Science.gov

Sample records for landing systems analysis

  1. Land Analysis System (LAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Version 4.1 of LAS provides flexible framework for algorithm development and processing and analysis of image data. Over 500,000 lines of code enable image repair, clustering, classification, film processing, geometric registration, radiometric correction, and manipulation of image statistics.

  2. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS IN LAND-USEPLANNING...

    E-print Network

    -can be helpful in decisionmaking. The general structure of a land-use decision model ap- proached through systems models; multiple-use management; systems analysis; Dillon Ranger District; Arapaho National Forest. #12 model approached through systems analysis. Actual relationships are not developed in detail. The type

  3. Microwave landing system autoland system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.; Craven, B. K.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the ability of present day aircraft equipped with automatic flight control systems to fly advanced Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) approaches. The tactical approach used to achieve this objective included reviewing the design and autoland operation of the MD-80 aircraft, simulating the MLS approaches using a batch computer program, and assessing the performance of the autoland system from computer generated data. The results showed changes were required to present Instrument Landing System (ILS) procedures to accommodate the new MLS curved paths. It was also shown that in some cases, changes to the digital flight guidance systems would be required so that an autoland could be performed.

  4. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Howard, Austin R.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Studak, Joseph W.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.; Casoliva, Jordi; Ivanov, Mark C.; Clark, Ian; Sengupta, Anita

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  5. An economic systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-11-01

    This paper deals with the economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite land-mobile radio service systems. The cellular, trunked and satellite land-mobile systems are described. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as functions of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/km squared) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  6. An economic systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite land-mobile radio service systems. The cellular, trunked and satellite land-mobile systems are described. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as functions of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/km squared) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  7. The Land Analysis System (LAS) for multispectral image processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wharton, S. W.; Lu, Y. C.; Quirk, Bruce K.; Oleson, Lyndon R.; Newcomer, J. A.; Irani, Frederick M.

    1988-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an interactive software system available in the public domain for the analysis, display, and management of multispectral and other digital image data. LAS provides over 240 applications functions and utilities, a flexible user interface, complete online and hard-copy documentation, extensive image-data file management, reformatting, conversion utilities, and high-level device independent access to image display hardware. The authors summarize the capabilities of the current release of LAS (version 4.0) and discuss plans for future development. Particular emphasis is given to the issue of system portability and the importance of removing and/or isolating hardware and software dependencies.

  8. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  9. LAS - LAND ANALYSIS SYSTEM, VERSION 5.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, P. B.

    1994-01-01

    The Land Analysis System (LAS) is an image analysis system designed to manipulate and analyze digital data in raster format and provide the user with a wide spectrum of functions and statistical tools for analysis. LAS offers these features under VMS with optional image display capabilities for IVAS and other display devices as well as the X-Windows environment. LAS provides a flexible framework for algorithm development as well as for the processing and analysis of image data. Users may choose between mouse-driven commands or the traditional command line input mode. LAS functions include supervised and unsupervised image classification, film product generation, geometric registration, image repair, radiometric correction and image statistical analysis. Data files accepted by LAS include formats such as Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). The enhanced geometric registration package now includes both image to image and map to map transformations. The over 200 LAS functions fall into image processing scenario categories which include: arithmetic and logical functions, data transformations, fourier transforms, geometric registration, hard copy output, image restoration, intensity transformation, multispectral and statistical analysis, file transfer, tape profiling and file management among others. Internal improvements to the LAS code have eliminated the VAX VMS dependencies and improved overall system performance. The maximum LAS image size has been increased to 20,000 lines by 20,000 samples with a maximum of 256 bands per image. The catalog management system used in earlier versions of LAS has been replaced by a more streamlined and maintenance-free method of file management. This system is not dependent on VAX/VMS and relies on file naming conventions alone to allow the use of identical LAS file names on different operating systems. While the LAS code has been improved, the original capabilities of the system have been preserved. These include maintaining associated image history, session logging, and batch, asynchronous and interactive mode of operation. The LAS application programs are integrated under version 4.1 of an interface called the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). TAE 4.1 has four modes of user interaction: menu, direct command, tutor (or help), and dynamic tutor. In addition TAE 4.1 allows the operation of LAS functions using mouse-driven commands under the TAE-Facelift environment provided with TAE 4.1. These modes of operation allow users, from the beginner to the expert, to exercise specific application options. LAS is written in C-language and FORTRAN 77 for use with DEC VAX computers running VMS with approximately 16Mb of physical memory. This program runs under TAE 4.1. Since TAE 4.1 is not a current version of TAE, TAE 4.1 is included within the LAS distribution. Approximately 130,000 blocks (65Mb) of disk storage space are necessary to store the source code and files generated by the installation procedure for LAS and 44,000 blocks (22Mb) of disk storage space are necessary for TAE 4.1 installation. The only other dependencies for LAS are the subroutine libraries for the specific display device(s) that will be used with LAS/DMS (e.g. X-Windows and/or IVAS). The standard distribution medium for LAS is a set of two 9track 6250 BPI magnetic tapes in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a set of two TK50 tape cartridges in DEC VAX BACKUP format. This program was developed in 1986 and last updated in 1992.

  10. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Dwyer-Cianciolo, Alicia M.; Kinney, David J.; Howard, Austin R.; Chen, George T.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Westhelle, Carlos H.

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the Study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

  11. An economics systems analysis of land mobile radio telephone services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The economic interaction of the terrestrial and satellite systems is considered. Parametric equations are formulated to allow examination of necessary user thresholds and growth rates as a function of system costs. Conversely, first order allowable systems costs are found as a function of user thresholds and growth rates. Transitions between satellite and terrestrial service systems are examined. User growth rate density (user/year/sq km) is shown to be a key parameter in the analysis of systems compatibility. The concept of system design matching the price/demand curves is introduced and examples are given. The role of satellite systems is critically examined and the economic conditions necessary for the introduction of satellite service are identified.

  12. Fractal analysis of urban environment: land use and sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, A.; Ochoa Rodriguez, S.; Van Assel, J.; Bruni, G.; Murla Tulys, D.; Wang, L.; Pina, R.; Richard, J.; Ichiba, A.; Willems, P.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Land use distribution are usually obtained by automatic processing of satellite and airborne pictures. The complexity of the obtained patterns which are furthermore scale dependent is enhanced in urban environment. This scale dependency is even more visible in a rasterized representation where only a unique class is affected to each pixel. A parameter commonly analysed in urban hydrology is the coefficient of imperviousness, which reflects the proportion of rainfall that will be immediately active in the catchment response. This coefficient is strongly scale dependent with a rasterized representation. This complex behaviour is well grasped with the help of the scale invariant notion of fractal dimension which enables to quantify the space occupied by a geometrical set (here the impervious areas) not only at a single scale but across all scales. This fractal dimension is also compared to the ones computed on the representation of the catchments with the help of operational semi-distributed models. Fractal dimensions of the corresponding sewer systems are also computed and compared with values found in the literature for natural river networks. This methodology is tested on 7 pilot sites of the European NWE Interreg IV RainGain project located in France, Belgium, Netherlands, United-Kingdom and Portugal. Results are compared between all the case study which exhibit different physical features (slope, level of urbanisation, population density...).

  13. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Feed Forward Internal Peer Review Slide Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia M. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 mt. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  14. Heave-pitch-roll analysis and testing of air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Wormley, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    The analytical tools (analysis and computer simulation) needed to explain and predict the dynamic operation of air cushion landing systems (ACLS) is described. The following tasks were performed: the development of improved analytical models for the fan and the trunk; formulation of a heave pitch roll analysis for the complete ACLS; development of a general purpose computer simulation to evaluate landing and taxi performance of an ACLS equipped aircraft; and the verification and refinement of the analysis by comparison with test data obtained through lab testing of a prototype cushion. Demonstration of simulation capabilities through typical landing and taxi simulation of an ACLS aircraft are given. Initial results show that fan dynamics have a major effect on system performance. Comparison with lab test data (zero forward speed) indicates that the analysis can predict most of the key static and dynamic parameters (pressure, deflection, acceleration, etc.) within a margin of a 10 to 25 percent.

  15. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Class Simulation Overview and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.

  16. Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Title: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions Topic (must choose one item from a drop-down list): Community Indicators Learning Objectives (must list 2): • What are the benefits and l...

  17. AIR LAND WATER ANALYSIS SYSTEM (ALEAS): A MULTI-MEDIA MODEL FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Land Water Analysis System (ALWAS) is a multi-media environmental model for describing the atmospheric dispersion of toxicants, the surface runoff of deposited toxicants, and the subsequent fate of these materials in surface water bodies. ALWAS dipicts the spatial and tem...

  18. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Exploration Feed-Forward Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Zang, Thomas A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; McGuire, M. Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Technology required to land large payloads (20 to 50 mt) on Mars remains elusive. In an effort to identify the most viable investment path, NASA and others have been studying various concepts. One such study, the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDLSA) Study [1] identified three potential options: the rigid aeroshell, the inflatable aeroshell and supersonic retropropulsion (SRP). In an effort to drive out additional levels of design detail, a smaller demonstrator, or exploration feed-forward (EFF), robotic mission was devised that utilized two of the three (inflatable aeroshell and SRP) high potential technologies in a configuration to demonstrate landing a two to four metric ton payload on Mars. This paper presents and overview of the maximum landed mass, inflatable aeroshell controllability and sensor suite capability assessments of the selected technologies and recommends specific technology areas for additional work.

  19. A Multidisciplinary Tool for Systems Analysis of Planetary Entry, Descent, and Landing (SAPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2009-01-01

    SAPE is a Python-based multidisciplinary analysis tool for systems analysis of planetary entry, descent, and landing (EDL) for Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. The purpose of SAPE is to provide a variable-fidelity capability for conceptual and preliminary analysis within the same framework. SAPE includes the following analysis modules: geometry, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermal, thermal protection system, and structural sizing. SAPE uses the Python language-a platform-independent open-source software for integration and for the user interface. The development has relied heavily on the object-oriented programming capabilities that are available in Python. Modules are provided to interface with commercial and government off-the-shelf software components (e.g., thermal protection systems and finite-element analysis). SAPE runs on Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X and has been partially tested on Linux.

  20. Multidisciplinary Tool for Systems Analysis of Planetary Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems analysis of a planetary entry (SAPE), descent, and landing (EDL) is a multidisciplinary activity in nature. SAPE improves the performance of the systems analysis team by automating and streamlining the process, and this improvement can reduce the errors that stem from manual data transfer among discipline experts. SAPE is a multidisciplinary tool for systems analysis of planetary EDL for Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. It performs EDL systems analysis for any planet, operates cross-platform (i.e., Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems), uses existing software components and open-source software to avoid software licensing issues, performs low-fidelity systems analysis in one hour on a computer that is comparable to an average laptop, and keeps discipline experts in the analysis loop. SAPE uses Python, a platform-independent, open-source language, for integration and for the user interface. Development has relied heavily on the object-oriented programming capabilities that are available in Python. Modules are provided to interface with commercial and government off-the-shelf software components (e.g., thermal protection systems and finite-element analysis). SAPE currently includes the following analysis modules: geometry, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermal, thermal protection system, and interface for structural sizing.

  1. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world. PMID:26121142

  2. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world. PMID:26121142

  3. Application of NCEP Land Data Assimilation Systems for Global and Regional Drought Analysis, Monitoring and Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ek, M. B.; Xia, Y.; Meng, C. J.; Dong, J.

    2012-12-01

    Currently, NCEP/EMC includes three Land Data Assimilation Systems (LDASs): (1) Global LDAS (GLDAS), (2) North American LDAS (NLDAS), and (3) high resolution NLDAS on the Hydrologic Rainfall Analysis Project (HRAP) grid (HRAP-NLDAS). GLDAS was developed to provide initial conditions for NCEP coupled global weather and climate models, NLDAS to provide hydrometeorological products to support the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS), and HRAP-NLDAS for long-term and near real-time high-resolution (~4 km) hydrometeorological products to support hydrological research and application at National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast Centers and the Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD). These three systems are independent but closely related. The core model of the three systems is the NCEP operational land surface model (Noah) and the OHD operational hydrological model (SAC-HT); two additional land surface/hydrological models are used in NLDAS. The three systems are all moving towards being used for global and regional drought analysis, monitoring and prediction. The uncoupled GLDAS used the Noah land model in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), with blended atmospheric model and observed precipitation forcing used to generate long-term (1979-present) global hydrometeorological products (at ~38 km) as part of the proposed Global Drought Information System (GDIS) in association with the NOAA Climate Program Office (CPO) Modeling, Analysis, Predictions and Projection (MAPP) Drought Task Force; use of GLDAS/Noah continues in the operational Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2). NLDAS is a quasi-operational system that supports U.S. operational drought monitoring and seasonal hydrological prediction, in particular for NIDIS. One key application of the near real-time updates is drought monitoring over the Continental United States (CONUS), shown at the "NLDAS Drought" tab of the NLDAS website (www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/mmb/nldas). NLDAS is mature, with NCEP operational implementation planned for the near future. At the same time, the NCEP/EMC NLDAS team is collaborating with the NASA Goddard Hydrological Sciences Laboratory to add their Land Information System (LIS) to the current NLDAS which will allow assimilation of remotely-sensed data sets and in-situ observations. HRAP-NLDAS centers on supporting NCEP and OHD operational land surface and hydrological modeling missions, as well as providing support for the NOAA Hydrology Test Bed, the NOAA Climate Test Bed, and NIDIS, with long-term retrospective (1979-present) and near real-time multi-model hydrometerological products over CONUS. New capabilities include the use of enhanced versions of the Noah and Sacramento Heat Transfer (SAC-HT) land models. As HRAP-NLDAS is developed under the NASA LIS framework, more land surface/hydrological models will be included in this system. This high resolution exercise will allow drought monitoring with spatial scales from state to sub-county levels.

  4. Weight and structural analysis of four structural concepts for a land mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J.; Wright, R. L.; Farmer, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The present study is concerned with a Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) which can provide mobile communications for commercial and government applications in nonmetropolitan areas of the continental U.S. and Canada as an augmentation to existing and planned terrestrial systems. The satellite system would provide 'narrow band' telecommunications services, thin-route fixed telephone and data services in the 806-890 MHz band, and continuous emergency beacon monitoring in the 406-406.1 MHz band. It is pointed out that a satellite system operating in concert with terrestrial cellular systems could provide truly ubiquitous mobile communications services in the U.S. and Canada. A single shuttle shuttle launch could place the LMSS spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit over the continental U.S. in 1995 with a 10-year lifetime. Attention is given to the structural concepts, a weight analysis, and a structural analysis.

  5. Interfacing geographic information systems and remote sensing for rural land-use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nellis, M. Duane; Lulla, Kamlesh; Jensen, John

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of remote-sensing data in GISs for rural applications. Topics addressed include sampling procedures for rural land-use analyses; GIS-based mapping of agricultural land use and productivity; remote sensing of land use and agricultural, forest, rangeland, and water resources; monitoring the dynamics of irrigation agriculture; GIS methods for detecting changes in land use over time; and the development of land-use modeling strategies.

  6. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A number of problems related to the design, construction and evaluation of an autonomous roving planetary vehicle and its control and operating systems intended for an unmanned exploration of Mars are studied. Vehicle configuration, dynamics, control, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain sensing and modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of samples are included.

  7. Decision analysis and risk models for land development affecting infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Thekdi, Shital A; Lambert, James H

    2012-07-01

    Coordination and layering of models to identify risks in complex systems such as large-scale infrastructure of energy, water, and transportation is of current interest across application domains. Such infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to adjacent commercial and residential land development. Land development can compromise the performance of essential infrastructure systems and increase the costs of maintaining or increasing performance. A risk-informed approach to this topic would be useful to avoid surprise, regret, and the need for costly remedies. This article develops a layering and coordination of models for risk management of land development affecting infrastructure systems. The layers are: system identification, expert elicitation, predictive modeling, comparison of investment alternatives, and implications of current decisions for future options. The modeling layers share a focus on observable factors that most contribute to volatility of land development and land use. The relevant data and expert evidence include current and forecasted growth in population and employment, conservation and preservation rules, land topography and geometries, real estate assessments, market and economic conditions, and other factors. The approach integrates to a decision framework of strategic considerations based on assessing risk, cost, and opportunity in order to prioritize needs and potential remedies that mitigate impacts of land development to the infrastructure systems. The approach is demonstrated for a 5,700-mile multimodal transportation system adjacent to 60,000 tracts of potential land development. PMID:22050390

  8. Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions?

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

  9. Study of USGS/NASA land use classification system. [computer analysis from LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a computer mapping project using LANDSAT data and the USGS/NASA land use classification system are summarized. During the computer mapping portion of the project, accuracies of 67 percent to 79 percent were achieved using Level II of the classification system and a 4,000 acre test site centered on Douglasville, Georgia. Analysis of response to a questionaire circulated to actual and potential LANDSAT data users reveals several important findings: (1) there is a substantial desire for additional information related to LANDSAT capabilities; (2) a majority of the respondents feel computer mapping from LANDSAT data could aid present or future projects; and (3) the costs of computer mapping are substantially less than those of other methods.

  10. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. V.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars are reported. Problem areas include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis, terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. These tasks are summarized: vehicle model design, mathematical model of vehicle dynamics, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electrochemical controls, remote control, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer subsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, and chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

  11. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. The following specific tasks have been under study: vehicle model design, mathematical modeling of a dynamic vehicle, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electromechanical controls, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer sybsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

  12. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of problems related to control of a mobile planetary vehicle according to a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: (1) overall systems analysis; (2) vehicle configuration and dynamics; (3) toroidal wheel design and evaluation; (4) on-board navigation systems; (5) satellite-vehicle navigation systems; (6) obstacle detection systems; (7) terrain sensing, interpretation and modeling; (8) computer simulation of terrain sensor-path selection systems; and (9) chromatographic systems design concept studies. The specific tasks which have been undertaken are defined and the progress which has been achieved during the period July 1, 1971 to December 31, 1971 is summarized.

  13. Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

  14. Parametric Mass Modeling for Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System Analysis Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.; Komar, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the parametric mass models used for the Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems Analysis study conducted by NASA in FY2009-2010. The study examined eight unique exploration class architectures that included elements such as a rigid mid-L/D aeroshell, a lifting hypersonic inflatable decelerator, a drag supersonic inflatable decelerator, a lifting supersonic inflatable decelerator implemented with a skirt, and subsonic/supersonic retro-propulsion. Parametric models used in this study relate the component mass to vehicle dimensions and mission key environmental parameters such as maximum deceleration and total heat load. The use of a parametric mass model allows the simultaneous optimization of trajectory and mass sizing parameters.

  15. LandCaRe DSS--an interactive decision support system for climate change impact assessment and the analysis of potential agricultural land use adaptation strategies.

    PubMed

    Wenkel, Karl-Otto; Berg, Michael; Mirschel, Wilfried; Wieland, Ralf; Nendel, Claas; Köstner, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Decision support to develop viable climate change adaptation strategies for agriculture and regional land use management encompasses a wide range of options and issues. Up to now, only a few suitable tools and methods have existed for farmers and regional stakeholders that support the process of decision-making in this field. The interactive model-based spatial information and decision support system LandCaRe DSS attempts to close the existing methodical gap. This system supports interactive spatial scenario simulations, multi-ensemble and multi-model simulations at the regional scale, as well as the complex impact assessment of potential land use adaptation strategies at the local scale. The system is connected to a local geo-database and via the internet to a climate data server. LandCaRe DSS uses a multitude of scale-specific ecological impact models, which are linked in various ways. At the local scale (farm scale), biophysical models are directly coupled with a farm economy calculator. New or alternative simulation models can easily be added, thanks to the innovative architecture and design of the DSS. Scenario simulations can be conducted with a reasonable amount of effort. The interactive LandCaRe DSS prototype also offers a variety of data analysis and visualisation tools, a help system for users and a farmer information system for climate adaptation in agriculture. This paper presents the theoretical background, the conceptual framework, and the structure and methodology behind LandCaRe DSS. Scenario studies at the regional and local scale for the two Eastern German regions of Uckermark (dry lowlands, 2600 km(2)) and Weißeritz (humid mountain area, 400 km(2)) were conducted in close cooperation with stakeholders to test the functionality of the DSS prototype. The system is gradually being transformed into a web version (http://www.landcare-dss.de) to ensure the broadest possible distribution of LandCaRe DSS to the public. The system will be continuously developed, updated and used in different research projects and as a learning and knowledge-sharing tool for students. The main objective of LandCaRe DSS is to provide information on the complex long-term impacts of climate change and on potential management options for adaptation by answering "what-if" type questions. PMID:23582740

  16. Analysis of Summer Thunderstorms in Central Alabama Using the NASA Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Robert; Case, Jonathan; Molthan, Andrew; Jedloved, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Forecasters have difficulty predicting "random" afternoon thunderstorms during the summer months. Differences in soil characteristics could be a contributing factor for storms. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) may assist forecasters in predicting summer convection by identifying boundaries in land characteristics. This project identified case dates during the summer of 2009 by analyzing synoptic weather maps, radar, and satellite data to look for weak atmospheric forcing and disorganized convective development. Boundaries in land characteristics that may have lead to convective initiation in central Alabama were then identified using LIS.

  17. Space shuttle post-entry and landing analysis. Volume 1: Candidate system evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, B. S.; Duiven, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    The general purpose of this study is to aid in the evaluation and design of multi-sensor navigation schemes proposed for the orbiter. The scope of the effort is limited to the post-entry, energy management, and approach and landing mission phases. One candidate system based on conventional navigation aids is illustrated including two DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) stations and ILS (Instrument Landing System) glide slope and localizer antennas. Some key elements of the system not shown are the onboard IMUs (Inertial Measurement Units), altimeters, and a computer. The latter is programmed to mix together (filter) the IMU data and the externally-derived data. A completely automatic, all-weather landing capability is required. Since no air-breathing engines will be carried on orbital flights, there will be no chance to go around and try again following a missed approach.

  18. Analysis of Summertime Convective Initiation in Central Alabama Using the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Robert S.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    During the summer months in the southeastern United States, convective initiation presents a frequent challenge to operational forecasters. Thunderstorm development has traditionally been referred to as random due to their disorganized, sporadic appearance and lack of atmospheric forcing. Horizontal variations in land surface characteristics such as soil moisture, soil type, land and vegetation cover could possibly be a focus mechanism for afternoon convection during the summer months. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) provides a stand-alone land surface modeling framework that incorporates these varying soil and vegetation properties, antecedent precipitation, and atmospheric forcing to represent the soil state at high resolution. The use of LIS as a diagnostic tool may help forecasters to identify boundaries in land surface characteristics that could correlate to favored regions of convection initiation. The NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) team has been collaborating with the National Weather Service Office in Birmingham, AL to help incorporate LIS products into their operational forecasting methods. This paper highlights selected convective case dates from summer 2009 when synoptic forcing was weak, and identifies any boundaries in land surface characteristics that may have contributed to convective initiation. The LIS output depicts the effects of increased sensible heat flux from urban areas on the development of convection, as well as convection along gradients in land surface characteristics and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. These features may promote mesoscale circulations and/or feedback processes that can either enhance or inhibit convection. With this output previously unavailable to operational forecasters, LIS provides a new tool to forecasters in order to help eliminate the randomness of summertime convective initiation.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters. [Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.; Bull, J. S.; Peach, L. L.; Demko, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a sensitivity analysis of the Decelerated Steep Approach and Landing (DSAL) maneuver to on-board and ground-based navigation system parameters. The Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) DSAL maneuver involves decelerating to zero range rate while tracking the localizer and glideslope. The considered study investigated the performance of the navigation systems using Constant Deceleration Profile (CDP) guidance and a six degrees glideslope trajectory. A closed-loop computer simulation of the UH1H helicopter DSAL system was developed for the sensitivity analysis. Conclusions on system performance parameter sensitivity are discussed.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate, by means of a computer simulation, the performance sensitivity of helicopter IMC DSAL operations as a function of navigation system parameters are presented. A mathematical model representing generically a navigation system is formulated. The scenario simulated consists of a straight in helicopter approach to landing along a 6 deg glideslope. The deceleration magnitude chosen is 03g. The navigation model parameters are varied and the statistics of the total system errors (TSE) computed. These statistics are used to determine the critical navigation system parameters that affect the performance of the closed-loop navigation, guidance and control system of a UH-1H helicopter.

  1. Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS): Lessons Learned from Technology Infusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, J.; Rao, A.; Gao, F.; Davis, P.; Jackson, G.; Huang, C.; Weinstein, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS) combines grid technology, existing science modules, and dynamic workflows to enable users to complete advanced land data processing on data available from local and distributed archives. Changes in land cover represent a direct link between human activities and the global environment, and in turn affect Earth's climate. Thus characterizing land cover change has become a major goal for Earth observation science. Many science algorithms exist to generate new products (e.g., surface reflectance, change detection) used to study land cover change. The overall objective of the LC-ComPS is to release a set of tools and services to the land science community that can be implemented as a flexible LC-ComPS to produce surface reflectance and land-cover change information with ground resolution on the order of Landsat-class instruments. This package includes software modules for pre-processing Landsat-type satellite imagery (calibration, atmospheric correction, orthorectification, precision registration, BRDF correction) for performing land-cover change analysis and includes pre-built workflow chains to automatically generate surface reflectance and land-cover change products based on user input. In order to meet the project objectives, the team created the infrastructure (i.e., client-server system with graphical and machine interfaces) to expand the use of these existing science algorithm capabilities in a community with distributed, large data archives and processing centers. Because of the distributed nature of the user community, grid technology was chosen to unite the dispersed community resources. At that time, grid computing was not used consistently and operationally within the Earth science research community. Therefore, there was a learning curve to configure and implement the underlying public key infrastructure (PKI) interfaces, required for the user authentication, secure file transfer and remote job execution on the grid network of machines. In addition, science support was needed to vet that the grid technology did not have any adverse affects of the science module outputs. Other open source, unproven technologies, such as a workflow package to manage jobs submitted by the user, were infused into the overall system with successful results. This presentation will discuss the basic capabilities of LC-ComPS, explain how the technology was infused, and provide lessons learned for using and integrating the various technologies while developing and operating the system, and finally outline plans moving forward (maintenance and operations decisions) based on the experience to date.

  2. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Moyer, W. R.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    The following tasks related to the design, construction, and evaluation of a mobile planetary vehicle for unmanned exploration of Mars are discussed: (1) design and construction of a 0.5 scale dynamic vehicle; (2) mathematical modeling of vehicle dynamics; (3) experimental 0.4 scale vehicle dynamics measurements and interpretation; (4) vehicle electro-mechanical control systems; (5) remote control systems; (6) collapsibility and deployment concepts and hardware; (7) design, construction and evaluation of a wheel with increased lateral stiffness, (8) system design optimization; (9) design of an on-board computer; (10) design and construction of a laser range finder; (11) measurement of reflectivity of terrain surfaces; (12) obstacle perception by edge detection; (13) terrain modeling based on gradients; (14) laser scan systems; (15) path selection system simulation and evaluation; (16) gas chromatograph system concepts; (17) experimental chromatograph separation measurements and chromatograph model improvement and evaluation.

  3. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Yerazunis, S. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Problems related to an unmanned exploration of the planet Mars by means of an autonomous roving planetary vehicle are investigated. These problems include: design, construction and evaluation of the vehicle itself and its control and operating systems. More specifically, vehicle configuration, dynamics, control, propulsion, hazard detection systems, terrain sensing and modelling, obstacle detection concepts, path selection, decision-making systems, and chemical analyses of samples are studied. Emphasis is placed on development of a vehicle capable of gathering specimens and data for an Augmented Viking Mission or to provide the basis for a Sample Return Mission.

  4. LSD (Landing System Development) Impact Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullio, R.; Riva, N.; Pellegrino, P.; Deloo, P.

    2012-07-01

    In the frame of the Exploration Programs, a soft landing on the planet surface is foreseen. To ensure a successful final landing phase, a landing system by using leg tripod design landing legs with adequate crushable damping system was selected, capable of absorbing the residual velocities (vertical, horizontal and angular) at touch- down, insuring stability. TAS-I developed a numerical non linear dynamic methodology for the landing impact simulation of the Lander system by using a commercial explicit finite element analysis code (i.e. Altair RADIOSS). In this paper the most significant FE modeling approaches and results of the analytical simulation of landing impact are reported, especially with respect to the definition of leg dimensioning loads and the design update of selected parts (if necessary).

  5. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    A number of problems related to unmanned exploration of planets or other extraterrestrial bodies with Mars as a case in point were investigated. The design and evaluation of a prototype rover concept with emphasis on mobility, maneuverability, stability, control and propulsion is described along with the development of terrain sensor concepts and associated software for the autonomous control of any planetary rover. Results are applicable not only to the design of a mission rover but the vehicle is used as a test bed for the rigorous evaluation of alternative autonomous control systems.

  6. NASA's Pilot Land Data System development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, R. D.; Smith, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) project is intended to enhance the effectiveness of data processing capabilities used by researchers applying remote sensing data in land science research. Two sites in the centerminous U.S. have been selected as study areas scanned by Landsat, Nimbus and GOES instruments. The data will be analyzed by teams of researchers representing different fields of expertise. The PLDS program will explore data management, networking and communications, system access capabilities, land analysis software, special processes and overall systems engineerng. The data will be processed by researchers working interactively through remote supermicrocomputer workstations using a variety of operating systems and on-site software capabilities.

  7. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  8. Analysis of Multiple Precipitation Products and Preliminary Assessment of Their Impact on Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Land Surface States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottschalck, Jon; Meng, Jesse; Rodel, Matt; Houser, paul

    2005-01-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are computer programs, similar to weather and climate prediction models, which simulate the stocks and fluxes of water (including soil moisture, snow, evaporation, and runoff) and energy (including the temperature of and sensible heat released from the soil) after they arrive on the land surface as precipitation and sunlight. It is not currently possible to measure all of the variables of interest everywhere on Earth with sufficient accuracy and space-time resolution. Hence LSMs have been developed to integrate the available observations with our understanding of the physical processes involved, using powerful computers, in order to map these stocks and fluxes as they change in time. The maps are used to improve weather forecasts, support water resources and agricultural applications, and study the Earth's water cycle and climate variability. NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) project facilitates testing of several different LSMs with a variety of input datasets (e.g., precipitation, plant type). Precipitation is arguably the most important input to LSMs. Many precipitation datasets have been produced using satellite and rain gauge observations and weather forecast models. In this study, seven different global precipitation datasets were evaluated over the United States, where dense rain gauge networks contribute to reliable precipitation maps. We then used the seven datasets as inputs to GLDAS simulations, so that we could diagnose their impacts on output stocks and fluxes of water. In terms of totals, the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) had the closest agreement with the US rain gauge dataset for all seasons except winter. The CMAP precipitation was also the most closely correlated in time with the rain gauge data during spring, fall, and winter, while the satellitebased estimates performed best in summer. The GLDAS simulations revealed that modeled soil moisture is highly sensitive to precipitation, with differences in spring and summer as large as 45% depending on the choice of precipitation input.

  9. Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Todling, Ricardo; Verter, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In an initial investigation, remotely sensed surface temperature is assimilated into a coupled atmosphere/land global data assimilation system, with explicit accounting for biases in the model state. In this scheme, an incremental bias correction term is introduced in the model's surface energy budget. In its simplest form, the algorithm estimates and corrects a constant time mean bias for each gridpoint; additional benefits are attained with a refined version of the algorithm which allows for a correction of the mean diurnal cycle. The method is validated against the assimilated observations, as well as independent near-surface air temperature observations. In many regions, not accounting for the diurnal cycle of bias caused degradation of the diurnal amplitude of background model air temperature. Energy fluxes collected through the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) are used to more closely inspect the surface energy budget. In general, sensible heat flux is improved with the surface temperature assimilation, and two stations show a reduction of bias by as much as 30 Wm(sup -2) Rondonia station in Amazonia, the Bowen ratio changes direction in an improvement related to the temperature assimilation. However, at many stations the monthly latent heat flux bias is slightly increased. These results show the impact of univariate assimilation of surface temperature observations on the surface energy budget, and suggest the need for multivariate land data assimilation. The results also show the need for independent validation data, especially flux stations in varied climate regimes.

  10. Revised Land Use Characteristic Dataset for Asia and Southwest Asia for the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. L.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Presently, the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) uses the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) land use characteristic dataset to determine global dust emission areas. The USGS dataset was developed from Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer 1-km data from April 1992 to March 1993. In the past decade drastic changes in land and water use in Asia and Southwest Asia have quickly outdated this dataset. In China and Mongolia, age-old practices of farming and animal husbandry have been abandoned. Herders have too many animals in one location allowing the grassland to be eaten away and leaving vast areas of topsoil exposed and primed for removal by the wind. In the case of Southwest Asia, a four-year drought is in progress. Many of the wetlands and marshes in the river deltas are drying up from the lack of water runoff. To compound the problem several new dams were and are being built along the major watersheds. In particular, Iraq's dam building in the 1990's and politically driven draining of the Mesopotamian marshes between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers has lead to the near disappearance of this historical marshland. To incorporate these changes we are updating the USGS land use characteristic dataset using GIS-like software named ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images), 1 km National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global topographical data, satellite imagery, and recently released governmental maps and reports. (For example, within the last two years the Chinese and Mongolian governments have released land degradation and desertification maps to satisfy the requirements set forth by United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.) The steps taken to create the new land use characteristic database will be described in detail. Before (non-dust producing areas) and after (dust producing areas) examples will be shown.

  11. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  12. Agricultural drought analysis and famine early warning with the FEWS NET land data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Global and regional changes related to water resources and agriculture affect food and fresh water security. To mitigate and adapt to these changes it is important to quantify how climate variability and change has impacted agricultural production and water resources. This research examines trends in supply and demand for moisture availability in rain-fed agro-pastoral regions. With a focus on the Sahel region of Africa we ask the following two questions: (1) Do land surface models, forced with remotely sensed data, detect the spatio-temporal patterns of agricultural drought over the past 30 years? (2) How have these trends impacted agricultural productivity and food security? To explore implications of hydro-climatic (e.g. precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET)) change on agriculture, we use the Famine Early Warning Systems Network Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS) forced with rainfall from the University of California Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Infrared-Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset (1981-present) and 10 km meteorological data (wind, temperature, radiation, humidity) from Cheney and Sheffield, released in 2012, for continental Africa north of 10S (1979-2008). We examine trends in model outputs (e.g. soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET)), as well as composite indices, such at the evapotranspiration-rainfall ratio and water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI). We compare these results to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and microwave soil moisture. Finally, we examine how the different model outputs and composite indices relate to reported trends in agricultural production. Preliminary results show that the FLDAS Noah3.2 and geoWRSI models accurately estimate near surface (0-40cm) soil moisture anomalies as defined by microwave and in-situ observations across the Sahel. With respect to ET, the literature reports that vegetation biomass, as indicated by NDVI, has increased in conjunction with rainfall (i.e. ';re-greening' of the Sahel). However, at least one study has reported a downward trend in modeled ET in the Sahel. Preliminary results indicate that the spatial and temporal patterns of transpiration in Noah3.2 and geoWRSI are highly sensitive to their respective vegetation parameterizations. Our model runs explore the timing and magnitude of ';crop' vegetation parameters, such as LAI and green vegetation fraction, to assess agricultural drought trends and confirm findings from previous work.

  13. Dual Heat Pulse, Dual Layer Thermal Protection System Sizing Analysis and Trade Studies for Human Mars Entry Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Mary Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been recently updating design reference missions for the human exploration of Mars and evaluating the technology investments required to do so. The first of these started in January 2007 and developed the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA5). As part of DRA5, Thermal Protection System (TPS) sizing analysis was performed on a mid L/D rigid aeroshell undergoing a dual heat pulse (aerocapture and atmospheric entry) trajectory. The DRA5 TPS subteam determined that using traditional monolithic ablator systems would be mass expensive. They proposed a new dual-layer TPS concept utilizing an ablator atop a low thermal conductivity insulative substrate to address the issue. Using existing thermal response models for an ablator and insulative tile, preliminary hand analysis of the dual layer concept at a few key heating points indicated that the concept showed potential to reduce TPS masses and warranted further study. In FY09, the followon Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) project continued by focusing on Exploration-class cargo or crewed missions requiring 10 to 50 metric tons of landed payload. The TPS subteam advanced the preliminary dual-layer TPS analysis by developing a new process and updated TPS sizing code to rapidly evaluate mass-optimized, full body sizing for a dual layer TPS that is capable of dual heat pulse performance. This paper describes the process and presents the results of the EDL-SA FY09 dual-layer TPS analyses on the rigid mid L/D aeroshell. Additionally, several trade studies were conducted with the sizing code to evaluate the impact of various design factors, assumptions and margins.

  14. Multicomponent Body and Surface Wave Seismic Analysis using an Urban Land Streamer System: An Integrative Earthquake Hazards Assessment Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribler, G.; Liberty, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present earthquake site response results from a 48-channel multicomponent seismic land streamer and large weight drop system. We acquired data along a grid of city streets in western Idaho at a rate of a few km per day where we derived shear wave velocity profiles to a depth of 40-50 m by incorporating vertical and radial geophone signals to capture the complete elliptical Rayleigh wave motion. We also obtained robust p-wave reflection and refraction results by capturing the returned signals that arrive at non-vertical incidence angles that result from the high-velocity road surface layer. By integrating the derived shear wave velocity profiles with p-wave reflection results, we include depositional and tectonic boundaries from the upper few hundred meters into our analysis to help assess whether ground motions may be amplified by shallow bedrock. By including p-wave refraction information into the analysis, we can identify zones of high liquefaction potential by comparing shear wave and p-wave velocity (Vp/Vs) measurements relative to refraction-derived water table depths. The utilization of multicomponent land streamer data improves signal-noise levels over single component data with no additional field effort. The added multicomponent data processing step can be as simple as calculating the magnitude of the vector for surface wave and refraction arrivals or rotating the reflected signals to the maximum emergence angle based on near surface p-wave velocity information. We show example data from a number of Idaho communities where historical earthquakes have been recorded. We also present numerical models and systematic field tests that show the effects of a high velocity road surface layer in surface and body wave measurements. We conclude that multicomponent seismic information derived from seismic land streamers can provide a significant improvement in earthquake hazard assessment over a standard single component approach with only a small addition in processing time.

  15. Integrating NASA's Land Analysis System (LAS) image processing software with an appropriate Geographic Information System (GIS): A review of candidates in the public domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochon, Gilbert L.

    1989-01-01

    A user requirements analysis (URA) was undertaken to determine and appropriate public domain Geographic Information System (GIS) software package for potential integration with NASA's LAS (Land Analysis System) 5.0 image processing system. The necessity for a public domain system was underscored due to the perceived need for source code access and flexibility in tailoring the GIS system to the needs of a heterogenous group of end-users, and to specific constraints imposed by LAS and its user interface, Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). Subsequently, a review was conducted of a variety of public domain GIS candidates, including GRASS 3.0, MOSS, IEMIS, and two university-based packages, IDRISI and KBGIS. The review method was a modified version of the GIS evaluation process, development by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. One IEMIS-derivative product, the ALBE (AirLand Battlefield Environment) GIS, emerged as the most promising candidate for integration with LAS. IEMIS (Integrated Emergency Management Information System) was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). ALBE GIS is currently under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineering Topographic Laboratory (ETL). Accordingly, recommendations are offered with respect to a potential LAS/ALBE GIS linkage and with respect to further system enhancements, including coordination with the development of the Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS) GIS in Goddard's IDM (Intelligent Data Management) developments in Goddard's National Space Science Data Center.

