Science.gov

Sample records for landing operational risk

  1. Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

  2. Risk evaluation of land subsidence and its application to metro safety operation in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Wang, H.; Yan, X.

    2015-11-01

    Based on sufficiently investigating characteristics and risk connotation of land subsidence, a risk evaluation index system for land subsidence disaster is established, which is combined with the sensitivity feature of the hazard bearing body to land subsidence. An appropriate evaluation method system is established by using an improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method. So risk evaluation is developed for providing theoretical basis and technical support for the regional management of land subsidence prevention and control. On this basis, as a case of Shanghai metro, firstly, the paper studies the identifying risk sources of the metro. According to metro linear characteristics, external indexes of representing subsidence risk are obtained. Studying the subsidence risk of the metro, relevant achievement has provided the technical basis for daily main monitoring, early warning and work arrangement.

  3. Space Shuttle contingency landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Andrew M.; Fleming, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    The sites and operations involved in emergency landings of the Space Shuttle are discussed. The role of international agreements in developing such sites is addressed. Rescue operations following emergency landings are examined.

  4. MITRA Virtual laboratory for operative application of satellite time series for land degradation risk estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nole, Gabriele; Scorza, Francesco; Lanorte, Antonio; Manzi, Teresa; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    This paper aims to present the development of a tool to integrate time series from active and passive satellite sensors (such as of MODIS, Vegetation, Landsat, ASTER, COSMO, Sentinel) into a virtual laboratory to support studies on landscape and archaeological landscape, investigation on environmental changes, estimation and monitoring of natural and anthropogenic risks. The virtual laboratory is composed by both data and open source tools specifically developed for the above mentioned applications. Results obtained for investigations carried out using the implemented tools for monitoring land degradation issues and subtle changes ongoing on forestry and natural areas are herein presented. In detail MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat time series were analyzed comparing results of different statistical analyses and the results integrated with ancillary data and evaluated with field survey. The comparison of the outputs we obtained for the Basilicata Region from satellite data analyses and independent data sets clearly pointed out the reliability for the diverse change analyses we performed, at the pixel level, using MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat TM data. Next steps are going to be implemented to further advance the current Virtual Laboratory tools, by extending current facilities adding new computational algorithms and applying to other geographic regions. Acknowledgement This research was performed within the framework of the project PO FESR Basilicata 2007/2013 - Progetto di cooperazione internazionale MITRA "Remote Sensing tecnologies for Natural and Cultural heritage Degradation Monitoring for Preservation and valorization" funded by Basilicata Region Reference 1. A. Lanorte, R Lasaponara, M Lovallo, L Telesca 2014 Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to characterize vegetation recovery after fire disturbance International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and

  5. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  6. Landsafe: Landing Site Risk Analysis Software Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R.; Bostelmann, J.; Cornet, Y.; Heipke, C.; Philippe, C.; Poncelet, N.; de Rosa, D.; Vandeloise, Y.

    2012-08-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning a Lunar Lander mission in the 2018 timeframe that will demonstrate precise soft landing at the polar regions of the Moon. To ensure a safe and successful landing a careful risk analysis has to be carried out. This is comprised of identifying favorable target areas and evaluating the surface conditions in these areas. Features like craters, boulders, steep slopes, rough surfaces and shadow areas have to be identified in order to assess the risk associated to a landing site in terms of a successful touchdown and subsequent surface operation of the lander. In addition, global illumination conditions at the landing site have to be simulated and analyzed. The Landing Site Risk Analysis software framework (LandSAfe) is a system for the analysis, selection and certification of safe landing sites on the lunar surface. LandSAfe generates several data products including high resolution digital terrain models (DTMs), hazard maps, illumination maps, temperature maps and surface reflectance maps which assist the user in evaluating potential landing site candidates. This paper presents the LandSAfe system and describes the methods and products of the different modules. For one candidate landing site on the rim of Shackleton crater at the south pole of the Moon a high resolution DTM is showcased.

  7. 43 CFR 3733.1 - Financial risk of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial risk of operation. 3733.1 Section 3733.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 359; MINING IN POWERSITE WITHDRAWALS: GENERAL Risk of Operation §...

  8. The land management and operations database (LMOD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents the design, implementation, deployment, and application of the Land Management and Operations Database (LMOD). LMOD is the single authoritative source for reference land management and operation reference data within the USDA enterprise data warehouse. LMOD supports modeling appl...

  9. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  10. 43 CFR 3733.1 - Financial risk of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Financial risk of operation. 3733.1... WITHDRAWALS: GENERAL Risk of Operation § 3733.1 Financial risk of operation. The Act in section 3 provides in... resources authorized in this act shall be entered into or continued at the financial risk of the...

  11. 43 CFR 3733.1 - Financial risk of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Financial risk of operation. 3733.1... WITHDRAWALS: GENERAL Risk of Operation § 3733.1 Financial risk of operation. The Act in section 3 provides in... resources authorized in this act shall be entered into or continued at the financial risk of the...

  12. 43 CFR 3733.1 - Financial risk of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Financial risk of operation. 3733.1... WITHDRAWALS: GENERAL Risk of Operation § 3733.1 Financial risk of operation. The Act in section 3 provides in... resources authorized in this act shall be entered into or continued at the financial risk of the...

  13. Evaluating microbiological risks of biosolids land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transmission of pathogens by land application of untreated human and animal wastes has been known for more than 100 years. The QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) process involves four basic steps: pathogen identification, exposure assessment, dose-response and risk characterization. ...

  14. Operating The Copernicus Global Land Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smets, B.; Lacaze, R.; Freitas, S. C.; Jann, A.; Calvet, J.-C.; Camacho, F.; Baret, F.; Paulik, C.; d'Andrimont, R.; Tansey, K.; Verger, A.

    2013-12-01

    From 1st January 2013, the Copernicus Global Land Service is operational, providing continuously a set of biophysical variables describing the vegetation conditions, the energy budget at the continental surface and the water cycle over the whole globe. Essential Climate Variables like the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of PAR absorbed by the vegetation (FAPAR), the surface albedo, the Land Surface Temperature, the soil moisture, the burnt areas, the areas of water bodies, and additional vegetation indices, dry matter productivity and TOC reflectance, are generated every hour, every day or every 10 days on a reliable and automatic basis from Earth Observation satellite data. The service and its products are continuously checked on technical and scientific quality. In view of service continuity, the existing retrieval methodologies are being adapted to new sensors (e.g. Proba-V and the Sentinels), taking the benefit of the increased resolution.

  15. 12 CFR 1010.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risks of buying land. 1010.107 Section 1010.107... Requirements § 1010.107 Risks of buying land. (a) The next page shall be headed “Risks of Buying Land” and... Risks of Buying Land. (b) Warnings. If the instructions of the Director require any warnings to...

  16. 12 CFR 1010.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risks of buying land. 1010.107 Section 1010.107... Requirements § 1010.107 Risks of buying land. (a) The next page shall be headed “Risks of Buying Land” and... Risks of Buying Land. (b) Warnings. If the instructions of the Director require any warnings to...

  17. 12 CFR 1010.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risks of buying land. 1010.107 Section 1010.107... Requirements § 1010.107 Risks of buying land. (a) The next page shall be headed “Risks of Buying Land” and... Risks of Buying Land. (b) Warnings. If the instructions of the Director require any warnings to...

  18. Approach and Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Allen; Greco, Martin; Martin-Mur, Tomas; Portock, Brian; Steltzner, Adam

    2013-01-01

    On August 5th, 2012, at 10:31 PM PDT, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity landed safely within Gale Crater. Her successful landing de-pended not only upon the flawless execution of the numerous critical activities during the seven minute entry, descent, and landing (EDL), but also upon the operational preparations and decisions made by the flight team during approach, the final weeks, days, and hours prior to landing. During this period, decisions made by the flight team balanced operational risk to the spacecraft in flight with any resulting risks incurred during EDL as a result of those decisions. This pa-per summarizes the operations plans made in preparation for Approach and EDL and the as flown decisions and actions executed that balanced the operational and EDL risks and prepared the vehicle for a successful landing.

  19. Risk assessment in international operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stricklin, Daniela L.

    2008-11-15

    During international peace-keeping missions, a diverse number of non-battle hazards may be encountered, which range from heavily polluted areas, endemic disease, toxic industrial materials, local violence, traffic, and even psychological factors. Hence, elevated risk levels from a variety of sources are encountered during deployments. With the emphasis within the Swedish military moving from national defense towards prioritization of international missions in atypical environments, the risk of health consequences, including long term health effects, has received greater consideration. The Swedish military is interested in designing an optimal approach for assessment of health threats during deployments. The Medical Intelligence group at FOI CBRN Security and Defence in Umea has, on request from and in collaboration with the Swedish Armed Forces, reviewed a variety of international health threat and risk assessment models for military operations. Application of risk assessment methods used in different phases of military operations will be reviewed. An overview of different international approaches used in operational risk management (ORM) will be presented as well as a discussion of the specific needs and constraints for health risk assessment in military operations. This work highlights the specific challenges of risk assessment that are unique to the deployment setting such as the assessment of exposures to a variety of diverse hazards concurrently.

  20. Risk assessment in international operations.

    PubMed

    Stricklin, Daniela L

    2008-11-15

    During international peace-keeping missions, a diverse number of non-battle hazards may be encountered, which range from heavily polluted areas, endemic disease, toxic industrial materials, local violence, traffic, and even psychological factors. Hence, elevated risk levels from a variety of sources are encountered during deployments. With the emphasis within the Swedish military moving from national defense towards prioritization of international missions in atypical environments, the risk of health consequences, including long term health effects, has received greater consideration. The Swedish military is interested in designing an optimal approach for assessment of health threats during deployments. The Medical Intelligence group at FOI CBRN Security and Defence in Umeå has, on request from and in collaboration with the Swedish Armed Forces, reviewed a variety of international health threat and risk assessment models for military operations. Application of risk assessment methods used in different phases of military operations will be reviewed. An overview of different international approaches used in operational risk management (ORM) will be presented as well as a discussion of the specific needs and constraints for health risk assessment in military operations. This work highlights the specific challenges of risk assessment that are unique to the deployment setting such as the assessment of exposures to a variety of diverse hazards concurrently. PMID:18325560

  1. Space shuttle operational risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare

    1996-03-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Space Shuttle system has recently been completed. This year-long effort represents a development resulting from seven years of application of risk technology to the Space Shuttle. These applications were initiated by NASA shortly after the Challenger accident as recommended by the Rogers and Slay Commission reports. The current effort is the first integrated quantitative assessment of the risk of the loss of the shuttle vehicle from 3 seconds prior to liftoff to wheel-stop at mission end. The study which was conducted under the direction of NASA's Shuttle Safety and Mission Assurance office at Johnson Spaceflight Center focused on shuttle operational risk but included consideration of all the shuttle flight and test history since the beginning of the program through Mission 67 in July of 1994.

  2. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.

    2006-01-01

    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  3. Operational Land Imager relative radiometric calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.

    2015-09-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI), on board the Landsat-8 satellite, is a pushbroom sensor with nearly 7000 detectors per band, divided between 14 separate modules. While rigorously characterized prior to launch, the shear number of individual detectors presents a challenge to maintaining the on-orbit relative calibration, such that stripes, bands and other artifacts are minimized in the final image products. On-orbit relative calibration of the OLI is primarily monitored and corrected by observing an on-board primary solar diffuser panel. The panel is the most uniform target available to the OLI, though as observed but the OLI, it has a slope across the field of view due to view angle effects. Just after launch, parameters were derived using the solar diffuser data, to correct for the angular effects across the 14 modules. The residual discontinuities between arrays and the detector-to-detector uniformity continue to be monitored on a weekly basis. The observed variations in the responses to the diffuser panel since launch are thought to be due to real instrument changes. Since launch, the Coastal/Aerosol (CA) and Blue bands have shown the most variation in relative calibration of the VNIR bands, with as much as 0.14% change (3-sigma) between consecutive relative gain estimates. The other VNIR bands (Green, Red and NIR) initially had detectors showing a slow drift of about 0.2% per year, though this stopped after an instrument power cycle about seven months after launch. The SWIR bands also exhibit variability between collects (0.11% 3-sigma) but the larger changes have been where individual detectors' responses change suddenly by as much as 1.5%. The mechanisms behind these changes are not well understood but in order to minimize impact to the users, the OLI relative calibration is updated on a quarterly basis in order to capture changes over time.

  4. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  5. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  6. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  7. 43 CFR 3283.4 - When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may the unit operator add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? 3283.4 Section 3283.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... add lands to or remove lands from a unit agreement? (a) The unit operator may request BLM to...

  8. 24 CFR 1710.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Risks of buying land. 1710.107 Section 1710.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risks of buying land. 1710.107 Section 1710.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  10. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System:Capabilities for Operational Land Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, C. W.; Schneider, S.; Murphy, R.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last decade, the tri-agency Integrated Program Office (IPO), comprised of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has been managing the development of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Once operational later this decade, NPOESS will replace NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) systems. The IPO, through its Acquisition and Operations contractor, Northrop Grumman, will launch NPOESS spacecraft into three orbital planes to provide a single, national system capable of satisfying both civil and national security requirements for space-based, remotely sensed environmental data. With the development of NPOESS, we are evolving the existing "weather" satellites into integrated environmental observing systems by expanding our capabilities to observe, assess, and predict the total Earth system - ocean, atmosphere, land, and the space environment. NPOESS will transform today's short-term, space-based ocean research missions into a sustained, operational ocean remote sensing observation program. Land measurements comprise seven of the fifty-five user-validated requirements for geophysical measurements that will be made by NPOESS sensors. In 1997, the IPO initiated a robust sensor risk reduction effort for early development of the critical sensor suites and algorithms necessary to support NPOESS. In 2001, preliminary design efforts were completed for the last of five critical imaging/sounding instruments for NPOESS. Land requirements have directly and substantially "driven" the design of two NPOESS sensors: the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Conical-scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder (CMIS). Compared to the predecessor operational systems, NPOESS will deliver higher resolution (spatial and temporal

  11. Lunar landing and launch facilities and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary design of a lunar landing and launch facility for a Phase 3 lunar base is formulated. A single multipurpose vehicle for the lunar module is assumed. Three traffic levels are envisioned: 6, 12, and 24 landings/launches per year. The facility is broken down into nine major design items. A conceptual description of each of these items is included. Preliminary sizes, capacities, and/or other relevant design data for some of these items are obtained. A quonset hut tent-like structure constructed of aluminum rods and aluminized mylar panels is proposed. This structure is used to provide a constant thermal environment for the lunar modules. A structural design and thermal analysis is presented. Two independent designs for a bridge crane to unload/load heavy cargo from the lunar module are included. Preliminary investigations into cryogenic propellant storage and handling, landing/launch guidance and control, and lunar module maintenance requirements are performed. Also, an initial study into advanced concepts for application to Phase 4 or 5 lunar bases has been completed in a report on capturing, condensing, and recycling the exhaust plume from a lunar launch.

  12. Defining land degradation and desertification risk using simple indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairis, Or.

    2012-04-01

    A methodology has been developed for defining land degradation and desertification risk by using simple indicators related to soil, climate, vegetation, social economic, and land management characteristics. A number of 72 candidate indicators have been identified and analyzed for assessing land desertification risk under various processes and causes of degradation. Data were collected from 1672 field sites located in 17 study sites located in various environmental, social and economical conditions. The main processes or causes of land degradation and desertification identified in the study field sites were soil erosion, soil salinization, water stress, overgrazing, and forest fires. The number of candidate indicators defined for each process or cause of land degradation was ranged from 16 to 50. Classes have been defined for each indicator and numbers have been assigned for each class according to its importance on desertification. After creating the appropriate data basis, a forward stepwise statistical analysis was conducted for all indicators corresponding to each process or cause of land degradation and the sensitivity of each indicator to desertification risk was identified. Algorithms were derived for each process or cause that can be easily used for identifying land degradation and desertification risk at farm level. The performance of the derived methodology was assessed using the independent indicators soil erosion, soil organic matter content, and soil aggregate stability. The analysis of the data have shown that the used candidate indicators were significantly reduced to a number of effective indicators ranging from 8 to 17 in the various processes or causes of land degradation and desertification. Among the most important indicators identified as affecting land degradation and desertification risk were rain seasonality, soil depth, slope gradient, plant cover, rate of burned area, grazing control, rate of land abandonment, land use intensity, population

  13. LOLA: The lunar operations landing assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Mike; Argeles, Fernando; Stewart, Chris; Turner, Charles; Rivas, Gavino

    1992-05-01

    Because the President of the United States has begun the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), which entails a manned mission to Mars by the year 2016, it is necessary to use the Moon as a stepping stone to this objective. In support of this mission, unmanned scientific exploration of the Moon will help re-establish man's presence there and will serve as a basis for possible lunar colonization, setting the stage for a manned Mars mission. The lunar landing platform must provide support to its payload in the form of power, communications, and thermal control. The design must be such that cost is held to a minimum, and so that a wide variety of payloads may be used with the lander. The objectives of this mission are (1) to further the SEI by returning to the moon with unmanned scientific experiments, (2) to demonstrate to the public that experimental payload missions are feasible, (3) to provide a common lunar lander platform so select scientific packages could be targeted to specific lunar locales, (4) to enable the lander to be built from off-the-shelf hardware, and (5) to provide first mission launch by 1996.

  14. LOLA: The lunar operations landing assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, Mike; Argeles, Fernando; Stewart, Chris; Turner, Charles; Rivas, Gavino

    1992-01-01

    Because the President of the United States has begun the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), which entails a manned mission to Mars by the year 2016, it is necessary to use the Moon as a stepping stone to this objective. In support of this mission, unmanned scientific exploration of the Moon will help re-establish man's presence there and will serve as a basis for possible lunar colonization, setting the stage for a manned Mars mission. The lunar landing platform must provide support to its payload in the form of power, communications, and thermal control. The design must be such that cost is held to a minimum, and so that a wide variety of payloads may be used with the lander. The objectives of this mission are (1) to further the SEI by returning to the moon with unmanned scientific experiments, (2) to demonstrate to the public that experimental payload missions are feasible, (3) to provide a common lunar lander platform so select scientific packages could be targeted to specific lunar locales, (4) to enable the lander to be built from off-the-shelf hardware, and (5) to provide first mission launch by 1996.

  15. MICROBIOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR LAND APPLICATION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each major option for the disposal/reuse of municipal sludges poses potential risks to human health or the environment because of the microbial contaminants in sludge. Therefore, risk assessment methodology appropriate for pathogen risk evaluation for land application and distrib...

  16. Managing risks and hazardous in industrial operations

    SciTech Connect

    Almaula, S.C.

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that it makes good business sense to identify risks and hazards of an operation and take appropriate steps to manage them effectively. Developing and implementing an effective risk and hazard management plan also contibutes to other industry requirements and standards. Development of a risk management system, key elements of a risk management plan, and hazards and risk analysis methods are outlined. Comparing potential risk to the cost of prevention is also discussed. It is estimated that the cost of developing and preparing the first risk management plan varies between $50,000 to $200,000. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Assessment and management of land flooding risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirtskhulava, Ts. E.

    2007-11-01

    A study was done on elaborating a quantitative method for assessing the conditions and hazard potential of lands subject to flooding and underflooding (ground water rising) using the Markov process theory, including the stochastic kinetic differential Ito and Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations. Numerical examples are given for the application of the equations derived.

  18. Statistical models for operational risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornalba, Chiara; Giudici, Paolo

    2004-07-01

    The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has released, in the last few years, recommendations for the correct determination of the risks to which a banking organization is subject. This concerns, in particular, operational risks, which are all those management events that may determine unexpected losses. It is necessary to develop valid statistical models to measure and, consequently, predict, such operational risks. In the paper we present the possible approaches, including our own proposal, which is based on Bayesian networks.

  19. US Fish and Wildlife Service lands biomonitoring operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rope, R.C.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1993-08-01

    This is Volume 1 of an operations manual designed to facilitate the development of biomonitoring strategies for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands. It is one component of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands Biomonitoring Operations Manual. The Volume contains the Introduction to the Manual, background information on monitoring, and procedures for developing a biomonitoring strategy for Service lands. The purpose of the Biomonitoring Operations Manual is to provide an approach to develop and implement biomonitoring activities to assess the status and trends of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service trust resources. It also provides field sampline methods and documentation protocols for contaminant monitoring activities. The strategy described in the Manual has been designed as a stand alone process to characterize the presence of contaminants on lands managed by the Service. This process can be sued to develop a monitoring program for any tract of real estate with potential threats from on- or off-site contaminants. Because the process was designed to address concerns for Service lands that span the United States from Alaska to the Tropical Islands, it has a generic format that can be used in al types of ecosystems, however, significant site specific informtion is required to complete the Workbook and make the process work successfully.

  20. Land Use Adaptation Strategies Analysis in Landslide Risk Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chin-Hsin; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2013-04-01

    In order to respond to the impact of climate and environmental change on Taiwanese mountain region, this study used GTZ (2004) Risk analysis guidelines to assess the landslide risk for 178 Taiwanese mountain towns. This study used 7 indicators to assess landslide risk, which are rainfall distribution, natural environment vulnerability (e.g., rainfall threshold criterion for debris flow, historical disaster frequency, landslide ratio, and road density), physicality vulnerability (e.g., population density) and socio-economic vulnerability (e.g., population with higher education, death rate and income). The landslide risk map can be obtained by multiplying 7 indicators together and ranking the product. The map had 5 risk ranges, and towns within the range of 4 to 5, which are high landslide risk regions, and have high priority in reducing risk. This study collected the regions with high landslide risk regions and analyzed the difference after Typhoon Morakot (2009). The spatial distribution showed that after significant environmental damage high landslide risk regions moved from central to south Taiwan. The changeable pattern of risk regions pointed out the necessity of updating the risk map periodically. Based on the landslide risk map and the land use investigation data which was provided by the National Land Surveying and Mapping Center in 2007, this study calculated the size of the land use area with landslide disaster risk. According to the above results and discussion, this study can be used to suggest appropriate land use adaptation strategies provided for reducing landslide risk under the impact of climate and environmental change.

  1. Rosetta lander Philae: Flight Dynamics analyses for landing site selection and post-landing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Eric; Martin, Thierry; Canalias, Elisabet; Blazquez, Alejandro; Garmier, Romain; Ceolin, Thierry; Gaudon, Philippe; Delmas, Cedric; Biele, Jens; Ulamec, Stephan; Remetean, Emile; Torres, Alex; Laurent-Varin, Julien; Dolives, Benoit; Herique, Alain; Rogez, Yves; Kofman, Wlodek; Jorda, Laurent; Zakharov, Vladimir; Crifo, Jean-François; Rodionov, Alexander; Heinish, P.; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-08-01

    On the 12th of November 2014, The Rosetta Lander Philae became the first spacecraft to softly land on a comet nucleus. Due to the double failure of the cold gas hold-down thruster and the anchoring harpoons that should have fixed Philae to the surface, it spent approximately two hours bouncing over the comet surface to finally come at rest one km away from its target site. Nevertheless it was operated during the 57 h of its First Science Sequence. The FSS, performed with the two batteries, should have been followed by the Long Term Science Sequence but Philae was in a place not well illuminated and fell into hibernation. Yet, thanks to reducing distance to the Sun and to seasonal effect, it woke up at end of April and on 13th of June it contacted Rosetta again. To achieve this successful landing, an intense preparation work had been carried out mainly between August and November 2014 to select the targeted landing site and define the final landing trajectory. After the landing, the data collected during on-comet operations have been used to assess the final position and orientation of Philae, and to prepare the wake-up. This paper addresses the Flight Dynamics studies done in the scope of this landing preparation from Lander side, in close cooperation with the team at ESA, responsible for Rosetta, as well as for the reconstruction of the bouncing trajectory and orientation of the Lander after touchdown.

  2. Medical Operational Challenges in the Expedition 16 Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, S.; Johnston, S. L.; Ilcus, L. S.; Shevchenko, V.

    2009-01-01

    On April 19, 2008 the crew of Expedition 16 left the International Space Station and returned to earth via their Soyuz TMA-11 capsule after 192 days on orbit. Their capsule experienced the second consecutive and third ballistic reentry in the last 10 TMA recoveries and landed approximately 260 miles (420 km) from the prime landing site. Issues: The purpose of this presentation will be to describe, not only the typical medical operational challenges faced by Flight Surgeons recovering a long duration crew from space, but also address the unique challenges that existed with the Expedition 16 landing and crew recovery. Nominal Soyuz recovery challenges include remote recovery sites with crew exposures to sleep shifting and fatigue, dehydration, hypothermia and hyperthermia, and rotational, sustained, and impact g-forces. These environmental factors coupled with the patho-physiologic neuro-vestibular and orthostatic intolerance changes that occur secondary to the crews reintroduction into the earth s gravity field will be detailed. Additional challenges that were unique to this expedition included a ballistic reentry with higher g-loads, the presence of fire outside of the capsule on landing, a contingency medical event of a ground support personnel, and loss of communications with the crew just prior to landing and during recovery operations. Conclusions: In spite of these unique challenges the Russian Search and Rescue Forces and Medical Support personnel along with U.S. Medical Support performed well together. Possible improvements in training and coordination will be discussed.

  3. Assessing Landslide Risk Areas Using Statistical Models and Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. G.; Lee, D. K.; Park, C.; Ahn, Y.; Sung, S.; Park, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, damages due to landslides have increased in Republic of Korea. Extreme weathers like typhoon, heavy rainfall related to climate change are the main factor of the damages. Especially, Inje-gun, Gangwon-do had severe landslide damages in 2006 and 2007. In Inje-gun, 91% areas are forest, therefore, many land covers related to human activities were adjacent to forest land. Thus, establishment of adaptation plans to landslides was urgently needed. Landslide risk assessment can serve as a good information to policy makers. The objective of this study was assessing landslide risk areas to support establishment of adaptation plans to reduce landslide damages. Statistical distribution models (SDMs) were used to evaluate probability of landslide occurrence. Various SDMs were used to make landslide probability maps considering uncertainty of SDMs. The types of land cover were classified into 5 grades considering vulnerable level to landslide. The landslide probability maps were overlaid with land cover map to calculate landslide risk. As a result of overlay analysis, landslide risk areas were derived. Especially agricultural areas and transportation areas showed high risk and large areas in the risk map. In conclusion, policy makers in Inje-gun must consider the landslide risk map to establish adaptation plans effectively.

  4. Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations (LLEGO) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    LLEGO is a model for understanding recurring launch and landing operations costs at Kennedy Space Center for human space flight. Launch and landing operations are often referred to as ground processing, or ground operations. Currently, this function is specific to the ground operations for the Space Shuttle Space Transportation System within the Space Shuttle Program. The Constellation system to follow the Space Shuttle consists of the crewed Orion spacecraft atop an Ares I launch vehicle and the uncrewed Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Constellation flight and ground systems build upon many elements of the existing Shuttle flight and ground hardware, as well as upon existing organizations and processes. In turn, the LLEGO model builds upon past ground operations research, modeling, data, and experience in estimating for future programs. Rather than to simply provide estimates, the LLEGO model s main purpose is to improve expenses by relating complex relationships among functions (ground operations contractor, subcontractors, civil service technical, center management, operations, etc.) to tangible drivers. Drivers include flight system complexity and reliability, as well as operations and supply chain management processes and technology. Together these factors define the operability and potential improvements for any future system, from the most direct to the least direct expenses.

  5. A Risk Assessment Architecture for Enhanced Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sharp. Lauren M.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2010-01-01

    On very rare occasions, in-flight emergencies have occurred that required the pilot to utilize the aircraft's capabilities to the fullest extent possible, sometimes using actuators in ways for which they were not intended. For instance, when flight control has been lost due to damage to the hydraulic systems, pilots have had to use engine thrust to maneuver the plane to the ground and in for a landing. To assist the pilot in these situations, research is being performed to enhance the engine operation by making it more responsive or able to generate more thrust. Enabled by modification of the propulsion control, enhanced engine operation can increase the probability of a safe landing during an inflight emergency. However, enhanced engine operation introduces risk as the nominal control limits, such as those on shaft speed, temperature, and acceleration, are exceeded. Therefore, an on-line tool for quantifying this risk must be developed to ensure that the use of an enhanced control mode does not actually increase the overall danger to the aircraft. This paper describes an architecture for the implementation of this tool. It describes the type of data and algorithms required and the information flow, and how the risk based on engine component lifing and operability for enhanced operation is determined.

  6. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commencement of operations; stocking lands. 2916.1-1 Section 2916.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Farm § 2916.1-1 Commencement of operations; stocking lands. The lessee shall, within one year from...

  7. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commencement of operations; stocking lands. 2916.1-1 Section 2916.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Farm § 2916.1-1 Commencement of operations; stocking lands. The lessee shall, within one year from...

  8. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commencement of operations; stocking lands. 2916.1-1 Section 2916.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... Farm § 2916.1-1 Commencement of operations; stocking lands. The lessee shall, within one year from...

  9. Assessing reservoir operations risk under climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brekke, L.D.; Maurer, E.P.; Anderson, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Townsley, E.S.; Harrison, A.; Pruitt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Risk-based planning offers a robust way to identify strategies that permit adaptive water resources management under climate change. This paper presents a flexible methodology for conducting climate change risk assessments involving reservoir operations. Decision makers can apply this methodology to their systems by selecting future periods and risk metrics relevant to their planning questions and by collectively evaluating system impacts relative to an ensemble of climate projection scenarios (weighted or not). This paper shows multiple applications of this methodology in a case study involving California's Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems. Multiple applications were conducted to show how choices made in conducting the risk assessment, choices known as analytical design decisions, can affect assessed risk. Specifically, risk was reanalyzed for every choice combination of two design decisions: (1) whether to assume climate change will influence flood-control constraints on water supply operations (and how), and (2) whether to weight climate change scenarios (and how). Results show that assessed risk would motivate different planning pathways depending on decision-maker attitudes toward risk (e.g., risk neutral versus risk averse). Results also show that assessed risk at a given risk attitude is sensitive to the analytical design choices listed above, with the choice of whether to adjust flood-control rules under climate change having considerably more influence than the choice on whether to weight climate scenarios. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. PSOLA: A Heuristic Land-Use Allocation Model Using Patch-Level Operations and Knowledge-Informed Rules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaolin; Peng, Jinjin; Jiao, Limin; Liu, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing land-use allocation is important to regional sustainable development, as it promotes the social equality of public services, increases the economic benefits of land-use activities, and reduces the ecological risk of land-use planning. Most land-use optimization models allocate land-use using cell-level operations that fragment land-use patches. These models do not cooperate well with land-use planning knowledge, leading to irrational land-use patterns. This study focuses on building a heuristic land-use allocation model (PSOLA) using particle swarm optimization. The model allocates land-use with patch-level operations to avoid fragmentation. The patch-level operations include a patch-edge operator, a patch-size operator, and a patch-compactness operator that constrain the size and shape of land-use patches. The model is also integrated with knowledge-informed rules to provide auxiliary knowledge of land-use planning during optimization. The knowledge-informed rules consist of suitability, accessibility, land use policy, and stakeholders' preference. To validate the PSOLA model, a case study was performed in Gaoqiao Town in Zhejiang Province, China. The results demonstrate that the PSOLA model outperforms a basic PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) in the terms of the social, economic, ecological, and overall benefits by 3.60%, 7.10%, 1.53% and 4.06%, respectively, which confirms the effectiveness of our improvements. Furthermore, the model has an open architecture, enabling its extension as a generic tool to support decision making in land-use planning. PMID:27322619

  11. PSOLA: A Heuristic Land-Use Allocation Model Using Patch-Level Operations and Knowledge-Informed Rules

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaolin; Peng, Jinjin; Jiao, Limin; Liu, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing land-use allocation is important to regional sustainable development, as it promotes the social equality of public services, increases the economic benefits of land-use activities, and reduces the ecological risk of land-use planning. Most land-use optimization models allocate land-use using cell-level operations that fragment land-use patches. These models do not cooperate well with land-use planning knowledge, leading to irrational land-use patterns. This study focuses on building a heuristic land-use allocation model (PSOLA) using particle swarm optimization. The model allocates land-use with patch-level operations to avoid fragmentation. The patch-level operations include a patch-edge operator, a patch-size operator, and a patch-compactness operator that constrain the size and shape of land-use patches. The model is also integrated with knowledge-informed rules to provide auxiliary knowledge of land-use planning during optimization. The knowledge-informed rules consist of suitability, accessibility, land use policy, and stakeholders’ preference. To validate the PSOLA model, a case study was performed in Gaoqiao Town in Zhejiang Province, China. The results demonstrate that the PSOLA model outperforms a basic PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) in the terms of the social, economic, ecological, and overall benefits by 3.60%, 7.10%, 1.53% and 4.06%, respectively, which confirms the effectiveness of our improvements. Furthermore, the model has an open architecture, enabling its extension as a generic tool to support decision making in land-use planning. PMID:27322619

  12. Promoting justified risk-based decisions in contaminated land management.

    PubMed

    Reinikainen, Jussi; Sorvari, Jaana

    2016-09-01

    Decision making and regulatory policies on contaminated land management (CLM) are commonly governed by risk assessment. Risk assessment, thus, has to comply with legislation, but also provide valid information in terms of actual risks to correctly focus the potentially required measures and allocate the available resources. Hence, reliable risk assessment is a prerequisite for justified and sustainable risk management. This paper gives an introduction to the Finnish risk-based regulatory framework, outlines the challenges within the policies and the practice and provides an overview of the new guidance document to promote risk-based and sustainable CLM. We argue that the current risk assessment approaches in the policy frameworks are not necessarily efficient enough in supporting justified risk-based decisions. One of the main reasons for this is the excessive emphasis put on conservative risk assessments and on generic guideline values without contributing to their appropriate application. This paper presents how some of the challenges in risk-based decision making have been tackled in the Finnish regulatory framework on contaminated land. We believe that our study will also stimulate interest with regard to policy frameworks in other countries. PMID:26767620

  13. Economic benefit risk assessment of controlling land subsidence in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Zuo; Tiezhu, Liu; Xinhong, Lin

    1993-08-01

    Land subsidence, a major and well-known geological hazard in Shanghai, has caused serious losses. Based on past studies, the cost and benefit of the Shanghai's land subsidence hazard control were assessed and forecasted by risk assessment. An economic benefit-risk assessment was taken in order to control completely land subsidence and make rational safety elevations of the flood control wall. The result of risk assessment shows that the present 6.9-m elevation of the floodwall is not sufficient for the standard of “occurring only once in a thousand years.∝ After 200 years, the spring tide hazardous risk losses caused by land subsidence would amount to 49.73 million yuan per year. The proportion of expense in thoroughly controlling land subsidence to the economic benefit is 1∶:41.44; to construct the flood control wall to an elevation that would prevent inundation from a flood event, to reach the standard of “occurring only once in a thousand years,∝ and to avoid tide losses, the ratio of the investment of reducing tide hazard to the economic benefit should be 1∶:53.24.

  14. Shuttle Flight Operations Contract Generator Maintenance Facility Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applegate, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    This Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP) has been prepared to inform current and potential future users of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Flight Operations Contract Generator Maintenance Facility (SFOC; SWMU 081; "the Site") of institutional controls that have been implemented at the Site1. Although there are no current unacceptable risks to human health or the environment associated with the SFOC, an institutional land use control (LUC) is necessary to prevent human health exposure to antimony-affected groundwater at the Site. Controls will include periodic inspection, condition certification, and agency notification.

  15. Integrating groundwater into land planning: a risk assessment methodology.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Roxane; Joerin, Florent; Vansnick, Jean-Claude; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-05-01

    Generally, groundwater is naturally of good quality for human consumption and represents an essential source of drinking water. In Canada, small municipalities and individuals are particularly reliant on groundwater, since they cannot afford complex water treatment installations. However, groundwater is a vulnerable resource that, depending on its characteristics, can be contaminated by almost any land use. In recent decades, governments have launched programs to acquire more information on groundwater, in order to better protect it. Nevertheless, the data produced are rarely adequate to be understood and used by land planners. The aim of this study was to develop a method that helps planners interpret hydrogeological data in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Based on the requests and needs of planners during semi-directed interviews, a methodology was developed to qualitatively evaluate groundwater contamination risk by land uses. The method combines land planning data and hydrogeological data through the MACBETH multicriteria analysis method, to obtain maps of groundwater contamination risk. The method was developed through group and individual meetings with numerous hydrogeology, land planning, water's economics and drinking water specialists. The resulting maps allow planners to understand the dynamics of groundwater within their territory, identify problem areas where groundwater is threatened and analyse the potential impact of planning scenarios on the risk of groundwater contamination. PMID:25768713

  16. Cost, capability, and risk for planetary operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.; Deutsch, Marie J.; Miller, Lanny J.; Wolff, Donna M.; Zawacki, Steven J.

    1992-01-01

    The three key factors for flight projects - cost, capability, and risk - are examined with respect to their interplay, the uplink process, cost drivers, and risk factors. Scientific objectives are translated into a computer program during the uplink process, and examples are given relating to the Voyager Interstellar Mission, Galileo, and the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby. The development of a multimission sequence system based on these uplinks is described with reference to specific subsystems such as the pointer and the sequence generator. Operational cost drivers include mission, flight-system, and ground-system complexity, uplink traffic, and work force. Operational risks are listed in terms of the mission operations, the environment, and the mission facilities. The uplink process can be analyzed in terms of software development, and spacecraft operability is shown to be an important factor from the initial stages of spacecraft development.

  17. 24 CFR 1710.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... uncertain and dependent upon many factors. DO NOT expect all land to increase in value. (2) Any value which... Property Report portion, the following statement shall be added beneath the “Risks of Buying Land” under a heading “Warnings”: “Throughout this Property Report there are specific warnings concerning the...

  18. 24 CFR 1710.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... uncertain and dependent upon many factors. DO NOT expect all land to increase in value. (2) Any value which... Property Report portion, the following statement shall be added beneath the “Risks of Buying Land” under a heading “Warnings”: “Throughout this Property Report there are specific warnings concerning the...

  19. 24 CFR 1710.107 - Risks of buying land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... uncertain and dependent upon many factors. DO NOT expect all land to increase in value. (2) Any value which... Property Report portion, the following statement shall be added beneath the “Risks of Buying Land” under a heading “Warnings”: “Throughout this Property Report there are specific warnings concerning the...

  20. Rosetta Lander - Philae: First Landing and Operations on a Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Biele, Jens; Delmas, Cedric; Fantinati, Cinzia; Gaudon, Philippe; Geurts, Koen; Jurado, Eric; Lommatsch, Valentina; Maibaum, Michael; Moussi-Soffys, Aurélie; Salatti, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Philae is a comet Lander, part of Rosetta which is a Cornerstone Mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 programme. In August 2014 Rosetta did rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) after a 10 year cruise. Both its nucleus and coma have been studied allowing the selection of a landing site for Philae. Philae was separated from the Rosetta main spacecraft on November 12, 2014 and touched the comet surface after seven hours of descent. After several bounces it came to rest and continued to send scientific data to Earth. All ten instruments of its payload have been operated at least once. Due to the fact that the Lander could not be anchored, the originally planned first scientific sequence had to be modified. Philae went into hibernation on November 15th, after its primary battery ran out of energy. Re-activation of the Lander is expected in spring/summer 2015 when CG is closer to the sun and the solar generator of Philae will provide more power. The paper will give an overview of separation, descent and landing, the search for the final landing spot as well as Lander operations after separation. Rosetta is an ESA mission with contributions from its member states and NASA. Rosetta's Philae lander is provided by a consortium led by DLR, MPS, CNES and ASI with additional contributions from Hungary, UK, Finland, Ireland and Austria.

  1. 43 CFR 8.1 - Lands for reservoir construction and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Lands for reservoir construction and... THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.1 Lands for reservoir construction and operation. The fee title will be acquired to the following: (a) Lands...

  2. 43 CFR 8.1 - Lands for reservoir construction and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands for reservoir construction and... THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.1 Lands for reservoir construction and operation. The fee title will be acquired to the following: (a) Lands...

  3. 43 CFR 8.1 - Lands for reservoir construction and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lands for reservoir construction and... THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.1 Lands for reservoir construction and operation. The fee title will be acquired to the following: (a) Lands...

  4. 43 CFR 8.1 - Lands for reservoir construction and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands for reservoir construction and... THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.1 Lands for reservoir construction and operation. The fee title will be acquired to the following: (a) Lands...

  5. 43 CFR 8.1 - Lands for reservoir construction and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands for reservoir construction and... THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.1 Lands for reservoir construction and operation. The fee title will be acquired to the following: (a) Lands...

  6. 43 CFR 428.9 - Farm operators who are former owners of excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Farm operators who are former owners of excess land. 428.9 Section 428.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... transferred the land at a price approved by Reclamation; and (3) You are the direct or indirect farm...

  7. [Operative risk related to tobacco in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Yaribakht, S; Malartic, C; Grange, G; Morel, O

    2014-05-01

    If tobacco has been recognized for many years as a major risk factor for cardiovascular, lung diseases and cancer in the general population, women are insufficiently aware of the consequences and the specific gynecological operative risks related to this intoxication. Thus, a regular tobacco consumption increases the risk for many gynecological conditions may require surgical treatment with in addition a significant negative impact on the healing process and the risk of postoperative complications. The operative risk must be explained by surgeons in daily practice gynecological, pelvic surgery or breast screening. The issue of smoking cessation should precede surgery has been established by a consensus conference of experts on perioperative smoking held in 2005. The implementation of these recommendations during the preoperative period requires improvement of staff training and better practices to allow smoking cessation effective and sustainable. It is lawful in this context to delay scheduled surgery of 6 to 8 weeks to allow an optimal smoking cessation and to continue smoking cessation for the time necessary for healing to reduce the excess operative risk associated with smoking. PMID:24787606

  8. Land based crane operator training and licensing program

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, R. van der; Dingman, S.

    1995-12-31

    Working safely and having a healthy respect for safety has always been important to the Corps of Engineers. Because we recognize the increased importance of safety to crane operations, we have developed this Training and Licensing program for all crane operators. What the guidelines and this program intends is, think before you act and thinking requires a knowledge base. We feel the following program strengthens the guidelines to enable competent as well as confident crane operations by our personnel. This document outlines the Corps of Engineer`s Land Based Crane Training and Licensing Program for Class I, II, and III operators. The Corps of Engineer`s Portland District Operation`s Division melded guidelines from industry with specific Corps regulations to produce this program. The Crane Licensing and Training program includes three crane operator classes. Each class discusses licensing, physical and academic requirements and performance evaluations. Other related personnel and their responsibilities are also discussed. These include rigger/signalmen, maintenance staff, and inspectors. A section on testing requirements for specific needs follows with a glossary at the end of this document.

  9. Risk factors for injuries during airborne static line operations.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Steelman, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    US Army airborne operations began in World War II. Continuous improvements in parachute technology, aircraft exit procedures, and ground landing techniques have reduced the number of injuries over time from 27 per 1,000 descents to about 6 per 1,000 jumps. Studies have identified a number of factors that put parachutists at higher injury risk, including high wind speeds, night jumps, combat loads, higher temperatures, lower fitness, heavier body weight, and older age. Airborne injuries can be reduced by limiting risker training (higher wind speeds, night jumps, combat load) to the minimum necessary for tactical and operational proficiency. Wearing a parachute ankle brace (PAB) will reduce ankle injuries without increasing other injuries and should be considered by all parachutists, especially those with prior ankle problems. A high level of upper body muscular endurance and aerobic fitness is not only beneficial for general health but also associated with lower injury risk during airborne training. PMID:25344715

  10. Comparative microbial risks of land applied biosolids and animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transmission of pathogens by land application of untreated human and animal wastes has been known for more than 100 years. In the United States there are more than 450,000 (EPA) animal feeding operations producing more than 100 million tons of animal manure per year. In addition, grazing animals...

  11. Operational Concept for the Smart Landing Facility (SLF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, S. D.; Bussolari, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe an operational concept for the Smart Landing Facility (SLF). The SLF is proposed as a component of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) and is envisioned to utilize Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) technologies to support higher-volume air traffic operations in a wider variety of weather conditions than are currently possible at airports without an Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) or Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON). In order to accomplish this, the SLF will provide aircraft sequencing and separation within its terminal airspace (the SLF traffic area) and on the airport surface. The approach taken in this report is to first define and describe the SLF environment and the type of operations and aircraft that must be supported. Services currently provided by an ATCT and TRACON are reviewed and assembled into a set of high-level operational functions. A description of the applicable CNS/ATM technologies that have been deployed in the NAS (National Airspace System) or have been demonstrated to be operationally feasible is presented. A candidate SLF system concept that employs the CNS/ATM technologies is described. This is followed by SLF operational scenarios for minimally-equipped aircraft and for aircraft fully-equipped to make full use of SLF services. An assessment is made of the SLF technology and key research issues are identified.

  12. Reuse of concentrated animal feeding operation wastewater on agricultural lands.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Scott A; Segal, Eran; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Qiquan; Hutchins, Stephen R

    2008-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. When applied to land at agronomic rates, CAFO wastewater has the potential to be a valuable fertilizer and soil amendment that can improve the physical condition of the soil for plant growth and reduce the demand for high quality water resources. However, excess amounts of nutrients, heavy metals, salts, pathogenic microorganisms, and pharmaceutically active compounds (antibiotics and hormones) in CAFO wastewater can adversely impact soil and water quality. The USEPA currently requires that application of CAFO wastes to agricultural lands follow an approved nutrient management plan (NMP). A NMP is a design document that sets rates for waste application to meet the water and nutrient requirements of the selected crops and soil types, and is typically written so as to be protective of surface water resources. The tacit assumption is that a well-designed and executed NMP ensures that all lagoon water contaminants are taken up or degraded in the root zone, so that ground water is inherently protected. The validity of this assumption for all lagoon water contaminants has not yet been thoroughly studied. This review paper discusses our current level of understanding on the environmental impact and sustainability of CAFO wastewater reuse. Specifically, we address the source, composition, application practices, environmental issues, transport pathways, and potential treatments that are associated with the reuse of CAFO wastewater on agricultural lands. PMID:18765783

  13. Hazmat review reduces risk and improves operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, P.W.; Trecha, S.J.; Patterson, P.

    1996-07-01

    Through its hazardous materials (hazmat) review initiative, Wisconsin Power and Light Co. (WP and L) repositioned itself for better plant operations while reducing the overall risks and costs associated with hazmats. The utility focused on two primary hazmat improvement objectives: (1) ensure plant hazmat operations are meeting regulatory requirements, optimizing the use, storage, and disposal of hazmats; (2) reduce the overall risk and investment associated with hazmat substances on the plant properties. ``Hazardous materials management is often overlooked as an integral component of the overall purchasing and materials management process``, emphasized Jill Doucette, WP and L Strategic Sourcing Initiative manager. ``Improved performance in this area can significantly reduce personnel and company risks, improve customer service and save dollars.``

  14. A flexible approach to an Operational Land Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a concept for an Operational Land Observing System (OLOS) formulated to satisfy a broad spectrum of perceived user needs for a diverse discipline community. The concept formulated will allow continuous orthographic imaging across multiple spectral bands, near-global stereoscopic imaging, and next-day oblique imaging of any desired spot on earth. Imaging parameters will be adaptable to known phenomena characteristics to facilitate information extraction including optional onboard theme selection. The conceptual system will provide 6- to 12-hour quick-look capability, 48-hour turnaround on all standard imaging products, and a guaranteed data flow schedule reliability for 10 to 20 years. A fleet of successive operational satellites will be used.

  15. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geri; Lee, Kenton; Barsi, Julia A.; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is being developed by NASA and USGS and is currently planned for launch in January 2013 [1]. Once on-orbit and checked out, it will be operated by USGS and officially named Landsat-8. Two sensors will be on LDCM: the Operational Land Imager (OLI), which has been built and delivered by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp (BATC) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS)[2], currently being built and tested at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with a planned delivery of Winter 2012. The OLI covers the Visible, Near-IR (NIR) and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) parts of the spectrum; TIRS covers the Thermal Infrared (TIR). This paper discusses only the OLI instrument and its pre-launch characterization; a companion paper covers TIRS.

