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This paper introduces the approach of the Systems research Network (SysNet) for land use planning in tropical Asia with a focus on its main scientific–technical output: the development of the land use planning and analysissystem (LUPAS) and its component models. These include crop simulation models, expert systems, GIS, and multiple goal linear programming (MGLP) models for land evaluation and
Reimund P. Roetter; Chu Thai Hoanh; Alice G. Laborte; Herman Van Keulen; Martin K. Van Ittersum; Christoph Dreiser; Cees A. Van Diepen; Nico De Ridder; H. H. Van Laar
This report deals with explaining the occurrence of flutter in the Air Cushion LandingSystem (ACLS) trunks and suggesting means of suppressing it. Observations of flutter in several ACLS trunks indicate that the flutter is caused by the interaction betwe...
The report examines the traditional land use analysis approach common to public planning agencies and compares it with an automated approach facilitated by automated geocoding systems. The study has two objectives: (1) to provide an understanding of the d...
Change detection is the measure of the distinct data framework and thematic change information that can guide to more tangible insights into underlying process involving land cover and land use changes than the information obtained from continuous change. Digital change detection is the process that helps in determining the changes associated with landuse and land cover properties with reference to
SUMMARY Today the shift is toward more intensive management of renewable natural resources. New techniques are being developed to analyze, evaluate and plan these resources to meet resource planning needs. Systemsanalysis meth- odology has been developed and applied to planning management of privately owned native grazing lands. COPLAN, a computer based resource allocation technique, provides a means for evaluating
A numerical and experimental analysis leading to the determination of the geometrical design parameters for an antenna array utilized in the Portable Air Traffic Control Approach and LandingSystem, developed by the Sierra Nevada Corporation, Sparks, Nevada, has been performed. Numerical modeling using the Method of Moments software package MININEC Professional for Windows was used to obtain the optimal heights
Since the early 1980s, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Institute for Applied SystemsAnalysis (IIASA) have been collaborating on expanding FAO's Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) methodology of land resources appraisal by incorporating decision support tools for optimizing the use of land resources. Initially, these tools consisted of the application of linear optimization techniques
The Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and AnalysisSystem (LC-ComPS) combines grid technology, existing science modules, and dynamic workflows to enable users to complete advanced land data processing on data available from local and distributed archives. Changes in land cover represent a direct link between human activities and the global environment, and in turn affect Earth's climate. Thus characterizing land
J. Masek; A. Rao; F. Gao; P. Davis; G. Jackson; C. Huang; B. Weinstein
The Tims Ford Analysis was developed to aid TVA and the Tennessee Elk River Development Agency in making land use and land management decisions. Spatially located data were used to identify sensitive resource areas and to provide a basis for site specific...
A user requirements analysis (URA) was undertaken to determine and appropriate public domain Geographic Information System (GIS) software package for potential integration with NASA's LAS (LandAnalysisSystem) 5.0 image processing system. The necessity f...
The electromagnetic compatibility among the proposed RTCA SC-117 next generation microwave landing guidance system (LGS) and several existing microwave landing guidance systems proposed as interim system candidates was analyzed. The signal format for LGS ...
Landsystem changes are central to the food security challenge. Landsystem science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A landsystem perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel landsystems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such landsystems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of landsystem change and food production.
Presently, the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) uses the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) land use characteristic dataset to determine global dust emission areas. The USGS dataset was developed from Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer 1-km data from April 1992 to March 1993. In the past decade drastic changes in land and water use in Asia and Southwest Asia have
Decision support to develop viable climate change adaptation strategies for agriculture and regional land use management encompasses a wide range of options and issues. Up to now, only a few suitable tools and methods have existed for farmers and regional stakeholders that support the process of decision-making in this field. The interactive model-based spatial information and decision support systemLandCaRe DSS attempts to close the existing methodical gap. This system supports interactive spatial scenario simulations, multi-ensemble and multi-model simulations at the regional scale, as well as the complex impact assessment of potential land use adaptation strategies at the local scale. The system is connected to a local geo-database and via the internet to a climate data server. LandCaRe DSS uses a multitude of scale-specific ecological impact models, which are linked in various ways. At the local scale (farm scale), biophysical models are directly coupled with a farm economy calculator. New or alternative simulation models can easily be added, thanks to the innovative architecture and design of the DSS. Scenario simulations can be conducted with a reasonable amount of effort. The interactive LandCaRe DSS prototype also offers a variety of data analysis and visualisation tools, a help system for users and a farmer information system for climate adaptation in agriculture. This paper presents the theoretical background, the conceptual framework, and the structure and methodology behind LandCaRe DSS. Scenario studies at the regional and local scale for the two Eastern German regions of Uckermark (dry lowlands, 2600 km(2)) and Weißeritz (humid mountain area, 400 km(2)) were conducted in close cooperation with stakeholders to test the functionality of the DSS prototype. The system is gradually being transformed into a web version (http://www.landcare-dss.de) to ensure the broadest possible distribution of LandCaRe DSS to the public. The system will be continuously developed, updated and used in different research projects and as a learning and knowledge-sharing tool for students. The main objective of LandCaRe DSS is to provide information on the complex long-term impacts of climate change and on potential management options for adaptation by answering "what-if" type questions. PMID:23582740
Analysis of land use systems can be conveniently performed through partial analyses of the bio-physical and the socio-economic sub-systems, followed by their integration. The place of land use practices in both sub-systems is discussed and a format for the description of the bio-physical components of land use practices is proposed. This new operation sequence approach is a deviation from the
The performance evaluation of integrated dispatch and interconnect traffic schemes is important in land mobile trunking systems. We present a unified approach to analyze a variety of schemes for integrating dispatch and interconnect traffic. Dispatch traffic is queued, and interconnect calls are blocked, when no channels are available. Performance trade-offs between dispatch and interconnect traffic are displayed. The blocking probability
The Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) program is the Army's standard for land inventory and monitoring, employing standardized methods of natural resources data collection, analyses, and reporting designed to meet multiple goals and objectives. LCTA da...
The Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and AnalysisSystem (LC-ComPS) combines grid technology, existing science modules, and dynamic workflows to enable users to complete advanced land data processing on data available from local and distributed archives. Changes in land cover represent a direct link between human activities and the global environment, and in turn affect Earth's climate. Thus characterizing land cover change has become a major goal for Earth observation science. Many science algorithms exist to generate new products (e.g., surface reflectance, change detection) used to study land cover change. The overall objective of the LC-ComPS is to release a set of tools and services to the land science community that can be implemented as a flexible LC-ComPS to produce surface reflectance and land-cover change information with ground resolution on the order of Landsat-class instruments. This package includes software modules for pre-processing Landsat-type satellite imagery (calibration, atmospheric correction, orthorectification, precision registration, BRDF correction) for performing land-cover change analysis and includes pre-built workflow chains to automatically generate surface reflectance and land-cover change products based on user input. In order to meet the project objectives, the team created the infrastructure (i.e., client-server system with graphical and machine interfaces) to expand the use of these existing science algorithm capabilities in a community with distributed, large data archives and processing centers. Because of the distributed nature of the user community, grid technology was chosen to unite the dispersed community resources. At that time, grid computing was not used consistently and operationally within the Earth science research community. Therefore, there was a learning curve to configure and implement the underlying public key infrastructure (PKI) interfaces, required for the user authentication, secure file transfer and remote job execution on the grid network of machines. In addition, science support was needed to vet that the grid technology did not have any adverse affects of the science module outputs. Other open source, unproven technologies, such as a workflow package to manage jobs submitted by the user, were infused into the overall system with successful results. This presentation will discuss the basic capabilities of LC-ComPS, explain how the technology was infused, and provide lessons learned for using and integrating the various technologies while developing and operating the system, and finally outline plans moving forward (maintenance and operations decisions) based on the experience to date.
To assess their impacts on net global warming, total greenhouse gas emissions (mainly CO2, N2O and CH4) from agricultural production in arable land cropping systems in the Tokachi region of Hokkaido, Japan, were estimated using life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis. The LCI data included CO2 emissions from on-farm and off-farm fossil fuel consumption, soil CO2 emissions induced by the decomposition
Presently, the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) uses the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) land use characteristic dataset to determine global dust emission areas. The USGS dataset was developed from Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer 1-km data from April 1992 to March 1993. In the past decade drastic changes in land and water use in Asia and Southwest Asia have quickly outdated this dataset. In China and Mongolia, age-old practices of farming and animal husbandry have been abandoned. Herders have too many animals in one location allowing the grassland to be eaten away and leaving vast areas of topsoil exposed and primed for removal by the wind. In the case of Southwest Asia, a four-year drought is in progress. Many of the wetlands and marshes in the river deltas are drying up from the lack of water runoff. To compound the problem several new dams were and are being built along the major watersheds. In particular, Iraq's dam building in the 1990's and politically driven draining of the Mesopotamian marshes between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers has lead to the near disappearance of this historical marshland. To incorporate these changes we are updating the USGS land use characteristic dataset using GIS-like software named ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images), 1 km National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global topographical data, satellite imagery, and recently released governmental maps and reports. (For example, within the last two years the Chinese and Mongolian governments have released land degradation and desertification maps to satisfy the requirements set forth by United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.) The steps taken to create the new land use characteristic database will be described in detail. Before (non-dust producing areas) and after (dust producing areas) examples will be shown.
We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types–farmland, built-up land and unused land–was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient.
We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types-farmland, built-up land and unused land-was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764
The ability of geographic information systems to combine point, line, and areal data has been widely documented, although the establishment of a particular data base presents its own unique problems. The U. S. Geological Survey is developing a geographic information system consisting of information on Federal surface ownership, Federal subsurface mineral rights, location of actual mineral occurrences and (or) known potential, and formal restrictions to mineral development. By utilizing information already compiled or soon to be collected by other agencies, the Federal Mineral Land Information System should be able to provide answers relating to mineral availability on public lands.
The valuable in situ observations provided by landers and probes are a pri- mary way we learn about other environments in our Solar System. This paper will discuss the successes and failures over the years in human kind's attempts to land spacecraft on objects in the Solar System, excluding the Moon. From the first successful lander, Venera 7 on Venus,
Information on land use/land cover in the form of maps and statistical data is very vital for spatial planning, management and utilization of land. Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) scenario in India has undergone a radical change since the onset of economic revolution in early 1990s. These changes involve a series of complex interaction between biophysical and socioeconomic variables. LULC follows a set of scientific themes which includes detection and monitoring, carbon and biogeochemical cycle, ecosystems and biodiversity, water and energy cycle, predictive land use modeling and climate variability and change. With the changing times and increasing demand on the availability of information on land use/land cover, it becomes necessary to have a standard classification system, precise definition of land use/land cover and its categories, uniform procedures of data collection and mapping on different scales over Indian region. The current review thus attempts to focus on development of a national goal towards changes in LULC as a necessary step for an interdisciplinary research program involving climate, ecological and socioeconomic drives, the processes of change and the responses and consequences of change.
A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.
IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use\\/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity through deforestation or soil degradation through unsustainable land use, increasing importance is given to the
ALG is a combination of raster imaging sensor, head-up displays, flight guidance and procedures which allow pilots to perform hand flown aircraft maneuvers in adverse weather, at night, or in low visibility conditions at facilities with minimal or no ground aids. Maneuvers in the context of ALG relate to takeoff, landing, rollout, taxi and terminal parking. Commercial needs are driven by potential revenue savings since today only 43 Type III and 80 Type II instrumented landingsystem (ILS) runway ends in the United States are equipped for lower minimum flight operations. Additionally, most of these ILS facilities are clustered at major gateway airports which further impacts on dispatch authority and general ATC regional delays. Infrastructure consists to upgrade additional runways must not only account for the high integrity ground instrumentation, but also the installation of lights and markers mandated for Cat III operations. The military services ability to train under realistic battlefield conditions, to project power globally in support of national interests, while providing humanitarian aid, is significantly impaired by the inability to conduct precision approaches and landings in low visibility conditions to either instrumented runways or to a more tactical environment with operations into and out of unprepared landing strips, particularly when time does not permit deployment of ground aids and the verification of their integrity. Recently, Lear Astronics, in cooperation with Consortium members of the ALG Program, concluded a flight test program which evaluated the utility of the ALG system in meeting both civil and military needs. Those results are the subject of this paper.
Bui, Long Q.; Franklin, Michael R.; Taylor, Christopher; Neilson, Graham
We advocate an approach to reduce the anticipated increase in stormwater runoff from conventional development by demonstrating a low-impact development that incorporates hydrologic factors into an expanded land suitability analysis. This methodology was applied to a 3 hectare exp...
Recent advances in Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data availability and topographic analysis have enabled us to develop an Automated LandAnalysisSystem (ALAS). ALAS is based on a series of codes which determine topographic and hydrologic characteristics at each pixel, watershed, and each large scale cell. The input requirements are a DEM from any location in the world, it`s resolution, and array size. A Motif accessed script reads in these inputs and generates a series of data sets which further describe the watershed properties such as flow directions, hydrologic characteristic probability density functions, etc.). Postscript files and arrays indicating the fme river networks and each subcatchment, as well as numerous other properties, are produced and catalogued. The motivation behind the development of ALAS is a direct response to the conceptualization of convergent scales between hydrologic and atmospheric models as defined by the World Climate Research Programme. The remainder of this paper highlights ALAS components, capabilities, and provides some discussion on its applications.
Geospatial Data Visualization is an Applied Research Project (ARP) that investigates human factors issues associated with geospatial data visualization in a mobile Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. The work covered by this report represents...
A Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) provides voice, data and related communications services to moving vehicles and persons. Communications between the mobiles and satellite are in the 806-890 MHz band. The satellite translates these signals to a ""fixed services band'' such as 14/12 GHz band (Ku-band), and communicates in this band with fixed terminals called gateways. The gateways are located at convenient places such as telephone switches (which provide entry into the national telephone system), dispatcher headquarters, computer centers, etc. Communications are therefore principally mobile to fixed. A third communications link, also at Ku-band, is needed between the satellite and a single fixed ground station. This link provides satellite command, telemetry and ranging and also provides a network control function. The latter, through a common signalling system, receives requests and assigns channel slots, and otherwise controls, monitors and polices the network and collects billing information.
In December of 2010 the Planetary Skin Institute announced the beta release of ALERTS -- Automated Land change Evaluation, Reporting and Tracking System. ALERTS is a decision support Evaluation, Reporting and Tracking system for near real-time global land use, land cover change, and disturbance detection and analysis. It provides global coverage of deforestation or other land change events and offers
A landing approach lighting system which corrects for the effects of chromatic aberration of the human eye to help prevent a pilot from making misjudgments leading to landings short of a runway threshold is described. The system utilizes red warning light...
The unmanned aerial vehicle( UAV) was able to acquire remote sensing images with low cost, precise and high spatial resolution information needed by management of Land use at desired time. The aim of this paper was to present an overview of the ongoing research on the potential and techniques of low-altitude UAV system for land use applications. The development of crucial subsystems consisting of the UAV platforms, multiple camera system, camera calibration and photogrammetric production, was introduced together. A procedure of images acquisition and photogrammetric processing was proposed. To detect land use changes, methods based on DSMs and DLG were discussed and adopted in this paper. Finally, analysis of land use research based UAVs was realized on real flight experiments of two study areas. The results of this study show that UAVs can be used successfully for land use change detection.
Each Mars Exploration Rover (MER) is sensitive to the Martian winds encountered near the surface during the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) process. These winds are strongly influenced by local (mesoscale) conditions. In the absence of suitable wind observations, wind fields predicted by Martian mesoscale atmospheric models have been analyzed to guide landing site selection. In order to encompass the available models and render them useful to the EDL engineering team, a series of statistical techniques was applied to the model results. These analyses cover the high-priority landing sites during the expected landing times (1200-1500 LT). The number of sites studied is limited by the computational and analysis cost of the mesoscale models. The statistical measures concentrate on the effective mean wind (the wind as seen by the landingsystem) and on the vertical structure of the horizontal winds. Both aspects are potentially hazardous to the MER landingsystem. In addition, a number of individual wind profiles from the mesoscale model were processed into a form that can be used directly by the EDL Monte Carlo simulations. The statistical analysis indicates that the Meridiani Planum and Elysium landing sites are probably safe. The Gusev Crater and Isidis Basin sites may be safe, but further analysis by the EDL engineers will be necessary to quantify the actual risk. Finally, the winds at the Melas Chasma landing site (and presumably other Valles Marineris landing sites) are dangerous. While the statistical parameters selected for these studies were primarily of engineering and safety interest, the techniques are potentially useful for more general scientific analyses. One interesting result of the current analysis is that the depth of the convective boundary layer (and thus the resulting energy density) appears to be primarily driven by the existence of a well-organized mesoscale (or regional) circulation, primarily driven by large-scale topographic features at Mars.