  16. Land and Food Systems 250 LAND, FOOD AND COMMUNITY I

    E-print Network

    in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable manner to community food security for successful participation in food security and sustainability initiatives. Upon 1 Land and Food Systems 250 LAND, FOOD AND COMMUNITY I Faculty

  17. The Land Gini Coefficient and Its Application for Land Use Structure Analysis in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types–farmland, built-up land and unused land–was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764

  18. Information analysis of a spatial database for ecological land classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Frank W.; Dozier, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    An ecological land classification was developed for a complex region in southern California using geographic information system techniques of map overlay and contingency table analysis. Land classes were identified by mutual information analysis of vegetation pattern in relation to other mapped environmental variables. The analysis was weakened by map errors, especially errors in the digital elevation data. Nevertheless, the resulting land classification was ecologically reasonable and performed well when tested with higher quality data from the region.

  19. A SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO MITIGATING URBAN STORM WATER RUNOFF VIA DEVELOPMENT PLANS BASED ON LAND SUITABILITY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We advocate an approach to reduce the anticipated increase in stormwater runoff from conventional development by demonstrating a low-impact development that incorporates hydrologic factors into an expanded land suitability analysis. This methodology was applied to a 3 hectare exp...

  20. Application and analysis of anchored geosynthetic systems for stabilization of abandoned mine land slopes

    SciTech Connect

    Vitton, S.J.; Whitman, F.; Liang, R.Y.; Harris, W.W.

    1996-12-31

    An anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) was used in the remediation of a landslide associated with an abandoned coal mine located near Hindman, Kentucky. In concept, AGS is a system that provides in-situ stabilization of soil slopes by combining a surface-deployed geosynthetic with an anchoring system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system involves tensioning a geosynthetic over a slope`s surface by driving anchors through the geosynthetic at a given spacing and distance. By tensioning the geosynthetic over the slope`s surface, a compressive load is applied to the slope. Benefits of AGS are described to include the following: (1) increase soil strength due to soil compression including increased compressive loading on potential failure surfaces, (2) soil reinforcement through soil nailing, (3), halt of soil creep, (4) erosion control, and (5) long term soil consolidation. Following installation of the AGS and one year of monitoring, it was found that the anchored geosynthetic system only provided some of the reported benefits and in general did not function as an active stabilization system. This was due in part to the inability of the system to provide and maintain loading on the geosynthetic. The geosynthetic, however, did tension when slope movement occurred and prevented the slope from failing. Thus, the system functioned more as a passive restraint system and appeared to function well over the monitoring period.

  1. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  2. Land Information Systems in Developing Countries

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Land Information Systems in Developing Countries: Bibliography Compiled by: Harlan Onsrud Jeff Acknowledgments Articles on land information systems and cadastral systems in developing countries are spread SES 88-10917. #12;1 References Abdul, Majid Bin Mohamed (1984). Proposed Land Information System

  3. Autonomous landing guidance system validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Long Q.; Franklin, Michael R.; Taylor, Christopher; Neilson, Graham

    1997-06-01

    ALG is a combination of raster imaging sensor, head-up displays, flight guidance and procedures which allow pilots to perform hand flown aircraft maneuvers in adverse weather, at night, or in low visibility conditions at facilities with minimal or no ground aids. Maneuvers in the context of ALG relate to takeoff, landing, rollout, taxi and terminal parking. Commercial needs are driven by potential revenue savings since today only 43 Type III and 80 Type II instrumented landing system (ILS) runway ends in the United States are equipped for lower minimum flight operations. Additionally, most of these ILS facilities are clustered at major gateway airports which further impacts on dispatch authority and general ATC regional delays. Infrastructure consists to upgrade additional runways must not only account for the high integrity ground instrumentation, but also the installation of lights and markers mandated for Cat III operations. The military services ability to train under realistic battlefield conditions, to project power globally in support of national interests, while providing humanitarian aid, is significantly impaired by the inability to conduct precision approaches and landings in low visibility conditions to either instrumented runways or to a more tactical environment with operations into and out of unprepared landing strips, particularly when time does not permit deployment of ground aids and the verification of their integrity. Recently, Lear Astronics, in cooperation with Consortium members of the ALG Program, concluded a flight test program which evaluated the utility of the ALG system in meeting both civil and military needs. Those results are the subject of this paper.

  4. Analysis of Landing-Gear Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milwitzky, Benjamin; Cook, Francis E

    1953-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.

  5. Land mobile satellite system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiesling, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

  6. Land mobile satellite system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, J. D.

    1983-05-01

    A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.

  7. A multilevel analysis of effects of land use policy on land-cover change and local land use decisions

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

    A multilevel analysis of effects of land use policy on land-cover change and local land use consequences of dryland ecosystem degradation. Land use policies are known to play a critical role in driving, density of agricultural population, density of livestock, land use, accessibility to market, and mean

  8. Sensitivity Analysis in Agent-Based Models of Socio-Ecological Systems: An Example in Agricultural Land Conservation for Lake Water Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligmann-Zielinska, A.; Kramer, D. B.; Spence Cheruvelil, K.; Soranno, P.

    2012-12-01

    Socio-ecological systems are dynamic and nonlinear. To account for this complexity, we employ agent-based models (ABMs) to study macro-scale phenomena resulting from micro-scale interactions among system components. Because ABMs typically have many parameters, it is challenging to identify which parameters contribute to the emerging macro-scale patterns. In this paper, we address the following question: What is the extent of participation in agricultural land conservation programs given heterogeneous landscape, economic, social, and individual decision making criteria in complex lakesheds? To answer this question, we: [1] built an ABM for our model system; [2] simulated land use change resulting from agent decision making, [3] estimated the uncertainty of the model output, decomposed it and apportioned it to each of the parameters in the model. Our model system is a freshwater socio-ecological system - that of farmland and lake water quality within a region containing a large number of lakes and high proportions of agricultural lands. Our study focuses on examining how agricultural land conversion from active to fallow reduces freshwater nutrient loading and improves water quality. Consequently, our ABM is composed of farmer agents who make decisions related to participation in a government-sponsored Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) managed by the Farm Service Agency (FSA). We also include an FSA agent, who selects enrollment offers made by farmers and announces the signup results leading to land use change. The model is executed in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to generate a distribution of maps of fallow lands that are used for calculating nutrient loading to lakes. What follows is a variance-based sensitivity analysis of the results. We compute sensitivity indices for individual parameters and their combinations, allowing for identification of the most influential as well as the insignificant inputs. In the case study, we observe that farmland conservation is first and foremost driven by the FSA signup choices. Environmental criteria used in FSA offer selection play a secondary role in farmland-to-fallow-land conversion. Farmer decision making is mainly influenced by the willingness to reduce the potential annual rental payments. As the case study demonstrates, our approach leads to ABM simplification without the loss of outcome variability. It also shows how to represent the magnitude of ABM complexity and isolate the effects of the interconnected explanatory variables on the simulated emergent phenomena. More importantly, the results of our research indicate that some of the parameters exert influence on model outcomes only if analyzed in combination with other parameters. Without evaluating the interaction effects among inputs, we risk losing important functional relationships among ABM components and, consequently, we potentially reduce its explanatory power.

  9. LDAS Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Mocko, David; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato

    2014-01-01

    The land-surface component of the hydrological cycle is fundamental to the overall functioning of the atmospheric and climate processes. The characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of water and energy cycles is critical to improve our understanding of the land-surface-atmosphere interaction and the impact of land-surface processes on climate extremes. Because the accurate knowledge of these processes and their variability is important for climate predictions, most Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centers have incorporated land-surface schemes in their models. However, errors in the NWP forcing accumulate in the surface and energy stores, leading to incorrect surface water and energy partitioning and related processes.

  10. Application of tire dynamics to aircraft landing gear design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The tire plays a key part in many analyses used for design of aircraft landing gear. Examples include structural design of wheels, landing gear shimmy, brake whirl, chatter and squeal, complex combination of chatter and shimmy on main landing gear (MLG) systems, anti-skid performance, gear walk, and rough terrain loads and performance. Tire parameters needed in the various analyses are discussed. Two tire models are discussed for shimmy analysis, the modified Moreland approach and the von Schlippe-Dietrich approach. It is shown that the Moreland model can be derived from the Von Schlippe-Dietrich model by certain approximations. The remaining analysis areas are discussed in general terms and the tire parameters needed for each are identified. Accurate tire data allows more accurate design analysis and the correct prediction of dynamic performance of aircraft landing gear.

  11. Analysis of atmospheric mesoscale models for entry, descent, and landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, D. M.; Schofield, J. T.; Michaels, T. I.; Rafkin, S. C. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Toigo, A. D.

    2003-11-01

    Each Mars Exploration Rover (MER) is sensitive to the Martian winds encountered near the surface during the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) process. These winds are strongly influenced by local (mesoscale) conditions. In the absence of suitable wind observations, wind fields predicted by Martian mesoscale atmospheric models have been analyzed to guide landing site selection. In order to encompass the available models and render them useful to the EDL engineering team, a series of statistical techniques was applied to the model results. These analyses cover the high-priority landing sites during the expected landing times (1200-1500 LT). The number of sites studied is limited by the computational and analysis cost of the mesoscale models. The statistical measures concentrate on the effective mean wind (the wind as seen by the landing system) and on the vertical structure of the horizontal winds. Both aspects are potentially hazardous to the MER landing system. In addition, a number of individual wind profiles from the mesoscale model were processed into a form that can be used directly by the EDL Monte Carlo simulations. The statistical analysis indicates that the Meridiani Planum and Elysium landing sites are probably safe. The Gusev Crater and Isidis Basin sites may be safe, but further analysis by the EDL engineers will be necessary to quantify the actual risk. Finally, the winds at the Melas Chasma landing site (and presumably other Valles Marineris landing sites) are dangerous. While the statistical parameters selected for these studies were primarily of engineering and safety interest, the techniques are potentially useful for more general scientific analyses. One interesting result of the current analysis is that the depth of the convective boundary layer (and thus the resulting energy density) appears to be primarily driven by the existence of a well-organized mesoscale (or regional) circulation, primarily driven by large-scale topographic features at Mars.

  12. Land-based hatchery systems for finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...

  13. An analysis of Milwaukee county land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W. J.; Mausel, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    The identification and classification of urban and suburban phenomena through analysis of remotely-acquired sensor data can provide information of great potential value to many regional analysts. Such classifications, particularly those using spectral data obtained from satellites such as the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) orbited by NASA, allow rapid frequent and accurate general land use inventories that are of value in many types of spatial analyses. In this study, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin was classified into several broad land use categories on the basis of computer analysis of four bands of ERTS spectral data (ERTS Frame Number E1017-16093). Categories identified were: (1) road-central business district, (2) grass (green vegetation), (3) suburban, (4) wooded suburb, (5) heavy industry, (6) inner city, and (7) water. Overall, 90 percent accuracy was attained in classification of these urban land use categories.

  14. 77 FR 44144 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...0596-AD02 National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction AGENCY: Forest...a National Forest System land management planning rule in the Federal Register...National Forest System Land Management Planning (36 CFR part 219,...

  15. Portable-Beacon Landing System for Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Clary, George R.; Chisholm, John P.; Macdonald, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype beacon landing system (BLS) allows helicopters to make precise landings in all weather. BLS easily added to existing helicopter avionic equipment and readily deployed at remote sites. Small and light, system employs X-band radar and digital processing. Variety of beams pulsed sequentially by ground station after initial interrogation by weather radar of approaching helicopter. Airborne microprocessor processes pulses to determine glide slope, course deviation, and range.

  16. Land system architecture: Using land systems to adapt and mitigate global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, B.L.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Verbug, Peter H.; Murray, Alan T.

    2013-04-01

    Land systems (mosaics of land use and cover) are human environment systems, the changes in which drive and respond to local to global environmental changes, climate to macro-economy (Foley et al., 2005). Changes in land systems have been the principal proximate cause in the loss of habitats and biota globally, long contributed to atmospheric greenhouse gases, and hypothesized to have triggered climate changes in the early Holocene (Ruddiman, 2003). Land use, foremost agriculture, is the largest source of biologically active nitrogen to the atmosphere, critical to sources and sinks of carbon, and a major component in the hydrologic cycle (e.g., Bouwman et al., 2011). Changes in land systems also affect regional climate (Feddema et al., 2005; Pielke, 2005), ecosystem functions, and the array of ecosystem services they provide. Land systems, therefore, are a central feature of how humankind manages its relationship with nature-intended or not, or whether this relationship proceeds sustainably or not.

  17. 78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ...National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction AGENCY: Forest...revising, and monitoring land management plans (the planning rule). The National Forest...National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule Final...

  18. A Rapid Land Cover Classification Method For Use in Urban Watershed Analysis

    E-print Network

    Eberhard, Marc O.

    #12;#12;1 A Rapid Land Cover Classification Method For Use in Urban Watershed Analysis Kristina using HSPF with land cover as a primary, determining input. #12;2 Unfortunately, there is little-system conditions is one such application. Yet the imprecision of the methodology currently used to classify land

  19. 43 CFR 3101.5 - National Wildlife Refuge System lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....

  20. 43 CFR 3101.5 - National Wildlife Refuge System lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....

  1. 43 CFR 3101.5 - National Wildlife Refuge System lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....

  2. 43 CFR 3101.5 - National Wildlife Refuge System lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Wildlife Refuge System lands. 3101.5 Section 3101.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Leases § 3101.5 National Wildlife Refuge System lands....

  3. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours

  4. A comparative analysis of the Global Land Cover 2000 and MODIS land cover data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Reed, B.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date global land cover data sets are necessary for various global change research studies including climate change, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem assessment, and environmental modeling. In recent years, substantial advancement has been achieved in generating such data products. Yet, we are far from producing geospatially consistent high-quality data at an operational level. We compared the recently available Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC-2000) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) global land cover data to evaluate the similarities and differences in methodologies and results, and to identify areas of spatial agreement and disagreement. These two global land cover data sets were prepared using different data sources, classification systems, and methodologies, but using the same spatial resolution (i.e., 1 km) satellite data. Our analysis shows a general agreement at the class aggregate level except for savannas/shrublands, and wetlands. The disagreement, however, increases when comparing detailed land cover classes. Similarly, percent agreement between the two data sets was found to be highly variable among biomes. The identified areas of spatial agreement and disagreement will be useful for both data producers and users. Data producers may use the areas of spatial agreement for training area selection and pay special attention to areas of disagreement for further improvement in future land cover characterization and mapping. Users can conveniently use the findings in the areas of agreement, whereas users might need to verify the informaiton in the areas of disagreement with the help of secondary information. Learning from past experience and building on the existing infrastructure (e.g., regional networks), further research is necessary to (1) reduce ambiguity in land cover definitions, (2) increase availability of improved spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric resolution satellite data, and (3) develop advanced classification algorithms. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Eutrophication potential of lakes: an integrated analysis of trophic state, morphometry, land occupation, and land use.

    PubMed

    Silvino, R F; Barbosa, Far

    2015-08-01

    Despite being inside a protected area, Lake Sumidouro has been impacted by the anthropogenic occupation of the surrounding area since the 1970's, compromising the ecological integrity of the lake and the sustainable use of natural resources. This study examined the current trophic classification of the lake and developed methods for improving it through an integrated analysis of morphometric and limnological parameters, land use and land occupation in the watershed, and eutrophication potential. Data for the limnological parameters, land use and land occupation, and morphometric characteristics of Lake Sumidouro were collected in the rainy and dry seasons of 2009 and 2010. Depending on the trophic classification system used, Lake Sumidouro is classified as oligotrophic to hypereutrophic. In our study, the highest concentration of nutrients occurred in the rainy season, indicating that high nutrient inputs played an important role during this period. Areas of anthropogenic occupation comprised approximately 62.9% of the total area of the watershed, with pasture and urban settlement as the main types of land use. The influent total phosphorus load was estimated to be 15,824.3 kg/year. To maintain mesotrophic conditions, this load must be reduced by 29.4%. By comparing the isolated use of trophic state indices, this study demonstrated that comparing the trophic state classification with morphometric analyses, land use and land occupation types in the watershed, and potential phosphorus load provided better information to guide management actions for restoration and conservation. Furthermore, this approach also allowed for evaluating the vulnerability of the environment to the eutrophication process. PMID:26292101

  6. Estimating Evapotranspiration with Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S. V.; Mocko, D. M.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in both land surface models (LSM) and land surface data assimilation, especially over the last decade, have substantially advanced the ability of land data assimilation systems (LDAS) to estimate evapotranspiration (ET). This article provides a historical perspective on international LSM intercomparison efforts and the development of LDAS systems, both of which have improved LSM ET skill. In addition, an assessment of ET estimates for current LDAS systems is provided along with current research that demonstrates improvement in LSM ET estimates due to assimilating satellite-based soil moisture products. Using the Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System, we assimilate both NASA and Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) soil moisture products into the Noah LSM Version 3.2 with the North American LDAS phase 2 (NLDAS-2) forcing to mimic the NLDAS-2 configuration. Through comparisons with two global reference ET products, one based on interpolated flux tower data and one from a new satellite ET algorithm, over the NLDAS2 domain, we demonstrate improvement in ET estimates only when assimilating the LPRM soil moisture product.

  7. Apollo experience report: Earth landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    A brief discussion of the development of the Apollo earth landing system and a functional description of the system are presented in this report. The more significant problems that were encountered during the program, the solutions, and, in general, the knowledge that was gained are discussed in detail. Two appendixes presenting a detailed description of the various system components and a summary of the development and the qualification test programs are included.

  8. Spectroradiometric considerations for advanced land observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1986-01-01

    Research aimed at improving the inflight absolute radiometric calibration of advanced land observing systems was initiated. Emphasis was on the satellite sensor calibration program at White Sands. Topics addressed include: absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing; atmospheric effects on reflected radiation; inflight radiometric calibration; field radiometric methods for reflectance and atmospheric measurement; and calibration of field relectance radiometers.

  9. Feasibility Analysis of Aircraft Landing Scheduling for Non-Controlled Airports

    E-print Network

    Valasek, John

    Feasibility Analysis of Aircraft Landing Scheduling for Non-Controlled Airports AIAA-2004 airports Air traffic control automation system development Trajectory analysis Aircraft landing scheduling aircraft scheduling will become the key operational issue at non-controlled airports as the operation

  10. GIS Toolsets for Planetary Geomorphology and Landing-Site Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Modern Geographic Information Systems (GIS) allow expert and lay users alike to load and position geographic data and perform simple to highly complex surface analyses. For many applications dedicated and ready-to-use GIS tools are available in standard software systems while other applications require the modular combination of available basic tools to answer more specific questions. This also applies to analyses in modern planetary geomorphology where many of such (basic) tools can be used to build complex analysis tools, e.g. in image- and terrain model analysis. Apart from the simple application of sets of different tools, many complex tasks require a more sophisticated design for storing and accessing data using databases (e.g. ArcHydro for hydrological data analysis). In planetary sciences, complex database-driven models are often required to efficiently analyse potential landings sites or store rover data, but also geologic mapping data can be efficiently stored and accessed using database models rather than stand-alone shapefiles. For landings-site analyses, relief and surface roughness estimates are two common concepts that are of particular interest and for both, a number of different definitions co-exist. We here present an advanced toolset for the analysis of image and terrain-model data with an emphasis on extraction of landing site characteristics using established criteria. We provide working examples and particularly focus on the concepts of terrain roughness as it is interpreted in geomorphology and engineering studies.

  11. A land mobile satellite data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, John D. B.

    1990-01-01

    The Telesat Mobile Incorporated (TMI) Mobile Data System (MDS) was developed to apply satellite technology to the transportation industry's requirement for a fleet management system. It will provide two-way messaging and automatic position reporting capabilities between dispatch centers and customers' fleets of trucks. The design was based on the Inmarsat L-Band space segment with system link parameters and margins adjusted to meet the land mobile satellite channel characteristics. The system interfaces with the Teleglobe Des Laurentides earth station at Weir, Quebec. The signaling protocols were derived from the Inmarsat Standard C packet signalling system with unique trucking requirements incorporated where necessary.

  12. Safer approaches and landings: A multivariate analysis of critical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Durwood J.

    The approach-and-landing phases of flight represent 27% of mission time while resulting in 61 of the accidents and 39% of the fatalities. The landing phase itself represents only 1% of flight time but claims 45% of the accidents. Inadequate crew situation awareness (SA), crew resource management (CRM), and crew decision-making (DM) have been implicated in 51%, 63%, and 73% respectively of these accidents. The human factors constructs of SA, CRM, and DM were explored; a comprehensive definition of SA was proposed; and a "proactive defense" safety strategy was recommended. Data from a 1997 analysis of worldwide fatal accidents by the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Approach-and-Landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force was used to isolate crew- and weather-related causal factors that lead to approach-and-landing accidents (ALAs). Logistic regression and decision tree analysis were used on samplings of NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident records ("near misses") and the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) accident reports to examine hypotheses regarding factors and factor combinations that can dramatically increase the opportunity for accidents. An effective scale of risk factors was introduced for use by crews to proactively counter safety-related error-chain situations.

  13. The Land Use and Land Cover Dichotomy: A Comparison of Two Land Classification Systems in Support of Urban Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, William K.

    2003-01-01

    One is likely to read the terms 'land use' and 'land cover' in the same sentence, yet these concepts have different origins and different applications. Land cover is typically analyzed by earth scientists working with remotely sensed images. Land use is typically studied by urban planners who must prescribe solutions that could prevent future problems. This apparent dichotomy has led to different classification systems for land-based data. The works of earth scientists and urban planning practitioners are beginning to come together in the field of spatial analysis and in their common use of new spatial analysis technology. In this context, the technology can stimulate a common 'language' that allows a broader sharing of ideas. The increasing amount of land use and land cover change challenges the various efforts to classify in ways that are efficient, effective, and agreeable to all groups of users. If land cover and land uses can be identified by remote methods using aerial photography and satellites, then these ways are more efficient than field surveys of the same area. New technology, such as high-resolution satellite sensors, and new methods, such as more refined algorithms for image interpretation, are providing refined data to better identify the actual cover and apparent use of land, thus effectiveness is improved. However, the closer together and the more vertical the land uses are, the more difficult the task of identification is, and the greater is the need to supplement remotely sensed data with field study (in situ). Thus, a number of land classification methods were developed in order to organize the greatly expanding volume of data on land characteristics in ways useful to different groups. This paper distinguishes two land based classification systems, one developed primarily for remotely sensed data, and the other, a more comprehensive system requiring in situ collection methods. The intent is to look at how the two systems developed and how they can work together so that land based information can be shared among different users and compared over time.

  14. Development of a portable precision landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. J.; Clary, G. R.; Macdonald, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    A portable, tactical approach guidance (PTAG) system, based on a novel, X-band, precision approach concept, was developed and flight tested as a part of NASA's Rotorcraft All-Weather Operations Research Program. The system is based on state-of-the-art X-band technology and digital processing techniques. The PTAG airborne hardware consists of an X-band receiver and a small microprocessor installed in conjunction with the aircraft instrument landing system (ILS) receiver. The microprocessor analyzes the X-band, PTAG pulses and outputs ILS compatible localizer and glide slope signals. The ground stations are inexpensive, portable units, each weighing less than 85 lb, including battery, that can be quickly deployed at a landing site. Results from the flight test program show that PTAG has a significant potential for providing tactical aircraft with low cost, portable, precision instrument approach capability.

  15. Regional Analysis of Energy, Water, Land and Climate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Averyt, K.; Harriss, R. C.; Hibbard, K. A.; Newmark, R. L.; Rose, S. K.; Shevliakova, E.; Wilson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, water, and land systems interact in many ways and are impacted by management and climate change. These systems and their interactions often differ in significant ways from region-to-region. To explore the coupled energy-water-land system and its relation to climate change and management a simple conceptual model of demand, endowment and technology (DET) is proposed. A consistent and comparable analysis framework is needed as climate change and resource management practices have the potential to impact each DET element, resource, and region differently. These linkages are further complicated by policy and trade agreements where endowments of one region are used to meet demands in another. This paper reviews the unique DET characteristics of land, energy and water resources across the United States. Analyses are conducted according to the eight geographic regions defined in the 2014 National Climate Assessment. Evident from the analyses are regional differences in resources endowments in land (strong East-West gradient in forest, cropland and desert), water (similar East-West gradient), and energy. Demands likewise vary regionally reflecting differences in population density and endowment (e.g., higher water use in West reflecting insufficient precipitation to support dryland farming). The effect of technology and policy are particularly evident in differences in the energy portfolios across the eight regions. Integrated analyses that account for the various spatial and temporal differences in regional energy, water and land systems are critical to informing effective policy requirements for future energy, climate and resource management. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Integrating Multiple Geographic Information Systems to Create a Versatile Land Evaluation Site Assessment Model

    E-print Network

    Morrison, Grady

    2008-11-19

    in Urban Planning Integrating Multiple Geographic Information Systems to Create a Versatile Land Suitability Analysis Model Grady Morrison Undergraduate Department of Geography University of Kansas gmorrisn@ku.edu Impervious Surface Analysis Using...

  17. Human Planetary Landing System (HPLS) Capability Roadmap NRC Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Rob; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Graves, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Capability Roadmap Team. Capability Description, Scope and Capability Breakdown Structure. Benefits of the HPLS. Roadmap Process and Approach. Current State-of-the-Art, Assumptions and Key Requirements. Top Level HPLS Roadmap. Capability Presentations by Leads. Mission Drivers Requirements. "AEDL" System Engineering. Communication & Navigation Systems. Hypersonic Systems. Super to Subsonic Decelerator Systems. Terminal Descent and Landing Systems. A Priori In-Situ Mars Observations. AEDL Analysis, Test and Validation Infrastructure. Capability Technical Challenges. Capability Connection Points to other Roadmaps/Crosswalks. Summary of Top Level Capability. Forward Work.

  18. 78 FR 12084 - Public Land Order No. 7809; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Settler's Grove of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...No. 7809; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Settler's...withdraws 183.46 acres of National Forest System land from location and entry...the following described National Forest System land is hereby...

  19. 76 FR 37826 - Public Land Order No. 7773; Emergency Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands, Coconino and Mohave...776 acres of public and National Forest System lands from location and entry...010,776 acres public and National Forest System lands in Coconino and...

  20. 77 FR 2563 - Public Land Order No. 7787; Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands in the Grand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands in the Grand Canyon...545 acres of public and National Forest System lands from location and entry...INFORMATION: The public and National Forest System lands described in this...

  1. AGFATL- ACTIVE GEAR FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT TAKEOFF AND LANDING ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Active Gear, Flexible Aircraft Takeoff and Landing Analysis program, AGFATL, was developed to provide a complete simulation of the aircraft takeoff and landing dynamics problem. AGFATL can represent an airplane either as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom or as a flexible body with multiple degrees of freedom. The airframe flexibility is represented by the superposition of up to twenty free vibration modes on the rigid-body motions. The analysis includes maneuver logic and autopilots programmed to control the aircraft during glide slope, flare, landing, and takeoff. The program is modular so that performance of the aircraft in flight and during landing and ground maneuvers can be studied separately or in combination. A program restart capability is included in AGFATL. Effects simulated in the AGFATL program include: (1) flexible aircraft control and performance during glide slope, flare, landing roll, and takeoff roll under conditions of changing winds, engine failures, brake failures, control system failures, strut failures, restrictions due to runway length, and control variable limits and time lags; (2) landing gear loads and dynamics for up to five gears; (3) single and multiple engines (maximum of four) including selective engine reversing and failure; (4) drag chute and spoiler effects; (5) wheel braking (including skid-control) and selective brake failure; (6) aerodynamic ground effects; (7) aircraft carrier operations; (8) inclined runways and runway perturbations; (9) flexible or rigid airframes; 10) rudder and nose gear steering; and 11) actively controlled landing gear shock struts. Input to the AGFATL program includes data which describe runway roughness; vehicle geometry, flexibility and aerodynamic characteristics; landing gear(s); propulsion; and initial conditions such as attitude, attitude change rates, and velocities. AGFATL performs a time integration of the equations of motion and outputs comprehensive information on the airframe, state-of-maneuver logic, autopilots, control response, and aircraft loads from impact, runway roll-out, and ground operations. Flexible-body and total (elastic plus rigid-body) displacements, velocities, and accelerations are also output in the flexible-body option for up to twenty points on the aircraft. The AGFATL program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer with an overlayed central memory requirement of approximately 141 (octal) of 60 bit words. The AGFATL program was last updated in 1984.

  2. The Sand Land Soil System and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoory, R. A.

    Worldwide arid soils such as Latterites from African Savannas to the Xeralfs and Xererts of the Mediterranean Basin Ortents and Orthids of Asian Deserts are uniquely different in their strategic roles for utilizing the land in places where a delicate balance between annual climatic cycles and general trends toward desertification predominate Arid lands cover 1 3 of global land surface and contain irreplaceable natural resources with potential productivity of meeting the demands of more than two billion people and serving as sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 to combat global warming The soil system in these arid areas are being degraded underutilized and kept in a stage of obliviousness due to inadequate public literacy and most importantly in-sufficient scientific evaluations based on pedology and soil taxonomy standards Implementation of food security projects and sustainable development programs on randomly selected sites and assessment of land degradation worldwide by powerful computers and satellite imagery techniques without field work and identification of Representative Soil Units are data producing and grant attracting but counter productive We live in a world in which there is an order out there and things are precisely measured and categorized for efficient utilization Why not the soils mainly in arid areas How we could generalize the world of soils under our feet by concept of soils are the same Expansion of educational programs quantification of multiple ecosystems within the arid regions through detailed and correlated

  3. Video guidance, landing, and imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.; Tietz, J. C.; Grant, C.; Rice, R. B.; Moog, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The adaptive potential of video guidance technology for earth orbital and interplanetary missions was explored. The application of video acquisition, pointing, tracking, and navigation technology was considered to three primary missions: planetary landing, earth resources satellite, and spacecraft rendezvous and docking. It was found that an imaging system can be mechanized to provide a spacecraft or satellite with a considerable amount of adaptability with respect to its environment. It also provides a level of autonomy essential to many future missions and enhances their data gathering ability. The feasibility of an autonomous video guidance system capable of observing a planetary surface during terminal descent and selecting the most acceptable landing site was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The techniques developed for acquisition, pointing, and tracking show promise for recognizing and tracking coastlines, rivers, and other constituents of interest. Routines were written and checked for rendezvous, docking, and station-keeping functions.

  4. Quantitative Geomorphological Analysis & Land Use/ Land Cover Change Detection of Two Sub-Watersheds in NE region of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, M.; Singh, S.; Verma, V. K.; Pateriya, B.

    2014-11-01

    Morphometric analysis is the measurement and mathematical analysis of the landforms. The delineation of drainage system is of utmost importance in understanding hydrological system of an area, water resource management and it's planning in an effective manner. Morphometric analysis and land use change detection of two sub-watersheds namely Kukar Suha and Ratewal of district Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar, Punjab, India was carried out for quantitative description of drainage and characterisation. The stream order, stream number, stream length, mean stream length, and other morphometric analysis like bifurcation ratio, drainage density, texture, relief ratio, ruggedness number etc. were measured. The drainage pattern of Kukar Suha and Ratewal is mainly dendritic. The agriculture and settlements came up along the drainage network causes the pattern disturbance in the watershed. The study was undertaken to spotlight the morphometric parameters, their impact on the basin and the land use land cover changes occurred over the period of time. Morphometric parameters such as linear aspect, areal aspect and relief aspect of the watershed are computed. The land use/land cover change was extracted from LISS IV Mx + Cartosat1 PAN data. ASTER data is used to prepare DEM (digital elevation model) and geographical information system (GIS) was used to evaluate various morphometric parameters in ArcGIS10 software.

  5. Land use changes and its impact on land surface temperature of Yancheng City from 2000 to 2009 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinghan

    2014-02-01

    In the paper, based on the technology of remote sensing and geographic information system, and according to the Landsat TM images obtained the land use database and land surface temperature of Yancheng city in the year of 2000 and 2009. Five land use types were identified, namely: farmland, building site, forest and grassland, water, and beach wetland. And then analysis of the urban expansion model based on the Defense Meteorological satellite data. The results show that: (1) In the five kinds of land use types, the largest rate of land use change is beach wetland, which is -8.23, followed by water as -5.17, forest and grassland is 3.27, building site is 2.24, farmland is 0.69. (2) During the 2000-2009, the towns of Yancheng city continuous outward expansion. In the old town, the expansion model is similar to the concentric circles spread to the periphery, but in the new district, which mainly concentrated in the northeast and southeast, the expansion model is re-planning, development and construction. (3) The land use structure change, especially the changes of beach wetland have a largest influence on the land surface temperature of Yancheng city. Among them, the average land surface temperature has increased over 8 degrees. However, the farmland change due to the overall land surface temperature decreased. And the increase of building site, making the urban heat island effect has been enhanced, while the town where the land surface temperature increases in value added in 0 to 5 degrees. At the same time, the water changes, this due to the land surface temperature increases and the added value in the range of 5 to 8 degrees.

  6. Monitoring urban land cover change: An expert system approach to land cover classification

    E-print Network

    Ramsey, Michael

    Monitoring urban land cover change: An expert system approach to land cover classification accuracy. Logical decision rules are used with the various datasets to assign class values to each pixel, land use, water rights, city boundaries, and Native American reservation boundaries. Pixels were

  7. 77 FR 44144 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AD02 National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction...) published a National Forest System land management planning rule in the Federal Register, on April 9, 2012..., Subpart A--National Forest System Land Management Planning (36 CFR part 219, subpart A). One...

  8. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems...database that includes: (i) Accident records with sufficient detail for analysis such as accident type using standard...

  9. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems...database that includes: (i) Accident records with sufficient detail for analysis such as accident type using standard...

  10. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems...database that includes: (i) Accident records with sufficient detail for analysis such as accident type using standard...

  11. Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae State of Hawaii

    E-print Network

    Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae Production State of Hawaii Prepared for the U.S. Department agency thereof. #12;Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae Production State of Hawaii Prepared by Mele University of Hawaii at Manoa August 2011 #12;i Executive Summary Algae are considered to be a viable crop

  12. Experimental land observing data system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.

    1982-01-01

    An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.

  13. A new digital land mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

  14. Design and implementation of multi-source data mining system for land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yaolin; Liu, Dianfeng; Xia, Yin; Hu, Xi

    2009-10-01

    With the development of "3S" technologies, a large quantity of spatial-temporal data related to land use has been accessed. Being scattered across different departments and lacking of relevant analysis tools made them utilize insufficiently. Although some experts have applied data mining to solve this problem, most of them have only provided one method for single task to build the mining systems. However, it is undesirable to use just one method to mine. In addition, the single function systems can not be used widely and conveniently. Hence, under full investigation on operations of land use, a multi-source data mining prototype system for land use is proposed by integrating of technologies of GIS and spatial data mining. According to the general data mining process, aiming at the multi-demands of land evaluation and land planning and so on, the system is developed by using ArcEngine 9.0 and VB.net. The system integrates basic geospatial data, land use/cover data, and thematic data as data sources, excavates different knowledge of land Quality, land use zoning rules, land use patterns and change rules and so on. Based on the types of knowledge, the system accordingly provides several different mining methods, including decision tree, support vector machine, artificial neural network, time series, spatial association rules, etc. Wide adaptability of the system is demonstrated by using some cases. The results of the system can meet multipurpose needs and be used to support decision-making of the land management department.

  15. Inferring Land Surface Model Parameters for the Assimilation of Satellite-Based L-Band Brightness Temperature Observations into a Soil Moisture Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission provides global measurements of L-band brightness temperatures at horizontal and vertical polarization and a variety of incidence angles that are sensitive to moisture and temperature conditions in the top few centimeters of the soil. These L-band observations can therefore be assimilated into a land surface model to obtain surface and root zone soil moisture estimates. As part of the observation operator, such an assimilation system requires a radiative transfer model (RTM) that converts geophysical fields (including soil moisture and soil temperature) into modeled L-band brightness temperatures. At the global scale, the RTM parameters and the climatological soil moisture conditions are still poorly known. Using look-up tables from the literature to estimate the RTM parameters usually results in modeled L-band brightness temperatures that are strongly biased against the SMOS observations, with biases varying regionally and seasonally. Such biases must be addressed within the land data assimilation system. In this presentation, the estimation of the RTM parameters is discussed for the NASA GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, which is based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the Catchment land surface model. In the GEOS-5 land data assimilation system, soil moisture and brightness temperature biases are addressed in three stages. First, the global soil properties and soil hydraulic parameters that are used in the Catchment model were revised to minimize the bias in the modeled soil moisture, as verified against available in situ soil moisture measurements. Second, key parameters of the "tau-omega" RTM were calibrated prior to data assimilation using an objective function that minimizes the climatological differences between the modeled L-band brightness temperatures and the corresponding SMOS observations. Calibrated parameters include soil roughness parameters, vegetation structure parameters, and the single scattering albedo. After this climatological calibration, the modeling system can provide L-band brightness temperatures with a global mean absolute bias of less than 10K against SMOS observations, across multiple incidence angles and for horizontal and vertical polarization. Third, seasonal and regional variations in the residual biases are addressed by estimating the vegetation optical depth through state augmentation during the assimilation of the L-band brightness temperatures. This strategy, tested here with SMOS data, is part of the baseline approach for the Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture data product from the planned Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission.

  16. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Chen, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently places the Curiosity rove on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview to the MSL entry, descent and landing system design and preliminary flight performance results.

  17. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane and engine performance deficiencies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system.

  18. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (inventor); Person, Lee H., Jr. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (VR) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  19. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours. AFWA recognizes the importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization for land surface modeling and is developing standard methods, software, and metrics to verify and/or validate LIS output products. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at AFWA, the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) -- a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community -- and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), have been adapted to operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities.

  20. Constellation Program (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Project Integrated Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John D.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.; Eisenman, David J.; Peer, Scott G.; Fasanella, Edward L.; Lawrence, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Chief Engineer requested a risk comparison of the Integrated Landing System design developed by NASA and the design developed by Contractor- referred to as the LM 604 baseline. Based on the results of this risk comparison, the CEV Chief engineer requested that the NESC evaluate identified risks and develop strategies for their reduction or mitigation. The assessment progressed in two phases. A brief Phase I analysis was performed by the Water versus Land-Landing Team to compare the CEV Integrated Landing System proposed by the Contractor against the NASA TS-LRS001 baseline with respect to risk. A phase II effort examined the areas of critical importance to the overall landing risk, evaluating risk to the crew and to the CEV Crew Module (CM) during a nominal land-landing. The findings of the assessment are contained in this report.

  1. Quantitative land cover change analysis using fuzzy segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarazo, Ivan

    2012-04-01

    Fuzzy image segmentation was proposed recently as an alternative GEOBIA method for conducting discrete land cover classification. In this paper, a variant of fuzzy segmentation is applied for continuous land cover change analysis. The method comprises two main stages: (i) estimation of compositional land cover for each data by fuzzy segmentation; and (ii) change analysis using a fuzzy change matrix. The fuzzy segmentation stage outputs fuzzy-crisp and crisp-fuzzy image regions whose spectral and geometric properties are measured to populate the set of predictors used to estimate land cover at single dates. The variant of fuzzy image segmentation is implemented using advanced machine learning techniques and tested in a rapidly urbanizing area using Landsat multi-spectral imagery. Experimental results suggest that the method produces accurate characterization of continuous land cover classes. Thus, the proposed method is potentially useful for enhancing the current GEOBIA perspective which focuses mainly on discrete land cover classifications.