  16. Risk management model of winter navigation operations.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-07-15

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish-Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. PMID:27207023

  17. Human Mars Landing Site and Impacts on Mars Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussey, Ben; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has begun a process to identify and discuss candidate locations where humans could land, live and work on the Martian surface. These locations are referred to as Exploration Zones (EZs). Given current mission concepts, an EZ is a collection of Regions of Interest (ROIs) that are located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas that are relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains a landing site and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. These candidate EZs will be used by NASA as part of a multi-year process of determining where and how humans could explore Mars. In the near term this process includes: (a) identifying locations that would maximize the potential science return from future human exploration missions, (b) identifying locations with the potential for resources required to support humans, (c) developing concepts and engineering systems needed by future human crews to conduct operations within an EZ, and (d) identifying key characteristics of the proposed candidate EZs that cannot be evaluated using existing data sets, thus helping to define precursor measurements needed in advance of human missions. Existing and future robotic spacecraft will be tasked to gather data from specific Mars surface sites within the representative EZs to support these NASA activities. The proposed paper will describe NASA's initial steps for identifying and evaluating candidate EZs and ROIs. This includes plans for the "First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars" to be held in October 2015 at which proposals for EZs and ROIs will be presented and discussed. It will also include a discussion of how these considerations are (or will be) taken into account as future robotic Mars missions are

  18. Land cover as an important factor for landslide risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promper, C.; Glade, T.; Puissant, A.; Malet, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Landcover change is a crucial component of hazard and vulnerability in terms of quantification of possible future landslide risk, and the importance for spatial planners but also individuals is obvious. Damage of property, losses of agricultural land, loss of production but also damaged infrastructures and fatalities may be the result of landslide hazards. To avoid these economic damages as well as possible fatalities in the future, a method of assessing spatial but also temporal patterns of landslides is necessary. This study represents results of landcover modeling as a first step to the proposition of scenario of landslide risk for the future. The method used for future land cover analysis is the CLUE modeling framework combining past and actual observed landcover conditions. The model is based on a statistical relationship between the actual land cover and driving forces. The allocation of landcover pixel is modified by possible autonomous developments and competition between land use types. (Verburg et al. 1999) The study area is located in a district in the alpine foreland of Lower Austria: Waidhofen/Ybbs, of about 130km2. The topography is characterized by narrow valleys, flat plateau and steep slopes. The landcover is characterized by region of densely populated areas in the valley bottom along the Ybbs River, and a series of separated farm houses on the top of the plateau. Population density is about 90 persons / km2 which represent the observed population density of Austria. The initial landcover includes forest, grassland, culture, built-up areas and individual farms. Most of the observed developments are controlled by the topography (along the valleys) and the actual road network. The results of the landcover model show different scenarios of changes in the landslide prone landcover types. These maps will be implemented into hazard analysis but also into vulnerability assessment regarding elements at risk. Verburg, P.H., de Koning, G.H.J., Kok, K

  19. Integrated Display System for Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beskenis, Sharon Otero; Green, David F., Jr.; Hyer, Paul V.; Johnson, Edward J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the software products and system architectures developed by Lockheed Martin in support of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) program at NASA Langley Research Center. It presents an overview of the technical aspects, capabilities, and system integration issues associated with an integrated display system (IDS) that collects, processes and presents information to an aircraft flight crew during all phases of landing, roll-out, turn-off, inbound taxi, outbound taxi and takeoff. Communications hardware, drivers, and software provide continuous real-time data at varying rates and from many different sources to the display programs for presentation on a head-down display (HDD) and/or a head-up display (HUD). An electronic moving map of the airport surface is implemented on the HDD which includes the taxi route assigned by air traffic control, a text messaging system, and surface traffic and runway status information. Typical HUD symbology for navigation and control of the aircraft is augmented to provide aircraft deceleration guidance after touchdown to a pilot selected exit and taxi guidance along the route assigned by ATC. HUD displays include scene-linked symbolic runways, runway exits and taxiways that are conformal with the actual locations on the airport surface. Display formats, system architectures, and the various IDS programs are discussed.

  20. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operated over water. 135.183 Section 135.183 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... operated over water. No person may operate a land aircraft carrying passengers over water unless— (a) It is operated at an altitude that allows it to reach land in the case of engine failure; (b) It is necessary...

  1. The role of risk and future land use in cleanup decisions at the Department Of Energy.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Powers, Charles; Greenberg, Michael; Gochfeld, Michael

    2004-12-01

    As a result of the legacy of the Cold War, the Departments of Energy and Defense are involved in massive cleanup and remediation projects. While health risk to humans and ecological receptors is perceived to be the basis for remediation, this assumption is rarely examined. In this article, we examine the role of risk and future land-use designations in cleanup decisions, using the Department of Energy's self-assessment of 36 sites. We then discuss the risk-related tools that might be required to address the cleanup challenge. Much of the current cleanup program is driven by compliance with federal and state statutes and regulations, presumably to protect human health and the environment. Compliance, however, is not synonymous with cleanup. Although some of these laws and regulations take risk into account, the lack of site-specific data on exposures and risk scenarios, and the lack of attention to future land use or end states, has often resulted in disconnects between risk and cleanup goals, risk and final end states, and cleanup levels and end state or subsequent land use. Partly, these disconnects result from the need for a range of technical, economic, sociological, and public policy tools to address the issues. A better transfer of information among and within Department of Energy facilities, operations offices, and DOE headquarters is required. Further, linking cleanup decisions and goals with the final end state involves a number of risk tradeoffs, including (1) ecological versus human health, (2) worker versus public health, (3) among competing contaminated areas, (4) among temporal patterns of cleanup, (5) among different ecological receptors (plants vs. animals, one animal vs. another), and (6) among the sites across the DOE complex. For the nation, balancing among risks is essential within sites and among Department of Energy sites, as well as among other remediation sites (such as those of Department of Defense and Superfund sites). PMID:15660610

  2. Human Mars Landing Site and Impacts on Mars Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussey, Ben; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes NASA's initial steps for identifying and evaluating candidate Exploration Zones (EZs) and Regions of Interests (ROIs) for the first human crews that will explore the surface of Mars. NASA's current effort to define the exploration of this planet by human crews, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), provides the context in which these EZs and ROIs are being considered. The EMC spans all aspects of a human Mars mission including launch from Earth, transit to and from Mars, and operations on the surface of Mars. Studies related to Mars surface operations and related system capabilities have led to the current definition of an EZ as well as ROIs. An EZ is a collection of ROIs that are located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas that are relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains one or more landing sites and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. With the EMC as a conceptual basis, the EZ model has been refined to a point where specific site selection criteria for scientific exploration and in situ resource utilization can be defined. In 2015 these criteria were distributed to the planetary sciences community and the in situ resource utilization and civil engineering communities as part of a call for EZ proposals. The resulting "First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars" was held in October 2015 during which 47 proposals for EZs and ROIs were presented and discussed. Proposed locations spanned all longitudes and all allowable latitudes (+/- 50 degrees). Proposed justification for selecting one of these EZs also spanned a significant portion of the scientific and resource criteria provided to the community. Workshop results will be used to prepare for

  3. Worldwide differential GPS for Space Shuttle landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, Peter V. W.; Denaro, Robert P.; Saunders, Penny

    1990-01-01

    Worldwide differential Global Positioning System (WWDGPS) is viewed as an effective method of offering continuous high-quality navigation worldwide. The concept utilizes a network with as few as 33 ground stations to observe most of the error sources of GPS and provide error corrections to users on a worldwide basis. The WWDGPS real-time GPS tracking concept promises a threefold or fourfold improvement in accuracy for authorized dual-frequency users, and in addition maintains an accurate and current ionosphere model for single-frequency users. A real-time global tracking network also has the potential to reverse declarations of poor health on marginal satellites, increasing the number of satellites in the constellation and lessening the probability of GPS navigation outage. For Space Shuttle operations, the use of WWDGPS-aided P-code equipment promises performance equal to or better than other current landing guidance systems in terms of accuracy and reliability. This performance comes at significantly less cost to NASA, which will participate as a customer in a system designed as a commercial operation serving the global civil navigation community.

  4. [WBV risk in maritime and port operators].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Iole; Stacchini, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is the shaking or jolting of the human body through a supporting surface, usually a seat or floor. The risk from vibration is related to the overall time the operator or driver is exposed to the vibration and the number of shocks and jolts they experience each day. In the 27 countries of Europe the EC Physical Agents Directive, effective 6th July 2010, requires all employers to control exposure to a number of hazards including noise and vibration. The EC Vibration Directive sets out regulations for the control of health and safety risks from the exposure of workers to hand arm vibration (HAV) and whole body vibration (WBV) in the workplace. The maritime sector needs to comply: high exposure WBV levels can be found when operating RIBs and High Speed Craft. Marine sectors affected by Whole Body Vibration (WBV) include military, search & rescue, government agencies, local authorities, police, water sports, oil & gas, thrill ride, charter and all organisations operating boats, RIBs (Rigid Inflatable Boat) and High Speed Craft. PMID:24303697

  5. Influence of land-use dynamics on natural hazard risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Giacomo; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    In the recent past the magnitude and frequency of natural hazard events has increased notably worldwide, along with global GDP. A higher number of elements are exposed to natural events, therefore the risk is higher. Both estimated losses and understanding about natural hazards have increased during the past decades, which is contradictory as we may logically think. Risk is increasing, due to climate change and societal change: more severe hazards are happening due to changing climatic patterns and conditions, while society is concentrating assets and people in punctual places leading to a higher exposure. Increasing surface of settled area and the concentration of highly valuable assets (e.g. technology) in exposed areas lead to higher probability of losses. Human use of land resources, namely landuse, is the product of human needs and biophysical characteristics of the land. Landuse involves arrangements, activities and inputs people undertake in a certain land cover type to produce, change or maintain it. These changes are due to many reasons, or driving factors: socio-economical, environmental, accessibility to land, land-tenure, etc. The change of those factors may cause many effects and impacts, at various levels and at different time spans. The relation between driving factors and impacts is not straight. It is although a complex interrelation that turns around two central questions: (1) what drives landuse changes and why and (2) what are the impacts on the environment and on the human society of these changes, regarding to natural hazards. The aim of this paper is to analyse the spatio-temporal environmental changes referring to exposure as well as to test the possibilities and limitations of the land use change model Dyna-CLUEs in a mountain region taking parts of the Republic of Austria as an example, and simulating the future landuse dynamics until 2030. We selected an area composed by eighteen municipalities in the Ill-Walgau in the Austrian federal

  6. Development of Thermal Infrared Sensor to Supplement Operational Land Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Peter; Waczynski, Augustyn; Kan, Emily; Wen, Yiting; Rosenberry, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) is a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP)-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 m. The focal plane will contain three 640 512 QWIP arrays mounted onto a silicon substrate. The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) addresses each pixel on the QWIP arrays and reads out the pixel value (signal). The ROIC is controlled by the focal plane electronics (FPE) by means of clock signals and bias voltage value. The means of how the FPE is designed to control and interact with the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA) is the basis for this work. The technology developed under the FPE is for the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA). The FPE must interact with the FPA to command and control the FPA, extract analog signals from the FPA, and then convert the analog signals to digital format and send them via a serial link (USB) to a computer. The FPE accomplishes the described functions by converting electrical power from generic power supplies to the required bias power that is needed by the FPA. The FPE also generates digital clocking signals and shifts the typical transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL) to }5 V required by the FPA. The FPE also uses an application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) named System Image, Digitizing, Enhancing, Controlling, And Retrieving (SIDECAR) from Teledyne Corp. to generate the clocking patterns commanded by the user. The uniqueness of the FPE for TIRS lies in that the TIRS FPA has three QWIP detector arrays, and all three detector arrays must be in synchronization while in operation. This is to avoid data skewing while observing Earth flying in space. The observing scenario may be customized by uploading new control software to the SIDECAR.

  7. 43 CFR 428.9 - Farm operators who are former owners of excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Farm operators who are former owners of... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FARM OPERATIONS IN EXCESS OF 960 ACRES AND THE ELIGIBILITY OF CERTAIN FORMERLY EXCESS LAND § 428.9 Farm operators who are former...

  8. 43 CFR 428.9 - Farm operators who are former owners of excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Farm operators who are former owners of... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FARM OPERATIONS IN EXCESS OF 960 ACRES AND THE ELIGIBILITY OF CERTAIN FORMERLY EXCESS LAND § 428.9 Farm operators who are former...

  9. 43 CFR 428.9 - Farm operators who are former owners of excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Farm operators who are former owners of... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FARM OPERATIONS IN EXCESS OF 960 ACRES AND THE ELIGIBILITY OF CERTAIN FORMERLY EXCESS LAND § 428.9 Farm operators who are former...

  10. 43 CFR 428.9 - Farm operators who are former owners of excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Farm operators who are former owners of... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTAIN FARM OPERATIONS IN EXCESS OF 960 ACRES AND THE ELIGIBILITY OF CERTAIN FORMERLY EXCESS LAND § 428.9 Farm operators who are former...

  11. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  12. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  13. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  14. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  15. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  16. Physics-based Entry, Descent and Landing Risk Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Huynh, Loc C.; Manning, Ted

    2014-01-01

    A physics-based risk model was developed to assess the risk associated with thermal protection system failures during the entry, descent and landing phase of a manned spacecraft mission. In the model, entry trajectories were computed using a three-degree-of-freedom trajectory tool, the aerothermodynamic heating environment was computed using an engineering-level computational tool and the thermal response of the TPS material was modeled using a one-dimensional thermal response tool. The model was capable of modeling the effect of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact damage on the TPS thermal response. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the effects of uncertainties in the vehicle state at Entry Interface, aerothermodynamic heating and material properties on the performance of the TPS design. The failure criterion was set as a temperature limit at the bondline between the TPS and the underlying structure. Both direct computation and response surface approaches were used to compute the risk. The model was applied to a generic manned space capsule design. The effect of material property uncertainty and MMOD damage on risk of failure were analyzed. A comparison of the direct computation and response surface approach was undertaken.

  17. Human Mars Landing Site and Impacts on Mars Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Bussey, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes NASA's initial steps for identifying and evaluating candidate Exploration Zones (EZs) and Regions of Interests (ROIs) for the first human crews that will explore the surface of Mars. NASA's current effort to define the exploration of this planet by human crews, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), provides the context in which these EZs and ROIs are being considered. The EMC spans all aspects of a human Mars mission including launch from Earth, transit to and from Mars, and operations on the surface of Mars. An EZ is a collection of ROIs located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains one or more landing sites and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. With the EMC as a conceptual basis, the EZ model has been refined to a point where specific site selection criteria for scientific exploration and in situ resource utilization can be defined. In 2015 these criteria were distributed to the planetary sciences community and the in situ resource utilization and civil engineering communities as part of a call for EZ proposals. The resulting "First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars" was held in October 2015 during which 47 proposals for EZs and ROIs were presented and discussed. Proposed locations spanned all longitudes and all allowable latitudes (+/- 50 degrees). Proposed justification for selecting one of these EZs also spanned a significant portion of the scientific and resource criteria provided to the community. Several important findings resulted from this Workshop including: (a) a strong consensus that, at a scale of 100 km (radius), multiple places on Mars exist that have both sufficient scientific interest

  18. Using Vision System Technologies to Enable Operational Improvements for Low Visibility Approach and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.; Severance, Kurt; Le Vie, Lisa R.; Comstock, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Flight deck-based vision systems, such as Synthetic and Enhanced Vision System (SEVS) technologies, have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable the implementation of operational improvements for low visibility surface, arrival, and departure operations in the terminal environment with equivalent efficiency to visual operations. To achieve this potential, research is required for effective technology development and implementation based upon human factors design and regulatory guidance. This research supports the introduction and use of Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (SVS/EFVS) as advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. Twelve air transport-rated crews participated in a motion-base simulation experiment to evaluate the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Three monochromatic, collimated head-up display (HUD) concepts (conventional HUD, SVS HUD, and EFVS HUD) and two color head-down primary flight display (PFD) concepts (conventional PFD, SVS PFD) were evaluated in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare terminal environment. Additionally, the instrument approach type (no offset, 3 degree offset, 15 degree offset) was experimentally varied to test the efficacy of the HUD concepts for offset approach operations. The data showed that touchdown landing performance were excellent regardless of SEVS concept or type of offset instrument approach being flown. Subjective assessments of mental workload and situation awareness indicated that making offset approaches in low visibility conditions with an EFVS HUD or SVS HUD may be feasible.

  19. Bias estimation for the Landsat 8 operational land imager

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morfitt, Ron; Vanderwerff, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a pushbroom sensor that will be a part of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). This instrument is the latest in the line of Landsat imagers, and will continue to expand the archive of calibrated earth imagery. An important step in producing a calibrated image from instrument data is accurately accounting for the bias of the imaging detectors. Bias variability is one factor that contributes to error in bias estimation for OLI. Typically, the bias is simply estimated by averaging dark data on a per-detector basis. However, data acquired during OLI pre-launch testing exhibited bias variation that correlated well with the variation in concurrently collected data from a special set of detectors on the focal plane. These detectors are sensitive to certain electronic effects but not directly to incoming electromagnetic radiation. A method of using data from these special detectors to estimate the bias of the imaging detectors was developed, but found not to be beneficial at typical radiance levels as the detectors respond slightly when the focal plane is illuminated. In addition to bias variability, a systematic bias error is introduced by the truncation performed by the spacecraft of the 14-bit instrument data to 12-bit integers. This systematic error can be estimated and removed on average, but the per pixel quantization error remains. This paper describes the variability of the bias, the effectiveness of a new approach to estimate and compensate for it, as well as the errors due to truncation and how they are reduced.

  20. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of...

  1. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of...

  2. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of...

  3. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of...

  4. 14 CFR 121.649 - Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR... Flight Release Rules § 121.649 Takeoff and landing weather minimums: VFR: Domestic operations. (a) Except... weather minimums in this section do not apply to the VFR operation of fixed-wing aircraft at any of...

  5. Risk-Assessment for Equipment Operating on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. C.; Kusiak, A.; Ramachandran, N.

    2008-01-01

    Particle-size distribution of lunar dust simulant is evaluated using scanning electron spectroscopy in order to consider approaches to evaluating risk to individual mechanical components operating on the lunar surface. Assessing component risk and risk-mitigation during actual operations will require noninvasive continuous data gathering on numerous parameters. Those data sets would best be evaluated using data-mining algorithms to assess risk, and recovery from risk, of individual mechanical components in real-time.

  6. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Dabney, Philip; Pedelty, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is one of two instruments to fly on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is scheduled to launch in December 2012 to become the 8th in the series of Landsat satellites. The OLI images in the solar reflective part of the spectrum, with bands similar to bands 1-5, 7 and the panchromatic band on the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument. In addition, it has a 20 nm bandpass spectral band at 443 nm for coastal and aerosol studies and a 30 nm band at 1375 nm to aid in cirrus cloud detection. Like ETM+, spatial resolution is 30 m in the all but the panchromatic band, which is 15 meters. OLI is a pushbroom radiometer with approximately 6000 detectors per 30 meter band as opposed to the 16 detectors per band on the whiskbroom ETM+. Data are quantized to 12 bits on OLI as opposed to 8 bits on ETM+ to take advantage of the improved signal to noise ratio provided by the pushbroom design. The saturation radiances are higher on OLI than ETM+ to effectively eliminate saturation issues over bright Earth targets. OLI includes dual solar diffusers for on-orbit absolute and relative (detector to detector) radiometric calibration. Additionally, OLI has 3 sets of on-board lamps that illuminate the OLI focal plane through the full optical system, providing additional checks on the OLI's response[l]. OLI has been designed and built by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. (BATC) and is currently undergoing testing and calibration in preparation for delivery in Spring 2011. Final pre-launch performance results should be available in time for presentation at the conference. Preliminary results will be presented below. These results are based on the performance of the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) that was radiometrically tested at the integrated instrument level in 2010 and assembly level measurements made on the flight unit. Signal-to-Noise (SNR) performance: One of the advantages of a pushbroom system is the increased dwell time of the detectors

  7. Rosetta Lander - Landing and operations on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulamec, Stephan; Fantinati, Cinzia; Maibaum, Michael; Geurts, Koen; Biele, Jens; Jansen, Sven; Küchemann, Oliver; Cozzoni, Barbara; Finke, Felix; Lommatsch, Valentina; Moussi-Soffys, Aurelie; Delmas, Cedric; O´Rourke, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    The Rosetta Lander Philae is part of the ESA Rosetta Mission which reached comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after a 10 year cruise in August 2014. Since then, Rosetta has been studying both its nucleus and coma with instruments aboard the Orbiter. On November 12th, 2014 the Lander, Philae, was successfully delivered to the surface of the comet and operated for approximately 64 h after separation from the mother spacecraft. Since the active cold gas system aboard the Lander as well as the anchoring harpoons did not work, Philae bounced after the first touch-down at the planned landing site "Agilkia". At the final landing site, "Abydos", a modified First Scientific Sequence was performed. Due to the unexpectedly low illumination conditions and a lack of anchoring the sequence had to be adapted in order to minimize risk and maximize the scientific output. All ten instruments could be activated at least once, before Philae went into hibernation. In June 2015, the Lander contacted Rosetta again having survived successfully a long hibernation phase. This paper describes the Lander operations around separation, during descent and on the surface of the comet. We also address the partly successful attempts to re-establish contact with the Lander in June/July, when the internal temperature & power received were sufficient for Philae to become active again.

  8. Application of receptor-specific risk distribution in the arsenic contaminated land management.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-chun; Ng, Shane; Wang, Gen-shuh; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-11-15

    Concerns over health risks and financial costs have caused difficulties in the management of arsenic contaminated land in Taiwan. Inflexible risk criteria and lack of economic support often result in failure of a brownfields regeneration project. To address the issue of flexible risk criteria, this study is aimed to develop maps with receptor-specific risk distribution to facilitate scenario analysis of contaminated land management. A contaminated site risk map model (ArcGIS for risk assessment and management, abbreviated as Arc-RAM) was constructed by combining the four major steps of risk assessment with Geographic Information Systems. Sampling of contaminated media, survey of exposure attributes, and modeling of multimedia transport were integrated to produce receptor group-specific maps that depicted the probabilistic spatial distribution of risks of various receptor groups. Flexible risk management schemes can then be developed and assessed. In this study, a risk management program that took into account the ratios of various land use types at specified risk levels was explored. A case study of arsenic contaminated land of 6.387 km(2) has found that for a risk value between 1.00E-05 and 1.00E-06, the proposed flexible risk management of agricultural land achieves improved utilization of land. Using this method, the investigated case can reduce costs related to compensation for farmland totaling approximately NTD 5.94 million annually. PMID:22884730

  9. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours

  10. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.6 Operations risk capital...

  11. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.6 Operations risk capital...

  12. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.6 Operations risk capital...

  13. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement. 932.6 Section 932.6 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.6 Operations risk capital...

  14. A Bayesian Networks approach to Operational Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquaro, V.; Bardoscia, M.; Bellotti, R.; Consiglio, A.; De Carlo, F.; Ferri, G.

    2010-04-01

    A system for Operational Risk management based on the computational paradigm of Bayesian Networks is presented. The algorithm allows the construction of a Bayesian Network targeted for each bank and takes into account in a simple and realistic way the correlations among different processes of the bank. The internal losses are averaged over a variable time horizon, so that the correlations at different times are removed, while the correlations at the same time are kept: the averaged losses are thus suitable to perform the learning of the network topology and parameters; since the main aim is to understand the role of the correlations among the losses, the assessments of domain experts are not used. The algorithm has been validated on synthetic time series. It should be stressed that the proposed algorithm has been thought for the practical implementation in a mid or small sized bank, since it has a small impact on the organizational structure of a bank and requires an investment in human resources which is limited to the computational area.

  15. Temporal logic and operation relations based knowledge representation for land cover change web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Wu, Hao; Li, Songnian; Liao, Anping; He, Chaoying; Peng, Shu

    2013-09-01

    Providing land cover spatio-temporal information and geo-computing through web service is a new challenge for supporting global change research, earth system simulation and many other societal benefit areas. This requires an integrated knowledge representation and web implementation of static land cover and change information, as well as the related operations for geo-computing. The temporal logic relations among land cover snapshots and increments were examined with a matrix-based three-step analysis. Twelve temporal logic relations were identified and five basic spatial operations were formalized with set operators, which were all used to develop algorithms for deriving implicit change information. A knowledge representation for land cover change information was then developed based on these temporal logic and operation relations. A prototype web-service system was further implemented based on OWL-DL. Both online access and conversion of land cover spatio-temporal information can be facilitated with such a web service system.

  16. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water. 135.183 Section 135.183 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING...

  17. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators.

    PubMed

    Lovalekar, Mita; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to describe medical chart reviewed musculoskeletal injuries among Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators. 210 Operators volunteered (age: 28.1 ± 6.0 years, height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, weight: 85.4 ± 9.3 kg). Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts, and injuries that occurred during 1 year were described. Anatomic location of injury, cause of injury, activity when injury occurred, and injury type were described. The frequency of injuries was 0.025 per Operator per month. Most injuries involved the upper extremity (38.1% of injuries). Frequent anatomic sublocations for injuries were the shoulder (23.8%) and lumbopelvic region of the spine (12.7%). Lifting was the cause of 7.9% of injuries. Subjects were participating in training when 38.1% of injuries occurred and recreational activity/sports when 12.7% of injuries occurred. Frequent injury types were strain (20.6%), pain/spasm/ache (19.0%), fracture (11.1%), and sprain (11.1%). The results of this analysis underscore the need to investigate the risk factors, especially of upper extremity and physical activity related injuries, in this population of Operators. There is a scope for development of a focused, customized injury prevention program, targeting the unique injury profile of this population. PMID:26741478

  18. A Land-Use Perspective for Birdstrike Risk Assessment: The Attraction Risk Index.

    PubMed

    Coccon, Francesca; Zucchetta, Matteo; Bossi, Giulia; Borrotti, Matteo; Torricelli, Patrizia; Franzoi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Collisions between aircraft and birds, birdstrikes, pose a serious threat to aviation safety. The occurrence of these events is influenced by land-uses in the surroundings of airports. Airports located in the same region might have different trends for birdstrike risk, due to differences in the surrounding habitats. Here we developed a quantitative tool that assesses the risk of birdstrike based on the habitats within a 13-km buffer from the airport. For this purpose, we developed Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) with binomial distribution to estimate the contribution of habitats to wildlife use of the study area, depending on season. These GLMs predictions were combined to the flight altitude of birds within the 13-km buffer, the airport traffic pattern and the severity indices associated with impacts. Our approach was developed at Venice Marco Polo International airport (VCE), located in northeast Italy and then tested at Treviso Antonio Canova International airport (TSF), which is 20 km inland. Results from the two airports revealed that both the surrounding habitats and the season had a significant influence to the pattern of risk. With regard to VCE, agricultural fields, wetlands and urban areas contributed most to the presence of birds in the study area. Furthermore, the key role of distance of land-uses from the airport on the probability of presence of birds was highlighted. The reliability of developed risk index was demonstrated since at VCE it was significantly correlated with bird strike rate. This study emphasizes the importance of the territory near airports and the wildlife use of its habitats, as factors in need of consideration for birdstrike risk assessment procedures. Information on the contribution of habitats in attracting birds, depending on season, can be used by airport managers and local authorities to plan specific interventions in the study area in order to lower the risk. PMID:26114958

  19. A Land-Use Perspective for Birdstrike Risk Assessment: The Attraction Risk Index

    PubMed Central

    Coccon, Francesca; Zucchetta, Matteo; Bossi, Giulia; Borrotti, Matteo; Torricelli, Patrizia; Franzoi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Collisions between aircraft and birds, birdstrikes, pose a serious threat to aviation safety. The occurrence of these events is influenced by land-uses in the surroundings of airports. Airports located in the same region might have different trends for birdstrike risk, due to differences in the surrounding habitats. Here we developed a quantitative tool that assesses the risk of birdstrike based on the habitats within a 13-km buffer from the airport. For this purpose, we developed Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) with binomial distribution to estimate the contribution of habitats to wildlife use of the study area, depending on season. These GLMs predictions were combined to the flight altitude of birds within the 13-km buffer, the airport traffic pattern and the severity indices associated with impacts. Our approach was developed at Venice Marco Polo International airport (VCE), located in northeast Italy and then tested at Treviso Antonio Canova International airport (TSF), which is 20 km inland. Results from the two airports revealed that both the surrounding habitats and the season had a significant influence to the pattern of risk. With regard to VCE, agricultural fields, wetlands and urban areas contributed most to the presence of birds in the study area. Furthermore, the key role of distance of land-uses from the airport on the probability of presence of birds was highlighted. The reliability of developed risk index was demonstrated since at VCE it was significantly correlated with bird strike rate. This study emphasizes the importance of the territory near airports and the wildlife use of its habitats, as factors in need of consideration for birdstrike risk assessment procedures. Information on the contribution of habitats in attracting birds, depending on season, can be used by airport managers and local authorities to plan specific interventions in the study area in order to lower the risk. PMID:26114958

  20. RISK MANAGEMENT EVALUATION FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) developed a Risk Management Evaluation (RME) to provide information needed to help plan future research in the Laboratory dealing with the environmental impact of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Agriculture...

  1. A challenge for land and risk managers: differents stakeholders, differents definitions of the risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, M.; Ruegg, J.

    2012-04-01

    In developing countries, mountain populations and territories are subject to multiple risks and vulnerabilities. In addition, they face even greater challenges than developed countries due to lack of knowledge, resources and technology. There are many different types of actors in society that manage risk at various scales and levels (i.e. engineers, geologists, administrators, land use planners, merchants and local indigenous and non-indigenous people). Because of limited resources and possibilities to reduce all types of risk, these different actors, or 'risk managers' have to choose and compete to prioritize which types of risks to address. This paper addresses a case study from San Cristobal Altaverapaz, Guatemala where a large landslide "Los Chorros", a catastrophic collapse of 6 millions cubic meters of rock, is affecting several communities and one of the country's main west-east access highways. In this case, the government established that the "primary" risk is the landslide, whereas other local stakeholders consider the primary risks to be economic This paper, situated at the cross section between political science, geography and disaster risk management, addresses the social conflict and competition for priorities and solutions for risk management, depending on the group of actors based on the on-going Los Chorros, Guatemala landslide mitigation process. This work is based on the analysis of practices, (Practical Science), policies and institutions in order to understand how the inclusion of multiple stakeholders in determining risk priorities can lead to more sustainable risk management in a given territory. The main objective of this investigation is first to identify and understand the juxtaposition of different readings of the risk equation, usually considered the interface between vulnerability, exposure and hazards. Secondly, it is to analyze the mechanisms of actions taken by various stakeholders, or risk managers. The analysis focuses on the

  2. Imaging sensor fusion and enhanced vision for helicopter landing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebel, Marcus; Bers, Karlheinz; Jäger, Klaus

    2006-05-01

    An automatic target recognition system has been assembled and tested at the Research Institute for Optronics and Pattern Recognition in Germany over the last years. Its multisensorial design comprises off-the-shelf components: an FPA infrared camera, a scanning laser radar und an inertial measurement unit. In the paper we describe several possibilities for the use of this multisensor equipment during helicopter missions. We discuss suitable data processing methods, for instance the automatic time synchronization of different imaging sensors, the pixel-based data fusion and the incorporation of collateral information. The results are visualized in an appropriate way to present them on a cockpit display. We also show how our system can act as a landing aid for pilots within brownout conditions (dust clouds caused by the landing helicopter).

  3. Operational considerations in utilization of microwave landing system approach and landing guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L. V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of microwave landing system (MLS) equipment are reviewed and the flight performance of the terminal configured vehicle B-737 airplane during nearly five years of flight experience with MLS is summarized. Most of these flights involved curved, descending flight paths with automatic landings and final approaches as short as 0.44 n. mi. Possible uses to solve noise abatement problems with MLS equipment of varying degrees of complexity are discussed. It is concluded that altitude derived from MLS is superior to other sources near the airport traffic pattern.

  4. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours. AFWA recognizes the importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization for land surface modeling and is developing standard methods, software, and metrics to verify and/or validate LIS output products. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at AFWA, the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) -- a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community -- and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), have been adapted to operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities.

  5. Probabilistic Modeling of Settlement Risk at Land Disposal Facilities - 12304

    SciTech Connect

    Foye, Kevin C.; Soong, Te-Yang

    2012-07-01

    The long-term reliability of land disposal facility final cover systems - and therefore the overall waste containment - depends on the distortions imposed on these systems by differential settlement/subsidence. The evaluation of differential settlement is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the waste mass (caused by inconsistent compaction, void space distribution, debris-soil mix ratio, waste material stiffness, time-dependent primary compression of the fine-grained soil matrix, long-term creep settlement of the soil matrix and the debris, etc.) at most land disposal facilities. Deterministic approaches to long-term final cover settlement prediction are not able to capture the spatial variability in the waste mass and sub-grade properties which control differential settlement. An alternative, probabilistic solution is to use random fields to model the waste and sub-grade properties. The modeling effort informs the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of land disposal facilities. A probabilistic method to establish design criteria for waste placement and compaction is introduced using the model. Random fields are ideally suited to problems of differential settlement modeling of highly heterogeneous foundations, such as waste. Random fields model the seemingly random spatial distribution of a design parameter, such as compressibility. When used for design, the use of these models prompts the need for probabilistic design criteria. It also allows for a statistical approach to waste placement acceptance criteria. An example design evaluation was performed, illustrating the use of the probabilistic differential settlement simulation methodology to assemble a design guidance chart. The purpose of this design evaluation is to enable the designer to select optimal initial combinations of design slopes and quality control acceptance criteria that yield an acceptable proportion of post-settlement slopes meeting some design minimum. For this specific

  6. Determining risks for hazardous material operations

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Dare, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated Safety Management (ISM) is structured to manage and control work at the activity level. Fundamental to ISM is that all work will be performed safely while meeting the applicable institutional-, facility-, and activity-level expectations. High and medium initial risk activities require certain levels of independent peer and/or Environmental, Health & Safety subject matter expert reviews prior to authorization. A key responsibility of line management and chemical workers is to assign initial risk adequately, so that the proper reviews are obtained. Thus, the effectiveness of an ISM system is largely dependent upon the adequacy and accuracy of this initial risk determination. In the following presentation, a Risk Determination Model (RDM) is presented for physical, health and ecological hazards associated with materials. Magnitude of exposure (Le., dose or concentration), frequency, duration, and quantity are the four factors most difficult to capture in a research and development setting. They are factored into the determination, as a function of the quantity of material. Quantity and magnitude of exposure components are simplified by using boundary criteria. This RDM will promote conformity and consistency in the assignment of risk to hazardous material activities. In conclusion, the risk assessors (line manager and chemical worker) should be capable of more accurately assessing the risk of exposure to a specific chemical with regard to the employee, public, and the environment.

  7. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  8. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  9. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  10. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  11. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  12. 43 CFR 3809.415 - How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... degradation while conducting operations on public lands? 3809.415 Section 3809.415 Public Lands: Interior... Conducted Under Plans of Operations § 3809.415 How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands? You prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while...

  13. 43 CFR 3809.415 - How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... degradation while conducting operations on public lands? 3809.415 Section 3809.415 Public Lands: Interior... Conducted Under Plans of Operations § 3809.415 How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands? You prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while...

  14. 43 CFR 3809.415 - How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... degradation while conducting operations on public lands? 3809.415 Section 3809.415 Public Lands: Interior... Conducted Under Plans of Operations § 3809.415 How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands? You prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while...

  15. 43 CFR 3809.415 - How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... degradation while conducting operations on public lands? 3809.415 Section 3809.415 Public Lands: Interior... Conducted Under Plans of Operations § 3809.415 How do I prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while conducting operations on public lands? You prevent unnecessary or undue degradation while...

  16. Climate change, land slide risks and sustainable development, risk analysis and decision support process tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson-sköld, Y. B.; Tremblay, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is in most parts of Sweden expected to result in increased precipitation and increased sea water levels causing flooding, erosion, slope instability and related secondary consequences. Landslide risks are expected to increase with climate change in large parts of Sweden due to increased annual precipitation, more intense precipitation and increased flows combined with dryer summers. In response to the potential climate related risks, and on the commission of the Ministry of Environment, the Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI) is at present performing a risk analysis project for the most prominent landslide risk area in Sweden: the Göta river valley. As part of this, a methodology for land slide ex-ante consequence analysis today, and in a future climate, has been developed and applied in the Göta river valley. Human life, settlements, industry, contaminated sites, infrastructure of national importance are invented and assessed important elements at risk. The goal of the consequence analysis is to produce a map of geographically distributed expected losses, which can be combined with a corresponding map displaying landslide probability to describe the risk (the combination of probability and consequence of a (negative) event). The risk analysis is GIS-aided in presenting and visualise the risk and using existing databases for quantification of the consequences represented by ex-ante estimated monetary losses. The results will be used on national, regional and as an indication of the risk on local level, to assess the need of measures to mitigate the risk. The costs and environmental and social impacts to mitigate the risk are expected to be very high but the costs and impacts of a severe landslide are expected to be even higher. Therefore, civil servants have pronounced a need of tools to assess both the vulnerability and a more holistic picture of impacts of climate change adaptation measures. At SGI a tool for the inclusion of sustainability

  17. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Genesis Re-Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Dan T.

    2005-01-01

    On September 8, 2004, the Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth after spending 29 months about the sun-Earth libration point collecting solar wind particles. Four hours prior to Earth arrival, the entry capsule containing the samples was released for entry and subsequent landing at the Utah Test and Training Range. This paper provides an overview of the entry, descent, and landing trajectory analysis that was performed during the Mission Operations Phase leading up to final approach to Earth. The operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.3 km from the target, and was well within the allowable landing area. Preliminary reconstruction analyses indicate that the actual entry trajectory was very close to the pre-entry prediction.

  18. Flight evaluation of the STOL flare and landing during night operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    Simulated instrument approaches were made to Category 1 minimums followed by a visual landing on a 100 x 1700 ft STOL runway. Data were obtained for variations in the aircraft's flare response characteristics and control techniques and for different combinations of aircraft and runway lighting and a visual approach slope indication. With the complete aircraft and runway lighting and visual guidance no degradation in flying qualities or landing performance was observed compared to daylight operations. elimination of the touchdown zone floodlights or the aircraft landing lights led to somewhat greater pilot workload; however, the landing could still be accomplished successfully. Loss of both touchdown zone and aircraft landing lights led to a high workload situation and only a marginally adequate to inadequate landing capability.

  19. 12 CFR 932.6 - Operations risk capital requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... capital requirement and market risk capital requirement. (b) Alternative requirements. With the approval... percent but no less than 10 percent of the sum of the Bank's credit risk capital requirement and market... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations risk capital requirement....

  20. Ecological Risk Assessment of Land Use Change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hualin; Wang, Peng; Huang, Hongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover change has been attracting increasing attention in the field of global environmental change research because of its role in the social and ecological environment. To explore the ecological risk characteristics of land use change in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone of China, an eco-risk index was established in this study by the combination of a landscape disturbance index with a landscape fragmentation index. Spatial distribution and gradient difference of land use eco-risk are analyzed by using the methods of spatial autocorrelation and semivariance. Results show that ecological risk in the study area has a positive correlation, and there is a decreasing trend with the increase of grain size both in 1995 and 2005. Because the area of high eco-risk value increased from 1995 to 2005, eco-environment quality declined slightly in the study area. There are distinct spatial changes in the concentrated areas with high land use eco-risk values from 1995 to 2005. The step length of spatial separation of land use eco-risk is comparatively long—58 km in 1995 and 11 km in 2005—respectively. There are still nonstructural factors affecting the quality of the regional ecological environment at some small-scales. Our research results can provide some useful information for land eco-management, eco-environmental harnessing and restoration. In the future, some measures should be put forward in the regions with high eco-risk value, which include strengthening land use management, avoiding unreasonable types of land use and reducing the degree of fragmentation and separation. PMID:23343986

  1. Land subsidence risk assessment and protection in mined-out regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, A.; Tang, A.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence due to underground mining is an important hazard that causes large damages and threatens to social and economic activities. The China government has started a national project to estimate the risk of land subsidence in the main coal production provinces, such as Heilongjiang, Anhui and Shanxi Provinces. Herein, the investigation methods for land subsidence identification were reported, some types of land settlement are summarized, and some successful engineering measures to mitigate the subsidence are discussed. A Geographical Information System (GIS) for land subsidence risk assessment is developed and is based on site investigations and numerrical simulation of the subsidence process. In this system, maps of mining intensity and risk ranks are developed.

  2. Reuse of concentrated animal feed operation wastewater on agricultural lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal areas, further lim...

  3. Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operating Wastewater on Agricultural Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal ...

  4. Decision analysis and risk models for land development affecting infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Thekdi, Shital A; Lambert, James H

    2012-07-01

    Coordination and layering of models to identify risks in complex systems such as large-scale infrastructure of energy, water, and transportation is of current interest across application domains. Such infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to adjacent commercial and residential land development. Land development can compromise the performance of essential infrastructure systems and increase the costs of maintaining or increasing performance. A risk-informed approach to this topic would be useful to avoid surprise, regret, and the need for costly remedies. This article develops a layering and coordination of models for risk management of land development affecting infrastructure systems. The layers are: system identification, expert elicitation, predictive modeling, comparison of investment alternatives, and implications of current decisions for future options. The modeling layers share a focus on observable factors that most contribute to volatility of land development and land use. The relevant data and expert evidence include current and forecasted growth in population and employment, conservation and preservation rules, land topography and geometries, real estate assessments, market and economic conditions, and other factors. The approach integrates to a decision framework of strategic considerations based on assessing risk, cost, and opportunity in order to prioritize needs and potential remedies that mitigate impacts of land development to the infrastructure systems. The approach is demonstrated for a 5,700-mile multimodal transportation system adjacent to 60,000 tracts of potential land development. PMID:22050390

  5. The potential for agricultural land use change to reduce flood risk in a large watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of agricultural land management practices on surface runoff are evident at local scales, but evidence for watershed-scale impacts is limited. In this study, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model to assess changes in downstream flood risks under different land uses for the large, ...

  6. Effects of Stretch Shortening Cycle Exercise Fatigue on Stress Fracture Injury Risk during Landing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, C. Roger; Dufek, Janet S.; Bates, Barry T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in landing performance during fatigue that could result in increased stress fracture injury risk. Five participants performed nonfatigued and fatigued drop landings (0.60 m), while ground reaction force (GRF), electromyographic (EMG) activity, and kinematics were recorded. Fatigue was defined as a…

  7. Mosquito Larval Habitats, Land Use, and Potential Malaria Risk in Northern Belize from Satellite Image Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Anopheles mosquito habitats and land use in northern Belize is examined with satellite data. -A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats. Eleocharis spp. marsh is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of T-ha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. This expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat may in turn cause an increase in malaria risk in the region.

  8. Contaminated land and groundwater management at Sellafield, a large operational site with significant legacy and contaminated land challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, Phil; Eilbeck, Katherine

    2007-07-01

    Sellafield is a former Royal Ordnance Factory used since the 1940's for the production and reprocessing of fissile materials. Leaks and spills from these plants and their associated waste facilities has led to radioactive contaminated ground legacy of up to 20 million m{sup 3}. Consideration of land contamination at Sellafield began in 1976, following discovery of a major leak from a waste storage silo. Over the past three decades there has been a programme of environmental monitoring and several phases of characterization. The latest phase of characterization is a pounds 10 million contract to develop second generation conceptual and numeric models. The Site Licence Company that operates the site has been subject to structural changes due to reorganizations within the British nuclear industry. There has also been a change in emphasis to place an increased importance on accelerated decommissioning. To address these challenges a new contaminated land team and contaminated land and groundwater management plan have been established. Setting and measuring performance against challenging objectives is important. The management plan has to be cognizant of the long timescales (ca. 80 years) for final remediation. Data review, collation, acquisition, analysis, and storage is critical for success. It is equally important to seize opportunities for early environmental gains. It is possible to accelerate the development and delivery of a contaminated land and groundwater management plan by using international experts. (authors)

  9. 78 FR 53666 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills Landing and Winneconne, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills Landing and Winneconne, WI'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 27336... Acronyms CFR Code of Federal Regulations DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River,...

  10. Landscape ecological risk assessment study in arid land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Lu; Amut, Aniwaer; Shi, Qingdong; Wang, Gary Z.

    2007-09-01

    The ecosystem risk assessment is an essential decision making system for predicting the reconstruction and recovery of a damaged ecosystem after intensive mankind activities. The sustainability of environment and resources of the lake ecosystem in arid districts have been paid close attention to by international communities as well as numerous experts and scholars. The ecological risk assessment offered a scientific foundation for making the decision and execution of ecological risk management. Bosten Lake, the largest inland freshwater lake in China, is the main water source of the industrial and agricultural production as well as the local residence in Yanqi basin, Kuara city and Yuri County in the southern Xinjiang. Bosten Lake also provides a direct water source for emergency transportation in the Lower Reaches of Tarim River. However, with the intensive utilizations of water and soil resources, the environmental condition in the Bosten Lake has become more and more serious. In this study, the theory and method of landscape ecological risk assessment has been practiced using 3S technologies combined with the frontier theory of landscape ecology. Defining the mainly risk resource including flood, drought, water pollution and rich nutrition of water has been evaluated based on the ecosystem risk assessment system. The main process includes five stages: regional natural resources analysis, risk receptor selection, risk sources evaluation, exposure and hazard analysis, and integrated risk assessment. Based on the risk assessment results, the environmental risk management countermeasure has been determined.

  11. Hydrologic analysis for ecological risk assessment of watersheds with abandoned mine lands

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, D.; Babendreier, J.; Cherry, D.

    1999-07-01

    As part of on-going study of acid mine drainage (AMD), a comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted in the Leading Creek Watershed in southeast Ohio. The watershed is influenced by agriculture and active and abandoned coal-mining operations. This work presents a broad overview of several quantitative measures of hydrology and hydraulic watershed properties available for in risk assessment and evaluates their relation to metrics of ecology. Data analysis included statistical comparisons of metrics of ecology, ecotoxicology, water quality, and physically based parameters describing land use, geomorphology, flow, velocity, and particle size. A multiple regression analysis indicated that abandoned mining operations dominated impacts upon aquatic ecology. It also indicated low flow velocity measurements and a ratio of maximum velocity to average velocity at low flow where helpful in describing variation in macroinvertebrate Total Taxa scores. Other key parameters also identified strong impact relationships with biodiversity trends and included pH, simple knowledge of any mining upstream, calculated % of the subshed covered by strip mines, and the measured depth of streambed sediments from site to site.

  12. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Stardust Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Dan T.; Tooley, Jeff; Kangas, Julie

    2008-01-01

    On the morning of January 15, 2006, the Stardust capsule successfully landed at the Utah Test and Training range in northwest Utah returning cometary samples from the comet Wild-2. An overview of the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) trajectory analysis that was performed for targeting during the mission operations phase upon final approach to Earth is described. The final orbit determination solution produced an inertial entry flight-path angle of -8.21 deg (the desired nominal value) with a 3-sigma uncertainty of +/-0.0017 deg (2% of the requirement). The navigation and EDL operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.1 km from the target, which was well within the allowable landing area. Overall, the Earth approach operation procedures worked well and there were no issues (logistically or performance based) that arose. As a result, the process of targeting a capsule from an interplanetary trajectory and accurately landing it on Earth was successfully demonstrated.

  13. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Genesis Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    On September 8, 2004, the Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth after spending 29 months about the sun-Earth libration point (L1) collecting solar wind particles. Four hours prior to Earth arrival, the sample return capsule containing the samples was released for entry and subsequent landing at the Utah Test and Training Range. This paper provides an overview of the entry, descent, and landing trajectory analysis that was performed during the mission operations phase leading up to final approach to Earth. The final orbit determination solution produced an inertial entry flight-path angle of -8.002 deg (which was the desired nominal value) with a 3-sigma error of +/-0.0274 deg (a third of the requirement). The operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.3 km from the target, and was well within the allowable landing area. Overall, the Earth approach operation procedures worked well and there were no issues (logistically or performance based) that arose. As a result, the process of targeting a capsule from deep space and accurately landing it on Earth was successfully demonstrated.

  14. Refining Operational Practice for Controlling Introduced European Rabbits on Agricultural Lands in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Latham, A. David M.; Latham, M. Cecilia; Nugent, Graham; Smith, James; Warburton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pose a major threat to agricultural production and conservation values in several countries. In New Zealand, population control via poisoning is a frontline method for limiting rabbit damage, with large areas commonly treated using the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate (‘1080’) delivered in bait via aerial dispersal. However, this method is expensive and the high application rates of the active ingredient cause public antipathy towards it. To guide reductions in cost and toxin usage, we evaluated the economics and efficacy of rabbit control using an experimental approach of sowing 1080-bait in strips instead of the commonly-used broadcast sowing method (i.e. complete coverage). Over a 4-year period we studied aerial delivery of 0.02% 1080 on diced carrot bait over ~3500 ha of rabbit-prone land in the North and South islands. In each case, experimental sowing via strip patterns using 10–15 kg of bait per hectare was compared with the current best practice of aerial broadcast sowing at 30–35 kg/ha. Operational kill rates exceeded 87% in all but one case and averaged 93–94% across a total of 19 treatment replicates under comparable conditions; there was no statistical difference in overall efficacy observed between the two sowing methods. We project that strip-sowing could reduce by two thirds the amount of active 1080 applied per hectare in aerial control operations against rabbits, both reducing the non-target poisoning risk and promoting cost savings to farming operations. These results indicate that, similarly to the recently-highlighted benefits of adopting strip-sowing for poison control of introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, aerial strip-sowing of toxic bait could also be considered a best practice method for rabbit control in pest control policy. PMID:27341209

  15. PATHOGEN RISKS FROM APPLYING SEWAGE SLUDGE TO LAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Congress banned ocean dumping of municipal wastes in the late 1980s. In its place, EPA developed guidance (40 CFR Part 503) for land application of processed sewage sludge (biosolids), mainly for agricultural purposes (1). Public health and environmental concerns with processed...

