ran simulations using a climate model coupled to a sophisticated land surface model. They found that land use changes can have a significant effect on temperature extreme indices. On regional scales, land use changes in some cases amplified the effects of increased CO2 concentrations, while land use changes in other cases masked their effects. In some regions, the effects of land use changes on temperature extremes were similar in magnitude to those of doubling CO2. The authors conclude that land use changes are a major source of human influence on the climate. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2011JD016382, 2012)

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-04-01

470

Automatic detection of aircraft emergency landing sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automatic landing site detection algorithm is proposed for aircraft emergency landing. Emergency landing is an unplanned event in response to emergency situations. If, as is unfortunately usually the case, there is no airstrip or airfield that can be reached by the un-powered aircraft, a crash landing or ditching has to be carried out. Identifying a safe landing site is critical to the survival of passengers and crew. Conventionally, the pilot chooses the landing site visually by looking at the terrain through the cockpit. The success of this vital decision greatly depends on the external environmental factors that can impair human vision, and on the pilot's flight experience that can vary significantly among pilots. Therefore, we propose a robust, reliable and efficient algorithm that is expected to alleviate the negative impact of these factors. We present only the detection mechanism of the proposed algorithm and assume that the image enhancement for increased visibility, and image stitching for a larger field-of-view have already been performed on the images acquired by aircraftmounted cameras. Specifically, we describe an elastic bound detection method which is designed to position the horizon. The terrain image is divided into non-overlapping blocks which are then clustered according to a "roughness" measure. Adjacent smooth blocks are merged to form potential landing sites whose dimensions are measured with principal component analysis and geometric transformations. If the dimensions of the candidate region exceed the minimum requirement for safe landing, the potential landing site is considered a safe candidate and highlighted on the human machine interface. At the end, the pilot makes the final decision by confirming one of the candidates, also considering other factors such as wind speed and wind direction, etc. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

Shen, Yu-Fei; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Krusienski, Dean; Li, Jiang

2011-05-01

471

Biofuels on the landscape: is "land sharing" preferable to "land sparing"?  

PubMed

Widespread land use changes, and ensuing effects on ecosystem services, are expected from expanding bioenergy production. Although most U.S. production of ethanol is from corn, it is envisaged that future ethanol production will also draw from cellulosic sources such as perennial grasses. In selecting optimal bioenergy crops, there is debate as to whether it is preferable from an environmental standpoint to cultivate bioenergy crops with high ecosystem services (a "land-sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand (a "land-sparing" strategy). Here, we develop a simple model to address this question. Assuming that bioenergy crops are competing with uncultivated land, our model calculates land requirements to meet a given bioenergy demand intensity based upon the yields of bioenergy crops. The model combines fractional land cover of each ecosystem type with its associated ecosystem services to determine whether land-sharing or land-sparing strategies maximize ecosystem services at the landscape level. We apply this model to a case in which climate protection through GHG regulation--an ecosystem's greenhouse gas value (GHGV)--is the ecosystem service of interest. Our results show that the relative advantages of land sparing and land sharing depend upon the type of ecosystem displaced by the bioenergy crop; as the GHGV of the unfarmed land increases, the preferable strategy shifts from land sharing to land sparing. Although it may be preferable to replace ecologically degraded land with high-GHGV, lower yielding bioenergy crops, average landscape GHGV will most often be maximized through high-yielding bioenergy crops that leave more land for uncultivated, high-GHGV ecosystems. Although our case study focuses on GHGV, the same principles will be applicable to any ecosystem service whose value does not depend upon the spatial configuration of the landscape. Whenever bioenergy crops have substantially lower ecosystem services than the ecosystems with which they are competing for land, the most effective strategy for meeting bioenergy demand while maximizing ecosystem services on a landscape level is one of land sparing: focusing simultaneously on maximizing the yield of bioenergy crops while preserving or restoring natural ecosystems. PMID:23387108

Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Duval, Benjamin D; Long, Stephen P; DeLucia, Evan H

2012-12-01

472

Mars Dead or Alive: Where to Land?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is not easy to get to Mars. Dozens of past missions have failed, with only a handful even attempting to land on the planet's surface. However, in January 2004, careful planning paid off when the Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, describes the history of Mars exploration, the many failed missions, the process of choosing landing sites and procedures for the Rover mission, and the new focus on looking for evidence that water was once present.