  2. US army land condition-trend analysis (LCTA) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diersing, Victor E.; Shaw, Robert B.; Tazik, David J.

    1992-05-01

    The US Army Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) program is a standardized method of data collection, analysis, and reporting designed to meet multiple goals and objectives. The method utilizes vascular plant inventories, permanent field plot data, and wildlife inventories. Vascular plant inventories are used for environmental documentation, training of personnel, species identification during LCTA implementation, and as a survey for state and federal endangered or threatened species. The permanent field plot data documents the vegetational, edaphic, topographic, and disturbance characteristics of the installation. Inventory plots are allocated in a stratified random fashion across the installation utilizing a geographic information system that integrates satellite imagery and soil survey information. Ground cover, canopy cover, woody plant density, slope length, slope gradient, soil information, and disturbance data are collected at each plot. Plot data are used to: (1) describe plant communities, (2) characterize wildlife and threatened and endangered species habitat, (3) document amount and kind of military and nonmilitary disturbance, (4) determine the impact of military training on vegetation and soil resources, (5) estimate soil erosion potential, (6) classify land as to the kind and amount of use it can support, (7) determine allowable use estimates for tracked vehicle training, (8) document concealment resources, (9) identify lands that require restoration and evaluate the effectiveness of restorative techniques, and (10) evaluate potential acquisition property. Wildlife inventories survey small and midsize mammals, birds, bats, amphibians, and reptiles. Data from these surveys can be used for environmental documentation, to identify state and federal endangered and threatened species, and to evaluate the impact of military activities on wildlife populations. Short- and long-term monitoring of permanent field plots is used to evaluate and adjust land management decisions.

  3. The Pilot Land Data System: Report of the Program Planning Workshops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An advisory report to be used by NASA in developing a program plan for a Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) was developed. The purpose of the PLDS is to improve the ability of NASA and NASA sponsored researchers to conduct land-related research. The goal of the planning workshops was to provide and coordinate planning and concept development between the land related science and computer science disciplines, to discuss the architecture of the PLDs, requirements for information science technology, and system evaluation. The findings and recommendations of the Working Group are presented. The pilot program establishes a limited scale distributed information system to explore scientific, technical, and management approaches to satisfying the needs of the land science community. The PLDS paves the way for a land data system to improve data access, processing, transfer, and analysis, which land sciences information synthesis occurs on a scale not previously permitted because of limits to data assembly and access.

  4. Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Knocke, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" on Mars on January 4th and 25th of 2004, respectively. The trajectory analysis performed to define the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) scenario is described. The entry requirements and constraints are presented, as well as uncertainties used in a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis to statistically assess the robustness of the entry design to off-nominal conditions. In the analysis, six-degree-of-freedom and three-degree-of-freedom trajectory results are compared to assess the entry characteristics of the capsule. Comparison of the preentry results to preliminary post-landing reconstruction data shows that all EDL parameters were within the requirements. In addition, the final landing position for both "Spirit" and "Opportunity" were within 15 km of the predicted landing location.

  5. Evolutionary direction of land-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    Natural landscape is always subject to dynamic change, leaving characteristic patterns at various time scales. Noticeable patterns, ranging from meandering to fractal characteristics of river networks, have been investigated with physical modeling, mathematical modeling, and other manners. One revolutionary idea to foster holistic understanding of landscape evolution is the optimality concept. There have been several optimality hypotheses proposed for different types of landforms. However, none of them seems fully verified (Paik, 2012). It has been argued that lack of feedbacks between different processes into account is critical limitation of present optimality hypotheses (Paik and Kumar, 2010). In this regards, this study presents how optimality context to be formulated for a clear case where strong feedbacks are exchanged during co-evolution, i.e. land-atmosphere system. While most landscape evolution models, either physical, numerical, or optimality-based, assume simple spatio-temporal variability in climate forcing (e.g., rainfall), climatic field evolves together with landscape in reality. For example, orographic precipitation is enhanced as tectonic uplift continues. Accordingly, landscape and atmosphere are closely linked and we should look at them as a single system, rather than separated individuals. In this presentation, limitation of existing optimality hypotheses will be demonstrated with examples of coupled evolution of land-atmosphere system. Fundamental implications for general optimality concept for evolutionary direction of the coupled system will be discussed. Keywords: Optimal channel network; Landscape evolution; Orographic rainfall References Paik, K. and P. Kumar (2010) Optimality approaches to describe characteristic fluvial patterns on landscapes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, Vol.365, No.1545, pp.1387-1395, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0303. Paik, K. (2012) Search for the optimality signature of river network development, Physical Review E, Vol.86, 046110, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046110.

  6. Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing through 1991, ending with the NOAA-11 satellite. Emphasis was placed upon delineating the and and semi-arid zones of Central Asia (largely Mongolia and adjacent areas), mapping broad categories of aggregated land cover, and upon studying photosynthetic capacity increases in Central Asia from 1982 to 1991.

  7. A Land Surface Data Assimilation Framework Using the Land Information System: Description and Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Land Information System (LIS) is a hydrologic modeling framework that integrates various community land surface models, ground and satellite-based observations, and high performance computing and data management tools to enable assessment and prediction of hydrologic conditions at various spatia...

  8. Land Condition -Trend Analysis Data Dictionary

    E-print Network

    Collins, CO 80523 (303) 491-2748 #12;William Sprouse is a Database Analyst with the Center for Ecological RELATIONAL DATABASE 2 DOCUMENT SYNTAX AND TERMINOLOGY 2 PLOT INFORMATION 3 LAND USE DATA 4 VEGETATION DATA 4 FLORISTIC INVENTORY 7 WILDLIFE INVENTORY 8 BIRDS (STANDARD) 8 SMALL MAMMALS (STANDARD) 9 REPTILES

  9. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alewell, C.; Birkholz, A.; Meusburger, K.; Schindler Wildhaber, Y.; Mabit, L.

    2015-08-01

    As sediment loads impact freshwater systems and infrastructure, their origin in complex landscape systems is of crucial importance for optimization of catchment management. We differentiated sediment source contribution to a lowland river in Central Switzerland in using compound specific stable isotopes analysis (CSIA). We found a clear distinction of sediment sources originating from forest and agricultural land use. We suggest to generally reduce uncertainty of sediment source attribution, in (i) aiming for approaches with least possible data complexity to reduce analytical effort as well as refraining from undetected source attribution and/or tracer degradation obscured by complex high data demanding modelling approaches, (ii) to use compound content (in our case long chain fatty acid (FA)) rather than soil organic matter content when converting isotopic signature to soil contribution and (iii) to restrict evaluation to the long-chain FAs (C22:0 to C30:0) not to introduce errors due to aquatic contributions from algae and microorganisms. Results showed unambiguously that during base flow agricultural land contributed up to 65 % of the suspended sediments, while forest was the dominant sediment source during high flow, which indicates that during base and high flow conditions connectivity of sediment source areas with the river change. Our findings are the first results highlighting significant differences in compound specific stable isotope (CSSI) signature and quantification of sediment sources from land uses dominated by C3 plant cultivation.

  10. Post2 End-to-End Descent and Landing Simulation for ALHAT Design Analysis Cycle 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jody L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Maddock, Robert W.; Johnson, Andrew E.; Paschall, Stephen C., II

    2010-01-01

    The ALHAT project is an agency-level program involving NASA centers, academia, and industry, with a primary goal to develop a safe, autonomous, precision-landing system for robotic and crew-piloted lunar and planetary descent vehicles. POST2 is used as the 6DOF descent and landing trajectory simulation for determining integrated system performance of ALHAT landing-system models and lunar environment models. This paper presents updates in the development of the ALHAT POST2 simulation, as well as preliminary system performance analysis for ALDAC-2 used for the testing and assessment of ALHAT system models. The ALDAC-2 POST2 Monte Carlo simulation results have been generated and focus on HRN model performance with the fully integrated system, as well performance improvements of AGNC and TSAR model since the previous design analysis cycle

  11. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration. [performance tests of remote control equipment for roving vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gisser, D. G.; Frederick, D. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    Problems related to the design and control of an autonomous rover for the purpose of unmanned exploration of the planets were considered. Building on the basis of prior studies, a four wheeled rover of unusual mobility and maneuverability was further refined and tested under both laboratory and field conditions. A second major effort was made to develop autonomous guidance. Path selection systems capable of dealing with relatively formidable hazard and terrains involving various short range (1.0-3.0 meters), hazard detection systems using a triangulation detection concept were simulated and evaluated. The mechanical/electronic systems required to implement such a scheme were constructed and tested. These systems include: laser transmitter, photodetectors, the necessary data handling/controlling systems and a scanning mast. In addition, a telemetry system to interface the vehicle, the off-board computer and a remote control module for operator intervention were developed. Software for the autonomous control concept was written. All of the systems required for complete autonomous control were shown to be satisfactory except for that portion of the software relating to the handling of interrupt commands.

  12. Landing approach airframe noise measurements and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasagna, P. L.; Mackall, K. G.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Putnam, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    Flyover measurements of the airframe noise produced by the AeroCommander, JetStar, CV-990, and B-747 airplanes are presented for various landing approach configurations. Empirical and semiempirical techniques are presented to correlate the measured airframe noise with airplane design and aerodynamic parameters. Airframe noise for the jet-powered airplanes in the clean configuration (flaps and gear retracted) was found to be adequately represented by a function of airplane weight and the fifth power of airspeed. Results show the airframe noise for all four aircraft in the landing configuration (flaps extended and gear down) also varied with the fifth power of airspeed, but this noise level could not be represented by the addition of a constant to the equation for clean-configuration airframe noise.

  13. Analysis of human spatial perception during lunar landing

    E-print Network

    Clark, Torin K.

    Crewed lunar landings require astronauts to interact with automated systems to identify a location that is level and free of hazards and to guide the vehicle to the lunar surface through a controlled descent. However, ...

  14. Evolving the Land Information System into a Cloud Computing Service

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, Paul R.

    2015-02-17

    The Land Information System (LIS) was developed to use advanced flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation frameworks to integrate extremely large satellite- and ground-based observations with advanced land surface models to produce continuous high-resolution fields of land surface states and fluxes. The resulting fields are extremely useful for drought and flood assessment, agricultural planning, disaster management, weather and climate forecasting, water resources assessment, and the like. We envisioned transforming the LIS modeling system into a scientific cloud computing-aware web and data service that would allow clients to easily setup and configure for use in addressing large water management issues. The focus of this Phase 1 project was to determine the scientific, technical, commercial merit and feasibility of the proposed LIS-cloud innovations that are currently barriers to broad LIS applicability. We (a) quantified the barriers to broad LIS utility and commercialization (high performance computing, big data, user interface, and licensing issues); (b) designed the proposed LIS-cloud web service, model-data interface, database services, and user interfaces; (c) constructed a prototype LIS user interface including abstractions for simulation control, visualization, and data interaction, (d) used the prototype to conduct a market analysis and survey to determine potential market size and competition, (e) identified LIS software licensing and copyright limitations and developed solutions, and (f) developed a business plan for development and marketing of the LIS-cloud innovation. While some significant feasibility issues were found in the LIS licensing, overall a high degree of LIS-cloud technical feasibility was found.

  15. Control System Architecture for a Remotely Operated Unmanned Land Vehicle

    E-print Network

    Control System Architecture for a Remotely Operated Unmanned Land Vehicle Sandor Szabo, Harry A, as part of its Robotics Initiative, is developing a testbed for cooperative, real-time control of unmanned land vehicles. The system requires the development and integration of many elements which allow

  16. 78 FR 23491 - National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 219 RIN 0596-AB86 National Forest System Land Management Planning; Correction... is no need to supplement the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule Final Programmatic... management plans (the planning rule). The National Forest Management Act (NFMA) at 16 U.S.C....

  17. Incorporating JULES into NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Investigations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Land Information System (LIS; lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling and data assimilation framework developed over the past decade with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. LIS features a high performance and flexible design, and operates on an ensemble of land surface models for extension over user-specified regional or global domains. The extensible interfaces of LIS allow the incorporation of new domains, land surface models (LSMs), land surface parameters, meteorological inputs, data assimilation and optimization algorithms. In addition, LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation and uncertainty estimation, and has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. A visiting fellowship is currently underway to implement JULES into LIS and to undertake some fundamental science on the feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere. An overview of the LIS system, features, and sample results will be presented in an effort to engage the community in the potential advantages of LIS-JULES for a range of applications. Ongoing efforts to develop a framework for diagnosing land-atmosphere coupling will also be presented using the suite of LSM and PBL schemes available in LIS and WRF along with observations from the U. S .. Southern Great Plains. This methodology provides a potential pathway to study factors controlling local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) using the LIS-WRF system, which will serve as a testbed for future experiments to evaluate coupling diagnostics within the community.

  18. Application of the global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) mobile apps to land degradation, restoration and climate change adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combatting land degradation, promoting restoration and adapting to climate change all require an understanding of land potential. A global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) is being developed that will address many of these limitations using an open source approach designed to allow anyone w...

  19. Online Time Series Analysis of Land Products over Asia Monsoon Region via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Time series analysis is critical to the study of land cover/land use changes and climate. Time series studies at local-to-regional scales require higher spatial resolution, such as 1km or less, data. MODIS land products of 250m to 1km resolution enable such studies. However, such MODIS land data files are distributed in 10ox10o tiles, due to large data volumes. Conducting a time series study requires downloading all tiles that include the study area for the time period of interest, and mosaicking the tiles spatially. This can be an extremely time-consuming process. In support of the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) has processed MODIS land products at 1 km resolution over the Asia monsoon region (0o-60oN, 60o-150oE) with a common data structure and format. The processed data have been integrated into the Giovanni system (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) that enables users to explore, analyze, and download data over an area and time period of interest easily. Currently, the following regional MODIS land products are available in Giovanni: 8-day 1km land surface temperature and active fire, monthly 1km vegetation index, and yearly 0.05o, 500m land cover types. More data will be added in the near future. By combining atmospheric and oceanic data products in the Giovanni system, it is possible to do further analyses of environmental and climate changes associated with the land, ocean, and atmosphere. This presentation demonstrates exploring land products in the Giovanni system with sample case scenarios.

  20. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, James R.; Hardy, Ernest E.; Roach, John T.; Witmer, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    The framework of a national land use and land cover classification system is presented for use with remote sensor data. The classification system has been developed to meet the needs of Federal and State agencies for an up-to-date overview of land use and land cover throughout the country on a basis that is uniform in categorization at the more generalized first and second levels and that will be receptive to data from satellite and aircraft remote sensors. The proposed system uses the features of existing widely used classification systems that are amenable to data derived from remote sensing sources. It is intentionally left open-ended so that Federal, regional, State, and local agencies can have flexibility in developing more detailed land use classifications at the third and fourth levels in order to meet their particular needs and at the same time remain compatible with each other and the national system. Revision of the land use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 was undertaken in order to incorporate the results of extensive testing and review of the categorization and definitions.

  1. A Reusable Design for Precision Lunar Landing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhrman, Linda; Brand, Timothy; Fill, Tom; Norris, Lee; Paschall, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The top-level architecture to accomplish NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is to use Lunar missions and systems not just as an end in themselves, but also as testbeds for the more ambitious goals of Human Mars Exploration (HME). This approach means that Lunar missions and systems are most likely going to be targeted for (Lunar) polar missions, and also for long-duration (months) surface stays. This overacting theme creates basic top-level requirements for any next-generation lander system: 1) Long duration stays: a) Multiple landers in close proximity; b) Pinpoint landings for "surface rendezvous"; c) Autonomous landing of pre-positioned assets; and d) Autonomous Hazard Detection and Avoidance. 2) Polar and deep-crater landings (dark); 3) Common/extensible systems for Moon and Mars, crew and cargo. These requirements pose challenging technology and capability needs. Compare and contrast: 4) Apollo: a) 1 km landing accuracy; b) Lunar near-side (well imaged and direct-to-Earth com. possible); c) Lunar equatorial (landing trajectories offer best navigation support from Earth); d) Limited lighting conditions; e) Significant ground-in-the-loop operations; 5) Lunar Access: a) 10-100m landing precision; b) "Anywhere" access includes polar (potentially poor nav. support from Earth) and far side (poor gravity and imaging; no direct-to-Earth com); c) "Anytime" access includes any lighting condition (including dark); d) Full autonomous landing capability; e) Extensible design for tele-operation or operator-in-the-loop; and f) Minimal ground support to reduce operations costs. The Lunar Access program objectives, therefore, are to: a) Develop a baseline Lunar Precision Landing System (PLS) design to enable pinpoint "anywhere, anytime" landings; b) landing precision 10m-100m; c) Any LAT, LON; and d) Any lighting condition; This paper will characterize basic features of the next generation Lunar landing system, including trajectory types, sensor suite options and a reference system architecture.

  2. Land Mobile Satellite Systems (LMSS): Single aperture system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, W. J., III

    1982-01-01

    The large size of the UHF antenna on the satellite provides two advantages with respect to the Land Mobile Satellite System design. It provides tremendous gain for both transmitting and receiving at the satellite and enables very simple, low power equipment in the mobile vehicle. The UHF antenna for this study was selected to have an aperture of 55 meters. This implies a beamwidth of roughly 0.45 degree and requires 87 beams to cover the continental United States.

  3. Neutron-based land mine detection system development

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.A.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Nebel, R.A.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to examine the feasibility of developing a land mine detection system that can detect nonmetallic (plastic) mines using the detection and analysis of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). The authors approached this study by first carrying out a review of other nonmetallic land mine detection methods for comparison with the PGNAA concept. They reviewed issues associated with detecting and recording the return gamma signal resulting from neutrons interacting with high explosive in mines and they examined two neutron source technologies that have been under development at Los Alamos for the past several years for possible application to a PGNAA system. A major advantage of the PGNAA approach is it`s ability to discriminate detection speed and need for close proximity. The authors identified approaches to solving these problems through development of improved neutron sources and detection sensors.

  4. Preliminary analysis of knee stress in Full Extension Landing

    PubMed Central

    Makinejad, Majid Davoodi; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Bayat, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study provides an experimental and finite element analysis of knee-joint structure during extended-knee landing based on the extracted impact force, and it numerically identifies the contact pressure, stress distribution and possibility of bone-to-bone contact when a subject lands from a safe height. METHODS: The impact time and loads were measured via inverse dynamic analysis of free landing without knee flexion from three different heights (25, 50 and 75 cm), using five subjects with an average body mass index of 18.8. Three-dimensional data were developed from computed tomography scans and were reprocessed with modeling software before being imported and analyzed by finite element analysis software. The whole leg was considered to be a fixed middle-hinged structure, while impact loads were applied to the femur in an upward direction. RESULTS: Straight landing exerted an enormous amount of pressure on the knee joint as a result of the body's inability to utilize the lower extremity muscles, thereby maximizing the threat of injury when the load exceeds the height-safety threshold. CONCLUSIONS: The researchers conclude that extended-knee landing results in serious deformation of the meniscus and cartilage and increases the risk of bone-to-bone contact and serious knee injury when the load exceeds the threshold safety height. This risk is considerably greater than the risk of injury associated with walking downhill or flexion landing activities. PMID:24141832

  5. Cross-Site Comparison of Land-Use Decision-Making and Its Consequences across Land Systems with a

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Erle C.

    Cross-Site Comparison of Land-Use Decision-Making and Its Consequences across Land Systems, Maryland, United States of America Abstract Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper

  6. SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS - LAND APPLICATION AREAS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Sewer system land applications as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting a...

  7. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS

    E-print Network

    GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS CEMML | 1490@cemml.colostate.edu | http://www.cemml.colostate.edu A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a necessary tool for effective

  8. Automated Loads Analysis System (ATLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Stephen; Frere, Scot; O’Reilly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is a generalized solution that can be used for launch vehicles. ATLAS is used to produce modal transient analysis and quasi-static analysis results (i.e., accelerations, displacements, and forces) for the payload math models on a specific Shuttle Transport System (STS) flight using the shuttle math model and associated forcing functions. This innovation solves the problem of coupling of payload math models into a shuttle math model. It performs a transient loads analysis simulating liftoff, landing, and all flight events between liftoff and landing. ATLAS utilizes efficient and numerically stable algorithms available in MSC/NASTRAN.

  9. 75 FR 41886 - Public Land Order No. 7744; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Inyan Kara Area; WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...No. 7744; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Inyan Kara Area...withdraws 1,278.09 acres of National Forest System land from location and entry...which may by law be made of National Forest System land. DATES:...

  10. 76 FR 1629 - Public Land Order No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Big Ice Cave; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Big Ice Cave...order withdraws 170 acres of National Forest System land from location and entry...as may by law be made of National Forest System land and to mineral...

  11. Temporal Land Cover Analysis for Net Ecosystem Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Yinghai; Coleman, Andre M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2013-04-09

    We delineated 8 watersheds contributing to previously defined river reaches within the 1,468-km2 historical floodplain of the tidally influenced lower Columbia River and estuary. We assessed land-cover change at the watershed, reach, and restoration site scales by reclassifying remote-sensing data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Change Analysis Program’s land cover/land change product into forest, wetland, and urban categories. The analysis showed a 198.3 km2 loss of forest cover during the first 6 years of the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program, 2001–2006. Total measured urbanization in the contributing watersheds of the estuary during the full 1996-2006 change analysis period was 48.4 km2. Trends in forest gain/loss and urbanization differed between watersheds. Wetland gains and losses were within the margin of error of the satellite imagery analysis. No significant land cover change was measured at restoration sites, although it was visible in aerial imagery, therefore, the 30-m land-cover product may not be appropriate for assessment of early-stage wetland restoration. These findings suggest that floodplain restoration sites in reaches downstream of watersheds with decreasing forest cover will be subject to increased sediment loads, and those downstream of urbanization will experience effects of increased impervious surfaces on hydrologic processes.

  12. Urbanization suitability maps: a dynamic spatial decision support system for sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerreta, M.; De Toro, P.

    2012-11-01

    Recent developments in land consumption assessment identify the need to implement integrated evaluation approaches, with particular attention to the development of multidimensional tools for guiding and managing sustainable land use. Land use policy decisions are implemented mostly through spatial planning and its related zoning. This involves trade-offs between many sectorial interests and conflicting challenges seeking win-win solutions. In order to identify a decision-making process for land use allocation, this paper proposes a methodological approach for developing a Dynamic Spatial Decision Support System (DSDSS), denominated Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA), supported by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Through empirical investigation in an operative case study, an integrated evaluation approach implemented in a DSDSS helps produce "urbanization suitability maps" in which spatial analysis combined with multi-criteria evaluation methods proved to be useful for both facing the main issues relating to land consumption as well as minimizing environmental impacts of spatial planning.

  13. Urbanization susceptibility maps: a dynamic spatial decision support system for sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerreta, M.; De Toro, P.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments in land consumption assessment identify the need to implement integrated evaluative approaches, with particular attention to the identification of multidimensional tools for guiding and managing sustainable land use. Policy decisions defining land use are mostly implemented through spatial planning and related zoning, and this involves trade-offs between many sectoral interests and conflicting challenges aimed at win-win solutions. In order to identify a decision-making process for land use allocation, the paper proposes a methodological approach for a Dynamic Spatial Decision Support System (DSDSS), named Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA), supported by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Through the empirical investigation in an operative case study, an integrated evaluative approach implemented in a DSDSS helps to elaborate "urbanization susceptibility maps", where spatial analysis combined with a multi-criteria method proved to be useful for facing the main issues related to land consumption and minimizing environmental impacts of spatial planning.

  14. Aeroacoustic Analysis of a Simplified Landing Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi, R.; Li, Fei

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid approach is used to investigate the noise generated by a simplified landing gear without small scale parts such as hydraulic lines and fasteners. The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to predict the noise at far-field observer locations from flow data provided by an unsteady computational fluid dynamics calculation. A simulation with 13 million grid points has been completed, and comparisons are made between calculations with different turbulence models. Results indicate that the turbulence model has a profound effect on the levels and character of the unsteadiness. Flow data on solid surfaces and a set of permeable surfaces surrounding the gear have been collected. Noise predictions using the porous surfaces appear to be contaminated by errors caused by large wake fluctuations passing through the surfaces. However, comparisons between predictions using the solid surfaces with the near-field CFD solution are in good agreement giving confidence in the far-field results.

  15. Applications of Skylab data to land use and climatological analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Lewis, J. E., Jr.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Jenner, C. B.; Outcalt, S. I.; Pease, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab study in Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site encompassed two separate but related tasks: (1) evaluation of photographic sensors S190A and B as sources of land use data for planning and managing land resources in major metropolitan regions, and (2) evaluation of the multispectral scanner S192 used in conjunction with associated data and analytical techniques as a data source on urban climates and the surface energy balance. Photographs from the Skylab S190B earth terrain camera were of greatest interest in the land use analysis task; they were of sufficiently high resolution to identify and map many level 2 and 3 land use categories. After being corrected to allow for atmosphere effects, output from thermal and visible bands of the S192 was employed in constructing computer map plots of albedo and surface temperature.

  16. Incorporating land use land cover probability information into endmember class selections for temporal mixture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenliang; Wu, Changshan

    2015-03-01

    As a promising method for estimating fractional land covers within a remote sensing pixel, spectral mixture analysis (SMA) has been successfully applied in numerous fields, including urban analysis, forest mapping, etc. When implementing SMA, an important step is to select the number, type, and spectra of pure land covers (also termed endmember classes). While extensive studies have been conducted in addressing endmember variability (e.g. spectral variability of endmember classes), little research has paid attention to the selection of an appropriate number and types of endmember classes. To address this problem, in this study, we proposed to automatically select endmember classes for temporal mixture analysis (TMA), a variant of SMA, through incorporating land use land cover probability information derived from socio-economic and environmental drivers. This proposed model includes three consecutive steps, including (1) quantifying the distribution probability of each endmember class using a logistic regression analysis, (2) identifying whether each endmember class exists or not in a particular pixel using a classification tree method, and (3) estimating fractional land covers using TMA. Results indicate that the proposed TMA model achieves a significantly better performance than the simple TMA and a comparable performance with the METMA with an SE of 2.25% and an MAE of 3.18%. In addition, significantly better accuracy was achieved in less developed areas when compared to that of developed areas. This may indicate that an appropriate endmember class set might be more essential in less developed areas, while other factors like endmember variability is more important in developed areas.

  17. PLANS FOR THE LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (LMS) INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Land Management System (LMS) is an initiative of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) to address technology requirements related to land and water resource management in both military and Civil Works mission areas. The purpose of LMS is to provide rel...

  18. Enhancing Adaptive Filtering Approaches for Land Data Assimilation Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work has presented the initial application of adaptive filtering techniques to land surface data assimilation systems. Such techniques are motivated by our current lack of knowledge concerning the structure of large-scale error in either land surface modeling output or remotely-sensed estima...

  19. Controllable set analysis for planetary landing under model uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Jiateng; Gao, Ai; Cui, Pingyuan

    2015-07-01

    Controllable set analysis is a beneficial method in planetary landing mission design by feasible entry state selection in order to achieve landing accuracy and satisfy entry path constraints. In view of the severe impact of model uncertainties on planetary landing safety and accuracy, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the controllable set under uncertainties between on-board model and the real situation. Controllable set analysis under model uncertainties is composed of controllable union set (CUS) analysis and controllable intersection set (CIS) analysis. Definitions of CUS and CIS are demonstrated and computational method of them based on Gauss pseudospectral method is presented. Their applications on entry states distribution analysis under uncertainties and robustness of nominal entry state selection to uncertainties are illustrated by situations with ballistic coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio and atmospheric uncertainty in Mars entry. With analysis of CUS and CIS, the robustness of entry state selection and entry trajectory to model uncertainties can be guaranteed, thus enhancing the safety, reliability and accuracy under model uncertainties during planetary entry and landing.

  20. 78 FR 46565 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ...the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service...the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet in West Valley...the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule. The purpose of...

  1. 76 FR 81911 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule AGENCY: USDA Forest...the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule (Committee). In accordance...the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule (Planning...

  2. 78 FR 68811 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service...the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet in Arlington...the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule. The purpose of...

  3. Measurement of semantic similarity for land use and land cover classification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dongpo

    2008-12-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) data is essential to environmental and ecological research. However, semantic heterogeneous of land use and land cover classification are often resulted from different data resources, different cultural contexts, and different utilities. Therefore, there is need to develop a method to measure, compare and integrate between land cover categories. To understand the meaning and the use of terminology from different domains, the common ontology approach is used to acquire information regarding the meaning of terms, and to compare two terms to determine how they might be related. Ontology is a formal specification of a shared conceptualization of a domain of interest. LULC classification system is a ontology. The semantic similarity method is used to compare to entities of three LULC classification systems: CORINE (European Environmental Agency), Oregon State, USA), and Taiwan. The semantic properties and relations firstly have been extracted from their definitions of LULC classification systems. Then semantic properties and relations of categories in three LULC classification systems are mutually compared. The visualization of semantic proximity is finally presented to explore the similarity or dissimilarity of data. This study shows the semantic similarity method efficiently detect semantic distance in three LULC classification systems and find out the semantic similar objects.

  4. A guide to NASA's Pilot Land Data System (PLDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) is a distributed information management system designed to support NASA's land science community. The PLDS provides a wide range of services including management of information about scientific data, access to a library of scientific data, a data ordering capability, communications, connection to data analysis facilities, and electronic mail. The PLDS provides these services by offering the scientist the capability to search for and order data, and to communicate electronically with other scientists and computers. Three functions enable scientists to find what data are available and where they reside. The first two, Find data summaries and Read detailed descriptions give summary and detailed descriptions about data sets or groups of related data sets, science, projects, and institutions which archive land data. The third, gives information about specific pieces of data. This last function has two components, Search systemwide inventory and Search local inventory. The first component enables the user to find data elements (images, geological samples, transects, maps, etc.) that exist anywhere in the PLDS while the second has only information about data at the local site. The first enables the user to find pieces of data from several different data sets with the same temporal and spatial coverage and other elements common to most data sets, while the second allows the user to select a data set based on these descriptors and on those that are unique to a data set. The PLDS provides capabilities that enable electronic file transfers, intercomputer connection, and electronic mail. Both TCP/IP and DECnet protocols are supported via the NASA Science Internet (NIS). Access is also available through Telenet.

  5. Multi-Scale Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2011-01-01

    The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite-and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. As such, LIS represents a step towards the next generation land component of an integrated Earth system model. In recognition of LIS object-oriented software design, use and impact in the land surface and hydrometeorological modeling community, the LIS software was selected as a co-winner of NASA?s 2005 Software of the Year award.LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has e volved from two earlier efforts -- North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of GLDAS and NLDAS now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations.In addition, LIS was recently transitioned into operations at the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to ultimately replace their Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) system, and is also used routinely by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) for their land data assimilation systems to support weather and climate modeling. LIS not only consolidates the capabilities of these two systems, but also enables a much larger variety of configurations with respect to horizontal spatial resolution, input datasets and choice of land surface model through "plugins". LIS has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to support studies of land-atmosphere coupling be enabling ensembles of land surface states to be tested against multiple representations of the atmospheric boundary layer. LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation, who showed that the use of sequential remotely sensed soil moisture products can be used to derive soil hydraulic and texture properties given a sufficient dynamic range in the soil moisture retrievals and accurate precipitation inputs.LIS has also recently been demonstrated for multi-model data assimilation using an Ensemble Kalman Filter for sequential assimilation of soil moisture, snow, and temperature.Ongoing work has demonstrated the value of bias correction as part of the filter, and also that of joint calibration and assimilation.Examples and case studies demonstrating the capabilities and impacts of LIS for hydrometeorological modeling, assimilation and parameter estimation will be presented as advancements towards the next generation of integrated observation and modeling systems

  6. Multi-Scale Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2009-01-01

    The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov; Kumar et al., 2006; Peters- Lidard et al.,2007) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. As such, LIS represents a step towards the next generation land component of an integrated Earth system model. In recognition of LIS object-oriented software design, use and impact in the land surface and hydrometeorological modeling community, the LIS software was selected ase co-winner of NASA's 2005 Software of the Year award. LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has evolved from two earlier efforts North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS; Mitchell et al. 2004) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS; Rodell al. 2004) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of GLDAS and NLDAS now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations. In addition, LIS was recently transitioned into operations at the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to ultimately replace their Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) system, and is also used routinely by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) for their land data assimilation systems to support weather and climate modeling. LIS not only consolidates the capabilities of these two systems, but also enables a much larger variety of configurations with respect to horizontal spatial resolution, input datasets and choice of land surface model through "plugins,". As described in Kumar et al., 2007, and demonstrated in Case et al., 2008, and Santanello et al., 2009, LIS has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to support studies of land-atmosphere coupling the enabling ensembles of land surface states to be tested against multiple representations of the atmospheric boundary layer. LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation as described in Peters-Lidard et al. (2008) and Santanello et al. (2007), who showed that the use of sequential remotely sensed soil moisture products can be used to derive soil hydraulic and texture properties given a sufficient dynamic range in the soil moisture retrievals and accurate precipitation inputs. LIS has also recently been demonstrated for multi-model data assimilation (Kumar et al., 2008) using an Ensemble Kalman Filter for sequential assimilation of soil moisture, snow, and temperature. Ongoing work has demonstrated the value of bias correction as part of the filter, and also that of joint calibration and assimilation. Examples and case studies demonstrating the capabilities and impacts of LIS for hydrometeoroogical modeling, assimilation and parameter estimation will be presented as advancements towards the next generation of integrated observation and modeling systems.

  7. Land-use suitability analysis for urban development in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renzhi; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2014-12-01

    Land-use suitability analyses are of considerable use in the planning of mega-cities. An Urban Development Land-use Suitability Mapping (UDLSM) approach has been constructed, based on opportunity and constraint criteria. Two Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods, the Ideal Point Method (IPM) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA), were used to generate the opportunity map. The protection map was obtained by means of constraint criteria, utilizing the Boolean union operator. A suitability map was then generated by overlaying the opportunity and protection maps. By applying the UDLSM approach to Beijing, its urban development land-use suitability was mapped, and a sensitivity analysis undertaken to examine the robustness of the proposed approach. Indirect validation was achieved by mutual comparisons of suitability maps resulting from the two MCE methods, where the overall agreement of 91% and kappa coefficient of 0.78 indicated that both methods provide very similar spatial land-use suitability distributions. The suitability level decreases from central Beijing to its periphery, and the area classed as suitable amounts to 28% of the total area. Leading attributes of each opportunity factor for suitability were revealed, with 2256 km(2), i.e. 70%, of existing development land being overlaid by suitable areas in Beijing. Conflicting parcels of land were identified by overlaying the resultant map with two previous development blueprints for Beijing. The paper includes several recommendations aimed at improving the long-term urban development plans for Beijing. PMID:25036557

  8. 76 FR 37826 - Public Land Order No. 7773; Emergency Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...,776 acres of public and National Forest System lands from location and entry under the 1872 Mining Law... System Lands, Coconino and Mohave Counties; AZ AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... the 1872 Mining Law (30 U.S.C. 22 et seq.), to protect the Grand Canyon Watershed from adverse...

  9. Study on passive momentum exchange landing gear using two-dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Hara, Susumu; Otsuki, Masatsugu

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses a landing response control system based on the momentum exchange principle for planetary exploration spacecraft. In the past, landing gear systems with cantilever designs that incorporate honeycomb materials to dissipate shock energy through plastic deformation have been used, but once tested before launch, the system cannot be used in a real mission. The sky crane system used for the Mars Science Laboratory by NASA can achieve a safe and precise landing, but it is highly complex. This paper introduces a momentum exchange impact damper (MEID) that absorbs the controlled object's momentum with extra masses called damper masses. The MEID is reusable, which makes it easy to ensure the landing gear's reliability. In this system, only passive elements such as springs are needed. A single-axis (SA) model has already been used to verify the effectiveness of MEIDs through simulations and experiments measuring the rebound height of the spacecraft. However, the SA model cannot address the rotational motion and tipping of the spacecraft. This paper presents a two-landing-gear-system (TLGS) model in which multiple MEIDs are equipped for two-dimensional analysis. Unlike in the authors' previous studies, in this study each MEID is launched when the corresponding landing gear lands and the MEIDs do not contain active actuators. This mechanism can be used to realize advanced control specifications, and it is simply compared with previous mechanisms including actuators, in which all of the MEIDs are launched simultaneously. If each MEID works when the corresponding gear lands, the rebound height of each gear can be minimized, and tipping can be prevented, as demonstrated by the results of our simulations.

  10. Research priorities in land use and land-cover change for the Earth system and integrated assessment modelling

    E-print Network

    Hibbard, Kathy; Janetos, Anthony; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Pongtatz, Julia; Rose, Steven K.; Betts, Richard; Herold, Martin; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2010-01-01

    . Both the Earth System and the Integrated Assessment modeling communities recognize the importance of an accurate representation of land use and land-cover change to understand and quantify the interactions and feedbacks with the climate and socio...

  11. 7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system room 25 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  12. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  13. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  14. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands... SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every conveyance which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to such lands,...

  15. The shock-absorbed system of the airplane landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callerio, Pietro

    1940-01-01

    A discussion is given of the behavior of the shock-absorbing system, consisting of elastic struts and tires, under landing, take-off, and taxying conditions, and a general formula derived for obtaining the minimum stroke required to satisfy the conditions imposed on the landing gear. Finally, the operation of some typical shock-absorbing systems are examined and the necessity brought out for taking into account, in dynamic landing-gear tests, the effect of the wing lift at the instant of contact with the ground.

  16. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands. 2650.4-6 Section 2650.4-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally §...

  17. Task Analysis of Shuttle Entry and Landing Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Albert W.; Vanderark, Stephen T.

    1993-01-01

    The Task Analysis of Shuttle Entry and Landing (E/L) Activities documents all tasks required to land the Orbiter following an STS mission. In addition to analysis of tasks performed, task conditions are described, including estimated time for completion, altitude, relative velocity, normal and lateral acceleration, location of controls operated or monitored, and level of g's experienced. This analysis precedes further investigations into potential effects of zero g on piloting capabilities for landing the Orbiter following long-duration missions. This includes, but is not limited to, researching the effects of extended duration missions on piloting capabilities. Four primary constraints of the analysis must be clarified: (1) the analysis depicts E/L in a static manner--the actual process is dynamic; (2) the task analysis was limited to a paper analysis, since it was not feasible to conduct research in the actual setting (i.e., observing or filming duration an actual E/L); (3) the tasks included are those required for E/L during nominal, daylight conditions; and (4) certain E/L tasks will vary according to the flying style of each commander.

  18. Global and regional ensemble land-atmosphere modeling with the Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters-Lidard, C.; Lis Team

    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a global Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) capable of modeling land-atmosphere interactions at spatial resolutions down to 1km. LIS consists of an ensemble of land surface models (e.g., CLM, Noah, VIC) run offline using satellite-based precipitation (SSM/I; TRMM), radiation and surface parameters, in addition to model-derived surface meteorology. Satellite-based surface parameters include AVHRR-based or MODIS-based land cover and Leaf Area Index (LAI), and MODIS-based albedo and emissivity. The high spatial resolution of LIS, enabled by the use of high performance computing and communications technologies, is capable of resolving mesoscale features, including urban areas, lakes, and agricultural fields. We will present results demonstrating LIS applied at degree, 5km and 1km resolutions. Several validation case studies conducted with LIS, including Houston, Texas, the Southern Great Plains, and the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) reference sites, demonstrate that using current land cover and LAI products from MODIS, rather than AVHRR-based climatologies, has significant impacts on predicted land surface temperatures and surface water and energy fluxes.