  16. Standard methods for land-use planning to determine the effects on societal risk.

    PubMed

    Laheij, G M; Post, J G; Ale, B J

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the individual risk and the societal risk are used in efforts to reduce the number of people exposed to the effects of an accident. In principle, the societal risk for each new land-use plan should be recalculated. Since this is proving increasingly cumbersome for planning agencies, several methods have been developed for SEVESO establishments and establishments for which in the Netherlands a generic zoning policy is used to determine the effects of new land-use plans on the societal risk. The methods give the uniform population density from a certain distance around the establishment at which the indicative limit for the societal risk is not exceeded. Correction factors are determined for non-uniform population distributions around the establishment, non-continuous residence times and deviating societal risk limits. Using these methods allows decision-making without the necessity of repeating quantified risk analyses for each alternative proposal. PMID:10677665

  17. Screening and prioritisation of chemical risks from metal mining operations, identifying exposure media of concern.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jilang; Oates, Christopher J; Ihlenfeld, Christian; Plant, Jane A; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-04-01

    Metals have been central to the development of human civilisation from the Bronze Age to modern times, although in the past, metal mining and smelting have been the cause of serious environmental pollution with the potential to harm human health. Despite problems from artisanal mining in some developing countries, modern mining to Western standards now uses the best available mining technology combined with environmental monitoring, mitigation and remediation measures to limit emissions to the environment. This paper develops risk screening and prioritisation methods previously used for contaminated land on military and civilian sites and engineering systems for the analysis and prioritisation of chemical risks from modern metal mining operations. It uses hierarchical holographic modelling and multi-criteria decision making to analyse and prioritise the risks from potentially hazardous inorganic chemical substances released by mining operations. A case study of an active platinum group metals mine in South Africa is used to demonstrate the potential of the method. This risk-based methodology for identifying, filtering and ranking mining-related environmental and human health risks can be used to identify exposure media of greatest concern to inform risk management. It also provides a practical decision-making tool for mine acquisition and helps to communicate risk to all members of mining operation teams. PMID:19353294

  18. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix lander was launched August 4, 2007 and remained in cruise for ten months before landing in the northern plains of Mars in May 2008. The one-month Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) operations phase prior to entry consisted of daily analyses, meetings, and decisions necessary to determine if trajectory correction maneuvers and environmental parameter updates to the spacecraft were required. An overview of the Phoenix EDL trajectory simulation and analysis that was performed during the EDL approach and operations phase is described in detail. The evolution of the Monte Carlo statistics and footprint ellipse during the final approach phase is also provided. The EDL operations effort accurately delivered the Phoenix lander to the desired landing region on May 25, 2008.

  19. Estimated occupational risk from bioaerosols generated during land application of Class B biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been speculated that bioaerosols generated during land application of biosolids pose a serious occupational risk, but few scientific studies have been performed to assess levels of aerosolization of microorganisms from biosolids and to estimate the occupational risks of infection. This study ...

  20. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2015-11-01

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution-severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems. PMID:26569270

  1. Spatially Explicit Landscape-Level Ecological Risks Induced by Land Use and Land Cover Change in a National Ecologically Representative Region in China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Yang, Jianxin; Tang, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Land use and land cover change is driven by multiple influential factors from environmental and social dimensions in a land system. Land use practices of human decision-makers modify the landscape of the land system, possibly leading to landscape fragmentation, biodiversity loss, or environmental pollution—severe environmental or ecological impacts. While landscape-level ecological risk assessment supports the evaluation of these impacts, investigations on how these ecological risks induced by land use practices change over space and time in response to alternative policy intervention remain inadequate. In this article, we conducted spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis in Ezhou City, China. Our study area is a national ecologically representative region experiencing drastic land use and land cover change, and is regulated by multiple policies represented by farmland protection, ecological conservation, and urban development. We employed landscape metrics to consider the influence of potential landscape-level disturbance for the evaluation of landscape ecological risks. Using spatiotemporal simulation, we designed scenarios to examine spatiotemporal patterns in landscape ecological risks in response to policy intervention. Our study demonstrated that spatially explicit landscape ecological risk analysis combined with simulation-driven scenario analysis is of particular importance for guiding the sustainable development of ecologically vulnerable land systems. PMID:26569270

  2. Fatiguing effect of multiple take-offs and landings in regional airline operations.

    PubMed

    Honn, Kimberly A; Satterfield, Brieann C; McCauley, Peter; Caldwell, J Lynn; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is a risk factor for flight performance and safety in commercial aviation. In US commercial aviation, to help to curb fatigue, the maximum duration of flight duty periods is regulated based on the scheduled start time and the number of flight segments to be flown. There is scientific support for regulating maximum duty duration based on scheduled start time; fatigue is well established to be modulated by circadian rhythms. However, it has not been established scientifically whether the number of flight segments, per se, affects fatigue. To address this science gap, we conducted a randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study with 24 active-duty regional airline pilots. Objective and subjective fatigue was compared between a 9-hour duty day with multiple take-offs and landings versus a duty day of equal duration with a single take-off and landing. To standardize experimental conditions and isolate the fatiguing effect of the number of segments flown, the entire duty schedules were carried out in a high-fidelity, moving-base, full-flight, regional jet flight simulator. Steps were taken to maintain operational realism, including simulated airplane inspections and acceptance checks, use of realistic dispatch releases and airport charts, real-world air traffic control interactions, etc. During each of the two duty days, 10 fatigue test bouts were administered, which included a 10-minute Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) assessment of objective fatigue and Samn-Perelli (SP) and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) assessments of subjective sleepiness/fatigue. Results showed a greater build-up of objective and subjective fatigue in the multi-segment duty day than in the single-segment duty day. With duty start time and duration and other variables that could impact fatigue levels held constant, the greater build-up of fatigue in the multi-segment duty day was attributable specifically to the difference in the number of flight segments flown. Compared to findings in

  3. Validation and Verification of the Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, M.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Cetola, J.

    2011-12-01

    The importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization of land surface modeling can be clear upon considering the wide range of performance characteristics of numerical land surface models realizable through various combinations of factors. Such factors might include model physics and numerics, resolution, and forcing datasets used in operational implementation versus those that might have been involved in any prior development benchmarking. Of course, decisions concerning operational implementation may be better informed through more effective benchmarking of performance under various blends of such aforementioned operational factors. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA), the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) - a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community - and the land information system (LIS) Verification Toolkit (LVT) - developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) - have been adapted to the operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities in order to compare the performance of new land modeling and related activities with that of previous activities as well as observational or analyzed datasets. In this talk, three examples of adaptations of MET and LVT to evaluation of LIS-related operations at AFWA will be presented. One example will include comparisons of new surface rainfall analysis capabilities, towards forcing of AFWA's LIS, with previous capabilities. Comparisons will be relative to retrieval-, model-, and measurement-based precipitation fields. Results generated via MET's grid-stat, neighborhood, wavelet, and object based evaluation (MODE) utilities adapted to AFWA's needs will be discussed. This example will be framed in the context of better informing optimal blends of land surface model (LSM) forcing data sources - namely precipitation data- under

  4. A model for optimal operation of land-treatment sites for oily wastes.

    PubMed

    Unlü, K; Kivanç, S

    2001-06-01

    Land treatment as a disposal technology has been extensively used for the disposal of oily wastes. Effective management of land treatment sites require optimal operation of the system in order to achieve the fastest and most complete degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons without contamination of the environment. This paper describes a model that can be used for optimising the operation of land treatment sites for oily wastes. The model is composed of system simulator and optimisation submodels. Conceptually, the system simulation submodel is composed of a waste mixing zone, lower treatment zone and aquifer modules. The system simulation model allows for periodic waste applications and determines the spatial and temporal variation of the state variables such as phase summed (total) and aqueous phase contaminant concentrations and water content in the system. The optimisation submodel coupled with the system simulator determines the optimal values of system control variables, such as waste loading rate, infiltration rate, water content, frequency of waste application and the dimensions of the land treatment site. Optimisation of these system control variables is accomplished by maximising the hydrocarbon mass removal from the waste mixing zone under the constraint of satisfying a prespecified water quality criteria in the aquifer. Selected model applications are presented to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the model. Such model applications include determination of the optimal operating conditions for the land treatment of oily wastes under various different site and soil environmental conditions and practical waste disposal scenarios. PMID:11699857

  5. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning.

    PubMed

    Khakzad, Nima; Reniers, Genserik

    2015-12-15

    Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum. PMID:26142158

  6. Astronaut John H. Casper uses Portable In-flight Landing Operations Trainer (PILOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Casper, mission commander, participates in an experiment that measures the effects of space flight on pilot proficiency. Astronauts Casper and Andrew M. Allen, pilot, continued the testing of the Portable In-flight Landing Operations Trainer (PILOT), which first flew onboard Columbia in October of 1993.

  7. A spatially-evaluated methodology for assessing risk to a population from contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Gay, J Rebecca; Korre, Anna

    2006-07-01

    A methodology is proposed which combines quantitative probabilistic human health risk assessment and spatial statistical methods (geostatistics) to produce an assessment of risks to human health from exposure to contaminated land, in a manner which preserves the spatial distribution of risks and provides a measure of uncertainty in the assessment. Maps of soil contaminant levels, which incorporate uncertainty, are produced from sparse sample data using sequential indicator simulation. A real, age-stratified population is mapped across the contaminated area, and intake of soil contaminants by individuals is calculated probabilistically using an adaptation of the Contaminated Land Exposure Assessment (CLEA) model. An abundance of information is contained in results which can be interrogated at the population and individual level, and mapped to provide a powerful visual tool for risk managers, enabling efficient targeting of risk reduction measures to different locations. PMID:16352380

  8. Linking Climate Risk, Policy Networks and Adaptation Planning in Public Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubell, M.; Schwartz, M.; Peters, C.

    2014-12-01

    Federal public land management agencies in the United States have engaged a variety of planning efforts to address climate adaptation. A major goal of these efforts is to build policy networks that enable land managers to access information and expertise needed for responding to local climate risks. This paper investigates whether the perceived and modeled climate risk faced by different land managers is leading to larger networks or more participating in climate adaptation. In theory, the benefits of climate planning networks are larger when land managers are facing more potential changes. The basic hypothesis is tested with a survey of public land managers from hundreds of local and regional public lands management units in the Southwestern United States, as well as other stakeholders involved with climate adaptation planning. All survey respondents report their perceptions of climate risk along a variety of dimensions, as well as their participation in climate adaptation planning and information sharing networks. For a subset of respondents, we have spatially explicity GIS data about their location, which will be linked with downscaled climate model data. With the focus on climate change, the analysis is a subset of the overall idea of linking social and ecological systems.

  9. Operational 333m Biophysical Products of the Copernicus Global Land Service for Agriculture Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, R.; Smets, B.; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Ramon, D.; Montersleet, B.; Wandrebeck, L.; Calvet, J.-C.; Roujean, J.-L.; Camacho, F.

    2015-04-01

    The Copernicus Global Land service provides continuously a set of bio-geophysical variables describing, over the whole globe, the vegetation dynamic, the energy budget at the continental surface and some components of the water cycle. These generic products serve numerous applications including agriculture and food security monitoring. The portfolio of the Copernicus Global Land service contains Essential Climate Variables like the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of PAR absorbed by the vegetation (FAPAR), the surface albedo, the Land Surface Temperature, the soil moisture, the burnt areas, the areas of water bodies, and additional vegetation indices. They are generated every hour, every day or every 10 days on a reliable automatic basis from Earth Observation satellite data. Beside this timely production, the available historical archives have been processed, using the same innovative algorithms, to get consistent time series as long as possible. All products are accessible, free of charge after registration through FTP/HTTP (land.copernicus.eu/global/>http://land.copernicus.eu/global/) and through the GEONETCast satellite distribution system. The evolution of the service towards the operations at 333m resolution is partly supported by the FP7/ImagineS project which focuses on the retrieval of LAI, FAPAR, fraction of vegetation cover and surface albedo from PROBA-V sensor data. The paper presents the innovations of the 333m biophysical products, make an overview of their current status, and introduce the next steps of the evolution of the Copernicus Global Land service.

  10. An inexact risk management model for agricultural land-use planning under water shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Feng, Changchun; Dai, Chao; Li, Yongping; Li, Chunhui; Liu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Water resources availability has a significant impact on agricultural land-use planning, especially in a water shortage area such as North China. The random nature of available water resources and other uncertainties in an agricultural system present risk for land-use planning and may lead to undesirable decisions or potential economic loss. In this study, an inexact risk management model (IRM) was developed for supporting agricultural land-use planning and risk analysis under water shortage. The IRM model was formulated through incorporating a conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) constraint into an inexact two-stage stochastic programming (ITSP) framework, and could be used to control uncertainties expressed as not only probability distributions but also as discrete intervals. The measure of risk about the second-stage penalty cost was incorporated into the model so that the trade-off between system benefit and extreme expected loss could be analyzed. The developed model was applied to a case study in the Zhangweinan River Basin, a typical agricultural region facing serious water shortage in North China. Solutions of the IRM model showed that the obtained first-stage land-use target values could be used to reflect decision-makers' opinions on the long-term development plan. The confidence level α and maximum acceptable risk loss β could be used to reflect decisionmakers' preference towards system benefit and risk control. The results indicated that the IRM model was useful for reflecting the decision-makers' attitudes toward risk aversion and could help seek cost-effective agricultural land-use planning strategies under complex uncertainties.

  11. An inexact risk management model for agricultural land-use planning under water shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Feng, Changchun; Dai, Chao; Li, Yongping; Li, Chunhui; Liu, Ming

    2015-10-01

    Water resources availability has a significant impact on agricultural land-use planning, especially in a water shortage area such as North China. The random nature of available water resources and other uncertainties in an agricultural system present risk for land-use planning and may lead to undesirable decisions or potential economic loss. In this study, an inexact risk management model (IRM) was developed for supporting agricultural land-use planning and risk analysis under water shortage. The IRM model was formulated through incorporating a conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) constraint into an inexact two-stage stochastic programming (ITSP) framework, and could be used to control uncertainties expressed as not only probability distributions but also as discrete intervals. The measure of risk about the second-stage penalty cost was incorporated into the model so that the trade-off between system benefit and extreme expected loss could be analyzed. The developed model was applied to a case study in the Zhangweinan River Basin, a typical agricultural region facing serious water shortage in North China. Solutions of the IRM model showed that the obtained first-stage land-use target values could be used to reflect decision-makers' opinions on the long-term development plan. The confidence level α and maximum acceptable risk loss β could be used to reflect decisionmakers' preference towards system benefit and risk control. The results indicated that the IRM model was useful for reflecting the decision-makers' attitudes toward risk aversion and could help seek cost-effective agricultural land-use planning strategies under complex uncertainties.

  12. Risk estimation for future glacier lake outburst floods based on local land-use changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, S.; Schaub, Y.; Huggel, C.; Walz, A.

    2014-06-01

    Effects of climate change are particularly strong in high-mountain regions. Most visibly, glaciers are shrinking at a rapid pace, and as a consequence, glacier lakes are forming or growing. At the same time the stability of mountain slopes is reduced by glacier retreat, permafrost thaw and other factors, resulting in an increasing landslide hazard which can potentially impact lakes and therewith trigger far-reaching and devastating outburst floods. To manage risks from existing or future lakes, strategies need to be developed to plan in time for adequate risk reduction measures at a local level. However, methods to assess risks from future lake outbursts are not available and need to be developed to evaluate both future hazard and future damage potential. Here a method is presented to estimate future risks related to glacier lake outbursts for a local site in southern Switzerland (Naters, Valais). To generate two hazard scenarios, glacier shrinkage and lake formation modelling was applied, combined with simple flood modelling and field work. Furthermore, a land-use model was developed to quantify and allocate land-use changes based on local-to-regional storylines and three scenarios of land-use driving forces. Results are conceptualized in a matrix of three land-use and two hazard scenarios for the year 2045, and show the distribution of risk in the community of Naters, including high and very high risk areas. The study underlines the importance of combined risk management strategies focusing on land-use planning, on vulnerability reduction, as well as on structural measures (where necessary) to effectively reduce future risks related to lake outburst floods.

  13. Local land-use change based risk estimation for future glacier lake outburst flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, S.; Huggel, C.; Schaub, Y.; Walz, A.

    2013-08-01

    Effects of climate change are particularly strong in high-mountain regions. Most visibly, glaciers are shrinking at a rapid pace, and as a consequence, glacier lakes are forming or growing. At the same time the stability of mountain slopes is reduced by glacier retreat, permafrost thaw and other factors, resulting in an increasing risk of landslides which can potentially impact lakes and therewith trigger far reaching and devastating outburst floods. To manage risks from existing or future lakes, strategies need to be developed to plan in time for adequate risk reduction measures at a local level. However, methods to assess risks from future lake outbursts are not available. It is actually a challenge to develop methods to evaluate both, future hazard potential and future damage potential. Here we present an analysis of future risks related to glacier lake outbursts for a local site in southern Switzerland (Naters, Valais). To estimate two hazard scenarios, we used glacier shrinkage and lake formation modelling, simple flood modelling and field work. Further we developed a land-use model to quantify and allocate land-use changes based on local-to-regional storylines and three scenarios of land-use driving forces. Results are conceptualized in a matrix of three land-use and two hazard scenarios for a time period of 2045, and show the distribution of risk in the community of Naters, including high and very high risk areas. The study corroborates the importance of land-use planning to effectively reduce future risks related to lake outburst floods.

  14. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation-Based Disaster Risk Assessment of Desertification in Horqin Sand Land, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongfang; Zhang, Jiquan; Guo, Enliang; Sun, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a typical disaster risk event in which human settlements and living environments are destroyed. Desertification Disaster Risk Assessment can control and prevent the occurrence and development of desertification disasters and reduce their adverse influence on human society. This study presents the methodology and procedure for risk assessment and zoning of desertification disasters in Horqin Sand Land. Based on natural disaster risk theory and the desertification disaster formation mechanism, the Desertification Disaster Risk Index (DDRI) combined hazard, exposure, vulnerability and restorability factors and was developed mainly by using multi-source data and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results showed that high risk and middle risk areas account for 28% and 23% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed with an “S” type in the study area. Low risk and very low risk areas account for 21% and 10% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed in the west-central and southwestern parts. Very high risk areas account for 18% of the study area and are distributed in the northeastern parts. The results can be used to know the desertification disaster risk level. It has important theoretical and practical significance to prevention and control of desertification in Horqin Sand Land and even in Northern China. PMID:25654772

  15. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation-based disaster risk assessment of desertification in Horqin Sand Land, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongfang; Zhang, Jiquan; Guo, Enliang; Sun, Zhongyi

    2015-02-01

    Desertification is a typical disaster risk event in which human settlements and living environments are destroyed. Desertification Disaster Risk Assessment can control and prevent the occurrence and development of desertification disasters and reduce their adverse influence on human society. This study presents the methodology and procedure for risk assessment and zoning of desertification disasters in Horqin Sand Land. Based on natural disaster risk theory and the desertification disaster formation mechanism, the Desertification Disaster Risk Index (DDRI) combined hazard, exposure, vulnerability and restorability factors and was developed mainly by using multi-source data and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results showed that high risk and middle risk areas account for 28% and 23% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed with an "S" type in the study area. Low risk and very low risk areas account for 21% and 10% of the study area, respectively. They are distributed in the west-central and southwestern parts. Very high risk areas account for 18% of the study area and are distributed in the northeastern parts. The results can be used to know the desertification disaster risk level. It has important theoretical and practical significance to prevention and control of desertification in Horqin Sand Land and even in Northern China. PMID:25654772

  16. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to
    ...

  17. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems and Synthetic Vision Systems for NextGen Approach and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory standards and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for using EFVS to conduct approach, landing, and roll-out operations in visibility as low as 1000 feet runway visual range (RVR). Also, SVS was tested to evaluate the potential for lowering decision heights (DH) on certain instrument approach procedures below what can be flown today. Expanding the portion of the visual segment in which EFVS can be used in lieu of natural vision from 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation to touchdown and rollout in visibilities as low as 1000 feet RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was acceptable without any apparent workload penalties. A lower DH of 150 feet and/or possibly reduced visibility minima using SVS appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  18. Local topographic wetness indices predict household malaria risk better than land-use and land-cover in the western Kenya highlands

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Identification of high-risk malaria foci can help enhance surveillance or control activities in regions where they are most needed. Associations between malaria risk and land-use/land-cover are well-recognized, but these environmental characteristics are closely interrelated with the land's topography (e.g., hills, valleys, elevation), which also influences malaria risk strongly. Parsing the individual contributions of land-cover/land-use variables to malaria risk requires examining these associations in the context of their topographic landscape. This study examined whether environmental factors like land-cover, land-use, and urban density improved malaria risk prediction based solely on the topographically-determined context, as measured by the topographic wetness index. Methods The topographic wetness index, an estimate of predicted water accumulation in a defined area, was generated from a digital terrain model of the landscape surrounding households in two neighbouring western Kenyan highland communities. Variables determined to best encompass the variance in this topographic wetness surface were calculated at a household level. Land-cover/land-use information was extracted from a high-resolution satellite image using an object-based classification method. Topographic and land-cover variables were used individually and in combination to predict household-level malaria in the communities through an iterative split-sample model fitting and testing procedure. Models with only topographic variables were compared to those with additional predictive factors related to land-cover/land-use to investigate whether these environmental factors improved prediction of malaria based on the shape of the land alone. Results Variables related to topographic wetness proved most useful in predicting the households of individuals contracting malaria in this region of rugged terrain. Other variables related to human modification of the environment also demonstrated clear

  19. Working session 5: Operational aspects and risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cizelj, L.; Donoghue, J.

    1997-02-01

    A general observation is that both operational aspects and risk analysis cannot be adequately discussed without information presented in other sessions. Some overlap of conclusions and recommendations is therefore to be expected. Further, it was assumed that recommendations concerning improvements in some related topics were generated by other sessions and are not repeated here. These include: (1) Knowledge on degradation mechanisms (initiation, progression, and failure). (2) Modeling of degradation (initiation, progression, and failure). (3) Capabilities of NDE methods. (4) Preventive maintenance and repair. One should note here, however, that all of these directly affect both operational and risk aspects of affected plants. A list of conclusions and recommendations is based on available presentations and discussions addressing risk and operational experience. The authors aimed at reaching as broad a consensus as possible. It should be noted here that there is no strict delineation between operational and safety aspects of degradation of steam generator tubes. This is caused by different risk perceptions in different countries/societies. The conclusions and recommendations were divided into four broad groups: human reliability; leakage monitoring; risk impact; and consequence assessment.

  20. Communications: Mosquito Habitats, Land Use, and Malaria Risk in Belize from Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery of northern Belize is used to examine the distribution of land use and breeding habitats of the malaria vector the Anopheles mosquito. A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats, and one, Eleocharis spp. marsh, is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of Typha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. Thus, land use induced expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat is potentially increasing malaria risk in Belize, and in other regions where Anopheles vestitipennis is a major malaria vector.

  1. Soil heavy metal dynamics and risk assessment under long-term land use and cultivation conversion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelei; Xu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Long-term agricultural development and cultivation conversions affect soil heavy metal balance and the regional environmental safety. In this study, heavy metal parameters were used to identify changes in soil properties in response to land use and cultivation conversions. The integrated soil quality index, which involves seven heavy metal indices, was proposed to assess the environmental risk of long-term human activities in Northeast China. We used the remote sensing and geographical data for the four-term land use distribution from 1979 to 2009 to identify the spatial patterns of regional land use conversions. Then, 41 samples from the top 20 cm of the soil at sites corresponding to these seven types of conversions were collected (permanent dry land, dry land converted from wetland, dry land converted from forest, permanent wetland, permanent forest, paddy land converted from dry land, and paddy land converted from wetland). Based on the local soil properties and tillage practices, the following seven heavy metal parameters were employed: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn). The conversion of farmland from wetland resulted in an increase in the concentration of Pb and Cr in the soil. In contrast, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd decreased when wetland was converted into farmland because the tillage practices washed these heavy metals away. During the conversion of dry land and paddy land to wetland, the levels of Pb increased by approximately 28.6% and 24.7%, respectively. Under the same conditions, the concentration of As increased by 32.5% and 14.1%, respectively. The integrated index also demonstrated that the farmlands were not contaminated by the heavy metals during long-term agricultural development. PMID:25060313

  2. Risk Analysis for Unintentional Slide Deployment During Airline Operations.

    PubMed

    Ayra, Eduardo S; Insua, David Ríos; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Larbi, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process. PMID:26061899

  3. Airborne antenna coverage requirements for the TCV B-737 aircraft. [for operation with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, W. A., Jr.; White, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    The airborne antenna line of sight look angle requirement for operation with a Microwave Landing System (MLS) was studied. The required azimuth and elevation line of sight look angles from an antenna located on an aircraft to three ground based antenna sites at the Wallops Flight Center (FPS-16 radar, MLS aximuth, and MLS elevation) as the aircraft follows specific approach paths selected as representative of MLS operations at the Denver, Colorado, terminal area are presented. These required azimuth and elevation look angles may be interpreted as basic design requirements for antenna of the TCV B-737 airplane for MLS operations along these selected approach paths.

  4. Data Visualization of Invisible Airflow Hazards During Helicopter Takeoff and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2004-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with unseen airflow hazards near the ground such as vortices, downdrafts, wind shear, microbursts, or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing airplanes, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, which often have to operate in confined spaces and under operationally stressful conditions. We are developing flight-deck visualizations of airflow hazards during helicopter takeoff and landing operations, and are evaluating their effectiveness with usability studies. Our hope is.that this work will lead to the production of an airflow hazard detection system for pilots that will save lives.

  5. Status report on the land processes aircraft science management operations working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, James G.; Mann, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    Since its inception three years ago, the Land Processes Aircraft Science Management Operations Working Group (MOWG) provided recommendations on the optimal use of the Agency's aircraft in support of the Land Processes Science Program. Recommendations covered topics such as aircraft and sensor usage, development of long-range plans, Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MAC), program balance, aircraft sensor databases, new technology and sensor development, and increased University scientist participation in the program. Impacts of these recommendations improved the efficiency of various procedures including the flight request process, tracking of flight hours, and aircraft usage. The group also created a bibliography focused on publications produced by Land Processes scientists from the use of the aircraft program, surveyed NASA funded PI's on their participation in the aircraft program, and developed a planning template for multi-sensor airborne campaigns. Benefits from these activities are summarized.

  6. Applying the Land Use Portfolio Model with Hazus to analyse risk from natural hazard events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinitz, Laura B.; Taketa, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates the integration of two geospatial decision-support systems for natural-hazard risk assessment and management. Hazus is a risk-assessment tool developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency to identify risks and estimate the severity of risk from natural hazards. The Land Use Portfolio Model (LUPM) is a risk-management tool developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate plans or actions intended to reduce risk from natural hazards. We analysed three mitigation policies for one earthquake scenario in the San Francisco Bay area to demonstrate the added value of using Hazus and the LUPM together. The demonstration showed that Hazus loss estimates can be input to the LUPM to obtain estimates of losses avoided through mitigation, rates of return on mitigation investment, and measures of uncertainty. Together, they offer a more comprehensive approach to help with decisions for reducing risk from natural hazards.

  7. Predicting pathogen transport and risk of infection from land-applied biosolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, M. S.; Teng, J.; Kumar, A.; Gurian, P.

    2011-12-01

    Biosolids have been recycled as fertilizer to sustainably improve and maintain productive soils and to stimulate plant growth for over forty years, but may contain low levels of microbial pathogens. The Spreadsheet Microbial Assessment of Risk: Tool for Biosolids ("SMART Biosolids") is an environmental transport, exposure and risk model that compiles knowledge on the occurrence, environmental dispersion and attenuation of biosolids-associated pathogens to estimate microbial risk from biosolids land application. The SMART Biosolids model calculates environmental pathogen concentrations and assesses risk associated with exposure to pathogens from land-applied biosolids through five pathways: 1) inhalation of aerosols from land application sites, 2) consumption of groundwater contaminated by land-applied biosolids, 3) direct ingestion of biosolids-amended soils, 4) ingestion of plants contaminated by land-applied biosolids, and 5) consumption of surface water contaminated by runoff from a land application site. The SMART Biosolids model can be applied under a variety of scenarios, thereby providing insight into effective management practices. This study presents example results of the SMART Biosolids model, focusing on the groundwater and surface water pathways, following biosolids application to a typical site in Michigan. Volumes of infiltration and surface water runoff are calculated following a 100-year storm event. Pathogen transport and attenuation through the subsurface and via surface runoff are modeled, and pathogen concentrations in a downstream well and an adjacent pond are calculated. Risks are calculated for residents of nearby properties. For a 100-year storm event occurring immediately after biosolids application, the surface water pathway produces risks that may be of some concern, but best estimates do not exceed the bounds of what has been considered acceptable risk for recreational water use (Table 1); groundwater risks are very uncertain and at the

  8. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b)...

  9. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b)...

  10. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b)...

  11. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b)...

  12. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b)...

  13. Stardust Entry: Landing and Population Hazards in Mission Planning and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, P.; Wawrzyniak, G.

    2006-01-01

    The 385 kg Stardust mission was launched on Feb 7, 1999 on a mission to collect samples from the tail of comet Wild 2 and from interplanetary space. Stardust returned to Earth in the early morning of January 15, 2006. The sample return capsule landed in the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) southwest of Salt Lake City. Because Stardust was landing on Earth, hazard analysis was required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, UTTR, and the Stardust Project to ensure the safe return of the landing capsule along with the safety of people, ground assets, and aircraft. This paper focuses on the requirements affecting safe return of the capsule and safety of people on the ground by investigating parameters such as probability of impacting on UTTR, casualty expectation, and probability of casualty. This paper introduces the methods for the calculation of these requirements and shows how they affected mission planning, site selection, and mission operations. By analyzing these requirements before and during entry it allowed for the selection of a robust landing point that met all of the requirements during the actual landing event.

  14. INTERPRETATION OF SPLP RESULTS FOR ASSESSING RISK TO GROUNDWATER FROM LAND-APPLIED GRANULAR WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists and engineers often rely on results from the synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) to assess the risk of groundwater contamination posed by the land application of granular solid wastes. The concentrations of pollutants in SPLP leachate can be measured and ...

  15. Development of Risk Assessment Methodology for Land Application and Distribution and Marketing of Municipal Sludge

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. The sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution a...

  16. Description of a landing site indicator (LASI) for light aircraft operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, H. V.; Outlaw, B. K. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental cockpit mounted head-up type display system was developed and evaluated by LaRC pilots during the landing phase of light aircraft operations. The Landing Site Indicator (LASI) system display consists of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and indicated airspeed images superimposed on the pilot's view through the windshield. The information is made visible to the pilot by means of a partially reflective viewing screen which is suspended directly in frot of the pilot's eyes. Synchro transmitters are operated by vanes, located at the left wing tip, which sense angle of attack and sideslip angle. Information is presented near the center of the display in the form of a moving index on a fixed grid. The airspeed is sensed by a pitot-static pressure transducer and is presented in numerical form at the top center of the display.

  17. Flight results from a study of aided inertial navigation applied to landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Carson, T. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Schmidt, S. F.; Conrad, B.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the approach and landing performance of a Kalman filter aided inertial navigation system using flight data obtained from a series of approaches and landings of the CV-340 aircraft at an instrumented test area. A description of the flight test is given, in which data recorded included: (1) accelerometer signals from the platform of an INS; (2) three ranges from the Ames-Cubic Precision Ranging System; and (3) radar and barometric altimeter signals. The method of system evaluation employed was postflight processing of the recorded data using a Kalman filter which was designed for use on the XDS920 computer onboard the CV-340 aircraft. Results shown include comparisons between the trajectories as estimated by the Kalman filter aided system and as determined from cinetheodolite data. Data start initialization of the Kalman filter, operation at a practical data rate, postflight modeling of sensor errors and operation under the adverse condition of bad data are illustrated.

  18. Incidence, risk factors, and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Khwarg, S.G.; Linstone, F.A.; Daniels, S.A.; Isenberg, S.J.; Hanscom, T.A.; Geoghegan, M.; Straatsma, B.R.

    1987-03-15

    A review of 135 consecutive cataract operations identified ten cases (7.4%) of operating microscope light retinopathy. Ophthalmoscopically, these light retinopathy lesions appeared as a focal pigment epithelial change with varying degrees of pigment clumping in the center. Fluorescein angiography accentuated the lesion by demonstrating a sharply demarcated transmission defect, occasionally with multiple satellite lesions. The shape of the lesion matched the shape of the illuminating source of the particular operating microscope used during the surgery. The most significant risk factor associated with the production of these light retinopathy lesions was prolonged operating time. Mean total operating time for the ten patients with light retinopathy was 51 minutes longer than for those without (P less than .0001). Other significant associated factors were the presence of diabetes mellitus (P less than .03), younger age (P less than .05), and the use of hydrochlorothiazide (P less than .04).

  19. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision Making During Spacecraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Decisions made during the operational phase of a space mission often have significant and immediate consequences. Without the explicit consideration of the risks involved and their representation in a solid model, it is very likely that these risks are not considered systematically in trade studies. Wrong decisions during the operational phase of a space mission can lead to immediate system failure whereas correct decisions can help recover the system even from faulty conditions. A problem of special interest is the determination of the system fault protection strategies upon the occurrence of faults within the system. Decisions regarding the fault protection strategy also heavily rely on a correct understanding of the state of the system and an integrated risk model that represents the various possible scenarios and their respective likelihoods. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) modeling is applicable to the full lifecycle of a space mission project, from concept development to preliminary design, detailed design, development and operations. The benefits and utilities of the model, however, depend on the phase of the mission for which it is used. This is because of the difference in the key strategic decisions that support each mission phase. The focus of this paper is on describing the particular methods used for PRA modeling during the operational phase of a spacecraft by gleaning insight from recently conducted case studies on two operational Mars orbiters. During operations, the key decisions relate to the commands sent to the spacecraft for any kind of diagnostics, anomaly resolution, trajectory changes, or planning. Often, faults and failures occur in the parts of the spacecraft but are contained or mitigated before they can cause serious damage. The failure behavior of the system during operations provides valuable data for updating and adjusting the related PRA models that are built primarily based on historical failure data. The PRA models, in turn

  20. Influence of friction forces on the motion of VTOL aircraft during landing operations on ships at sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.; Chin, D. O.

    1981-01-01

    Equations describing the friction forces generated during landing operations on ships at sea were formulated. These forces depend on the platform reaction and the coefficient of friction. The platform reaction depends on the relative sink rate and the shock absorbing capability of the landing gear. The friction coefficient varies with the surface condition of the landing platform and the angle of yaw of the aircraft relative to the landing platform. Landings by VTOL aircraft, equipped with conventional oleopneumatic landing gears are discussed. Simplifications are introduced to reduce the complexity of the mathematical description of the tire and shock strut characteristics. Approximating the actual complicated force deflection characteristic of the tire by linear relationship is adequate. The internal friction forces in the shock strut are included in the landing gear model. A set of relatively simple equations was obtained by including only those tire and shock strut characteristics that contribute significantly to the generation of landing gear forces.

  1. Statistical Measurements of Contact Conditions of 478 Transport-airplane Landings During Routine Daytime Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsby, Norman S

    1955-01-01

    Statistical measurements of contact conditions have been obtained, by means of a special photographic technique, of 478 landings of present-day transport airplanes made during routine daylight operations in clear air at the Washington National Airport. From the measurements, sinking speeds, rolling velocities, bank angles, and horizontal speeds at the instant before contact have been evaluated and a limited statistical analysis of the results has been made and is reported in this report.

  2. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-15

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under current

  3. Making Risk Models Operational for Situational Awareness and Decision Support

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Coles, Garill A.; Shoemaker, Steven V.

    2012-06-12

    Modernization of nuclear power operations control systems, in particular the move to digital control systems, creates an opportunity to modernize existing legacy infrastructure and extend plant life. We describe here decision support tools that allow the assessment of different facets of risk and support the optimization of available resources to reduce risk as plants are upgraded and maintained. This methodology could become an integrated part of the design review process and a part of the operations management systems. The methodology can be applied to the design of new reactors such as small nuclear reactors (SMR), and be helpful in assessing the risks of different configurations of the reactors. Our tool provides a low cost evaluation of alternative configurations and provides an expanded safety analysis by considering scenarios while early in the implementation cycle where cost impacts can be minimized. The effects of failures can be modeled and thoroughly vetted to understand their potential impact on risk. The process and tools presented here allow for an integrated assessment of risk by supporting traditional defense in depth approaches while taking into consideration the insertion of new digital instrument and control systems.

  4. Managing Risk in Safety Critical Operations - Lessons Learned from Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Steven A.

    2002-01-01

    The Mission Control Center (MCC) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has a rich legacy of supporting Human Space Flight operations throughout the Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station eras. Through the evolution of ground operations and the Mission Control Center facility, NASA has gained a wealth of experience of what it takes to manage the risk in Safety Critical Operations, especially when human life is at risk. The focus of the presentation will be on the processes (training, operational rigor, team dynamics) that enable the JSC/MCC team to be so successful. The presentation will also share the evolution of the Mission Control Center architecture and how the evolution was introduced while managing the risk to the programs supported by the team. The details of the MCC architecture (e.g., the specific software, hardware or tools used in the facility) will not be shared at the conference since it would not give any additional insight as to how risk is managed in Space Operations.

  5. 12 CFR 324.161 - Qualification requirements for incorporation of operational risk mitigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operational risk exposure to reflect qualifying operational risk mitigants if: (1) The FDIC-supervised...) Qualifying operational risk mitigants. Qualifying operational risk mitigants are: (1) Insurance that: (i) Is... institution assigns the company is assigned a PD equal to or less than 10 basis points; (ii) Has an...

  6. 12 CFR 217.161 - Qualification requirements for incorporation of operational risk mitigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operational risk exposure to reflect qualifying operational risk mitigants if: (1) The Board-regulated...) Qualifying operational risk mitigants. Qualifying operational risk mitigants are: (1) Insurance that: (i) Is... institution assigns the company is assigned a PD equal to or less than 10 basis points; (ii) Has an...

  7. Global land cover mapping at 30 m resolution: A POK-based operational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Jin; Liao, Anping; Cao, Xin; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Xuehong; He, Chaoying; Han, Gang; Peng, Shu; Lu, Miao; Zhang, Weiwei; Tong, Xiaohua; Mills, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Global Land Cover (GLC) information is fundamental for environmental change studies, land resource management, sustainable development, and many other societal benefits. Although GLC data exists at spatial resolutions of 300 m and 1000 m, a 30 m resolution mapping approach is now a feasible option for the next generation of GLC products. Since most significant human impacts on the land system can be captured at this scale, a number of researchers are focusing on such products. This paper reports the operational approach used in such a project, which aims to deliver reliable data products. Over 10,000 Landsat-like satellite images are required to cover the entire Earth at 30 m resolution. To derive a GLC map from such a large volume of data necessitates the development of effective, efficient, economic and operational approaches. Automated approaches usually provide higher efficiency and thus more economic solutions, yet existing automated classification has been deemed ineffective because of the low classification accuracy achievable (typically below 65%) at global scale at 30 m resolution. As a result, an approach based on the integration of pixel- and object-based methods with knowledge (POK-based) has been developed. To handle the classification process of 10 land cover types, a split-and-merge strategy was employed, i.e. firstly each class identified in a prioritized sequence and then results are merged together. For the identification of each class, a robust integration of pixel-and object-based classification was developed. To improve the quality of the classification results, a knowledge-based interactive verification procedure was developed with the support of web service technology. The performance of the POK-based approach was tested using eight selected areas with differing landscapes from five different continents. An overall classification accuracy of over 80% was achieved. This indicates that the developed POK-based approach is effective and feasible

  8. Modeling the operational risk in Iranian commercial banks: case study of a private bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, Omid; Kimiagari, Alimohammad; Noorbakhsh, Eaman

    2012-08-01

    The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision from the Bank for International Settlement classifies banking risks into three main categories including credit risk, market risk, and operational risk. The focus of this study is on the operational risk measurement in Iranian banks. Therefore, issues arising when trying to implement operational risk models in Iran are discussed, and then, some solutions are recommended. Moreover, all steps of operational risk measurement based on Loss Distribution Approach with Iran's specific modifications are presented. We employed the approach of this study to model the operational risk of an Iranian private bank. The results are quite reasonable, comparing the scale of bank and other risk categories.

  9. Choice of scale for integrating land use in malaria risk monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, K. R.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Pan, W.; Vittor, A.; Patz, J.

    2011-12-01

    There were nearly 37,000 reported cases of malaria in Peru in 2009 alone. With over 30% of the population identified as being at "high risk" for exposure, detailed risk mapping, along with early detection and warning systems, are in critical need. While there is evidence that the increased formation of puddles arising from deforestation increases the breeding of the rainforest's primary malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi, neither the spatial structure of land uses/land cover changes (LUCC) nor the area of influence of LUCC on mosquito density has been systematically addressed. The radius of influence that LUCC - particularly areas of deforested land and other regions likely to see increases in stagnant water formation - has on mosquito presence is of particular importance, both for the design of warning systems and to inform future malaria transmission studies. Here, we present the results of satellite-based analysis of land use patterns and mosquito density along the Iquitos-Nauta road in the Peruvian Amazon. Comparing supervised classifications of Landsat images of the Iquitos region from 1996 and 2001 , land cover features around each of 832 mosquito sites were tabulated by percent at six different radii: 250m, 500m, 1000m, 2000m, 3000m, and 5000m. These results were then used as inputs in a mosquito prediction model that determined the most pertinent spatial scale necessary to predict both adult and larvae Anopheles mosquitoes (darlingi, benerocchi, oswaldoi, mattogrossenis, and rangeli). The application of this study is to provide a systematic means of determining which areas are at the highest risk of malaria infection in order to inform design of warning systems and future studies of land use and malaria in the Amazonian frontier.

  10. First Approximations of Prescribed Fire Risks Relative to Other Management Techniques Used on Private Lands

    PubMed Central

    Twidwell, Dirac; Wonkka, Carissa L.; Sindelar, Michael T.; Weir, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is widely recognized as a critical ecological and evolutionary driver that needs to be at the forefront of land management actions if conservation targets are to be met. However, the prevailing view is that prescribed fire is riskier than other land management techniques. Perceived risks associated with the application of fire limits its use and reduces agency support for prescribed burning in the private sector. As a result, considerably less cost-share support is given for prescribed fire compared to mechanical techniques. This study tests the general perception that fire is a riskier technique relative to other land management options. Due to the lack of data available to directly test this notion, we use a combination of approaches including 1) a comparison of fatalities resulting from different occupations that are proxies for techniques employed in land management, 2) a comparison of fatalities resulting from wildland fire versus prescribed fire, and 3) an exploration of causal factors responsible for wildland fire-related fatalities. This approach establishes a first approximation of the relative risk of fatality to private citizens using prescribed fire compared to other management techniques that are readily used in ecosystem management. Our data do not support using risks of landowner fatalities as justification for the use of alternative land management techniques, such as mechanical (machine-related) equipment, over prescribed fire. Vehicles and heavy machinery are consistently leading reasons for fatalities within occupations selected as proxies for management techniques employed by ranchers and agricultural producers, and also constitute a large proportion of fatalities among firefighters. Our study provides the foundation for agencies to establish data-driven decisions regarding the degree of support they provide for prescribed burning on private lands. PMID:26465329

  11. First Approximations of Prescribed Fire Risks Relative to Other Management Techniques Used on Private Lands.

    PubMed

    Twidwell, Dirac; Wonkka, Carissa L; Sindelar, Michael T; Weir, John R

    2015-01-01

    Fire is widely recognized as a critical ecological and evolutionary driver that needs to be at the forefront of land management actions if conservation targets are to be met. However, the prevailing view is that prescribed fire is riskier than other land management techniques. Perceived risks associated with the application of fire limits its use and reduces agency support for prescribed burning in the private sector. As a result, considerably less cost-share support is given for prescribed fire compared to mechanical techniques. This study tests the general perception that fire is a riskier technique relative to other land management options. Due to the lack of data available to directly test this notion, we use a combination of approaches including 1) a comparison of fatalities resulting from different occupations that are proxies for techniques employed in land management, 2) a comparison of fatalities resulting from wildland fire versus prescribed fire, and 3) an exploration of causal factors responsible for wildland fire-related fatalities. This approach establishes a first approximation of the relative risk of fatality to private citizens using prescribed fire compared to other management techniques that are readily used in ecosystem management. Our data do not support using risks of landowner fatalities as justification for the use of alternative land management techniques, such as mechanical (machine-related) equipment, over prescribed fire. Vehicles and heavy machinery are consistently leading reasons for fatalities within occupations selected as proxies for management techniques employed by ranchers and agricultural producers, and also constitute a large proportion of fatalities among firefighters. Our study provides the foundation for agencies to establish data-driven decisions regarding the degree of support they provide for prescribed burning on private lands. PMID:26465329

  12. Assessing the Risk of Disc Heniation Related to Landing Impact Following Long-duration Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, J. T.; Newby, N..; Wells, J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that crewmembers returning on the Space Shuttle have an increased incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus after spaceflight. This increased risk is thought to be related to disc volume expansion due to unloading and prolonged exposure to microgravity. Although there is an increased risk of disc herniation in Space Shuttle astronauts, it is unknown if dynamic landing loads further contribute to the risk of herniation. To determine if dynamic loads increase the risk of incidence, data from crewmembers (excluding cosmonauts) returning on the Soyuz spacecraft will be compared to Space Shuttle astronauts. These data will be obtained from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Project at NASA. Severity and incidence after spaceflight will be mined from the data, and statistical analyses will be used to determine if Soyuz crewmembers have a higher incidence of disc herniation than Space Shuttle crewmembers. The results are expected to show no difference between Space Shuttle and Soyuz crewmembers, indicating that higher dynamic loads on landing and long-duration spaceflight do not significantly increase the risk of disc herniation. If no difference is shown between the two crewmember populations, then disc volume expansion due to microgravity does not significantly increase the risk of injury due to dynamic loads for deconditioned crewmembers. Any risk associated with deconditioning would be primarily due to bone structure changes and resulting bone strength changes. This study is an important first step in determining whether the spinal disc plays a role in injury due to dynamic loads.

  13. Land use patterns and the risk of West Nile virus transmission in central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Allison M; Lampman, Richard L; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how human land use patterns influence mosquito ecology and the risk of mosquito-borne pathogens is critical for the development of disease management strategies. We examined how different environments influenced mosquito species composition, abundance, and West Nile virus (WNV) infection rates in central Illinois. Using a combination of gravid traps and CDC light traps, adult mosquitoes were collected every other week from June 24 to September 16, 2012, in four major land use categories-row crops, prairies, forest fragments, and residential neighborhoods. The mosquitoes were identified to species morphologically, and pools of pure and mixed Culex mosquitoes (primarily Culex pipiens and Culex restuans) were tested for WNV-RNA by qRT-PCR. Mosquito species diversity was significantly higher in forest habitats compared to residential, agricultural, and prairie land use categories. All the four landscape types were equally important habitats for WNV vectors Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans, contrary to previous findings that these species principally inhabit the residential areas. WNV-infected mosquito pools were observed in all land use types, and the infection rates overlapped among land use categories. Although our findings support the importance of residential habitats for WNV transmission to humans, they also establish that prairie, row crops, and wood lots are potentially important refuges for enzootic transmission. This is particularly important in urban ecosystems where these land use categories are small, interspersed fragments serving as potential refuge sites during periods of low rainfall. PMID:24746038

  14. Minimising the risk of infection: a peri-operative checklist.

    PubMed

    Heller, S; Rezapoor, M; Parvizi, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a seven-step checklist that could help in minimising the risk of PJI. The check list includes strategies that can be implemented pre-operatively such as medical optimisation, and reduction of the bioburden by effective skin preparation or actions taking during surgery such as administration of timely and appropriate antibiotics or blood conservation, and finally implementation of post-operative protocols such as efforts to minimise wound drainage and haematoma formation. PMID:26733635

  15. Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

  16. Risk Balance: A Key Tool for Mission Operations Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Larry W.; Faris, Grant B.

    2011-01-01

    The Mission Operations Assurance (MOA) discipline actively participates as a project member to achieve their common objective of full mission success while also providing an independent risk assessment to the Project Manager and Office of Safety and Mission Success staff. The cornerstone element of MOA is the independent assessment of the risks the project faces in executing its mission. Especially as the project approaches critical mission events, it becomes imperative to clearly identify and assess the risks the project faces. Quite often there are competing options for the project to select from in deciding how to execute the event. An example includes choices between proven but aging hardware components and unused but unproven components. Timing of the event with respect to visual or telecommunications visibility can be a consideration in the case of Earth reentry or hazardous maneuver events. It is in such situations that MOA is called upon for a risk balance assessment or risk trade study to support their recommendation to the Project Manager for a specific option to select. In the following paragraphs we consider two such assessments, one for the Stardust capsule Earth return and the other for the choice of telecommunications system configuration for the EPOXI flyby of the comet Hartley 2. We discuss the development of the trade space for each project's scenario and characterize the risks of each possible option. The risk characterization we consider includes a determination of the severity or consequence of each risk if realized and the likelihood of its occurrence. We then examine the assessment process to arrive at a MOA recommendation. Finally we review each flight project's decision process and the outcome of their decisions.