2010-11-29

473

Mars Dead or Alive: Where to Land?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is not easy to get to Mars. Dozens of past missions have failed, with only a handful even attempting to land on the planet's surface. However, in January 2004, careful planning paid off when the Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, describes the history of Mars exploration, the many failed missions, the process of choosing landing sites and procedures for the Rover mission, and the new focus on looking for evidence that water was once present.

474

Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Resources Observation Systems' Data Center of the US Geological Survey also maintains the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center to "process, archive, and distribute land-related data". The Center disseminates this data, collected by various satellite and aerial sensors, which include surface reflectances, land surface temperature, global geolocation angle, vegetation indices, thermal anomalies, leaf area index, net vegetation production, pointer files, and more. The data come in various forms and include complete descriptions as well as links to have it ordered or downloaded.

475

Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods between these two land cover products must be overcome in order to support direct comparison. The NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product was developed to provide more accurate and useful land cover change data than would be possible by direct comparison of NLCD 1992 and NLCD 2001. For the change analysis method to be both national in scale and timely, implementation required production across many Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) path/rows simultaneously. To meet these requirements, a hybrid change analysis process was developed to incorporate both post-classification comparison and specialized ratio differencing change analysis techniques. At a resolution of 30 meters, the completed NLCD 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit product contains unchanged pixels from the NLCD 2001 land cover dataset that have been cross-walked to a modified Anderson Level I class code, and changed pixels labeled with a 'from-to' class code. Analysis of the results for the conterminous United States indicated that about 3 percent of the land cover dataset changed between 1992 and 2001.

Fry, J. A.; Coan, M. J.; Homer, C. G.; Meyer, D. K.; Wickham, J. D.

2009-01-01

476

Developing a suitability index for land uses and agricultural land covers: a case study in Turkey.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at determining the land-use and land-cover (LULC) potentials of a southeastern Mediterranean area (Antakya, Turkey) of 36 816 ha for a total of 23 different LULC types: nine horticultural crops, nine field crops and five non-agricultural lands. Land evaluation was carried out by using a combination of SENOL Land Evaluation System and ILSEN computer program adapted to Turkey from FAO land evaluation principles. Our assessment resulted in the identification of nine physiographical units, 27 different soil series, and 110 land mapping units. Nearly 49% of the study area was determined as suitable for agricultural land cover types, and 35% for non-agricultural land use types. A map showing potential suitability of LULC was derived for the study area. The quantification of LULC suitability assists decision makers in ensuring that lands are used according to their capacities to satisfy human needs for present and future generations, thus sustaining ecological and economic productivity of natural resources. PMID:15869193

Kiliç, Seref; Evrendilek, Fatih; Senol, Suat; Celik, Ismail

2005-03-01

477

76 FR 37826 - Public Land Order No. 7773; Emergency Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Public and National Forest System Lands, Coconino...776 acres of public and National Forest System lands from location...exploration and mining: Gila and Salt River Meridian...776 acres public and National Forest System lands in...

2011-06-28

478

75 FR 43200 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Public Lands Administered by...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCOF0200-L12200000-DU0000] Notice...Lands Administered by the Bureau of Land Management, Royal Gorge Field Office, Arkansas River Travel Management Area in Chaffee, Custer, and...

2010-07-23

479

78 FR 10203 - Notice of Final Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Public Lands Administered by...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCOF0200-L12200000-DU0000] Notice...Lands Administered by the Bureau of Land Management, Royal Gorge Field Office, Arkansas River Travel Management Area in Chaffee, Custer, and...