  19. An analysis of metropolitan land-use by machine processing of earth resources technology satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mausel, P. W.; Todd, W. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    A successful application of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology in classifying an urban area into its broad land use classes is reported. This research proves that numerous urban features are amenable to classification using ERTS multispectral data automatically processed by computer. Furthermore, such automatic data processing (ADP) techniques permit areal analysis on an unprecedented scale with a minimum expenditure of time. Also, classification results obtained using ADP procedures are consistent, comparable, and replicable. The results of classification are compared with the proposed U. S. G. S. land use classification system in order to determine the level of classification that is feasible to obtain through ERTS analysis of metropolitan areas.

  20. An analysis of landing rates and separations at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Erzberger, Heinz

    1996-01-01

    Advanced air traffic management systems such as the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) should yield a wide range of benefits, including reduced aircraft delays and controller workload. To determine the traffic-flow benefits achievable from future terminal airspace automation, live radar information was used to perform an analysis of current aircraft landing rates and separations at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. Separation statistics that result when controllers balance complex control procedural constraints in order to maintain high landing rates are presented. In addition, the analysis estimates the potential for airport capacity improvements by determining the unused landing opportunities that occur during rush traffic periods. Results suggest a large potential for improving the accuracy and consistency of spacing between arrivals on final approach, and they support earlier simulation findings that improved air traffic management would increase capacity and reduce delays.

  1. Title: Single cell analysis of circadian dynamics in tissue explants Laura Lande-Dinera

    E-print Network

    Lahav, Galit

    1 Title: Single cell analysis of circadian dynamics in tissue explants Laura Lande-Dinera *, Jacob_weitz@hms.harvard.edu) and Galit Lahav (galit@hms.harvard.edu) Running Head: circadian dynamics in tissue explants Abbreviations tissue. We focused on the peripheral circadian clock as a model system and measured the circadian

  2. Space shuttle entry and landing navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Crawford, B. S.

    1974-01-01

    A navigation system for the entry phase of a Space Shuttle mission which is an aided-inertial system which uses a Kalman filter to mix IMU data with data derived from external navigation aids is evaluated. A drag pseudo-measurement used during radio blackout is treated as an additional external aid. A comprehensive truth model with 101 states is formulated and used to generate detailed error budgets at several significant time points -- end-of-blackout, start of final approach, over runway threshold, and touchdown. Sensitivity curves illustrating the effect of variations in the size of individual error sources on navigation accuracy are presented. The sensitivity of the navigation system performance to filter modifications is analyzed. The projected overall performance is shown in the form of time histories of position and velocity error components. The detailed results are summarized and interpreted, and suggestions are made concerning possible software improvements.

  3. Vegetation analysis for arid lands geobotany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbour, M. G.; Ustin, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    Three primary study sites were selected for measurement of plant phenological properties and spectral analysis. The sites selected represented typical sagebrush, creosote bush, and saltbush communities in Owens Valley, CA. Community composition was studied at these three sites plus five burned sites. Ten 50 m transects at each locality were measured for percent cover (over 10 cm) by a given species. On each transect two point quarter and five nearest neighbor analyses were conducted. These data provided percent cover, cover by area, plant size, tendency for association, and recolonization patterns after a disturbance. Plots representing percentage plant cover for six sites are included.

  4. Analysis of On-board Hazard Detection and Avoidance for Safe Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Huertas, Andres; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Landing hazard detection and avoidance technology is being pursued within NASA to improve landing safety and increase access to sites of interest on the lunar surface. The performance of a hazard detection and avoidance system depends on properties of the terrain, sensor performance, algorithm design, vehicle characteristics and the overall all guidance navigation and control architecture. This paper analyzes the size of the region that must be imaged, sensor performance parameters and the impact of trajectory angle on hazard detection performance. The analysis shows that vehicle hazard tolerance is the driving parameter for hazard detection system design.

  5. Visualization and Analysis of Multi-scale Land Surface Products via Giovanni Portals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven J.; Gerasimov, Irina V.

    2013-01-01

    Large volumes of MODIS land data products at multiple spatial resolutions have been integrated into the Giovanni online analysis system to support studies on land cover and land use changes,focused on the Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions through the LCLUC program. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data.Customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI andGiovanni-MAIRS) have been created to integrate land, atmospheric,cryospheric, and societal products, enabling researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes, and their relationships to climate, at global and regional scales. This presentation shows a sample Giovanni portal page, lists selected data products in the system, and illustrates potential analyses with imagesand time-series at global and regional scales, focusing on climatology and anomaly analysis. More information is available at the GES DISCMAIRS data support project portal: http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govmairs.

  6. Ongoing Development of NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Kato, Hiroko; Zaitchik, Ben

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) produces global fields of land surface states (e.g., soil moisture and temperature) and fluxes (e.g., latent heat flux and runoff) by driving offline land surface models with observation-based inputs, using the Land Information System (LIS) software. Since production began in 2001, GLDAS has supported more than 100 scientific investigations and applications. Some examples are GEWEX and NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) global water and energy budget analyses, interpretations of hydrologic data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, and forecast model initiation studies at NOAA and NASA. At the same time, the GLDAS team has continued improve results through the development of new modeling and data assimilation techniques. Here we describe several recent and ongoing innovations. These include global implementation of a runoff routing procedure, GRACE data assimilation, advanced snow cover assimilation, and irrigation modeling.

  7. Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration by Wilfried Hofstetter and Proposed Moon and Mars Exploration System architectures...... 27 2.1.1 The Apollo System ................................................................................... 27 2.1.2 The Mars Design Reference Mission of NASA ....................................... 29 2

  8. Treatment of systematic errors in land data assimilation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data assimilation systems are generally designed to minimize the influence of random error on the estimation of system states. Yet, experience with land data assimilation systems has also revealed the presence of large systematic differences between model-derived and remotely-sensed estimates of lan...

  9. Operational considerations in utilization of microwave landing system approach and landing guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L. V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of microwave landing system (MLS) equipment are reviewed and the flight performance of the terminal configured vehicle B-737 airplane during nearly five years of flight experience with MLS is summarized. Most of these flights involved curved, descending flight paths with automatic landings and final approaches as short as 0.44 n. mi. Possible uses to solve noise abatement problems with MLS equipment of varying degrees of complexity are discussed. It is concluded that altitude derived from MLS is superior to other sources near the airport traffic pattern.

  10. Source analysis of spaceborne microwave radiometer interference over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Li; Zhang, Sibo

    2015-06-01

    Satellite microwave thermal emissions mixed with signals from active sensors are referred to as radiofrequency interference (RFI). Based on Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) observations from June 1 to 16, 2011, RFI over Europe was identified and analyzed using the modified principal component analysis algorithm in this paper. The X band AMSR-E measurements in England and Italy are mostly affected by the stable, persistent, active microwave transmitters on the surface, while the RFI source of other European countries is the interference of the reflected geostationary TV satellite downlink signals to the measurements of spaceborne microwave radiometers. The locations and intensities of the RFI induced by the geostationary TV and communication satellites changed with time within the observed period. The observations of spaceborne microwave radiometers in ascending portions of orbits are usually interfered with over European land, while no RFI was detected in descending passes. The RFI locations and intensities from the reflection of downlink radiation are highly dependent upon the relative geometry between the geostationary satellite and the measuring passive sensor. Only these fields of view of a spaceborne instrument whose scan azimuths are close to the azimuth relative to the geostationary satellite are likely to be affected by RFI.

  11. Application of the Auto-Tuned Land Assimilation System (ATLAS) to ASCAT and SMOS soil moisture retrieval products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land data assimilations are typically based on highly uncertain assumptions regarding the statistical structure of observation and modeling errors. Left uncorrected, poor assumptions can degrade the quality of analysis products generated by land data assimilation systems. Recently, Crow and van de...

  12. Research priorities in land use and land-cover change for the Earth system and integrated assessment modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Pongratz, Julia; Rose, Steven K.; Betts, Richard; Herold, Martin; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2010-11-15

    This special issue has highlighted recent and innovative methods and results that integrate observations and AQ3 modelling analyses of regional to global aspect of biophysical and biogeochemical interactions of land-cover change with the climate system. Both the Earth System and the Integrated Assessment modeling communities recognize the importance of an accurate representation of land use and land-cover change to understand and quantify the interactions and feedbacks with the climate and socio-economic systems, respectively. To date, cooperation between these communities has been limited. Based on common interests, this work discusses research priorities in representing land use and land-cover change for improved collaboration across modelling, observing and measurement communities. Major research topics in land use and land-cover change are those that help us better understand (1) the interaction of land use and land cover with the climate system (e.g. carbon cycle feedbacks), (2) the provision of goods and ecosystem services by terrestrial (natural and anthropogenic) land-cover types (e.g. food production), (3) land use and management decisions and (4) opportunities and limitations for managing climate change (for both mitigation and adaptation strategies).

  13. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Koryanov, Vsevolod; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valery; Martynov, Maxim; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Viktor; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

    2014-05-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry. 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth's atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. 'Mini-1' category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, V (m/s): re-entry velocity and ? (deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet ('Mini-1' category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being VSOL = 5268 m/s. Using the basic pre-defined parameters for MetNet-type of lander in Earth atmosphere, we get the optimal angle of ? = -3.06 degrees for Earth re-entry. 3. Payload Mass for Earth Entry DV One of the key elements in Earth entry lander is the amount of available payload mass. The payload mass depends on, e.g., the lander size, landing type (soil or water), heat shield durability and additional landing gear. The payload mass will have an impact to the center of gravity of the lander. The payload with a 'low' CoG (compared the the lander structure) has a larger tolerance than the payload with 'high' CoG. In cases where payload CoG causes instability, the extra balance mass can be used to adjust CoG. This balance mass will reduce the available payload mass. A major limitation for payload mass is the heat shielding. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 263255. References [1] http://ritd.fmi.fi

  14. ON FARM SYSTEM DESIGN AND OPERATION AND LAND MANAGEMENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation water is applied to agricultural crops by many different methods. Irrigation methods can be divided into three broad categories - surface, sprinkler, and micro-irrigation. Surface irrigation systems depend on gravity to spread the water across the surface of the land. Surface systems ar...

  15. The auto-tuned land data assimilation system (ATLAS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land data assimilation systems are tasked with the merging remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals with information derived from a soil water balance model driven (principally) by observed rainfall. The performance of such systems is frequently degraded by the imprecise specification of parameters ...

  16. LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS ACTION PLAN 2016|20

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    strengths while working together on critical agri-food initiatives. This action plan is our road map, while allowing us to be robust enough to meet the changing agri-food needs of the world. RICKEY YADALAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS ACTION PLAN 2016|20 #12;#12;LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS | ACTION PLAN 2016

  17. Helical automatic approaches of helicopters with microwave landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. D.; Mcgee, L. A.; Dugan, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    A program is under way to develop a data base for establishing navigation and guidance concepts for all-weather operation of rotorcraft. One of the objectives is to examine the feasibility of conducting simultaneous rotorcraft and conventional fixed-wing, noninterfering, landing operations in instrument meteorological conditions at airports equipped with microwave landing systems (MLSs) for fixed-wing traffic. An initial test program to investigate the feasibility of conducting automatic helical approaches was completed, using the MLS at Crows Landing near Ames. These tests were flown on board a UH-1H helicopter equipped with a digital automatic landing system. A total of 48 automatic approaches and landings were flown along a two-turn helical descent, tangent to the centerline of the MLS-equipped runway to determine helical light performance and to provide a data base for comparison with future flights for which the helical approach path will be located near the edge of the MLS coverage. In addition, 13 straight-in approaches were conducted. The performance with varying levels of state-estimation system sophistication was evaluated as part of the flight tests. The results indicate that helical approaches to MLS-equipped runways are feasible for rotorcraft and that the best position accuracy was obtained using the Kalman-filter state-estimation with inertial navigation systems sensors.

  18. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  19. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  20. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  1. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  2. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  3. Satellite Power System (SPS) resource requirements (critical materials, energy and land)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system are evaluated. Three classes of resource impacts are considered separately: critical materials, energy, and land use. The analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.

  4. Systemic change increases forecast uncertainty of land use change models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstegen, J. A.; Karssenberg, D.; van der Hilst, F.; Faaij, A.

    2013-12-01

    Cellular Automaton (CA) models of land use change are based on the assumption that the relationship between land use change and its explanatory processes is stationary. This means that model structure and parameterization are usually kept constant over time, ignoring potential systemic changes in this relationship resulting from societal changes, thereby overlooking a source of uncertainty. Evaluation of the stationarity of the relationship between land use and a set of spatial attributes has been done by others (e.g., Bakker and Veldkamp, 2012). These studies, however, use logistic regression, separate from the land use change model. Therefore, they do not gain information on how to implement the spatial attributes into the model. In addition, they often compare observations for only two points in time and do not check whether the change is statistically significant. To overcome these restrictions, we assimilate a time series of observations of real land use into a land use change CA (Verstegen et al., 2012), using a Bayesian data assimilation technique, the particle filter. The particle filter was used to update the prior knowledge about the parameterization and model structure, i.e. the selection and relative importance of the drivers of location of land use change. In a case study of sugar cane expansion in Brazil, optimal model structure and parameterization were determined for each point in time for which observations were available (all years from 2004 to 2012). A systemic change, i.e. a statistically significant deviation in model structure, was detected for the period 2006 to 2008. In this period the influence on the location of sugar cane expansion of the driver sugar cane in the neighborhood doubled, while the influence of slope and potential yield decreased by 75% and 25% respectively. Allowing these systemic changes to occur in our CA in the future (up to 2022) resulted in an increase in model forecast uncertainty by a factor two compared to the assumption of a stationary system. This means that the assumption of a constant model structure is not adequate and largely underestimates uncertainty in the forecast. Non-stationarity in land use change projections is challenging to model, because it is difficult to determine when the system will change and how. We believe that, in sight of these findings, land use change modelers should be more aware, and communicate more clearly, that what they try to project is at the limits, and perhaps beyond the limits, of what is still projectable. References Bakker, M., Veldkamp, A., 2012. Changing relationships between land use and environmental characteristics and their consequences for spatially explicit land-use change prediction. Journal of Land Use Science 7, 407-424. Verstegen, J.A., Karssenberg, D., van der Hilst, F., Faaij, A.P.C., 2012. Spatio-Temporal Uncertainty in Spatial Decision Support Systems: a Case Study of Changing Land Availability for Bioenergy Crops in Mozambique. Computers , Environment and Urban Systems 36, 30-42.

  5. Systems-Dynamic Analysis for Neighborhood Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systems-dynamic analysis (or system dynamics (SD)) helps planners identify interrelated impacts of transportation and land-use policies on neighborhood-scale economic outcomes for households and businesses, among other applications. This form of analysis can show benefits and tr...

  6. Commercialization of the land remote sensing system: An examination of mechanisms and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, J. K.; Gaelick, C.; Greenberg, J. S.; Logsdon, J.; Monk, T.

    1983-01-01

    In September 1982 the Secretary of Commerce was authorized (by Title II of H.R. 5890 of the 97th Congress) to plan and provide for the management and operation of the civil land remote sensing satellite systems, to provide for user fees, and to plan for the transfer of the ownership and operation of future civil operational land remote sensing satellite systems to the private sector. As part of the planning for transfer, a number of approaches were to be compared including wholly private ownership and operation of the system by an entity competitively selected, mixed government/private ownership and operation, and a legislatively-chartered privately-owned corporation. The results of an analysis and comparison of a limited number of financial and organizational approaches for either transfer of the ownership and operation of the civil operational land remote sensing program to the private sector or government retention are presented.

  7. TOXIC ORGANIC VOLATILIZATION FROM LAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methodology was evaluated for estimating volatilization of toxic organic chemicals from unsaturated soils. Projections were compared with laboratory data for simulated rapid infiltration wastewater treatment systems receiving primary municipal wastewater spiked with a suite of 18...

  8. Lunar Navigation Determination System - LaNDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, David; Talabac, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A portable comprehensive navigational system has been developed that both robotic and human explorers can use to determine their location, attitude, and heading anywhere on the lunar surface independent of external infrastructure (needs no Lunar satellite network, line of sight to the Sun or Earth, etc.). The system combines robust processing power with an extensive topographical database to create a real-time atlas (GIS Geospatial Information System) that is able to autonomously control and monitor both single unmanned rovers and fleets of rovers, as well as science payload stations. The system includes provisions for teleoperation and tele-presence. The system accepts (but does not require) inputs from a wide range of sensors. A means was needed to establish a location when the search is taken deep in a crater (looking for water ice) and out of view of Earth or any other references. A star camera can be employed to determine the user's attitude in menial space and stellar map in body space. A local nadir reference (e.g., an accelerometer that orients the nadir vector in body space) can be used in conjunction with a digital ephemeris and gravity model of the Moon to isolate the latitude, longitude, and azimuth of the user on the surface. That information can be used in conjunction with a Lunar GIS and advanced navigation planning algorithms to aid astronauts (or other assets) to navigate on the Lunar surface.

  9. Facilities and capabilities catalog for landing and escape systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerson, Robert E. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    This catalog serves as a single source reference for designers of landing and escape systems for spacecraft, aircraft, weapons, and airdrop system. It includes those facilities which may be required by a system designer in planning a development test program for many applications. The primary objective of this catalog is to provide a means for identifying critical facilities with the U.S. which can be used for the development of landing and escape systems. A secondary objective is to provide a useful tool to the system designer for picking and choosing facilities and capabilities. The six chapters in this volume include wind tunnels, drop zones, test aircraft, fabrication facilities, design tools, and other miscellaneous facilities. A different data sheet format is used for each of the chapters which provides information on performance, location, special capabilities, and a local point of contact. All inputs were solicited from the individual facilities and have not been independently verified for accuracy.

  10. TOXIC AND PRIORITY ORGANICS IN MUNICIPAL SLUDGE LAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the research reported herein was to begin a methodical investigation of organic priority pollutants applied to plant-soil systems at rates characteristic of municipal sludge land treatment. A single chemical was applied at rates of 0.1, 10, and 100-fold of the expecte...

  11. NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM LAND MANAGEMENT PLANNING RULE NATIONAL SCIENCE PANEL

    E-print Network

    Nie, Martin

    1 NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM LAND MANAGEMENT PLANNING RULE NATIONAL SCIENCE PANEL Washington, D of my statement. 1. The problems and opportunities evident in national forest management require of the planning rule. In addition to writing a new rule, lawmakers and the USFS should convene a National Forest

  12. Fish farming in land-based closed-containment systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'An International Summit on Fish Farming in Land-Based Closed-Containment Systems' was hosted by the Conservation Fund's Freshwater Institute, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF), the Atlantic Salmon Federation (ASF), and Tides Canada (TC) at the National Conservation Training Center in She...

  13. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  14. Demand Analysis Concerning the Promised Land White and Chocolate Milk Brands in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Bingham, David Eldon

    2013-05-03

    analysis of the Promised Land brand. Previous work conducted by Capps and Salin (2010) provided the foundation for this thesis. The purpose of this thesis was threefold: 1. Estimate household demand functions for Promised Land white and chocolate milk using...

  15. Development of a total landed cost and risk analysis model for global strategic sourcing

    E-print Network

    Feller, Brian (Brian C.)

    2008-01-01

    Total landed cost and supply chain risk analysis are methods that many companies use to assess strategic sourcing decisions. For this project, landed cost is defined as those costs associated with material movement from a ...

  16. Developing a Prototype ALHAT Human System Interface for Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsh, Robert L.; Chua, Zarrin K.; Heino, Todd A.; Strahan, Al; Major, Laura; Duda, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project is to safely execute a precision landing anytime/anywhere on the moon. This means the system must operate in any lighting conditions, operate in the presence of any thruster generated regolith clouds, and operate without the help of redeployed navigational aids or prepared landing site at the landing site. In order to reach this ambitious goal, computer aided technologies such as ALHAT will be needed in order to permit these landings to be done safely. Although there will be advanced autonomous capabilities onboard future landers, humans will still be involved (either onboard as astronauts or remotely from mission control) in any mission to the moon or other planetary body. Because many time critical decisions must be made quickly and effectively during the landing sequence, the Descent and Landing displays need to be designed to be as effective as possible at presenting the pertinent information to the operator, and allow the operators decisions to be implemented as quickly as possible. The ALHAT project has established the Human System Interface (HSI) team to lead in the development of these displays and to study the best way to provide operators enhanced situational awareness during landing activities. These displays are prototypes that were developed based on multiple design and feedback sessions with the astronaut office at NASA/ Johnson Space Center. By working with the astronauts in a series of plan/build/evaluate cycles, the HSI team has obtained astronaut feedback from the very beginning of the design process. In addition to developing prototype displays, the HSI team has also worked to provide realistic lunar terrain (and shading) to simulate a "out the window" view that can be adjusted to various lighting conditions (based on a desired date/time) to allow the same terrain to be viewed under varying lighting terrain. This capability will be critical to determining the effect of terrain/lighting on the human pilot, and how they use windows and displays during landing activities. The Apollo missions were limited to about 28 possible launch days a year due to lighting and orbital constraints. In order to take advantage of more landing opportunities and venture to more challenging landing locations, future landers will need to utilize sensors besides human eyes for scanning the surface. The ALHAT HSI system must effectively convey ALHAT produced information to the operator, so that landings can occur during less "optimal" conditions (lighting, surface terrain, slopes, etc) than was possible during Apollo missions. By proving this capability, ALHAT will simultaneously provide more flexible access to the moon, and greater safety margins for future landers. This paper will specifically focus on the development of prototype displays (the Trajectory Profile Display (TPD), Landing Point Designation (LPD), and Crew Camera View (CCV) ), implementation of realistic planetary terrain, human modeling, and future HSI plans.

  17. MOLDOVA LAND TENURE SYSTEM Carlton A Brown

    E-print Network

    Onsrud, Harlan J.

    1990s, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) instituted a cadastral system constitution on September 29, 1994. According to the constitution, Moldova is a democratic state in which back to 1360 A.D. The peak of this medieval Moldovan state was during the rule of Stefan the Great

  18. Observationally based analysis of land-atmosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, F.; Alessandri, A.; De Felice, M.; Zhu, Z.; Myneni, R. B.

    2015-10-01

    The variance of soil moisture, vegetation and evapotranspiration over land has been recognized to be strongly connected to the variance of precipitation. However, the feedbacks and couplings between these variables are still not well understood and quantified. Furthermore, soil moisture and vegetation processes are associated to a memory and therefore they may have important implications for predictability. In this study we apply a generalized linear method, specifically designed to assess the reciprocal forcing between connected fields, to the latest available observational datasets of global precipitation, evapotranspiration, vegetation and soil moisture content. For the first time a long global observational dataset is used to investigate the spatial and temporal land variability and to characterize the relationships and feedbacks between land and precipitation. The variables considered show a significant coupling among each other. The analysis of the response of precipitation to soil moisture evidences a robust coupling between these two variables. In particular, the first two modes of variability of the precipitation forced by soil moisture appear to have a strong link with volcanic eruptions and ENSO cycles, respectively, and these links are modulated by the effects of evapotranspiration and vegetation. It is suggested that vegetation state and soil moisture provide a biophysical memory of ENSO and major volcanic eruptions, revealed through delayed feedbacks on rainfall patterns. The third mode of variability reveals a trend very similar to the trend of the inter-hemispheric contrast in SST and appears to be connected to greening/browning trends of vegetation over the last three decades.

  19. Automated, on-board terrain analysis for precision landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in space robotics technology hinge to a large extent upon the development and deployment of sophisticated new vision-based methods for automated in-space mission operations and scientific survey. To this end, we have developed a new concept for automated terrain analysis that is based upon a generic image enhancement platform|multi-scale retinex (MSR) and visual servo (VS) processing. This pre-conditioning with the MSR and the vs produces a "canonical" visual representation that is largely independent of lighting variations, and exposure errors. Enhanced imagery is then processed with a biologically inspired two-channel edge detection process, followed by a smoothness based criteria for image segmentation. Landing sites can be automatically determined by examining the results of the smoothness-based segmentation which shows those areas in the image that surpass a minimum degree of smoothness. Though the msr has proven to be a very strong enhancement engine, the other elements of the approach|the vs, terrain map generation, and smoothness-based segmentation|are in early stages of development. Experimental results on data from the Mars Global Surveyor show that the imagery can be processed to automatically obtain smooth landing sites. In this paper, we describe the method used to obtain these landing sites, and also examine the smoothness criteria in terms of the imager and scene characteristics. Several examples of applying this method to simulated and real imagery are shown.

  20. Automated On-board Terrain Analysis for Precision Landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in space robotics technology hinge to a large extent upon the development and deployment of sophisticated new vision-based methods for automated in-space mission operations and scientific survey. To this end, we have developed a new concept for automated terrain analysis that is based upon a generic image enhancement platform-multi-scale Retinex (MSR) and visual servo (VS) processing. This pre-conditioning with the MSR and the VS produces a "canonical" visual representation that is largely independent of lighting variations, and exposure errors. Enhanced imagery is then processed with a biologically inspired two-channel edge detection process, followed by a smoothness based criteria for image segmentation. Landing sites can be automatically determined by examining the results of the smoothness-based segmentation which shows those areas in the image that surpass a minimum degree of smoothness. Though the MSR has proven to be a very strong enhancement engine, the other elements of the approach, the VS, terrain map generation, and smoothness-based segmentation, are in early stages of development. Experimental results on data from the Mars Global Surveyor show that the imagery can be processed to automatically obtain smooth landing sites. In this paper, we describe the method used to obtain these landing sites, and also examine the smoothness criteria in terms of the imager and scene characteristics. Several examples of applying this method to simulated and real imagery are shown.

  1. A robust signalling system for land mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irish, Dale; Shmith, Gary; Hart, Nick; Wines, Marie

    1989-01-01

    Presented here is a signalling system optimized to ensure expedient call set-up for satellite telephony services in a land mobile environment. In a land mobile environment, the satellite to mobile link is subject to impairments from multipath and shadowing phenomena, which result in signal amplitude and phase variations. Multipath, caused by signal scattering and reflections, results in sufficient link margin to compensate for these variations. Direct signal attenuation caused by shadowing due to buildings and vegetation may result in attenuation values in excess of 10 dB and commonly up to 20 dB. It is not practical to provide a link with sufficient margin to enable communication when the signal is blocked. When a moving vehicle passes these obstacles, the link will experience rapid changes in signal strength due to shadowing. Using statistical models of attenuation as a function of distance travelled, a communication strategy has been defined for the land mobile environment.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Welch, Joseph V.; Hardy, Robin C.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). An important element of the air bag system design process is proper modeling of the proposed configuration to determine if the resulting performance meets requirements. Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations. The efforts presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, and is based on previous design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, construct the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  3. CURENT LAND USE/LAND COVER ANALYSIS FOR COASTAL ALABAMA MX974176

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project entails land use/land cover and classification of current LandSat 7 satellite imagery. The final products will include digital files for the classified imagery, an attributed vector polygon GIS coverage of classified areas in Arcview export and Arcview shapefile form...

  4. Overview of the Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grover, Myron R., III; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Desai, Prasun N.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Phoenix Mars Lander began its journey to Mars from Cape Canaveral, Florida in August 2007, but its journey to the launch pad began many years earlier in 1997 as NASA s Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. In the intervening years, the entry, descent and landing (EDL) system architecture went through a series of changes, resulting in the system flown to the surface of Mars on May 25th, 2008. Some changes, such as entry velocity and landing site elevation, were the result of differences in mission design. Other changes, including the removal of hypersonic guidance, the reformulation of the parachute deployment algorithm, and the addition of the backshell avoidance maneuver, were driven by constant efforts to augment system robustness. An overview of the Phoenix EDL system architecture is presented along with rationales driving these architectural changes.

  5. The KamLAND Full-Volume Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    KamLAND Collaboration; Berger, B. E.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Decowski, M. P.; Dwyer, D. A.; Elor, G.; Frank, A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Galloway, M.; Gray, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Keefer, G.; Lendvai, C.; McKee, D.; O'Donnell, T.; Piepke, A.; Steiner, H. M.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Ebihara, T.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Owada, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Leonard, D. S.; Luk, K.-B.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.

    2009-03-05

    We have successfully built and operated a source deployment system for the KamLAND detector. This system was used to position radioactive sources throughout the delicate 1-kton liquid scintillator volume, while meeting stringent material cleanliness, material compatibility, and safety requirements. The calibration data obtained with this device were used to fully characterize detector position and energy reconstruction biases. As a result, the uncertainty in the size of the detector fiducial volume was reduced by a factor of two. Prior to calibration with this system, the fiducial volume was the largest source of systematic uncertainty in measuring the number of antineutrinos detected by KamLAND. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of this unique calibration system.

  6. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint.

  7. Intersects between Land, Energy, Water and the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbard, K. A.; Skaggs, R.; Wilson, T.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change affects water, and land resources, and with growing human activity, each of these sectors relies increasingly on the others for critical resources. Events such as drought across the South Central U.S. during 2011 demonstrate that climatic impacts within each of these sectors can cascade through interactions between sectors. Energy, water, and land resources are each vulnerable to impacts on either of the other two sectors. For example, energy systems inherently require land and water. Increased electricity demands to contend with climate change can impose additional burdens on overly subscribed water resources. Within this environment, energy systems compete for water with agriculture, human consumption, and other needs. In turn, climate driven changes in landscape attributes and land use affect water quality and availability as well as energy demands. Diminishing water quality and availability impose additional demands for energy to access and purify water, and for land to store and distribute water. In some situations, interactions between water, energy, and land resources make options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions vulnerable to climate change. Energy options such as solar power or biofuel use can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions as well as U.S. dependence on foreign resources. As a result, the U.S. is expanding renewable energy systems. Advanced technology such as carbon dioxide capture with biofuels may offer a means of removing CO2 from the atmosphere. But as with fossil fuels, renewable energy sources can impose significant demands for water and land. For example, solar power mayrequire significant land to site facilities and water for cooling or to produce steam. Raising crops to produce biofuels uses arable land and water that might otherwise be available for food production. Thus, warmer and drier climate can compromise these renewable energy resources, and drought can stress water supplies creating competition between energy production and agriculture. These kinds of stresses often initiate innovated technological developments, such as dry cooling to reduce water demands in the U.S. Southwest for utility-scalesolar development, however, the need for large areas of land remain, and often, large land tracts in this region are under Federal ownership and used as conservation or wildlife refuges. Conflicting stakeholder views, institutional commitments, and international concerns can constrain options for reducing vulnerability to climate change, and interactions among water, energy, and land resource sectors can intensify such constraints. While management decisions may focus primarily on one of these resource sectors, where the three sectors are tightly coupled, options for mitigating or adapting to climate change may be limited more than expected. For example, the Columbia River Treaty between Canada and the U.S. emphasizes hydroelectric power and flood control, but with warmer temperatures and drier summers projected for the Northwest, diminishing water supplies will result in increased pumping for resource production (i.e., deeper groundwater) and transmission. Finally, coordinated water management for agriculture, ecosystem services, and hydropower will be an important aspect of adaptation not necessarily accommodated by the Treaty.

  8. Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on National Forest System Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-01-01

    This technical report and CD for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS), evaluates the potential for renewable energy resource development on National Forest System (NFS) lands. USFS can use the report findings to consider potential for development of solar and wind energy resources on NFS lands, in land management decisions. The Geographical Information System (GIS) based analysis resulted in the following findings: (1) Ninety-nine National Forest Units have high potential for power production from one or more of these solar and wind energy sources; and (2) Twenty National Forest Units in nine states have high potential for power production from two or more of these solar and wind energy sources.

  9. The development and application of a decision support system for land management in the Lake Tahoe Basin—The Land Use Simulation Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Oldham, I. Benson; Crescenti, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This report describes and applies the Land Use Simulation Model (LUSM), the final modeling product for the long-term decision support project funded by the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Western Geographic Science Center for the Lake Tahoe Basin. Within the context of the natural-resource management and anthropogenic issues of the basin and in an effort to advance land-use and land-cover change science, this report addresses the problem of developing the LUSM as a decision support system. It includes consideration of land-use modeling theory, fire modeling and disturbance in the wildland-urban interface, historical land-use change and its relation to active land management, hydrologic modeling and the impact of urbanization as related to the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board’s recently developed Total Maximum Daily Load report for the basin, and biodiversity in urbanizing areas. The LUSM strives to inform land-management decisions in a complex regulatory environment by simulating parcel-based, land-use transitions with a stochastic, spatially constrained, agent-based model. The tool is intended to be useful for multiple purposes, including the multiagency Pathway 2007 regional planning effort, the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA) Regional Plan Update, and complementary research endeavors and natural-resource-management efforts. The LUSM is an Internet-based, scenario-generation decision support tool for allocating retired and developed parcels over the next 20 years. Because USGS staff worked closely with TRPA staff and their “Code of Ordinances” and analyzed datasets of historical management and land-use practices, this report accomplishes the task of providing reasonable default values for a baseline scenario that can be used in the LUSM. One result from the baseline scenario for the model suggests that all vacant parcels could be allocated within 12 years. Results also include: assessment of model functionality, brief descriptions of the 7 basic output tables, assessment of the rate of change in land-use allocation pools over time, locations and amounts of the spatially explicit probabilities of land-use transitions by real estate commodity, and analysis of the state change from today’s existing land cover to potential land uses in the future. Assumptions and limitations of the model are presented. This report concludes with suggested next steps to support the continued utility of the LUSM and additional research avenues.

  10. Videometric terminal guidance method and system for UAV accurate landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang; Lei, Zhihui; Yu, Qifeng; Zhang, Hongliang; Shang, Yang; Du, Jing; Gui, Yang; Guo, Pengyu

    2012-06-01

    We present a videometric method and system to implement terminal guidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) accurate landing. In the videometric system, two calibrated cameras attached to the ground are used, and a calibration method in which at least 5 control points are applied is developed to calibrate the inner and exterior parameters of the cameras. Cameras with 850nm spectral filter are used to recognize a 850nm LED target fixed on the UAV which can highlight itself in images with complicated background. NNLOG (normalized negative laplacian of gaussian) operator is developed for automatic target detection and tracking. Finally, 3-D position of the UAV with high accuracy can be calculated and transfered to control system to direct UAV accurate landing. The videometric system can work in the rate of 50Hz. Many real flight and static accuracy experiments demonstrate the correctness and veracity of the method proposed in this paper, and they also indicate the reliability and robustness of the system proposed in this paper. The static accuracy experiment results show that the deviation is less-than 10cm when target is far from the cameras and lessthan 2cm in 100m region. The real flight experiment results show that the deviation from DGPS is less-than 20cm. The system implement in this paper won the first prize in the AVIC Cup-International UAV Innovation Grand Prix, and it is the only one that achieved UAV accurate landing without GPS or DGPS.

  11. Land-mobile satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Tsun-Yee (Inventor); Rafferty, William (Inventor); Dessouky, Khaled I. (Inventor); Wang, Charles C. (Inventor); Cheng, Unjeng (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A satellite communications system includes an orbiting communications satellite for relaying communications to and from a plurality of ground stations, and a network management center for making connections via the satellite between the ground stations in response to connection requests received via the satellite from the ground stations, the network management center being configured to provide both open-end service and closed-end service. The network management center of one embodiment is configured to provides both types of service according to a predefined channel access protocol that enables the ground stations to request the type of service desired. The channel access protocol may be configured to adaptively allocate channels to open-end service and closed-end service according to changes in the traffic pattern and include a free-access tree algorithm that coordinates collision resolution among the ground stations.

  12. Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, P.J.; Kohley, T.W.; Oakleaf, J.

    2000-01-01

    Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support systems could aid solution of this problem. We developed a pilot biodiversity expert systems tool (BEST) to test that hypothesis and learn what additional scientific and technological advancements are required for broad implementation of such a system. BEST uses data from the U.S. Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and other data in a desktop GIS environment. The system provides predictions of conflict between proposed land uses and biotic elements and is intended for use at the start of the development review process. Key challenges were the development of categorization systems that relate named land-use types to ecological impacts, and relate sensitivities of biota to ecological impact levels. Although the advent of GAP and sophisticated desktop GIS make such a system feasible for broad implementation, considerable ongoing research is required to make the results of such a system scientifically sound, informative, and reliable for the regulatory process. We define a role for local government involvement in biodiversity impact assessment, the need for a biodiversity decision support system, the development of a prototype system, and scientific needs for broad implementation of a robust and reliable system.

  13. GPS-based certification for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, C. L.; Young, L. E.; Wu, S. C.; Thomas, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    An MLS (microwave landing system) certification system based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. To determine the position history of the flight inspection aircraft during runway approach, signals from the GPS satellites, together with on-board radar altimetry, are used. It is shown that the aircraft position relative to a fixed point on the runway at threshold can be determined to about 30 cm vertically and 1 m horizontally. A requirement of the system is that the GPS receivers be placed on each flight inspection aircraft and at selected ground sites. The effects of different error sources on the determination of aircraft instantaneous position and its dynamics are analyzed.

  14. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means...

  15. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 971... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section, congestion means...

  16. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section,...

  17. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section,...

  18. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 970... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section,...

  19. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972... LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.214 Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). (a) For purposes of this section,...

  20. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210 Section 970.210 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS)....

  1. Study of USGS/NASA land use classification system. [compatibility of land use classification system with computer processing techniques employed for land use mapping from ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.; Faust, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is known from several previous investigations that many categories of land-use can be mapped via computer processing of Earth Resources Technology Satellite data. The results are presented of one such experiment using the USGS/NASA land-use classification system. Douglas County, Georgia, was chosen as the test site for this project. It was chosen primarily because of its recent rapid growth and future growth potential. Results of the investigation indicate an overall land-use mapping accuracy of 67% with higher accuracies in rural areas and lower accuracies in urban areas. It is estimated, however, that 95% of the State of Georgia could be mapped by these techniques with an accuracy of 80% to 90%.

  2. Olive production systems on sloping land: prospects and scenarios.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, Jan; Duran Zuazo, Victor-Hugo; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    The ultimate objective of the EU Olivero project was to improve the quality of life of the rural population and to assure the sustainable use of the natural resources of land and water in the sloping and mountainous olive production systems (SMOPS) areas in Southern Europe. One specific objective was to develop, with end-users, alternative future scenarios for olive orchards in the five Olivero target areas. This paper discusses the development of these scenarios, and their socio-economic and environmental effects. After presenting the different production systems (SMOPS) and their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, a general overview is given of the medium- and long-term prospects. These have been validated by experts from the olive sector and foresee changes towards abandonment, intensification and organic production. On balance, the changes could lead to lower production of some target areas in future. An analysis of major external factors affecting the future development of SMOPS indicates there will be labour shortages and increased wage rates, reduced subsidies and constant or rising olive oil prices. On the basis of these assumptions, four future scenarios are developed for the five target areas, with the help of a Linear Programming simulation model. The results are presented for two target areas. For the Trás-os-Montes target area in Portugal, three of the four tested scenarios point to a high level of abandonment, while in the most positive scenario the areas under semi-intensive low input and organic SMOPS increase. In the Granada and Jaen target area in Spain, all scenarios hint at intensification, and only the orchards on the steepest slopes are likely to be abandoned. The direction and extent of environmental effects (erosion, fire risk, pollution, water use and biodiversity) differ per scenario, as do the extent of cross-compliance and agri-environmental measures. PMID:17913332

  3. Autonomous rendezvous, docking, and landing system using cruise missile technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ruel E.