  17. Collaborative development of land use change scenarios for analysing hydro-meteorological risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Simulating future land use changes remains a difficult task, due to uncontrollable and uncertain driving forces of change. Scenario development emerged as a tool to address these limitations. Scenarios offer the exploration of possible futures and environmental consequences, and enable the analysis of possible decisions. Therefore, there is increasing interest of both decision makers and researchers to apply scenarios when studying future land use changes and their consequences. The uncertainties related to generating land use change scenarios are among others defined by the accuracy of data, identification and quantification of driving forces, and the relation between expected future changes and the corresponding spatial pattern. To address the issue of data and intangible driving forces, several studies have applied collaborative, participatory techniques when developing future scenarios. The involvement of stakeholders can lead to incorporating a broader spectrum of professional values and experience. Moreover, stakeholders can help to provide missing data, improve detail, uncover mistakes, and offer alternatives. Thus, collaborative scenarios can be considered as more reliable and relevant. Collaborative scenario development has been applied to study a variety of issues in environmental sciences on different spatial and temporal scales. Still, these participatory approaches are rarely spatially explicit, making them difficult to apply when analysing changes to hydro-meteorological risk on a local scale. Spatial explicitness is needed to identify potentially critical areas of land use change, leading to locations where the risk might increase. In order to allocate collaboratively developed scenarios of land change, we combined participatory modeling with geosimulation in a multi-step scenario generation framework. We propose a framework able to develop scenarios that are plausible, can overcome data inaccessibility, address intangible and external driving forces

  18. Risk analysis for autonomous underwater vehicle operations in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Brito, Mario Paulo; Griffiths, Gwyn; Challenor, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are used increasingly to explore hazardous marine environments. Risk assessment for such complex systems is based on subjective judgment and expert knowledge as much as on hard statistics. Here, we describe the use of a risk management process tailored to AUV operations, the implementation of which requires the elicitation of expert judgment. We conducted a formal judgment elicitation process where eight world experts in AUV design and operation were asked to assign a probability of AUV loss given the emergence of each fault or incident from the vehicle's life history of 63 faults and incidents. After discussing methods of aggregation and analysis, we show how the aggregated risk estimates obtained from the expert judgments were used to create a risk model. To estimate AUV survival with mission distance, we adopted a statistical survival function based on the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier estimator. We present theoretical formulations for the estimator, its variance, and confidence limits. We also present a numerical example where the approach is applied to estimate the probability that the Autosub3 AUV would survive a set of missions under Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica in January-March 2009. PMID:20731790

  19. Savannah River Reactor Operation: Indices of risk for emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    O'Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    Periodically it is necessary to re-examine the implications of new source terms for neighboring offsite populations as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Severe Accident studies mature, and lead to a better understanding of the progression of hypothetical core melt accidents in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. In this application multiple-system failure, low-frequency events, and consequently higher radiological source terms than from normal operation or design basis accidents (DBAs) are considered. Measures of consequence such as constant dose vs distance, boundary doses, and health effects to close-in populations are usually examined in this context. A set of source terms developed for the Safety Information Document (SID) for support of the Reactor Operation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) forms the basis for the revised risk evaluation discussed herein. The intent of this review is not to completely substantiate the sufficiency of the current Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). However, the two principal measures (200-rem red-bone marrow dose vs distance and 300-rem thyroid dose vs distance) for setting an EPZ are considered. Additional dose-at-distance calculations and consideration of DBA doses would be needed to complete a re-evaluation of the current EPZ. These subject areas are not addressed in the current document. Also, this report evaluates the sensitivity of individual risk estimates to the extent of offsite evacuation assumed from a K reactor severe accident and compares these risks to the Draft DOE Safety Guidelines. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Pathogen risk assessment of land applied wastewater and biosolids: A fuzzy set approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dahab, M.F.; Fuerhacker, M.; Zibuschka, F.

    1998-07-01

    There are major concerns associated with land application of wastewater and biosolids including the potential risk to public health from water-borne pollutants that may enter the food chain and from pathogens that may be present in the wastewater. These risks are of particular concern when wastewater is applied to land where crops are grown as part of the human food chain or when direct human contact with the wastewater may occur. In many communities, toxic chemicals may not be present in the biosolids, or their concentrations may be reduced through source control measures. However, pathogens that enter wastewater from infected individuals cannot be controlled at the source and are often found in wastewater or biosolids applied to land. Public health officials have emphasized that microbial pathogens (or pathogen indicators) should not occur in areas where exposure to humans is likely. Under this criteria, the concept of risk assessment which requires the characterization of the occurrence of pathogens, almost seems to be contradictory to basic public health goals. As the understanding of pathogen and pathogen indicator occurrence becomes better refined, the arguments for finding practical application of risk assessment for pathogenic organisms become more compelling.

  1. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  2. Noise evaluation of early images for Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huazhong; Du, Chen; Liu, Rongyuan; Qin, Qiming; Yan, Guangjian; Li, Zhao-Liang; Meng, Jinjie

    2014-11-01

    This study performed an on-orbit evaluation of noise level for the Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard Landsat 8 using early images over ground homogeneous sites. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were higher than 160 of OLI nine bands at typical radiance level, while the noise equivalent radiance difference (NE∆L) and the noise equivalent reflectance difference (NE∆ρ) were respectively lower than 0.8 W/m(2)/µm/sr and 0.002. Compared to pre-launch predictions, the on-orbit low noise and high SNR almost satisfied requirements for OLI bands, and can provide a prior knowledge for uncertainty analysis of OLI images in monitoring land surface, oceanic, and atmospheric status. PMID:25401877

  3. Assessing and monitoring the risk of land degradation in Baragan Plain, Romania, using spectral mixture analysis and Landsat imagery.

    PubMed

    Vorovencii, Iosif

    2016-07-01

    The fall of the communist regime in Romania at the end of 1989 and the ensuing transition to the market economy brought about many changes in the use of agricultural land. These changes combined with the action of climatic factors led, in most cases, to negative effects increasing the risk of degradation of agricultural land. This study aims to assess and monitor the risk of land degradation in Baragan Plain, Romania, for the period 1988-2011 using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). Each satellite image was classified through the Decision Tree Classifier (DTC) method; then, on the basis of certain threshold values, we obtained maps of land degradation and maps showing the passage from various classes of land use/land cover (LULC) to land degradation. The results indicate that during the intermediary periods there was an ascending and descending trend in the risk of land degradation determined by the interaction of climatic factors with the social-economic ones. For the entire period, the overall trend was ascending, the risk of land degradation increasing by around 4.60 % of the studied surface. Out of the climatic factors, high temperatures and, implicitly, drought were the most significant. The social-economic factors are the result of the changes which occurred after the fall of the communist regime, the most important being the fragmentation of agricultural land and the destruction of the irrigation system. PMID:27351187

  4. Terrestrial wildlife risk assessment for TCDD in land-applied pulp and paper mill sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Meyn, O.; Zeeman, M.; Wise, M.J.; Keane, S.E.

    1997-09-01

    A risk assessment was performed to evaluate the potential effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in land-applied pulp and paper mill sludge on terrestrial wildlife. Three representative bird and mammal species were assessed for potential individual risk of adverse effects. A dietary model was used to estimate TCDD exposures of adult birds and mammals, and a pharmacokinetic model was used to estimate exposure for avian embryos. Using the quotient method, modeled exposure levels were compared to published no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) for birds and mammals to calculate risk. Monte Carlo analysis was used to consider the variability and uncertainty in the risk estimates. The results suggest that TCDD in land-applied pulp and paper sludge may pose significant individual risks to terrestrial wildlife under certain circumstances. Shrews were found to be most at risk due to their high consumption rate of food items that are expected to bioconcentrate the TCDD from soil at the application sites. Of all possible pathways, only dietary exposure was considered in this investigation. The analysis centered on parameter uncertainty and does not include an assessment of alternative models, although this could be a significant source of uncertainty.

  5. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Swartjes, F A

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools. PMID:25809961

  6. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    The need to protect people and property with a changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, and the reality for societies in Europe to live with the risk associated with natural hazards, were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project started on 1 May 2009 and will end on 30 April 2012. It involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://safeland-fp7.eu/. Main results achieved in SafeLand include: - Various guidelines related to landslide triggering processes and run-out modelling. - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides, and development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Guideline for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment and zoning. - New methodologies for physical and societal vulnerability assessment. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots for Europe. The results show clearly where areas with the largest landslide risk are located in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional and local climate model simulations over selected regions of Europe at spatial resolutions of 10x10 km and 2.8x2.8 km

  7. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B. G.; SafeLand Research Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, the need to protect people and property, the reality for society in Europe to live with hazard and risk and the need to manage risk were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It started on 1 May 2009 and will go on for 3 years, ending on 30 April 2012. There project involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://www.safeland-fp7.eu/ . SafeLand is an ongoing project, which results will be finalized in 2012. This lecture summarizes the SafeLand's activities and achievements until November 2011. The main results achieved so far include: - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots by an objective, GIS-based analysis for Europe. The results show clearly where landslides pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional climate model simulations over Europe (from the EU FP6 project ENSEMBLES) at a spatial resolution of 25 x 25 km have been used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events. In winter a general trend towards more heavy precipitation events across all analyzed regional climate model

  8. Study of operational risk-based configuration control

    SciTech Connect

    Vesely, W E; Samanta, P K; Kim, I S

    1991-08-01

    This report studies aspects of a risk-based configuration control system to detect and control plant configurations from a risk perspective. Configuration control, as the term is used here, is the management of component configurations to achieve specific objectives. One important objective is to control risk and safety. Another is to operate efficiently and make effective use of available resources. PSA-based evaluations are performed to study configuration to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability for two plants. Some equipment configurations can cause large core-melt frequency and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. The insights from this evaluation are used to develop the framework for an effective risk-based configuration control system. The focal points of such a system and the requirements for tools development for implementing the system are defined. The requirements of risk models needed for the system, and the uses of plant-specific data are also discussed. 18 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

  10. Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL): Potential Impact on Air Traffic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couluris, G. J.; Signor, D.; Phillips, J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investigating technological and operational concepts for introducing Cruise-Efficient Short Takeoff and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft into a future US National Airspace System (NAS) civil aviation environment. CESTOL is an aircraft design concept for future use to increase capacity and reduce emissions. CESTOL provides very flexible takeoff, climb, descent and landing performance capabilities and a high-speed cruise capability. In support of NASA, this study is a preliminary examination of the potential operational impact of CESTOL on airport and airspace capacity and delay. The study examines operational impacts at a subject site, Newark Liberty Intemational Airport (KEWR), New Jersey. The study extends these KEWR results to estimate potential impacts on NAS-wide network traffic operations due to the introduction of CESTOL at selected major airports. These are the 34 domestic airports identified in the Federal Aviation Administration's Operational Evolution Plan (OEP). The analysis process uses two fast-time simulation tools to separately model local and NAS-wide air traffic operations using predicted flight schedules for a 24-hour study period in 2016. These tools are the Sen sis AvTerminal model and NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). We use both to simulate conventional-aircraft-only and CESTOL-mixed-with-conventional-aircraft operations. Both tools apply 4-dimension trajectory modeling to simulate individual flight movement. The study applies AvTerminal to model traffic operations and procedures for en route and terminal arrival and departures to and from KEWR. These AvTerminal applications model existing arrival and departure routes and profiles and runway use configurations, with the assumption jet-powered, large-sized civil CESTOL aircraft use a short runway and standard turboprop arrival and departure procedures. With these rules, the conventional jet and CESTOL aircraft are procedurally

  11. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Pre-Launch Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geir; Lee, Kenton

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager(OLI) will be the main instrument on Landsat-8 when it launches in 2012. OLI represents a generational change from heritage Landsat instruments in its design but must maintain data continuity with the 30+ year Landsat data archive. As a result, OLI has undergone a stringent calibration and characterization campaign to ensure its characteristics are understood and consistent with past instruments. This paper presents an overview of the OLI design, its major differences from previous Landsat instruments, and a summary of its expected performance.

  12. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  13. Development of a conceptual framework of holistic risk assessment - Landfill as a particular type of contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Butt, T E; Javadi, A A; Nunns, M A; Beal, C D

    2016-11-01

    Landfills can be regarded as a particular type of contaminated land that has a potential to directly and indirectly pollute all of the four main spheres of the environment which are the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and eventually adversely impact the biosphere. Therefore, environmental risk assessment of a landfill has to be more integrated and holistic by virtue of its nature of being a multidimensional pollutant source. Despite this, although various risk assessment approaches have been adopted for landfill waste disposal sites, there are still wide-ranging knowledge gaps and limitations which need to be addressed. One important knowledge gap and limitation of current risk assessment approaches is the inability to fully identify, categorise and aggregate all individual risks from all combinations of hazards, pathways and targets/receptors (e.g. water, air, soil and biota) in connection to a certain landfill leachate and yet at any stage of the landfill cycle. So such an approach is required that could not only integrate all possible characteristics of varying scenarios but also contain the ability to establish an overall risk picture, irrespective of the lifecycle stage of the landfill (e.g. planning stage/pre-operation, in-operation or post-operation/closed). One such approach to address the wide-breadth of landfill impact risks is by developing a more holistic risk assessment methodology, whose conceptual framework is presented in this paper for landfill leachate in a whole-system format. This conceptual framework does not only draw together various constituting factors and sub-factors of risk assessment in a logical sequence and categorical order, but also indicates the "what, why, when and how" outputs of and inputs to these factors and sub-factors can be useful. The framework is designed to identify and quantify a range of risks associated with all stages of the landfill lifecycle, and yet in a more streamlined, logical, categorical and integrated

  14. The application of seismic risk-benefit analysis to land use planning in Taipei City.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Chen, Liang-Chun

    2007-09-01

    In the developing countries of Asia local authorities rarely use risk analysis instruments as a decision-making support mechanism during planning and development procedures. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to enable planners to undertake such analyses. We illustrate a case study of seismic risk-benefit analysis for the city of Taipei, Taiwan, using available land use maps and surveys as well as a new tool developed by the National Science Council in Taiwan--the HAZ-Taiwan earthquake loss estimation system. We use three hypothetical earthquakes to estimate casualties and total and annualised direct economic losses, and to show their spatial distribution. We also characterise the distribution of vulnerability over the study area using cluster analysis. A risk-benefit ratio is calculated to express the levels of seismic risk attached to alternative land use plans. This paper suggests ways to perform earthquake risk evaluations and the authors intend to assist city planners to evaluate the appropriateness of their planning decisions. PMID:17714167

  15. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PRA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S. ); Vesely, W.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations form a risk perspective. The configurations of particular interest involve components which are down during power operation. Controlling plant configurations from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser control in areas unimportant to risk.

  16. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PRA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations form a risk perspective. The configurations of particular interest involve components which are down during power operation. Controlling plant configurations from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser control in areas unimportant to risk.

  17. Risk and contributing factors of ecosystem shifts over naturally vegetated land under climate change in China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qiuhong; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Xingcai

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the areas at risk of ecosystem transformation and the main contributing factors to the risk is essential to assist ecological adaptation to climate change. We assessed the risk of ecosystem shifts in China using the projections of four global gridded vegetation models (GGVMs) and an aggregate metric. The results show that half of naturally vegetated land surface could be under moderate or severe risk at the end of the 21st century under the middle and high emission scenarios. The areas with high risk are the Tibetan Plateau region and an area extended northeastward from the Tibetan Plateau to northeast China. With the three major factors considered, the change in carbon stocks is the main contributing factor to the high risk of ecosystem shifts. The change in carbon fluxes is another important contributing factor under the high emission scenario. The change in water fluxes is a less dominant factor except for the Tibetan Plateau region under the high emission scenario. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the risk assessment, the geographic patterns of the risk are generally consistent across different scenarios. The results could help develop regional strategies for ecosystem conservation to cope with climate change. PMID:26867481

  18. Risk and contributing factors of ecosystem shifts over naturally vegetated land under climate change in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qiuhong; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Xingcai

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the areas at risk of ecosystem transformation and the main contributing factors to the risk is essential to assist ecological adaptation to climate change. We assessed the risk of ecosystem shifts in China using the projections of four global gridded vegetation models (GGVMs) and an aggregate metric. The results show that half of naturally vegetated land surface could be under moderate or severe risk at the end of the 21(st) century under the middle and high emission scenarios. The areas with high risk are the Tibetan Plateau region and an area extended northeastward from the Tibetan Plateau to northeast China. With the three major factors considered, the change in carbon stocks is the main contributing factor to the high risk of ecosystem shifts. The change in carbon fluxes is another important contributing factor under the high emission scenario. The change in water fluxes is a less dominant factor except for the Tibetan Plateau region under the high emission scenario. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the risk assessment, the geographic patterns of the risk are generally consistent across different scenarios. The results could help develop regional strategies for ecosystem conservation to cope with climate change. PMID:26867481

  19. New operative technique to reduce surgeons' risk of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Raahave, D; Bremmelgaard, A

    1991-06-01

    The surgical team is potentially at risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from the patient. Assuming that the probability of an accidental injury during surgery is 0.01 (P2), the prevalence of HIV is 0.01 (P3) and the seroconversion rate is 0.01 (P1), we have estimated the risk (actuarial model) for a surgeon as 0.2% per year, and 5.82% for 30 years of surgery. In view of this we have made changes in surgical technique to reduce the risk to the surgical team from splash or injury. The surgeon must handle tissue with instruments only and minimize the use of fingers. Whenever possible, sharp instruments should be replaced by a blunt type. The surgical nurse loads needles to the needle carrier using forceps. Sharp instruments are placed in a neutral zone on the nurse's stand so that the surgeon and the nurse never touch the same sharp instrument at the same time. Movements should be controlled, and instrument handling accompanied by eye contact. We consider that these changes will reduce the risk of accidental injuries and thereby the transmission of HIV during operations to a greater degree than knowledge of the patient's HIV status. PMID:1716276

  20. GlobCorine- A Joint EEA-ESA Project for Operational Land Cover and Land Use Mapping at Pan-European Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontemps, S.; Defourny, P.; Van Bogaert, E.; Weber, J. L.; Arino, O.

    2010-12-01

    Regular and global land cover mapping contributes to evaluating the impact of human activities on the environment. Jointly supported by the European Space Agency and the European Environmental Agency, the GlobCorine project builds on the GlobCover findings and aims at making the full use of the MERIS time series for frequent land cover monitoring. The GlobCover automated classification approach has been tuned to the pan-European continent and adjusted towards a classification compatible with the Corine typology. The GlobCorine 2005 land cover map has been achieved, validated and made available to a broad- level stakeholder community from the ESA website. A first version of the GlobCorine 2009 map has also been produced, demonstrating the possibility for an operational production of frequent and updated global land cover maps.

  1. Development of an operational specific CAT risk (SCATR) index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. L.; Haines, P. A.; Luers, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The original formulations of Roach (1970) and Oard (1974) for the calculation of clear air turbulence (CAT) potential from synoptic scale data were extended. An index which gives a measure of the specific risk of encountering CAT - the specific clear air turbulence risk (SCATR) index - was defined. This index takes into account both the locally and advected contributions to the energy necessary for CAT. The advected contribution is associated with the role of atmospheric gravity waves. The SCATR index was calculated for a number of cases where documented encounters with CAT occurred. Of particular interest were those made for cases involving severe CAT. The results for the two severe CAT cases run were quite impressive and elicited considerable interest from operational aviation meteorologists.

  2. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  3. Study on the risk and impacts of land subsidence in Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, H. Z.; Andreas, H.; Gumilar, I.; Brinkman, J. J.

    2015-11-01

    Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia located in the west-northern coast of Java island, within a deltaic plain and passes by 13 natural and artificial rivers. This megapolitan has a population of about 10.2 million people inhabiting an area of about 660 km2, with relatively rapid urban development. It has been reported for many years that several places in Jakarta are subsiding at different rates. The main causative factors of land subsidence in Jakarta are most probably excessive groundwater extraction, load of constructions (i.e., settlement of high compressibility soil), and natural consolidation of alluvial soil. Land subsidence in Jakarta has been studied using leveling surveys, GPS surveys, InSAR and Geometric-Historic techniques. The results obtained from leveling surveys, GPS surveys and InSAR technique over the period between 1974 and 2010 show that land subsidence in Jakarta has spatial and temporal variations with typical rates of about 3-10 cm year-1. Rapid urban development, relatively young alluvium soil, and relatively weak mitigation and adapatation initiatives, are risk increasing factors of land subsidence in Jakarta. The subsidence impacts can be seen already in the field in forms of cracking and damage of housing, buildings and infrastructure; wider expansion of (riverine and coastal) flooding areas, malfunction of drainage system, changes in river canal and drain flow systems and increased inland sea water intrusion. These impacts can be categorized into infrastructural, environmental, economic and social impacts. The risk and impacts of land subsidence in Jakarta and their related aspects are discussed in this paper.

  4. Communications During Critical Mission Operations: Preparing for InSight's Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kurtik, Susan; Weinstein-Weiss, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Radio communications with deep space missions are often taken for granted due to the impressively successful records since, for decades, the technology and infrastructure have been developed for ground and flight systems to optimize telemetry and commanding. During mission-critical events such as the entry, descent, and landing of a spacecraft on the surface of Mars, the signal's level and frequency dynamics vary significantly and typically exceed the threshold of the budgeted links. The challenge is increased when spacecraft shed antennas with heat shields and other hardware during those risky few minutes. We have in the past successfully received signals on Earth during critical events even ones not intended for ground reception. These included the UHF signal transmitted by Curiosity to Marsorbiting assets. Since NASA's Deep Space Network does not operate in the UHF band, large radio telescopes around the world are utilized. The Australian CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope supported the Curiosity UHF signal reception and DSN receivers, tools, and expertise were used in the process. In preparation for the InSight mission's landing on Mars in 2016, preparations are underway to support the UHF communications. This paper presents communication scenarios with radio telescopes, and the DSN receiver and tools. It also discusses the usefulness of the real-time information content for better response time by the mission team towards successful mission operations.

  5. Land use as an explanatory factor for potential phosphorus loss risk, assessed by P indices and their governing parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Vogt, Rolf D; Lu, Xueqiang; Yang, Xiaoguang; Lü, Changwei; Mohr, Christian W; Zhu, Liang

    2015-08-01

    The total level of phosphorus (P) and the distribution of P pools in the topsoil are significantly affected by the excessive application of mineral and organic fertilizers connected with intensive agriculture. This leads to an increased potential risk for P loss, and then contributes to freshwater eutrophication. Soil test P (STP), P sorption index (PSI) and degree of P saturation (DPS) are commonly applied as proxies for assessing the risk of P loss. Although conceptually based, the empirical relationships between these operationally defined proxies and the actual P flux exhibit large spatial variations. Herein, a comprehensive synoptic study and monitoring of soil has been conducted in a watershed in north-eastern China. A set of conventional indicators for soil P loss risk were measured along with the main P pools, P sorption indices, texture, organic matter, as well as Fe and Al oxides and other mineral compositions. Moreover, detailed soil P speciation was conducted using phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, phosphatase activities in the soils were determined for each land use soil category. The results reflected that the soil content of total P, total inorganic P and STP increased significantly following the order of increasing management intensity. STP, being strongly coupled to the application of P fertilizers, was a strong explanatory factor for the spatial differences in DPS - both between and within different land uses. The dominant inorganic and organic P species in the soils were orthophosphate and monoester-P, respectively. Their contents were oppositely correlated with the degree of management influence, with the amount of orthophosphate positively related. Alkaline phosphomonoesterase (AlP) represented the highest activities among the four representative phosphatases, i.e. enzymes that hydrolyze organic P - releasing labile orthophosphate. Orchard soils were found to contain the highest levels of monoester P

  6. SimER: An advanced three-dimensional environmental risk assessment code for contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, S.; Small, J.; Tahar, B.

    2007-07-01

    SimER (Simulations of Environmental Risks) is a powerful performance assessment code developed to undertake assessments of both contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal. The code can undertake both deterministic and probabilistic calculations, and is fully compatible with all available best practice guidance and regulatory requirements. SimER represents the first time-dependent performance assessment code capable of providing a detailed representation of system evolution that is designed specifically to address issues found across UK nuclear sites. The code adopts flexible input language with build-in unit checking to model the whole system (i.e. near-field, geosphere and biosphere) in a single code thus avoiding the need for any time consuming data transfer and the often laborious interface between the different codes. This greatly speeds up the assessment process and has major quality assurance advantages. SimER thus provides a cost-effective tool for undertaking projects involving risk assessment from contaminated land assessments through to full post-closure safety cases and other work supporting key site endpoint decisions. A Windows version (v1.0) of the code was first released in June 2004. The code has subsequently been subject to further testing and development. In particular, Viewers have been developed to provide users with visual information to assist the development of SimER models, and output can now be produced in a format that can be used by the FieldView software to view the results and produce animation from the SimER calculations. More recently a Linux version of the code has been produced to extend coverage to the commonly used platform bases and offer an improved operating environment for probabilistic assessments. Results from the verification of the SimER code for a sample of test cases for both contaminated land and waste disposal applications are presented. (authors)

  7. 76 FR 30705 - Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... the public and an independent, external panel of scientific experts (73 FR 54400). Dated: May 18, 2011... AGENCY Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids... Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids'' EPA/600/R-08/035F, which was prepared by the National Center...

  8. [Risk factors in police activities: operational criticism in surveillance programs].

    PubMed

    Ciprani, Fabrizio; Moroni, Maria; Conte, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The planning of specific health surveillance programs for police officers is extremely complex due to difficulty in predictability and variety of occupational hazards. Even in the case of conventional occupational risk factors clearly identified by current regulations, particular working conditions may require specific assessment to effectively identify and quantify the risk of occupational exposure. An extensive program of health surveillance, aimed at promoting overall health and effectiveness of the operators, would be really desirable, in order to help better address a number of risks that cannot be easily predicted. The progressive increase in the average age of the working population and the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases, may also suggest the need for health surveillance procedures designed to verify continued unqualified suitability to police service, providing for the identification of diversified suitability profiles in relation to age and state of health: accordingly, in regard to our field of interest, there is a close link between medico-legal eligibility and occupational medicine. PMID:25558742

  9. Integrating land cover modeling and adaptive management to conserve endangered species and reduce catastrophic fire risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, David; Duncan, Brean; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Johnson, Fred; Nichols, James

    2014-01-01

    Land cover modeling is used to inform land management, but most often via a two-step process, where science informs how management alternatives can influence resources, and then, decision makers can use this information to make decisions. A more efficient process is to directly integrate science and decision-making, where science allows us to learn in order to better accomplish management objectives and is developed to address specific decisions. Co-development of management and science is especially productive when decisions are complicated by multiple objectives and impeded by uncertainty. Multiple objectives can be met by the specification of tradeoffs, and relevant uncertainty can be addressed through targeted science (i.e., models and monitoring). We describe how to integrate habitat and fuel monitoring with decision-making focused on the dual objectives of managing for endangered species and minimizing catastrophic fire risk. Under certain conditions, both objectives might be achieved by a similar management policy; other conditions require tradeoffs between objectives. Knowledge about system responses to actions can be informed by developing hypotheses based on ideas about fire behavior and then applying competing management actions to different land units in the same system state. Monitoring and management integration is important to optimize state-specific management decisions and to increase knowledge about system responses. We believe this approach has broad utility and identifies a clear role for land cover modeling programs intended to inform decision-making.

  10. Risk assessment of flash floods in central Pyrenees (Spain) through land use change analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Mora, Daniel; Sánchez-Fabre, Miguel; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Ollero, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the main cause of the damages to human areas is the increased risk exposure. The urbanization in touristic areas in Pyrenees has increased enormously in last 25 years, and the most of urban development have been made on land occupied by the stream channel. We present two different case studies in central Pyrenees: one in Aragón river and one in Ésera river. We made a land use analysis from 1956 to 2013 in the headwaters of these two rivers delimiting the channel in different flash floods events, and analysing the amount and distribution of precipitation at the same time. The results show that the risk exposure is one of the main factors of the impact of flash floods. We found that most of the damage on urbanization and human activities was caused by the urban occupation of areas that were located on the floodplain of the river. For both Aragon and Esera headwaters precipitation events were considered extreme in their time series. However, the amount of precipitation of these extreme events does not support the consequences in geomorphological and human environments. The events of high intensity rainfall over the last years could be expected, yet, it had unexpected consequences that could be predictable by land managers through an appropriate regional planning.

  11. Risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A

    2013-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) is monitored under the USEPA High Production Volume (HPV) chemical program and is predominantly used as the active ingredient in select antibacterial bar soaps and other personal care products. The compound commonly occurs at parts-per-million concentrations in processed wastewater treatment residuals (i.e. biosolids), which are frequently land-applied as fertilizers and soil conditioners. Human and ecological risk assessment parameters measured by the authors in previous studies were integrated with existing data to perform a two-tiered human health and ecological risk assessment of land-applied biosolids-borne TCC. The 14 exposure pathways identified in the Part 503 Biosolids Rule were expanded, and conservative screening-level hazard quotients (HQ values) were first calculated to estimate risk to humans and a variety of terrestrial and aquatic organisms (Tier 1). The majority of biosolids-borne TCC exposure pathways resulted in no screening-level HQ values indicative of significant risks to exposed organisms (including humans), even under worst-case land application scenarios. The two pathways for which the conservative screening-level HQ values exceeded one (i.e. Pathway 10: biosolids➔soil➔soil organism➔predator, and Pathway 16: biosolids➔soil➔surface water➔aquatic organism) were then reexamined using modified parameters and scenarios (Tier 2). Adjusted HQ values remained greater than one for Exposure Pathway 10, with the exception of the final adjusted HQ values under a one-time 5 Mg ha(-1) (agronomic) biosolids loading rate scenario for the American woodcock (Scolopax minor) and short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda). Results were used to prioritize recommendations for future biosolids-borne TCC research, which include additional measurements of toxicological effects and TCC concentrations in environmental matrices at the field level. PMID:23183124

  12. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  13. Cardiovascular risk in operators under radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katia; Deyanov, Christo; Israel, Mishel

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the long-term effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the cardiovascular system. Two groups of exposed operators (49 broadcasting (BC) station and 61 TV station operators) and a control group of 110 radiorelay station operators, matched by sex and age, with similar job characteristics except for the radiofrequency EMR were studied. The EMR exposure was assessed and the time-weighted average (TWA) was calculated. The cardiovascular risk factors arterial pressure, lipid profile, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease were followed. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly higher in the two exposed groups. It was found that the radiofrequency EMR exposure was associated with greater chance of becoming hypertensive and dyslipidemic. The stepwise multiple regression equations showed that the SBP and TWA predicted the high TC and high LDL-C, while the TC, age and abdominal obesity were predictors for high SBP and DBP. In conclusion, our data show that the radiofrequency EMR contributes to adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:16503299

  14. Ecuadorian banana farms should consider organic banana with low price risks in their land-use portfolios.

    PubMed

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  15. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  16. Preliminary assessment of the microwave landing system requirements for STOL operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrous, C. N.; Brown, S. C.; Goka, T.; Park, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an investigation made to assess the Microwave Landing System (MLS) Requirements for use by civil STOL aircraft are described. The principal MLS characteristics investigated in the report were signal accuracy and volume of coverage. The study utilized a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom digital simulation of a De Havilland Buffalo C-8A aircraft. Fully automatic control of timed curve flight down to touchdown was simulated. Selected MLS accuracy and coverage parameters for the azimuth, primary elevation, flare evelation and DME signals were varied. The resulting STOL aircraft system performance in following a representative curved flight path was statistically determined. Coverage requirements for STOL aircraft operating in the terminal area environment were also investigated.

  17. Potential scientific objectives for a 2018 2-rover mission to Mars and implications for the landing site and landed operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. A.; Westall, F.; Beaty, D.; Cady, S. L.; Carr, M. H.; Ciarletti, V.; Coradini, A.; Elfving, A.; Glavin, D.; Goesmann, F.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Ori, G. G.; Phillips, R. J.; Salvo, C.; Sephton, M.; Syvertson, M.; Vago, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    A study sponsored by MEPAG has defined the possibilities for cooperative science using two rovers under consideration for launch to Mars in 2018 (ESA’s ExoMars, and a NASA-sourced rover concept for which we use the working name of MAX-C). The group considered collaborative science opportunities both without change to either proposed rover, as well as with some change allowed. Planning focused on analysis of shared and separate objectives, with concurrence on two high priority shared objectives that could form the basis of highly significant collaborative exploration activity. The first shared objective relates to sending the proposed rovers to a site interpreted to contain evidence of past environments with high habitability potential, and with high preservation potential for physical and chemical biosignatures where they would evaluate paleoenvironmental conditions, assess the potential for preservation of biotic and/or prebiotic signatures, and search for possible evidence of past life and prebiotic chemistry. The second shared objective relates to the collection, documentation, and suitable packaging of a set of samples by the rovers that would be sufficient to achieve the scientific objectives of a possible future sample return mission. Achieving cooperative science with the two proposed rovers implies certain compromises that might include less time available for pursuing each rover’s independent objectives, implementation of some hardware modifications, and the need to share a landing site that may not be optimized for either rover. Sharing a landing site has multiple implications, including accepting a common latitude restriction, accepting the geological attributes of the common landing site, and creation of a potential telecommunications bottleneck. Moreover, ensuring a safe landing with the sky crane and pallet system envisioned for the mission would likely result in landing terrain engineering requirements more constraining than those for MSL

  18. Kinetic and kinematic differences between first and second landings of a drop vertical jump task: Implications for injury risk assessments✩

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Nathaniel A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Though the first landing of drop vertical jump task is commonly used to assess biomechanical performance measures that are associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in athletes, the implications of the second landing in this task have largely been ignored. We examined the first and second landings of a drop vertical jump for differences in kinetic and kinematic behaviors at the hip and knee. Methods Acohort of 239 adolescent female basketball athletes (age = 13.6 (1.6) years) completed drop vertical jump tasks from an initial height of 31 cm. A three dimensional motion capture system recorded positional data while dual force platforms recorded ground reaction forces for each trial. Findings The first landing demonstrated greater hip adduction angle, knee abduction angle, and knee abduction moment than the second landing (P-values < 0.028). The second landing demonstrated smaller flexion angles and moments at the hip and knee than the first landing (P-values < 0.035). The second landing also demonstrated greater side-to-side asymmetry in hip and knee kinematics and kinetics for both the frontal and sagittal planes (P-values < 0.044). Interpretation The results have important implications for the future use of the drop vertical jump as an assessment tool for anterior cruciate ligament injury risk behaviors in adolescent female athletes. The second landing may be a more rigorous task and provides a superior tool to evaluate sagittal plane risk factors than the first landing, which may be better suited to evaluate frontal plane risk factors. PMID:23562293

  19. Stochastic and recursive calibration for operational, large-scale, agricultural land and water use management models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneta, M. P.; Kimball, J. S.; Jencso, K. G.

    2015-12-01

    Managing the impact of climatic cycles on agricultural production, on land allocation, and on the state of active and projected water sources is challenging. This is because in addition to the uncertainties associated with climate projections, it is difficult to anticipate how farmers will respond to climatic change or to economic and policy incentives. Some sophisticated decision support systems available to water managers consider farmers' adaptive behavior but they are data intensive and difficult to apply operationally over large regions. Satellite-based observational technologies, in conjunction with models and assimilation methods, create an opportunity for new, cost-effective analysis tools to support policy and decision-making over large spatial extents at seasonal scales.We present an integrated modeling framework that can be driven by satellite remote sensing to enable robust regional assessment and prediction of climatic and policy impacts on agricultural production, water resources, and management decisions. The core of this framework is a widely used model of agricultural production and resource allocation adapted to be used in conjunction with remote sensing inputs to quantify the amount of land and water farmers allocate for each crop they choose to grow on a seasonal basis in response to reduced or enhanced access to water due to climatic or policy restrictions. A recursive Bayesian update method is used to adjust the model parameters by assimilating information on crop acreage, production, and crop evapotranspiration as a proxy for water use that can be estimated from high spatial resolution satellite remote sensing. The data assimilation framework blends new and old information to avoid over-calibration to the specific conditions of a single year and permits the updating of parameters to track gradual changes in the agricultural system.This integrated framework provides an operational means of monitoring and forecasting what crops will be grown

  20. Mitigating Climate Change with Ocean Pipes: Influencing Land Temperature and Hydrology and Termination Overshoot Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, L.; Caldeira, K.; Ricke, K.

    2014-12-01

    With increasing risk of dangerous climate change geoengineering solutions to Earth's climate problems have attracted much attention. One proposed geoengineering approach considers the use of ocean pipes as a means to increase ocean carbon uptake and the storage of thermal energy in the deep ocean. We use a latest generation Earth System Model (ESM) to perform simulations of idealised extreme implementations of ocean pipes. In our simulations, downward transport of thermal energy by ocean pipes strongly cools the near surface atmosphere - by up to 11°C on a global mean. The ocean pipes cause net thermal energy to be transported from the terrestrial environment to the deep ocean while increasing the global net transport of water to land. By cooling the ocean surface more than the land, ocean pipes tend to promote a monsoonal-type circulation, resulting in increased water vapour transport to land. Throughout their implementation, ocean pipes prevent energy from escaping to space, increasing the amount of energy stored in Earth's climate system despite reductions in surface temperature. As a consequence, our results indicate that an abrupt termination of ocean pipes could cause dramatic increases in surface temperatures beyond that which would have been obtained had ocean pipes not been implemented.

  1. 25 CFR 213.42 - Operations after removal of restrictions from leased lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of... heretofore approved and leases for other minerals now or hereafter in force on land from all of...

  2. Radiometric calibration and stability of the Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Edward; Ong, Lawrence; Morfitt, Ron A.; Haque, Md. O.

    2015-09-01

    Landsat-8 and its two Earth imaging sensors, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) have been operating on-orbit for 2 1/2 years. The OLI radiometric calibration, which is monitored using on-board lamps, on-board solar diffusers, the moon and vicarious calibration techniques has been stable to within 1% over this period of time. The Coastal Aerosol band, band 1, shows the largest change at about 1% over the period; all other bands have shown no significant trend. OLI bands 1- 4 show small discontinuities in response (+0.1% to 0.2%) beginning about 7 months after launch and continuing for about 1 month associated with a power cycling of the instrument, though the origin of the recovery is unclear. To date these small changes have not been compensated for, but this will change with a reprocessing campaign that is currently scheduled for Fall 2015. The calibration parameter files (each typically covering a 3 month period) will be updated for these observed gain changes. A fitted response to an adjusted average of the lamps, solar and lunar results will represent the trend, sampled at the rate of one value per CPF.

  3. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morfitt, Ron; Barsi, Julia A.; Levy, Raviv; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad; Ong, Lawrence; Scaramuzza, Pat; Vanderwerff, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) radiometric performance onboard Landsat-8 have been met or exceeded. The calibration activities that occurred prior to launch provided calibration parameters that enabled ground processing to produce imagery that met most requirements when data were transmitted to the ground. Since launch, calibration updates have improved the image quality even more, so that all requirements are met. These updates range from detector gain coefficients to reduce striping and banding to alignment parameters to improve the geometric accuracy. This paper concentrates on the on-orbit radiometric performance of the OLI, excepting the radiometric calibration performance. Topics discussed in this paper include: signal-to-noise ratios that are an order of magnitude higher than previous Landsat missions; radiometric uniformity that shows little residual banding and striping, and continues to improve; a dynamic range that limits saturation to extremely high radiance levels; extremely stable detectors; slight nonlinearity that is corrected in ground processing; detectors that are stable and 100% operable; and few image artifacts.

  4. Assessing the Uncertainty of Land Surface Fluxes Derived from Operational Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David

    2009-01-01

    Operational numerical weather prediction systems assimilate tremendous amounts of observations to produce global analyses of the atmospheric states. Since the systems include significant contributions from the model components, physical fields, such as the turbulent heat fluxes, can also be derived. However, the physical fields are indirectly constrained by the data assimilation, and so subject to uncertainty in the model parameterizations. Recently, 10 international operational analyses have been collected and reprocessed through the Coordinated Enhanced. Observing Period (CEOP). Comparisons against independent observations (global precipitation and outgoing longwave radiation) show that while there is significant range of the individual analyses, the ensemble of analyses provide data closest the observations. Here, we evaluate the collection of land surface turbulent heat fluxes. The data are available for Oct 2002 - Dec 2004, at 6 hourly, daily and monthly intervals. An ensemble mean and its variance have been computed. we will analyze the range of analysis results at daily and seasonal time scales, and where possible compare with existing observations.

  5. Wind tunnel results of advanced high speed propellers in the takeoff, climb, and landing operating regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers were completed. The 62.2 cm diameter adjustable pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds in the 10 by 10 ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise design point operating condition of 0.80 Mach number, 10.668 km S.A. altitude, 243.8 m/s tip speed and a high power loading of 301 kW sq m. No adverse or unusual low speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propellers. The 45 deg swept propeller efficiency exceeded the straight blade efficiency by 4 to 5 percent. Typical net efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propeller at a Mach 0.20 takeoff condition were 50.2 and 54.9 percent respectively. At a Mach 0.34 climb condition, the efficiencies were 53.7 and 59.1 percent. Reverse thrust data indicates that these propellers are capable of producing more reverse thrust at Mach 0.20 than a high bypass turbofan engine at Mach 0.20.

  6. Wind tunnel results of advanced high speed propellers in the takeoff, climb and landing operating regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers were completed. The 62.2 cm diameter adjustable pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds in the 10 by 10 ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise design point operating condition of 0.80 Mach number, 10.668 km S.A. altitude, 243.8 m/s tip speed and a high power loading of 301 kW sq m. No adverse or unusual low speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propellers. The 45 deg swept propeller efficiency exceeded the straight blade efficiency by 4 to 5%. Typical net efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propeller at a Mach 0.20 takeoff condition were 50.2 and 54.9% respectively. At a Mach 0.34 climb condition, the efficiencies were 53.7 and 59.1%. Reverse thrust data indicates that these propellers are capable of producing more reverse thrust at Mach 0.20 than a high bypass turbofan engine at Mach 0.20.

  7. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H.; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A.

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  8. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures. PMID:26920156

  9. Human health risk assessment of triclosan in land-applied biosolids.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim; Mayfield, David B; Tabony, Jade A; Capdevielle, Marie; Slezak, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]-phenol) is an antimicrobial agent found in a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products. Numerous studies have examined the occurrence and environmental fate of triclosan in wastewater, biosolids, biosolids-amended soils, and plants and organisms exposed to biosolid-amended soils. Triclosan has a propensity to adhere to organic carbon in biosolids and biosolid-amended soils. Land application of biosolids containing triclosan has the potential to contribute to multiple direct and indirect human health exposure pathways. To estimate exposures and human health risks from biosolid-borne triclosan, a risk assessment was conducted in general accordance with the methodology incorporated into the US Environmental Protection Agency's Part 503 biosolids rule. Human health exposures to biosolid-borne triclosan were estimated on the basis of published empirical data or modeled using upper-end environmental partitioning estimates. Similarly, a range of published triclosan human health toxicity values was evaluated. Margins of safety were estimated for 10 direct and indirect exposure pathways, both individually and combined. The present risk assessment found large margins of safety (>1000 to >100 000) for potential exposures to all pathways, even under the most conservative exposure and toxicity assumptions considered. The human health exposures and risks from biosolid-borne triclosan are concluded to be de minimis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2358-2367. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27552397

  10. Risk-Constrained Dynamic Programming for Optimal Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    A chance-constrained dynamic programming algorithm was developed that is capable of making optimal sequential decisions within a user-specified risk bound. This work handles stochastic uncertainties over multiple stages in the CEMAT (Combined EDL-Mobility Analyses Tool) framework. It was demonstrated by a simulation of Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL) using real landscape data obtained from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Although standard dynamic programming (DP) provides a general framework for optimal sequential decisionmaking under uncertainty, it typically achieves risk aversion by imposing an arbitrary penalty on failure states. Such a penalty-based approach cannot explicitly bound the probability of mission failure. A key idea behind the new approach is called risk allocation, which decomposes a joint chance constraint into a set of individual chance constraints and distributes risk over them. The joint chance constraint was reformulated into a constraint on an expectation over a sum of an indicator function, which can be incorporated into the cost function by dualizing the optimization problem. As a result, the chance-constraint optimization problem can be turned into an unconstrained optimization over a Lagrangian, which can be solved efficiently using a standard DP approach.

  11. Managing Toxicological Risks: The Legacy of Shuttle Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Space toxicology greatly matured as a result of research and operations associated with the Shuttle. Materials offgassing had been a manageable concern since the Apollo days, but we learned to pay careful attention to compounds that could escape containment, to combustion events, to toxic propellants, to overuse of utility compounds, and to microbial and human metabolites. We also learned that flying real-time hardware to monitor air pollutants was a pathway with unanticipated speed bumps. Each new orbiter was tested for any excess offgassing products that could pollute the air during flight. In the late 1990s toxicologists and safety experts developed a 5-level toxicity rating system to guide containment of toxic compounds. This system is now in use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Several combustion events during Shuttle Mir and also during Shuttle free-flight impelled toxicologists to identify hardware capable of monitoring toxic products; however, rapid adaptation of the hardware for the unique conditions of spaceflight caused unexpected missteps. Current and planned combustion analyzers would be useful to commercial partners that wish to manage the risk of health effects from thermal events. Propellants received special attention during the Shuttle program because of the possibility of bringing them into the habitable volume on extravehicular activity suits. Monitors for the airlocks were developed to mitigate this risk. Utility materials, such as lubricants, posed limited toxicological problems because water was not recovered. One clearly documented case of microbial metabolites polluting the Shuttle atmosphere was noted, and this has implications for commercial flights and control of microbes. Finally, carbon dioxide, the major human metabolite, episodically presented air quality problems aboard Shuttle, especially when nominal air flows were obstructed. Commercial vehicles must maintain robust air circulation given the anticipated high density

  12. 78 FR 32255 - HHS-Operated Risk Adjustment Data Validation Stakeholder Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...This notice announces a public meeting on the Affordable Care Act HHS-operated risk adjustment data validation process. The purpose of this public meeting is to provide opportunity to discuss the HHS risk adjustment data validation process that will be conducted when HHS operates the risk adjustment program on behalf of a state under the Affordable Care Act. The meeting will provide......

  13. A GIS based application for seismic risk operational response support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgaris, N.; Vassilakis, E.; Parcharidis, I.; Soukis, K.; Alexopoulos, J.

    2003-04-01

    Information flow and management represents one of the main tasks of seismic risk mitigation. The recent experience, following a number of disastrous earthquakes in Greece during the last decade, underlined the necessity of a flexible system in order to support earthquake disaster response organizations. Due to the large volume of spatial data required, a GIS platform represented the most efficient choice for the development of such an application. A number of basic thematic layers, such as topography, administrative, tectonic and seismological data, are available and can processed by the user through a specially designed menu driven system in order to obtain a variety of reports. Following the declaration of a damaging earthquake, location data are immediately transmitted by the seismological agencies to the primary earthquake response organization (EPPO) and administrative data are selected and sorted according to preliminary estimated damage zones. Thus, the user is able to access all the relevant contact and communication data in order to obtain and record predefined damage report information. These data can be stored, updated and reviewed within the system or forwarded as reports to the corresponding agencies for further action. At present the system is in operation at the Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization (EPPO) in Greece, while further enhancements are also planned according to user requirements.

  14. Risk-Aware Planetary Rover Operation: Autonomous Terrain Classification and Path Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Fuchs, Thoams J.; Steffy, Amanda; Maimone, Mark; Yen, Jeng

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and avoiding terrain hazards (e.g., soft soil and pointy embedded rocks) are crucial for the safety of planetary rovers. This paper presents a newly developed groundbased Mars rover operation tool that mitigates risks from terrain by automatically identifying hazards on the terrain, evaluating their risks, and suggesting operators safe paths options that avoids potential risks while achieving specified goals. The tool will bring benefits to rover operations by reducing operation cost, by reducing cognitive load of rover operators, by preventing human errors, and most importantly, by significantly reducing the risk of the loss of rovers.

  15. A New Era in Geodesy and Cartography: Implications for Landing Site Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, T. C.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) global dataset has ushered in a new era for Mars local and global geodesy and cartography. These data include the global digital terrain model (Digital Terrain Model (DTM) radii), the global digital elevation model (Digital Elevation Model (DEM) elevation with respect to the geoid), and the higher spatial resolution individual MOLA ground tracks. Currently there are about 500,000,000 MOLA points and this number continues to grow as MOLA continues successful operations in orbit about Mars, the combined processing of radiometric X-band Doppler and ranging tracking of MGS together with millions of MOLA orbital crossover points has produced global geodetic and cartographic control having a spatial (latitude/longitude) accuracy of a few meters and a topographic accuracy of less than 1 meter. This means that the position of an individual MOLA point with respect to the center-of-mass of Mars is know to an absolute accuracy of a few meters. The positional accuracy of this point in inertial space over time is controlled by the spin rate uncertainty of Mars which is less than 1 km over 10 years that will be improved significantly with the next landed mission.

  16. On-orbit performance of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micijevic, Esad; Vanderwerff, Kelly; Scaramuzza, Pat; Morfitt, Ron A.; Barsi, Julia A.; Levy, Raviv

    2014-10-01

    The Landsat 8 satellite was launched on February 11, 2013, to systematically collect multispectral images for detection and quantitative analysis of changes on the Earth's surface. The collected data are stored at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and continue the longest archive of medium resolution Earth images. There are two imaging instruments onboard the satellite: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS). This paper summarizes radiometric performance of the OLI including the bias stability, the system noise, saturation and other artifacts observed in its data during the first 1.5 years on orbit. Detector noise levels remain low and Signal-To-Noise Ratio high, largely exceeding the requirements. Impulse noise and saturation are present in imagery, but have negligible effect on Landsat 8 products. Oversaturation happens occasionally, but the affected detectors quickly restore their nominal responsivity. Overall, the OLI performs very well on orbit and provides high quality products to the user community.

  17. Landsat 8 operational land imager on-orbit geometric calibration and performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, James C.; Choate, Michael J.; Lee, Kenton

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat 8 spacecraft was launched on 11 February 2013 carrying the Operational Land Imager (OLI) payload for moderate resolution imaging in the visible, near infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral bands. During the 90-day commissioning period following launch, several on-orbit geometric calibration activities were performed to refine the prelaunch calibration parameters. The results of these calibration activities were subsequently used to measure geometric performance characteristics in order to verify the OLI geometric requirements. Three types of geometric calibrations were performed including: (1) updating the OLI-to-spacecraft alignment knowledge; (2) refining the alignment of the sub-images from the multiple OLI sensor chips; and (3) refining the alignment of the OLI spectral bands. The aspects of geometric performance that were measured and verified included: (1) geolocation accuracy with terrain correction, but without ground control (L1Gt); (2) Level 1 product accuracy with terrain correction and ground control (L1T); (3) band-to-band registration accuracy; and (4) multi-temporal image-to-image registration accuracy. Using the results of the on-orbit calibration update, all aspects of geometric performance were shown to meet or exceed system requirements.