2013-02-13

480

SMOS first results over land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is ESA's (European Space Agency ) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission, launched in November 2009. It is a joint programme between ESA CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnologico Industrial). SMOS carries a single payload, an L-band 2D interferometric radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the atmosphere and hence the instrument probes the Earth surface emissivity. Surface emissivity can then be related to the moisture content in the first few centimeters of soil, and, after some surface roughness and temperature corrections, to the sea surface salinity over ocean. In order to prepare the data use and dissemination, the ground segment will produce level 1 and 2 data. Level 1 consists mainly of angular brightness temperatures while level 2 consists of geophysical products. In this context, a group of institutes prepared the soil moisture and ocean salinity Algorithm Theoretical Basis documents (ATBD) to be used to produce the operational algorithm. The principle of the soil moisture retrieval algorithm is based on an iterative approach which aims at minimizing a cost function given by the sum of the squared weighted differences between measured and modelled brightness temperature (TB) data, for a variety of incidence angles. This is achieved by finding the best suited set of the parameters which drive the direct TB model, e.g. soil moisture (SM) and vegetation characteristics. Despite the simplicity of this principle, the main reason for the complexity of the algorithm is that SMOS "pixels" can correspond to rather large, inhomogeneous surface areas whose contribution to the radiometric signal is difficult to model. Moreover, the exact description of pixels, given by a weighting function which expresses the directional pattern of the SMOS interferometric radiometer, depends on the incidence angle. The goal is to retrieve soil moisture over fairly large and thus inhomogeneous areas. The retrieval is carried out at nodes of a fixed Earth surface grid. To achieve this purpose, after checking input data quality and ingesting auxiliary data, the retrieval process per se can be initiated. This cannot be done blindly as the direct model will be dependent upon surface characteristics. It is thus necessary to first assess what is the dominant land use of a node. For this, an average weighing function (MEAN_WEF) which takes into account the "antenna"pattern is run over the high resolution land use map to assess the dominant cover type. This is used to drive the decision tree which, step by step, selects the type of model to be used as per surface conditions. All this being said and done the retrieval procedure starts if all the conditions are satisfied, ideally to retrieve 3 parameters over the dominant class (the so-called rich retrieval). If the algorithm does not converge satisfactorily, a new trial is made with less floating parameters ("poorer retrieval") until either results are satisfactory or the algorithm is considered to fail. The retrieval algorithm also delivers whenever possible a dielectric constant parameter (using the-so called cardioid approach). Finally, once the retrieval converged, it is possible to compute the brightness temperature at a given fixed angle (42.5°) using the selected forward models applied to the set of parameters obtained at the end of the retrieval process. So the output product of the level 2 soil moisture algorithm should be node position, soil moisture, dielectric constants, computed brightness temperature at 42.5°, flags and quality indices. During the presentation we will describe in more details the algorithm and accompanying work in particular decision tree principle and characteristics, the auxiliary data used and the special and "exotic"cases. We will also be more explicit on the algorithm validation and verification through the data collected during the commissioning phase. The main hurdle bein

Kerr, Yann; Waldteufel, Philippe; Cabot, François; Richaume, Philippe; Jacquette, Elsa; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Mamhoodi, Ali; Delwart, Steven; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

2010-05-01

481

23 CFR 752.9 - Scenic lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 752.9 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.9 Scenic lands. (a) Acquisition of interests in and improvement of strips...

2013-04-01

482

Sturckow Recaps Last Shuttle Landing at Edwards  

NASA Video Gallery

When Space Shuttle Discovery touched down at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California on Sept. 11, 2009 to conclude mission STS-128, no one foresaw that it would be the last of 54 such landing...

483

The Expedition 34 Crew Lands in Kazakhstan  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford and Flight Engineers Evgeny Tarelkin and Oleg Novitskiy landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft in the steppe of Kazakhstan, northeast of the remote town of Arkalyk...

484

Expedition 25 Crew Lands Safely in Kazakhstan  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin, NASA International Space Station Commander Doug Wheelock and NASA Flight Engineer Shannon Walker landed safely on the steppe of Kazakhstan on Nov. 2...

485

Land Mobile Spectrum Utilization: Detroit, Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the extent of radio frequency utilization by FCC licensees in the Private Land Mobile Radio Services in the Detroit metropolitan area. Radio users in these services include among others: police and fire departments, hospitals, public ...