    1992-07-01

    General Dynamics has been developing an Autonomous Rendezvous Docking and Landing (ARD&L) system that utilizes cruise missile technologies. In November 1990 the Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system was first demonstrated for members of NASA's Strategic Avionics Technology Working Group (SATWG). This simulation utilized prototype hardware from the Cruise Missile and Advanced Centaur Avionics systems. The objective was to show that all the accuracy, reliability, and operational requirements established for a spacecraft to dock with Space Station Freedom could be met by the proposed system. Rapid prototyping techniques were used to evaluate the proposed system in a real time, hardware in the loop simulation of the rendezvous and docking reference mission. The simulation is currently being upgraded to test an Autonomous Approach and Landing (AA&L) system. Both systems use inertial guidance and control systems supplemented by the Global Positioning System (GPS) and an Image Processing System (IPS), for target recognition and tracking. The IPS includes a general purpose multiprocessor computer and a selected suite of sensors that will provide the required relative position and orientation data. Graphic displays can provide the astronaut/operator with realtime guidance and navigation data with enhanced video or sensor imagery.

  4. Land use alterations, hydrology and climate alterations analysis approach for water supply guarantee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, V.; Walter, M. T.; Teixeira Filho, J.

    2010-12-01

    The present paper investigates the hydrological land use conversion effects in a watershed that supplies 10 million people in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region of Brazil. The main point of this investigation is to identify, at the regional-scale, how much of the land use conversion from native forest to eucalyptus using a non-ideal tillage system is necessary to change the hydrological conditions. In addition to short and, often incomplete data records, determining cause-and-effect relationships was further complicated by concurrent and systematic changes in precipitation, land use, and discharge. Both minimum low flows following prolonged periods without precipitation and recession-flow analysis showed significant negative trends. During the same period, deforestation increased by 2.4 km2/year and eucalyptus-silviculture activity increased by 2.6 km2/year. The dry and wet seasons and annual discharge decreased significantly (p-value<0.01). The precipitation also decreased significantly (p-value<0.01). However, the evapotranspiration losses, estimated as the difference between annual precipitation and discharge, increased significantly (p-value<0.02). The results showed that the negative trends in all discharge analysis are partially related to decreasing precipitation. The increase evapotranspiration losses, given decreasing precipitation, are most likely related to the increases in silviculture and likely also contributed to decreases in discharge. The results indicate that both climate and land use alterations could have a huge impact in water supply in watersheds.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of the Second-Generation Orion Crew Module Air Bag Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmers, Richard B.; Hardy, Robin C.; Willey, Cliff E.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2009-01-01

    Air bags were evaluated as the landing attenuation system for earth landing of the Orion Crew Module (CM). Analysis conducted to date shows that airbags are capable of providing a graceful landing of the CM in nominal and off-nominal conditions such as parachute failure, high horizontal winds, and unfavorable vehicle/ground angle combinations, while meeting crew and vehicle safety requirements. The analyses and associated testing presented here surround a second generation of the airbag design developed by ILC Dover, building off of relevant first-generation design, analysis, and testing efforts. In order to fully evaluate the second generation air bag design and correlate the dynamic simulations, a series of drop tests were carried out at NASA Langley s Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) facility in Hampton, Virginia. The tests consisted of a full-scale set of air bags attached to a full-scale test article representing the Orion Crew Module. The techniques used to collect experimental data, develop the simulations, and make comparisons to experimental data are discussed.

  6. LAnd surface remote sensing Products VAlidation System (LAPVAS) and its preliminary application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xingwen; Wen, Jianguang; Tang, Yong; Ma, Mingguo; Dou, Baocheng; Wu, Xiaodan; Meng, Lumin

    2014-11-01

    The long term record of remote sensing product shows the land surface parameters with spatial and temporal change to support regional and global scientific research widely. Remote sensing product with different sensors and different algorithms is necessary to be validated to ensure the high quality remote sensing product. Investigation about the remote sensing product validation shows that it is a complex processing both the quality of in-situ data requirement and method of precision assessment. A comprehensive validation should be needed with long time series and multiple land surface types. So a system named as land surface remote sensing product is designed in this paper to assess the uncertainty information of the remote sensing products based on a amount of in situ data and the validation techniques. The designed validation system platform consists of three parts: Validation databases Precision analysis subsystem, Inter-external interface of system. These three parts are built by some essential service modules, such as Data-Read service modules, Data-Insert service modules, Data-Associated service modules, Precision-Analysis service modules, Scale-Change service modules and so on. To run the validation system platform, users could order these service modules and choreograph them by the user interactive and then compete the validation tasks of remote sensing products (such as LAI ,ALBEDO ,VI etc.) . Taking SOA-based architecture as the framework of this system. The benefit of this architecture is the good service modules which could be independent of any development environment by standards such as the Web-Service Description Language(WSDL). The standard language: C++ and java will used as the primary programming language to create service modules. One of the key land surface parameter, albedo, is selected as an example of the system application. It is illustrated that the LAPVAS has a good performance to implement the land surface remote sensing product validation.

  7. High Performance Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System at NASA/GSFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S. V.; Santanello, J. A.; Tian, Y.; Rodell, M.; Mocko, D.; Reichle, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov; Kumar et al., 2006; Peters-Lidard et al., 2007) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. The LIS software was the co-winner of NASA's 2005 Software of the Year award. LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has evolved from two earlier efforts - North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS; Mitchell et al. 2004) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS; Rodell et al. 2004) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of these systems, now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations. LIS not only consolidates the capabilities of these two systems, but also enables a much larger variety of configurations with respect to horizontal spatial resolution, input datasets and choice of land surface model through 'plugins'. In addition to these capabilities, LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation (Peters-Lidard et al., 2008; Santanello et al., 2007) and data assimilation (Kumar et al., 2008). Examples and case studies demonstrating the capabilities and impacts of LIS for hydrometeorological modeling, land data assimilation and parameter estimation will be presented.

  8. Shortle and Jeddi 1 Probabilistic Analysis of Wake Vortex Hazards for Landing Aircraft Using Multilateration

    E-print Network

    Shortle and Jeddi 1 Probabilistic Analysis of Wake Vortex Hazards for Landing Aircraft Using to landing aircraft. A landing aircraft that encounters a wake may roll, resulting in a fatal crash if the roll is severe enough and/or if the aircraft is low enough to the ground. Therefore, aircraft

  9. Reconciling Agency and Structure in Empirical Analysis: Smallholder Land Use in the Southern

    E-print Network

    Roy Chowdhury, Rinku

    Reconciling Agency and Structure in Empirical Analysis: Smallholder Land Use in the Southern Yucata subfields. The implications of approaching explanations of land use using this binary are illustrated systematically, drawing from empirical research on smallholder land use in the southern Yucata´n of Mexico

  10. Normalising impacts in an environmental systems analysis of wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Kärrman, E; Jönsson, H

    2001-01-01

    In an environmental systems analysis of four wasterwater systems, the environmental aspects were prioritised by normalisation of predicted impacts from the studied systems to the total impacts from society. Priority Group 1 (highest priority) consisted of discharges (flows) of nitrogen, cadmium, lead and mercury to water, recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus to arable land and flows of heavy metals to arable land. A conventional wastewater system (A) was compared to irrigation of energy forest with biologically treated wastewater (B), liquid composting of toilet wastewater (C) and a conventional system supplemented with urine separation (D). Analysing the aspects in priority group one, systems B-D improved the management of plant nutrients and decreased the flow of heavy metals to water, while the flow to arable land increased, especially for system B. The suggested method is useful in municipal environmental planning and when choosing a wastewater system. PMID:11379144

  11. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.507 Land-side fire protection systems. (a) Employer...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.507 Land-side fire protection systems. (a) Employer...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.507 Land-side fire protection systems. (a) Employer...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.507 Land-side fire protection systems. (a) Employer...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment § 1915.507 Land-side fire protection systems. (a) Employer...

  16. 77 FR 50985 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet in Washington, DC. The...

  17. 78 FR 9883 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION...for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet in Albuquerque, NM. The...

  18. A Global Land System Framework for Integrated Climate-Change Assessments

    E-print Network

    Schlosser, C. Adam

    Land ecosystems play a major role in the global cycles of energy, water, carbon and nutrients. A Global Land System (GLS) framework has been developed for the Integrated Global Systems Model Version 2 (IGSM2) to simulate ...

  19. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands...continued nationwide aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands...The Forest Service is working to restore fire-adapted ecosystems through...

  20. Pervasive transition of the Brazilian land-use system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapola, David M.; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Peres, Carlos A.; Ometto, Jean P. H. B.; Ferreira, Manuel E.; Nobre, Carlos A.; Aguiar, Ana Paula D.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Costa, Marcos H.; Joly, Carlos A.; Leite, Christiane C.; Moutinho, Paulo; Sampaio, Gilvan; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.; Vieira, Ima C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture, deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions and local/regional climate change have been closely intertwined in Brazil. Recent studies show that this relationship has been changing since the mid 2000s, with the burgeoning intensification and commoditization of Brazilian agriculture. On one hand, this accrues considerable environmental dividends including a pronounced reduction in deforestation (which is becoming decoupled from agricultural production), resulting in a decrease of ~40% in nationwide greenhouse gas emissions since 2005, and a potential cooling of the climate at the local scale. On the other hand, these changes in the land-use system further reinforce the long-established inequality in land ownership, contributing to rural-urban migration that ultimately fuels haphazard expansion of urban areas. We argue that strong enforcement of sector-oriented policies and solving long-standing land tenure problems, rather than simply waiting for market self-regulation, are key steps to buffer the detrimental effects of agricultural intensification at the forefront of a sustainable pathway for land use in Brazil.

  1. Analysis of continuous GPS measurements from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Several years of continuous data have been collected at remote bedrock Global Positioning System (GPS) sites in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Annual to sub-annual variations are observed in the position time-series. An atmospheric pressure loading (APL) effect is calculated from pressure field anomalies supplied by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model loading an elastic Earth model. The predicted APL signal has a moderate correlation with the vertical position time-series at McMurdo, Ross Island (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) station MCM4), produced using a global solution. In contrast, a local solution in which MCM4 is the fiducial site generates a vertical time series for a remote site in Victoria Land (Cape Roberts, ROB4) which exhibits a low, inverse correlation with the predicted atmospheric pressure loading signal. If, in the future, known and well modeled geophysical loads can be separated from the time-series, then local hydrological loading, of interest for glaciological and climate applications, can potentially be extracted from the GPS time-series.

  2. Models for estimating runway landing capacity with Microwave Landing System (MLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosic, V.; Horonjeff, R.

    1975-01-01

    A model is developed which is capable of computing the ultimate landing runway capacity, under ILS and MLS conditions, when aircraft population characteristics and air traffic control separation rules are given. This model can be applied in situations when only a horizontal separation between aircraft approaching a runway is allowed, as well as when both vertical and horizontal separations are possible. It is assumed that the system is free of errors, that is that aircraft arrive at specified points along the prescribed flight path precisely when the controllers intend for them to arrive at these points. Although in the real world there is no such thing as an error-free system, the assumption is adequate for a qualitative comparison of MLS with ILS. Results suggest that an increase in runway landing capacity, caused by introducing the MLS multiple approach paths, is to be expected only when an aircraft population consists of aircraft with significantly differing approach speeds and particularly in situations when vertical separation can be applied. Vertical separation can only be applied if one of the types of aircraft in the mix has a very steep descent angle.

  3. A satellite system for land-mobile communications in Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholome, P.; Rogard, R.

    1988-01-01

    There exists a great unsatisified demand for land mobile communications in Europe, particularly in sectors of business activity such as the road transport industry. This demand could best be satisfied by means of satellite-based private networks providing voice and data communications in a hub configuration. The potential market is estimated to encompass several hundred thousand road vehicles and the transmission capacity required would be several thousand channels. ESA is currently demonstrating the potential of satellite communications for this type of application, using a system called PRODAT. System studies are being performed with the aim of defining the architecture of a regional satellite system for Europe.

  4. Improved Modeling of Land-Atmosphere Interactions using a Coupled Version of WRF with the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaCasse, Katherine M.; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Lapenta, William M.; Petars-Lidard, Christa D.

    2007-01-01

    The exchange of energy and moisture between the Earth's surface and the atmospheric boundary layer plays a critical role in many hydrometeorological processes. Accurate and high-resolution representations of surface properties such as sea-surface temperature (SST), vegetation, soil temperature and moisture content, and ground fluxes are necessary to better understand the Earth-atmosphere interactions and improve numerical predictions of weather and climate phenomena. The NASA/NWS Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center is currently investigating the potential benefits of assimilating high-resolution datasets derived from the NASA moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Goddard Space Flight Center Land Information System (LIS). The LIS is a software framework that integrates satellite and ground-based observational and modeled data along with multiple land surface models (LSMs) and advanced computing tools to accurately characterize land surface states and fluxes. The LIS can be run uncoupled to provide a high-resolution land surface initial condition, and can also be run in a coupled mode with WRF to integrate surface and soil quantities using any of the LSMs available in LIS. The LIS also includes the ability to optimize the initialization of surface and soil variables by tuning the spin-up time period and atmospheric forcing parameters, which cannot be done in the standard WRF. Among the datasets available from MODIS, a leaf-area index field and composite SST analysis are used to improve the lower boundary and initial conditions to the LIS/WRF coupled model over both land and water. Experiments will be conducted to measure the potential benefits from using the coupled LIS/WRF model over the Florida peninsula during May 2004. This month experienced relatively benign weather conditions, which will allow the experiments to focus on the local and mesoscale impacts of the high-resolution MODIS datasets and optimized soil and surface initial conditions. Follow-on experiments will examine the utility of such an optimized WRF configuration for more complex weather scenarios such as convective initiation. This paper will provide an overview of the experiment design and present preliminary results from selected cases in May 2004.

  5. 78 FR 46565 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land... Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule. The purpose of this meeting is...

  6. 78 FR 34034 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land... Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... provide advice and recommendations on the implementation of the National Forest System Land...

  7. 78 FR 68811 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land... Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule. The purpose of this meeting is to...

  8. 77 FR 8895 - Public Land Order No. 7788; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Red Cloud...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...National Forest System Land for the Red Cloud Campground; New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau...historical interpretive integrity of the Red Cloud Campground within the Cibola National Forest...investment expended to develop the Red Cloud Campground facility and the unique...

  9. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Monitoring Department of the Interior Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, M. E.; Quirk, B.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.

  10. Comparative analysis of land management in the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomelov, A.; Pasko, O.; Baranova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The article studies and compares agricultural land management performance criteria applied in different countries worldwide. It is stated that there are different definitions and classifications of agricultural lands in different countries, which implies different indicators of land use efficiency. Sometimes these indicators cannot be correlated or compared with each other. It is suggested using such criteria as arable land area and fodder yield per 1 ha as the most unified and appropriate ones.

  11. 76 FR 1629 - Public Land Order No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Big Ice Cave; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...This order withdraws 170 acres of National Forest System land from location and entry under the United States mining laws for a period of 20 years on behalf of the United States Forest Service to protect the Big Ice Cave, its subterranean water supply, and Federal improvements. The land has been and will remain open to such forms of disposition as may by law be made of National Forest System......

  12. Human Planetary Landing System (HPLS) Capability Roadmap: Wrap Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Rob

    2005-01-01

    When and how does the full scale system and subsystems need to be qualified & Human-rated for flight? Answer: No later than 29. Full scale AEDL Flight Tests can and should be done at Earth (need to get fast turn around between multiple tests). Do we need a Full Scale Validation Flight Test at Mars? Answer: Not, specifically, but the AEDL community is very uncomfortable with the notion of the very first full scale AEDL being piloted. The full scale unpiloted AEDL advance cargo mission that immediately precedes the human landing could do the trick. What kind of precursor AEDL Flight Tests are needed at Mars? Answer: We need to validate our performance & aerodynamic models by flying a scaled (1/10th?) version of the Full Scale Mission by 22. When and how do we decide on the AEDL system to fly? Answer: No later than 2015 (earlier is harder). We need to do multi-path full scale flight simulations and subscale / component development testing starting ASAP. If we find an AEDL for a landing mass of 40 MT, will this same architecture and technology paradigm extend to landing 80 MT? 120 MT? Is there another break point? Answer: We do not know yet.

  13. Evolution of INMARSAT systems and applications: The land mobile experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staffa, Eugene; Subramaniam, Ram

    1993-01-01

    Inmarsat has provided mobile satellite communication services for land mobile applications for well over a decade. Having started with the Inmarsat-A voice and telex system, Inmarsat is committed to the evolution of services towards a global personal, handheld satellite communicator. Over the years, users have benefitted from the evolution of technologies, increased user friendliness and portability of terminals and ever decreasing cost of operations. This paper describes the various present systems, their characteristics and applications, and outlines their contributions in the evolution towards the personal global communicator.

  14. Integrating land management into Earth system models: the importance of land use transitions at sub-grid-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, Julia; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig; Kloster, Silvia; Reick, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that changes in surface climate and carbon fluxes caused by land management (i.e., modifications of vegetation structure without changing the type of land cover) can be as large as those caused by land cover change. Further, such effects may occur on substantial areas: while about one quarter of the land surface has undergone land cover change, another fifty percent are managed. This calls for integration of management processes in Earth system models (ESMs). This integration increases the importance of awareness and agreement on how to diagnose effects of land use in ESMs to avoid additional model spread and thus unnecessary uncertainties in carbon budget estimates. Process understanding of management effects, their model implementation, as well as data availability on management type and extent pose challenges. In this respect, a significant step forward has been done in the framework of the current IPCC's CMIP5 simulations (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5): The climate simulations were driven with the same harmonized land use dataset that, different from most datasets commonly used before, included information on two important types of management: wood harvest and shifting cultivation. However, these new aspects were employed by only part of the CMIP5 models, while most models continued to use the associated land cover maps. Here, we explore the consequences for the carbon cycle of including subgrid-scale land transformations ("gross transitions"), such as shifting cultivation, as example of the current state of implementation of land management in ESMs. Accounting for gross transitions is expected to increase land use emissions because it represents simultaneous clearing and regrowth of natural vegetation in different parts of the grid cell, reducing standing carbon stocks. This process cannot be captured by prescribing land cover maps ("net transitions"). Using the MPI-ESM we find that ignoring gross transitions underestimates emissions substantially, for historical times by about 40%. Implementation of land management such as gross transitions is a step forward in terms of comprehensiveness of simulated processes. However, it has increased model spread in carbon fluxes, because land management processes have been considered by only a subset of recent ESMs contributing to major projects such as IPCC or the Global Carbon Project. This model spread still causes the net land use flux to be the most uncertain component in the global carbon budget. Other causes have previously been identified as differences in land use datasets, differing types of vegetation model, accounting of nutrient limitation, the inclusion of land use feedbacks (increase in atmospheric CO2 due to land use emissions causing terrestrial carbon uptake), and a confusion of whether the net land use flux in ESMs should be reported as instantaneous emissions, or also account for delayed carbon responses and regrowth. These differences explain a factor 2-6 difference between model estimates and are expected to be further affected by interactions with land management. This highlights the importance of an accurate protocol for future model intercomparisons of carbon fluxes from land cover change and land management to ensure comparison of the same processes and fluxes.

  15. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint. Previously announced in STAR as N82-25290

  16. Integrated Display System for Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beskenis, Sharon Otero; Green, David F., Jr.; Hyer, Paul V.; Johnson, Edward J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the software products and system architectures developed by Lockheed Martin in support of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) program at NASA Langley Research Center. It presents an overview of the technical aspects, capabilities, and system integration issues associated with an integrated display system (IDS) that collects, processes and presents information to an aircraft flight crew during all phases of landing, roll-out, turn-off, inbound taxi, outbound taxi and takeoff. Communications hardware, drivers, and software provide continuous real-time data at varying rates and from many different sources to the display programs for presentation on a head-down display (HDD) and/or a head-up display (HUD). An electronic moving map of the airport surface is implemented on the HDD which includes the taxi route assigned by air traffic control, a text messaging system, and surface traffic and runway status information. Typical HUD symbology for navigation and control of the aircraft is augmented to provide aircraft deceleration guidance after touchdown to a pilot selected exit and taxi guidance along the route assigned by ATC. HUD displays include scene-linked symbolic runways, runway exits and taxiways that are conformal with the actual locations on the airport surface. Display formats, system architectures, and the various IDS programs are discussed.

  17. Development and application of a benchmarking system for land models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, D. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Mu, M.; Hoffman, F. M.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C. D.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Keppel-Aleks, G.

    2013-12-01

    There is a widely understood need for improved assessment of terrestrial system models that are utilized in climate, weather, and ecosystem modeling. A more comprehensive and more systematic land model ';benchmarking' process should help speed the development of new parameterizations, improve the design of new measurement campaigns, and reduce uncertainties associated with key land surface processes. However, the development of informative metrics is non-trivial. Past data-model intercomparisons have certainly strengthened the representation of key processes in land models, but often this information has not been easily accessible for use by other modeling teams or in future intercomparisons. Further, the development of sophisticated model diagnostics programs--that can fully exploit the richness of large Earth System data sets like satellite or Fluxnet measurements--are outside the scope of any single investigator. Here, we will describe progress in the development of a comprehensive (and extensible) land model analysis system that spans water, energy, carbon, and vegetation dynamics metrics. Several classes of metrics are employed including (1) large-scale state and flux estimates (e.g., soil C, atmospheric CO2 cycle, surface temperatures, GRACE water budget estimates, river discharge); (2) functional responses of explicitly modeled and emergent processes (e.g., stomatal responses to VPD, near-surface soil moisture responses to precipitation); and (3) experimental manipulation responses (e.g., N additions, FACE, warming). We will demonstrate the application of selected metrics to several versions of the Community Land Model (principally CLM4 and CLM4.5 and variants therein). Additionally, we will discuss how the analysis package, which is open source and modular, is designed to be extensible and improved by many different modeling and measurement teams.

  18. Developing Lunar Landing Vehicle Display Requirements through Content Analysis of Apollo Lunar Landing Voice Communications

    E-print Network

    Smith, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    The lengthy period since the Apollo landings limits present-day engineers attempting to draw from the experiences of veteran Apollo engineers and astronauts in the design of a new lunar lander. In order to circumvent these ...

  19. Passive Viscoelastic Constrained Layer Damping Application for a Small Aircraft Landing Gear System

    E-print Network

    Kochersberger, Kevin

    Passive Viscoelastic Constrained Layer Damping Application for a Small Aircraft Landing Gear System. Ferris 9/30/2008 Blacksburg, VA Keywords: Viscoelastic, Damping, Loss Factor, Landing Gear, Aircraft #12;Passive Viscoelastic Constrained Layer Damping Application for a Small Aircraft Landing Gear System

  20. Towards sustainable land administration systems: Designing for long-term value creation

    E-print Network

    3-7-2014 1 Towards sustainable land administration systems: Designing for long-term value creation Zevenbergen Towards sustainable land administration systems Designing for long-term value creation `There Designing for long-term value creation · Land administration projects often run with strong donor support

  1. Technical system of land survey and monitoring and its future schemes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Aixia; Li, Shuangcheng; Chen, Yongqi

    2010-04-01

    China's land resources are extremely scarce. There is a pressing need for building the technical system of land survey and monitoring for detail knowledge about the current situation of land use, land value and land property right of each piece of land in the whole country for land use and management. Many works of land survey and monitoring in China have been finished for providing references directly for the macro decision-making and making the national economic and social development planning. However, there were limits in integrity, systemization, and standardization, and some of works about survey and monitoring were carried out in the early period and their results were not updated in time. The purpose of the paper is to establish the framework of systemized technical system of land survey and monitoring for guidance of future national work of land survey and monitoring. The study was through comparing and analyzing the past and ongoing projects of land survey and monitoring. Results indicated that the technical system is constituted by 5 sub-systems. The system will integrate land survey and monitoring, land evaluation, and information sharing service into a whole. The regional arrangement of land survey and monitoring was proposed. Seven implementation regions of land survey and monitoring were divided, including the northeastern region, eastern coastal region, central region, southwestern region, northwestern region, Xinjiang Urgur region, and Qinghai-Tibetan region. The survey and monitoring objectives and contents in each region are different. The zoning is for guidance of the future project arrangement about national land survey and monitoring in China based on land resources background and economic development demands.

  2. Surface Hydrology in Global River Basins in the Off-Line Land-Surface GEOS Assimilation (OLGA) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Yang, Runhua; Houser, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    Land surface hydrology for the Off-line Land-surface GEOS Analysis (OLGA) system and Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) Data Assimilation System (DAS) has been examined using a river routing model. The GEOS-1 DAS land-surface parameterization is very simple, using an energy balance prediction of surface temperature and prescribed soil water. OLGA uses near-surface atmospheric data from the GEOS-1 DAS to drive a more comprehensive parameterization of the land-surface physics. The two global systems are evaluated using a global river routing model. The river routing model uses climatologic surface runoff from each system to simulate the river discharge from global river basins, which can be compared to climatologic river discharge. Due to the soil hydrology, the OLGA system shows a general improvement in the simulation of river discharge compared to the GEOS-1 DAS. Snowmelt processes included in OLGA also have a positive effect on the annual cycle of river discharge and source runoff. Preliminary tests of a coupled land-atmosphere model indicate improvements to the hydrologic cycle compared to the uncoupled system. The river routing model has provided a useful tool in the evaluation of the GCM hydrologic cycle, and has helped quantify the influence of the more advanced land surface model.

  3. A web-based system for supporting global land cover data production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gang; Chen, Jun; He, Chaoying; Li, Songnian; Wu, Hao; Liao, Anping; Peng, Shu

    2015-05-01

    Global land cover (GLC) data production and verification process is very complicated, time consuming and labor intensive, requiring huge amount of imagery data and ancillary data and involving many people, often from different geographic locations. The efficient integration of various kinds of ancillary data and effective collaborative classification in large area land cover mapping requires advanced supporting tools. This paper presents the design and development of a web-based system for supporting 30-m resolution GLC data production by combining geo-spatial web-service and Computer Support Collaborative Work (CSCW) technology. Based on the analysis of the functional and non-functional requirements from GLC mapping, a three tiers system model is proposed with four major parts, i.e., multisource data resources, data and function services, interactive mapping and production management. The prototyping and implementation of the system have been realised by a combination of Open Source Software (OSS) and commercially available off-the-shelf system. This web-based system not only facilitates the integration of heterogeneous data and services required by GLC data production, but also provides online access, visualization and analysis of the images, ancillary data and interim 30 m global land-cover maps. The system further supports online collaborative quality check and verification workflows. It has been successfully applied to China's 30-m resolution GLC mapping project, and has improved significantly the efficiency of GLC data production and verification. The concepts developed through this study should also benefit other GLC or regional land-cover data production efforts.

  4. Land Use and Land Cover Baseline Report

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Land Use and Land Cover Baseline Report September 2012 Data and analysis of land use and land cover of the findings of land use and land cover mapping in the South Department of Haiti a baseline measurement of land cover and land use conditions in the region

  5. 78 FR 34034 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...National Forest System Land Management Rule and to continue deliberations on formulating advice to the Secretary on the Proposed Land...The following business will be conducted: (1) Continue deliberations on formulating advice for the Secretary on the...

  6. REDUCING STORMWATER RUNOFF THROUGH LAND SUITABILITY ANALYSIS AND LOW-IMPACT SUBDIVISION DESIGN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We demonstrate an approach to reduce the anticipated increase in stormwater runoff from development under conventional subdivision design by incorporating hydrologic factors into a land suitability analysis and a low-impact subdivision design. A typical land suitability analysis assesses attributes ...

  7. Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, Alejandro M.; Burkhart, Paul D.; mendeck, Gavin F.

    2006-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of Mars. This paper describes the current MSL EDL system performance as predicted by end-to-end EDL simulations, highlights the sensitivity of this baseline performance to several key environmental assumptions, and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering such an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

  8. Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; SanMartin, A. Miguel; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Mendeck, Gavin F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of Mars. This paper describes the current MSL EDL system performance as predicted by end-to-end EDL simulations, highlights the sensitivity of this baseline performance to several key environmental assumptions, and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering such an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

  9. Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to establish the Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis assessment, which involved development of an enhanced simulation architecture using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) simulation tool. The assessment was requested to enhance the capability of the Agency to provide rapid evaluation of EDL characteristics in systems analysis studies, preliminary design, mission development and execution, and time-critical assessments. Many of the new simulation framework capabilities were developed to support the Agency EDL Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) team, that is conducting studies of the technologies and architectures that are required to enable higher mass robotic and human mission to Mars. The appendices to the original report are contained in this document.

  10. Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis, Phase 2 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to establish the Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis assessment, which involved development of an enhanced simulation architecture using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II simulation tool. The assessment was requested to enhance the capability of the Agency to provide rapid evaluation of EDL characteristics in systems analysis studies, preliminary design, mission development and execution, and time-critical assessments. Many of the new simulation framework capabilities were developed to support the Agency EDL-Systems Analysis (SA) team that is conducting studies of the technologies and architectures that are required to enable human and higher mass robotic missions to Mars. The findings, observations, and recommendations from the NESC are provided in this report.

  11. Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to establish the Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis assessment, which involved development of an enhanced simulation architecture using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) simulation tool. The assessment was requested to enhance the capability of the Agency to provide rapid evaluation of EDL characteristics in systems analysis studies, preliminary design, mission development and execution, and time-critical assessments. Many of the new simulation framework capabilities were developed to support the Agency EDL Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) team, that is conducting studies of the technologies and architectures that are required to enable higher mass robotic and human mission to Mars. The findings of the assessment are contained in this report.

  12. Development of land based radar polarimeter processor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronke, C. W.; Blanchard, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The processing subsystem of a land based radar polarimeter was designed and constructed. This subsystem is labeled the remote data acquisition and distribution system (RDADS). The radar polarimeter, an experimental remote sensor, incorporates the RDADS to control all operations of the sensor. The RDADS uses industrial standard components including an 8-bit microprocessor based single board computer, analog input/output boards, a dynamic random access memory board, and power supplis. A high-speed digital electronics board was specially designed and constructed to control range-gating for the radar. A complete system of software programs was developed to operate the RDADS. The software uses a powerful real time, multi-tasking, executive package as an operating system. The hardware and software used in the RDADS are detailed. Future system improvements are recommended.

  13. Analysis of Links Positions in Landing Gear Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewczy?ski, D.; Tora, G.

    2014-08-01

    This article contains a kinematic analysis of an aircraft chassis mechanism in a range of positions. The mechanism of the chassis is made up of several smaller subsystems with different functions. The first mechanism is used to eject the chassis before landing (touchdown) and fold it to hatchway after the lift off. The second mechanism is designed to perform rotation of the crossover with the wheel, in order to adjust the position of the wheel to fit it in the limited space in the hold. The third mechanism allows movement of the chassis resulting from the change in length of the damper. To determine the position of the following links of the mechanism calculus of vectors was applied in which unit vectors were used to represent the angular position of the links. The aim of the analysis is to determine the angle of convergence and the angle of heel wheels as a function of the variable length of hydraulic cylinder, length of the shock absorber, length of the regulations rods

  14. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems ...congestion; (iv) Identify the anticipated benefits of appropriate alternative traditional...

  15. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems ...congestion; (iv) Identify the anticipated benefits of appropriate alternative traditional...

  16. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems ...congestion; (iv) Identify the anticipated benefits of appropriate alternative traditional...

  17. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems ...congestion; (iv) Identify the anticipated benefits of appropriate alternative traditional...

  18. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems ...congestion; (iv) Identify the anticipated benefits of appropriate alternative traditional...

  19. National Climate Assessment - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) Data at NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, W. L.; Rui, H.; Vollmer, B.; Jasinski, M. F.; Mocko, D. M.; Kempler, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    As part of NASA's active participation in the Interagency National Climate Assessment (NCA) program, the Goddard Space Flight Center's Hydrological Sciences Laboratory (HSL) is supporting an Integrated Terrestrial Water Analysis, by using NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) capabilities. The resulting system, the NCA - Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS), is a NASA contribution to the NCA. The outputs of the NCA-LDAS contribute to the development and evaluation of a suite of water indicators. To maximize the benefit of the NCA-LDAS, on completion of planned model runs and uncertainty analysis, NASA will provide open access to all NCA-LDAS components, including input data, output fields, and validation data, to other NCA-teams and the general public. Currently released data include NCA-LDAS outputs from the Noah Land Surface Model version 3.3 (Noah-3.3) and Catchment Land Surface Model version Fortuna-2.5 (CLSM-F2.5) and the post- processed data sets for the routing variables. The NCA-LDAS data have temporal and spatial resolutions, respectively, of daily and 0.125x0.125 degree, covering North America (25N ~ 53N; 125W ~ 67W) and the period January 1979 to December 2012. The data files are in self-describing, machine-independent netCDF-4 format. The data contain a set of water- and energy-related Essential Climate Variables (ECV). The NCA-LDAS data are archived at the NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) and can be accessed via direct ftp (ftp://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/s4pa/NCA_LDAS), THREDDS (http://hydro1.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/thredds/catalog.html), and Mirador search and download (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/). This presentation describes the main characteristics of the NCA-LDAS data and data services (access, subsetting, visualization, and analysis). The major differences between the NCA-LDAS data and the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data are discussed as well. Data for the suite of water indicators will also be available from the GES DISC Hydrology Data Holdings (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hydrology/data-holdings).

  20. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Development Challenges and Preliminary Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent, and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview of the MSL entry, descent, and landing system, a discussion of a subset of its development challenges, and include a discussion of preliminary results of the flight reconstruction effort.

  1. 75 FR 41886 - Public Land Order No. 7744; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Inyan Kara Area; WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ...This order withdraws 1,278.09 acres of National Forest System land from location and entry under the United States mining laws for a period of 20 years on behalf of the United States Forest Service to protect the Inyan Kara area of the Black Hills National Forest in Crook County, Wyoming. The land has been and will remain open to mineral leasing and to all other forms of disposition which may......

  2. Regional land salinization assessment and simulation through cellular automaton-Markov modeling and spatial pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, De; Lin, Zhulu; Liu, Liming

    2012-11-15

    Land salinization and desalinization are complex processes affected by both biophysical and human-induced driving factors. Conventional approaches of land salinization assessment and simulation are either too time consuming or focus only on biophysical factors. The cellular automaton (CA)-Markov model, when coupled with spatial pattern analysis, is well suited for regional assessments and simulations of salt-affected landscapes since both biophysical and socioeconomic data can be efficiently incorporated into a geographic information system framework. Our hypothesis set forth that the CA-Markov model can serve as an alternative tool for regional assessment and simulation of land salinization or desalinization. Our results suggest that the CA-Markov model, when incorporating biophysical and human-induced factors, performs better than the model which did not account for these factors when simulating the salt-affected landscape of the Yinchuan Plain (China) in 2009. In general, the CA-Markov model is best suited for short-term simulations and the performance of the CA-Markov model is largely determined by the availability of high-quality, high-resolution socioeconomic data. The coupling of the CA-Markov model with spatial pattern analysis provides an improved understanding of spatial and temporal variations of salt-affected landscape changes and an option to test different soil management scenarios for salinity management. PMID:23085467

  3. Modeling BMPs to optimize municipal wastewater land treatment system

    SciTech Connect

    Dukes, M.D.; Ritter, W.F.

    1998-12-01

    Nitrogen contamination of ground water is recognized as a widespread and persistent problem throughout the nation. As recently as 1996, a US Geological Survey report indicated that significant portions of the United States are susceptible to nitrate contamination of ground water. Nutrient simulations of a municipal wastewater land treatment system were performed using the ground-water loading effects of agricultural management systems model. A total of 33 best management practices (BMPs) were simulated and compared to a baseline simulation of the current reed canary grass management practice. BMPs consisted of various combinations of crop types and cropping practices. Effectiveness of BMPs was compared based on the amount of nitrogen leached through the root zone and the harvested market value of each crop. Based on the model predictions and local market conditions, recommendations for the facility were given as the following: reed canary grass cut four times per year, orchard grass cut three or four times per year, or silage corn with a winter cover crop under low wastewater loading. Overloading the reed canary grass and orchard grass, especially for short periods of time, was simulated to have no adverse effects on the ground water. The ground-water loading effects of agricultural management systems model was demonstrated as a useful tool for the optimization of a municipal wastewater land treatment facility.

  4. Sustainability analysis of bioenergy based land use change under climate change and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.; Brouder, S. M.; Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Frankenberger, J.; Goforth, R. R.; Gramig, B. M.; Volenec, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability analyses of futuristic plausible land use and climate change scenarios are critical in making watershed-scale decisions for simultaneous improvement of food, energy and water management. Bioenergy production targets for the US are anticipated to impact farming practices through the introduction of fast growing and high yielding perennial grasses/trees, and use of crop residues as bioenergy feedstocks. These land use/land management changes raise concern over potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crop production scenarios, both in terms of water availability and water quality; impacts that may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. The objective of the study was to assess environmental, economic and biodiversity sustainability of plausible bioenergy scenarios for two watersheds in Midwest US under changing climate scenarios. The study considers fourteen sustainability indicators under nine climate change scenarios from World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3). The distributed hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to simulate perennial bioenergy crops such as Miscanthus and switchgrass, and corn stover removal at various removal rates and their impacts on hydrology and water quality. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) developed to evaluate stream fish response to hydrology and water quality changes associated with land use change were used to quantify biodiversity sustainability of various bioenergy scenarios. The watershed-scale sustainability analysis was done in the St. Joseph River watershed located in Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio; and the Wildcat Creek watershed, located in Indiana. The results indicate streamflow reduction at watershed outlet with increased evapotranspiration demands for high-yielding perennial grasses. Bioenergy crops in general improved in-stream water quality compared to conventional cropping systems (maize-soybean). Water quality benefits due to land use change were generally greater than the effects of climate change variability.

  5. Use of South American Land Data Assimilation System (SALDAS) to Assess Impacts of Biofuel Expansion on Water Resources in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, L.; De Mattos, J. Z.; Scarpare, F.; Galdos, M. V.; Scanlon, B.; Long, D.

    2013-12-01

    Large scale expansion of sugarcane production in Brazil is very positive in terms of biofuels and greenhouse gases; however, potential impacts on water resources are uncertain. The objective of this analysis is to assess potential impacts of biofuel expansion in Central South Brazil on water resources using the South American Land Data Assimilation System (SALDAS). SALDAS is driven by 3 hourly atmospheric forcing. Limited surface observations have resulted in use of remotely sensed data merged with surface observations to calculate precipitation and shortwave radiation fields. SALDAS simulates partitioning of water and energy in response to spatiotemporal variability in climate forcing and land use change related to biofuel expansion. The impacts of land use changes related to biofuel expansion will be examined by evaluating water and energy fluxes in areas of different land use and substituting space for time. Output from SALDAS will be compared with coarser resolution Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and other more traditional modeling approaches, such as CROPWAT, to estimate changes in water use from biofuel expansion. Land surface models provide an excellent reconnaissance tool to better understand the hydrology of regional systems in response to climate and land use in data constrained regions.