  18. Derivation and evaluation of land surface temperature from the geostationary operational environmental satellite series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have been continuously monitoring the earth surface since 1970, providing valuable and intensive data from a very broad range of wavelengths, day and night. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is currently operating GOES-15 and GOES-13. The design of the GOES series is now heading to the 4 th generation. GOES-R, as a representative of the new generation of the GOES series, is scheduled to be launched in 2015 with higher spatial and temporal resolution images and full-time soundings. These frequent observations provided by GOES Image make them attractive for deriving information on the diurnal land surface temperature (LST) cycle and diurnal temperature range (DTR). These parameters are of great value for research on the Earth's diurnal variability and climate change. Accurate derivation of satellite-based LSTs from thermal infrared data has long been an interesting and challenging research area. To better support the research on climate change, the generation of consistent GOES LST products for both GOES-East and GOES-West from operational dataset as well as historical archive is in great demand. The derivation of GOES LST products and the evaluation of proposed retrieval methods are two major objectives of this study. Literature relevant to satellite-based LST retrieval techniques was reviewed. Specifically, the evolution of two LST algorithm families and LST retrieval methods for geostationary satellites were summarized in this dissertation. Literature relevant to the evaluation of satellite-based LSTs was also reviewed. All the existing methods are a valuable reference to develop the GOES LST product. The primary objective of this dissertation is the development of models for deriving consistent GOES LSTs with high spatial and high temporal coverage. Proper LST retrieval algorithms were studied

  19. Evaluating soil contamination risk impact on land vulnerability and climate change in east Azerbaijan, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazi, Farzin; Anaya-Romero, Maria; de La Rosa, Diego

    2010-05-01

    spring, while will increase 32 and 52 percent in summer and autumn. As most of the arable land that is suitable for cultivation in the study area is already in use, chemical fertilizers application will widely obvious to increase crop production. According to 88 study points identified by grid survey method (44 consecutively profiles and augers), Typic Calcixerepts are the most dominant subgroups in the studied area. Altitude varies from 1300 to 1600m with a mean of about 1450m, and slope gradients vary from flat to more than 10%. The attainable contamination risk for two hypothetical scenarios was estimated for the natural conditions of selected soils, under current Ahar climate conditions and calculated amount according to IPCC report by application of the Pantanal model. Results showed that 32%, 25%, 4% and 27% of total studied area were classified as V1, V2, V3, and V4 vulnerable land due to phosphorous while it will not be changed by climate change. Also, attainable vulnerability classes because of heavy metals will be constant too, but the whole area subdivided as: V1 and V3 in a total of 57% and 31%, respectively. Nitrate is the major nitrogen derived pollutant and the main source of groundwater contamination because of its high mobility. According to the obtained results, nitrogen risk impact on land vulnerability will decrease by climate change while in the future scenario more than 55% of total area will classify as none vulnerable area. Assessing pesticide and climate change impact presents those four vulnerable classes: V1, V2, V3, and V4 in a total of 1%, 2%, 28% and 57% studied are while they will change to 1%, 2%, 49%, and 36%. In other words, 19% of total area will be improved by climate change.

  20. Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) waste is a cost effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO waste to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluat...

  1. The urgent need for risk assessment on the antibiotic resistance spread via sewage sludge land application.

    PubMed

    Bondarczuk, Kinga; Markowicz, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-02-01

    Sewage sludge is an ever-increasing by-product of the wastewater treatment process frequently used as a soil fertiliser. To control its quality and prevent any possible hazardous impact of fertilisation, some mandatory limits of heavy metal content have been established by the European Commission (Sewage Sludge Directive). However, since the implementation of the limits, new emerging contaminants have been reported worldwide. Regardless of the wastewater treatment process, sewage sludge contains antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes, which can be released into the environment through its land application. Such a practice may even boost the dissemination and further development of antibiotic resistance phenomenon - already a global problem challenging modern medicine. Due to the growing pharmaceutical pollution in the environment, the time is ripe to assess the risk for the human and environmental health of sewage sludge land application in the context of antibiotic resistance spread. In this review we present the current knowledge in the field and we emphasise the necessity for more studies. PMID:26646979

  2. Sentinel-2 Optical High Resolution Mission for GMES Land Operational Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isola, Claudia; Drusch, Matthias; Gascon, Ferran; Martimort, Philippe; Del Bello, Umberto; Spoto, Francois; Sy, Omas; Laberinti, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Long-term availability of Earth observation-based services and continuity of consistent high quality data is - apart from meteorological services - not guaranteed in Europe. In order to contribute to improve its response to ever growing challenges of global safety and climate change, Europe requires an independent sustained and reliable Earth observation system. The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) is a European programme for the implementation of a European capacity to provide independent and permanent access to reliable Earth observation data. To ensure the operational provision of appropriate Earth-observation data the GMES Space Component (GSC) includes a series of five space missions called 'Sentinels', which are being developed by ESA specifically for GMES. The European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a twin satellites configuration deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit and designed to offer a unique combination of systematic global coverage, high revisit (five days at equator with two satellites) and high spatial resolution imagery (10/20/60m). The Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) features 13 spectral bands, going from visible to short wave infrared domains. The instrument is designed to provide in orbit calibration, excellent radiometric and geometric performance, and with a capability to support accurate image geo-location and co-registration. The Sentinel-2 mission is more particularly tailored to the monitoring of land terrains, including vegetation and urban areas. Sentinel-2 will ensure data continuity with the SPOT and Landsat multi-spectral sensors, while accounting for future service evolution. The lifetime of each Sentinel-2 spacecraft is specified as 7 years and propellant is sized for 12 years, including provision for de-orbiting manoeuvres at

  3. Wildfire Risk Mapping over the State of Mississippi: Land Surface Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, William H.; Mostovoy, Georgy; Anantharaj, Valentine G; Jolly, W. Matt

    2012-01-01

    Three fire risk indexes based on soil moisture estimates were applied to simulate wildfire probability over the southern part of Mississippi using the logistic regression approach. The fire indexes were retrieved from: (1) accumulated difference between daily precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (P-E); (2) top 10 cm soil moisture content simulated by the Mosaic land surface model; and (3) the Keetch-Byram drought index (KBDI). The P-E, KBDI, and soil moisture based indexes were estimated from gridded atmospheric and Mosaic-simulated soil moisture data available from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2). Normalized deviations of these indexes from the 31-year mean (1980-2010) were fitted into the logistic regression model describing probability of wildfires occurrence as a function of the fire index. It was assumed that such normalization provides more robust and adequate description of temporal dynamics of soil moisture anomalies than the original (not normalized) set of indexes. The logistic model parameters were evaluated for 0.25 x0.25 latitude/longitude cells and for probability representing at least one fire event occurred during 5 consecutive days. A 23-year (1986-2008) forest fires record was used. Two periods were selected and examined (January mid June and mid September December). The application of the logistic model provides an overall good agreement between empirical/observed and model-fitted fire probabilities over the study area during both seasons. The fire risk indexes based on the top 10 cm soil moisture and KBDI have the largest impact on the wildfire odds (increasing it by almost 2 times in response to each unit change of the corresponding fire risk index during January mid June period and by nearly 1.5 times during mid September-December) observed over 0.25 x0.25 cells located along the state of Mississippi Coast line. This result suggests a rather strong control of fire risk indexes on fire occurrence probability

  4. Operational Risk Measurement of Chinese Commercial Banks Based on Extreme Value Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiashan; Li, Yong; Ji, Feng; Peng, Cheng

    The financial institutions and supervision institutions have all agreed on strengthening the measurement and management of operational risks. This paper attempts to build a model on the loss of operational risks basing on Peak Over Threshold model, emphasizing on weighted least square, which improved Hill’s estimation method, while discussing the situation of small sample, and fix the sample threshold more objectively basing on the media-published data of primary banks loss on operational risk from 1994 to 2007.

  5. 43 CFR 2916.1-1 - Commencement of operations; stocking lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur... good faith, and shall thereafter develop the fur-farming enterprise on the leased area with reasonable diligence. The lessee shall stock the leased area with the minimum of fur-bearing animals required by...

  6. Using Trained Pouched Rats to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of land,…

  7. Using Trained Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus) to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of land,…

  8. The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and the associated potential ecological risks in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiansheng; Song, Jing; Li, Weifeng; Zheng, Maokun

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural land and their ecological risks are key issues in soil security studies. This study investigated the concentrations of six heavy metals--copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) in Shenzhen's agricultural lands and examined the potential hazards and possible sources of these metals. Eighty-two samples from agricultural topsoil were collected. Potential ecological risk index was used to calculate the potential risk of heavy metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore pollution sources of the metals. Finally, Kriging was used to predict the spatial distribution of the metals' potential ecological risks. The concentrations of the heavy metals were higher than their background values. Most of them presented little potential ecological risk, except for the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). Four districts (Longgang, Longhua, Pingshan, and Dapeng) exhibited some degree of potential risk, which tended to have more industries and road networks. Three major sources of heavy metals included geochemical processes, industrial pollutants, and traffic pollution. The heavy metal Cd was the main contributor to the pollution in agricultural land during the study period. It also poses the potential hazard for the future. High potential risk is closely related to industrial pollution and transportation. Since the 1980s, the sources of heavy metals have evolved from parent rock weathering, erosion, degradation of organics, and mineralization to human disturbances resulting in chemical changes in the soil. PMID:26370814

  9. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PSA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1992-11-01

    Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur, then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, to minimize the risk from components being unavailable, becomes difficult, because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. Controlling plant configuration from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser controls in areas unimportant to risk. Risk-based configuration control approaches can be used to replace parts of nuclear power plant Technical Specifications. With the advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology, such approaches to improve Technical Specifications and operational safety are feasible. In this paper, we present an analysis of configuration risks, and a framework for risk-based configuration control to achieve the desired control of risk-significant configurations during plant operation.

  10. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PSA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S. ); Vesely, W.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur, then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, to minimize the risk from components being unavailable, becomes difficult, because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. Controlling plant configuration from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser controls in areas unimportant to risk. Risk-based configuration control approaches can be used to replace parts of nuclear power plant Technical Specifications. With the advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology, such approaches to improve Technical Specifications and operational safety are feasible. In this paper, we present an analysis of configuration risks, and a framework for risk-based configuration control to achieve the desired control of risk-significant configurations during plant operation.

  11. Sentinel-2 Optical High Resolution Mission for GMES Land Operational Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drusch, M.; Gascon, F.; Martimort, P.; Spoto, F.

    2009-12-01

    In the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a twin satellites configuration deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit and designed to offer a unique combination of systematic global coverage, high revisit (five days at equator with two satellites) and high spatial resolution imagery (10/20/60m). The Multispectral instrument features 13 spectral bands, going from visible to short wave infrared domains. The instrument is designed to provide in orbit calibration, excellent radiometric and geometric performance, and with a capability to support accurate image geolocation and co-registration. The Sentinel-2 mission is more particularly tailored to the monitoring of land terrains, including vegetation and urban areas. Sentinel-2 will ensure data continuity with the SPOT and Landsat multi-spectral sensors, while accounting for future service evolution. The lifetime of each Sentinel-2 spacecraft is specified as 7 years and propellant is sized for 12 years, including provision for de-orbiting manoeuvres at end-of-life. The satellite will be three-axis stabilized with an AOCS based on high-rate multi-head star trackers, mounted on the instrument structure for better pointing accuracy and stability, as well as a laser gyroscope and a dual-frequency GNSS receiver. The Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) is based on the pushbroom concept. It features a Three Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) telescope with a pupil diameter of about 150 mm, and achieves a very good imaging quality all across its wide Field of View (290 km swath width, significantly enlarged with respect to Landsat and SPOT). The telescope structure and the mirrors are made of silicon carbide for minimizing thermo-elastic deformations. The visible and

  12. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and land surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques da Silva, J. R.; Damásio, C. V.; Sousa, A. M. O.; Bugalho, L.; Pessanha, L.; Quaresma, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been available, remote sensing technology can offer better monitoring at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, thereby, improving pest management results and reducing costs. This article uses ground temperature, or land surface temperature (LST), data distributed by EUMETSAT/LSASAF (with a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km (nadir resolution) and a revisiting time of 15 min) to generate one of the most commonly used parameters in pest modeling and monitoring: "thermal integral over air temperature (accumulated degree-days)". The results show a clear association between the accumulated LST values over a threshold and the accumulated values computed from meteorological stations over the same threshold (specific to a particular tomato pest). The results are very promising and enable the production of risk maps for agricultural pests with a degree of spatial and temporal detail that is difficult to achieve using in-situ meteorological stations.

  13. Integrating land cover and terrain characteristics to explain plague risks in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania: a geospatial approach.

    PubMed

    Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Mulungu, Loth S; Kihupi, Nganga I; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Literature suggests that higher resolution remote sensing data integrated in Geographic Information System (GIS) can provide greater possibility to refine the analysis of land cover and terrain characteristics for explanation of abundance and distribution of plague hosts and vectors and hence of health risk hazards to humans. These technologies are not widely used in East Africa for studies on diseases including plague. The objective of this study was to refine the analysis of single and combined land cover and terrain characteristics in order to gain an insight into localized plague infection risks in the West Usambara Mountains in north-eastern Tanzania. The study used a geospatial approach to assess the influence of land cover and terrain factors on the abundance and spatial distribution of plague hosts (small mammals) and plague vectors (fleas). It considered different levels of scale and resolution. Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) statistical method was used to clarify the relationships between land cover and terrain variables with small mammals and fleas. Results indicate that elevation positively influenced the presence of small mammals. The presence of fleas was clearly influenced by land management features such as miraba. Medium to high resolution remotely sensed data integrated in a GIS have been found to be quite useful in this type of analysis. These findings contribute to efforts on plague surveillance and awareness creation among communities on the probable risks associated with various landscape factors during epidemics. PMID:26867280

  14. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of...: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound operation, as...

  15. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of...: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound operation, as...

  16. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... setting— (a) In non-icing conditions, with a climb speed of VREF determined in accordance with § 25.125(b)(2)(i); and (b) In icing conditions with the landing ice accretion defined in appendix C, and with...

  17. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... setting— (a) In non-icing conditions, with a climb speed of VREF determined in accordance with § 25.125(b)(2)(i); and (b) In icing conditions with the landing ice accretion defined in appendix C, and with...

  18. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... setting— (a) In non-icing conditions, with a climb speed of VREF determined in accordance with § 25.125(b)(2)(i); and (b) In icing conditions with the landing ice accretion defined in appendix C, and with...

  19. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... setting— (a) In non-icing conditions, with a climb speed of VREF determined in accordance with § 25.125(b)(2)(i); and (b) In icing conditions with the landing ice accretion defined in appendix C, and with...

  20. 14 CFR 25.119 - Landing climb: All-engines-operating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... setting— (a) In non-icing conditions, with a climb speed of VREF determined in accordance with § 25.125(b)(2)(i); and (b) In icing conditions with the landing ice accretion defined in appendix C, and with...

  1. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vertical controls as checked against USGS or NGS record files. (8) A buffer zone of land must be maintained between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer...

  2. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vertical controls as checked against USGS or NGS record files. (8) A buffer zone of land must be maintained between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer...

  3. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vertical controls as checked against USGS or NGS record files. (8) A buffer zone of land must be maintained between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer...

  4. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vertical controls as checked against USGS or NGS record files. (8) A buffer zone of land must be maintained between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer...

  5. Simulating future climate and land-use impacts on at-risk species in parks and protected areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alpine and sagebrush ecosystems in the mountain west are under threat from climate change and development. The wolverine, fisher, greater sage-grouse,and pygmy rabbit are iconic at-risk species in the region. We explore the impacts of future climate and land-use change on these s...

  6. Measurement of the Errors of Service Altimeter Installations During Landing-Approach and Take-Off Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William; Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.; Carpenter, Gene T.

    1960-01-01

    The overall errors of the service altimeter installations of a variety of civil transport, military, and general-aviation airplanes have been experimentally determined during normal landing-approach and take-off operations. The average height above the runway at which the data were obtained was about 280 feet for the landings and about 440 feet for the take-offs. An analysis of the data obtained from 196 airplanes during 415 landing approaches and from 70 airplanes during 152 take-offs showed that: 1. The overall error of the altimeter installations in the landing- approach condition had a probable value (50 percent probability) of +/- 36 feet and a maximum probable value (99.7 percent probability) of +/- 159 feet with a bias of +10 feet. 2. The overall error in the take-off condition had a probable value of +/- 47 feet and a maximum probable value of +/- 207 feet with a bias of -33 feet. 3. The overall errors of the military airplanes were generally larger than those of the civil transports in both the landing-approach and take-off conditions. In the landing-approach condition the probable error and the maximum probable error of the military airplanes were +/- 43 and +/- 189 feet, respectively, with a bias of +15 feet, whereas those for the civil transports were +/- 22 and +/- 96 feet, respectively, with a bias of +1 foot. 4. The bias values of the error distributions (+10 feet for the landings and -33 feet for the take-offs) appear to represent a measure of the hysteresis characteristics (after effect and recovery) and friction of the instrument and the pressure lag of the tubing-instrument system.

  7. 12 CFR 3.161 - Qualification requirements for incorporation of operational risk mitigants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualification requirements for incorporation of... qualifying operational risk mitigants if: (1) The national bank's or Federal savings association's.... Qualifying operational risk mitigants are: (1) Insurance that: (i) Is provided by an unaffiliated...

  8. Rebaselining seismic risks for resumption of Building 707 plutonium operations at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, F. Jr.; Foppe, T.; Stahlnecker, E.

    1993-08-01

    Natural phenomena risks have been assessed for plutonium handling facilities at the Rocky Flats Plant, based on numerous studies performed for the Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Project. The risk assessment was originally utilized in the facilities Final Safety Analysis Reports and in subsequent risk management decisions. Plutonium production operations were curtailed in 1989 in order for a new operating contractor to implement safety improvements. Since natural phenomena events dominated risks to the public, a re-assessment of these events were undertaken for resumption of plutonium operations.

  9. Evolution and Implementation of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri K.; Frigm, Ryan C.; Duncan, Matthew G.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Reacting to potential on-orbit collision risk in an operational environment requires timely and accurate communication and exchange of data, information, and analysis to ensure informed decision-making for safety of flight and responsible use of the shared space environment. To accomplish this mission, it is imperative that all stakeholders effectively manage resources: devoting necessary and potentially intensive resource commitment to responding to high-risk conjunction events and preventing unnecessary expenditure of resources on events of low collision risk. After 10 years of operational experience, the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) is modifying its Concept of Operations (CONOPS) to ensure this alignment of collision risk and resource management. This evolution manifests itself in the approach to characterizing, reporting, and refining of collision risk. Implementation of this updated CONOPS is expected to have a demonstrated improvement on the efficacy of JSpOC, CARA, and owner/operator resources.

  10. 45 CFR 153.630 - Data validation requirements when HHS operates risk adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data validation requirements when HHS operates risk adjustment. 153.630 Section 153.630 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS STANDARDS RELATED TO REINSURANCE, RISK CORRIDORS, AND RISK ADJUSTMENT UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT...

  11. 12 CFR 3.141 - Operational criteria for recognizing the transfer of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transfer of risk. 3.141 Section 3.141 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for Securitization Exposures § 3.141 Operational criteria for recognizing...

  12. Ground noise measurements during landing, take-off, and flyby operations of a four-engine turbopropeller STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Henderson, H. R.; Maglieri, D. J.

    1971-01-01

    Noise measurements were obtained for a four-engine turbopropeller STOL airplane during a Federal Aviation Administration flight evaluation program at the National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center. These noise measurements involved landing-approach, takeoff-climbout, and flyby operations of the airplane. A total of 13 measuring positions were used to define the noise characteristics around a simulated STOL port. The results are presented in the form of both physical and subjective measurements. An appendix is included to present tabulated values of various subjective reaction units which may be significant for the planning and operation of STOL ports. The main source of noise produced by this vehicle was found to be the propeller, and noise levels decrease generally in accordance with the inverse-distance law for distances up to about 457 meters. For similar slant ranges, somewhat lower noise levels were experienced during flyby than during takeoff or landing.

  13. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  14. Improving risk models for avian influenza: the role of intensive poultry farming and flooded land during the 2004 Thailand epidemic.

    PubMed

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide intervention. PMID:23185352

  15. Improving Risk Models for Avian Influenza: The Role of Intensive Poultry Farming and Flooded Land during the 2004 Thailand Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M.; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide intervention. PMID:23185352

  16. A Successful Example of Transitioning Research to NCEP Operations: The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ek, M. B.; Xia, Y.; Wei, H.; Meng, J.; Dong, J.; Mitchell, K.; Wood, E. F.; Sheffield, J.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Mocko, D. M.; Cosgrove, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Mo, K. C.; Ebisuzaki, W.; Rosencrans, M.; Luo, L.; Luebehusen, E.

    2014-12-01

    The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is a long-term, multi-institutional project initiated to provide improved land surface initial conditions for weather and climate models, and subsequently expanded to support multiple applications related to land surface hydrology. Begun as a research project in January 2000, it became quasi-operational in September 2008, and operational at NCEP in August 2014. The NLDAS development included Phase 1 to establish the NLDAS configuration, including collection of soil and vegetation data, selection of land-surface models (LSMs), generation of surface forcing data sets, and model runs for a 3-year period, with evaluation/validation of model output. Phase 2 involved 30-year (1979-2008) retrospective and near real-time runs (2009-present) of four improved LSMs and surface forcing to generate energy and water fluxes, and state variables from those LSMs. The anomalies and percentiles from the 30-year climatologies for evapotranspiration, soil moisture, runoff/streamflow, and snow water equivalent have been comprehensively evaluated against observations, and are used to support US operational drought monitoring and prediction tasks such as the U.S. Drought Monitor, NCEP Climate Prediction Center drought information, and activities of the National Integrated Drought Information System. More than 34 years of surface forcing and model output data have been distributed by the NCEP/EMC NLDAS website (www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/mmb/nldas), the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC, daac.gsfc.nasa.gov), the UCAR/NCAR Climate Data Guide (climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data), and the USGS Geo Portal (cida.usgs.gov/gdp). The operational implementation provides more reliable and timely access to NLDAS products. This presentation summarizes experiences of NLDAS, status and format of current NLDAS products, and the future plans for NLDAS.

  17. Fine scale spatial urban land cover factors associated with adult mosquito abundance and risk in Tucson, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Landau, Katheryn I; van Leeuwen, Willem J D

    2012-12-01

    It is currently unclear what role microhabitat land cover plays in determining the seasonal spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, disease vectors of dengue and West Nile Virus, respectively, in Tucson, AZ. We compared mosquito abundance to sixteen land cover variables derived from 2010 NAIP multispectral data and 2008 LiDAR height data. Mosquitoes were trapped with 30-9 traps from May to October of 2010 and 2011. Variables were extracted for five buffer zones (10-50 m radii at 10 m intervals) around trapping sites. Stepwise regression was performed to determine the best scale for observation and the influential land cover variables. The 30 m radius buffer was determined to be the best for observing the land cover-mosquito abundance relationship. Ae. aegypti presence was positively associated with structure and medium height trees and negatively associated with bare earth; Cx. quinquefasciatus presence was positively associated with pavement and medium height trees and negatively associated with shrubs. These findings emphasize vegetation, impervious surfaces, and soil influences on mosquito presence in an urban setting. Lastly, the land cover-mosquito abundance relationships were used to produce risk maps of seasonal presence that highlight high risk areas in Tucson, which may be useful for focusing mosquito control program actions. PMID:23181866

  18. Land application of sewage sludge (biosolids) in Australia: risks to the environment and food crops.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, D L; Penney, N; McLaughlin, M J; Rigby, H; Schwarz, K

    2010-01-01

    Australia is a large exporter of agricultural products, with producers responsible for a range of quality assurance programs to ensure that food crops are free from various contaminants of detriment to human health. Large volumes of treated sewage sludge (biosolids), although low by world standards, are increasingly being recycled to land, primarily to replace plant nutrients and to improve soil properties; they are used in agriculture, forestry, and composted. The Australian National Biosolids Research Program (NBRP) has linked researchers to a collective goal to investigate nutrients and benchmark safe concentrations of metals nationally using a common methodology, with various other research programs conducted in a number of states specific to regional problems and priorities. The use of biosolids in Australia is strictly regulated by state guidelines, some of which are under review following recent research outcomes. Communication and research between the water industry, regulators and researchers specific to the regulation of biosolids is further enhanced by the Australian and New Zealand Biosolids Partnership (ANZBP). This paper summarises the major issues and constraints related to biosolids use in Australia using specific case examples from Western Australia, a member of the Australian NBRP, and highlights several research projects conducted over the last decade to ensure that biosolids are used beneficially and safely in the environment. Attention is given to research relating to plant nutrient uptake, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus (including that of reduced phosphorus uptake in alum sludge-amended soil); the risk of heavy metal uptake by plants, specifically cadmium, copper and zinc; the risk of pathogen contamination in soil and grain products; change to soil pH (particularly following lime-amended biosolids); and the monitoring of faecal contamination by biosolids in waterbodies using DNA techniques. Examples of products that are currently

  19. Possible land management uses of common cypress to reduce wildfire initiation risk: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Della Rocca, G; Hernando, C; Madrigal, J; Danti, R; Moya, J; Guijarro, M; Pecchioli, A; Moya, B

    2015-08-15

    Accurate determination of flammability is required in order to improve knowledge about vegetation fire risk. Study of the flammability of different plant species is essential for the Mediterranean area, where most ecosystems are adapted to natural fire but vulnerable to recurrent human-induced fires, which are the main cause of forest degradation. However, the methods used to evaluate vegetation flammability have not yet been standardized. Cupressus sempervirens is a native or naturalized forest tree species in the Mediterranean area that is able to tolerate prolonged drought and high temperatures. The aim of this study was to characterize the flammability of C. sempervirens var. horizontalis at particle level by using different bench-scale calorimetry techniques (mass loss calorimeter, epiradiator and oxygen bomb) to determine the main flammability descriptors (ignitability, sustainability, combustibility and consumability) in live crown and litter samples. Our findings indicate that this variety of cypress is relatively resistant to ignition because of the high ash content, the high critical heat flux, the high time to ignition displayed by both crown and litter samples and the ability of the leaves to maintain a high water content during the summer. We also discuss the possibility of exploiting some morphological, functional and ecological traits of the species to construct a barrier system (with selected varieties of cypress) as a promising complementary land management tool to reduce the fire spread and intensity in a Mediterranean context. PMID:26046989

  20. An exploration of spatial human health risk assessment of soil toxic metals under different land uses using sequential indicator simulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin-Hui; Liu, Wen-Chu; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Li, Fei; Huang, Xiao-Long; Gu, Yan-Ling; Shi, Li-Xiu; Shi, Ya-Hui; Wan, Jia

    2016-07-01

    A modified method was proposed which integrates the spatial patterns of toxic metals simulated by sequential indicator simulation, different exposure models and local current land uses extracted by remote-sensing software into a dose-response model for human health risk assessment of toxic metals. A total of 156 soil samples with a various land uses containing farm land (F1-F25), forest land (W1-W12) and residential land (U1-U15) were collected in a grid pattern throughout Xiandao District (XDD), Hunan Province, China. The total Cr and Pb in topsoil were analyzed. Compared with Hunan soil background values, the elevated concentrations of Cr were mainly located in the east of XDD, and the elevated concentrations of Pb were scattered in the areas around F1, F6, F8, F13, F14, U5, U14, W2 and W11. For non-carcinogenic effects, the hazard index (HI) of Cr and Pb overall the XDD did not exceed the accepted level to adults. While to children, Cr and Pb exhibited HI higher than the accepted level around some areas. The assessment results indicated Cr and Pb should be regarded as the priority pollutants of concern in XDD. The first priority areas of concern were identified in region A with a high probability (>0.95) of risk in excess of the accepted level for Cr and Pb. The areas with probability of risk between 0.85 and 0.95 in region A were identified to be the secondary priority areas for Cr and Pb. The modified method was proved useful due to its improvement on previous studies and calculating a more realistic human health risk, thus reducing the probability of excessive environmental management. PMID:27045920

  1. Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

  2. An operative environmental accounting framework for forest land blue water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beguería, Santiago; Leandri, Marc; Campos, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    We present a conceptual framework for the economic valuation of the water flows occurring in the forest lands. This framework is an extension of the criteria developed in the System of Environmental Economic Accounting-Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA-EEA) and provides a practical tool for the assessment of national or regional environmental assets. In terms of environmental policy, our accounting framework aims at valuing the contribution of forest lands to fresh water supply, contributing to a more complete valuation of the environmental asset value of forest land. Thanks to a combination of hydrological and economic models, our approach allows organizing hydrological and economic information in a coherent manner, constituting an informed tool to support the design of efficient incentives for forest-owners to manage their land cover towards more water-friendly options. As an example, we apply our hydro-economic model to a real life case study of two reservoirs in Andalusia, Spain, that differ significantly in their use of water. We use available hydrologic and economic data for evaluating the water environmental income at each site. We discuss on the differences found between the two sites and between vegetation types, and we present a sensitivity analysis regarding the main assumptions made in our calculations.

  3. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... United States Geological Survey (USGS) or National Geodetic Survey (NGS) survey control stations, must be established on the site to facilitate surveys. The USGS or NGS control stations must provide horizontal and vertical controls as checked against USGS or NGS record files. (8) A buffer zone of land must be...

  4. Risk assessment of high altitude free flight commercial aircraft operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Sanzo, D.L.

    1998-04-23

    A quantitative model is under development to assess the safety and efficiency of commercial aircraft operations under the Free Flight Program proposed for air traffic control for the US National Airspace System. The major objective of the Free Flight Program is to accommodate the dramatic growth anticipated in air traffic in the US. However, the potential impacts upon aircraft safety from implementing the Program have not been fully explored and evaluated. The model is directed at assessing aircraft operations at high altitude over the continental US airspace since this action is the initial step for Free Flight. Sequential steps with analysis, assessment, evaluation, and iteration will be required to satisfactorily accomplish the complete transition of US commercial aircraft traffic operations.

  5. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of... Organizations: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound...

  6. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of... Organizations: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound...

  7. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fiscally sound operation and assumption of... Organizations: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a) Fiscally sound operation—(1) General requirements. Each HMO must have a fiscally sound...

  8. Public attitudes and risk perception toward land application of biosolids within the south-eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Kevin G; Robinson, Carolyn H; Raup, Lauren A; Markum, Travis R

    2012-05-15

    A descriptive-correlational study of biosolids recycling was conducted in the south-eastern United States to assess current knowledge, attitudes and risk perceptions of participants in two communities that land apply biosolids as part of their waste management programs. One community, Amelia County VA, has been outspoken against biosolids recycling in the past, whereas the second community, Knoxville, TN region, has voiced few concerns about biosolids recycling. Additionally, gender differences within the entire study population were assessed. A 45-question telephone survey, utilizing a 4-point Likert scale, was developed and administered to 311 randomly selected adults in the two regions. Commonalities identified during the study revealed key risk perceptions by the public regarding biosolids regulations, treatment, and application. Given current perceptions and knowledge, respondents felt that the benefits derived from biosolids recycling do not offset the perceived health and safety risks. However, as distance between application and personal property increased, a decrease in opposition of biosolids reuse became evident for all respondents. Survey participants were dissatisfied with the level of stakeholder involvement in research and decision-making processes concerning biosolids. The outspoken Amelia County residents perceived greater health risks due to inadequate treatment of biosolids and odorous emissions during the application process than the less engaged Knox Metro respondents. Significant gender differences were observed with sampled females perceiving greater risks to health and safety from biosolids recycling than males. There was also indication that decisions and risks were not sufficiently communicated to the public, leading to respondents being inadequately informed about biosolids land application in both communities. Community-specific outreach programs must address these public risk perceptions and the differences in perception caused by

  9. Operational methods for minimising soil compaction and diffuse pollution risk from wheelings in winter cereals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Bob; Silgram, Martyn; Quinton, John

    2010-05-01

    sprayer, cultivator and tyre manufacturers, and the associated development and evaluation of novel tools for sustainable land management. Preliminary results from the first winter of monitoring focus on soil physics assessments (such as surface roughness, near-surface compaction, bulk density) and event-based losses associated with surface runoff. Research is initially investigating the relative importance of soil compaction, rather than the lack of vegetation cover, in accounting for the much greater losses of surface runoff, sediment and P loss identified down tramline wheelings compared to the uncompacted, cropped area. Treatments being investigated on three sites with contrasting soil textures and climatic regimes include: • The effect of correctly inflated, "Xeobib" low ground pressure tractor and sprayer tyres compared to conventional tyres and "common practice" tyre pressures • The effect of drilling the wheeling areas and using new GPS technology to guide spraying operations, compared to conventional practice of using undrilled tramline areas for that purpose. Subsequent monitoring periods will explore the cost-effectiveness of techniques to lift the soil compaction in the autumn using novel tools attached to the sprayer unit. Results from such applied, field scale cost-effectiveness studies provide evidence to help identify source areas of diffuse pollution, improve our process understanding of the response of soil systems to land management practices, and thereby support the targeting of practical pollution control measures across a range of soil types and climatic regimes. This project will provide practical recommendations to the farming industry, help inform farm scale evaluations of diffuse pollution risk such as the new Soil Protection Review recently introduced by the UK Department for the Environment Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), and yield data to help parameterise and refine diffuse pollution models used for policy support at a range of scales.

  10. [From national strategic plans to operational implementation: opportunities and risks].

    PubMed

    Etchepare, M

    2013-01-01

    Currently, all countries in Africa are - to various degrees - involved in reform and planning programs, either because they chose to or at the behest of international institutions working with them. Here we present an operational definition of a strategic plan and then analyze the factors that promote and constrain the planning process and the implementation of the plan thus developed. PMID:24446135

  11. A new operational EUMETSAT product for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties over land (PMAp v2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorski, Michael; Munro, Rosemary; Poli, Gabriele; Holdak, Andriy; Lang, Ruediger

    2016-04-01

    The retrieval of aerosol optical properties is an important task to provide data for industry and climate forecasting. An ideal instrument should include observations with moderate spectral and high spatial resolution for a wide range of wavelengths (from the UV to the TIR), measurements of the polarization state at different wavelengths and measurements of the same scene for different observation geometries. As such an ideal instrument is currently unavailable the usage of different instruments on one satellite platform is an alternative choice. Since February 2014, the Polar Multi sensor Aerosol product (PMAp) has been delivered as an operational GOME product to our customers. The algorithm retrieves aerosol optical properties over ocean (AOD, volcanic ash, aerosol type) using a multi-sensor approach (GOME, AVHRR, IASI). The product is now extended to pixels over land using a new release of the operational PMAp processor (PMAp v2). The pre-operational data dissemination of the new PMAp v2 data to our users is scheduled for March 2016. This presentation gives an overview on the new operational product PMAp v2 with a focus on the validation of the PMAp aerosol optical depth over land. The impact of different error sources on the results (e.g. surface contribution to the TOA reflectance) is discussed. We also show first results of upcoming extensions of our PMAp processor, in particular the improvement of the cloud/aerosol discrimination of thick aerosol events (e.g. volcanic ash plumes, desert dust outbreaks).

  12. Ohio's statewide land use inventory: An operational approach for applying LANDSAT data to state, regional and local planning programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, P. E.; Geosling, P. H.; Leone, F.; Minshall, C.; Rodgers, R. H.; Wilhelm, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    The programmatic, technical, user application, and cost factors associated with the development of an operational, statewide land use inventory from LANDSAT data are described. The LANDSAT multispectral data are subjected to geometrical and categorical processing to produce map files for each of the 200 fifteen (15) minute quads covering Ohio. Computer compatible tapes are rescanned to produce inventory tapes which identify eight (8) Level I land use categories and a variety of Level II categories. The inventory tapes are processed through a series of ten (10) software programs developed by the State of Ohio. The net result is a computerized inventory which can be displayed in map or tabular form for various geographic units, at a variety of scales and for selected categories of usage. The computerized inventory data files are applied to technical programs developed by the various state agencies to be used in state, regional, and local planning programs.

  13. Managing Risk for Cassini During Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MOandDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkowski, Mona M.

    2002-01-01

    A Risk Management Process has been tailored for Cassini that not only satisfies the requirements of NASA and JPL, but also allows the Program to proactively identify and assess risks that threaten mission objectives. Cassini Risk Management is a team effort that involves both management and engineering staff. The process is managed and facilitated by the Mission Assurance Manager (MAM), but requires regular interactions with Program Staff and team members to instill the risk management philosophy into the day to day mission operations. While Risk Management is well defined for projects in the development phase, it is a relatively new concept for Mission Operations. The Cassini team has embraced this process and has begun using it in an effective, proactive manner, to ensure mission success. It is hoped that the Cassini Risk Management Process will form the basis by which risk management is conducted during MO&DA on future projects. proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully implemented a Risk Management Process for mission operations, The initial SRL has been developed and input into he online tool. The Risk Management webbased system has been rolled out for use by the flight team and risk owners we working proactive in identifying, assessing and mitigating risks before they become problems. Cost ehtiveness is achieved by: Comprehensively identifying risks Rapidly assessing which risks require the expenditure of pruject cewums Taking early actions to mitigate these risks Iterating the process frequently, to be responsive to the dynamic internal and external environments The Cassini Program has successfully

  14. USING TRAINED POUCHED RATS TO DETECT LAND MINES: ANOTHER VICTORY FOR OPERANT CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m2 of land, finding 41 mines and 54 other explosive devices. Humans with metal detectors found no additional mines. On average, the rats emitted 0.33 false alarm for every 100 m2 searched, which is below the threshold given by International Mine Action Standards for accrediting mine-detection animals. These findings indicate that Cricetomys are accurate mine-detection animals and merit continued use in this capacity. PMID:21709791

  15. An Evidenced-Based Approach for Estimating Decompression Sickness Risk in Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Ronald R.; Dervay, Joseph P.; Conkin, Johnny

    1999-01-01

    Estimating the risk of decompression Sickness (DCS) in aircraft operations remains a challenge, making the reduction of this risk through the development of operationally acceptable denitrogenation schedules difficult. In addition, the medical recommendations which are promulgated are often not supported by rigorous evaluation of the available data, but are instead arrived at by negotiation with the aircraft operations community, are adapted from other similar aircraft operations, or are based upon the opinion of the local medical community. We present a systematic approach for defining DCS risk in aircraft operations by analyzing the data available for a specific aircraft, flight profile, and aviator population. Once the risk of DCS in a particular aircraft operation is known, appropriate steps can be taken to reduce this risk to a level acceptable to the applicable aviation community. Using this technique will allow any aviation medical community to arrive at the best estimate of DCS risk for its specific mission and aviator population and will allow systematic reevaluation of the decisions regarding DCS risk reduction when additional data are available.

  16. Emission rate modeling and risk assessment at an automobile plant from painting operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A.; Shrivastava, A.; Kulkarni, A.

    1999-07-01

    Pollution from automobile plants from painting operations has been addressed in the Clean Act Amendments (1990). The estimation of pollutant emissions from automobile painting operation were done mostly by approximate procedures than by actual calculations. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for calculating the emissions of the pollutants from painting operation in an automobile plant. Five scenarios involving an automobile painting operation, located in Columbus (Ohio), were studied for pollutant emission and concomitant risk associated with that. In the study of risk, a sensitivity analysis was done using Crystal Ball{reg{underscore}sign} on the parameters involved in risk. This software uses the Monte Carlo principle. The most sensitive factor in the risk analysis was the ground level concentration of the pollutants. All scenarios studied met the safety goal (a risk value of 1 x 10{sup {minus}6}) with different confidence levels. The highest level of confidence in meeting the safety goal was displayed by Scenario 1 (Alpha Industries). The results from the scenarios suggest that risk is associated with the quantity of released toxic pollutants. The sensitivity analysis of the various parameter shows that average spray rate of paint is the most important parameter in the estimation of pollutants from the painting operations. The entire study is a complete module that can be used by the environmental pollution control agencies for estimation of pollution levels and estimation of associated risk. The study can be further extended to other operations in an automobile industry or to different industries.

  17. Voluntary Nonmonetary Conservation Approaches on Private Land: A Review of Constraints, Risks, and Benefits for Raptor Nest Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation on private land of the developed world faces several challenges. The costs of land are often high, and the attitudes of landowners towards conservation are variable. Scientists and practitioners need to scan for and adopt cost-effective solutions that allow for the long-term sustainability of conservation measures on private land. In this study, we focus on one of such possible solutions: Working with landowners to implement voluntary nonmonetary conservation. We restrict our focus to protection of raptor nests, but the ideas can be applied to other taxa as well. Through a literature review, we show that a voluntary nonmonetary approach for protecting raptor nests has been so far largely neglected and/or rarely reported in the scientific literature. However, results of a questionnaire sent to BirdLife partners across Europe indicate that this approach is more widely used than it appears from the literature. We show that voluntary nonmonetary approaches may represent useful tools to protect raptor nests on private land. We provide a workflow for implementation of such an approach in raptor nest protection, highlighting benefits, potential risks, and constraints in the application of the strategy. We suggest that a voluntary nonmonetary approach may have great potential for cost-effective conservation, but the risks it may entail should be carefully assessed in each case. There is an urgent need to consider and evaluate novel approaches, such as the one described here, which may constitute missed opportunities for cost-effective conservation.

  18. Understanding and De-risking the Dependencies between Operator and Manufacturer of Clinical IT.

    PubMed

    Despotou, George; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; White, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Health IT, in addition to benefits can also have unintended consequences both in terms of operational and business risks. Understanding the dependencies between operator and manufacturer as well as issues that need to be addressed during procurement is essential to increase confidence in the operation of health IT. The paper provides the context, and a number of issues health IT operators such as clinical organisations, need to investigate during acquisition of health IT. PMID:26152991

  19. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 2: Integrated loss of vehicle model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

    1995-01-01

    The application of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology to a Space Shuttle environment, particularly to the potential of losing the Shuttle during nominal operation is addressed. The different related concerns are identified and combined to determine overall program risks. A fault tree model is used to allocate system probabilities to the subsystem level. The loss of the vehicle due to failure to contain energetic gas and debris, to maintain proper propulsion and configuration is analyzed, along with the loss due to Orbiter, external tank failure, and landing failure or error.

  20. RECYCLING OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE VIA LAND APPLICATION: ASSESSMENT OF RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment sludges (WTS) offer potential benefits when applied to soil and recycling of the waste stream via land application has been proposed as a management option. Recycling of WTS to the land helps conserve landfill disposal capacity and natural resources, but potential...

  1. Land application of manure and class B biosolids: an occupational and public quantitative microbial risk assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public exposures to pathogens can vary from contact with fomites to foodborne exposures. Regulations and recommendations for land application of manure or Class B biosolids are designed to limit public exposures to pathogens in each residual waste. Lands receiving these residuals are more fertile ...

  2. Risk assessment of the fatality due to explosion in land mass transport infrastructure by fast transient dynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, G; Larcher, M; Casadei, F; Solomos, G

    2010-01-15

    Terrorist attacks in New York have shocked the world community showing clearly the vulnerability of air transport in such events. However, the terrorist attacks in Madrid and London showed that land mass transport infrastructure is equally vulnerable in case of similar attacks. The fact that there has not been substantial investment in the domain of risk analysis and evaluation of the possible effects due to such events in land mass transportation infrastructure leaves large room for new developments that could eventually fill this gap. In the present work using the finite element code EUROPLEXUS there has been a large effort to perform a complete study of the land mass infrastructure in case of explosion events. This study includes a train station, a metro station and a metro carriage providing thus valuable simulation data for a variety of different situations. For the analysis of these structures it has been necessary to apply a laser scanning method for the acquisition of geometrical data, to improve the simulation capabilities of EUROPLEXUS by adding failure capabilities for specific finite elements, to implement new material models (e.g. glass), and to add new modules that achieve data post-processing for the calculation of fatal and non-fatal injuries risk. The aforementioned improvements are explained in the present work with emphasis in the newly developed risk analysis features of EUROPLEXUS. PMID:19773121

  3. Risk characterisation and management of sewage sludge on agricultural land--implications for the environment and the food-chain.

    PubMed

    Ross, A D; Lawrie, R A; Keneally, J P; Whatmuff, M S

    1992-08-01

    The disposal of sewage wastes may cause severe environmental problems as was graphically demonstrated with pollution on Sydney's ocean beaches in recent years. Sewage sludges contain valuable plant nutrients and organic matter which can improve the fertility and structure of the soil. However, human parasites, pathogenic micro-organisms and chemicals capable of causing soil contamination, phytotoxicity and residues in animal products may also be present. Although sewage sludge is frequently spread on agricultural land overseas, it is not common in Australia and most states do not have specific regulations to minimise risk and promote good practice. A sludge-to-land program began in the Sydney region in 1990. It follows guidelines written by NSW Agriculture to encourage beneficial agricultural use of sludge by adoption of environmentally sustainable practices. This article describes the major risks to the food-chain and the environment, which may be associated with applying sewage sludge to agricultural land. It summarises how the risks are managed, and where further research data are required. PMID:1530551

  4. Are University Co-Operative Education Students Safe? Perceptions of Risk to Students on Work Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhook, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    As students venture off campus for university-sponsored activities, are they at risk, given that universities are better able to control risk factors on campus than they can for their off-campus activities? Co-operative education is a formalized and longstanding academic program that often sees students spend upwards of a third of their time off…

  5. Development and flight tests of a Kalman filter for navigation during terminal area and landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. F.; Flanagan, P. F.; Sorenson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A Kalman filter for aircraft terminal area and landing navigation was implemented and flight tested in the NASA Ames STOLAND avionics computer onboard a Twin Otter aircraft. This system combines navaid measurements from TACAN, MODILS, air data, radar altimeter sensors along with measurements from strap-down accelerometer and attitude angle sensors. The flight test results demonstrate that the Kalman filter provides improved estimates of the aircraft position and velocity as compared with estimates from the more standard complementary filter. The onboard computer implementation requirements to achieve this improved performance are discussed.

  6. Atmosphere Assessment for MARS Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Cantor, Bruce; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Daniel, Jr.; Rafkin, Scot; Chen, Allen; Kass, David; Mischna, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2013-01-01

    On August 6, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) sequence was designed using atmospheric conditions estimated from mesoscale numerical models. The models, developed by two independent organizations (Oregon State University and the Southwest Research Institute), were validated against observations at Mars from three prior years. In the weeks and days before entry, the MSL "Council of Atmospheres" (CoA), a group of atmospheric scientists and modelers, instrument experts and EDL simulation engineers, evaluated the latest Mars data from orbiting assets including the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Mars Color Imager (MARCI) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), as well as Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The observations were compared to the mesoscale models developed for EDL performance simulation to determine if a spacecraft parameter update was necessary prior to entry. This paper summarizes the daily atmosphere observations and comparison to the performance simulation atmosphere models. Options to modify the atmosphere model in the simulation to compensate for atmosphere effects are also presented. Finally, a summary of the CoA decisions and recommendations to the MSL project in the days leading up to EDL is provided.

  7. Heavy metal speciation and risk assessment in dry land and paddy soils near mining areas at Southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guannan; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Erxi; Hou, Jing; Liu, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils has been a long-standing environmental problem in many parts of the world, and poses enormous threats to ecosystem and human health. Speciation of heavy metals in soils is crucial to assessing environmental risks from contaminated soils. In this study, total concentrations and speciation of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured for agricultural soils near mines along the Diaojiang River in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomy Region, China. The sources of heavy metals in soils also were identified to assess their effect on speciation distribution of soil heavy metals. Furthermore, the speciation distribution of Cd and Zn, main soil heavy metal pollutants, in dry land and paddy soils were compared. Results showed that there were two severely polluted regions near mine area reaching alarming pollution level. As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were more affected by mining activities, showing very strong pollution level in soils. The mean percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fraction was highest and up to 46.8 % for Cd, indicating a high environmental risk. Greater bioavailable fractions of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn were found in soils heavily polluted by mining activities, whereas Cr and Ni as geogenic elements in the stable residual fraction. In addition, in the dry land soils, reducible fraction proportion of Cd was higher than that in the paddy soils, whereas exchangeable and carbonate fraction of Cd was lower than that in the paddy soils. Oxidizable fraction of Zn was higher in the paddy soils than that in the dry land soils. The results indicate that the sources of soil heavy metals and land types affect heavy metal speciation in the soil and are significant for environmental risk assessment of soil heavy metal pollutions. PMID:26801928

  8. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  9. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricotta, C.; Guglietta, D.; Migliozzi, A.