Kass, D. M.; Schofield, J. T.; Michaels, T. I.; Rafkin, S. C. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Toigo, A. D.
A modular system architecture has been developed to support visual navigation by an autonomous land vehicle. The system consists of vision modules performing image processing, three-dimensional shape recovery, and geometric reasoning, as well as modules for planning, navigating, and piloting. The system runs in two distinct modes, bootstrap and feedforward. The bootstrap mode requires analysis of entire images to find
ALLEN M. WAXMAN; JACQUELINE J. LEMOIGNE; LARRY S. DAVIS; BABU SRINIVASAN; TODD R. KUSHNER; Eli Liang; THARAKESH SIDDALINGAIAH
A Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) is used to optimize system performance by identification of all potentially hazardous failure modes affecting either personal safety or operational mission success. This in-depth systematic approac...
The integration of the Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) with noise models such as NOISEMAP and the Integrated Noise Model (INM) enhances the ability to calculate the impacts of flight operations on the surrounding community and the environment. A geographic information system (GIS) such as GRASS provides the tools necessary to perform complex noise analyses in a short period
An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Prog...
KamLAND is a Japan-US one kiloton liquid scintillator neutrino detector currently under construction at the former site of the Kamiokande experiment in Kamioka, Japan. The purpose of KamLAND is the detection of reactor anti-neutrinos and solar neutrinos to observe neutrino oscillations through the disappearance of (anti-)neutrino. As the neutrinos have very low energy(several MeV), it is important to eliminate the backgrounds. The main background sources are radioactive isotopes in liquid scintillator. The purification system for liquid scintillator has therefore been developed. The purification system are to eliminate Uranium, Thorium and Potassium by water extraction and Radon, Water, Oxygen by nitrogen purging. A performance check of purification system has been done. I will describe the status of purification system for KamLAND including the performance check.
This paper simulated the spatial patterns of cultivated land in China under the future scenario by using the Dynamics of LandSystem (DLS) model, and then estimated the cultivated land productivity at the grid pixel dimensions based on the Estimation System of Land Production (ESLP). In addition, the spatial patterns of cultivated land productivity in each of China agro-ecological zones were analyzed. On this basis, this paper predicted the impacts of cultivated land conversion on the cultivated land production in China in 2000-2020, and identified the major affecting factors on the cultivated land production. The research results indicated that the impact of improving the cultivated land productivity on the cultivated land production would be wunch more remarkable than that from the magnitude of cultivated land conversion in regions where there were high potential to imrprove the cultivated land productivity. However, in the regions with nearly no room to improve the productivity, cultivated land conversion would produce more apparent impacts on the total cultivated land production. In this sense, it was of significance for the national food security in China to adjust the cultivated land conversion to ensure the 0.12 billion hm2 of cultivated land, and to increase investment and improve management level to increase per unit grain yield. PMID:21442997
GPS signals reflected from the ocean surface have been used in remote sensing applications to determine sea-state and wind speed. Studies show that, with rougher surfaces, GPS signal pulses scatter more, which creates weaker and wider pulses at the receiver. Based on this model, the correlation between soil moisture, topography, and GPS signals was studied using reflections off the ground. The data used for the study were gathered during two flights in 1998 and 2001 around Austin, Texas and Albuquerque, New Mexico and later processed at Langley Research Center. The power of the signals were analyzed and plotted over Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and Landsat7 images (near- and mid-infrared bands) to interpret the correlation of signal behavior with topography. In addition, the received signal's conduct was correlated with soil moisture data obtained from the Department of Agriculture's Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) sites at Prairie View (Texas) and Adams Ranch (New Mexico). The strengths of the reflected signals were observed larger near known bodies of water and farmlands where soil moisture levels are known to be high. In general, for flat lands, the power of the signals and soil moisture contents appeared to have a close-to-linear relationship. In addition, the received pulses widened when reflected over rapid-changing topography in Texas, but any relationship among these was not perceived in New Mexico. Further studies are needed to obtain a definite relationship among soil moisture and reflected signal strength and to introduce satellite position in the signal-topography study.
This paper describes a prototype of an inertial navigation system for use in mobile land vehicles, such as cars or mobile robots. The complete system is composed by sensors, their mechanical mount and cabling, these connect to a PC card with local processing and memory, based on a Intel 80C196KC microcontroller. The sensors used were a piezoelectric vibrating gyroscope, two
Jorge Lobo; Paulo Lucas; Jorge Dias; A. Traca de Almeida
The land-use suitability mapping and analysis is one of the most useful applications of GIS for planning and management. There are four objectives of this paper: (a) to present a historical overview of methods and techniques of GIS-based land-use suitability analysis, (b) to overview multi-criteria synthetically overlay land-use evaluation models, (c) to discuss GIS-based land-use evaluation system, (d) to identify the trends, challenges and prospects of GIS-based land-use suitability analysis. There are two focused perspectives of GIS-based land-use suitability analysis in the paper, the techno-positivist perspective and the socio-political, public participation perspectives. It is organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 defines land-use suitability analysis, and provides an introduction to GIS-based land-use suitability analysis along with a historical perspective. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the development of methods and techniques of GIS-based land-use suitability analysis. The multi-criteria synthetically overlay land-use analysis models is discussed in chapter 3. Chapter 4 offers GIS-based land-use evaluation system. Chapter 5 introduces expert systems for GIS-based land-use suitability evaluation. The concluding chapter summarizes the main points of the papers and discusses problems and prospects from GIS-based land-use suitability analysis. Along with the in-depth development of land research and the constant advancement of GIS technology, GIS-based land-use suitability analysis will toward greater depth.