  6. Application of Scenario Analysis and Multiagent Technique in Land-Use Planning: A Case Study on Sanjiang Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Shi-Jun; He, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Cheng-Jiang; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Pan, Xin; Xia, Chao-Xu; Li, Xuan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Land-use planning has triggered debates on social and environmental values, in which two key questions will be faced: one is how to see different planning simulation results instantaneously and apply the results back to interactively assist planning work; the other is how to ensure that the planning simulation result is scientific and accurate. To answer these questions, the objective of this paper is to analyze whether and how a bridge can be built between qualitative and quantitative approaches for land-use planning work and to find out a way to overcome the gap that exists between the ability to construct computer simulation models to aid integrated land-use plan making and the demand for them by planning professionals. The study presented a theoretical framework of land-use planning based on scenario analysis (SA) method and multiagent system (MAS) simulation integration and selected freshwater wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain of China as a case study area. Study results showed that MAS simulation technique emphasizing quantitative process effectively compensated for the SA method emphasizing qualitative process, which realized the organic combination of qualitative and quantitative land-use planning work, and then provided a new idea and method for the land-use planning and sustainable managements of land resources. PMID:23818816

  7. Object-oriented image analysis and change detection of land-use on Tenerife related to socio-economic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    The island Tenerife is characterized by an increasing tourism, which causes an enormous change of the socio-economic situation and a rural exodus. This development leads - beside for example sociocultural issues - to fallow land, decreasing settlements, land wasting etc., as well as to an economic and ecological problem. This causes to a growing interest in geoecological aspects and to an increasing demand for an adequate monitoring database. In order to study the change of land use and land cover, the technology of remote sensing (LANDSAT 3 MSS and 7 ETM+, orthophotos) and geographical information systems were used to analyze the spatial pattern and its spatial temporal changes of land use from end of the 70s to the present in different scales. Because of the heterogeneous landscape and the unsatisfactory experience with pixel-based classification of the same area, object-oriented image analysis techniques have been applied to classify the remote sensed data. A post-classification application was implemented to detect spatial and categorical land use and land cover changes, which have been clipped with the socio-economic data within GIS to derive the driving forces of the changes and their variability in time and space.

  8. Application of Calspan pitch rate control system to the Space Shuttle for approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingarten, N. C.; Chalk, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    A pitch rate control system designed for use in the shuttle during approach and landing was analyzed and compared with a revised control system developed by NASA and the existing OFT control system. The design concept control system uses filtered pitch rate feedback with proportional plus integral paths in the forward loop. Control system parameters were designed as a function of flight configuration. Analysis included time and frequency domain techniques. Results indicate that both the Calspan and NASA systems significantly improve the flying qualities of the shuttle over the OFT. Better attitude and flight path control and less time delay are the primary reasons. The Calspan system is preferred because of reduced time delay and simpler mechanization. Further testing of the improved flight control systems in an in-flight simulator is recommended.

  9. Systems engineering and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, B.S.; Fabrycky, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    An introduction to systems is provided and tools for systems analysis are considered, taking into account system definitions and concepts, approaches for bringing systems into being, models in systems analysis, economic analysis techniques, mathematical modeling and optimization, probability and statistics, queuing theory and analysis, and control concepts and techniques. The system design process is discussed along with the design for operational feasibility, systems engineering management, and system design case studies. Attention is given to conceptual design, preliminary system design, detail design and development, system test and evaluation, design for reliability, design for maintainability, design for supportability, design for economic feasibility, communication system design, finite population system design, energy storage system design, and procurement-inventory system design.

  10. Navigation for space shuttle approach and landing using an inertial navigation system augmented by data from a precision ranging system or a microwave scan beam landing guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Carson, T. M.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary study has been made of the navigation performance which might be achieved for the high cross-range space shuttle orbiter during final approach and landing by using an optimally augmented inertial navigation system. Computed navigation accuracies are presented for an on-board inertial navigation system augmented (by means of an optimal filter algorithm) with data from two different ground navigation aids; a precision ranging system and a microwave scanning beam landing guidance system. These results show that augmentation with either type of ground navigation aid is capable of providing a navigation performance at touchdown which should be adequate for the space shuttle. In addition, adequate navigation performance for space shuttle landing is obtainable from the precision ranging system even with a complete dropout of precision range measurements as much as 100 seconds before touchdown.

  11. Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.

    2013-02-01

    This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

  12. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the landing/deceleration subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, J. M.; Beaird, H. G.; Weissinger, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Landing/Deceleration Subsystem hardware. The Landing/Deceleration Subsystem is utilized to allow the Orbiter to perform a safe landing, allowing for landing-gear deploy activities, steering and braking control throughout the landing rollout to wheel-stop, and to allow for ground-handling capability during the ground-processing phase of the flight cycle. Specifically, the Landing/Deceleration hardware consists of the following components: Nose Landing Gear (NLG); Main Landing Gear (MLG); Brake and Antiskid (B and AS) Electrical Power Distribution and Controls (EPD and C); Nose Wheel Steering (NWS); and Hydraulics Actuators. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Due to the lack of redundancy in the Landing/Deceleration Subsystems there is a high number of critical items.

  13. Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    de Ridder, Nico; de Jager, Andre; Delve, Robert J.; Bekunda, Mateete A.; Giller, Ken E.

    2010-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems’ sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems in eastern Uganda from 1960 to 2001 in a place-based analysis combined with a comparative analysis of similar low input systems in southern Mali. This study showed that policy-institutional factors next to population growth have driven land use changes in the Teso systems, and that nutrient balances of farm households are useful indicators to identify their sustainability. During the period of analysis, the fraction of land under cultivation increased from 46 to 78%, and communal grazing lands nearly completely disappeared. Cropping diversified over time; cassava overtook cotton and millet in importance, and rice emerged as an alternative cash crop. Impacts of political instability, such as the collapse of cotton marketing and land management institutions, of communal labour arrangements and aggravation of cattle rustling were linked to the changes. Crop productivity in the farming systems is poor and nutrient balances differed between farm types. Balances of N, P and K were all positive for larger farms (LF) that had more cattle and derived a larger proportion of their income from off-farm activities, whereas on the medium farms (MF), small farms with cattle (SF1) and without cattle (SF2) balances were mostly negative. Sustainability of the farming system is driven by livestock, crop production, labour and access to off-farm income. Building private public partnerships around market-oriented crops can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to boost productivity in such African farming systems. However, intervention strategies should recognise the diversity and heterogeneity between farms to ensure efficient use of these external inputs. PMID:20628448

  14. Towards a South Asia Land Data Assimilation System: first results for transboundary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Ghatak, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.; Limaye, A. S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Bajracharya, B.; Shrestha, B. R.; Iceland, C.; Narula, K.; Lee, S.; Mourad, B.; Doorn, B.

    2014-12-01

    South Asia faces a remarkably complex and diverse set of hydrologic stresses, including melting glaciers, variable snowpack, intensively utilized transboundary rivers, rapid groundwater depletion due to irrigation, flood and drought hazard, and rapidly changing land use/cover and climate conditions. The management and prediction challenges posed by these conditions are compounded by the sparseness of in situ monitoring sites, particularly in headwaters regions, and a lack of open sharing of hydrometeorological data across national boundaries. As a result, uncertainties in availability in a situation of rising demands are leading to increasing competing and exploitive use of a limited resource, being experienced at various scales. An open water information system for decision support is an absolute necessity. In order to provide an open and spatially complete water information system for decision support across the region, we are implementing a customized Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) designed to provide best-available estimates of hydrologic states and fluxes across South Asia, both retrospectively and in near-real time. The LDAS merges advanced land surface models with satellite-derived and in situ observations. In the case of South Asia, multiple satellite-derived hydrological fields are relevant to complete water balance analysis, including precipitation from multiple sources (e.g., TRMM, CHIRPS, GPM), water storage anomalies from GRACE, thermal infrared evapotranspiration estimates, and snowpack characteristics from visible and microwave sensors. Each of these observation types can either be ingested to South Asia LDAS or used as an independent observation for comparison. Here we present the first results of this South Asian Land Data Assimilation System, with a focus on complete water balance analysis for selected river basins in South Asia.

  15. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams.

    PubMed

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Ebersbach, Paul; von Tuempling, Wolf; Palma, Rodrigo; Encina, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Kamjunke, Norbert; Graeber, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability are unknown. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the inputs of anthropogenic DOM from land-based aquaculture to the predominantly pristine river systems of North Patagonia. We hypothesized, that i) DOM exported from land-based aquaculture mainly consists of protein-like fluorescence (tyrosine and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture. This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. In the effluent of the ten screened aquacultures and in the repeated sampling of one aquaculture, we consistently found an increase of DOC concentrations and a dominance of protein-like fluorescence. The protein-like fluorescence rapidly disappeared downstream of the aquacultures, and in the degradation experiment. 21% of the DOC export from the repeatedly sampled aquaculture resulted from food addition and 76% from fish production. We conclude that large amounts of degradable DOM are exported from land-based aquacultures. This probably has strong effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide. PMID:26282747

  16. BAE systems brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) system overview and flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykora, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.

  17. Land Data Assimilation of Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Products Using the Land Information System Over the NLDAS Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocko, David M.; Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will include results from data assimilation simulations using the NASA-developed Land Information System (LIS). Using the ensemble Kalman filter in LIS, two satellite-based soil moisture products from the AMSR-E instrument were assimilated, one a NASA-based product and the other from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM). The domain and land-surface forcing data from these simulations were from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase-2, over the period 2002-2008. The Noah land-surface model, version 3.2, was used during the simulations. Changes to estimates of land surface states, such as soil moisture, as well as changes to simulated runoff/streamflow will be presented. Comparisons over the NLDAS domain will also be made to two global reference evapotranspiration (ET) products, one an interpolated product based on FLUXNET tower data and the other a satellite- based algorithm from the MODIS instrument. Results of an improvement metric show that assimilating the LPRM product improved simulated ET estimates while the NASA-based soil moisture product did not.

  18. Landing Site Dispersion Analysis and Statistical Assessment for the Mars Phoenix Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonfiglio, Eugene P.; Adams, Douglas; Craig, Lynn; Spencer, David A.; Strauss, William; Seelos, Frank P.; Seelos, Kimberly D.; Arvidson, Ray; Heet, Tabatha

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander launched on August 4, 2007 and successfully landed on Mars 10 months later on May 25, 2008. Landing ellipse predicts and hazard maps were key in selecting safe surface targets for Phoenix. Hazard maps were based on terrain slopes, geomorphology maps and automated rock counts of MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. The expected landing dispersion which led to the selection of Phoenix's surface target is discussed as well as the actual landing dispersion predicts determined during operations in the weeks, days, and hours before landing. A statistical assessment of these dispersions is performed, comparing the actual landing-safety probabilities to criteria levied by the project. Also discussed are applications for this statistical analysis which were used by the Phoenix project. These include using the statistical analysis used to verify the effectiveness of a pre-planned maneuver menu and calculating the probability of future maneuvers.

  19. Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India

    PubMed Central

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

  20. Identification and Analysis of Landing sites for the ESA ExoMars Rover (2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, Matthew; Bridges, John; Fawdon, Peter; Grindrod, Peter; Gupta, Sanjeev; Michalski, Joe; Conway, Susan

    2014-05-01

    The exploration and search for life on Mars forms a cornerstone of international solar system exploration. In 2018, the European Space agency will launch the ExoMars Rover and Lander to further this exploration. The key science objectives of the ExoMars Rover are to: 1) search for signs of past and present life on Mars; 2) investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface; and 3) to characterise the surface environment. To meet these objectives ExoMars will drill into the sub-surface to look for indicators of past life using a range of complementary techniques, including assessment of morphology (potential fossil organisms), mineralogy (past environments) and a search for organic molecules and their chirality (biomarkers). The choice of landing site is vital if ExoMars' scientific objectives are to be met. The landing site must: (i) be ancient (?3.6 Ga); (ii) show abundant morphological and mineral evidence for long-term, or frequently reoccurring, aqueous activity; (iii) include numerous sedimentary outcrops that (iv) are distributed over the landing region (the typical Rover traverse range is only a few km, but the uncertainty in the location of the landing site forms an elliptical of size ~ 100 by 15 km); and (v) have little dust coverage. In addition, in order to land and operate safely, various 'engineering constraints' apply, including: (i) latitude limited to 5º S to 25º N; (ii) maximum altitude of the landing site 2 km below Mars's datum, (iii) few steep slopes within the uncertainty ellipse. These constraints are onerous. In particular, the objective to drill into sediments, the requirement for distributed targets within the ellipse, and the ellipse size, make ExoMars site selection extremely challenging. To meet these challenges, we have begun an intensive study of the martian landscape to identify as many possible ExoMars landing sites as possible. We have converted the current engineering constraints into spatial filters in a GIS (Geographical Information systems) to define regions of Mars where landing could be possible. We have used published geological maps of Mars to define areas that are of the appropriate age and integrated published catalogues of morphological indicators of standing water (e.g. delta-like landforms) and of layered terrains, and of the locations and spectral characteristics of minerals indicative of the action of water. Using this GIS we identified ~25 study areas that held promise scientifically, and into which one or more landing 'uncertainty ellipses' could be fitted without breaching the engineering constraints. For each of these, we obtained and processed imaging data (from the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 'CTX' instrument and the ESA Mars Express Orbiter 'HRSC' instrument), high resolution topographic data (again, from ESA's HRSC), and mineralogical data (based on infrared spectrometry data obtained by ESA's OMEGA instrument and NASA's CRISM instrument. Using these data we down-selected to five sites that had the highest potential and which, in some cases, had not been well-described previously in the peer-reviewed literature. At the time of writing, we are undertaking further geomorphological and mineralogical mapping of these sites, with the expectation of submitting 1-3 sites to ESA's ExoMars Landing Site Selection Working Group by the deadline set at end of February 2014. In this presentation we detail the GIS and terrain analysis element of the work we have done, and describe how the diverse data types and team abilities were harnessed to solve the challenging problem created by ExoMars' stringent scientific and engineering constraints.

  1. a Study on the Improvement of Cadastral System in Mongolia - Focused on National Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munkhbaatar, B.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    National land information system (NLIS) is an essential part of the Mongolian land reform. NLIS is a web based and centralized system which covers administration of cadastral database all over the country among land departments. Current ongoing NLIS implementation is vital to improve the cadastral system in Mongolia. This study is intended to define existing problems in current Mongolian cadastral system and propose administrative institutional and systematic implementation through NLIS. Once NLIS launches with proposed model of comprehensive cadastral system it will lead to not only economic and sustainable development but also contribute to citizens' satisfaction and lessen the burdensomeness of bureaucracy. Moreover, prevention of land conflicts, especially in metropolitan area as well as gathering land tax and fees. Furthermore after establishment of NLIS, it is advisable that connecting NLIS to other relevant state administrational organizations or institutions that have relevant database system. Connections with other relevant organizations will facilitate not only smooth and productive workflow but also offer reliable and more valuable information by its systemic integration with NLIS.

  2. A land surface soil moisture data assimilation system based on the dual-UKF method and the Community Land Model

    E-print Network

    Dai, Aiguo

    A land surface soil moisture data assimilation system based on the dual-UKF method system for assimilating satellite observations of soil moisture. Experiments for two sites in north-based methods in reproducing the temporal evolution of daily soil moisture, especially under freezing conditions

  3. MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR LAND-USE PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR LAND-USE PLANNING AND DECISION forests provide. Land-use planning is one of the policy instruments that may be used for the conservation of natural resources. Effective land-use planning includes the identification of geographical areas

  4. A land-potential knowledge system (LandPKS) based on local and scientific knowledge of land productivity and resilience

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic assessment of land use change in drylands depends on understanding potential productivity, degradation resistance and resilience, all of which vary widely and are often ignored. Rapidly increasing demand, together with new technologies, migration and global capital mobility are driving dram...

  5. Geostatistical Analysis of Population Density and the Change of Land Cover and Land Use in the Komadugu-Yobe River Basin in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobar, I.; Lee, J.; Black, F. W.; Babamaaji, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Komadugu-Yobe River Basin in northeastern Nigeria is an important tributary of Lake Chad and has experienced significant changes in population density and land cover in recent decades. The present study focuses on the application of geostatistical methods to examine the land cover and population density dynamics in the river basin. The geostatistical methods include spatial autocorrelation, overlapping neighborhood statistics with Pearson's correlation coefficient, Moran's I index analysis, and indicator variogram analysis with rose diagram. The land cover and land use maps were constructed from USGS Landsat images and Globcover images from the European Space Agency. The target years of the analysis are 1970, 1986, 2000, 2005, and 2009. The calculation of net changes in land cover indicates significant variation in the changes of rainfed cropland, mosaic cropland, and grassland. Spatial autocorrelation analysis and Moran I index analysis showed that the distribution of land cover is highly clustered. A new GIS geostatistical tool was designed to calculate the overlapping neighborhood statistics with Pearson's correlation coefficient between the land use/land cover and population density datasets. The 10x10 neighborhood cell unit showed a clear correlation between the variables in certain zones of the study area. The ranges calculated from the indicator variograms of land use and land cover and population density showed that the cropland and sparse vegetation are most closely related to the spatial change of population density.

  6. Land rigs benefit from portable top drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-14

    A small, portable topdrive system, which can be installed in as little as 4 hr with little or no derrick modification, can help land rigs drill difficult or extended reach wells, according to Tesco Drilling Technology in Calgary. The units are designed for rigs that must be dismantled and moved after each well. To reduce the amount of derrick modifications, the systems are designed to fit on any rig that can make a conventional kelly connection with a 42-ft kelly and a 31-ft single. The compact unit can operate in tapered area above the monkey board. The first portable skid package went into the field in 1992. In its first 6 months of operation, this unit was installed on six rigs, drilled seven horizontal wells, and operated for about 2,000 hr with only 12.5 hr total downtime.

  7. Analysis of coastal change in Marie Byrd Land and Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica, using Landsat imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, J.G.; Williams, R.S., Jr.; Rosanova, C.E.; Lucchitta, B.K.; Swithinbank, C.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is using Landsat imagery from the early 1970s and mid- to late 1980s/early 1990s to analyze glaciological features, compile a glacier inventory, measure surface velocities of outlet glaciers, ice streams and ice shelves, determine coastline change and calculate the area and volume of iceberg calving in Antarctica. Ice-surface velocities in Marie Byrd and Ellsworth Lands, West Antarctica, range from the fast-moving Thwaites, Pine Island, Land and DeVicq Glaciers to the slower-moving ice shelves. The average ice-front velocity during the time interval of Landsat imagery, for the faster-moving outlet glaciers, was 2.9 km a-1 for Thwaites Glacier, 2.4 km a-1 for Pine Island Glacier, 2.0 km a-1 for Land Glacier and 1.4 km a-1 for DeVicq Glacier. Evaluation of coastal change from the early 1970s to the early 1990s shows advance of the floating ice front in some coastal areas and recession in others, with an overall small average advance in the entire coastal study area, but no major trend towards advance or retreat. Comparison of average ice-surface velocities with changes in the ice front has yielded estimates of iceberg calving. The total iceberg calving from the Marie Byrd Land and Ellsworth Land coasts during the study period was greater than 8500 km2 (estimated volume of about 2400 km3) or an average of about 550 km2 a-1 (more than 150 km3 a-1). Almost 70% of this discharge is contributed by Thwaites and Pine Island Glaciers.

  8. Spectral behavior of the coupled land-atmosphere system

    E-print Network

    Gentine, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to understand the daily cycle of the energy coupling between the land and the atmosphere in response to a forcing of incoming radiation at their common boundary, the land surface. This ...

  9. Land use and land cover classification, changes and analysis in gum Arabic belt in North Kordofan, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Hassan E.; Csaplovics, Elmar; Elhaja, Mohamed E.; El Abbas, Mustafa M.

    2013-10-01

    The gum arabic belt in Sudan plays a significant role in environmental, social and economical aspects. This research was conducted in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends in the gum arabic belt as in the rest of the Sahelian Sudan zone. The objective of the paper is to study the classification, changes and analysis of the land use and land cover in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan State in Sudan. The study used imageries from different satellites (Landsat and ASTER) and multi-temporal dates (MSS 1972, TM 1985, ETM+ 1999 and ASTER 2007) acquired in dry season. The imageries were geo-referenced and radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Image classification (pixel-based) and accuracy assessment were applied. Application of multi-temporal remote sensing data demonstrated successfully the identification and mapping of land use and land cover into five main classes. Forest dominated by Acacia senegal class was separated covering an area of 21% in the year 2007. The obvious changes and reciprocal conversions in the land use and land cover structure indicate the trends and conditions caused by the human interventions as well as ecological impacts on Acacia senegal trees. Also the study revealed that a drastic loss of forest resources occurred in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan during 1972 to 2007 (25% for Acacia senegal trees). The study concluded that, using of traditional Acacia senegal-based agro-forestry as one of the most successful form in the gum belt.

  10. A Summary of the Development of a Nominal Land Landing Airbag Impact Attenuation System for the Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tutt, Ben; Gill, Susannah; Wilson, Aaron; Johnson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Airborne Systems North America (formally Irvin Aerospace Inc) has developed an Airbag Landing System for the Orion Crew Module of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. This work is in support of the NASA Langley Research Center Landing System Advanced Development Project. Orion is part of the Constellation Program to send human explorers back to the moon, and then onwards to Mars and other destinations in the Solar System. A component of the Vision for Space Exploration, Orion is being developed to also enable access to space following the retirement of the Space Shuttle in the next decade. This paper documents the development of a conceptual design, fabrication of prototype assemblies, component level testing and two generations of airbag landing system testing. The airbag system has been designed and analyzed using the transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA(RegisteredTradeMark). The landing system consists of six airbag assemblies; each assembly comprising a primary impact venting airbag and a non-venting anti-bottoming airbag. The anti-bottoming airbag provides ground clearance following the initial impact attenuation sequence. Incorporated into each primary impact airbag is an active vent that allows the entrapped gas to exit the control volume. The size of the vent is tailored to control the flow-rate of the exiting gas. An internal shaping structure is utilized to control the shape of the primary or main airbags prior to ground impact; this significantly improves stroke efficiency and performance.

  11. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  12. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  13. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  14. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  15. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  16. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for the transportation systems providing access to and within National Forests, as appropriate, that... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  17. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for the transportation systems providing access to and within National Forests, as appropriate, that... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  18. 23 CFR 971.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for the transportation systems providing access to and within National Forests, as appropriate, that... LANDS HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.214... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS)....

  19. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 972.210... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  20. Applications of Cerebellar Model Articulation Controllers to Intelligent Landing System

    E-print Network

    tried to land in crosswind conditions which exceeded the limit for the aircraft and made the left wing records, most aircraft accidents occurred during final approach or landing. If the flight conditions. An inexperienced pilot may not be able to guide the aircraft to a safe landing at the airport when wind disturbance

  1. Orion Crew Module Landing System Simulation and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Stegall, David E.; Hardy, Robin C.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Reaves, Mercedes; Mark, Stephen D.; Annett, Martin S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a comprehensive test and analysis program to evaluate the ability of LS-DYNA to model the materials and the phenomena involved in soil and water landing impacts of the Orion crew module. Elemental, scale boilerplate, and full-scale prototype testing is being conducted in support of the simulation verification and validation approach. Aspects of the simulations evaluated against test data include soil constitutive properties, water equations of state, and contact algorithms. Subsystems tested include airbags, crushable energy absorbing honeycomb materials, and energy absorbing seat support struts. The procedures, instrumentation, and general observations from each test series are presented. Plans for a series of swing tests of a full-scale boilerplate into a purpose-built water basin are described. Further plans for swing tests of flight-like prototypes into the water basin are noted.

  2. Retrospective analysis of changes in land uses on vertic soils of closed mesodepressions on the Azov plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhovich, D. I.; Simakova, M. S.; Kulyanitsa, A. L.; Bryzzhev, A. V.; Koroleva, P. V.; Kalinina, N. V.; Vil'chveskaya, E. V.; Dolinina, E. A.; Rukhovich, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    A retrospective analysis of changes in land uses within the bottoms of closed mesodepressions in Azov district of Rostov oblast for the period from 1968 to 2014 was performed. A cartographic analysis of changes in the degree of waterlogging of these depressions and the related changes in the character of land use was based on remote sensing data. This study was performed within the framework of a general problem-oriented system of the retrospective monitoring of the soil and land cover. It was found that the waterlogged area in the mesodepressions in the particular years does not depend on the anthropogenic loads and is subjected to cyclic variations. Temporal intervals for the wetting-drying cycles were determined. The maximum drying of the bottoms of mesodepressions was observed in 1975, 1990, and 2011.

  3. Land cover changes assessment using object-based image analysis in the Binah River watershed (Togo and Benin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badjana, Hèou Maléki; Helmschrot, Jörg; Selsam, Peter; Wala, Kpérkouma; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert; Afouda, Abel; Akpagana, Koffi

    2015-10-01

    In this study, land cover changes between 1972 and 2013 were investigated in the Binah River watershed (North of Togo and Benin) using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. Multitemporal satellite images—Landsat MSS (1972), TM (1987), and OLI-TIRS (2013)—were processed using object-based image analysis and post-classification comparison methods including landscape metrics and changes trajectories analysis. Land cover maps referring to five main land cover classes, namely, agricultural land, forest land, savannah, settlements, and water bodies, were produced for each acquisition date. The overall accuracies were 76.64% (1972), 83.52% (1987), and 88.84% (2013) with respective Kappa statistics of 0.69, 0.78, and 0.86. The assessment of the spatiotemporal pattern of land cover changes indicates that savannah, the main vegetation type, has undergone the most dominant change, decreasing from 67% of the basin area in 1972 to 56% in 1987 and 33% in 2013. At the same time, agricultural land has significantly increased from 15% in 1972 to 24% in 1987 and 43% in 2013, while some proportions of agricultural land were converted to savannah relating to fallow agriculture. In total, more than 55% of the landscape experienced changes between 1972 and 2013. These changes are primarily due to human activities and population growth. In addition, agricultural activities significantly contributed to the increase in the number of patches, degree of division, and splitting index of forest and savannah vegetations and the decrease in their effective mesh sizes. These results indicate further fragmentation of forest and savannah vegetations between 1972 and 2013. Further research is needed to quantitatively evaluate the influences of individual factors of human activities and to separate these from the impacts of climate change-driven disturbances.

  4. The NASA-Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling Framework - Land Information System: Global Land/atmosphere Interaction with Resolved Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, Karen Irene; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2013-01-01

    The present generation of general circulation models (GCM) use parameterized cumulus schemes and run at hydrostatic grid resolutions. To improve the representation of cloud-scale moist processes and landeatmosphere interactions, a global, Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) coupled to the Land Information System (LIS) has been developed at NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. The MMFeLIS has three components, a finite-volume (fv) GCM (Goddard Earth Observing System Ver. 4, GEOS-4), a 2D cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble, GCE), and the LIS, representing the large-scale atmospheric circulation, cloud processes, and land surface processes, respectively. The non-hydrostatic GCE model replaces the single-column cumulus parameterization of fvGCM. The model grid is composed of an array of fvGCM gridcells each with a series of embedded GCE models. A horizontal coupling strategy, GCE4fvGCM4Coupler4LIS, offered significant computational efficiency, with the scalability and I/O capabilities of LIS permitting landeatmosphere interactions at cloud-scale. Global simulations of 2007e2008 and comparisons to observations and reanalysis products were conducted. Using two different versions of the same land surface model but the same initial conditions, divergence in regional, synoptic-scale surface pressure patterns emerged within two weeks. The sensitivity of largescale circulations to land surface model physics revealed significant functional value to using a scalable, multi-model land surface modeling system in global weather and climate prediction.

  5. Elemental analysis in environmental land samples by stand-off laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiao; Ahmad, S. R.

    2014-06-01

    The stand-off detection and analysis of environmental land samples have been demonstrated using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. The samples of interest have included soils and vegetation powder. Elements Hg, As, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr have been spectrally analysed with a focus on Hg as a trace contaminant in the samples. It is found that element Fe, usually contained in land samples, is a main source of spectral interference for Hg detection due to its ever present iron emission line at 253.68 nm that is closely adjacent to the strongest Hg emission line at 253.65 nm, and hence, a high resolution of spectral detection is necessary. The strong spectral signals from Bremsstrahlung emission in laser-induced plasma and atomic emission of Fe of high concentration caused a significant reduction in detection resolution in the use of image intensifier of an ICCD. The limit of detection at ~8 ppm for Hg detection in soil samples with iron as a minor constituent has been achieved, using an optical chopper and a CCD detector for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) signal detection. Such detection method in LIBS system has shown a great advantage in determining trace elements from interfering elemental constituents in land sample matrixes.

  6. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : installation manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  7. Green Infrastructure & Sustainable Urban Land Use Decision Analysis Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduce green infrastructure, concepts and land use alternatives, to City of Cleveland operations staff. Discuss potential of green alternatives to impact daily operations and routine maintenance activities. Tie in sustainability concepts to long-term City planning and discu...

  8. Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting land cover change estimation by use of the National Land Cover Dataset and raingage network partitioning analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharpe, Jennifer B.; Soong, David T.

    2015-01-01

    This study used the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) and developed an automated process for determining the area of the three land cover types, thereby allowing faster updating of future models, and for evaluating land cover changes by use of historical NLCD datasets. The study also carried out a raingage partitioning analysis so that the segmentation of land cover and rainfall in each modeled unit is directly applicable to the HSPF modeling. Historical and existing impervious, grass, and forest land acreages partitioned by percentages covered by two sets of raingages for the Lake Michigan diversion SCAs, gaged basins, and ungaged basins are presented.

  9. The Environment Analysis in the CE-3 Landing Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, X.; Gao, X.; Yan, W.; Zou, X.; Li, C.

    2014-12-01

    To understand the environment and select detecting objects for the Yutu Rover, NAOC used the DEM and DOM data obtained by CE-2, geological data released by USGS, and high resolution image captured by CE-3 and LRO-NAC to analyze the topographical characteristic, geologic age, Geomorphological feathers and new dust distribution in two scale levels. The first level is 45km×75km, and another one is 4km×4km. The center of the study region is the CE-3 landing site (19.51°W, 44.12°N). The following is the initial conclusions: (1) CE-3 landed on a relatively flat region in the Mare Imbrium with an elevation of -2615m. The geological age of the landing site belongs to young Eratoshenian. 10km to the north of the landing site is the older Mare Imbrium stratum, and the location of the landing site is just on the intersection area of these two stratums. (2) The landing site lies on the edge of a lunar mountain with a decline tendency from west to east, and the topographic slope and roughness of the landing region is low, which is the typical characteristic of lunar mare. There is a big crater with diameter of 430 meters in the west of the landing site, and lots of stones in different colors on the rim of this crater, shown in the Figure2. (3) By comparing the images captured by LRO-NAC before and after the landing, much lunar dust was blown away by the engine plume during the landing of CE-3. The change scope is about 60m with from east-west and 135m length from south-north. The direction of landing is from south-north, so the length is larger than the width, shown in the figure 3. (4) In the initial stage, the Yutu Rover was suggested to move in south direction and late in north direction, which would get more scientific data and result.

  10. Improvements to NOAA's Historical Merged LandOcean Surface Temperature Analysis (18802006)

    E-print Network

    Improvements to NOAA's Historical Merged Land­Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (1880­2006) THOMAS Observations of sea surface and land­near-surface merged temperature anomalies are used to monitor climate the historical period. This manuscript documents recent improvements in NOAA's merged global surface temperature

  11. Manifesting Destiny: A Land Education Analysis of Settler Colonialism in Jamestown, Virginia, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Globally, colonization has been and continues to be enacted in the take-over of Indigenous land and the subsequent conversion of agriculture from diverse food and useful crops to large-scale monoculture and cash crops. This article uses a land education analysis to map the rise of the ideology and practices of Manifest Destiny in Virginia.…

  12. The landing flare: An analysis and flight-test investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seckel, E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are given of an extensive investigation of conventional landing flares in general aviation type airplanes. A wide range of parameters influencing flare behavior are simulated in experimental landings in a variable-stability Navion. The most important feature of the flare is found to be the airplane's deceleration in the flare. Various effects on this are correlated in terms of the average flare load factor. Piloting technique is extensively discussed. Design criteria are presented.

  13. Land disposal of water treatment plant sludge -- A feasibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Viraraghavan, T.; Multon, L.M.; Wasylenchuk, E.J.

    1998-07-01

    In this study, the following alternative disposal methods for the Buffalo Pound Water Treatment Sludge were evaluated: landfilling, discharge into sanitary sewers, long-term lagooning, use in manufacturing, co-composting, alum recovery and land application. Land application was chosen at the best disposal alternative. Preliminary design resulted in a 1% dry alum sludge loading rate (25 tonnes/ha), requiring 35 ha over a nine-year period and a phosphorus fertilizer supplement of about 50kg/ha.

  14. Metallurgical analysis of fractured F-27 aircraft landing gear

    SciTech Connect

    Witherell, C.E.

    1987-12-15

    The Materials Division of LLNL's Chemistry and Materials Science Department was asked to conduct a study of a fractured component of the main (starboard) landing gear on the F-27 aircraft (N768RL). The purpose of the study was to determine from metallurgical evidence the probable failure mode, its cause, and contribution to the recent landing incident at Livermore. 21 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.

    2006-01-01

    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  16. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Zvolanek, E.; Kuiper, J.; Carr, A.; Hlava, K.

    2013-12-13

    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell?based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands were found potentially suitable for CSP development, potentially yielding as much as 13,603 megawatts (MW) of electricity, assuming 10 acres per MW. For photovoltaic solar power (PV), the top NFS units were more widely distributed than CSP. Notably, more than 150,000 acres in Comanche National Grassland in Colorado were found to be potentially suitable for PV development, accounting for more than 25% of the potentially suitable NFS lands combined. In total, about 564,698 acres of NFS lands were found potentially suitable for PV development, potentially yielding as much as 56,469 MW of electricity, assuming 10 acres per MW. NFS units most suitable for wind power are concentrated in the northern Great Plains. In total, about 3,357,792 acres of NFS lands were found potentially suitable for wind development, potentially yielding as much as 67,156 MW of electricity, assuming 50 acres per MW. Of that area, 571,431 acres (11,429 MW) are located within the Bankhead?Jones Farm Tenant Act Land in Montana. NFS lands in Alaska have considerable wind resources, but other siting factors eliminated almost the entire area. The southwest coast of Chugach National Forest, near Seward, Alaska, maintains the majority of the remaining acreage. NFS units with highly suitable biomass resources are located from Idaho to Louisiana. In total, about 13,967,077 acres of NFS lands are potentially highly suitable for biomass from logging and thinning residue development. Of that, 1,542,247 acres is located in Fremont?Winema National Forest in Oregon. Not surprisingly, most NFS units have at least some level of potentially suitable biomass resources. In general, biomass resources such as these could significantly offset consumption of coal and petroleum?based fuels. NFS units deemed potentially highly suitable for enhanced geothermal system (EGS) development were distributed widely from California to Virginia, accounting for some 6,475,459 acres. Mark Twain National Forest in Missouri has the largest area of all the NFS units, with 900,637 acres. While more rigorous studies are needed

  17. The application of seismic risk-benefit analysis to land use planning in Taipei City.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Chen, Liang-Chun

    2007-09-01

    In the developing countries of Asia local authorities rarely use risk analysis instruments as a decision-making support mechanism during planning and development procedures. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to enable planners to undertake such analyses. We illustrate a case study of seismic risk-benefit analysis for the city of Taipei, Taiwan, using available land use maps and surveys as well as a new tool developed by the National Science Council in Taiwan--the HAZ-Taiwan earthquake loss estimation system. We use three hypothetical earthquakes to estimate casualties and total and annualised direct economic losses, and to show their spatial distribution. We also characterise the distribution of vulnerability over the study area using cluster analysis. A risk-benefit ratio is calculated to express the levels of seismic risk attached to alternative land use plans. This paper suggests ways to perform earthquake risk evaluations and the authors intend to assist city planners to evaluate the appropriateness of their planning decisions. PMID:17714167

  18. Land Cover and Landscape Diversity Analysis in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Szymon; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to present the land cover structure and landscape diversity in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve. The land cover classification was performed using Object Based Image Analysis in Trimble eCognition Developer 8 software. The retrospective land cover changes analysis in 3 lake catchments (Kleszczów, Moszne, Bia³eW³odawskie Lakes)was performed on the basis of archival aerial photos taken in 1952, 1971, 1984, 1992, 2007 and one satellite scene from 2003 (IKONOS).On the basis of land cover map structure, Shannon diversity index was estimated with the moving window approach enabled in Fragstats software. The conducted research has shown that the land cover structure of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve is diverse and can be simply described by selected landscape metrics. The highest level of land cover diversity, as showed by Shannon Diversity Index, was identified in the western part of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve, which is closely related to the agricultural character of land cover structure in those regions. The examples of three regional retrospective land cover analyses demonstrated that the character of land cover structure has changed dramatically over the last 40 years.

  19. Quantitative analysis and simulation of land use changes in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honghui; Zeng, Yongnian; Zou, Bin; Xiao, Pengfeng; Hu, Deyong; Peng, Jianchao

    2007-06-01

    This paper analyzes and simulates the land use changes in the Pearl River Delta, China, using Longgang City as a case study. The region has pioneered the nation in economic development and urbanization process. Tremendous land use changes have been witnessed since the economic reform in 1978. Land use changes are analyzed and simulated by using stochastic cellular automata model, land use trajectories analysis, spatial indices and multi-temporal TM images of Longgang City (TM1987, TM1991, TM1995, TM1999, TM2003, TM2005) in order to understand how urbanization has transformed the non-urban land to urban land and estimate the consequent environment and ecological impacts in this region. The analysis and simulation results show that urban land continues to sprawl along road and fringe of towns, and concomitant to this development is the loss of agricultural land, orchards and fish ponds. This study provides new evidence with spatial details about the uneven land development in the Pearl River Delta.

  20. Some findings on the applications of ERTS and Skylab imagery for metropolitan land use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work undertaken on a three-sensor land use data evaluation for a portion of the Phoenix area is reported. Analyses between land use data generated from 1970 high altitude photography and that detectable from ERTS and Skylab, especially in terms of changes in land use indicate that ERTS and Skylab imagery can be used effectively to detect and identify areas of post-1970 land use change, especially those documenting urban expansion at the rural-urban fringe. Significant preliminary findings on the utility of ERTS and Skylab data for metropolitan land use analysis, substantiated by evaluation with 1970 and 1972 ground control land use data are reported.

  1. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 2: Baseline system navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Rains, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies related to the baseline navigation system for the orbiter are presented. The baseline navigation system studies include a covariance analysis of the Inertial Measurement Unit calibration and alignment procedures, postflight IMU error recovery for the approach and landing phases, on-orbit calibration of IMU instrument biases, and a covariance analysis of entry and prelaunch navigation system performance.

  2. Ionospheric Threat Parameterization for Local Area Global-Positioning-System-Based Aircraft Landing Systems

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    Ionospheric Threat Parameterization for Local Area Global-Positioning-System-Based Aircraft Landing.2514/1.46719 Observations of extreme spatial rates of change of ionospheric electron content and the characterization ionospheric activity, the gradient suffered by a global navigation satellite system user a few kilometers away

  3. Elimination of background clutter in airports for instrument landing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, K. A.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.