    2012-05-01

    Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load), a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy) in the period 2001-2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

  10. Risk of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fatigue Failure Is Increased by Limited Internal Femoral Rotation During In Vitro Repeated Pivot Landings

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L.; Wojtys, Edward M.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A reduced range of hip internal rotation is associated with increased peak anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and risk for injury. It is unknown, however, whether limiting the available range of internal femoral rotation increases the susceptibility of the ACL to fatigue failure. Hypothesis Risk of ACL failure is significantly greater in female knee specimens with a limited range of internal femoral rotation, smaller femoral-ACL attachment angle, and smaller tibial eminence volume during repeated in vitro simulated single-leg pivot landings. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods A custom-built testing apparatus was used to simulate repeated single-leg pivot landings with a 4×-body weight impulsive load that induces knee compression, knee flexion, and internal tibial torque in 32 paired human knee specimens from 8 male and 8 female donors. These test loads were applied to each pair of specimens, in one knee with limited internal femoral rotation and in the contralateral knee with femoral rotation resisted by 2 springs to simulate the active hip rotator muscles’ resistance to stretch. The landings were repeated until ACL failure occurred or until a minimum of 100 trials were executed. The angle at which the ACL originates from the femur and the tibial eminence volume were measured on magnetic resonance images. Results The final Cox regression model (P = .024) revealed that range of internal femoral rotation and sex of donor were significant factors in determining risk of ACL fatigue failure. The specimens with limited range of internal femoral rotation had a failure risk 17.1 times higher than did the specimens with free rotation (P = .016). The female knee specimens had a risk of ACL failure 26.9 times higher than the male specimens (P = .055). Conclusion Limiting the range of internal femoral rotation during repetitive pivot landings increases the risk of an ACL fatigue failure in comparison with free rotation in a cadaveric model

  11. Risk reduction methodologies and technologies for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Operations Center (EOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Richard K.; Pingitore, Nelson V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will discuss proposed Flight Operations methodologies and technologies for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Operations Center (EOC), to reduce risks associated with the operation of complex multi-instrument spacecraft in a multi-spacecraft environment. The EOC goals are to obtain 100 percent science data capture and maintain 100 percent spacecraft health, for each EOS spacecraft. Operations risks to the spacecraft and data loss due to operator command error, mission degradation due to mis-identification of an anomalous trend in component performance or mis-management of resources, and total mission loss due to improper subsystem configuration or mis-identification of an anomalous condition. This paper discusses automation of routine Flight Operations Team (FOT) responsibilities, Expert systems for real-time non-nominal condition decision support, and Telemetry analysis systems for in-depth playback data analysis and trending.

  12. A Time History of Control Operation of a C-54 Airplane in Blind Landing Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talmage, Donald B.

    1947-01-01

    Tests were made with a C-54 airplane in which airline pilots made several blind approaches to determine whether any special flying techniques were used in blind landings and whether any special handling-qualities requirements would have to be formulated because of such special techniques. It was found that the airplane was flown at all times in the normal manner; that is, all turns were banked turns that were nearly coordinated by use of the rudder so that the sideslip was held close to zero. The pilot expended considerable physical work in continually moving the controls but this wake was due in part to the large friction in the three control systems. The actual control deflections used were small compared to the maximum deflections available.

  13. Assessment, Planning, and Execution Considerations for Conjunction Risk Assessment and Mitigation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigm, Ryan C.; Levi, Joshua A.; Mantziaras, Dimitrios C.

    2010-01-01

    An operational Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) concept is the real-time process of assessing risk posed by close approaches and reacting to those risks if necessary. The most effective way to completely mitigate conjunction risk is to perform an avoidance maneuver. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented a routine CARA process since 2005. Over this period, considerable experience has been gained and many lessons have been learned. This paper identifies and presents these experiences as general concepts in the description of the Conjunction Assessment, Flight Dynamics, and Flight Operations methodologies and processes. These general concepts will be tied together and will be exemplified through a case study of an actual high risk conjunction event for the Aura mission.

  14. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  15. A Proposal of Operational Risk Management Method Using FMEA for Drug Manufacturing Computerized System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masakazu; Nanba, Reiji; Fukue, Yoshinori

    This paper proposes operational Risk Management (RM) method using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for drug manufacturing computerlized system (DMCS). The quality of drug must not be influenced by failures and operational mistakes of DMCS. To avoid such situation, DMCS has to be conducted enough risk assessment and taken precautions. We propose operational RM method using FMEA for DMCS. To propose the method, we gathered and compared the FMEA results of DMCS, and develop a list that contains failure modes, failures and countermeasures. To apply this list, we can conduct RM in design phase, find failures, and conduct countermeasures efficiently. Additionally, we can find some failures that have not been found yet.

  16. Risk Management Technique for design and operation of facilities and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De S.

    1975-01-01

    The Risk Management System collects information from engineering, operating, and management personnel to identify potentially hazardous conditions. This information is used in risk analysis, problem resolution, and contingency planning. The resulting hazard accountability system enables management to monitor all identified hazards. Data from this system are examined in project reviews so that management can decide to eliminate or accept these risks. This technique is particularly effective in improving the management of risks in large, complex, high-energy facilities. These improvements are needed for increased cooperation among industry, regulatory agencies, and the public.

  17. Climate Risk and Vulnerability in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Region: Interactions with Spatial Population and Land Cover Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M.; Baptista, S.; Adamo, S.

    2010-12-01

    Vulnerability to climate variability and change will depend on dynamic interactions between different aspects of climate, land-use change, and socioeconomic trends. Measurements and projections of these changes are difficult at the local scale but necessary for effective planning. New data sources and methods make it possible to assess land-use and socioeconomic changes that may affect future patterns of climate vulnerability. In this paper we report on new time series data sets that reveal trends in the spatial patterns of climate vulnerability in the Caribbean/Gulf of Mexico Region. Specifically, we examine spatial time series data for human population over the period 1990-2000, time series data on land use and land cover over 2000-2009, and infant mortality rates as a proxy for poverty for 2000-2008. We compare the spatial trends for these measures to the distribution of climate-related natural disaster risk hotspots (cyclones, floods, landslides, and droughts) in terms of frequency, mortality, and economic losses. We use these data to identify areas where climate vulnerability appears to be increasing and where it may be decreasing. Regions where trends and patterns are especially worrisome include coastal areas of Guatemala and Honduras.

  18. [Ecological risk assessment of land use based on exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA): a case study of Haitan Island, Fujian Province].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Peng; Wen, Chao-Xiang; Fu, Shi-Feng; Chen, Qing-Hui

    2014-07-01

    As a novel environment management tool, ecological risk assessment has provided a new perspective for the quantitative evaluation of ecological effects of land-use change. In this study, Haitan Island in Fujian Province was taken as a case. Based on the Landsat TM obtained in 1990, SPOT5 RS images obtained in 2010, general layout planning map of Pingtan Comprehensive Experimental Zone in 2030, as well as the field investigation data, we established an ecological risk index to measure ecological endpoints. By using spatial autocorrelation and semivariance analysis of Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA), the ecological risk of Haitan Island under different land-use situations was assessed, including the past (1990), present (2010) and future (2030), and the potential risk and its changing trend were analyzed. The results revealed that the ecological risk index showed obvious scale effect, with strong positive correlation within 3000 meters. High-high (HH) and low-low (LL) aggregations were predominant types in spatial distribution of ecological risk index. The ecological risk index showed significant isotropic characteristics, and its spatial distribution was consistent with Anselin Local Moran I (LISA) distribution during the same period. Dramatic spatial distribution change of each ecological risk area was found among 1990, 2010 and 2030, and the fluctuation trend and amplitude of different ecological risk areas were diverse. The low ecological risk area showed a rise-to-fall trend while the medium and high ecological risk areas showed a fall-to-rise trend. In the planning period, due to intensive anthropogenic disturbance, the high ecological risk area spread throughout the whole region. To reduce the ecological risk in land-use and maintain the regional ecological security, the following ecological risk control strategies could be adopted, i.e., optimizing the spatial pattern of land resources, protecting the key ecoregions and controlling the scale of

  19. Evaluation of influence of historical changes in land use along the middle Vistula river reach on flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamuz, Emilia; Romanowicz, Renata; Booij, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    There is a vast literature on the influence of land use changes on rainfall-runoff processes. The problem is difficult as it requires separation of climatic and water management related changes from land use influences. The present paper addresses the problem of the influence of land use changes on maximum flows at cross-sections along the middle River Vistula reach. We adopt a methodology tested at the catchment scale, which consists of an optimisation of a rainfall-runoff model using a moving time horizon and analysis of the variability of model parameters. In the present application, it consists of an analysis of changes of roughness coefficients of a distributed HEC-RAS model, optimised using a moving five-year window. The chosen river reach (between Annopol and Gusin) has a recorded history of land use changes over 50 years (from 1949 to 2001), which included 36% of the study area. The nature of the changes is complex and shows different trends for different plant communities and sections of the valley. Generally, there has been a several percent increase in the area occupied by forests and grassland communities and a slight increase in the proportion of scrub. The first step of the procedure is to define the river reaches that have recorded information on land use changes. The second step is to perform a moving window optimisation of the HEC-RAS model for a chosen river reach. In order to assess the influence of land use changes on maximum flow values, the goodness-of-fit of the simulation of annual maximum water levels is used as an optimisation criterion. In this way the influence of land use changes on maximum inundation extent related to flood risk assessment can be estimated. The final step is to analyse the results and relate the model parameter changes to historical land use changes. We report here the results of the first two steps of the procedure. This work was partly supported from the project "Stochastic flood forecasting system (The River Vistula

  20. Pathogens and antibiotic residues in animal manures and hygienic and ecological risks related to subsequent land application.

    PubMed

    Venglovsky, Jan; Sasakova, Nada; Placha, Iveta

    2009-11-01

    The practice of spreading of livestock wastes onto land used for the production of food or animal feeds is widely regarded as the least environmentally damaging disposal method, however, the practice is still fraught with pitfalls such as N pollution of air and water and significant microbiological risks. Therefore this paper focuses on some of the latest developments that provide new insights into the microbiological safety of animal manures, the related treatment options and the spreading the products onto land. In conclusion the paper stresses the need to fully address issues concerning environmental contamination and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria through livestock manure, improve current environmental regulations regarding manure management practice and coordination of research activities and dissemination of technical information. PMID:19386485

  1. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    PubMed

    Leake, Jonathan R; Adam-Bradford, Andrew; Rigby, Janette E

    2009-01-01

    Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with 'greenspace' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from 'grow-your-own' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating 'scares' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of 'obesity and sloth' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of 'grow-your-own' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide risk management in our

  2. 78 FR 27336 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River, Gills Landing and Winneconne, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Sec. Section Symbol U.S.C. United States Code... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Wolf River,...

  3. Flight Operations reunion for the Apollo 11 20th anniversary of the first manned lunar landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The following major areas are presented: (1) the Apollo years; (2) official flight control manning list for Apollo 11; (3) original mission control emblem; (4) foundations of flight control; (5) Apollo-11 20th anniversary program and events; (6) Apollo 11 mission operations team certificate; (7) Apollo 11 mission summary (timeline); and (8) Apollo flight control team photographs and biographies.

  4. Antenatal Depressive Symptoms and the Risk of Preeclampsia or Operative Deliveries: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong; Li, Yingxue; Zhang, Zhixia; Yan, Weirong

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between depression and/or depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the risk of an operative delivery or preeclampsia, and to quantify the strength of the association. Methods A search of the PubMed, SCI/SSCI, Proquest PsycARTICLES and CINAHL databases was supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key retrieved articles and review articles. We aimed to include case control or cohort studies that reported data on antenatal depression and /or depressive symptoms and the risk of an operative delivery and/or preeclampsia. Results Twelve studies with self-reported screening instruments were eligible for inclusion with a total of 8400 participants. Seven articles that contained 4421 total participants reported the risk for an operative delivery, and five articles that contained 3979 total participants reported the risk for preeclampsia. The pooled analyses showed that both operative delivery and preeclampsia had a statistically significant association with antenatal depressive symptoms (RR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.35, and OR = 1.63, 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.02, respectively). When the pre-pregnancy body mass indices were controlled in their initial design, the risk for preeclampsia still existed (OR = 1.48, 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.01), while the risk for an operative delivery became uncertain (RR = 1.01, 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.22). Conclusions Antenatal depressive symptoms are associated with a moderately increased risk of an operative delivery and preeclampsia. An abnormal pre-pregnancy body mass index may modify this association. PMID:25789626

  5. Sandia National Laboratories land use permit for operations at Oliktok Alaska Long Range Radar Station.

    SciTech Connect

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-02-01

    The property subject to this Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) is located at the Oliktok Long Range Radar Station (LRRS). The Oliktok LRRS is located at 70%C2%B0 30' W latitude, 149%C2%B0 53' W longitude. It is situated at Oliktok Point on the shore of the Beaufort Sea, east of the Colville River. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  6. Theme: Land Laboratories--Urban Settings, Liability, Natural Resources Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, David, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "With a Little Imagination"; "From Fallow to Fertile"; "Operating a School Enterprise in Agriculture"; "Using a Nontraditional Greenhouse to Enhance Lab Instruction"; "Risk Management for Liability in Operating Land Laboratories"; "Working Land and Water Laboratory for Natural Resources"; "Dreams Becoming Realities"; "Small Scale Land…

  7. Synchronization techniques for all digital 16-ary QAM receivers operating over land mobile satellite links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fines, P.; Aghvami, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of a low bit rate (64 Kb/s) all digital 16-ary Differentially Encoded Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-DEQAM) demodulator operating over a mobile satellite channel, is considered. The synchronization and detection techniques employed to overcome the Rician channel impairments, are described. The acquisition and steady state performance of this modem, are evaluated by computer simulation over AWGN and RICIAN channels. The results verify the suitability of the 16-DEQAM transmission over slowly faded and/or mildly faded channels.

  8. Evolution and Implementation of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis Concept of Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, L.; Hejduk, M.; Frigm, R.; Duncan, M.

    2014-09-01

    On-orbit collisions pose a significant mission risk to satellites operating in the space environment. Recognizing the likelihood and consequence of on-orbit collisions, NASA has taken several proactive measures to mitigate the risk of both a catastrophic loss of mission and the increase in the space debris population. In fall 2004, NASA GSFC established an Agency-wide, institutionalized process and service for identifying and reacting to predicted close approaches. The team responsible for executing this mission is the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team. By fall 2005, this process had resulted in the execution of the first collision avoidance maneuver by a NASA unmanned satellite. In February 2008, NASA adopted a policy, documented in NASA Procedural Requirement 8715.6a Process for Limiting Orbital Debris that directed maneuverable satellites to have such an on-orbit collision mitigation process. In 2009, NASA decided to require support for all operational satellites. By January 2014, the CARA team has processed nearly 500,000 close approach messages from the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) and has assisted our mission customers with planning and executing over 75 collision avoidance maneuvers for unmanned satellites in LEO, GEO, and HEO orbital regimes. With the increase in number of operational missions supported; growth in the orbital debris environment due to events such as the intentional destruction of the Fengyun 1-C satellite in 2007 and collision between Iridium-33 and Cosmos-2251; and improvements to the United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and its ability to track, catalog, and screen against small debris objects, the demands on the CARA process have consequently required the CARA Concept of Operations (CONOPS) to evolve to manage those demands. This evolution is centered on the ability to effectively and efficiently manage JSpOC, CARA, and Mission Operations resources, applying operational and analytical

  9. Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied

  10. Determining which land management practices reduce catchment scale flood risk and where to implement them for optimum effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, Ian; Lane, Stuart; Hardy, Richard; Reaney, Sim

    2010-05-01

    The theoretical basis for why changes in land management might increase flood risk are well known, but proving them through numerical modelling still remains a challenge. In large catchments, like the River Eden in Cumbria, NW England, one of the reasons for this is that it is unfeasible to test multiple scenarios in all their possible locations. We have developed two linked approaches to refine the number of scenarios and locations using 1) spatial downscaling and 2) participatory decision making, which potentially should increase the likelihood of finding a link between land use and downstream flooding. Firstly, land management practices can have both flood reducing and flood increasing effects, depending on their location. As a result some areas of the catchment are more important in determining downstream flood risk than others, depending on the land use and hydrological connectivity. We apply a downscaling approach to identify which sub-catchments are most important in explaining downstream flooding. This is important because it is in these areas that management options are most likely to have a positive and detectable effect. Secondly, once the dominant sub-catchment has been identified, the land management scenarios that are both feasible and likely to impact flood risk need to be determined. This was done through active stakeholder engagement. The stakeholder group undertook a brainstorming exercise, which suggested about 30 different rural land management scenarios, which were mapped on to a literature-based conceptual framework of hydrological processes. Then these options were evaluated based on five criteria: relevance to catchment, scientific effectiveness, testability, robustness/uncertainty and feasibility of implementation. The suitability of each scenario was discussed and prioritised by the stakeholder group based on scientific needs and expectations and local suitability and feasibility. The next stage of the participatory approach was a mapping

  11. Development of Standardized Probabilistic Risk Assessment Models for Shutdown Operations Integrated in SPAR Level 1 Model

    SciTech Connect

    S. T. Khericha; J. Mitman

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear plant operating experience and several studies show that the risk from shutdown operation during Modes 4, 5, and 6 at pressurized water reactors and Modes 4 and 5 at boiling water reactors can be significant. This paper describes using the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s full-power Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) model as the starting point for development of risk evaluation models for commercial nuclear power plants. The shutdown models are integrated with their respective internal event at-power SPAR model. This is accomplished by combining the modified system fault trees from the SPAR full-power model with shutdown event tree logic. Preliminary human reliability analysis results indicate that risk is dominated by the operator’s ability to correctly diagnose events and initiate systems.

  12. Oman India Pipeline: An operational repair strategy based on a rational assessment of risk

    SciTech Connect

    German, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the development of a repair strategy for the operational phase of the Oman India Pipeline based upon the probability and consequences of a pipeline failure. Risk analyses and cost benefit analyses performed provide guidance on the level of deepwater repair development effort appropriate for the Oman India Pipeline project and identifies critical areas toward which more intense development effort should be directed. The risk analysis results indicate that the likelihood of a failure of the Oman India Pipeline during its 40-year life is low. Furthermore, the probability of operational failure of the pipeline in deepwater regions is extremely low, the major proportion of operational failure risk being associated with the shallow water regions.

  13. USUING STREAM MORPHOLOGY CLASSIFICATION TO MANAGE ECOLOGICAL RISKS FROM LAND USE CHANGES IN THE LMR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the amount and types of land use in a watershed can destabilize stream channel structure, increase sediment loading and degrade in-stream habitat. Stream classification systems (e.g. Rosgen) may be useful for determining the susceptibility of stream channel segments t...

  14. USING STREAM MORPHOLOGY CLASSIFICATION TO MANAGE ECOLOGICAL RISKS FROM LAND USE CHANGES IN THE LMR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the amount and types of land use in a watershed can destabilize stream channel structure, increase sediment loading and degrade in-stream habitat. Stream classification systems (e.g. Rosgen) may be useful for determining the susceptibility of stream channel segments t...

  15. Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Land-Applied Biosolids 2011 Final Report "> Millions of tons of treated sewage sludges or “biosolids” are applied annually to f...

  16. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Tutorial: Land-applied Microbial Loadings within a 12-Digit HUC

    EPA Science Inventory

    This tutorial reviews screens, icons, and basic functions of the SDMProjectBuilder (SDMPB). It demonstrates how one chooses a 12-digit HUC for analysis, performs an assessment of land-applied microbes by simulating microbial fate and transport using HSPF, and analyzes and visuali...

  17. Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities.

    PubMed

    Leet, Jessica K; Lee, Linda S; Gall, Heather E; Goforth, Reuben R; Sassman, Stephen; Gordon, Denise A; Lazorchak, James M; Smith, Mark E; Jafvert, Chad T; Javfert, Chad T; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2012-12-18

    Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) manure is a cost-effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO manure to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of land-applied CAFO manure on fish populations and communities. Water chemistry including hormone, pesticide, and nutrient concentrations was characterized from study sites along with fish assemblage structure, growth, and endocrine disruption assessed in selected fish species. Although most CAFO water samples had hormone concentrations <1 ng/L, equivalent concentrations for 17β-E2 and 17α-TB peaked at >30 ng/L each during the period of spawning, hatching, and development for resident fishes. CAFO sites had lower fish species richness, and fishes exhibited faster somatic growth and lower reproductive condition compared to individuals from the reference site. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to CAFO ditchwater during early developmental stages exhibited significantly skewed sex ratios toward males. Maximum observed hormone concentrations were well above the lowest observable effect concentrations for these hormones; however, complexities at the field scale make it difficult to directly relate hormone concentration and impacts on fish. Complicating factors include the consistent presence of pesticides and nutrients, and the difference in temperature and stream architecture of the CAFO-impacted ditches compared to the reference site (e.g., channelization, bottom substrate, shallow pools, and riparian cover). PMID:23171355

  18. Use of documentary sources on past flood events for flood risk management and land planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cœur, Denis; Lang, Michel

    2008-09-01

    The knowledge of past catastrophic events can improve flood risk mitigation policy, with a better awareness against risk. As such historical information is usually available in Europe for the past five centuries, historians are able to understand how past society dealt with flood risk, and hydrologists can include information on past floods into an adapted probabilistic framework. In France, Flood Risk Mitigation Maps are based either on the largest historical known flood event or on the 100-year flood event if it is greater. Two actions can be suggested in terms of promoting the use of historical information for flood risk management: (1) the development of a regional flood data base, with both historical and current data, in order to get a good feedback on recent events and to improve the flood risk education and awareness; (2) the commitment to keep a persistent/perennial management of a reference network of hydrometeorological observations for climate change studies.

  19. What is High Risk Surgery? Development of a List of High Risk Operations for Patients Age 65 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Margaret L.; Barnato, Amber E.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Zhao, Qianqian; Neuman, Heather B.; Winslow, Emily R.; Kennedy, Gregory D.; Hu, Yue-Yung; Dodgion, Christopher M.; Kwok, Alvin C.; Greenberg, Caprice C.

    2015-01-01

    Importance No consensus exists regarding the definition of “high risk” surgery in older adults. An inclusive and precise definition of high risk surgery may be useful for surgeons, patients, researchers and hospitals. Objectives To develop a list of “high risk” operations. Design 1) Retrospective cohort study; and 2) Modified Delphi procedure. Setting All Pennsylvania acute care hospitals (Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council [PHC4], 2001–2007) and a nationally-representative sample of U.S. acute care hospitals (Nationwide Inpatient Sample [NIS], HCUP, AHRQ 2001–2006). Patients Admissions 65 and older to PHC4 hospitals and admissions 18 and older to NIS hospitals. Methods We identified ICD-9 CM procedure codes associated with >1% inpatient mortality in PHC4. We used a modified Delphi technique with 5 board certified surgeons to further refine this list by excluding non-operative procedures and operations that were unlikely to be the proximate cause of mortality and were instead a marker of critical illness (e.g., tracheostomy). We then cross-validated this list of ICD-9CM codes in the NIS. Main Outcomes Measures 1) Delphi consensus of at least 4/5 panelists; 2) proportion agreement in the NIS. Results Among 4,739,522 admissions 65 and older in PHC4, 2,569,589 involved a procedure, encompassing 2,853 unique procedures. Of 1,130 procedures associated with a crude inpatient mortality of at least 1%, 264 achieved consensus as high risk operations by Delphi. The observed inpatient mortality in the NIS was ≥ 1% for 227/264 (86%) of the procedures in patients age 65 and older. The pooled inpatient mortality rate for these identified high risk procedures performed on patients age ≥65 was double the inpatient mortality for correspondingly identified high risk operations for patients less than 65 (6% vs. 3%). Conclusions We developed a list of procedure codes that can be used to identify “high risk” surgical procedures in claims data. This

  20. Patient safety in the operating room: an intervention study on latent risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient safety is one of the greatest challenges in healthcare. In the operating room errors are frequent and often consequential. This article describes an approach to a successful implementation of a patient safety program in the operating room, focussing on latent risk factors that influence patient safety. We performed an intervention to improve these latent risk factors (LRFs) and increase awareness of patient safety issues amongst OR staff. Methods Latent risk factors were studied using a validated questionnaire applied to the OR staff before and after an intervention. A pre-test/post-test control group design with repeated measures was used to evaluate the effects of the interventions. The staff from one operating room of an university hospital acted as the intervention group. Controls consisted of the staff of the operating room in another university hospital. The outcomes were the changes in LRF scores, perceived incident rate, and changes in incident reports between pre- and post-intervention. Results Based on pre-test scores and participants’ key concerns about organizational factors affecting patient safety in their department the intervention focused on the following LRFs: Material Resources, Training and Staffing Recourses. After the intervention, the intervention operating room - compared to the control operating room - reported significantly fewer problems on Material Resources and Staffing Resources and a significantly lower score on perceived incident rate. The contribution of technical factors to incident causation decreased significantly in the intervention group after the intervention. Conclusion The change of state of latent risk factors can be measured using a patient safety questionnaire aimed at these factors. The change of the relevant risk factors (Material and Staffing resources) concurred with a decrease in perceived and reported incident rates in the relevant categories. We conclude that interventions aimed at unfavourable

  1. Making sense of Arctic maritime traffic using the Polar Operational Limits Assessment Risk Indexing System (POLARIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, M. A.; Etienne, L.; Fournier, M.; Pelot, R.; Beveridge, L.

    2016-04-01

    Maritime traffic volume in the Arctic is growing for several reasons: climate change is resulting in less ice in extent, duration, and thickness; economic drivers are inducing growth in resource extraction traffic, community size (affecting resupply) and adventure tourism. This dynamic situation, coupled with harsh weather, variable operating conditions, remoteness, and lack of straightforward emergency response options, demand robust risk management processes. The requirements for risk management for polar ship operations are specified in the new International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code). The goal of the Polar Code is to provide for safe ship operations and protection of the polar environment by addressing the risk present in polar waters. Risk management is supported by evidence-based models, including threat identification (types and frequency of hazards), exposure levels, and receptor characterization. Most of the information used to perform risk management in polar waters is attained in-situ, but increasingly is being augmented with open-access remote sensing information. In this paper we focus on the use of open-access historical ice charts as an integral part of northern navigation, especially for route planning and evaluation.

  2. Post-operative bleeding risk stratification in cardiac pulmonary bypass patients using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Huang, Richard S P; Nedelcu, Elena; Bai, Yu; Wahed, Amer; Klein, Kimberly; Tint, Hlaing; Gregoric, Igor; Patel, Manish; Kar, Biswajit; Loyalka, Pranav; Nathan, Sriram; Radovancevic, Rajko; Nguyen, Andy N D

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of bleeding risk in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) patients plays a vital role in their postoperative management. Therefore, an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyze intra-operative laboratory data to predict postoperative bleeding was set up. The JustNN software (Neural Planner Software, Cheshire, England) was used. This ANN was trained using 15 intra-operative laboratory parameters paired with one output category - risk of bleeding, defined as units of blood components transfused in 48 hours. The ANN was trained with the first 39 CPB cases. The set of input parameters for this ANN was also determined, and the ANN was validated with the next 13 cases. The set of input parameters include five components: pro-thrombin time, platelet count, thromboelastograph-reaction time, D-Dimer, and thromboelastograph-coagulation index. The validation results show 9 cases (69.2%) with exact match, 3 cases (23.1%) with one-grading difference, and 1 case (7.7%) with two-grading difference between actual blood usage versus predicted blood usage. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first ANN developed for post-operative bleeding risk stratification of CPB patients. With promising results, we have started using this ANN to risk-stratify our CPB patients, and it has assisted us in predicting post-operative bleeding risk. PMID:25887872

  3. The Ibn Battuta Centre: a facility to test operations, instruments and landing systems for Mars and Moon exploration (Marrakech, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, G. G.; Flamini, E.; Dell'Arciprete, I.; Taj-Eddine, K.

    2008-09-01

    The main aim of the Ibn Battuta Centre for exploration and field activities is to support the exploration of Mars and others planets, and to provide opportunity for scientists and the public for experiencing the exploration on Earth and in the Solar System. The Ibn Battuta Centre for exploration and field activities was established in 2006 by the International Research School of Planetary Sciences (Pescara, Italy) to prepare and execute tests of rovers, landing systems, instruments and operations related to the exploration of Mars and Moon. The Centre has a major partner, the Universite' Cadi Ayyad of Marrakech (Morocco) where it is located. The Centre is named after the famous Moroccan explorer Ibn Battuta (born in Tangier on 24th February 1304 - 703 Hijra) who explored a large part of Northern Africa and Asia. During his travels Ibn Battuta visited almost the entire Muslim world and travelled more than 120,000 kilometres.

  4. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis; Irons, James; Lunsford, Allen; Montanero, Matthew; Pellerano, Fernando; Richardson, Cathleen; Smith, Ramsey; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Thome, Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a joint NASA and United States Geological Survey (USGS) mission, is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC) under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will describe the design, capabilities and status of the OLI and TIRS instruments. The OLI will provide 8 channel multispectral images at a spatial resolution of 30 meters and panchromatic images at 15 meter spatial resolution. The TIRS is a 100 meter spatial resolution push-broom imager whose two spectral channels, centered at 10.8 and 12 microns, split the ETM+ thermal bands. The two channels allow the use of the "split-window" technique to aid in atmospheric correction. The TIRS focal plane consists of three Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) arrays to span the 185 km swath width. The OLI and TIRS instruments will be operated independently but in concert with each other. Data from both instruments will be merged into a single data stream at the (USGS)/Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) facility. The ground system, being developed by USGS, includes an Image Assessment System (lAS), similar to Landsat-7's, to operationally monitor, characterize and update the calibrations of the two sensors.

  5. Operational Derivation of Surface Albedo and Down-Welling Short-Wave Radiation in the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, B.; Carrer, D.; Meurey, C.; Roujean, J.-L.

    2006-08-01

    The Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Anal- ysis hosted by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute in Lisbon generates and distributes value added satellite products for numerical weather prediction and environ- mental applications in near-real time. Within the project consortium M´et´eo-France is responsible for the land sur- face albedo and down-welling short-wave radiation flux products. Since the beginning of the year 2005 Meteosat Second Generation data are routinely processed by the Land-SAF operational system. In general the validation studies carried out so far show a good consistency with in-situ observations or equivalent products derived from other satellites. After one year of operations a summary of the product characteristics and performances is given. Key words: Surface Albedo; Down-welling Radiation; Land-SAF.

  6. MAHLI on Mars: lessons learned operating a geoscience camera on a landed payload robotic arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian M.; McBride, Marie J.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Ravine, Michael A.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.

    2016-06-01

    The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) is a 2-megapixel, color camera with resolution as high as 13.9 µm pixel-1. MAHLI has operated successfully on the Martian surface for over 1150 Martian days (sols) aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity. During that time MAHLI acquired images to support science and science-enabling activities, including rock and outcrop textural analysis; sand characterization to further the understanding of global sand properties and processes; support of other instrument observations; sample extraction site documentation; range-finding for arm and instrument placement; rover hardware and instrument monitoring and safety; terrain assessment; landscape geomorphology; and support of rover robotic arm commissioning. Operation of the instrument has demonstrated that imaging fully illuminated, dust-free targets yields the best results, with complementary information obtained from shadowed images. The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) allow satisfactory night imaging but do not improve daytime shadowed imaging. MAHLI's combination of fine-scale, science-driven resolution, RGB color, the ability to focus over a large range of distances, and relatively large field of view (FOV), have maximized the return of science and science-enabling observations given the MSL mission architecture and constraints.

  7. A spatial risk assessment methodology to support the remediation of contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Carlon, Claudio; Pizzol, Lisa; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    When soil and groundwater contaminations occur over large areas, remediation measures should be spatially prioritized on the basis of the risk posed to human health and in compliance with technological and budget constraints. Within this scope, the application of human health risk assessment algorithms in a spatially resolved environment raises a number of methodological and technical complexities. In this paper, a methodology is proposed and applied in a case study to support the entire formulation process of remediation plans, encompassing hazard assessment, exposure assessment, risk characterisation, uncertainty assessment and allocation of risk reduction measures. In the hazard assessment, it supports the selection of Contaminants of Concern (CoC) with regard to both their average concentrations and peak concentrations, i.e. hot spots. In the exposure assessment, it provides a zoning of the site based on the geostatistical mapping of contaminant. In the risk characterisation, it generates vector maps of Risk Factors on the basis of the risk posed by multiple substances and allows the interrogation of most relevant CoC and exposure pathways for each zone of the site. It also supports the Monte Carlo based probabilistic estimation of the Risk Factors and generates maps of the associated uncertainty. In the risk reduction phase, it supports the formulation of remediation plans based on the stepwise spatial allocation of remediation interventions and the on-time simulation of risk reduction performances. The application of this methodology is fully supported by an easy-to-use and customized Geographical Information System and does not require high expertise for interpretation. The proposed methodology is the core module of a Decision Support System (DSS) that was implemented in the DESYRE software aimed at supporting the risk-based remediation of megasites. PMID:18031816

  8. Ecological Niche Modeling and Land Cover Risk Areas for Rift Valley Fever Vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Mohamed F.; Al Ahmed, Azzam M.; Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Abdullah, Mohamed A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The mosquito, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles is a prevalent and confirmed Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) vector. This vector, in association with Aedimorphus arabiensis (Patton), was responsible for causing the outbreak of 2000 in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. Methodology/Principal Findings Larval occurrence records and a total of 19 bioclimatic and three topographic layers imported from Worldclim Database were used to predict the larval suitable breeding habitats for this vector in Jazan Province using ArcGIS ver.10 and MaxEnt modeling program. Also, a supervised land cover classification from SPOT5 imagery was developed to assess the land cover distribution within the suitable predicted habitats. Eleven bioclimatic and slope attributes were found to be the significant predictors for this larval suitable breeding habitat. Precipitation and temperature were strong predictors of mosquito distribution. Among six land cover classes, the linear regression model (LM) indicated wet muddy substrate is significantly associated with high-very high suitable predicted habitats (R2 = 73.7%, P<0.05). Also, LM indicated that total dissolved salts (TDS) was a significant contributor (R2 = 23.9%, P<0.01) in determining mosquito larval abundance. Conclusion/Significance This model is a first step in understanding the spatial distribution of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and consequently the risk of RVFV in Saudi Arabia and to assist in planning effective mosquito surveillance and control programs by public health personnel and researchers. PMID:23762424

  9. The effects of lead sources on oral bioaccessibility in soil and implications for contaminated land risk management.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sherry; McIlwaine, Rebekka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Cox, Siobhan F; McKinley, Jennifer M; Doherty, Rory; Wragg, Joanna; Cave, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Lead (Pb) is a non-threshold toxin capable of inducing toxic effects at any blood level but availability of soil screening criteria for assessing potential health risks is limited. The oral bioaccessibility of Pb in 163 soil samples was attributed to sources through solubility estimation and domain identification. Samples were extracted following the Unified BARGE Method. Urban, mineralisation, peat and granite domains accounted for elevated Pb concentrations compared to rural samples. High Pb solubility explained moderate-high gastric (G) bioaccessible fractions throughout the study area. Higher maximum G concentrations were measured in urban (97.6 mg kg(-1)) and mineralisation (199.8 mg kg(-1)) domains. Higher average G concentrations occurred in mineralisation (36.4 mg kg(-1)) and granite (36.0 mg kg(-1)) domains. Findings suggest diffuse anthropogenic and widespread geogenic contamination could be capable of presenting health risks, having implications for land management decisions in jurisdictions where guidance advises these forms of pollution should not be regarded as contaminated land. PMID:25603155

  10. Characterization of thigh and shank segment angular velocity during jump landing tasks commonly used to evaluate risk for ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Ariel V; Favre, Julien; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2012-09-01

    The dynamic movements associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during jump landing suggest that limb segment angular velocity can provide important information for understanding the conditions that lead to an injury. Angular velocity measures could provide a quick and simple method of assessing injury risk without the constraints of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-subject variations and the sensitivity of the thigh and shank segment angular velocity in order to determine if these measures could be used to characterize jump landing mechanisms. Additionally, this study tested the correlation between angular velocity and the knee abduction moment. Thirty-six healthy participants (18 male) performed drop jumps with bilateral and unilateral landing. Thigh and shank angular velocities were measured by a wearable inertial-based system, and external knee moments were measured using a marker-based system. Discrete parameters were extracted from the data and compared between systems. For both jumping tasks, the angular velocity curves were well defined movement patterns with high inter-subject similarity in the sagittal plane and moderate to good similarity in the coronal and transverse planes. The angular velocity parameters were also able to detect differences between the two jumping tasks that were consistent across subjects. Furthermore, the coronal angular velocities were significantly correlated with the knee abduction moment (R of 0.28-0.51), which is a strong indicator of ACL injury risk. This study suggested that the thigh and shank angular velocities, which describe the angular dynamics of the movement, should be considered in future studies about ACL injury mechanisms. PMID:22938373

  11. How rural land use management facilitates drought risk adaptation in a changing climate - A case study in arid northern China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yongdeng; Zhang, Hailin; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-04-15

    Under a warming climate, frequent drought and water scarcity in northern China have severely disrupted agricultural production and posed a substantial threat to farmers' livelihoods. Based on first-hand data collected through in-depth interviews with local managers and farmer households, this study evaluated the effectiveness of rural land use management in mitigating drought risk, ensuring food security and improving farmers' livelihoods. Our findings indicate that a) reforestation on low-yield cropland not only can improve the eco-environment but can also prominently mitigate the production risk to local farmers; b) replacing the traditional border irrigation with sprinkler irrigation has substantially curbed agricultural water usage and increased the per unit of output; and c) in recent years, instead of planting water-intensive grain crops, local farmers cultivated more forage crops to raise animals, which greatly diversified their income sources and reduced the drought risk of agricultural production. By performing an empirical case study in drought-prone Inner Mongolia, this study provides decision-makers with insights into how to strategically adapt to drought risk and reduce rural poverty within the broader context of climate change. PMID:26815296

  12. Risk assessment of maintenance operations: the analysis of performing task and accident mechanism.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Guadix, Jose; Onieva, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance operations cover a great number of occupations. Most small and medium-sized enterprises lack the appropriate information to conduct risk assessments of maintenance operations. The objective of this research is to provide a method based on the concepts of task and accident mechanisms for an initial risk assessment by taking into consideration the prevalence and severity of the maintenance accidents reported. Data were gathered from 11,190 reported accidents in maintenance operations in the manufacturing sector of Andalusia from 2003 to 2012. By using a semi-quantitative methodology, likelihood and severity were evaluated based on the actual distribution of accident mechanisms in each of the tasks. Accident mechanisms and tasks were identified by using those variables included in the European Statistics of Accidents at Work methodology. As main results, the estimated risk of the most frequent accident mechanisms identified for each of the analysed tasks is low and the only accident mechanisms with medium risk are accidents when lifting or pushing with physical stress on the musculoskeletal system in tasks involving carrying, and impacts against objects after slipping or stumbling for tasks involving movements. The prioritisation of public preventive actions for the accident mechanisms with a higher estimated risk is highly recommended. PMID:25179119

  13. [Risk of noise-induced hearing loss in farm tractor operators].

    PubMed

    Solecki, L

    2001-01-01

    Studies of noise at work site of tractor operators showed that this parameter exceeds allowable values. In order to evaluate the risk of hearing loss in this occupational group, noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) values were determined. This parameter is a function of the audiometric frequency, duration of occupational exposure and noise exposure level (LEX,8 h). The procedure recommended by ISO-1999/1990 was used for calculations. The study covered two groups of operators: operators of ZM "Ursus" medium-power tractors (noise exposure level: LEX,8 h = 96.6 dB) and operators of high-power tractors of the same manufacture (LEX,8 h = 89.6 dB) The risk of hearing impairment was determined for the group of men aged 50 years, occupationally exposed to noise for a period of 30 years. The calculation was based on the mean value of expected hearing loss for three selected audiometric frequencies: 1000; 2000; and 4000 Hz. The study showed that the average (median; N0.50) expected hearing loss, excluding that associated with age, after 30 years of employment was 15 dB for operators of medium-power farm tractors, and 6 dB for operators of high-power tractors. The risk of hearing impairment due to occupational exposure to noise (exceeding the maximum allowable hearing loss of 27 dB; according to ISO-1999/1990) that may cause an acoustic trauma was 37.9% for medium-power tractors and 13.0% for high-power tractors. The results of the study show that noise at workplaces of farm tractor operators creates a high risk of hearing impairment. PMID:11761672

  14. Some insights in novel risk modeling of liquefied natural gas carrier maintenance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaoha, T. C.; John, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches and maintenance techniques applicable to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. Various novel modeling techniques are discussed; including genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning. We also identify the usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling.

  15. 77 FR 30560 - Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Operating Reactors'' published on September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507). The draft Generic Letter, ``Seismic Risk...: On September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507), the NRC published for public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX..., 2011 (76 FR 57767), the NRC issued a correction and extended the public comment period to November...

  16. Cardiac evaluation and risk reduction in patients undergoing major vascular operations.

    PubMed Central

    Potyk, D K

    1994-01-01

    Occult coronary artery disease often accompanies symptomatic peripheral vascular disease and has an important effect on survival. Most perioperative and late fatalities after peripheral vascular operations are due to cardiac causes. Noninvasive cardiac testing can identify patients at increased risk for postoperative cardiac complications, although controversy exists regarding the optimal preoperative evaluation. Risk reduction strategies for patients known to be at high risk are also controversial. Some authors advocate coronary revascularization with coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty before the vascular procedure. Others believe that the combined morbidity and mortality of 2 operations exceed those of a peripheral vascular operation performed with aggressive monitoring and medical therapy. Continuous electrocardiographic monitoring after an operation has identified silent myocardial ischemia as a powerful predictor of cardiac complications. Ongoing research is likely to provide insights into the pathogenesis of postoperative cardiac complications and may lead to specific therapeutic interventions. Few prospective studies have been done in this area, and the threshold for preoperative and postoperative intervention is unknown. I review the literature and present an algorithm to guide cardiac testing and risk reduction in patients undergoing elective vascular surgical procedures. PMID:7941507

  17. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant of risk. 460.45 Section 460.45 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch...

  18. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant of risk. 460.45 Section 460.45 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch...

  19. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant of risk. 460.45 Section 460.45 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch...

  20. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant of risk. 460.45 Section 460.45 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch...

  1. 14 CFR 460.45 - Operator informing space flight participant of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operator informing space flight participant of risk. 460.45 Section 460.45 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch...

  2. Some insights in novel risk modeling of liquefied natural gas carrier maintenance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaoha, T. C.; John, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches and maintenance techniques applicable to the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. Various novel modeling techniques are discussed; including genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning. We also identify the usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling.

  3. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2016-02-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable individual vessel accident risk levels and shoreline contamination risk from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - the Portuguese continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time, or as an alternative, a correction factor based on vessel distance from coast. Shoreline risks can be computed in real time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns ("hot spots") or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real

  4. An Integrated Risk Approach for Assessing the Use of Ensemble Streamflow Forecasts in Hydroelectric Reservoir Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, T. S.; Wigmosta, M.; Barco, J.; Voisin, N.; Bier, A.; Coleman, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an integrated risk approach using ensemble streamflow forecasts for optimizing hydro-electric power generation. Uncertainty in the streamflow forecasts are translated into integrated risk by calculating the deviation of an optimized release schedule that simultaneously maximizes power generation and environmental performance from release schedules that maximize the two objectives individually. The deviations from each target are multiplied by the probability of occurrence and then summed across all probabilities to get the integrated risk. The integrated risk is used to determine which operational scheme exposes the operator to the least amount of risk or conversely, what are the consequences of basing future operations on a particular prediction. Decisions can be made with regards to the tradeoff between power generation, environmental performance, and exposure to risk. The Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization for Power and Environment (HydroSCOPE) model developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to model the flow, temperature, and power generation and is coupled with the DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) optimization package to identify the maximum potential power generation, the maximum environmental performance, and the optimal operational scheme that maximizes both for each instance of the ensemble forecasts. The ensemble forecasts were developed in a collaborative effort between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington to develop an Enhanced Hydrologic Forecasting System (EHFS) that incorporates advanced ensemble forecasting approaches and algorithms, spatiotemporal datasets, and automated data acquisition and processing. Both the HydroSCOPE model and the EHFS forecast tool are being developed as part of a larger, multi-laboratory water-use optimization project funded through the US Department of Energy. The simulations were based on the

  5. Evaluating Anthropogenic Risk of Grassland and Forest Habitat Degradation Using Land-Cover Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of landscape context on habitat quality are receiving increased attention in conservation biology. The objective of this research is to demonstrate an approach to mapping and evaluating the anthropogenic risks of grassland and forest habitat degradation by examining ...

  6. Surface knowledge and risks to landing and roving - The scale problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourke, Roger D.

    1991-01-01

    The role of surface information in the performance of surface exploration missions is discussed. Accurate surface models based on direct measurements or inference are considered to be an important component in mission risk management. These models can be obtained using high resolution orbital photography or a combination of laser profiling, thermal inertia measurements, and/or radar. It is concluded that strategies for Martian exploration should use high confidence models to achieve maximum performance and low risk.

  7. Atmospheric Risk Assessment for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Allen; Vasavada, Ashwin; Cianciolo, Alicia; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Dan; Hinson, David; Lewis, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. As with previous Mars landers, atmospheric conditions during entry, descent, and landing directly impact the performance of MSL's EDL system. While the vehicle's novel guided entry system allows it to "fly out" a range of atmospheric uncertainties, its trajectory through the atmosphere creates a variety of atmospheric sensitivities not present on previous Mars entry systems and landers. Given the mission's stringent landing capability requirements, understanding the atmosphere state and spacecraft sensitivities takes on heightened importance. MSL's guided entry trajectory differs significantly from recent Mars landers and includes events that generate different atmospheric sensitivities than past missions. The existence of these sensitivities and general advancement in the state of Mars atmospheric knowledge has led the MSL team to employ new atmosphere modeling techniques in addition to past practices. A joint EDL engineering and Mars atmosphere science and modeling team has been created to identify the key system sensitivities, gather available atmospheric data sets, develop relevant atmosphere models, and formulate methods to integrate atmosphere information into EDL performance assessments. The team consists of EDL engineers, project science staff, and Mars atmospheric scientists from a variety of institutions. This paper provides an overview of the system performance sensitivities that have driven the atmosphere modeling approach, discusses the atmosphere data sets and models employed by the team as a result of the identified sensitivities, and introduces the tools used to translate atmospheric knowledge into quantitative EDL performance assessments.

  8. Off-Premise Alcohol Outlets On and Around Tribal Land: Risks for Rural California Indian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.; Roberts, Jennifer; Nelson, Nadeana; Calac, Daniel; Gilder, David A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the alcohol environment for rural American Indian youth, we conducted 70 interviews with leading members and youth representatives of nine Southern California tribes. We also conducted brief observations in all 13 stores licensed to sell alcohol on and close to the reservation lands of the nine tribes. Underage youth may obtain alcoholic beverages at stores either directly through illegal sales to minors or indirectly through social sources. Stores are also environments within which alcoholic beverages and heavy drinking may become normalized for youth. Limitations and implications for convenience store-based prevention research on alcohol retail environment for youth in rural population areas are discussed. PMID:25529892

  9. Terraced landscape: from an old best practice to a rising land abandoned-related soil erosion risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Preti, Federico; Romano, Nunzio

    2013-04-01

    Among the most evident landscape signatures of human fingerprint during the Holocene, the terraces related to agricultural activities deserve a great importance. Landscape terracing probably represents one of the oldest best practice primarily for crop production, but also for mitigating soil erosion and stabilizing hillslopes in landforms dominated by steep slopes. This technique is widely used in various parts of the world even under different environmental conditions. In some zones, terraced landscapes, because of their history and locations, can also be considered a historical heritage and a sort of "cultural landscape" to preserve, an absolutely value for tourism. To preserve their original role of soil erosion prevention, terraces should be properly designed built according to specific and sustainable engineering rules. Then, their maintenance is the most critical issue to deal with. It is well known from literature that terraced landscapes subject to abandonment would result in an increasing of terrace failure and related land degradation. If not maintained, a progressively increasing of gully erosion affects the structure of the walls. The results of this process is the increasing of connectivity and runoff. During the last few years and partly because of changing in the society perspective and migration toward metropolitan areas, some Countries have been affected by a serious and wider land abandonment with an increasing of soil erosion and derived landslide risk. Italy is one example. In this work, we consider three typical case studies of a terraced landscape where the lack of maintenance characterizing the last few years, increased the landslide risk with several problems to the population. The first case study is located along the renowed "Amalfi Coast" (a portion of land located near Salerno, southern Italy), the second is placed in the north of Toscana (a region located in Central Italy), and the third one along the so-called "Cinque Terre" (a region

  10. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2015-07-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable shoreline risk levels from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - Portuguese Continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time. Shoreline risks can be computed in real-time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns, "hot spots" or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real time risk levels can be used in the prioritization of individual ships, geographical areas, strategic tug positioning and

  11. The need for an improved risk index for phosphorus losses to water from tile-drained agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulén, Barbro; Djodjic, Faruk; Etana, Araso; Johansson, Göran; Lindström, Jan

    2011-03-01

    SummaryA refined version of a conditional phosphorus risk index (PRI) for P losses to waters was developed based on monitoring and analyses of PRI factors from an agricultural catchment in Sweden. The catchment has a hummocky landscape of heavy glacial till overlying moraine and an overall balanced soil P level. Single P source factors and combinations of factors were tested and discussed together with water movement and water management factors important for catchments dominated by drained clay soils. An empirical relationship was established (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.861, p < 0.001) between phosphorus sorption index (PSI-CaCl 2), measured in a weak calcium chloride solution, and iron (Fe-AL) aluminium (Al-AL) and phosphorus (P-AL) in soil extract with acid ammonium lactate. Differing relationships were found for a field that had not received any manure in the last 15 years and a field that had received chicken litter very recently. In addition, a general relationship (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.839, p < 0.001) was found between the ratio of phosphorus extracted from fresh soil in water (Pw) to PSI-CaCl 2 and the degree of phosphorus saturation in lactate extract (DPS-AL). One exception was a single field, representing 7% of agricultural land in the catchment, that had been treated with glyphosate shortly before soil sampling. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) in heavy clay in contact with the moraine base (at 1 m depth) was on average 0.06 m day -1. In clay not in contact with moraine, SHC was significantly lower (mean 0.007 m day -1). A reduction in the present tile drain spacing (from 14-16 m to 11 m) is theoretically required to maintain satisfactory water discharge and groundwater level. Up to 10% of the arable land was estimated to be a potential source area for P, based on different indices. Parts of a few fields close to farm buildings (1% of total arable land) were identified as essential P source areas, with high DPS-AL values and

  12. Malaria entomological risk factors in relation to land cover in the Lower Caura River Basin, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Bevilacqua, Mariapia; Medina, Domingo Alberto; Moreno, Jorge Ernesto; Cárdenas, Lya; Sánchez, Víctor; Estrada, Yarys; Anaya, William; Martínez, Ángela

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effects of deforestation and resulting differences in vegetation and land cover on entomological parameters, such as anopheline species composition, abundance, biting rate, parity and entomological inoculation rate (EIR), three villages were selected in the Lower Caura River Basin, state of Bolívar, Venezuela. All-night mosquito collections were conducted between March 2008-January 2009 using CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnet(r) Liberty Plus. Human landing catches were performed between 06:00 pm-10:00 pm, when anophelines were most active. Four types of vegetation were identified. The Annual Parasite Index was not correlated with the type of vegetation. The least abundantly forested village had the highest anopheline abundance, biting rate and species diversity. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles nuneztovari were the most abundant species and were collected in all three villages. Both species showed unique biting cycles. The more abundantly forested village of El Palmar reported the highest EIR. The results confirmed previous observations that the impacts of deforestation and resulting changes in vegetation cover on malaria transmission are complex and vary locally. PMID:23579803

  13. Vegetation change, erosion risk and land management on the Nullarbor Plain, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillieson, D.; Wallbrink, P.; Cochrane, A.