The complex landing aid system is one of the most important differences for an aircraft to land on aircraft carrier and airport. The main components of landing aid system include Fresnel Lens, remote laser centered indicator, runway lights. Taking a full-task military aircraft simulator for example, paper describes the system structure and key technology of simulation for the landing aid
Yongjun Qiao; Xiaoming Bai; Xiaofang Xie; Yongsheng Li
Accurate and up-to-date global land cover data sets are necessary for various global change research studies including climate change, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem assessment, and environmental modeling. In recent years, substantial advancement has been achieved in generating such data products. Yet, we are far from producing geospatially consistent high-quality data at an operational level. We compared the recently available Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC-2000) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) global land cover data to evaluate the similarities and differences in methodologies and results, and to identify areas of spatial agreement and disagreement. These two global land cover data sets were prepared using different data sources, classification systems, and methodologies, but using the same spatial resolution (i.e., 1 km) satellite data. Our analysis shows a general agreement at the class aggregate level except for savannas/shrublands, and wetlands. The disagreement, however, increases when comparing detailed land cover classes. Similarly, percent agreement between the two data sets was found to be highly variable among biomes. The identified areas of spatial agreement and disagreement will be useful for both data producers and users. Data producers may use the areas of spatial agreement for training area selection and pay special attention to areas of disagreement for further improvement in future land cover characterization and mapping. Users can conveniently use the findings in the areas of agreement, whereas users might need to verify the informaiton in the areas of disagreement with the help of secondary information. Learning from past experience and building on the existing infrastructure (e.g., regional networks), further research is necessary to (1) reduce ambiguity in land cover definitions, (2) increase availability of improved spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric resolution satellite data, and (3) develop advanced classification algorithms. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Information on land surface properties finds applications in a range of areas related to weather forecasting, environmental research, hazard management and climate monitoring. Remotely sensed observations yield the only means of supplying land surface information with adequate time sampling and a wide spatial coverage. The aim of the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis (Land-SAF) is to take full
Isabel F. Trigo; Carlos C. Dacamara; Pedro Viterbo; Jean-Louis Roujean; Folke Olesen; Carla Barroso; Fernando Camacho-de-Coca; Dominique Carrer; Sandra C. Freitas; Javier Garcia-Haro; Bernhard Geiger; Francoise Gellens-Meulenberghs; Nicolas Ghilain; Joaquin Melia; Luis Pessanha; Niilo Siljamo; Alirio Arboleda
Problem: Since the late 1980s, U.S. metropolitan regions have increasingly engaged in a style of land use–transportation scenario planning that merges techniques borrowed from military and business strategic planning with long-range transportation systems planning and project-level alternatives analysis. Aside from occasional anecdotal descriptions, the effectiveness of such approaches in generating compact growth plans has not been evaluated comprehensively.Purpose: We analyzed
Sustainable landsystems involve an array of tradeoffs, not only among ecosystem services, but between those services and human outcomes. These tradeoffs are affected by the architecture of the landsystem---the kind, size, pattern, and distribution of land uses and covers. Working towards a model capable of handling a full array of ecosystem services and human outcomes, the concept of
The Land Information System (LIS) is an established land surface modeling framework that integrates various community land surface models, ground measurements, satellite-based observations, high performance computing and data management tools. The use of advanced software engineering principles in LIS allows interoperability of individual system components and thus enables assessment and prediction of hydrologic conditions at various spatial and temporal scales.
Sujay V. Kumar; Rolf H. Reichle; Christa D. Peters-Lidard; Randal D. Koster; Xiwu Zhan; Wade T. Crow; John B. Eylander; Paul R. Houser
In this paper, we propose a supervisory control approach, based on controlled automata concepts, for the planning for online service-operations control of a new class of passenger land-transport systems ( PLanTSs). A PLanTS belongs to a class of dynamic demand-responsive transportation systems. Rapid advances in information and communication technologies are providing a new infrastructural and communications basis upon which higher
The Telesat Mobile Incorporated (TMI) Mobile Data System (MDS) was developed to apply satellite technology to the transportation industry's requirement for a fleet management system. It will provide two-way messaging and automatic position reporting capabilities between dispatch centers and customers' fleets of trucks. The design was based on the Inmarsat L-Band space segment with system link parameters and margins adjusted to meet the land mobile satellite channel characteristics. The system interfaces with the Teleglobe Des Laurentides earth station at Weir, Quebec. The signaling protocols were derived from the Inmarsat Standard C packet signalling system with unique trucking requirements incorporated where necessary.
Africa must significantly increase agricultural production to meet the needs of a growing population. Current efforts focus on intensifying production on currently used lands and expanding to un- or under-utilized lands. The success of both strategies requires understanding the land’s potential prod...
The Existing Land Use Survey and Analysis in text and map form documents the various land uses within Effingham County. The inventory will serve as a basis to perform the additional comprehensive planning requirements to continue the planning process.