    1994-05-01

    Specular reflection from airport buildings interferes with instrument landing systems. It is possible to eliminate these specular reflections by periodic strip grating techniques. These metallic strips, when painted over a dielectric sheet, are found to eliminate the specular reflections from a plane metallic surface and the surface behaves as a `non reflecting conducting surface.' These inexpensive surfaces are lightweight and have the added advantage of ease in fabrication. It is easy to apply metallic paint in a regularly spaced strip pattern. By a suitable choice of the period `d' and the thickness of the dielectric medium (the wall), it is possible to eliminate reflections at any desired angle. It may also be possible to eliminate the reflections from other targets like cylinders and corner reflectors.

  4. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface.

  5. 77 FR 472 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule; Correction AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice;...

  6. [GIS-based analysis of the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-xia; Li, Wei; Han, Wei; Yang, Ming; Dong, Yun-she; Lin, Chun-ye; Zhang, Feng-song; Xiong, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    As an important industrial and grain production base of China, livestock and poultry industry have been rapidly developed in the northeastern provinces. With the rapid increasing amount of animal production, how to handle the huge amount of animal manure has become a critical issue for local government. A quantitative analysis based on geographic information system (GIS) combining the biophysical, environmental, social and economic factors was applied to determine the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces. The results show that a farmland area of 211942.7 km2, accounting for 78.9% of the cultivated land in three northeastern provinces, is estimated to be suitable for manure application. The suitable farmlands are mostly distributed in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces. Proximity to residential area, water body and roads are identified as the primary factors influencing the manure application, while rainfall is the main factor to generate discrepancies in different areas. Furthermore, the future potential capacity for animal production in three provinces was forecasted based on the areas of suitable land and the population of existing livestock production. Among 36 cities of three provinces, the big variation is observed, Siping City is overproducing 1.813 million heads of pig unit at present, but Qiqihaer City still has the potential to rear 11.203 million heads of pig unit. Overall, eastern region of the study area holds the high potential for animal production with a surplus capacity of 2.842 million heads of pig unit, the potential of the typical mountain and forest areas is only 10% of eastern region, however. In contrast, in half of western region (central Liaoning province and central Jilin Province), their animal populations have exceeded the land carrying capacity. Therefore, we strongly suggest a site-specific animal production and manure application guide to achieve a sustainable development of livestock production in the northeastern provinces. PMID:20527197

  7. Architecture of the global land acquisition system: applying the tools of network science to identify key vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaquist, J. W.; Li Johansson, Emma; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2014-11-01

    Global land acquisitions, often dubbed ‘land grabbing’ are increasingly becoming drivers of land change. We use the tools of network science to describe the connectivity of the global acquisition system. We find that 126 countries participate in this form of global land trade. Importers are concentrated in the Global North, the emerging economies of Asia, and the Middle East, while exporters are confined to the Global South and Eastern Europe. A small handful of countries account for the majority of land acquisitions (particularly China, the UK, and the US), the cumulative distribution of which is best described by a power law. We also find that countries with many land trading partners play a disproportionately central role in providing connectivity across the network with the shortest trading path between any two countries traversing either China, the US, or the UK over a third of the time. The land acquisition network is characterized by very few trading cliques and therefore characterized by a low degree of preferential trading or regionalization. We also show that countries with many export partners trade land with countries with few import partners, and vice versa, meaning that less developed countries have a large array of export partnerships with developed countries, but very few import partnerships (dissassortative relationship). Finally, we find that the structure of the network is potentially prone to propagating crises (e.g., if importing countries become dependent on crops exported from their land trading partners). This network analysis approach can be used to quantitatively analyze and understand telecoupled systems as well as to anticipate and diagnose the potential effects of telecoupling.

  8. Complex Adaptive Systems, soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification: A multivariate assessment of Italian agro-forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Luca; Mavrakis, Anastasios; Colantoni, Andrea; Mancino, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Agostino

    2015-07-15

    Degradation of soils and sensitivity of land to desertification are intensified in last decades in the Mediterranean region producing heterogeneous spatial patterns determined by the interplay of factors such as climate, land-use changes, and human pressure. The present study hypothesizes that rising levels of soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification are reflected into increasingly complex (and non-linear) relationships between environmental and socioeconomic variables. To verify this hypothesis, the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) framework was used to explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of eleven indicators derived from a standard assessment of soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification in Italy. Indicators were made available on a detailed spatial scale (773 agricultural districts) for various years (1960, 1990, 2000 and 2010) and analyzed through a multi-dimensional exploratory data analysis. Our results indicate that the number of significant pair-wise correlations observed between indicators increased with the level of soil and land degradation, although with marked differences between northern and southern Italy. 'Fast' and 'slow' factors underlying soil and land degradation, and 'rapidly-evolving' or 'locked' agricultural districts were identified according to the rapidity of change estimated for each of the indicators studied. In southern Italy, 'rapidly-evolving' districts show a high level of soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification during the whole period of investigation. On the contrary, those districts in northern Italy are those experiencing a moderate soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification with the highest increase in the level of sensitivity over time. The study framework contributes to the assessment of complex local systems' dynamics in affluent but divided countries. Results may inform thematic strategies for the mitigation of land and soil degradation in the framework of action plans to combat desertification. PMID:25847168

  9. 76 FR 81911 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land... Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule... Service, National Forest System, Mail Stop 1106, 201 14th Street SW., Washington, DC 20025 by express...

  10. 78 FR 9883 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land... Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet.... Calvin N. Joyner, Associate Deputy Chief, National Forest System. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P...

  11. 77 FR 50985 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land... Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule will meet... 15, 2012. James W. Pe a, Associate Deputy Chief, National Forest System. BILLING CODE 3410-11-P...

  12. 23 CFR 973.214 - Indian lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.214 Indian lands congestion management...

  13. 23 CFR 973.214 - Indian lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands congestion management system (CMS). 973.214... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.214 Indian lands congestion management...

  14. An equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiao; Zhan, Jinyan; Lin, Yingzhi; Zhao, Chunhong

    2014-09-01

    Global land use structure is changing rapidly due to unceasing population growth and accelerated urbanization, which leads to fierce competition between the rigid demand for built-up area and the protection of cultivated land, forest, and grassland. It has been a great challenge to realize the sustainable development of land resources. Based on a computable general equilibrium model of land use change with a social accounting matrix dataset, this study implemented an equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province during the period of 2008-2020 under three scenarios, the baseline scenario, low TFP (total factor productivity) scenario, and high TFP scenario. The results indicated that under all three scenarios, area of cultivated land declined significantly along with a remarkable expansion of built-up area, while areas of forest, grassland, and unused land increased slightly. The growth rate of TFP had first negative and then positive effects on the expansion of built-up area and decline of cultivated land as it increased. Moreover, the simulated changes of both cultivated land and built-up area were the biggest under the low TFP scenario, and far exceeded the limit in the Overall Plan for Land Utilization in the Yunnan Province in 2020. The scenario-based simulation results are of important reference value for policy-makers in making land use decisions, balancing the fierce competition between the protection of cultivated land and the increasing demand for built-up area, and guaranteeing food security, ecological security, and the sustainable development of land resources.

  15. An equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aken, H. M.; van Veldhoven, A. K.; Veth, C.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.; van Leeuwen, P. J.; Drijfhout, S. S.; Whittle, C. P.; Rouault, M.

    2014-06-01

    Global land use structure is changing rapidly due to unceasing population growth and accelerated urbanization, which leads to fierce competition between the rigid demand for built-up area and the protection of cultivated land, forest, and grassland. It has been a great challenge to realize the sustainable development of land resources. Based on a computable general equilibrium model of land use change with a social accounting matrix dataset, this study implemented an equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province during the period of 2008-2020 under three scenarios, the baseline scenario, low TFP (total factor productivity) scenario, and high TFP scenario. The results indicated that under all three scenarios, area of cultivated land declined significantly along with a remarkable expansion of built-up area, while areas of forest, grassland, and unused land increased slightly. The growth rate of TFP had first negative and then positive effects on the expansion of built-up area and decline of cultivated land as it increased. Moreover, the simulated changes of both cultivated land and built-up area were the biggest under the low TFP scenario, and far exceeded the limit in the Overall Plan for Land Utilization in the Yunnan Province in 2020. The scenario-based simulation results are of important reference value for policy-makers in making land use decisions, balancing the fierce competition between the protection of cultivated land and the increasing demand for built-up area, and guaranteeing food security, ecological security, and the sustainable development of land resources.

  16. 78 FR 58555 - Public Land Order No. 7821; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Steamboat Rock Picnic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ...National Forest System Land for Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds; South Dakota AGENCY...uses and improvements at the Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds within the Black Hills National...uses and improvements within the Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds. Order By virtue of...

  17. Definition and testing of the hydrologic component of the pilot land data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, Robert M.; Sircar, Jayanta K.

    1987-01-01

    The specific aim was to develop within the Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) software design environment, an easily implementable and user friendly geometric correction procedure to readily enable the georeferencing of imagery data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the NOAA series spacecraft. A software subsystem was developed within the guidelines set by the PLDS development environment utilizing NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Image Analysis Facility's (IAF's) Land Analysis Software (LAS) coding standards. The IAS current program development environment, the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE), operates under a VAX VMS operating system and was used as the user interface. A brief overview of the ICARUS algorithm that was implemented in the set of functions developed, is provided. The functional specifications decription is provided, and a list of the individual programs and directory names containing the source and executables installed in the IAF system are listed. A user guide is provided for the LAS system documentation format for the three functions developed.

  18. Results from Assimilating AMSR-E Soil Moisture Estimates into a Land Surface Model Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Crosson, William L.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hale, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Improve simulations of soil moisture/temperature, and consequently boundary layer states and processes, by assimilating AMSR-E soil moisture estimates into a coupled land surface-mesoscale model Provide a new land surface model as an option in the Land Information System (LIS)

  19. Biogeophysical controls on land-atmosphere fluxes in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciuto, D. M.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.

    2014-12-01

    Global land surface models and Earth system models are computationally expensive and contain large numbers of uncertain parameters, limiting the feasibility of uncertainty quantification (UQ) studies that require model ensembles on a global scale. Fortunately, even relatively small model ensembles can yield useful information about key model parameter sensitivities. Knowledge about how parameter sensitivities vary across space, time and model outputs are of key importance to not only the modeling community, but also the measurement community as this knowledge can inform observation strategies targeted at reducing prediction uncertainty. Here we apply the Morris method, a basic but efficient way to perform a parameter sensitivity analysis, on 24 biogeophysical parameters in CLM, using 200 global offline 1.9x2.5 degree global simulations. Model output variables of interest are photosynthetic fluxes, energy fluxes, and hydrologic variables. We find that the ranking of parameter importance strongly depends on climate (e.g. mean annual temperature and precipitation). The parameterization of stomatal conductance is particularly important in most locations. We also evaluate the performance of the model ensemble against benchmark datasets for evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity. We then present results from a second ensemble of land-atmosphere coupled simulations, using the Community Earth System Model (CESM), investigating in particular the sensitivity of land-atmosphere feedbacks to 5 key CLM biogeophysical parameters.

  20. Flight test evaluation of the Stanford University/United Airlines differential GPS Category 3 automatic landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, David N.; Ncnally, B. David

    1995-01-01

    Test flights were conducted to evaluate the capability of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to provide the accuracy and integrity required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category (CAT) 3 precision approach and landings. These test flights were part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using DGPS based technology for CAT 3 precision approach and landing applications. A United Airlines Boeing 737-300 (N304UA) was equipped with DGPS receiving equipment and additional computing capability provided by Stanford University. The test flights were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Crows Landing Flight Facility, Crows Landing, California. The flight test evaluation was based on completing 100 approaches and autolandings; 90 touch and go, and 10 terminating with a full stop. Two types of accuracy requirements were evaluated: 1) Total system error, based on the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and 2) Navigation sensor error, based on ICAO requirements for the Microwave Landing System (MLS). All of the approaches and autolandings were evaluated against ground truth reference data provided by a laser tracker. Analysis of these approaches and autolandings shows that the Stanford University/United Airlines system met the requirements for a successful approach and autolanding 98 out of 100 approaches and autolandings, based on the total system error requirements as specified in the FAA CAT 3 Level 2 Flight Test Plan.

  1. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...for Bridge Management Systems.” 2 2 “Guidelines...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  2. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements...actions. (2) A system for applying network...and (E) Recommends optimal allocation of...

  3. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Highway Program Management Systems § 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...for Bridge Management Systems.” 2 2 “Guidelines...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  4. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...for Bridge Management Systems.” 2 2 “Guidelines...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  5. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...for Bridge Management Systems.” 2 2 “Guidelines...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  6. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Highway Program Management Systems § 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...for Bridge Management Systems.” 2 2 “Guidelines...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  7. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Park Service Management Systems § 970.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...maintenance. (2) A system for applying network...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  8. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Park Service Management Systems § 970.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...maintenance. (2) A system for applying network...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  9. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Park Service Management Systems § 970.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...maintenance. (2) A system for applying network...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  10. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements...actions. (2) A system for applying network...and (E) Recommends optimal allocation of...

  11. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Highway Program Management Systems § 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...for Bridge Management Systems.” 2 2 “Guidelines...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  12. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Park Service Management Systems § 970.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...maintenance. (2) A system for applying network...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  13. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Highway Program Management Systems § 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...for Bridge Management Systems.” 2 2 “Guidelines...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  14. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements...actions. (2) A system for applying network...and (E) Recommends optimal allocation of...

  15. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...for Bridge Management Systems.” 2 2 “Guidelines...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  16. 23 CFR 973.210 - Indian lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...for Bridge Management Systems.” 2 2 “Guidelines...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  17. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Park Service Management Systems § 970.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...maintenance. (2) A system for applying network...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  18. 23 CFR 971.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Highway Program Management Systems § 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements...for Bridge Management Systems.” 2 2 “Guidelines...A recommendation for optimal allocation of...

  19. 23 CFR 973.212 - Indian lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...212 Indian lands safety management system (SMS). In addition...the guidance in “Safety Management Systems: Good Practices for...Implementation.” 3 3 “Safety Management Systems: Good Practices...hazards. (3) A process for communication, coordination, and...

  20. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition...needs. (3) A process for communication, coordination, and...

  1. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition...the guidance in “Safety Management Systems: Good Practices for...Implementation.”3 3 “Safety Management Systems: Good Practices...hazards. (3) A process for communication, coordination, and...

  2. 23 CFR 973.212 - Indian lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...212 Indian lands safety management system (SMS). In addition...the guidance in “Safety Management Systems: Good Practices for...Implementation.” 3 3 “Safety Management Systems: Good Practices...hazards. (3) A process for communication, coordination, and...

  3. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition...the guidance in “Safety Management Systems: Good Practices for...Implementation.”3 3 “Safety Management Systems: Good Practices...hazards. (3) A process for communication, coordination, and...

  4. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition...needs. (3) A process for communication, coordination, and...

  5. Comparative analysis of algorithms for lunar landing control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, B. I.; Likhachev, V. N.; Sazonov, V. V.; Sikharulidze, Yu. G.; Tuchin, A. G.; Tuchin, D. A.; Fedotov, V. P.; Yaroshevskii, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    For the descent from the pericenter of a prelanding circumlunar orbit a comparison of three algorithms for the control of lander motion is performed. These algorithms use various combinations of terminal and programmed control in a trajectory including three parts: main braking, precision braking, and descent with constant velocity. In the first approximation, autonomous navigational measurements are taken into account and an estimate of the disturbances generated by movement of the fuel in the tanks was obtained. Estimates of the accuracy for landing placement, fuel consumption, and performance of the conditions for safe lunar landing are obtained.

  6. BATSE spectroscopy analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Bansal, Sandhia; Basu, Anju; Brisco, Phil; Cline, Thomas L.; Friend, Elliott; Laubenthal, Nancy; Panduranga, E. S.; Parkar, Nuru; Rust, Brad

    1992-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) Spectroscopy Analysis System (BSAS) is the software system which is the primary tool for the analysis of spectral data from BATSE. As such, Guest Investigators and the community as a whole need to know its basic properties and characteristics. Described here are the characteristics of the BATSE spectroscopy detectors and the BSAS.

  7. AN APPROACH TO IDENTIFY AREA-SPECIFIC LAND USE ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES Uday Bhaskar Nidumolu1,2*

    E-print Network

    AN APPROACH TO IDENTIFY AREA-SPECIFIC LAND USE ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES Uday Bhaskar Nidumolu1,2* , CAJM: uday@itc.nl ISPRS XXth Congress, Istanbul, Turkey, July 14-22, 2004 ABSTRACT: Maps of land use classes land use analysis under the project Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD) in India

  8. Development of automatic and manual flight director landing systems for the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft in helicopter mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, L. G.; Hoh, R. H.; Jewell, W. F.; Teper, G. L.; Patel, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to determine IFR approach path and touchdown dispersions for manual and automatic XV-15 tilt rotor landings, and to develop missed approach criteria. Only helicopter mode XV-15 operation is considered. The analysis and design sections develop the automatic and flight director guidance equations for decelerating curved and straight-in approaches into a typical VTOL landing site equipped with an MLS navigation aid. These system designs satisfy all known pilot-centered, guidance and control requirements for this flying task. Performance data, obtained from nonstationary covariance propagation dispersion analysis for the system, are used to develop the approach monitoring criteria. The autoland and flight director guidance equations are programmed for the VSTOLAND 1819B digital computer. The system design dispersion data developed through analysis and the 1819B digital computer program are verified and refined using the fixed-base, man-in-the-loop XV-15 VSTOLAND simulation.

  9. LAND REFORM IN NAMIBIA: AN ANALYSIS OF MEDIA COVERAGE

    E-print Network

    Engelbrecht, Petrus J.

    2014-08-31

    The highly inequitable land ownership that resulted from nearly a century of colonization is an important socio-economic issue that must be overcome in order to ensure Namibia's long-term stability and success. The media plays an important role...

  10. Landing patterns in netball: analysis of an international game.

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, D; Lo, S K; Kirkham, C; Elliott, B

    1992-01-01

    The passing and landing patterns among netball players were investigated by examining all the 595 passes in an international match between Australia and New Zealand. Intra-class correlations were used to test inter-observer reliability. The independence of two variables was tested using a Pearson chi 2 test and a contingency coefficient was used to assess the degree of association between variables. An inter-rater reliability in the identification of movement patterns was 0.99. Most of the landings observed in this match were on the forefoot and not the hindfoot as generally reported in controlled experiments. Only 14% of the players leapt to receive a pass compared with 76% reported earlier under controlled environments. The distribution of passing techniques unexpectedly showed that approximately 50% of all the players did not reach for the ball as it was thrown directly to them. However, over 70% of the players threw straight passes which were mainly received in the chest quadrant and other types of passes such as loop, bounce and rebound were used less frequently. Nearly 50% of all players used a right-handed pass to dispose of the ball, while the next most popular pass was to use both hands (40.2%). Landing and passing patterns differed between players in different positions. Footfall patterns on landing after a catch were associated with the trajectory of the ball. PMID:1623354

  11. Experimental and analytical studies of advanced air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, E. G. S.; Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Rutishauser, H. J.; Farley, H. L.; Fish, R. B.; Jeffcoat, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Several concepts are developed for air cushion landing systems (ACLS) which have the potential for improving performance characteristics (roll stiffness, heave damping, and trunk flutter), and reducing fabrication cost and complexity. After an initial screening, the following five concepts were evaluated in detail: damped trunk, filled trunk, compartmented trunk, segmented trunk, and roll feedback control. The evaluation was based on tests performed on scale models. An ACLS dynamic simulation developed earlier is updated so that it can be used to predict the performance of full-scale ACLS incorporating these refinements. The simulation was validated through scale-model tests. A full-scale ACLS based on the segmented trunk concept was fabricated and installed on the NASA ACLS test vehicle, where it is used to support advanced system development. A geometrically-scaled model (one third full scale) of the NASA test vehicle was fabricated and tested. This model, evaluated by means of a series of static and dynamic tests, is used to investigate scaling relationships between reduced and full-scale models. The analytical model developed earlier is applied to simulate both the one third scale and the full scale response.

  12. Development and Flight Testing of an Autonomous Landing Gear Health-Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Coffey, Neil C.; Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Taylor, B. Douglas; Brett, Rube R.; Woodman, Keith L.; Weathered, Brenton W.; Rollins, Courtney H.

    2003-01-01

    Development and testing of an adaptable vehicle health-monitoring architecture is presented. The architecture is being developed for a fleet of vehicles. It has three operational levels: one or more remote data acquisition units located throughout the vehicle; a command and control unit located within the vehicle; and, a terminal collection unit to collect analysis results from all vehicles. Each level is capable of performing autonomous analysis with a trained expert system. Communication between all levels is done with wireless radio frequency interfaces. The remote data acquisition unit has an eight channel programmable digital interface that allows the user discretion for choosing type of sensors; number of sensors, sensor sampling rate and sampling duration for each sensor. The architecture provides framework for a tributary analysis. All measurements at the lowest operational level are reduced to provide analysis results necessary to gauge changes from established baselines. These are then collected at the next level to identify any global trends or common features from the prior level. This process is repeated until the results are reduced at the highest operational level. In the framework, only analysis results are forwarded to the next level to reduce telemetry congestion. The system's remote data acquisition hardware and non-analysis software have been flight tested on the NASA Langley B757's main landing gear. The flight tests were performed to validate the following: the wireless radio frequency communication capabilities of the system, the hardware design, command and control; software operation; and, data acquisition, storage and retrieval.

  13. Analysis of land use changes near large water bodies in Ukraine using GIS.

    PubMed

    Bogdanets, Vyacheslav; Vlaev, Anatoliy

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of land use and land cover changes in Ukraine were evaluated with special attention given to the interaction of land and water resources. The rational fresh water management in agriculture under future climate change conditions is of great importance. The hydrological regime of a river has huge impact on the environment of the surrounding area. Creating reservoirs, changes the landscape of river valleys and lake basins. Changes in the hydrological regime of the river and the process taking place in the coastal zone are reflected in land cover, wildlife and micro-climatic conditions. In the area closer to the shore line of the reservoir, there is greater amplitude of fluctuations in the level of ground water due to low rate of filtration behind fluctuations in the level of the reservoir. The interaction of water reservoirs with the environment, especially with the nature of the catchment area is substantially different from the natural water bodies. Analysis was done using GIS and remotely sensed data of land use near large water reservoirs and processed statistically. The ratio of arable lands and forested territories and future analysis of land use has been discussed. PMID:26591880

  14. Modular Building Blocks for Manned Spacecraft: A Case Study for Moon and Mars Landing Systems

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Modular Building Blocks for Manned Spacecraft: A Case Study for Moon and Mars Landing Systems modular building blocks for platforming of manned Moon and Mars landing systems employing modularity. The motivation for platforming is the need to reduce overall Moon and Mars exploration architecture lifecycle

  15. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands AGENCY... aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands. The responsible official for this.... Comments may also be sent via e- mail to FireRetardantEIS@fs.fed.us . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  16. A Generic, Interoperable, Hydrologic Data Assimilation Framework using the Land Information System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a hydrologic modeling system that integrates the use of various community land surface models, use of ground and satellite-based observations, and high performance computing and data management tools to enable hydrologic prediction at variou...

  17. Using scatterometer-based surface soil moisture products to optimally calibrate land data assimilation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land data assimilation systems are designed to merge uncertain land surface model predictions with error-prone observations. Ingestion into a data assimilation systems represents a critical pathway towards key applications goals for remotely-sensed surface soil moisture products. However, the effe...

  18. Participatory modeling of endangered wildlife systems: Simulating the sage-grouse and land use in

    E-print Network

    Ford, Andrew

    METHODS Participatory modeling of endangered wildlife systems: Simulating the sage-grouse and land 2008 The Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) occupies the sage brush habitats of Western for system dynamics to synthesize known sage-grouse dynamics and local land use patterns to support

  19. IMPLEMENTATION AND APPLICATION OF THE KALMAN FILTER DATA ASSIMILATION APPROACHES IN NASA'S LAND INFORMATION SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building on the North-American and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (LDAS), a Land Information System (LIS) infrastructure has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center jointly with NOAA-NCEP, NWS and university collaborators. In the context of numerical weather prediction applications...

  20. During an autoland flight test of Stanford's Integrity Beacon Landing System in October 1994, one approach

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    signal. The Coast Guard watchstander called the 2nd Space Operations Squadron (2SOS) at Falcon Air ForceABSTRACT During an autoland flight test of Stanford's Integrity Beacon Landing System in October precision landing systems by a factor of ten. This type of outage is not described in the standard

  1. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... National Bridge Inspection Standards (23 CFR part 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the severity... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210... Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  2. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... National Bridge Inspection Standards (23 CFR part 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the severity... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210... Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  3. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... National Bridge Inspection Standards (23 CFR part 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the severity... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210... Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  4. 23 CFR 970.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... National Bridge Inspection Standards (23 CFR part 650, subpart C); (ii) Data characterizing the severity... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 970.210... Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  5. 23 CFR 972.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands congestion management system (CMS). 972.214 Section 972.214 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management...

  6. The Unparalleled Systems Engineering of MSL's Backup Entry, Descent, and Landing System: Second Chance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roumeliotis, Chris; Grinblat, Jonathan; Reeves, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Second Chance (SECC) was a bare bones version of Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Entry Descent & Landing (EDL) flight software that ran on Curiosity's backup computer, which could have taken over swiftly in the event of a reset of Curiosity's prime computer, in order to land her safely on Mars. Without SECC, a reset of Curiosity's prime computer would have lead to catastrophic mission failure. Even though a reset of the prime computer never occurred, SECC had the important responsibility as EDL's guardian angel, and this responsibility would not have seen such success without unparalleled systems engineering. This paper will focus on the systems engineering behind SECC: Covering a brief overview of SECC's design, the intense schedule to use SECC as a backup system, the verification and validation of the system's "Do No Harm" mandate, the system's overall functional performance, and finally, its use on the fateful day of August 5th, 2012.

  7. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Genesis Re-Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Dan T.

    2005-01-01

    On September 8, 2004, the Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth after spending 29 months about the sun-Earth libration point collecting solar wind particles. Four hours prior to Earth arrival, the entry capsule containing the samples was released for entry and subsequent landing at the Utah Test and Training Range. This paper provides an overview of the entry, descent, and landing trajectory analysis that was performed during the Mission Operations Phase leading up to final approach to Earth. The operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.3 km from the target, and was well within the allowable landing area. Preliminary reconstruction analyses indicate that the actual entry trajectory was very close to the pre-entry prediction.

  8. Change Detection and Land Use / Land Cover Database Updating Using Image Segmentation, GIS Analysis and Visual Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, J.-F.; González, R.

    2015-08-01

    This article presents a hybrid method that combines image segmentation, GIS analysis, and visual interpretation in order to detect discrepancies between an existing land use/cover map and satellite images, and assess land use/cover changes. It was applied to the elaboration of a multidate land use/cover database of the State of Michoacán, Mexico using SPOT and Landsat imagery. The method was first applied to improve the resolution of an existing 1:250,000 land use/cover map produced through the visual interpretation of 2007 SPOT images. A segmentation of the 2007 SPOT images was carried out to create spectrally homogeneous objects with a minimum area of two hectares. Through an overlay operation with the outdated map, each segment receives the "majority" category from the map. Furthermore, spectral indices of the SPOT image were calculated for each band and each segment; therefore, each segment was characterized from the images (spectral indices) and the map (class label). In order to detect uncertain areas which present discrepancy between spectral response and class label, a multivariate trimming, which consists in truncating a distribution from its least likely values, was applied. The segments that behave like outliers were detected and labeled as "uncertain" and a probable alternative category was determined by means of a digital classification using a decision tree classification algorithm. Then, the segments were visually inspected in the SPOT image and high resolution imagery to assign a final category. The same procedure was applied to update the map to 2014 using Landsat imagery. As a final step, an accuracy assessment was carried out using verification sites selected from a stratified random sampling and visually interpreted using high resolution imagery and ground truth.

  9. Preliminary Analysis of the efficacy of Artificial neural Network (ANN) and Cellular Automaton (CA) based Land Use Models in Urban Land-Use Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, R.

    2013-05-01

    This research provides an opportunity of collaboration between urban planners and modellers by providing a clear theoretical foundations on the two most widely used urban land use models, and assessing the effectiveness of applying the models in urban planning context. Understanding urban land cover change is an essential element for sustainable urban development as it affects ecological functioning in urban ecosystem. Rapid urbanization due to growing inclination of people to settle in urban areas has increased the complexities in predicting that at what shape and size cities will grow. The dynamic changes in the spatial pattern of urban landscapes has exposed the policy makers and environmental scientists to great challenge. But geographic science has grown in symmetry to the advancements in computer science. Models and tools are developed to support urban planning by analyzing the causes and consequences of land use changes and project the future. Of all the different types of land use models available in recent days, it has been found by researchers that the most frequently used models are Cellular Automaton (CA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models. But studies have demonstrated that the existing land use models have not been able to meet the needs of planners and policy makers. There are two primary causes identified behind this prologue. First, there is inadequate understanding of the fundamental theories and application of the models in urban planning context i.e., there is a gap in communication between modellers and urban planners. Second, the existing models exclude many key drivers in the process of simplification of the complex urban system that guide urban spatial pattern. Thus the models end up being effective in assessing the impacts of certain land use policies, but cannot contribute in new policy formulation. This paper is an attempt to increase the knowledge base of planners on the most frequently used land use model and also assess the relative effectiveness of the two models, ANN and CA, in urban planning. The questions that are addressed in this research are: a) What makes ANN models different from CA models?; b) Which model has higher accuracy in predicting future urban land use change?; and c) Are the models effective enough in guiding urban land use policies and strategies? The models that are used for this research are Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and CA model, available in IDRISI Taiga. Since, the objective is to perform a comparative analysis and draw general inferences irrespective of specific urban policies, the availability of data was given more emphasis over the selection of particular location. Urban area in Massachusetts was chosen to conduct the study due to data availability. Extensive literature review was performed to understand the functionality of the two models. The models were applied to predict future changes and the accuracy assessment was performed using standard matrix. Inferences were drawn about the applicability of the models in urban planning context along with recommendations. This research will not only develop understanding of land use models among urban planners, but also will create an environment of coupled research between planners and modellers.

  10. Assessment on EXPERT Descent and Landing System Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H.; Muylaert, J.; Northey, D.; Riley, D.

    2009-01-01

    EXPERT is a re-entry vehicle designed for validation of aero-thermodynamic models, numerical schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics codes and test facilities for measuring flight data under an Earth re-entry environment. This paper addresses the design for the descent and landing sequence for EXPERT. It includes the descent sequence, the choice of drogue and main parachutes, and the parachute deployment condition, which can be supersonic or subsonic. The analysis is based mainly on an engineering tool, PASDA, together with some hand calculations for parachute sizing and design. The tool consists of a detailed 6-DoF simulation performed with the aerodynamics database of the vehicle, an empirical wakes model and the International Standard Atmosphere database. The aerodynamics database for the vehicle is generated by DNW experimental data and CFD codes within the framework of an ESA contract to CIRA. The analysis will be presented in terms of altitude, velocity, accelerations, angle-of- attack, pitch angle and angle of rigging line. Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each parachute deployment condition is included in addition to some comparison with the available data based on a Monte-Carlo method from a Russian company, FSUE NIIPS. Sensitivity on wind speed to the performance of EXPERT is shown to be strong. Supersonic deployment of drogue shows a better performance in stability at the expense of a larger G-load than those from the subsonic deployment of drogue. Further optimization on the parachute design is necessary in order to fulfill all the EXPERT specifications.

  11. Multi-Terrain Earth Landing Systems Applicable for Manned Space Capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    A key element of the President's Vision for Space Exploration is the development of a new space transportation system to replace Shuttle that will enable manned exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond. NASA has tasked the Constellation Program with the development of this architecture, which includes the Ares launch vehicle and Orion manned spacecraft. The Orion spacecraft must carry six astronauts and its primary structure should be reusable, if practical. These requirements led the Constellation Program to consider a baseline land landing on return to earth. To assess the landing system options for Orion, a review of current operational parachute landing systems such as those used for the F-111 escape module and the Soyuz is performed. In particular, landing systems with airbags and retrorockets that would enable reusability of the Orion capsule are investigated. In addition, Apollo tests and analyses conducted in the 1960's for both water and land landings are reviewed. Finally, tests and dynamic finite element simulations to understand land landings for the Orion spacecraft are also presented.

  12. Multi-Terrain Earth Landing Systems Applicable for Manned Space Capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    A key element of the President's Vision for Space Exploration is the development of a new space transportation system to replace the Shuttle that will enable manned exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond. NASA has tasked the Constellation Program with the development of this architecture, which includes the Ares launch vehicle and Orion manned spacecraft. The Orion spacecraft must carry six astronauts and its primary structure should be reusable, if practical. These requirements led the Constellation Program to consider a baseline land landing on return to earth. To assess the landing system options for Orion, a review of current operational parachute landing systems such as those used for the F-111 escape module and the Soyuz is performed. In particular, landing systems with airbags and retrorockets that would enable reusability of the Orion capsule are investigated. In addition, Apollo tests and analyses conducted in the 1960's for both water and land landings are reviewed. Finally, tests and dynamic finite element simulations to understand land landings for the Orion spacecraft are also presented.

  13. An Analysis: Outdoor Recreation on Government Lands in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Reed, David J.; Reid, Leslie M.

    1969-01-01

    part in total utilization of 1 land antl iv;itcr resources. 1 The t li:tt~ge t h;lr;1ctcri7es the age - growing numl~clc 01 ~)cople ~~'itlz increasing affluence in income, 11101,ilj~y :~ntl leisure time. Interaction of tl~esc Iacto~j ha.1 c;1ri5etl...

  14. Management of land use land cover through the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Praveen

    Deforestation and degradation of forest areas, including those in the Protected Areas (PAs), are major concerns in India. There were 2 broad objectives of the study: the technological objective pertained to the development of state-of-art programs that could serve as Decision Support Systems while finalizing plans and policy interventions, while the other objective aimed at generating geo-spatial data in 2 PAs. A part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, Manas Tiger Reserve (MTR), Assam, India having an area of 2837.12 sq km and an important part of Rajaji-Corbett Tiger Conservation Unit, Rajaji National Park (RNP), Uttarakhand, India, having an area of 820.42 sq km, were taken for the assessment of land use and land cover (LULC) change during 1990--2004. Simulation was undertaken in a smaller area of 1.2 km * 1.2 km right on the fringe of RNP. Three advanced geo-spatial programs---Multi-Algorithm Automation Program (MAAP), Data Automatic Modification Program (DAMP) and Multi-Stage Simulation Program (MUSSIP)---developed by the author were used extensively. Based on the satellite data, MAAP was used for the rapid assessments of LULC of 2004 and 1990; DAMP was used for the spectral modification of the satellite data of the adjacent scenes of 2004 and of 1990; and MUSSIP was used to simulate LULC maps for the future periods (till 2018). These programs produced very high accuracy levels: 91.12% in 2004 and 89.67% in 1990 were obtained for MTR; and 94.87% in 2004 and 94.10% in 1990 were obtained for RNP; 93.40% pixel-to-pixel accuracy and 0.7904 for kappa were achieved for simulation. The annual rate of loss of forests (0.41% in MTR and 1.20% in RNP) and loss of water (1.79% in MTR and 1.69% in RNP) during 1990-2004 is a matter of serious concern. The scenario analysis in the study area for simulation revealed that the deforestation rate of 1.27% per year during 2004--2018 would increase to 2.04% if the human population growth rate is enhanced by 10%. Hence these PAs need urgent restoration measures and effective conservation planning to address the problems of deforestation, severe degradation and immense loss of water.

  15. Real options analysis for land use management: Methods, application, and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Regan, Courtney M; Bryan, Brett A; Connor, Jeffery D; Meyer, Wayne S; Ostendorf, Bertram; Zhu, Zili; Bao, Chenming

    2015-09-15

    Discounted cash flow analysis, including net present value is an established way to value land use and management investments which accounts for the time-value of money. However, it provides a static view and assumes passive commitment to an investment strategy when real world land use and management investment decisions are characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, change, and adaptation. Real options analysis has been proposed as a better valuation method under uncertainty and where the opportunity exists to delay investment decisions, pending more information. We briefly review the use of discounted cash flow methods in land use and management and discuss their benefits and limitations. We then provide an overview of real options analysis, describe the main analytical methods, and summarize its application to land use investment decisions. Real options analysis is largely underutilized in evaluating land use decisions, despite uncertainty in policy and economic drivers, the irreversibility and sunk costs involved. New simulation methods offer the potential for overcoming current technical challenges to implementation as demonstrated with a real options simulation model used to evaluate an agricultural land use decision in South Australia. We conclude that considering option values in future policy design will provide a more realistic assessment of landholder investment decision making and provide insights for improved policy performance. PMID:26164637

  16. Braking and cornering studies on an air cushion landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate several concepts for braking and steering a vehicle equipped with an air cushion landing system (ACLS). The investigation made use of a modified airboat equipped with an ACLS. Braking concepts were characterized by the average deceleration of the vehicle. Reduced lobe flow and cavity venting braking concepts were evaluated in this program. The cavity venting braking concept demonstrated the best performance, producing decelerations on the test vehicle on the same order as moderate braking with conventional wheel brakes. Steering concepts were evaluated by recording the path taken while attempting to follow a prescribed maneuver. The steering concepts evaluated included using rudders only, using differential lobe flow, and using rudders combined with a lightly loaded, nonsteering center wheel. The latter concept proved to be the most accurate means of steering the vehicle on the ACLS, producing translational deviations two to three times higher than those from conventional nose-gear steering. However, this concept was still felt to provide reasonably precise steering control for the ACLS-equipped vehicle.

  17. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems...framework for a BMS: (1) A database and an ongoing program...the BMS. The minimum BMS database shall include:...

  18. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems...framework for a BMS: (1) A database and an ongoing program...the BMS. The minimum BMS database shall include:...

  19. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems...framework for a BMS: (1) A database and an ongoing program...the BMS. The minimum BMS database shall include:...

  20. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems...framework for a BMS: (1) A database and an ongoing program...the BMS. The minimum BMS database shall include:...

  1. 23 CFR 972.210 - Federal lands bridge management system (BMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems...framework for a BMS: (1) A database and an ongoing program...the BMS. The minimum BMS database shall include:...

  2. 77 FR 472 - National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Forest Service National Advisory Committee for Implementation of the National Forest System Land Management Planning Rule; Correction AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The..., National Forest System, Ecosystem Management Coordination; telephone: (202) 205-0830, fax: (202) 205-...

  3. A Monte Carlo analysis of the Viking lander dynamics at touchdown. [soft landing simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraca, R. J.; Campbell, J. W.; King, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of the Viking lander has been evaluated by using a Monte Carlo simulation, and all results are presented in statistical form. The primary objectives of this analysis were as follows: (1) to determine the three sigma design values of maximum rigid body accelerations and the minimum clearance of the lander body during landing; (2) to determine the probability of an unstable landing; and (3) to determine the probability of the lander body striking a rock. Two configurations were analyzed with the only difference being in the ability of the primary landing gear struts to carry tension loads.