    1996-10-01

    Arid karst landscapes that have been degraded by human activities provide a challenge for rehabilitation and an opportunity to test ideas about the stability and resilience of limestone ecosystems. The Nullarbor Plain is the largest arid karst area in Australia (220 000 km2) and is divided into extensive closed karstic depressions separated by low rocky ridges, while the dominant vegetation is chenopod shrubland. Since European settlement there has been considerable change in the vegetation, with significant reduction in shrub and grass cover over large areas of the plain. These changes are related to a state and transition model of vegetation dynamics which incorporates climatic variability, fire history and grazing pressure from sheep, kangaroos and rabbits. A partial sediment budget using 137Cs inventories reveals local and regional patterns of soil redistribution within this arid karst landscape. Rehabilitation of eroded soil in pastoral lands has been accomplished at several sites but is labour intensive and vulnerable to climatic fluctuations. Given the low stock numbers, limited number of people involved, and poor economic returns, it would be sensible to make pastoral activities on the Nullarbor secondary to conservation priorities. This would necessitate a change in land ethic to stewardship, with emphasis on rehabilitation and control of feral animals. Management of increased numbers of visitors to the caves and karst also requires that resource inventories and management plans for each area be drawn up and used.

  14. Malaria entomological risk factors in relation to land cover in the Lower Caura River Basin, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Yasmin; Bevilacqua, Mariapia; Medina, Domingo Alberto; Moreno, Jorge Ernesto; Cárdenas, Lya; Sánchez, Víctor; Estrada, Yarys; Anaya, William; Martínez, Ángela

    2013-04-01

    To explore the effects of deforestation and resulting differences in vegetation and land cover on entomological parameters, such as anopheline species composition, abundance, biting rate, parity and entomological inoculation rate (EIR), three villages were selected in the Lower Caura River Basin, state of Bolívar, Venezuela. All-night mosquito collections were conducted between March 2008-January 2009 using CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnet® Liberty Plus. Human landing catches were performed between 06:00 pm-10:00 pm, when anophelines were most active. Four types of vegetation were identified. The Annual Parasite Index was not correlated with the type of vegetation. The least abundantly forested village had the highest anopheline abundance, biting rate and species diversity. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles nuneztovari were the most abundant species and were collected in all three villages. Both species showed unique biting cycles. The more abundantly forested village of El Palmar reported the highest EIR. The results confirmed previous observations that the impacts of deforestation and resulting changes in vegetation cover on malaria transmission are complex and vary locally. PMID:23579803

  15. The Use of a Vehicle Acceleration Exposure Limit Model and a Finite Element Crash Test Dummy Model to Evaluate the Risk of Injuries During Orion Crew Module Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Tabiei, Ala; Brinkley, James W.; Shemwell, David M.

    2008-01-01

    A review of astronaut whole body impact tolerance is discussed for land or water landings of the next generation manned space capsule named Orion. LS-DYNA simulations of Orion capsule landings are performed to produce a low, moderate, and high probability of injury. The paper evaluates finite element (FE) seat and occupant simulations for assessing injury risk for the Orion crew and compares these simulations to whole body injury models commonly referred to as the Brinkley criteria. The FE seat and crash dummy models allow for varying the occupant restraint systems, cushion materials, side constraints, flailing of limbs, and detailed seat/occupant interactions to minimize landing injuries to the crew. The FE crash test dummies used in conjunction with the Brinkley criteria provides a useful set of tools for predicting potential crew injuries during vehicle landings.

  16. Setting priorities for private land conservation in fire-prone landscapes: Are fire risk reduction and biodiversity conservation competing or compatible objectives?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Butsic, Van; Bar-Massada, Avi; Keeley, Jon E.; Tracey, Jeff A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Although wildfire plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity in many ecosystems, fire management to protect human assets is often carried out by different agencies than those tasked for conserving biodiversity. In fact, fire risk reduction and biodiversity conservation are often viewed as competing objectives. Here we explored the role of management through private land conservation and asked whether we could identify private land acquisition strategies that fulfill the mutual objectives of biodiversity conservation and fire risk reduction, or whether the maximization of one objective comes at a detriment to the other. Using a fixed budget and number of homes slated for development, we simulated 20 years of housing growth under alternative conservation selection strategies, and then projected the mean risk of fires destroying structures and the area and configuration of important habitat types in San Diego County, California, USA. We found clear differences in both fire risk projections and biodiversity impacts based on the way conservation lands are prioritized for selection, but these differences were split between two distinct groupings. If no conservation lands were purchased, or if purchases were prioritized based on cost or likelihood of development, both the projected fire risk and biodiversity impacts were much higher than if conservation lands were purchased in areas with high fire hazard or high species richness. Thus, conserving land focused on either of the two objectives resulted in nearly equivalent mutual benefits for both. These benefits not only resulted from preventing development in sensitive areas, but they were also due to the different housing patterns and arrangements that occurred as development was displaced from those areas. Although biodiversity conflicts may still arise using other fire management strategies, this study shows that mutual objectives can be attained through land-use planning in this region. These results likely

  17. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lighters can be operated by young children, rather than to regulate such risks under the Federal Hazardous... the lighters can be operated by young children shall be regulated under one or more provisions of...

  18. 16 CFR 1145.17 - Multi-purpose lighters that can be operated by children; risks of death or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... lighters can be operated by young children, rather than to regulate such risks under the Federal Hazardous... the lighters can be operated by young children shall be regulated under one or more provisions of...

  19. REVISION AND UPDATE OF METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING EXPOSURE AND RISK FROM LAND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a result of their regulatory reform efforts, the Office of Solid Waste (OS) has recently (11/99) introduced a new open-architecture, multimedia, multi-pathway, and multi-receptor exposure and risk assessment methodology designed to support their Hazardous Waste Identification ...

  20. National Assessment of Risk from Land-based Waste Disposal, US

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecting human health and the environment from significant risks posed by stressors of both natural and anthropogenic origin. An important activity in this context is the setting of regulatory standards. One exam...

  1. Modeling the effect of operator and passenger characteristics on the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: In Iran more than 25% of crash fatalities belong to motorcycle operators and passengers in the recent years, from which about 20% are related to passenger fatalities. Methods: The aim of this study was to investigate the motorcycle operator and passenger characteristics as well as other contributory factors that may affect the fatality risk of motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes. To this end, motorcycle crash data between 2009 and 2012 was extracted from Iran traffic crash database and a logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratio estimates for each of the study variables. Results: The fatality risk of motorcyclists has a direct relationship with the number of pillion passengers carried. Results also indicate that the amount of increase in the likelihood of having a fatality in a motorcycles crash is considerably higher when the operator is accompanied by a male passenger of the same age. Furthermore, results showed that if the crash is occurred in the darkness, on curves, in rural areas and on highways, then the crash would be more likely to be fatal. Moreover, the head-on collisions, older operators, unlicensed operators and not using a safety helmet were found to increase the likelihood of a fatality in a motorcycle crash. Conclusions: Preventative measures such as, imposing stricter rules regarding safety helmet usage and confining the number of pillion passengers to one, might be implemented to reduce the fatality risk in motorcycle crashes. In addition, more appropriate infrastructures for penalizing offending motorcyclists could also reduce the frequency of law violations such as not wearing helmet or riding without motorcycle license, which in turn, would result into a reduction in the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes. PMID:26420217

  2. Novel Clinical Scale for Evaluating Pre-Operative Risk of Cerebral Herniation from Traumatic Epidural Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Wang, Wen-Hao; Hu, Lian-Shui; Li, Jun; Luo, Fei; Lin, Jun-Ming; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yuan; Hu, Kang; Zheng, Jian-Xian

    2016-06-01

    Secondary massive cerebral infarction (MCI) is the predominant prognostic factor for cerebral herniation from epidural hematoma (EDH) and determines the need for decompressive craniectomy. In this study, we tested the clinical feasibility and reliability of a novel pre-operative risk scoring system, the EDH-MCI scale, to guide surgical decision making. It is comprised of six risk factors, including hematoma location and volume, duration and extent of cerebral herniation, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and presence of preoperative shock, with a total score ranging from 0 to 18 points. Application of the EDH-MCI scale to guide surgical modalities for initial hematoma evacuation surgery for 65 patients (prospective cohort, 2012.02-2014.01) showed a significant improvement in the accuracy of the selected modality (95.38% vs. 77.95%; p = 0.002) relative to the results for an independent set of 126 patients (retrospective cohort, 2007.01-2012.01) for whom surgical modalities were decided empirically. Results suggested that simple hematoma evacuation craniotomy was sufficient for patients with low risk scores (≤9 points), whereas decompressive craniectomy in combination with duraplasty were necessary only for those with high risk scores (≥13 points). In patients with borderline risk scores (10-12 points), those having unstable vital signs, coexistence of severe secondary brainstem injury, and unresponsive dilated pupils after emergent burr hole hematoma drainage had a significantly increased incidence of post-traumatic MCI and necessity of radical surgical treatments. In conclusion, the novel pre-operative risk EDH-MCI evaluation scale has a satisfactory predictive and discriminative performance for patients who are at risk for the development of secondary MCI and therefore require decompressive craniectomy. PMID:25393339

  3. Pre-operative factors indicating risk of multiple operations versus a single operation in women undergoing surgery for screen detected breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, E A M; Currie, R J; Mohammed, K; Allen, S D; Michell, M J

    2013-02-01

    We aim to identify preoperative factors at diagnosis which could predict whether women undergoing wide local excision (WLE) would require further operations. 1593 screen-detected invasive and non-invasive breast cancers were reviewed. Age, presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive cancer size on mammography, mammographic sign, tumour type, grade and confidence of the radiologist in malignancy were compared. 83%(1315/1593) of women had a WLE. Of these, 70%(919/1315) had a single operation, and 30%(396/1315) multiple operations. These included repeat WLE to clear margins (60%(238/396)), mastectomy (34%(133/396)) and axillary dissection (6%(25/396)). The presence of mammographic microcalcification, lobular carcinoma and grade 2 malignancy on core biopsy were independent risk factors for multiple operations on multivariate analysis. Women with mammographic DCIS >30 mm were 3.4 times more likely to undergo repeat surgery than those with smaller foci. The multidisciplinary team should pay particular attention to these factors when planning surgery. PMID:22789490

  4. Estrogenicity and Nutrient Concentration of Surface Waters Surrounding a Large Confinement Dairy Operation Using Best Management Practices for Land Application of Animal Wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of a confinement dairy operation (> 2,000 head) using best management practices for land application of animal wastes, on estrogenic activity (E-Screen), estrogens, and nutrients of associated surface waters and tile drain runoff were evaluated. Farm tile drain and creek samples were col...

  5. Predictive Modeling of West Nile Virus Transmission Risk in the Mediterranean Basin: How Far from Landing?

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Véronique; Tran, Annelise; Durand, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The impact on human and horse health of West Nile fever (WNF) recently and dramatically increased in Europe and neighboring countries. Involving several mosquito and wild bird species, WNF epidemiology is complex. Despite the implementation of surveillance systems in several countries of concern, and due to a lack of knowledge, outbreak occurrence remains unpredictable. Statistical models may help identifying transmission risk factors. When spatialized, they provide tools to identify areas that are suitable for West Nile virus transmission. Mathematical models may be used to improve our understanding of epidemiological process involved, to evaluate the impact of environmental changes or test the efficiency of control measures. We propose a systematic literature review of publications aiming at modeling the processes involved in WNF transmission in the Mediterranean Basin. The relevance of the corresponding models as predictive tools for risk mapping, early warning and for the design of surveillance systems in a changing environment is analyzed. PMID:24362544

  6. Predictive modeling of West Nile virus transmission risk in the Mediterranean Basin: how far from landing?

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Véronique; Tran, Annelise; Durand, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    The impact on human and horse health of West Nile fever (WNF) recently and dramatically increased in Europe and neighboring countries. Involving several mosquito and wild bird species, WNF epidemiology is complex. Despite the implementation of surveillance systems in several countries of concern, and due to a lack of knowledge, outbreak occurrence remains unpredictable. Statistical models may help identifying transmission risk factors. When spatialized, they provide tools to identify areas that are suitable for West Nile virus transmission. Mathematical models may be used to improve our understanding of epidemiological process involved, to evaluate the impact of environmental changes or test the efficiency of control measures. We propose a systematic literature review of publications aiming at modeling the processes involved in WNF transmission in the Mediterranean Basin. The relevance of the corresponding models as predictive tools for risk mapping, early warning and for the design of surveillance systems in a changing environment is analyzed. PMID:24362544

  7. Risk-based parameter selection for short-term reservoir operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonovic, Slobodan P.; Venema, Henry D.; Burn, Donald H.

    1992-02-01

    A methodology has been developed to determine the optimal operating horizon for short-term reservoir operation. The modelling procedure includes: (1) an adaptive forecasting algorithm; (2) a real-time reservoir operation model; (3) a multiobjective compromise programming algorithm. The compromise programming algorithm utilizes a multiobjective compromise between the conflicting objectives of hydrologic forecast reliability and reservoir operation penalties. The algorithm requires predetermined weights defining the relative importance of the two objectives. This paper presents a risk-based methodology developed to help a decision maker in selecting the appropriate weights. Reliability, vulnerability, and resiliency are used as three risk-based criteria for assisting in selection of the weights. The methodology is presented in the form of a rule-based system designed to aid the user in the selection process. The methodology is illustrated through an application of the technique to the operation of Green Reservoir in Kentucky. The reservoir model is implemented for four different historical periods and its performance in terms of total penalties, reliability, vulnerability, and resiliency is presented as a function of the multi-objective weighting parameters. The rule-based expert system is then used for deriving recommendations regarding the selection of appropriate weights. The paper also discusses the rule-based expert system development tool, used in this research.

  8. An assessment of the risk significance of human errors in selected PSAs and operating events

    SciTech Connect

    Palla, R.L. Jr.; El-Bassioni, A. . Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation); Higgins, J. )

    1991-01-01

    Sensitivity studies based on Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) for a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor are described. In each case human errors modeled in the PSAs were categorized according to such factors as error type, location, timing, and plant personnel involved. Sensitivity studies were then conducted by varying the error rates in each category and evaluating the corresponding change in total core damage frequency and accident sequence frequency. Insights obtained are discussed and reasons for differences in risk sensitivity between plants are explored. A separate investigation into the role of human error in risk-important operating events is also described. This investigation involved the analysis of data from the USNRC Accident Sequence Precursor program to determine the effect of operator-initiated events on accident precursor trends, and to determine whether improved training can be correlated to current trends. The findings of this study are also presented. 5 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Pre-operative risk factors associated with need for vasoepididymostomy at the time of vasectomy reversal.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M E; Anderson, R E; Ostrowski, K A; Brant, W O; Fuchs, E F

    2016-01-01

    The absence of sperm in the ejaculate after vasectomy reversal is commonly caused by failure to recognize and subsequently bypass epididymal or proximal vasal obstruction at the time of vasectomy reversal. If intra-operative proximal obstruction is suspected, vasoepididymostomy (VE) is recommended rather than vasovasostomy (VV). We sought to calculate the associated risk of needing VE, rather than VV with time from original vasectomy (obstructive interval) using a large cohort of vasectomy reversal patients. We reviewed the electronic and paper vasectomy reversal database by a single surgeon from 1978 through 2012. We performed univariate analysis to identify variables that predicted the need for VE rather than VV, and then combined only significant univariates into our multi-variable analysis. 2697 total men underwent vasectomy reversal, and 239 were repeat procedures. Of the 5296 individual testes operated on, 1029 were VE. Significant variables that predicted the need for VE on univariate analysis included: age, obstructive time interval, vasectomy reversal after previous VV (repeat vasectomy reversal), and year the procedure was performed. On multi-variable analysis significant risk factors for VE were age above 50 (OR 1.36), repeat vasectomy reversal (OR 5.78), and greater obstructive time interval (OR 1.56). For every 3 years since original vasectomy, the risk of needing VE increases by 56%. There is a linear relationship between obstructive interval and need for VE. Men undergoing repeat vasectomy reversal have five times greater risk of requiring VE and men greater than 50 years of age are also at higher risk. Using these pre-operative predictors is helpful in identifying patients who will benefit from referral to an experienced surgeon who can perform VE. PMID:26663812

  10. Benchmarking an operational procedure for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Kalas, Milan; Bianchi, Alessandra; Feyen, Luc

    2016-04-01

    The development of real-time methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is crucial to improve emergency response and mitigate flood impacts. This work describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on the flood predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). The daily forecasts produced for the major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, based on the hydro-meteorological dataset of EFAS. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in near real-time in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, affected population, infrastructures and cities. An extensive testing of the operational procedure is carried out using the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-derived flood footprints, while ground-based estimations of economic damage and affected population is compared against modelled estimates. We evaluated the skill of flood hazard and risk estimations derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations. The assessment includes a comparison of several alternative approaches to produce and present the information content, in order to meet the requests of EFAS users. The tests provided good results and showed the potential of the developed real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  11. GEMAS: Mercury in European agricultural and grazing land soils - sources and environmental risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tore Ottesen, Rolf; Birke, Manfred; Gosar, Mateja; Reimann, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural (Ap, Ap-horizon, 0-20 cm) and grasing land soil samples (Gr, 0-10 cm) were collected from a large part of Europe (33 countries, 5.6 million km2) at an average density of 1 sample site/2500 km2. The resulting more than 2 x 2000 soil samples were air dried, sieved to <2 mm and analysed for their Hg concentrations following an aqua regia extraction. Median concentrations for Hg are 0.030 mg/kg (range: <0.003 - 1.56 mg/kg) for the Ap samples and 0.035 mg/kg (range:<0.003 - 3.12 mg/kg) for the Gr samples. Only 5 Ap and 10 Gr samples returned Hg concentrations above 0.5 mg/kg. In the geochemical maps the continental-scale distribution of the element is clearly dominated by geology. Climate plays also an important role, Hg accumulates in those areas of northern Europe where a wet and cold climate favors the build-up of organic material. Typical anthropogenic sources like coal fired power plants, chlor-alkaline factories, metal smelters and urban agglomerations are hardly visible at the continental scale but can have a major impact at the local scale.

  12. Risk contribution from low power, shutdown, and other operational modes beyond full power

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, D.W.; Brown, T.D.; Chu, T.L.

    1995-04-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (a pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (a boiling water reactor), were selected for study by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, respectively. The program objectives included assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power and comparing estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences, and other qualitative and quantitative results with full power accidents as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope included a Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for traditional internal events and a Level 1 PRA on fire, flooding, and seismically induced core damage sequences. A phased approach was used in Level 1. In Phase 1 the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to provide a better representation of the plant as it transitions from power to nonpower operation. This included a coarse screening analysis of all POSs to identify vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) potential frequencies of core damage accidents, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. In Phase 2, selected POSs from both Grand Gulf and Surry were chosen for detailed analysis. For Grand Gulf, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected. For Surry, three POSs representing the time the plant spends in midloop operation were chosen for analysis. These included POS 6 and POS 10 of a refueling outage and POS 6 of a drained maintenance outage. Level 1 and Level 2/3 results from both the Surry and Grand Gulf analyses are presented.

  13. Operational Remote Sensing Services in North Eastern Region of India for Natural Resources Management, Early Warning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Dissemination of Information and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.

    2016-06-01

    North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and

  14. Distribution and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in suburban and rural soils of Beijing with various land uses.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Zhao, Yun; Chen, Weiping

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the sources, distribution, and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of peri-urban Beijing. The mean concentrations of total 16 PAHs in suburban and rural soils of Beijing were 321.8 ± 408.2 and 219.2 ± 233.5 ng/g, respectively. The PAH concentrations decreased along the urban-suburban-rural gradient and varied with land use categories. The industrial areas had the highest soil PAH concentrations followed by the living areas, roadsides, green areas, and agricultural areas. The major sources of PAHs in these soils were coal and biomass combustion. Traffic emission was not the dominant source of PAHs in peri-urban Beijing. At a few sites, high soil PAH contents were caused by point sources such as iron and steel plants and a wood preservative factory. The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) of adults and children exposed to PAHs in the soils were acceptable. However, cautions should be paid to the abandoned industrial sites, which might be converted to residential area during the urbanization process. PMID:26879983

  15. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csuhanics, Balazs; Jordan, G.; Foldessy, J.; Szakall, S.

    2010-05-01

    The accurate survey of the home mineral raw material resources in Hungary has been an emphasised research achievement since the early 1950's. In the early 1960's, the ore deposit explorations have begun in the Mátra Mountains which area had a long history of ore mining and the scientific attendance focused on this area such as the polimetallic veins of Parádsasvár. During the field works and in situ surveys , explorers used trenches and exploration adits to heading through the supposed ore veins. The problem is that the exploration areas' land reclamation has not befallen yet. This plight can characterize as mining-related environmental contamination which is a global problem. The associated mining waste is known to be among the largest waste streams in, for example, the European Union, where it is estimated to be 400 Mt, which amounts to about 29% of total waste generated in the European Union (EU) (Jordan, 2004a). Mine site (including exploration areas, as well) remediation have become the major activities of the mining industry according to EU standards by improving environmental and waste legislation (Charbonnier, 2001; Jordan, 2004; Jordan and D'Alessandro, 2004), which gave actuality of this thesis. The disarrayed metallic tailings were deposed onsite without proper pretreatment. These tailings mean not only the anthropogenic effect on natural environment to this day but also a particular environmental danger because they are characterized by a lack of control and a lack of data and information. The objective of this thesis is to define the heavy metal anomalies of the exploration area (Tulk and Tucker, 1998), characterize the connection between the background geochemical values with the tailings' values, evaluate the correlations and give solution to mitigate the undesirable effects. By the recent explorations it can be noticeable that the tailings from the last century's surveys have direct toxic affects on the ecosystems adding to naturally high

  16. Microzonation in Urban Areas, Basic Element for Land-Use Planning, Risk Management and Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Morales, G. F.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.; Lermo Samaniego, J. F.; Rodriguez, M.; García Martínez, J.; Suárez, M. Leonardo; Hernández Juan, F.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the results of microzonification of the natural hazards for different metropolitan areas and highlights the importance of integrating these results in urban planning. The cities that have been covered for the definition of danger in the state of Veracruz are: Orizaba, Veracruz and Xalapa, as part of the production of a Geological and Hydrometeorology Hazards Atlas for the state of Veracruz, financed by the Funds for the Prevention of Natural Disasters FOPREDEN and CONACYT. The general data of each metropolitan area was integrated in a geographic information system (GIS), obtaining different theme maps, and maps of dynamic characteristics of soils in each metropolitan area. For the planning of an urban area to aspire to promote sustainable development, it is essential to have a great deal of the details on the pertinent information and the most important is that that has to do with the degree of exposure to natural phenomena. In general, microzonation investigations consider all natural phenomena that could potentially affect an area of interest and hazard maps for each of potential hazards are prepared. With all the data collected and generated and fed into a SIG, models were generated which define the areas most threatened by earthquake, flood and landslide slopes. These results were compared with maps of the main features in the urban zones and a qualitative classification of areas of high to low hazard was established. It will have the basic elements of information for urban planning and land use. This information will be made available to the authorities and the general public through an Internet portal where people can download and view maps using free software available online.;

  17. Risk mitigation for ITER by a prolonged and joint international operation of JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donne, Antonius J.; Cowley, Steve; Jones, Timothy; Litaudon, Xavier; JET Team; CCFE Team

    2015-11-01

    Prolonged operation of the Joint European Torus (JET) in a set-up involving all ITER partners will be beneficial for ITER. Experiments at JET with its ITER-like wall and using a D-T plasma mixture will help to mitigate risks in the ITER research plan. Training of the ITER operators, technicians and engineers at JET will save valuable time when ITER comes into operation. Moreover, the way in which the future ITER experiments will be organized can already be experienced at JET, by imposing a similar organisational structure. This paper will present arguments in favour of an extension of JET and additionally briefly discuss a number of enhancements that will make experiments on JET even more relevant for ITER.

  18. Use Of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) In Expert Systems To Advise Nuclear Plant Operators And Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrig, Robert E.

    1988-03-01

    The use of expert systems in nuclear power plants to provide advice to managers, supervisors and/or operators is a concept that is rapidly gaining acceptance. f2 Generally, expert systems rely on the expertise of human experts or knowledge that has been codified in publications, books, or regulations to provide advice under a wide variety of conditions. In this work, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)3 of a nuclear power plant performed previously is used to assess the safety status of nuclear power plants and to make recommendations to the plant personnel. Nuclear power plants have many redundant systems and can continue to operate when one or more of these systems is disabled or removed from service for maintenance or testing. PRAs provide a means of evaluating the risk to the public associated with the operation of nuclear power plants with components or systems out of service. While the choice of the "source term" and methodology in a PRA may influence the absolute probability and consequences of a core melt, the ratio of two PRA calculations for two configurations of the same plant, carried out on a consistent basis, can readily identify the increase in risk associated with going from one configuration to the other. PRISIM,4 a personal computer program to calculate the ratio of core melt probabilities described above (based on previously performed PRAs), has been developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). When one or several components are removed from service, PRISM then calculates the ratio of the core melt probabilities. The inference engine of the expert system then uses this ratio and a constant risk criterion,5 along with information from its knowledge base (which includes information from the PRA), to advise plant personnel as to what action, if any, should be taken.

  19. Risk factors for intra-operative complications during phacoemulsification performed by residents.

    PubMed

    Lomi, Neiwete; Sharma, Reetika; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Dada, Tanuj; Vanathi, Murugesan; Agarwal, Tushar

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for occurrence of intra-operative complications during phacoemulsification performed by residents. One hundred fifty patients with cataract who underwent phacoemulsification by residents, with an experience of five or more phacoemulsification surgery, at a tertiary care centre were included in this study. The pre-operative data of these patients were collected from the hospital records. Surgeons were interviewed immediately after the surgery regarding the surgeon experience, phacoemulsification technique, machine factors, and intra-operative complications. Statistical analysis was done to determine pre-operative and intra-operative risk factors. The overall surgical complication rate in resident-performed phacoemulsification was 37 % of which major and minor complications were 21 and 16 %, respectively. Success in terms of placement of intraocular lens in capsular bag was 84 %. The most common major and minor complications found were posterior capsular tear and irregular capsulorhexis, respectively. Systemic and ocular features of patients as well as type of machine (longitudinal versus torsional longitudinal) had no significant association in terms of complication rate. Increase in success rate was seen with increase in semester and number of surgeries performed. Patient factors including general physical condition, systemic diseases, and anatomical factors do not influence success in resident-performed phacoemulsification. With increase in semester of residents, there is a significant decrease in intra-operative complications. Minor complications in the beginning of case lead to increase in major complications later on during the case and decrease in success rate by junior-semester residents. PMID:26494477

  20. Assessment of water quality based on Landsat 8 operational land imager associated with human activities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jisang; Choi, Minha

    2015-06-01

    Water pollution such as green algae blooms and eutrophication in freshwater fatally influences both water quality and human society. Water quality issues in the 4 major rivers in Korea, including the Nakdong, have recently become a major concern. For this reason, it is essential to monitor water quality parameters (WQPs) that have a widespread characteristic to ensure maintenance of an effective water management system. The possibility of utilizing remote sensing technology for monitoring water quality on a regional scale has been recently investigated. The main objective of this study is to evaluate potential applications of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) for estimating water quality in the Nakdong River, Korea. Correlations between Landsat 8 bands and in situ measurements are determined, and water quality models are established for estimating suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (TN), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and total phosphorus (TP). The results demonstrate that WQPs correlated well with band reflectance values from Landsat 8. Band 5 was reasonably correlated with all WQPs, particularly with SS (R = -0.74) and Chl-a (R = -0.71). This study constructed multiple regression equations for WQPs based on correlation analysis through band combination and band ratio. The spatial distribution of WQPs in the Nakdong River on October 27, 2013 and May 16, 2014 indicate that the river was nearly eutrophic from human activities. Based on the results, the Landsat 8 OLI may be an appropriate data for estimating and monitoring water quality parameters on a regional scale. However, further validation is required to support the findings of this study. PMID:26017808

  1. [Chemical risk in operating rooms and technical progress: the obligations and responsibilities of law].

    PubMed

    Oddo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We are going to consider the specific applications of the new legal system and of the most recent body of laws to those work environments of particular risk, such as healthcare facilities and in particular operating rooms. In such environments, volatile chemicals classified as "dangerous" are used with consequent exposure to "chemical risk", both of those persons professionally involved, depending on the type of activity, and of the patients to whom such activities are addressed in the same environment. Once the chemical risk is framed in the existing regulatory system, it must be specifically evaluated the application of the same principle to the particular chemical risk arising from the use of anesthetic agents in the operating room, for example sevoflurane and desflurane, being careful to test wether and how much this risk can be eliminated or reduced to minimum in relation to the new achievements of the technical progress. So, as soon as the quality of "dangerous chemical agent" of the "volatile chemicals" and of the "volatile liquid anesthetic" (sevoflurane and desflurane) as well--which are characterized by a lower degree of toxicity and for this reason are mostly used in current chemical practice, preferable to some anesthetic gases such as nitrous oxide--is legally verified, it is necessary to relate the scientific and technical data which result from the current "state of art" also to the other binding regulations that are imposed for the "prevention and protection from chemical agents", according to the relative Title IX of the TUSL (Unique text for Safety and Health at Work). PMID:24640081

  2. Risk of land degradation due to saltwater intrusion along the Venice coastland, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Manoli, G.; Scudiero, E.; Deiana, R.; Perri, M.; Braga, F.; Tosi, L.; Putti, M.; Morari, F.

    2012-12-01

    The southern portion of the Venice coastland includes a very precarious environment. Due to an elevation down to 4 m below msl, the Venice Lagoon and Adriatic Sea proximity, and the encroachment of seawater from the mouth of the river network up to 20 km inland, salt contamination of land and groundwater is a severe problem that is seriously impacting the farmland productivity. An interdisciplinary multi-scale research is ongoing with the aim of understanding the contamination process, quantifying the effect of the saltwater intrusion of the crop production, and proposing possible mitigation strategies. A 25 ha basin cultivated with maize crop and representative of the area has been deeply monitored at various scales ranging from a few square meter plots up to the whole basin. Geophysical surveys, lab testing on soil and water samples, continuous measurements of hydrological parameters, physiological crop parameters, proximal sensing and multi-spectral remote sensing acquisitions, together with precise crop yield distribution were performed and acquired from 2010 to 2012. Geomorphological investigations, seismic and geo-electrical surveys combined with salt concentration measurements in the surficial waterbodies and groundwater (down to 10 m deep) are used to delineate the major pathways of seawater intrusion. Relationships existing between soil, water, crop factors and crop yield were identified, helping to assess plant stress at both the canopy and landscape level. The dataset is now used to set-up a three-dimensional numerical model of saturated/unsaturated water dynamics coupled with a crop-growth model. The model is applied at the basin scale to investigate the effects of water stress and soil contamination on the crop production. Once calibrated on hydrological records (e.g., groundwater levels, capillary pressure, etc.), crop growth, and yield production, the model will be applied to investigate expected scenarios related with the change of natural

  3. Risk factors for prolonged operative time in single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Seong Uk; Choi, In Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We performed 3-channel single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) in earlier period of this study and modified our method to 4-channel SILC using a snake retractor for better operative field in later period. This study has been designed to evaluate the risk factors for prolonged operative time in SILC. Methods From April 2010 to August 2014, 323 cases of 3-channel SILC (Konyang standard method [KSM] group) and 399 cases of 4-channel SILC (modified KSM [mKSM] group) using a snake retractor were performed. Results The clinical characteristics were not significantly different between KSM and mKSM group except preoperative percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) treatment (9.6% vs. 16.5%, P < 0.007). The mean operation time was longer in mKSM group than KSM group (55.8 ± 19.7 minutes vs. 51.7 ± 20.1 minutes, P = 0.006). The estimated blood loss of KSM group was more than mKSM group (24.6 ± 54.1 mL vs. 16.9 ± 27.0 mL, P = 0.013). According to the histopathologic findings, acute cholecystitis or empyema were confirmed more in mKSM group as compared with KSM group (28% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.025). In multivariate analysis, the risk factors for prolonged operation time were drainage insertion, histopathologic findings (acute cholecystitis or empyema), surgeons' technical expertise, body mass index > 30 kg/m2 as well as the 4-channel SILC. Conclusion Among patients with these risk factors, conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy could be considered as well although SILC might be safe and feasible modality for benign gallbladder disease. PMID:26576404

  4. Assessing the increasing flood risk in the Niger River: Climate change, land use change or increasing vulnerability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aich, Valentin; Kone, Bakary; Müller, Eva N.; Hattermann, Fred F.

    2014-05-01

    The Niger River in West Africa experiences a strong increase of flood risk during the past decades. The evaluation of the three most extensive databases on floods in Africa (NatCat database of Munich Re, Dartmouth Flood Observatory, International disaster database EM-DAT) shows a strong increasing trend in the annual number of people affected by floods in the Niger basin. The reason for this trend is controversial as it goes along with a decrease of mean precipitation. In the ongoing debate many studies identify land use change as cause for the increase in extreme discharges in Sahelian rivers and deny an increase of extreme rainfall. Other studies focus more on the vulnerability of an increasing population, which leads to more and more people affected. However, quantitative approaches on the extreme discharges in the Niger basin are rare. In order to assess the floods systematically, we analyze long time series for 10 gauging stations along the Niger River with state of the art statistical methods. By means of change-point analysis coupled with trend analysis, wavelet analysis and non-stationary generalized extreme value functions (NSGEV) we are able to identify decadal changes and changing probability distributions of flood occurrence along the Niger. The results in the basins differ substantially, depending on the source region of the flood. We differentiate between the Guinean flood, originating from precipitation in the Guinean highland and the Red flood, originating from rains in the Sahelian part of the basin. We find significant changes of frequency in floods since the 80s, but only for the Red flood. The peaks of the Guinean flood recovered since the droughts of the 70s/ 80s, but do not reach the level of the 50s/ 60s. In addition, the NSGEV reveals that the probability for extreme floods has increased for the Red flood, but rather decreased for the Guinean flood in the past decade. These results indicate that the increase in vulnerability is at least not

  5. Ground-based radiometric calibration of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) using in situ techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.

    2013-12-01

    Landsat 8 was successfully launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on 11 February 2013, and was placed into the orbit previously occupied by Landsat 5. Landsat 8 is the latest platform in the 40-year history of the Landsat series of satellites, and it contains two instruments that operate in the solar-reflective and the thermal infrared regimes. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a pushbroom sensor that contains eight multispectral bands ranging from 400-2300 nm, and one panchromatic band. The spatial resolution of the multispectral bands is 30 m, which is similar to previous Landsat sensors, and the panchromatic band has a 15-m spatial resolution, which is also similar to previous Landsat sensors. The 12-bit radiometric resolution of OLI improves upon the 8-bit resolution of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) onboard Landsat 7. An important requirement for the Landsat program is the long-term radiometric continuity of its sensors. Ground-based vicarious techniques have been used for over 20 years to determine the absolute radiometric calibration of sensors that encompass a wide variety of spectral and spatial characteristics. This work presents the early radiometric calibration results of Landsat 8 OLI that were obtained using the traditional reflectance-based approach. University of Arizona personnel used five sites in Arizona, California, and Nevada to collect ground-based data. In addition, a unique set of in situ data were collected in March 2013, when Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 were observing the same site within minutes of each other. The tandem overfly schedule occurred while Landsat 8 was shifting to the WRS-2 orbital grid, and lasted only a few days. The ground-based data also include results obtained using the University of Arizona's Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS), which is an automated suite of instruments located at Railroad Valley, Nevada. The results presented in this work include a comparison to the L1T at

  6. Concentration of trace metals in sediments and soils from protected lands in south Florida: background levels and risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Castro, Joffre E; Fernandez, Adolfo M; Gonzalez-Caccia, Valentina; Gardinali, Piero R

    2013-08-01

    A comprehensive environmental evaluation was completed on 20 metals: two reference metals (Fe, Al) and several minor trace metals (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) for surface soils and sediments collected from 50 sites in Everglades National Park (ENP), the coastal fringes of Biscayne National Park (BNP), and Big Cypress National Preserve. Samples were prepared by acid digestion (EPA3050) and analyzed by ICP/MS detection (EPA6020). Although no widespread contamination was detected across the two parks and one preserve, there were some specific areas where metal concentrations exceeded Florida's ecological thresholds, suggesting that some metals were of concern. A screening-level evaluation based on a proposed effect index grouped trace metals by their potential for causing negligible, possible, and probable effects on the biota. For example, Cu in BNP and Cr and Pb in ENP were considered of concern because their adverse effect likelihood to biota was assessed as probable; consequently, these trace metals were selected for further risk characterization. Also, stations were ranked based on a proposed overall contamination index that showed that: site BB10 in BNP and sites E3 and E5 in ENP had the highest scores. The first site was located in a marina in BNP, and the other two sites were along the eastern boundary of ENP adjacent to current or former agricultural lands. An assessment tool for south Florida protected lands was developed for evaluating impacts from on-going Everglades restoration projects and to assist State and Federal agencies with resource management. The tool consists of enrichment plots and statistically derived background concentrations based on soil/sediment data collected from the two national parks and one preserve. Finally, an equally accurate but much simplified approach is offered for developing enrichment plots for other environmental settings. PMID:23288595

  7. Augmented Feedback Supports Skill Transfer and Reduces High-Risk Injury Landing Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Stroube, Benjamin W.; DiCesare, Christopher A.; Brent, Jensen L.; Ford, Kevin R.; Heidt, Robert S.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a current need to produce a simple, yet effective method for screening and targeting possible deficiencies related to increased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. Hypothesis Frontal plane knee angle (FPKA) during a drop vertical jump will decrease upon implementing augmented feedback into a standardized sport training program. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Thirty-seven female participants (mean ± SD: age, 14.7 ±1.5 years; height, 160.9 ± 6.8 cm; weight, 54.5 ± 7.2 kg) were trained over 8 weeks. During each session, each participant received standardized training consisting of strength training, plyometrics, and conditioning. They were also videotaped running on a treadmill at a standardized speed and performing a repeated tuck jump for 10 seconds. Study participants were randomized into 2 groups and received augmented feedback on either their jumping (AF) or sprinting (CTRL) form. Average (mean of 3 trials) and most extreme (trial with greatest knee abduction) FPKA were calculated from 2-dimensional video captured during performance of the drop vertical jump. Results After testing, a main effect of time was noted, with the AF group reducing their FPKA average by 37.9% over the 3 trials while the CTRL group demonstrated a 26.7% reduction average across the 3 trials (P < .05). Conversely, in the most extreme drop vertical jump trial, a significant time-by-group interaction was noted (P < .05). The AF group reduced their most extreme FPKA by 6.9° (pretest, 18.4° ± 12.3°; posttest, 11.4° ± 10.1°) on their right leg and 6.5° (pretest, 16.3° ± 14.5°; posttest, 9.8° ± 10.7°) on their left leg, which represented a 37.7% and 40.1 % reduction in FPKA, respectively. In the CTRL group, no similar changes were noted in the right (pretest, 16.9° ± 14.3°; posttest, 14.0° ± 12.3°) or left leg (pretest, 9.8° ± 11.1°; posttest, 7.2° ± 9.2°) after training. Conclusion Providing athletes with augmented

  8. Current and Future Impact Risks from Small Debris to Operational Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Kessler, Don

    2011-01-01

    The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 signaled the potential onset of the collision cascade effect, commonly known as the "Kessler Syndrome", in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region. Recent numerical simulations have shown that the 10 cm and larger debris population in LEO will continue to increase even with a good implementation of the commonly-adopted mitigation measures. This increase is driven by collisions involving large and massive intacts, i.e., rocket bodies and spacecraft. Therefore, active debris removal (ADR) of large and massive intacts with high collision probabilities has been argued as a direct and effective means to remediate the environment in LEO. The major risk for operational satellites in the environment, however, comes from impacts with debris just above the threshold of the protection shields. In general, these are debris in the millimeter to centimeter size regime. Although impacts by these objects are insufficient to lead to catastrophic breakup of the entire vehicle, the damage is certainly severe enough to cause critical failure of the key instruments or the entire payload. The focus of this paper is to estimate the impact risks from 5 mm and 1 cm debris to active payloads in LEO (1) in the current environment and (2) in the future environment based on different projection scenarios, including ADR. The goal of the study is to quantify the benefits of ADR in reducing debris impact risks to operational satellites.

  9. Basin-Scale Assessment of the Land Surface Water Budget in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Operational and Research NLDAS-2 Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Youlong; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Ek, Michael B.; Brewer, Michael; Mocko, David; Kumar, Sujay V.; Wei, Helin; Meng, Jesse; Luo, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the components of the land surface water budget in the four land surface models (Noah, SAC-Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model, (VIC) Variable Infiltration Capacity Model, and Mosaic) applied in the newly implemented National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational and research versions of the North American Land Data Assimilation System version 2 (NLDAS-2). This work focuses on monthly and annual components of the water budget over 12 National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast Centers (RFCs). Monthly gridded FLUX Network (FLUXNET) evapotranspiration (ET) from the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) of Germany, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) total runoff (Q), changes in total water storage (dS/dt, derived as a residual by utilizing MPI ET and USGS Q in the water balance equation), and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observed total water storage anomaly (TWSA) and change (TWSC) are used as reference data sets. Compared to these ET and Q benchmarks, Mosaic and SAC (Noah and VIC) in the operational NLDAS-2 overestimate (underestimate) mean annual reference ET and underestimate (overestimate) mean annual reference Q. The multimodel ensemble mean (MME) is closer to the mean annual reference ET and Q. An anomaly correlation (AC) analysis shows good AC values for simulated monthly mean Q and dS/dt but significantly smaller AC values for simulated ET. Upgraded versions of the models utilized in the research side of NLDAS-2 yield largely improved performance in the simulation of these mean annual and monthly water component diagnostics. These results demonstrate that the three intertwined efforts of improving (1) the scientific understanding of parameterization of land surface processes, (2) the spatial and temporal extent of systematic validation of land surface processes, and (3) the engineering-oriented aspects such as parameter calibration and optimization are key to substantially improving product

  10. Basin-scale assessment of the land surface water budget in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction operational and research NLDAS-2 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Youlong; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Ek, Michael B.; Brewer, Michael; Mocko, David; Kumar, Sujay V.; Wei, Helin; Meng, Jesse; Luo, Lifeng

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the components of the land surface water budget in the four land surface models (Noah, SAC-Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model, (VIC) Variable Infiltration Capacity Model, and Mosaic) applied in the newly implemented National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational and research versions of the North American Land Data Assimilation System version 2 (NLDAS-2). This work focuses on monthly and annual components of the water budget over 12 National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast Centers (RFCs). Monthly gridded FLUX Network (FLUXNET) evapotranspiration (ET) from the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) of Germany, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) total runoff (Q), changes in total water storage (dS/dt, derived as a residual by utilizing MPI ET and USGS Q in the water balance equation), and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observed total water storage anomaly (TWSA) and change (TWSC) are used as reference data sets. Compared to these ET and Q benchmarks, Mosaic and SAC (Noah and VIC) in the operational NLDAS-2 overestimate (underestimate) mean annual reference ET and underestimate (overestimate) mean annual reference Q. The multimodel ensemble mean (MME) is closer to the mean annual reference ET and Q. An anomaly correlation (AC) analysis shows good AC values for simulated monthly mean Q and dS/dt but significantly smaller AC values for simulated ET. Upgraded versions of the models utilized in the research side of NLDAS-2 yield largely improved performance in the simulation of these mean annual and monthly water component diagnostics. These results demonstrate that the three intertwined efforts of improving (1) the scientific understanding of parameterization of land surface processes, (2) the spatial and temporal extent of systematic validation of land surface processes, and (3) the engineering-oriented aspects such as parameter calibration and optimization are key to substantially improving product

  11. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:24507886

  12. Risk of Pre-and Post-Operative Delirium and the Delirium Elderly At Risk (DEAR) Tool in Hip Fracture Patients

    PubMed Central

    Freter, Susan; Dunbar, Michael; Koller, Katalin; MacKnight, Chris; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Delirium is common after hip fracture. Previous work has shown that a simple delirium risk factor tool, the Delirium Elderly At Risk instrument (DEAR), has a high inter-rater reliability in this population. Little research has looked at the ability of risk factor screening tools to identify patients at high risk of pre-operative delirium. This study investigates the ability of the DEAR to identify patients at high risk of pre-operative delirium, as well as reporting its performance in a post-operative validation sample. Associations between delirium risk factors and pre-operative delirium are explored. Methods This prospective cohort study took place on an orthopedic in-patient service at a University-affiliated tertiary care hospital. Patients aged 65 and older who were admitted for surgical repair of hip fracture (N = 283) were assessed pre-operatively for 5 delirium risk factors (cognitive impairment, sensory impairment, functional dependence, substance use, age) using the DEAR. Patients were assessed for delirium using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Confusion Assessment Method pre-operatively and on post-operative days 1, 3 and 5. Characteristics of patients who developed delirium were compared with the characteristics of those who did not. Results Delirium was present in 58% (95% CI = 52–63%) of patients pre-operatively and 42% (95% CI = 36–48%) post-operatively. Individually, sensory impairment (χ2 = 21.7, p = .0001), functional dependence (χ2 = 24.1, p = .0001), cognitive impairment (χ2 = 55.5, p = .0001) and substance use (χ2 = 7.5, p = .007) were significantly associated with pre-operative delirium, as was wait-time for surgery (t = 3.1, p = .003) and length of stay (t = 2.8, p =.03). In multivariate modeling, the strongest association with pre-operative delirium was cognitive impairment. Conclusions The DEAR, a simple, delirium risk factor screening tool, can be used to identify hip fracture patients at risk of

  13. [Evaluation of the risk of anesthetic gases to exposed subjects with different tasks in operating rooms].

    PubMed

    Bolzoni, G; Somenzi, V; Cirla, A M

    1992-01-01

    A research was carried out on risk evaluation of workers with different tasks in operating theatre. The airborne concentrations were determined by an IR analyzer with two distinct sampling lines: the first was placed in surgical zone and the second one in anesthesiological zone. The anesthetists resulted more at risk than surgical team. Nevertheless when the evaluation was based on N2O urinary concentration and data were stratified according to task a prevalent inhalation absorption resulted for non medical staff (instrumentist and professional nurse). Our data concerning N2O ranged between 95-764 ppm indoor and between 3-92 mcg/l in the urines of exposed subjects. PMID:1345720

  14. Use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in expert systems to advise nuclear plant operators and managers

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The use of expert systems in nuclear power plants to provide advice to managers, supervisors and/or operators is a concept that is rapidly gaining acceptance. Generally, expert systems rely on the expertise of human experts or knowledge that has been modified in publications, books, or regulations to provide advice under a wide variety of conditions. In this work, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)/sup 3/ of a nuclear power plant performed previously is used to assess the safety status of nuclear power plants and to make recommendations to the plant personnel. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Assessing hazard risk, cost of adaptation and traditional land use activities in the context of permafrost thaw in communities in Yukon and the Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkert, B.; Perrin, A.; Calmels, F.