Worldwide arid soils such as Latterites from African Savannas to the Xeralfs and Xererts of the Mediterranean Basin Ortents and Orthids of Asian Deserts are uniquely different in their strategic roles for utilizing the land in places where a delicate balance between annual climatic cycles and general trends toward desertification predominate Arid lands cover 1 3 of global land surface and contain irreplaceable natural resources with potential productivity of meeting the demands of more than two billion people and serving as sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 to combat global warming The soil system in these arid areas are being degraded underutilized and kept in a stage of obliviousness due to inadequate public literacy and most importantly in-sufficient scientific evaluations based on pedology and soil taxonomy standards Implementation of food security projects and sustainable development programs on randomly selected sites and assessment of land degradation worldwide by powerful computers and satellite imagery techniques without field work and identification of Representative Soil Units are data producing and grant attracting but counter productive We live in a world in which there is an order out there and things are precisely measured and categorized for efficient utilization Why not the soils mainly in arid areas How we could generalize the world of soils under our feet by concept of soils are the same Expansion of educational programs quantification of multiple ecosystems within the arid regions through detailed and correlated
Land disposal of solid waste entails the placement of waste in above ground stockpiles or dike impoundments or conversely, burial\\/encapsulation in below ground vaults. Containment failure can result from either mass-stability failure of above ground structures or leakage from both types of disposal systems. Geotechnical considerations play an important role in preventing either type of failure.\\u000a Interactions between the waste
of a new approach and landing guidance system that will utilize C-band and possibly Ku-band microwave frequencies. This Microwave LandingSystem (MU) will eventually replace the Instrument LandingSystem (ILS) currently in use at airports today. New airborne antenna designs and locations for most commercial and military aircraft will be required. Previously, most airborne antenna designs have been based primarily
A series of flight tests were performed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center at the Miami/Tamiami, Florida Airport, to compare the course quality of an instrumented landingsystem (ILS) with a collected Microwave LandingSystem (M...
Land use management is central to government planning for sustainable development. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy planning theory and system to assist responsible authorities in obtaining alternatives of sustainable top river basin land use management. The concepts and theory of systemanalysis, driving force–state–response (DSR) framework, and system dynamics are used to establish
The microwave landingsystem (MLS), which is scheduled to be implemented progressively over the next 10 years, is intended to supply the instrument landingsystem (ILS) as the international standard landing aid. MLS has been demonstrated to be superior to ILS from both performance and reliability standpoints, yet considerable debate persists on its relative merits. Although tolerance criteria for flight
Daniel J. Berninger; Cantillion Boulevard; Mays Landing
The theory and geometry by which the Fresnel Lens Optical LandingSystem (FLOLS) provides glideslope information to the pilot attempting a carrier landing is described. From the theory, geometry, and the linear spatial dimensions of the FLOLS, the image i...
NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) produces global fields of land surface states (e.g., soil moisture and temperature) and fluxes (e.g., latent heat flux and runoff) by driving offline land surface models with observation-based inputs, using the Land Information System (LIS) software. Since production began in 2001, GLDAS has supported more than 100 scientific investigations and applications. Some examples
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has dramatically changed after 1992, and from then on the CAP focused on the management of direct income subsidies instead of production-based subsidies. For this focus, Member States (MS) are expected to establish Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), including a Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) as the spatial part of IACS. Different MS have chosen different solutions for their LPIS. Currently, some MS based their IACS/LPIS on data from their Land Administration Systems (LAS), and many others use purpose built special systems for their IACS/LPIS. The issue with these different IACS/LPIS is that they do not have standardized structures; rather, each represents a unique design in each MS, both in the case of LAS based or special systems. In this study, we aim at designing a core data model for those IACS/LPIS based on LAS. For this purpose, we make use of the ongoing standardization initiatives for LAS (Land Administration Domain Model: LADM) and IACS/LPIS (LPIS Core Model: LCM). The data model we propose in this study implies the collaboration between LADM and LCM and includes some extensions. Some basic issues with the collaboration model are discussed within this study: registration of farmers, land use rights and farming limitations, geometry/topology, temporal data management etc. For further explanation of the model structure, sample instance level diagrams illustrating some typical situations are also included. PMID:20702023
Inan, Halil Ibrahim; Sagris, Valentina; Devos, Wim; Milenov, Pavel; van Oosterom, Peter; Zevenbergen, Jaap
...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [SDM 99842] Public Land Order No. 7821; Withdrawal of National Forest SystemLand for Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds; South Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of...
...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLAZ91000.L14300000.ET0000.LXSIURAM0000, AZA 35138] Public Land Order No. 7787; Withdrawal of Public and National Forest SystemLands in the Grand Canyon Watershed;...
In this study, remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques were used in order to accomplish land cover change of Bozcaada Island, Turkey, by using multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Digital image processing techniques were conducted for the processes of image enhancement, manipulation, registration and classification for land cover change analysis. The land cover changes between two different dates were visualized and analyzed by using Geographic Information System techniques. The results showed that remotely sensed data and GIS are effective and powerful tools for carrying out changes on land cover of the island and monitoring of its impact on the environment. PMID:16114638
This report presents an exploratory mathematical study of control systems for airdrop platform landings cushioned by airbags. The basic theory of airbags is reviewed and solutions to special cases are noted. A computer program is presented, which calculates the time-dependence of the principal variables during a landing under the action of various control systems. Two existing control systems of open-loop
The US Army Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) program is a standardized method of data collection, analysis, and reporting designed to meet multiple goals and objectives. The method utilizes vascular plant inventories, permanent field plot data, and wildlife inventories. Vascular plant inventories are used for environmental documentation, training of personnel, species identification during LCTA implementation, and as a survey for state and federal endangered or threatened species. The permanent field plot data documents the vegetational, edaphic, topographic, and disturbance characteristics of the installation. Inventory plots are allocated in a stratified random fashion across the installation utilizing a geographic information system that integrates satellite imagery and soil survey information. Ground cover, canopy cover, woody plant density, slope length, slope gradient, soil information, and disturbance data are collected at each plot. Plot data are used to: (1) describe plant communities, (2) characterize wildlife and threatened and endangered species habitat, (3) document amount and kind of military and nonmilitary disturbance, (4) determine the impact of military training on vegetation and soil resources, (5) estimate soil erosion potential, (6) classify land as to the kind and amount of use it can support, (7) determine allowable use estimates for tracked vehicle training, (8) document concealment resources, (9) identify lands that require restoration and evaluate the effectiveness of restorative techniques, and (10) evaluate potential acquisition property. Wildlife inventories survey small and midsize mammals, birds, bats, amphibians, and reptiles. Data from these surveys can be used for environmental documentation, to identify state and federal endangered and threatened species, and to evaluate the impact of military activities on wildlife populations. Short- and long-term monitoring of permanent field plots is used to evaluate and adjust land management decisions.