L. D. Reed K. A. Larson W. V. Tranavitch

1978-01-01

486

Preliminary Study of Marine Aircraft Landing Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The requirement of the Navy to develop versatile, rugged, and transportable landing systems suited to Marine Corps Aircraft has created specific problems of a diverse, yet highly technical nature. The problems addressed in this report include those associ...

W. E. Sears R. P. Zimmer E. R. Flynt C. E. Ryan

1973-01-01

487

Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing ...

C. Justice

1998-01-01

488

Origin and early evolution of land plants  

PubMed Central

The origin of the sporophyte in land plants represents a fundamental phase in plant evolution. Today this subject is controversial, and scarcely considered in textbooks and journals of botany, in spite of its importance. There are two conflicting theories concerning the origin of the alternating generations in land-plants: the “antithetic” theory and the “homologous” theory. These have never been fully resolved, although, on the ground of the evidences on the probable ancestors of land plants, the antithetic theory is considered more plausible than the homologous theory. However, additional phylogenetic dilemmas are the evolution of bryophytes from algae and the transition from these first land plants to the pteridophytes. All these very large evolutionary jumps are discussed on the basis of the phyletic gradualist neo-Darwinian theory and other genetic evolutionary mechanisms.

2008-01-01

489

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Water Landing Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) water splashdowns were simulated in order to find maximum acceleration loads on the astronauts and spacecraft under various landing conditions. The acceleration loads were used in a Dynamic Risk Index (DRI) program to find the potential risk for injury posed on the astronauts for a range of landing conditions. The DRI results showed that greater risks for injury occurred for two landing conditions; when the vertical velocity was large and the contact angle between the spacecraft and the water impact surface was zero, and when the spacecraft was in a toe down configuration and both the vertical and horizontal landing velocities were large. Rollover was also predicted to occur for cases where there is high horizontal velocity and low contact angles in a toe up configuration, and cases where there was a high horizontal velocity with high contact angles in a toe down configuration.

Littell, Justin D.; Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.

2007-01-01

490

Design of a Wheeled Articulating Land Rover.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The WALRUS is a wheeled articulating land rover that will provide Ames Research Center with a reliable, autonomous vehicle for demonstrating and evaluating advanced technologies. The vehicle is one component of the Ames Research Center's on-going Human Ex...

L. Stauffer M. Dilorenzo B. Yandle

1994-01-01

491

Sex Differences in Knee Abduction During Landing  

PubMed Central

Background: Females suffer injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament at rates significantly higher than males. Frontal plane knee motion and load have been identified as major risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury and in turn have been examined extensively. Methods: A systematic review of MEDLINE, CINHAL, and SportDISCUS was performed (1982–June 2010). Criteria for inclusion were the use of 3-dimensional analyses of frontal plane knee motion and moments during landing between males and females. Results: Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Sixty-three percent of included studies identified sex differences in knee abduction when landing across a variety of landing conditions. Conclusions: Females appear to land with increased knee abduction motion compared with males in most biomechanics studies.

Carson, Daniel W.; Ford, Kevin R.

2011-01-01

492

Edgecombe County, North Carolina, Land Development Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Edgecombe County land development plan has been designed to utilize all possible areas of physical, social and economic potential within the county. The plan is essentially a long range program for the physical development of the county. (Author)

D. L. Pugh

1970-01-01

493

Curiosity Landing Site Named for Ray Bradbury  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA has named the site of Curiosity's landing on Mars for the late author Ray Bradbury. In this video from November 12, 1971, Ray Bradbury takes part in a symposium at Caltech with Arthur C. Clark...

494

Minimum Fuel Trajectories with Soft Landings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minimum fuel trajectories for rocket flights with soft landings in a uniform gravitational field are presented as functions of two parameters. The solutions are valid for any uniform gravitational field, rocket fuel, and burning rate. The problem is formu...

O. J. Manci

1964-01-01

495

MISR Level 2 Aerosol and Land Versioning  

... exponent, aerosol single-scattering albedo, aerosol particle size and shape fractional amounts F11_0021 (aerosol), ... / Surface cloud screening algorithm. Analysis of the effect of these changes, in the aerosol and land surface retrievals, indicates ...

2013-04-01

4