    2015-12-01

    Together with its partners, the Northern Climate ExChange (NCE, part of the Yukon Research Centre at Yukon College) has been mapping permafrost-related hazard risk in northern communities since 2010. By integrating geoscience and climate project data, we have developed a series of community-scale hazard risk maps. The maps depict hazard risk in stoplight colours for easy interpretation, and support community-based, future-focused adaptation planning. Communities, First Nations, consultants and local regulatory agencies have used the hazard risk maps to site small-scale infrastructure projects, guide land planning processes, and assess suitability of land development applications. However, we know that assessing risk is only one step in integrating the implications of permafrost degradation in societal responses to environmental change. To build on our permafrost hazard risk maps, we are integrating economic principles and traditional land use elements. To assess economic implications of adaptation to permafrost change, we are working with geotechnical engineers to identify adaptation options (e.g., modified building techniques, permafrost thaw mitigation approaches) that suit the risks captured by our existing hazard risk maps. We layer this with an economic analysis of the costs associated with identified adaptation options, providing end-users with a more comprehensive basis upon which to make decisions related to infrastructure. NCE researchers have also integrated traditional land use activities in assessments of permafrost thaw risk, in a project led by Jean Marie River First Nation in the Northwest Territories. Here, the implications of permafrost degradation on food security and land use priorities were assessed by layering key game and gathering areas on permafrost thaw vulnerability maps. Results indicated that close to one quarter of big and small game habitats, and close to twenty percent of key furbearer and gathering areas within the First Nation

  16. 45 CFR 153.365 - General oversight requirements for State-operated risk adjustment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS STANDARDS RELATED TO REINSURANCE, RISK CORRIDORS, AND RISK ADJUSTMENT UNDER THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT State Standards Related to the Risk Adjustment...

  17. Peri-operative radiation exposure: Are overweight patients at increased risks?

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, S; Hince, A; Finlayson, D F

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if there was a correlation between body mass index (BMI) and intra-operative radiation exposure. A retrospective review of 81 patients who had sliding hip screw fixation for femoral neck fractures in one year was completed, recording body mass index (BMI), screening time, dose area product (DAP), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, seniority of operating surgeon and complexity of the fracture configuration. There was a statistically significant correlation between dose area product and BMI. There was no statistically significant relationship between screening time and BMI. There was no statistical difference between ASA grade, seniority of surgeon, or complexity of fracture configuration and dose area product. Simulated stochastic risks were increased for overweight patients. Overweight patients are exposed to increased doses of radiation regardless of length of screening time. Surgeons and theatre staff should be aware of the increased radiation exposure during fixation of fractures in overweight patients and, along with radiographers, ensure steps are taken to minimise these risks. Whilst such radiation dosages may have little adverse effect for individual patients, these findings may be of more relevance and concern to staff that will be exposed to increased radiation. PMID:26492884

  18. From Brownian motion to operational risk: Statistical physics and financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, Johannes

    2003-04-01

    High-frequency returns of the DAX German blue chip stock index are used to test geometric Brownian motion, the standard model for financial time series. Even on a 15-s time scale, the linear correlations of DAX returns have a zero-time delta function which carries 90% of the weight, while the remaining 10% are positively correlated with a decay time of 53 s and negatively correlated on a 9.4-min scale. The probability density of the returns possesses fat tails with power laws whose exponents continuously increase with time scales. It is suggested that hydrodynamic turbulence may provide a phenomenological framework for the description of these data, and at the same time, open a way to use them for risk-management purposes, e.g. option pricing and hedging. Option pricing also is the cornerstone of credit valuation, an area of much practical importance not considered explicitly in most other physics-inspired papers on finance. Finally, operational risk is introduced as a new risk category currently emphasized by regulators, which will become important in many banks in the near future.

  19. [The operational role of the occupational health physician in the assessment and management of health risks related to night risks].

    PubMed

    Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; Gonnelli, Irene Margherita; Garbarino, Sergio; Cupelli, Vincenzo; Arcangelil, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The operational role of the occupational health physician in the assessment and management of health risks related to night work. Night work, in the last 30-40 years, has been extended to almost all areas of employment. The potential effects on workers' health--related to the disruption of circadian rhythms--are now well defined and studied in the Literature. All issues about the protection of safety and health for night workers are governed by the Italian Legislative Decree no. 66/2003 and subsequent amendments. The management of night work hasn't been included into the main Law on Occupational Safety and Health (Italian Legislative Decree no. 81/2008 and subsequent amendments) and a coordination between the two disciplines is desirable. The occupational health physician, as a global consultant for the protection of all health issues into a company, has to evaluate the potential effects of night work on health, both individually and as a group of workers. In this way, the physician may use either traditional tools (history, physical examination, blood tests) or innovative tools (questionnaires, health promotion programs, interventions on shift schedules). In the management of night work is useful to employ schedules that respect both psychophysical integrity and social welfare of workers and the needs of the production. The occupational health physician plays a significant role in information and training of workers, both individually and as a group of workers, and in the organization of health promotion programs (whit a voluntary participation by the workers). PMID:27311142

  20. Environmental Assessment for Leasing Land for the Siting, Construction and Operation of a Commercial AM Radio Antenna at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-02-16

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to lease approximately 3 acres of land at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the southeast tip of Technical Area (TA) 54 for the siting, construction and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been developed in order to assess the environmental effects of the Proposed Action and No Action alternative. The Proposed Action includes the lease of land for the siting, construction and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna in TA-54, just north of Pajarito Road and State Highway 4. The No Action Alternative was also considered. Under the No Action Alternative, DOE would not lease land on LANL property for the siting and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna; the DOE would not have a local station for emergency response use; and the land would continue to be covered in native vegetation and serve as a health and safety buffer zone for TA-54 waste management activities. Other potential sites on LANL property were evaluated but dismissed for reasons such as interference with sensitive laboratory experiments. Potential visual, health, and environmental effects are anticipated to be minimal for the Proposed Action. The radio broadcasting antenna would be visible against the skyline from some public areas, but would be consistent with other man-made objects in the vicinity that partially obstruct viewsheds (e.g. meteorological tower, power lines). Therefore, the net result would be a modest change of the existing view. Electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions from the antenna would be orders or magnitude less than permissible limits. The proposed antenna construction would not affect known cultural sites, but is located in close proximity to two archaeological sites. Construction would be monitored to ensure that the associated road and utility corridor would avoid cultural sites.

  1. Sensor based 3D conformal cueing for safe and reliable HC operation specifically for landing in DVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münsterer, Thomas; Kress, Martin; Klasen, Stephanus

    2013-05-01

    The paper describes the approach of a sensor based landing aid for helicopters in degraded visual conditions. The system concept presented employs a long range high resolution ladar sensor allowing for identifying obstacles in the flight and in the approach path as well as measuring landing site conditions like slope, roughness and precise position relative to the helicopter during long final approach. All these measurements are visualized to the pilot. Cueing is done by 3D conformal symbology displayed in a head-tracked HMD enhanced by 2D symbols for data which is perceived easier by 2D symbols than by 3D cueing. All 3D conformal symbology is placed on the measured landing site surface which is further visualized by a grid structure for displaying landing site slope, roughness and small obstacles. Due to the limited resolution of the employed HMD a specific scheme of blending in the information during the approach is employed. The interplay between in flight and in approach obstacle warning and CFIT warning symbology with this landing aid symbology is also investigated and exemplarily evaluated for the NH90 helicopter which has already today implemented a long range high resolution ladar sensor based obstacle warning and CFIT symbology. The paper further describes the results of simulator and flight tests performed with this system employing a ladar sensor and a head-tracked head mounted display system. In the simulator trials a full model of the ladar sensor producing 3D measurement points was used working with the same algorithms used in flight tests.

  2. Elevated gastrocnemius forces compensate for decreased hamstrings forces during the weight-acceptance phase of single-leg jump landing: implications for anterior cruciate ligament injury risk.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kristin D; Donnelly, Cyril J; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-17

    Approximately 320,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the United States each year are non-contact injuries, with many occurring during a single-leg jump landing. To reduce ACL injury risk, one option is to improve muscle strength and/or the activation of muscles crossing the knee under elevated external loading. This study's purpose was to characterize the relative force production of the muscles supporting the knee during the weight-acceptance (WA) phase of single-leg jump landing and investigate the gastrocnemii forces compared to the hamstrings forces. Amateur male Western Australian Rules Football players completed a single-leg jump landing protocol and six participants were randomly chosen for further modeling and simulation. A three-dimensional, 14-segment, 37 degree-of-freedom, 92 muscle-tendon actuated model was created for each participant in OpenSim. Computed muscle control was used to generate 12 muscle-driven simulations, 2 trials per participant, of the WA phase of single-leg jump landing. A one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analysis showed both the quadriceps and gastrocnemii muscle force estimates were significantly greater than the hamstrings (p<0.001). Elevated gastrocnemii forces corresponded with increased joint compression and lower ACL forces. The elevated quadriceps and gastrocnemii forces during landing may represent a generalized muscle strategy to increase knee joint stiffness, protecting the knee and ACL from external knee loading and injury risk. These results contribute to our understanding of how muscle's function during single-leg jump landing and should serve as the foundation for novel muscle-targeted training intervention programs aimed to reduce ACL injuries in sport. PMID:25218505

  3. PRESSCA: A regional operative Early Warning System for landslides risk scenario assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponziani, Francesco; Stelluti, Marco; Berni, Nicola; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2013-04-01

    The Italian national alert system for the hydraulic and hydrogeological risk is ensured by the National Civil Protection Department, through the "Functional Centres" Network, together with scientific/technical Support Centres, named "Competence Centres". The role of the Functional Centres is to alert regional/national civil protection network, to manage the prediction and the monitoring phases, thus ensuring the flow of data for the management of the emergency. The Umbria regional alerting procedure is based on three increasing warning levels of criticality for 6 sub-areas (~1200 km²). Specifically, for each duration (from 1 to 48 hours), three criticality levels are assigned to the rainfall values corresponding to a recurrence interval of 2, 5, and 10 years. In order to improve confidence on the daily work for hydrogeological risk assessment and management, a simple and operational early warning system for the prediction of shallow landslide triggering on regional scale was implemented. The system is primarily based on rainfall thresholds, which represent the main element of evaluation for the early-warning procedures of the Italian Civil Protection system. Following previous studies highlighting that soil moisture conditions play a key role on landslide triggering, a continuous physically-based soil water balance model was implemented for the estimation of soil moisture conditions over the whole regional territory. In fact, a decreasing trend between the cumulated rainfall values over 24, 36 and 48 hours and the soil moisture conditions prior to past landslide events was observed. This trend provides an easy-to-use tool to dynamically adjust the operational rainfall thresholds with the soil moisture conditions simulated by the soil water balance model prior to rainfall events. The application of this procedure allowed decreasing the uncertainties tied to the application of the rainfall thresholds only. The system is actually operational in real-time and it was

  4. Risk Assessment for Titanium Pressure Vessels Operating Inside the ARES I's Liquid Hydrogen Tank Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium alloy (Ti-6-4) is currently being proposed for the manufacturing of pressure vessels (PV) for storage of compressed helium gas, which are mounted inside the ARES I's liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank. At cryogenic temperature, titanium alloys usually have the highest strength-to-weight ratio property and have been considered as the metallic materials of choice for lightweight PV operating in LH2 environment. Titanium PV s are also considered as heritage hardware because they have been used by NASA for the Saturn IV-B rocket s LH2 tank in the mid 1960 s. However, hydrogen embrittlement is possible if Ti-6-4 alloy is exposed to gaseous hydrogen at certain pressure and temperature during the LH2 tank filling and draining operations on the launch pad, and during the J2X engine burn period for the ARES I s upper stage. Additionally, the fracture toughness and ductility properties of Ti-6-4 are significantly decreased at cryogenic temperature. These factors do not necessary preclude the use of titanium PV in hydrogen or at cryogenic applications; however, their synergistic effects and the material damage tolerance must be accounted for in the mission life assessment for PV s, which are considered as fracture critical hardware. In this paper, an overview of the risk assessment for Ti-6-4 alloy, strategy to control hydrogen embrittlement and brief metallic material trade study for PV operating in LH2 tank will be presented.

  5. Exploring agent-level calculations of risk and returns in relation to observed land-use changes in the US Great Plains, 1870–1940

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, Kenneth M.; Brown, Daniel G.; Leonard, Susan H.; Merchant, Emily; Hutchins, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change in the U.S. Great Plains since agricultural settlement in the second half of the nineteenth century has been well documented. While aggregate historical trends are easily tracked, the decision-making of individual farmers is difficult to reconstruct. We use an agent-based model to tell the history of the settlement of the West by simulating farm-level agricultural decision making based on historical data about prices, yields, farming costs, and environmental conditions. The empirical setting for the model is the period between 1875 and 1940 in two townships in Kansas, one in the shortgrass region and the other in the mixed grass region. Annual historical data on yields and prices determine profitability of various land uses and thereby inform decision-making, in conjunction with the farmer’s previous experience and randomly assigned levels of risk aversion. Results illustrating the level of agreement between model output and unique and detailed household-level records of historical land use and farm size suggest that economic behavior and natural endowments account for land change processes to some degree, but are incomplete. Discrepancies are examined to identify missing processes through model experiments, in which we adjust input and output prices, crop yields, agent memory, and risk aversion. These analyses demonstrate how agent-based modeling can be a useful laboratory for thinking about social and economic behavior in the past. PMID:25729323

  6. Application of Ecosystem Models to Assess Environmental Drivers of Mosquito Abundance and Virus Transmission Risk and Associated Public Health Implications of Climate and Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, F.; Barker, C.; Park, B.; Reisen, W.; Michaelis, A.; Wang, W.; Hashimoto, H.; Milesi, C.; Hiatt, S.; Nemani, R.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is a modeling framework that integrates satellite observations, meteorological observations, and ancillary data to support monitoring and modeling of ecosystem and land surface conditions in near real-time. TOPS provides spatially continuous gridded estimates of a suite of measurements describing environmental conditions, and these data products are currently being applied to support the development of new models capable of forecasting estimated mosquito abundance and transmission risk for mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile virus. We present results from the modeling analyses, describe their incorporation into the California Vectorborne Disease Surveillance System, and describe possible implications of projected climate and land use change for patterns in mosquito abundance and transmission risk for West Nile virus in California.

  7. New risk indicator approach for Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents for a sustainable use of plant protection products.

    PubMed

    Sacchettini, Gabriele; Calliera, Maura; Marchis, Alexandru; Glass, Richard; Ellis, Clare Butler; Machera, Kyriaki; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Spanoghe, Pieter; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, the European Union adopted the Directive on Sustainable Use of pesticides (SUD, Directive 2009/128/EC) establishing a framework for achieving a sustainable use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) through reducing the risks and impacts of PPP use on human health and the environment, promoting integrated pest management and stimulating effective non-chemical alternatives. The core idea of the SUD is that it is necessary to monitor the use of PPPs through the implementation of an appropriate set of risk indicators to monitor progress and trends in risk reduction within the Member States. To contribute to this direction, following a comprehensive analysis of the risk (including procedures of risk assessment and risk management) and involving stakeholders in the decision process, specific toolboxes of practical indirect risk indicators of exposure of Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents were developed and are now available to be used by Member States (MSs) based on their specific context. PMID:26143544

  8. Current and future particulate-matter-related mortality risks in the United States from aviation emissions during landing and takeoff.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Woody, Matthew; Baek, Bok Haeng; Shankar, Uma; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2012-02-01

    Demand for air travel is projected to increase in the upcoming years, with a corresponding influence on emissions, air quality, and public health. The trajectory of health impacts would be influenced by not just emissions growth, but also changes in nonaviation ambient concentrations that influence secondary fine particulate matter (PM(2.5) ) formation, population growth and aging, and potential shifts in PM(2.5) concentration-response functions (CRFs). However, studies to date have not systematically evaluated the individual and joint contributions of these factors to health risk trajectories. In this study, we simulated emissions during landing and takeoff from aircraft at 99 airports across the United States for 2005 and for a 2025 flight activity projection scenario. We applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with the Speciated Modeled Attainment Test (SMAT) to determine the contributions of these emissions to ambient concentrations, including scenarios with 2025 aircraft emissions and 2005 nonaviation air quality. We combined CMAQ outputs with PM(2.5) mortality CRFs and population projections, and evaluated the influence of changing emissions, nonaviation concentrations, and population factors. Given these scenarios, aviation-related health impacts would increase by a factor of 6.1 from 2005 to 2025, with a factor of 2.1 attributable to emissions, a factor of 1.3 attributable to population factors, and a factor of 2.3 attributable to changing nonaviation concentrations which enhance secondary PM(2.5) formation. Our study emphasizes that the public health burden of aviation emissions would be significantly influenced by the joint effects of flight activity increases, nonaviation concentration changes, and population growth and aging. PMID:21801192

  9. Space shuttle/payload interface analysis. Volume 4: Business Risk and Value of Operations in Space (BRAVO). Part 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Background information is provided which emphasizes the philosophy behind analytical techniques used in the business risk and value of operations in space (BRAVO) study. The focus of the summary is on the general approach, operation of the procedures, and the status of the study. For Vol. 1, see N74-12493; for Vol. 2, see N74-14530.

  10. Disrupting Aviation: An Exploratory Study of the Opportunities and Risks of Tablet Computers in Commercial Flight Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyne, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Commercial flight operational safety has dramatically improved in the last 30 years because of enhanced crew coordination, communication, leadership and team development. Technology insertion into cockpit operations, however, has been shown to create crew distractions, resulting in flight safety risks, limited use given policy limitations and…

  11. Utilising Enterprise Risk Management Strategies to Develop a Governance and Operations Framework for a New Research Complex: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde-Smith, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise risk management strategies were used to develop a regulatory and operational framework for a new multi-partner Research Institute that will house up to 900 staff from four different institutions in Queensland, Australia. The Institute will operate in a business environment while functioning as a research resource for the higher…

  12. Friction evaluation of unpaved, gypsum-surface runways at Northrup Strip, White Sands Missile Range, in support of Space Shuttle Orbiter landing and retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.; Horne, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Friction measurement results obtained on the gypsum surface runways at Northrup Strip, White Sands Missile Range, N. M., using an instrumented tire test vehicle and a diagonal braked vehicle, are presented. These runways were prepared to serve as backup landing and retrieval sites to the primary sites located at Dryden Flight Research Center for shuttle orbiter during initial test flights. Similar friction data obtained on paved and other unpaved surfaces was shown for comparison and to indicate that the friction capability measured on the dry gypsum surface runways is sufficient for operations with the shuttle orbiter and the Boeing 747 aircraft. Based on these ground vehicle friction measurements, estimates of shuttle orbiter and aircraft tire friction performance are presented and discussed. General observations concerning the gypsum surface characteristics are also included and several recommendations are made for improving and maintaining adequate surface friction capabilities prior to the first shuttle orbiter landing.

  13. The importance of operations, risk, and cost assessment to space transfer systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, J. M.; Komerska, R. J.; Rowell, L. F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines several methodologies which contribute to comprehensive subsystem cost estimation. The example of a space-based lunar space transfer vehicle (STV) design is used to illustrate how including both primary and secondary factors into cost affects the decision of whether to use aerobraking or propulsion for earth orbit capture upon lunar return. The expected dominant cost factor in this decision is earth-to-orbit launch cost driven by STV mass. However, to quantify other significant cost factors, this cost comparison included a risk analysis to identify development and testing costs, a Taguchi design of experiments to determine a minimum mass aerobrake design, and a detailed operations analysis. As a result, the predicted cost advantage of aerobraking, while still positive, was subsequently reduced by about 30 percent compared to the simpler mass-based cost estimates.

  14. Map showing areas of visible land disturbances caused by two military training operations in the Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prose, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Land disturbances caused by these training exercises are still evident today throughout the designated training areas (Lathrop, 1983; Prose, 1985; Prose and Metzger, 1985). The World War II base-camp locations are easily identified because the networks of dirt roads are still used by campers, hunters, artifact seekers, and other visitors. Vehicle trails and single tracks remain on many relatively stable surfaces and are most conspicuous on surfaces composed of a veneer of stones (desert pavement).

  15. The Human Bathtub: Safety and Risk Predictions Including the Dynamic Probability of Operator Errors

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, Romney B.; Saull, John W.

    2006-07-01

    Reactor safety and risk are dominated by the potential and major contribution for human error in the design, operation, control, management, regulation and maintenance of the plant, and hence to all accidents. Given the possibility of accidents and errors, now we need to determine the outcome (error) probability, or the chance of failure. Conventionally, reliability engineering is associated with the failure rate of components, or systems, or mechanisms, not of human beings in and interacting with a technological system. The probability of failure requires a prior knowledge of the total number of outcomes, which for any predictive purposes we do not know or have. Analysis of failure rates due to human error and the rate of learning allow a new determination of the dynamic human error rate in technological systems, consistent with and derived from the available world data. The basis for the analysis is the 'learning hypothesis' that humans learn from experience, and consequently the accumulated experience defines the failure rate. A new 'best' equation has been derived for the human error, outcome or failure rate, which allows for calculation and prediction of the probability of human error. We also provide comparisons to the empirical Weibull parameter fitting used in and by conventional reliability engineering and probabilistic safety analysis methods. These new analyses show that arbitrary Weibull fitting parameters and typical empirical hazard function techniques cannot be used to predict the dynamics of human errors and outcomes in the presence of learning. Comparisons of these new insights show agreement with human error data from the world's commercial airlines, the two shuttle failures, and from nuclear plant operator actions and transient control behavior observed in transients in both plants and simulators. The results demonstrate that the human error probability (HEP) is dynamic, and that it may be predicted using the learning hypothesis and the minimum

  16. Uranium dust exposure and lung cancer risk in four uranium processing operations.

    PubMed

    Dupree, E A; Watkins, J P; Ingle, J N; Wallace, P W; West, C M; Tankersley, W G

    1995-07-01

    We examined the relation between uranium dust exposure and lung cancer mortality among workers employed in four uranium processing or fabrication operations located in Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee. Among workers who had at least 30 years of potential follow-up, we identified 787 lung cancer cases from death certificates and matched one control to each case. Health physicists estimated individual annual lung doses from occupational exposure primarily to insoluble uranium compounds, using contemporary monitoring data. With a 10-year lag, cumulative lung doses ranged from 0 to 137 centigrays (cGy) for cases and from 0 to 80 cGy for controls. Health physicists assigned annual external radiation doses to workers having personal monitoring records. Archivists collected smoking information from occupational medical records. Odds ratios for lung cancer mortality for seven cumulative internal dose groups did not demonstrate increasing risk with increasing dose. We found an odds ratio of 2.0 for those exposed to 25 cGy and higher, but the 95% confidence interval of 0.20 to 20 showed great uncertainty in this estimate. There was a suggestion of an exposure effect for workers hired at age 45 years or older. Further analyses for cumulative external doses and exposures to thorium, radium, and radon did not reveal any clear association between exposure and increased risk, nor did dichotomizing workers by facility. PMID:7548343

  17. Health risks associated with ingesting venison from a uranium enrichment facility with multiple operable units

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.; Welsh, C.

    1995-12-31

    Ingestion of game, including venison, may be a significant exposure pathway in human health risk assessments at hazardous waste sites. The difficulty associated with modeling contaminant tissue concentrations in a wide-ranging herbivorous mammal is compounded when the home range of the mammal extends over multiple operable units (OUs) of varying size and media contaminant concentration. Using biotransfer factors extracted from the literature and species-specific parameter information (e.g., home range size, diet, forage and water ingestion rates) the authors estimate contaminant concentrations in venison based on soil and surface water contaminant concentrations and determine the contribution of individual OUs to modeled venison tissue concentrations. Estimated tissue concentrations are calculated through the use of site foraging factors (SFFS) that adjust exposure contributions from individual OUs to account for the size of the OU in relation to the animals home range. The authors then use the venison tissue concentrations to estimate human health risk associated with ingesting venison under both a current and future exposure scenario.

  18. The incidence of early post-operative complications following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty: identification of predictive risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Characterize complications following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) for obstructive sleep apnea. Study design Retrospective chart review. Subjects and methods Charts of patients undergoing UPPP at an academic teaching hospital from 1999 to 2005 were reviewed. Results 345 consecutive patients (248 inpatients; 97 outpatients) were studied. The most common post-operative complication in the entire study was oxyhemoglobin desaturation (12.8%). Three patients suffered major complications (airway obstruction, pulmonary edema, arrhythmia). Regarding complications limited to the post-anaesthetic care unit alone, only 8.2% of patients had oxyhemoglobin desaturation after discontinuation of oxygen supplementation. Inpatients requiring supplemental oxygen on the ward had significantly higher mean AHI (37.4 vs. 31.4; p=0.05) and BMI (32.3 kg/m2 vs. 28.9 kg/m2; p=0.004) than those who did not. Those inpatients who were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) with an AHI≥22 were associated with an increased risk of requiring oxygen on the ward (odds ratio = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.56 – 7.78). Conclusion The incidence of post-UPPP complications is much lower than the literature has historically suggested. Selected patients should be able to safely undergo outpatient UPPP. Patients with higher AHI, higher BMI, or multiple comorbidities are at higher risk for postoperative complications and are most appropriate for overnight monitoring. PMID:23570393

  19. Impact of Rurality, Broiler Operations, and Community Socioeconomic Factors on the Risk of Campylobacteriosis in Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Zappe Pasturel, Barbara; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Rosenberg Goldstein, Rachel E.; Palmer, Amanda; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Hogan, Brenna; Jung, Carrianne; Joseph, Sam W.; Wang, Min Qi; Ting Lee, Mei-Ling; Puett, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the combined impact of community-level environmental and socioeconomic factors on the risk of campylobacteriosis. Methods. We obtained Campylobacter case data (2002–2010; n = 3694) from the Maryland Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network. We obtained community-level socioeconomic and environmental data from the 2000 US Census and the 2007 US Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code. We derived incidence rate ratios by Poisson regressions. We mapped a subset of zip code–level characteristics. Results. In zip codes that were 100% rural, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of campylobacteriosis were 6 times (IRR = 6.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.19, 11.97) greater than those in urban zip codes. In zip codes with broiler chicken operations, incidence rates were 1.45 times greater than those in zip codes without broilers (IRR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.34, 1.58). We also observed higher rates in zip codes whose populations were predominantly White and had high median incomes. Conclusions. The community and environment in which one lives may significantly influence the risk of campylobacteriosis. PMID:24134343

  20. Harnessing the Risk-Related Data Supply Chain: An Information Architecture Approach to Enriching Human System Research and Operations Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buquo, Lynn; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD), not unlike many NASA organizations today, struggle with the inherent inefficiencies caused by dependencies on heterogeneous data systems and silos of data and information spread across decentralized discipline domains. The capture of operational and research-based data/information (both in-flight and ground-based) in disparate IT systems impedes the extent to which that data/information can be efficiently and securely shared, analyzed, and enriched into knowledge that directly and more rapidly supports HRP's research-focused human system risk mitigation efforts and SLSD s operationally oriented risk management efforts. As a result, an integrated effort is underway to more fully understand and document how specific sets of risk-related data/information are generated and used and in what IT systems that data/information currently resides. By mapping the risk-related data flow from raw data to useable information and knowledge (think of it as the data supply chain), HRP and SLSD are building an information architecture plan to leverage their existing, shared IT infrastructure. In addition, it is important to create a centralized structured tool to represent risks including attributes such as likelihood, consequence, contributing factors, and the evidence supporting the information in all these fields. Representing the risks in this way enables reasoning about the risks, e.g. revisiting a risk assessment when a mitigation strategy is unavailable, updating a risk assessment when new information becomes available, etc. Such a system also provides a concise way to communicate the risks both within the organization as well as with collaborators. Understanding and, hence, harnessing the human system risk-related data supply chain enhances both organizations' abilities to securely collect, integrate, and share data assets that improve human system research and operations.

  1. Challenges in communicating and using ensemble forecasts in operational flood risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobert, Sébastien; Demeritt, David; Cloke, Hannah

    2010-05-01

    Following trends in operational weather forecasting, where ensemble prediction systems (EPS) are now increasingly the norm, a number of hydrological and flood forecasting centres internationally have begun to experiment with using similar ensemble methods. Most of the research to date has focused on the substantial technical challenges of developing coupled rainfall-runoff systems to represent the full cascade of uncertainties involved in predicting future flooding. As a consequence much less attention has been given to the communication and eventual use of EPS flood forecasts. Thus, this talk addresses the general understanding and communicative challenges in using EPS in operational flood forecasting. Drawing on a set of 48 semi-structured interviews conducted with flood forecasters, meteorologists and civil protection authorities (CPAs) dispersed across 17 European countries, this presentation pulls out some of the tensions between the scientific development of EPS and their application in flood risk management. The scientific uncertainties about whether or not a flood will occur comprise only part of the wider ‘decision' uncertainties faced by those charged with flood protection, who must also consider questions about how warnings they issue will subsequently be interpreted. By making those first order scientific uncertainties more explicit, ensemble forecasts can sometimes complicate, rather than clarify, the second order decision uncertainties they are supposed to inform.

  2. A Risk Management Method for the Operation of a Supply-Chain without Storage:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Yuuji; Nakata, Norimasa; Kusaka, Satoshi

    A business risk management method has been developed for a supply-chain without a storage function under demand uncertainty. Power supply players in the deregulated power market face the need to develop the best policies for power supply from self-production and reserved purchases to balance demand, which is predictable with error. The proposed method maximizes profit from the operation of the supply-chain under probabilistic demand uncertainty on the basis of a probabilistic programming approach. Piece-wise linear functions are employed to formulate the impact of under-booked or over-booked purchases on the supply cost, and constraints on over-demand probability are introduced to limit over-demand frequency on the basis of the demand probability distribution. The developed method has been experimentally applied to the supply policy of a power-supply-chain, the operation of which is based on a 3-stage pricing purchase contract and on 28 time zones. The characteristics of the obtained optimal supply policy are successfully captured in the numerical results, which suggest the applicability of the proposed method.

  3. From Hydroclimatic Prediction to Negotiated and Risk Managed Water Allocation and Reservoir Operation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.

    2013-12-01

    The availability of long lead climate forecasts that can in turn inform streamflow, agricultural, ecological and municipal/industrial and energy demands provides an opportunity for innovations in water resources management that go beyond the current practices and paradigms. In a practical setting, managers seek to meet registered demands as well as they can. Pricing mechanisms to manage demand are rarely invoked. Drought restrictions and operations are implemented as needed, and pressures from special interest groups are sometimes accommodated through a variety of processes. In the academic literature, there is a notion that demand curves for different sectors could be established and used for "optimal management". However, the few attempts to implement such ideas have invariably failed as elicitation of demand elasticity and socio-political factors is imperfect at best. In this talk, I will focus on what is worth predicting and for whom and how operational risks for the water system can be securitized while providing a platform for priced and negotiated allocation of the resources in the presence of imperfect forecasts. The possibility of a national or regional market for water contracts as part of the framework is explored, and its potential benefits and pitfalls identified.

  4. Risk perception, future land use and stewardship: comparison of attitudes about Hanford Site and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Sanchez, J; Roush, D; Gochfeld, M

    2001-04-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating mission, future land use and stewardship of departmental facilities. This paper compares the environmental concerns and future use preferences of 351 people interviewed at Lewiston, Idaho, about the Hanford Site and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), two of DOE's largest sites. Although most subjects lived closer to Hanford than INEEL, most resided in the same state as INEEL. Therefore their economic interests might be more closely allied with INEEL, while their health concerns might be more related to Hanford. Few lived close enough to either site to be directly affected economically. We test the null hypotheses that there are no differences in environmental concerns and future land-use preferences as a function of DOE site, sex, age and education. When asked to list their major concerns about the sites, more people listed human health and safety, and environmental concerns about Hanford compared to INEEL. When asked to list their preferred future land uses, 49% of subjects did not have any for INEEL, whereas only 35% did not know for Hanford. The highest preferred land uses for both sites were as a National Environmental Research Park (NERP), and for camping, hunting, hiking, and fishing. Except for returning the land to the tribes and increased nuclear storage, subjects rated all future uses as more preferred at INEEL than Hanford. Taken together, these data suggest that the people interviewed know more about Hanford, are more concerned about Hanford, rate recreational uses and NERP as their highest preferred land use, and feel that INEEL is more suited for most land uses than Handford. Overall rankings for future land uses were remarkably similar between the sites, indicating that for these stakeholders, DOE lands should be preserved for research and recreation. These preferences should be taken into account when planning for long-term stewardship at

  5. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this…

  6. Towards Sustaining Water Resources and Aquatic Ecosystems: Forecasting Watershed Risks to Current and Future Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, K. A.; Newburn, D.; Opperman, J. J.; Brooks, C.; Merenlender, A.

    2005-05-01

    Sustaining aquatic resources requires managing existing threats and anticipating future impacts. Resource managers and planners often have limited understanding of the relative effects of human activities on stream conditions and how these effects will change over time. Here we assess and forecast the relative impacts of land use on sediment concentrations in Mediterranean-climate watersheds in California. We focus on the Russian River basin, which supports threatened salmonid populations vulnerable to high levels of fine sediment. We ask the following questions: (1) What are the relative impacts of three different land uses (urban, exurban and agriculture) on the patterns of fine sediment in streams? (2) What is the relative contribution of past and current changes in land use activities on these patterns? and (3) What are the effects of future development on these sediment levels? First, we characterized land use at the parcel scale to calibrate the relative impacts of exurban and urban land use on stream substrate quality, characterized by the concentration of fine sediment surrounding spawning gravels (`embeddedness') in 105 stream reaches. Second, we built multiple ordinal logistic regression models on a subset of watersheds (n=64) and then evaluated substrate quality predictions against observed data from another set of watersheds (n=41). Finally, we coupled these models with spatially explicit land use change models to project future stream conditions and associated uncertainties under different development scenarios for the year 2010. We found that the percent of urban housing and agriculture were significant predictors of in-stream embeddedness. Model results from parcel-level land use data indicated that changes in development were better predictors of fine sediment than total development in a single time period. In addition, our results indicate that exurban development is an important threat to stream systems; increases in the percent of total exurban

  7. Crop Production Risk in the Pampas: A Bayesian Weather Generator for Climate Change and Land Use Impact Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdin, A.; Rajagopalan, B.; Kleiber, W.; Podesta, G. P.; Bert, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present a space-time stochastic weather generator for daily precipitation and temperature, developed within a Bayesian hierarchical framework (hereafter BayGEN). This framework offers a unique advantage: it provides robust estimation of uncertainty that is typically under-represented in traditional weather generators. Realistic estimates of uncertainty are of utmost importance for studying climate variability and change, impacts on land use, and crop production. BayGEN is applied to a network of weather stations in the Salado basin of the Argentine Pampas, a region that saw immense agricultural expansion towards climatically marginal (i.e., semi-arid) regions, in part due to significant trends in annual precipitation from 1970-2000. Since the turn of the century, observed conditions suggest a decrease in precipitation, which begs the question: "Are the existing agricultural production systems viable in a drier future?" The use of process based (i.e., hydrologic, crop simulation) models in conjunction with BayGEN will allow for complete analysis of the system's response to an ensemble of plausible future scenarios. Precipitation occurrence at each site is modeled at the first level of hierarchy using probit regression with covariates for seasonality, where the latent process is Gaussian -- positivity in the latent process implies occurrence. The precipitation amounts are modeled using a transformed gamma regression (i.e., gamma generalized linear model), similarly with seasonality covariates. Minimum and maximum temperatures are conditional on precipitation occurrence and are decomposed into two processes: (i) climate -- linear regressions on seasonality covariates, and (ii) weather -- realizations from mean-zero Gaussian random fields. The use of seasonality covariates allows the generation of daily weather sequences conditioned on seasonal forecasts or projected multi-annual trends, an increasingly important practice for risk assessment in climatically marginal

  8. An integrated risk assessment model of township-scaled land subsidence based on an evidential reasoning algorithm and fuzzy set theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Shu, Longcang; Burbey, Thomas J

    2014-04-01

    Land subsidence risk assessment (LSRA) is a multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA) problem and is often characterized by both quantitative and qualitative attributes with various types of uncertainty. Therefore, the problem needs to be modeled and analyzed using methods that can handle uncertainty. In this article, we propose an integrated assessment model based on the evidential reasoning (ER) algorithm and fuzzy set theory. The assessment model is structured as a hierarchical framework that regards land subsidence risk as a composite of two key factors: hazard and vulnerability. These factors can be described by a set of basic indicators defined by assessment grades with attributes for transforming both numerical data and subjective judgments into a belief structure. The factor-level attributes of hazard and vulnerability are combined using the ER algorithm, which is based on the information from a belief structure calculated by the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory, and a distributed fuzzy belief structure calculated by fuzzy set theory. The results from the combined algorithms yield distributed assessment grade matrices. The application of the model to the Xixi-Chengnan area, China, illustrates its usefulness and validity for LSRA. The model utilizes a combination of all types of evidence, including all assessment information--quantitative or qualitative, complete or incomplete, and precise or imprecise--to provide assessment grades that define risk assessment on the basis of hazard and vulnerability. The results will enable risk managers to apply different risk prevention measures and mitigation planning based on the calculated risk states. PMID:24593262

  9. Preliminary Hazards Assessments for Space Nuclear Electric Propulsion Systems Mechanisms to Quantitatively Ascertain and Address Launch and Operational Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenard, R.

    2002-01-01

    Architectures are analyzed based on several figures of merit, including mass transported to Mars and samples transported from Mars to Earth, potential to reduce Earth contamination, sites on MArs visited, trip time and potential cost trades.A technological variant of a commercial vehicle for near-Earth missions is used as the nuclear electric propulsion system baseline. Several types of Mars landing and ascent vehicles are proposed and assessed.Technology approaches are assessed and analyzed to compare risk to a conventionally fueled Mars Sample Return concept. Also compared are solar electric propelled missions to ascertain cost saving or advantages. Various mission departure dates will be proposed and analyzed.

  10. Basin-scale assessment of the land surface energy budget in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction operational and research NLDAS-2 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Youlong; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Ek, Michael B.; Kumar, Sujay; Mocko, David; Wei, Helin

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the annual and monthly components of the simulated energy budget from the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2) with reference products over the domains of the 12 River Forecast Centers (RFCs) of the continental United States (CONUS). The simulations are calculated from both operational and research versions of NLDAS-2. The reference radiation components are obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Surface Radiation Budget product. The reference sensible and latent heat fluxes are obtained from a multitree ensemble method applied to gridded FLUXNET data from the Max Planck Institute, Germany. As these references are obtained from different data sources, they cannot fully close the energy budget, although the range of closure error is less than 15% for mean annual results. The analysis here demonstrates the usefulness of basin-scale surface energy budget analysis for evaluating model skill and deficiencies. The operational (i.e., Noah, Mosaic, and VIC) and research (i.e., Noah-I and VIC4.0.5) NLDAS-2 land surface models exhibit similarities and differences in depicting basin-averaged energy components. For example, the energy components of the five models have similar seasonal cycles, but with different magnitudes. Generally, Noah and VIC overestimate (underestimate) sensible (latent) heat flux over several RFCs of the eastern CONUS. In contrast, Mosaic underestimates (overestimates) sensible (latent) heat flux over almost all 12 RFCs. The research Noah-I and VIC4.0.5 versions show moderate-to-large improvements (basin and model dependent) relative to their operational versions, which indicates likely pathways for future improvements in the operational NLDAS-2 system.

  11. Basin-Scale Assessment of the Land Surface Energy Budget in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Operational and Research NLDAS-2 Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Youlong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Ek, Michael B.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Mocko, David M.; Wei, Helin

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the annual and monthly components of the simulated energy budget from the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2) with reference products over the domains of the 12 River Forecast Centers (RFCs) of the continental United States (CONUS). The simulations are calculated from both operational and research versions of NLDAS-2. The reference radiation components are obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Surface Radiation Budget product. The reference sensible and latent heat fluxes are obtained from a multitree ensemble method applied to gridded FLUXNET data from the Max Planck Institute, Germany. As these references are obtained from different data sources, they cannot fully close the energy budget, although the range of closure error is less than 15%formean annual results. The analysis here demonstrates the usefulness of basin-scale surface energy budget analysis for evaluating model skill and deficiencies. The operational (i.e., Noah, Mosaic, and VIC) and research (i.e., Noah-I and VIC4.0.5) NLDAS-2 land surface models exhibit similarities and differences in depicting basin-averaged energy components. For example, the energy components of the five models have similar seasonal cycles, but with different magnitudes. Generally, Noah and VIC overestimate (underestimate) sensible (latent) heat flux over several RFCs of the eastern CONUS. In contrast, Mosaic underestimates (overestimates) sensible (latent) heat flux over almost all 12 RFCs. The research Noah-I and VIC4.0.5 versions show moderate-to-large improvements (basin and model dependent) relative to their operational versions, which indicates likely pathways for future improvements in the operational NLDAS-2 system.

  12. Contribution of the land-use forcing to the increase in risk of warm extreme events since 1850 over North America from constrained CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeune, Quentin; Davin, Edouard; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    During the industrial period, large areas of North America experienced a reduction in forest cover and an expansion of agricultural areas. There is indication that this has affected the intensity and frequency of temperature extremes through changes in biophysical land surface properties (Christidis et al., 2013, Pitman et al., 2012). However, it has never been addressed in the context of a multi-model transient experiment ensemble. Here we intend to constrain CMIP5 models with observations in order to assess the contribution of historical land-cover changes (LCC) to changes in the risk of warm extreme events over North America. We have retained only six models from the CMIP5 ensemble that can reproduce the local warming effect of deforestation during daytime, which was identified in present-day observations of the impact of deforestation on mean summer temperature (Lee et al, 2011). As for its observed cooling effect during nighttime, we kept the sole model that is able to simulate it. Using a framework derived from the Fraction of Attributable Risk methodology, we have then quantified by how much the increase in risk of getting a particular extreme event driven by increased greenhouse gas concentrations (GHG) was damped or amplified over areas which were largely affected by LCC, compared to surrounding ones that experienced few LCC over the same period. We find that the constrained model ensemble indicates an amplification by between 10 and more than 100% by local LCC of the increase in risk of occurrence of a warm extreme event corresponding to the 90th percentile during the pre-industrial period, depending on the model. This amplification factor gets higher for more extreme events, rising to at least 20% for the 995th permille. Regarding nighttime temperatures, the retained model indicates that historical LCC have locally more than cancelled the effect of increased GHG concentrations on the frequency of warm extreme events corresponding to between the 90th

  13. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  14. Investigating the potential to reduce flood risk through catchment-based land management techniques and interventions in the River Roe catchment, Cumbria,UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Callum; Reaney, Sim; Bracken, Louise; Butler, Lucy

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the United Kingdom flood risk is a growing problem and a significant proportion of the population are at risk from flooding throughout the country. Across England and Wales over 5 million people are believed to be at risk from fluvial, pluvial or coastal flooding (DEFRA, 2013). Increasingly communities that have not dealt with flooding before have recently experienced significant flood events. The communities of Stockdalewath and Highbridge in the Roe catchment, a tributary of the River Eden in Cumbria, UK, are an excellent example. The River Roe has a normal flow of less than 5m3 sec-1 occurring 97 percent of the time however there have been two flash floods of 98.8m3 sec-1 in January 2005 and 86.9m3 sec-1 in May 2013. These two flash flood events resulted in the inundation of numerous properties within the catchment with the 2013 event prompting the creation of the Roe Catchment Community Water Management Group which aims are to deliver a sustainable approach to managing the flood risk. Due to the distributed rural population the community fails the cost-benefit analysis for a centrally funded flood risk mitigation scheme. Therefore the at-risk community within the Roe catchment have to look for cost-effective, sustainable techniques and interventions to reduce the potential negative impacts of future events; this has resulted in a focus on natural flood risk management. This research investigates the potential to reduce flood risk through natural catchment-based land management techniques and interventions within the Roe catchment; providing a scientific base from with further action can be enacted. These interventions include changes to land management and land use, such as soil aeration and targeted afforestation, the creation of runoff attenuation features and the construction of in channel features, such as debris dams. Natural flood management (NFM) application has been proven to be effective when reducing flood risk in smaller catchments and the

  15. Quantitative risk assessment of the introduction of rabies into Japan through the illegal landing of dogs from Russian fishing boats in the ports of Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Nigel C L; Ogawa, Hidehito; Yamada, Akio; Sugiura, Katsuaki

    2016-06-01

    Japan has been free from rabies since 1958 and various preventive measures are in place protecting the country from the introduction of the disease. Historical reviews indicate that the illegal landing of dogs from Russian fishing boats in the ports of Hokkaido occurred frequently especially in the early 2000s and this could potentially be a source of introduction of rabies into Japan. The method of scenario tree modelling was used and the following entry and exposure pathway was considered the most likely route of rabies entry: a rabies-infected dog arriving on a Russian fishing boat lands in a port of Hokkaido in Japan, it becomes infectious, contacts and infects a susceptible domestic animal (companion dog, stray dog or wildlife). Input parameter values were based on surveys of Russian fishermen, expert opinion and scientific data from the literature. At present (2006-2015), the probability of the introduction of rabies as a result of one Russian fishing boat arriving at a port of Hokkaido is 8.33×10(-10) (90% Prediction Interval (PI): 7.15×10(-11)-5.34×10(-9)), while this probability would have been 7.70×10(-9) (90% PI: 6.40×10(-10)-4.81×10(-8)) in the past (1998-2005). Under the current situation (average annual number of boat arrivals is 1106), rabies would enter Japan every 1,084,849 (90% PI: 169,215-20,188,348) years, while the disease would have been introduced every 18,309 (90% PI: 2929-220,048) years in the past (average annual number of boat arrivals is 7092). The risk of rabies introduction has decreased 59 fold due to both the effective control of the issue of illegal landing of dogs and the decline in the number of Russian boat arrivals. Control efforts include education of Russian fishermen, establishment of warning signs, daily patrols and regular port surveillance of potential dog landing activity. Furthermore, scenario analysis revealed that the policy of mandatory domestic dog vaccination does not contribute effectively to Japan's rabies

  16. E&P forum land transport safety management guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, S.; Carouso, M.; Covil, M.

    1996-11-01

    Against a general background of falling lost time injuries the member of serious incidents and fatalities in the upstream E&P industry involving motor vehicles employed in land transport remains stubbornly high. In consequence the E&P Forum has prepared guidelines to provide the E&P industry with clear guidance and a shared aim in minimizing vehicle incidents and their costs. Logistics and land transport are multifunctional activities involving personnel throughout the E&P industry. All those involved in land transport share a joint commitment to amazing land transport risks in their operation and to preventing incidents and fatalities as stated in their HSE policies. Historically management`s focus has been on those activities which have a higher perceived risk. This attention has resulted in significant reductions in the number of accidents in these areas. The management of land transport safety requires the same approach and the same proactive emphasis as the management of other HSE risks within the business activity. Companies should have in place a management system for land transport operations based on a full and careful appraisal of the risks, followed by a clear management strategy to minimis and control those risks to a level as low as reasonably practicable.

  17. 12 CFR 324.141 - Operational criteria for recognizing the transfer of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transfer of risk. 324.141 Section 324.141 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL ADEQUACY OF FDIC-SUPERVISED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Internal Ratings-Based and Advanced Measurement Approaches Risk-Weighted Assets for...

  18. Global opportunities in land and water use while staying within the safe (and just) operating space: quantifications of interactions and tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerten, Dieter; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Heck, Vera

    2016-04-01

    Staying within the safe and just operating space as defined by multiple planetary boundaries will be a major challenge especially in view of anticipated future increases in food demand, the potential need for balancing climate change (e.g. through terrestrial carbon dioxide removal) and its impacts, and the water and land demand associated with these goals and measures. This presentation will show simulation results from a comprehensive model-based study on the global potentials of diverse crop management options considered as opportunities to stay within the planetary boundaries for human freshwater use and land-system change. The quantified on-farm options include rainwater harvesting, soil conservation and more efficient irrigation, all of which are designed to use neither more water nor more land for agriculture than is presently the case. Results show that irrigation efficiency improvements could save substantial amounts of water in many river basins (globally 48% of non-productive water consumption in an ambitious scenario), and if rerouted to irrigate neighbouring rainfed systems, could at the same time boost kilocalorie production by 26% globally. Low-tech solutions for small-scale farmers on water-limited croplands show the potential to increase rainfed yields to a similar extent. In combination, such ambitious yet achievable integrated water management strategies could increase global kcal production by 41% and close the water-related yield gap by 62%. Global climate change would have adverse effects on crop yields in many regions, but the improvements in water management quantified here could buffer such effects to a significant degree. Thus, a substantial amount of anticipated future needs for food production could be fulfilled without further approaching / transgressing planetary boundaries. In addition, it will be shown how large-scale biomass plantations for the purpose of terrestrial CO2 removal (climate engineering, potentially implemented should

  19. Land use change in the last century in the Veneto floodplain: effects on network drainage density, water storage, and related consequences on flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Sofia, Giulia; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Tarolli, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    In a high-density populated country such as Italy, the anthropic pressure plays a fundamental role in the alteration and the modification of the landscape. Among the most evident anthropic alterations, the most important are the urbanization processes that have been occurring since the end of the second world war. Agricultural activities, housing and other land uses have shifted due to the progressive spreading of urban areas. These modifications affect the hydrologic regimes, but municipalities often are not aware of the real impact of land cover changes on such processes and, consequently, an increase of the elements at risk of flooding is generally registered. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of land cover changes in the Veneto region (north-east Italy), from 1954 to 2006, on the minor drainage network system and on its capacity to attenuate the direct runoff. The major flood event occurred between October and November 2010. The study is a typical agrarian landscape and it has been chosen considering its involvement inthe major flood of 2010 and considering also the availability of high-resolution topographic data (LiDAR-derived DTMs) and historical aerial photographs. Aerial photographs dated back to 1954 and 1981, in particular, have been used either to classify the land cover in five categories according to the first level of the CORINE land cover classification and to identify the minor drainage network. A semi-automatic approach based on the high-resolution DTM (Cazorzi et al., 2012), was also considered to identify the minor drainage network and estimate its water storage capacity. The results underline how land cover variation over the last 50 years has strongly increased the propension of the soil to produce direct runoff (increase of the Curve Number value) and it has also reduced the extent of the minor network system. As a consequence, the capacity of the agrarian minor network to attenuate and laminate a flood event is

  20. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.