Diersing, Victor E.; Shaw, Robert B.; Tazik, David J.
This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common pr...
Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing ...
The purpose of the MODIS Atmospheres Archive and Distribution System (AADS) and the parallel Land Archive and Distribution System (LADS) is to provide the atmospheres and land science communities with rapid and flexible access to large volumes of MODIS data from the NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft. The systems take advantage of the fact that the cost of disk has reduced sufficiently that it is now cost-effective to retain several tens of terabytes of data on-line. MODIS is preparing for the next Aqua and Terra reprocessing (Collection 5) and the AADS and LADS have been used to support the science communities' evaluation of numerous science test products. For the atmospheres discipline the system will be used to archive approximately 8.5 data-years of HDF-compressed data products from the Collection 5 MODIS reprocessing as well as near-real time data. All Level 2 (L2) through 4 atmosphere products, including, aerosol, cloud, water vapor, and L2 and L3 granule and global browse will be archived (40TB). L1B, geolocation products will not be archived but will be available on a processing-on-demand basis. For Collection 5 land reprocessing, all 8-, 16- and 32-day products will be archived and daily products will be archived on a rolling 30-day basis. Land L2 and daily products will also be available through processing-on-demand. A web-based search and order system allows the users to identify and acquire data sets in a rapid and flexible manner based on user-defined criteria. The user may search on Collection number, product, time interval, spatial criteria ("rubber-band") and day/night coverage. Searches of the L2 and L3 browse can also be performed. The granule images can be displayed in "thumbnail" or expanded form and side-by-side displays of user-specified parameters can be made. The results of the search are available in seconds. Parameter sub-setting (i.e. selection of specific parameters contained within a product) and geographic sub-settting (i.e. elimination of data outside of a specified geographic zone) are available. Data delivery is via ftp pull and options include direct access to the distribution archive, use of a staging directory, and download using GNU Wget. A key element of the AADS and LADS approach is that continued refinement of the system will occur in response to the requirements of the atmospheres and land science communities. Requirements have been developed to add a variety of analysis capabilities to the systems and these are expected to be available by early-2006.
Teague, M. J.; Hucek, R. R.; Masuoka, E. J.; Ridgway, W. L.; Ye, G.; Wolfe, R. E.
The conversion of Earth's land surface to urban uses is one of the most irreversible human impacts on the global biosphere. It drives the loss of farmland, affects local climate, fragments habitats, and threatens biodiversity. Here we present a meta-analysis of 326 studies that have used remotely sensed images to map urban land conversion. We report a worldwide observed increase
Karen C. Seto; Michail Fragkias; Burak Güneralp; Michael K. Reilly
Abstract—Land-use change is a critical issue to land planning and environmental management through its influence on biodiversity, water and radiation budgets, carbon cycling, and livelihoods. Land-use change analysis is very important for land planning and environment management in the Loess Plateau of China. The combined use of satellite remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) has become one of the
In this paper expert systems and geographical information systems technologies are combined to help with an implementation of a land suitability evaluation model. The result is the LEIGIS software, which allows empirical work within the framework of this paper. The model used is based on the FAO land classification for crops, and data which describe an agricultural area in terms
Microwave landingsystem (MLS) is a precision approach and landing guidance system which provides position information and various air to ground data. Position information is provided on a wide coverage sector and is determined by an azimuth angle measurement, an elevation angle measurement, and a range measurement. MLS performance standards and testing of the MLS airborne receiver is mainly governed
Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.
Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.
In this paper, the accuracy, integrity and continuity of function requirements for automatic landingsystems using satellite navigation systems are discussed. Such a landingsystem is the integrated navigation and landingsystem (INLS) developed by Deutsche Aerospace (DASA\\/Ulm, Germany). The system concepts of the INLS are presented. It is shown how an INLS, based on system integration of a satellite
Wastewater land application is a cost-effective method to treat and dispose wastewater; however, it may cause soil salinization.\\u000a Salt mass balance and the potential soil salinization caused by the wastewater land application were investigated in the crop\\u000a root zone in a wastewater land application system at the City of Littlefield, TX, USA from October 7, 2005 to September 28,\\u000a 2007
Runbin Duan; Clifford B. Fedler; Christopher D. Sheppard
A series of environmental policies in Sichuan province was executed to restore the grassland and forestland on some degraded lands after 2000. But the effectiveness on land use and cover change (LUCC) has not yet been systematically investigated. We undertook a detailed analysis about land use and cover change between 2000 and 2005 in Sichuan province. Our study mainly utilized remotely sensed data of 2005 China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite II (CBERS II) and 2000 Landsat 5 thematic mapper (TM) data. Land use and cover change between 2000 and 2005 was visually interpreted by CBERS II with ArcInfo Workstation based on land use and cover database interpreted from TM. Then LUCC was validated by ground truth with global positioning system receivers. Our analysis illustrates that the conservation policies to restore the grassland and forestland were successful to a lesser extent. But more measures to restore the grassland and forestland of Sichuan province have to be taken further in the future.