  4. A Feasibility Analysis of Land-Based SINS/GNSS Gravimetry for Groundwater Resource Detection in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Lin, Cheng-An; Kuo, Chung-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System and Global Navigation Satellite System (SINS/GNSS) has been implemented for land-based gravimetry and has been proven to perform well in estimating gravity. Based on the mGal-level gravimetry results, this research aims to construct and develop a land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry device containing a navigation-grade Inertial Measurement Unit. This research also presents a feasibility analysis for groundwater resource detection. A preliminary comparison of the kinematic velocities and accelerations using multi-combination of GNSS data including Global Positioning System, Global Navigation Satellite System, and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, indicates that three-system observations performed better than two-system data in the computation. A comparison of gravity derived from SINS/GNSS and measured using a relative gravimeter also shows that both agree reasonably well with a mean difference of 2.30 mGal. The mean difference between repeat measurements of gravity disturbance using SINS/GNSS is 2.46 mGal with a standard deviation of 1.32 mGal. The gravity variation because of the groundwater at Pingtung Plain, Taiwan could reach 2.72 mGal. Hence, the developed land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry can sufficiently and effectively detect groundwater resources. PMID:26426019

  5. A Feasibility Analysis of Land-Based SINS/GNSS Gravimetry for Groundwater Resource Detection in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Lin, Cheng-An; Kuo, Chung-Yen

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System and Global Navigation Satellite System (SINS/GNSS) has been implemented for land-based gravimetry and has been proven to perform well in estimating gravity. Based on the mGal-level gravimetry results, this research aims to construct and develop a land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry device containing a navigation-grade Inertial Measurement Unit. This research also presents a feasibility analysis for groundwater resource detection. A preliminary comparison of the kinematic velocities and accelerations using multi-combination of GNSS data including Global Positioning System, Global Navigation Satellite System, and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, indicates that three-system observations performed better than two-system data in the computation. A comparison of gravity derived from SINS/GNSS and measured using a relative gravimeter also shows that both agree reasonably well with a mean difference of 2.30 mGal. The mean difference between repeat measurements of gravity disturbance using SINS/GNSS is 2.46 mGal with a standard deviation of 1.32 mGal. The gravity variation because of the groundwater at Pingtung Plain, Taiwan could reach 2.72 mGal. Hence, the developed land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry can sufficiently and effectively detect groundwater resources. PMID:26426019

  6. AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: INTEGRATED LAND USE TO STORE AND CONSERVE CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestry practices and to assess their potential to store ca...

  7. Systems Analysis Sub site

    SciTech Connect

    EERE

    2012-03-16

    Systems analysis provides direction, focus, and support for the development and introduction of hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies, and provides a basis for recommendations on a balanced portfolio of activities.

  8. Joint analysis of solar neutrino and new KamLAND data in the RSFP framework

    E-print Network

    D. Yilmaz

    2008-10-06

    A joint analysis of solar neutrino data together with the new KamLAND data is presented in the RSFP framework. It is investigated that how the new KamLAND data effects the allowed regions at different $\\mu B$ values. A limit on $\\mu B$ value is found at the different confidence level intervals. It is shown that the RSFP scenerio does not have a crucial role on the solar neutrino data.

  9. Land degradation and Poverty in maize producing areas of Kenya - Development of an interdisciplinary analysis framework using GIS and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graw, Valerie; Nkonya, Ephraim; Menz, Gunter

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation causes poverty and vice versa. But both processes are highly complex, hard to predict and to mitigate, and need insights from different perspectives. Therefore an interdisciplinary framework for the understanding of land degradation processes by linking biophysical data with socio-economic trends is necessary. Agricultural systems in Kenya are affected by land degradation and especially recent developments such as agricultural innovations including the use of hybrid seeds and chemical fertilizer have an impact on the environment. Vegetation analysis, used as a proxy indicator for the status of land is carried out to monitor environmental changes in maize producing areas of western Kenya. One of the methods used in this study includes time series analysis of vegetation data from 2001 to 2010 based on MODIS NDVI data with 250m and 500m resolution. Occurring trends are linked to rainfall estimation data and annually classified land use cover data with 500m resolution based on MODIS within the same time period. Analysis of significant trends in combination with land cover information show recent land change dynamics. As these changes are not solely biophysically driven, socio-economic variables representing marginality - defined as the root cause of poverty- are also considered. The most poor are primarily facing the most vulnerable and thereby less fertile soils. Moreover they are lacking access to information to eventually use existing potential. This makes the analysis of changing environmental processes and household characteristics in the interplay important to understand in order to highlight the most influencing variables. Within the new interdisciplinary analysis framework the concept of marginality includes different dimensions referring to certain livelihood characteristics such as health and education which describe a more diverse picture of poverty than the known economic perspective. Household surveys and census data from different time periods allow the analysis of socio-economic trends and link this information to biophysical factors. If relationships between certain variables are understood, adapted land management strategies can be developed. This study aims at linking pixel-level information with established remote sensing methods to the socio-economic concept of marginality based on household surveys and census data on administrative levels. Besides remote sensing and statistical analysis of socio-economic data a GIS is used for geospatial analysis. As most studies on land degradation focus on biophysical aspects such as vegetation or soil degradation this study uses an innovative approach by integrating biophysical analysis without neglecting a human oriented approach which plays a key role in environmental systems nowadays. This interdisciplinary research helps to get closer to the right and adapted policies and land management strategies as land degradation processes do not stick to administrative boundaries but policy advice does.

  10. Analysis of legged landers for the survivable soft landing of instrument payloads.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurenson, R. M.; Melliere, R. A.; Mcgehee, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Two methods of analysis have been developed for legged planetary landers. The first of these, the Large Displacement Gear Analysis, is a design tool for statically determining the large displacement stroking behavior, energy absorption characteristics, and internal load distributions in a single gear. The second, the Landing Dynamics Analysis, predicts the spatial landing dynamics of a legged lander. Effects of structural flexibility, elastic-plastic gear load characteristics, and soil properties on the loads, motions, and stability of the lander may be determined. Validation of the analytical techniques is accomplished through comparison of predicted results and experimental data obtained during a model test program.

  11. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  12. Message handling system concepts and services in a land mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barberis, S.; Settimo, F.; Giralda, A.; Mistretta, I.; Loisy, C.; Parmentier, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture containing the capabilities offered by the Message Handling System (MHS) to the PRODAT Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) is described taking into account the constraints of a preexisting satellite system which is going to become operational. The mapping between MHS services and PRODAT requirements is also reported and shows that the supplied performance can be significantly enhanced to both fixed and mobile users. The impact of the insertion of additional features on the system structure, especially on the centralized control unit, are also addressed.

  13. An econometric analysis of changes in arable land utilization using multinomial logit model in Pinggu district, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yueqing; McNamara, Paul; Wu, Yanfang; Dong, Yue

    2013-10-15

    Arable land in China has been decreasing as a result of rapid population growth and economic development as well as urban expansion, especially in developed regions around cities where quality farmland quickly disappears. This paper analyzed changes in arable land utilization during 1993-2008 in the Pinggu district, Beijing, China, developed a multinomial logit (MNL) model to determine spatial driving factors influencing arable land-use change, and simulated arable land transition probabilities. Land-use maps, as well as social-economic and geographical data were used in the study. The results indicated that arable land decreased significantly between 1993 and 2008. Lost arable land shifted into orchard, forestland, settlement, and transportation land. Significant differences existed for arable land transitions among different landform areas. Slope, elevation, population density, urbanization rate, distance to settlements, and distance to roadways were strong drivers influencing arable land transition to other uses. The MNL model was proved effective for predicting transition probabilities in land use from arable land to other land-use types, thus can be used for scenario analysis to develop land-use policies and land-management measures in this metropolitan area. PMID:23774750

  14. Spatio-temporal analysis on land transformation in a forested tropical landscape in Jambi Province, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melati, Dian N.; Nengah Surati Jaya, I.; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Zuhdi, Muhammad; Fehrmann, Lutz; Magdon, Paul; Kleinn, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) in forested tropical landscapes is very dynamically developing. In particular, the pace of forest conversion in the tropics is a global concern as it directly impacts the global carbon cycle and biodiversity conservation. Expansion of agriculture is known to be among the major drivers of forest loss especially in the tropics. This is also the case in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia where it is the mainly expansion of tree crops that triggers deforestation: oil palm and rubber trees. Another transformation system in Jambi is the one from natural forest into jungle rubber, which is an agroforestry system where a certain density of forest trees accompanies the rubber tree crop, also for production of wood and non-wood forest products. The spatial distribution and the dynamics of these transformation systems and of the remaining forests are essential information for example for further research on ecosystem services and on the drivers of land transformation. In order to study land transformation, maps from the years 1990, 2000, 2011, and 2013 were utilized, derived from visual interpretation of Landsat images. From these maps, we analyze the land use/land cover change (LULCC) in the study region. It is found that secondary dryland forest (on mineral soils) and secondary swamp forest have been transformed largely into (temporary) shrub land, plantation forests, mixed dryland agriculture, bare lands and estate crops where the latter include the oil palm and rubber plantations. In addition, we present some analyses of the spatial pattern of land transformation to better understand the process of LULC fragmentation within the studied periods. Furthermore, the driving forces are analyzed.

  15. Decision Support Systems (DSSs) For Contaminated Land Management - Gaps And Challenges

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plethora of information is available when considering decision support systems for risk-based management of contaminated land. Broad issues of what is contaminated land, what is a brownfield, and what is remediation are discussed in EU countries and the U.S. Making decisions ...

  16. FORT HOOD LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (LMS) MILITARY FIELD APPLICATION SITE FY99 IN-PROGRESS REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Land Management System (LMS) is to provide relevant science, tools, and information to land and water resource managers and decision makers with the goal of enhancing their ability to understand and communicate past, current, and potential impacts of management...

  17. On Modeling A Dynamic Hybrid System with Constraints: Computing Aircraft Landing

    E-print Network

    Artiouchine, Konstantin

    On Modeling A Dynamic Hybrid System with Constraints: Computing Aircraft Landing Trajectories of computing trajectories of a set of aircraft in their final descent, right before landing. Trajectories must be compatible with aircraft dynamics while keeping distance between aircraft large enough. Our objective

  18. Land Allocation in Agricultural Systems: Use of a Simple Model to Examine Impacts of External Drivers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most basic and expensive resources in the agricultural enterprise is land. Optimally allocating this valuable resource among different enterprises can be difficult and has substantial impacts on profitability and sustainability of the production system. Land allocation is based on enviro...

  19. Snow process modeling in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS)

    E-print Network

    Robock, Alan

    Snow process modeling in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS): 1. Evaluation of model-simulated snow cover extent Justin Sheffield,1 Ming Pan,1 Eric F. Wood,1 Kenneth E. Mitchell,2) and consists of two parts: (1) assessment of land surface model simulations of snow cover extent and (2

  20. Impact of agricultural land management systems on soil microbial diversity and plant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased diversity of fungal rDNA ITS-1 amplicons, as measured by the Shannon-Weiner index, was associated with land management practices that minimise soil disturbance (bahiagrass pasture and undisturbed weed fallow) when compared with organic or conventional land management systems. Diversity de...

  1. Energy and resource consumption of land-based hatchery systems for finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...

  2. Integration of the NASA Land Information System as an Application Framework into the MRC Rapid Prototyping Capabilities Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharaj, V.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Houser, P.; Mostovoy, G.; Haupt, T.; Moorhead, R.; Kumar, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Mississippi Research Consortium (MRC) is implementing a computational Rapid Prototyping Capabilities (RPC) infrastructure, based on a systems engineering concept, advocated by the NASA Applied Sciences Program, in order to identify, evaluate, and integrate research results for applications. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) is a "functional Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS)" that incorporates a suite of land models in an interoperable computational framework. LIS currently is comprised of a LIS core, a number of community land models, data servers, and visualization systems - integrated in a high-performance computing environment. LIS uses model independent software frameworks, such as the Earth Systems Modeling Framework (ESMF) and Assistance for Land Modeling Activities (ALMA), in order to enable interactions with other earth system model and decision support systems (DSS). The LIS user interface (UI) can be used to query, browse, and download LIS derived products. Besides, any clients that support OpenDAP can be used to access the model results. NASA LIS has been identified to be integrated into the RPC infrastructure as a cross-cutting applications framework (AF). The land models in LIS incorporate surface and atmospheric parameters of temperature, snow/water, vegetation, albedo, soil conditions, topography, and radiation. Many of these parameters are available from in- situ observations, numerical model analysis, and from NASA, NOAA, and other remote sensing satellite platforms at various spatial and temporal resolutions. Since the land models in LIS require normal spin-up times of 5 years or more for most experiments, the necessary multi-year retrospective initialization and forcing fields (estimated to grow to 10 TB in size) are also stored and managed in the RPC infrastructure. The computational resources, available to LIS via the RPC infrastructure, support e-Science experiments involving the global modeling of land-atmosphere studies at 1km spatial resolutions as well as regional studies at finer resolutions. Thus the LIS AF with-in RPC can be used to rapidly prototype experiments in order to evaluate the viability of basic research results toward applications of societal benefits. Besides, use case scenarios developed using LIS are also used to specify and refine the system requirements for RPC. The approach used for the integration of LIS as an applications framework into RPC and the lessons learned will be shared during the presentation.

  3. Space lab system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rives, T. B.; Ingels, F. M.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of the Automated Booster Assembly Checkout System (ABACS) has been conducted. A computer simulation of the ETHERNET LAN has been written. The simulation allows one to investigate different structures of the ABACS system. The simulation code is in PASCAL and is VAX compatible.

  4. MOUSE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original MOUSE (Modular Oriented Uncertainty System) system was designed to deal with the problem of uncertainties in Environmental engineering calculations, such as a set of engineering cost or risk analysis equations. t was especially intended for use by individuals with li...

  5. Implementation and Application of the Kalman Filter Data Assimilation Approaches in NASA's Land Information System Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, X.; Kumar, S.; Crow, W. T.; Arsenault, K.; Houser, P. R.; Peters-Lidard, C.

    2006-05-01

    Building on the North-American and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (LDAS), a Land Information System (LIS) infrastructure has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center jointly with NOAA- NCEP, NWS and university collaborators. In the context of numerical weather prediction applications, LDAS can provide optimal estimates of land surface state initial conditions by integrating with an ensemble of land surface models the available atmospheric forcing data, remotely sensed observations of precipitation, radiation and some land surface parameters such as land cover and leaf area index. Using high performance computer and programming technologies, LIS is capable of simulating land surface state variables and fluxes at spatial scales up to 1km or even finer. In recent years, land surface state variables such as temperature and soil moisture have been retrieved from remote sensing instruments such as the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and advenced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR-E) on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. Novel data assimilation algorithms such as Kalman filters have been tested to optimally merge these observations with the simulations of land surface models to reduce the uncertainties in the model outputs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to add Kalman filter data assimilation capabilities into the LIS infrastructure for better land surface simulations. Through a collaborative effort, we have implemented three different data assimilation algorithms into LIS (direct insertion, extended Kalman filter-EKF and ensemble Kalman filter-EnKF). In a version of LIS for future release, any of them can be selected to assimilate observations of one or more land surface state variables (such as soil moisture and surface temperature) into any LIS-compliant land surface models (e.g. the Mosaic model or the Noah model) without major modification to model- or variable-specific subroutines. This presentation describes the construction of the LIS Kalman filter data assimilation plug-ins and demonstrates the new LIS data assimilation features using synthetic and real satellite remote sensing data.

  6. 76 FR 3015 - Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order; Closure of National Forest System Lands To Protect...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... National Forest System Lands To Protect Privacy of Tribal Activities AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... closure of National Forest System lands to protect the privacy of tribal activities for traditional and....'' FCEA authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to ensure access to National Forest System lands, to...

  7. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  8. Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Knocke, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present a novel method of land surface classification using surface-reflected GPS signals in combination with digital imagery. Two GPS-derived classification features are merged with visible image data to create terrain-moisture (TM) classes, defined here as visibly identifiable terrain or landcover classes containing a surface/soil moisture component. As compared to using surface imagery alone, classification accuracy is significantly improved for a number of visible classes when adding the GPS-based signal features. Since the strength of the reflected GPS signal is proportional to the amount of moisture in the surface, use of these GPS features provides information about the surface that is not obtainable using visible wavelengths alone. Application areas include hydrology, precision agriculture, and wetlands mapping.

  9. 43 CFR 1610.5-7 - Situations where action can be taken based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. 1610.5-7 Section 1610.5-7 Public Lands: Interior... action can be taken based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. These regulations authorize.... The Field Manager may use the plans or the land use analysis of other agencies when split or...

  10. 43 CFR 1610.5-7 - Situations where action can be taken based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. 1610.5-7 Section 1610.5-7 Public Lands: Interior... action can be taken based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. These regulations authorize.... The Field Manager may use the plans or the land use analysis of other agencies when split or...

  11. 43 CFR 1610.5-7 - Situations where action can be taken based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. 1610.5-7 Section 1610.5-7 Public Lands: Interior... action can be taken based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. These regulations authorize.... The Field Manager may use the plans or the land use analysis of other agencies when split or...

  12. Application of learning management system (LMS) to the learning of land evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascó, G.; Guerrero, F.; Gallardo, J.; Gascó, J. M.; Saa, A.

    2010-05-01

    The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is producing changes in the learning system. One of the new learning system is the use of Moodle which is an Open Source Course Management System (CMS), also known as a Learning Management System (LMS) or a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). It has become very popular among educators around the world as a tool for creating online dynamic web sites for their students. Professors of Soil Science Department of Universidad Politécnica de Madrid are introducing the use of moodle combined with the portfolio development in the learning of the subject of Land Evaluation. The objective of this subject is the application of the land capability system to the land evaluation of an specific area. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of the application of LMS in the teaching of Land Evaluation at University level.

  13. Analysis of Island Land Use Change Based on Transfer Matrix'a Case Study of Dongtou Island in Zhejiang Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Tao, Kunwang; Qian, Xinlin

    2015-04-01

    With the increasing developments of islands, the protection and management of island's natural resources are imperative. The core of islands' protection and management is to acquire the information of changes of the land use and land cover. What's more, the purpose of the islands' land use change information analysis is to plan the effective protection of land resource, achieve scientific management and sustainable utilization. Based on the improved calculation method of land use change and the computational model of change rate of the land use, an analysis of land use transfer matrix and transfer probability matrix is presented, and the method of land use change analysis based on the transfer matrix is proposed in this paper. And then the comparative analysis of all types of land use transfer is introduced. Taken the island of Dongtou in Zhejiang Province as the case, with the SPOT-5 satellite image in 2005 and the aerial image in 2011 as the data source, the current situation of land utilization of Dongtou Island and its land use change are analyzed. The experiment results show that, from 2005 to 2011, the greatest changes are the structures and water, followed by the forest land, grassland, cultivated land and others. The major change of structure and forest is the net change, while the major change of the water and grassland is the swap change. From the perspective of increment, the conversion from waters to structure has the most advantage, followed by water converted to grassland and road. To see from the loss, structures converted into roads and buildings have the most superiority transformation, followed by structures converted to grassland. The analysis of the case proves that the proposed process and method in this paper could achieve better results in the practical application. The experiment results also demonstrate that the proposed method could effectively obtain the dynamic change information of land use which is much helpful for land management and decision-making.

  14. Capturing interactions between nitrogen and hydrological cycles under historical climate and land use: Susquehanna watershed analysis with the GFDL land model LM3-TAN

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, Paul C. D.; Jaffé, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a process model LM3-TAN to assess the combined effects of direct human influences and climate change on terrestrial and aquatic nitrogen (TAN) cycling. The model was developed by expanding NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land model LM3V-N of coupled terrestrial carbon and nitrogen (C-N) cycling and including new N cycling processes and inputs such as a soil denitrification, point N sources to streams (i.e., sewage), and stream transport and microbial processes. Because the model integrates ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes, it captures key controls of the transport and fate of N in the vegetation–soil–river system in a comprehensive and consistent framework which is responsive to climatic variations and land-use changes. We applied the model at 1/8° resolution for a study of the Susquehanna River Basin. We simulated with LM3-TAN stream dissolved organic-N, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N loads throughout the river network, and we evaluated the modeled loads for 1986–2005 using data from 16 monitoring stations as well as a reported budget for the entire basin. By accounting for interannual hydrologic variability, the model was able to capture interannual variations of stream N loadings. While the model was calibrated with the stream N loads only at the last downstream Susquehanna River Basin Commission station Marietta (40°02' N, 76°32' W), it captured the N loads well at multiple locations within the basin with different climate regimes, land-use types, and associated N sources and transformations in the sub-basins. Furthermore, the calculated and previously reported N budgets agreed well at the level of the whole Susquehanna watershed. Here we illustrate how point and non-point N sources contributing to the various ecosystems are stored, lost, and exported via the river. Local analysis of six sub-basins showed combined effects of land use and climate on soil denitrification rates, with the highest rates in the Lower Susquehanna Sub-Basin (extensive agriculture; Atlantic coastal climate) and the lowest rates in the West Branch Susquehanna Sub-Basin (mostly forest; Great Lakes and Midwest climate). In the re-growing secondary forests, most of the N from non-point sources was stored in the vegetation and soil, but in the agricultural lands most N inputs were removed by soil denitrification, indicating that anthropogenic N applications could drive substantial increase of N2O emission, an intermediate of the denitrification process.

  15. Managing the environmental impacts of land transport: integrating environmental analysis with urban planning.

    PubMed

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Ecological systems have limits or thresholds that vary by pollutant type, emissions sources and the sensitivity of a given location. Human health can also indicate sensitivity. Good environmental management requires any problem to be defined to obtain efficient and effective solutions. Cities are where transport activities, effects and resource management decisions are often most focussed. The New Zealand Ministry of Transport has developed two environmental management tools. The Vehicle Fleet Model (VFM) is a predictive database of the environmental performance of the New Zealand traffic fleet (and rail fleet). It calculates indices of local air quality, stormwater, and greenhouse gases emissions. The second is an analytical process based on Environmental Capacity Analysis (ECA). Information on local traffic is combined with environmental performance data from the Vehicle Fleet Model. This can be integrated within a live, geo-spatially defined analysis of the overall environmental effects within a defined local area. Variations in urban form and activity (traffic and other) that contribute to environmental effects can be tracked. This enables analysis of a range of mitigation strategies that may contribute, now or in the future, to maintaining environmental thresholds or meeting targets. A case study of the application of this approach was conducted within Waitakere City. The focus was on improving the understanding of the relative significance of stormwater contaminants derived from land transport. PMID:15504492

  16. 76 FR 8479 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ...integrated resource management and for guiding...forest, grassland, prairie, or other administrative...which the unit is best suited, considering...the resources and management of other lands in...management policies, practices, and procedures...forest, grassland, prairie, or other...

  17. 77 FR 21161 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ...integrated resource management and for guiding...forest, grassland, prairie, or other administrative...the plan area is best suited, considering...the resources and management of other lands in...management policies, practices, and procedures...forest, grassland, prairie, or other...

  18. Atmosphere, ocean, and land: Critical gaps in Earth system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.; Hartley, Dana

    1992-01-01

    We briefly review current knowledge and pinpoint some of the major areas of uncertainty for the following fundamental processes: (1) convection, condensation nuclei, and cloud formation; (2) oceanic circulation and its coupling to the atmosphere and cryosphere; (3) land surface hydrology and hydrology-vegetation coupling; (4) biogeochemistry of greenhouse gases; and (5) upper atmospheric chemistry and circulation.

  19. A Graphical System for Introducing Estates in Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurence, Robert T.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A method for introducing estates in land to first-year law students is presented in detail. A key element is its use of transparencies to graphically represent crucial concepts and appropriate language. The concepts are introduced in a systematic fashion to allow students to build an understanding gradually. (JMD)

  20. Relations Among Geology, Physiography, Land Use, and Stream Habitat Conditions in the Buffalo and Current River Systems, Missouri and Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panfil, Maria S.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated links between drainage-basin characteristics and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri. It was designed as an associative study - the two parks were divided into their principle tributary drainage basins and then basin-scale and stream-habitat data sets were gathered and compared between them. Analyses explored the relative influence of different drainage-basin characteristics on stream habitat conditions. They also investigated whether a relation between land use and stream characteristics could be detected after accounting for geologic and physiographic differences among drainage basins. Data were collected for three spatial scales: tributary drainage basins, tributary stream reaches, and main-stem river segments of the Current and Buffalo Rivers. Tributary drainage-basin characteristics were inventoried using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and included aspects of drainage-basin physiography, geology, and land use. Reach-scale habitat surveys measured channel longitudinal and cross-sectional geometry, substrate particle size and embeddedness, and indicators of channel stability. Segment-scale aerial-photo based inventories measured gravel-bar area, an indicator of coarse sediment load, along main-stem rivers. Relations within and among data sets from each spatial scale were investigated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Study basins encompassed physiographically distinct regions of the Ozarks. The Buffalo River system drains parts of the sandstone-dominated Boston Mountains and of the carbonate-dominated Springfield and Salem Plateaus. The Current River system is within the Salem Plateau. Analyses of drainage-basin variables highlighted the importance of these physiographic differences and demonstrated links among geology, physiography, and land-use patterns. Buffalo River tributaries have greater relief, steeper slopes, and more streamside bluffs than the Current River tributaries. Land use patterns in both river systems correlate with physiography - cleared land area is negatively associated with drainage-basin average slope. Both river systems are dominantly forested (0-35 per-cent cleared land), however, the potential for landscape disturbance may be greater in the Buffalo River system where a larger proportion of cleared land occurs on steep slopes (>15 degrees). When all drainage basins are grouped together, reach-scale channel characteristics show the strongest relations with drainage-basin physiography. Bankfull channel geometry and residual pool dimensions are positively correlated with drainage area and topographic relief variables. After accounting for differences in drainage area, channel dimensions in Buffalo River tributaries tend to be larger than in Current River tributaries. This trend is consistent with the flashy runoff and large storm flows that can be generated in rugged, sandstone-dominate terrain. Substrate particle size is also most strongly associated with physiography; particle size is positively correlated with topographic relief variables. When tributaries are subset by river system, relations with geology and land use variables become apparent. Buffalo River tributaries with larger proportions of carbonate bedrock and cleared land area have shallower channels, better-sorted, gravel-rich substrate, and more eroding banks than those with little cleared land and abundant sandstone bedrock. Gravel-bar area on the Buffalo River main stem was also larger within 1-km of carbonate-rich tributary junctions. Because geology and cleared land are themselves correlated, relations with anthropogenic and natural factors could often not be separated. Channel characteristics in the Current River system show stronger associations with physiography than with land use. Channels are shallower and have finer substrates in the less rugged, karst-rich, western basins than in the

  1. Biomedical systems analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Biomedical monitoring programs which were developed to provide a system analysis context for a unified hypothesis for adaptation to space flight are presented and discussed. A real-time system of data analysis and decision making to assure the greatest possible crew safety and mission success is described. Information about man's abilities, limitations, and characteristic reactions to weightless space flight was analyzed and simulation models were developed. The predictive capabilities of simulation models for fluid-electrolyte regulation, erythropoiesis regulation, and calcium regulation are discussed.

  2. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems and Synthetic Vision Systems for NextGen Approach and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory standards and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for using EFVS to conduct approach, landing, and roll-out operations in visibility as low as 1000 feet runway visual range (RVR). Also, SVS was tested to evaluate the potential for lowering decision heights (DH) on certain instrument approach procedures below what can be flown today. Expanding the portion of the visual segment in which EFVS can be used in lieu of natural vision from 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation to touchdown and rollout in visibilities as low as 1000 feet RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was acceptable without any apparent workload penalties. A lower DH of 150 feet and/or possibly reduced visibility minima using SVS appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  3. 43 CFR 1610.5-7 - Situations where action can be taken based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Situations where action can be taken based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. 1610.5-7 Section 1610.5-7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING,...

  4. The Community Land Model and Its Climate Statistics as a Component of the Community Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, Robert E.; Oleson, Keith; Bonan, Gordon; Hoffman, Forrest M; Thornton, Peter; Vertenstein, Mariana; Yang, Zong-Liang; Zeng, Xubin

    2006-01-01

    Several multidecadal simulations have been carried out with the new version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). This paper reports an analysis of the land component of these simulations. Global annual averages over land appear to be within the uncertainty of observational datasets, but the seasonal cycle over land of temperature and precipitation appears to be too weak. These departures from observations appear to be primarily a consequence of deficiencies in the simulation of the atmospheric model rather than of the land processes. High latitudes of northern winter are biased sufficiently warm to have a significant impact on the simulated value of global land temperature. The precipitation is approximately doubled from what it should be at some locations, and the snowpack and spring runoff are also excessive. The winter precipitation over Tibet is larger than observed. About two-thirds of this precipitation is sublimated during the winter, but what remains still produces a snowpack that is very large compared to that observed with correspondingly excessive spring runoff. A large cold anomaly over the Sahara Desert and Sahel also appears to be a consequence of a large anomaly in downward longwave radiation; low column water vapor appears to be most responsible. The modeled precipitation over the Amazon basin is low compared to that observed, the soil becomes too dry, and the temperature is too warm during the dry season.

  5. Estimating model and observation error covariance information for land data assimilation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to operate efficiently, data assimilation systems require accurate assumptions concerning the statistical magnitude and cross-correlation structure of error in model forecasts and assimilated observations. Such information is seldom available for the operational implementation of land data ...

  6. Hydration of the lower stratosphere by ice crystal geysers over land convective systems

    E-print Network

    Khaykin, S.

    The possible impact of deep convective overshooting over land has been explored by six simultaneous soundings of water vapour, particles and ozone in the lower stratosphere next to Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) during ...

  7. Requirements for ongoing development of the Pilot Land Data System (PLDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, S. W.; Newcomer, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Pilot Land Data System being developed to address the information processing needs of the NASA land sciences research community is presented. The objective of the pilot program is to establish a limited-scale, distributed information system for the archival, location, transfer, integration, and manipulation of data across multiple sites connected by a high-speed communications network. Functional capabilities required for users to create, access, and maintain local and distributed data bases containing various types of data in support of land sciences research are summarized.

  8. Covariance Analysis Tool (G-CAT) for Computing Ascent, Descent, and Landing Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Bayard, David S.

    2013-01-01

    G-CAT is a covariance analysis tool that enables fast and accurate computation of error ellipses for descent, landing, ascent, and rendezvous scenarios, and quantifies knowledge error contributions needed for error budgeting purposes. Because GCAT supports hardware/system trade studies in spacecraft and mission design, it is useful in both early and late mission/ proposal phases where Monte Carlo simulation capability is not mature, Monte Carlo simulation takes too long to run, and/or there is a need to perform multiple parametric system design trades that would require an unwieldy number of Monte Carlo runs. G-CAT is formulated as a variable-order square-root linearized Kalman filter (LKF), typically using over 120 filter states. An important property of G-CAT is that it is based on a 6-DOF (degrees of freedom) formulation that completely captures the combined effects of both attitude and translation errors on the propagated trajectories. This ensures its accuracy for guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) analysis. G-CAT provides the desired fast turnaround analysis needed for error budgeting in support of mission concept formulations, design trade studies, and proposal development efforts. The main usefulness of a covariance analysis tool such as G-CAT is its ability to calculate the performance envelope directly from a single run. This is in sharp contrast to running thousands of simulations to obtain similar information using Monte Carlo methods. It does this by propagating the "statistics" of the overall design, rather than simulating individual trajectories. G-CAT supports applications to lunar, planetary, and small body missions. It characterizes onboard knowledge propagation errors associated with inertial measurement unit (IMU) errors (gyro and accelerometer), gravity errors/dispersions (spherical harmonics, masscons), and radar errors (multiple altimeter beams, multiple Doppler velocimeter beams). G-CAT is a standalone MATLAB- based tool intended to run on any engineer's desktop computer.

  9. Laser gyro strapdown system alignment/calibration and land navigation using Kalman filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. B.

    A strapdown ring laser gyro (RLG) system which is mounted on a turntable capable of rotating about the azimuth axis is analyzed with reference to alignment, calibration, and land vehicle navigation. The initial alignment/calibration is achieved using multipositions of the turntable with the system under the control of a 16-state Kalman filter. The filter is then used for land vehicle navigation performance evaluation with null velocity updates during the vehicle stops.

  10. Landing performance of an air cushion landing system installed on a 1/10-scale dynamic model on the C-8 Buffalo airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the landing behavior of a 1/10-scale dynamic model of the C-8 Buffalo airplane equipped with an air-cushion landing system (ACLS) on a variety of surfaces including both calm and rough water and a smooth hard surface. Taxi runs were made on the hard surface over several obstacles. Landings were made with the model at various pitch and roll attitudes and vertical velocities and at one nominal horizontal velocity. Data from the landings include time histories of the trunk and air-cushion pressures and accelerations at selected locations on the model.

  11. Copyright 2008 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance. Baldi, G., and J. M. Paruelo. 2008. Land-use and land cover dynamics in South American temperate

    E-print Network

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    , G., and J. M. Paruelo. 2008. Land-use and land cover dynamics in South American temperate grasslands in the Neotropics Land-Use and Land Cover Dynamics in South American Temperate Grasslands Germán Baldi 1,2 and José of the system. Our approach involved the generation of land-use and land cover maps, the analysis of landscape

  12. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Stardust Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Dan T.; Tooley, Jeff; Kangas, Julie

    2008-01-01

    On the morning of January 15, 2006, the Stardust capsule successfully landed at the Utah Test and Training range in northwest Utah returning cometary samples from the comet Wild-2. An overview of the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) trajectory analysis that was performed for targeting during the mission operations phase upon final approach to Earth is described. The final orbit determination solution produced an inertial entry flight-path angle of -8.21 deg (the desired nominal value) with a 3-sigma uncertainty of +/-0.0017 deg (2% of the requirement). The navigation and EDL operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.1 km from the target, which was well within the allowable landing area. Overall, the Earth approach operation procedures worked well and there were no issues (logistically or performance based) that arose. As a result, the process of targeting a capsule from an interplanetary trajectory and accurately landing it on Earth was successfully demonstrated.

  13. Watershed scale environmental sustainability analysis of biofuel production in changing land use and climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RAJ, C.; Chaubey, I.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Brouder, S. M.; Volenec, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the grand challenges in meeting the US biofuel goal is producing large quantities of cellulosic biofeedstock materials for the production of biofuels in an environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. The possible land use and land management practice changes induce concerns over the environmental impacts of these bioenergy crop production scenarios both in terms of water availability and water quality, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. This study aims to evaluate environmental sustainability of various plausible land and crop management scenarios for biofuel production under changing climate scenarios for a Midwest US watershed. The study considers twelve environmental sustainability indicators related hydrology and water quality with thirteen plausible biofuels scenarios in the watershed under nine climate change scenarios. The land use change scenarios for evaluation includes, (1) bioenergy crops in highly erodible soils (3) bioenergy crops in low row crop productive fields (marginal lands); (3) bioenergy crops in pasture and range land use areas and (4) combinations of these scenarios. Future climate data bias corrected and downscaled to daily values from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset were used in this study. The distributed hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to simulate bioenergy crops growth, hydrology and water quality. The watershed scale sustainability analysis was done in Wildcat Creek basin, which is located in North-Central Indiana, USA.

  14. Analysis of soil moisture condition under different land uses in arid region of Horqin Sandy Land, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, C.; Musa, A.; Liu, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Land use plays an important role in controlling spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture by influencing infiltration rates, runoff, and evapotranspiration, which is substantive meaning to crop growth and vegetation restoration in semiarid environments, such as the Horqin Sandy Land in north China. However, few studies have been conducted comparing differences of dynamics of soil water conditions and the responses of soil water to precipitation infiltration under different land use types in this semiarid region. Five different land use types were selected to analyze soil moisture variations in relation to land use patterns during the growing season of two years. Results showed that soil moisture condition was affected by different land uses in semi-arid sandy land. The order of soil moisture (from high to low) among different land uses was grassland, cropland, poplar land, inter-dunes and shrub land. The temporal variations of soil moisture in different land uses were not always consistent with the rainfall due to the dry sequence. Moreover, soil water in surface, root zone and deep soil layer indicated statistical difference for different land covers. Meanwhile, temporal variations of soil moisture profile changed with precipitation. However, in deep soil layer, there was a clear lag in response to precipitation. In addition, seasonal variations of profile soil moisture were classified into two types: increasing and waving types. And the stable soil water layer was at 80-120 cm. Furthermore, the infiltration depth exhibited a positive correlation with precipitation under all land uses. This study provided an insight into the implications for land and agricultural water management in this area.

  15. INTEGRATED LAND-USE SYSTEMS: ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING AGROFOREST AND ALTERNATIVE LAND-USE PRACTICES TO ENHANCE CARBON CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Degraded or sub-standard soils and marginal lands occupy a significant proportion of boreal, temperate and tropical biomes. anagement of these lands with a wide range of existing, site-specific, integrated, agroforest systems represents a significant global opportunity to reduce ...

  16. URBAN EDUCATION SYSTEMS ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARK, STEPHEN C.; AND OTHERS

    ANALYSIS OF URBAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS MAY BE ACHIEVED BY USE OF AN ANALYTICAL MODEL. THE MODEL MAY BE USED IN DECISION-MAKING REGARDING SCHOOL LOCATION, ENROLLMENT, FACILITIES, ORGANIZATION, PROGRAMS AND COSTS. KNOWN DATA SUCH AS MONIES AVAILABLE, STAFF ALLOCATION, AND CURRENT SCHOOL PLANT ARE INTRODUCED INTO THE MODEL. IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE…

  17. VENTILATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop a systems analysis of ventilation technology and provide a state-of-the-art assessment of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ) research needs. (NOTE: Ventilation technology is defined as the hardware necessary to bring outdoor ...

  18. Business Systems Analysis with

    E-print Network

    Reinhartz-Berger, Iris

    /c) -- ISBN 1-59140-340-5 (s/c) -- ISBN 1-59140-341-3 (ebook) 1. Industrial management--Data processing. 2Business Systems Analysis with Ontologies PeterGreen UniversityofQueensland,Australia Michael;Acquisitions Editor: Renée Davies Development Editor: Kristin Roth Senior Managing Editor: Amanda Appicello

  19. Digital Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Vance S.

    2009-01-01

    There have been many attempts to understand how the Internet affects our modern world. There have also been numerous attempts to understand specific areas of the Internet. This article applies Immanuel Wallerstein's World Systems Analysis to our informationalist society. Understanding this world as divided among individual core, semi-periphery,…

  20. Georelational analysis of soil type, soil salt content, landform, and land use in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hongliang; Liu, Gaohuan; Kearney, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Yellow River Delta, one of China's three major river deltas, is becoming a major region for the development of agriculture and fisheries. Protecting the delicate ecology of newly formed aquatic systems as well as the evolution of soils, natural vegetation, and fauna on older upland environments in the delta is a priority in planning for the wise use of the delta's resources for future agricultural development. In this article, we use a Geographic Information System (GIS) to analyze relationships between land-use/ land-cover characteristics in the Dongying municipality, one of the most intensely developed areas of the delta, and spatial variations in soil salinity and landforms. This analysis reveals that soil salt content decreases from regionally high values in isolated depressions to relatively moderate values in embanked former back swamps, with the lowest values occurring in abandoned river courses. Comparing the present land use on this soil salinity-landform pattern shows that it is basically at odds with general concepts of land suitability for agricultural utilization of saline soils. Crop-based agriculture in the region is probably overdeveloped, whereas more appropriate agricultural development, like cattle and forest production, is underrepresented. Future development should focus on converting farmland in embanked former back swamps and abandoned river courses into grasslands and forests. Crop-based agriculture (up to 151,000 ha) could be planned at the low-salinity terrace uplands and flood plains. The article provides guidelines for decision-makers regarding agricultural land use and wetland protection in the Yellow River Delta. PMID:15984065