All levels of government share the need for natural resource information. Remote Sensing and computer technology can provide a cost effective means of collecting, analyzing, and synthesizing some of this data.\\u000aOne of the principal areas where remotely sensed data is being applied in governmental natural resource planning is in the generation of land use, or more precisely, land cover
This article describes a decision support system for land-use structure optimization and land-use allocation. This system was established for the rural land managers to explore their land use options. It integrated database technology, expert system technology and spatial decision support system technology. The DSS consist of four components: a geographic information system (GIS), land use modules, a graphical user interface
A hybrid approach is used to investigate the noise generated by a simplified landing gear without small scale parts such as hydraulic lines and fasteners. The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to predict the noise at far-field observer locatio...
The Hughes planning system is designed to achieve the reasoning requirements of the Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV) for navigation in unconstrained outdoor environments. This system is designed specifically to handle diverse terrain with maximal speed, effi...
D. M. Keirsey J. S. Mitchell D. W. Payton D. Y. Tseng V. S. Wong
The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Sewer systemland applications as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting a...
The catchment of the River Thames, the principal river system in southern England, provides the main water supply for London but is highly vulnerable to changes in climate, land use and population. The river is eutrophic with significant algal blooms with phosphorus assumed to be the primary chemical indicator of ecosystem health. In the Thames Basin, phosphorus is available from point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and from diffuse sources such as agriculture. In order to predict vulnerability to future change, the integrated catchments model for phosphorus (INCA-P) has been applied to the river basin and used to assess the cost-effectiveness of a range of mitigation and adaptation strategies. It is shown that scenarios of future climate and land-use change will exacerbate the water quality problems, but a range of mitigation measures can improve the situation. A cost-effectiveness study has been undertaken to compare the economic benefits of each mitigation measure and to assess the phosphorus reductions achieved. The most effective strategy is to reduce fertilizer use by 20% together with the treatment of effluent to a high standard. Such measures will reduce the instream phosphorus concentrations to close to the EU Water Framework Directive target for the Thames. PMID:24080622
Whitehead, P G; Crossman, J; Balana, B B; Futter, M N; Comber, S; Jin, L; Skuras, D; Wade, A J; Bowes, M J; Read, D S
The conversion of Earth's land surface to urban uses is one of the most irreversible human impacts on the global biosphere. It drives the loss of farmland, affects local climate, fragments habitats, and threatens biodiversity. Here we present a meta-analysis of 326 studies that have used remotely sensed images to map urban land conversion. We report a worldwide observed increase in urban land area of 58,000 km(2) from 1970 to 2000. India, China, and Africa have experienced the highest rates of urban land expansion, and the largest change in total urban extent has occurred in North America. Across all regions and for all three decades, urban land expansion rates are higher than or equal to urban population growth rates, suggesting that urban growth is becoming more expansive than compact. Annual growth in GDP per capita drives approximately half of the observed urban land expansion in China but only moderately affects urban expansion in India and Africa, where urban land expansion is driven more by urban population growth. In high income countries, rates of urban land expansion are slower and increasingly related to GDP growth. However, in North America, population growth contributes more to urban expansion than it does in Europe. Much of the observed variation in urban expansion was not captured by either population, GDP, or other variables in the model. This suggests that contemporary urban expansion is related to a variety of factors difficult to observe comprehensively at the global level, including international capital flows, the informal economy, land use policy, and generalized transport costs. Using the results from the global model, we develop forecasts for new urban land cover using SRES Scenarios. Our results show that by 2030, global urban land cover will increase between 430,000 km(2) and 12,568,000 km(2), with an estimate of 1,527,000 km(2) more likely. PMID:21876770
Seto, Karen C; Fragkias, Michail; Güneralp, Burak; Reilly, Michael K
SUMMARY In this paper I briefly review the wealth of experience in Latin America with initiatives to strengthen and modernize land administration systems. The review shows that there is more experience with land administration projects in this region than in any other. I go on to focus on the question of costs associated with formalizing property in an attempt to
Land use management is central to government planning for sustainable development. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy planning theory and system to assist responsible authorities in obtaining alternatives of sustainable top river basin land use management. The concepts and theory of systemanalysis, driving force-state-response (DSR) framework, and system dynamics are used to establish the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure in this work. The integrated management of the land, water, and air resources of a river basin system is considered in the procedure. Two modified land use management procedures combined with the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure are developed in this work. Based on the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure, the sustainable river basin land use management DSR dynamic decision support system (SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS) is developed by using the Vensim, MS Excel, ArcView, and Visual Basic software. The concepts of object-orientation are used to develop the system dynamic optimization and simulation models of SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS. Based on the modified land use management procedures, SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS is used to assist decision makers in generating the land use plans of the Nankan river basin in Taoyuan County of Taiwan. Since the decisions of land, water and air resources management are still made at different agencies, the land use management system should be modified based on the innovational procedure to implement the management strategy developed in this work. The results show that the modified land use management procedures can be a guidance for the governments in modifying the systems and regulation of urban and regional plans in Taiwan. PMID:15993679
The entry, descent, and landingsystem of the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft includes a unique subsystem of airbags for impact attenuation. The airbag geometric configuration and associated landing dynamic analysis was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (Mars pathfinder airbag impact attenuation system, paper AIAA-95-1552; Mars pathfinder impact, paper AIAA-95-1553). ILC Dover performed detailed design and fabrication
Recent developments in land consumption assessment identify the need to implement integrated evaluative approaches, with particular attention to the identification of multidimensional tools for guiding and managing sustainable land use. Policy decisions defining land use are mostly implemented through spatial planning and related zoning, and this involves trade-offs between many sectoral interests and conflicting challenges aimed at win-win solutions. In order to identify a decision-making process for land use allocation, the paper proposes a methodological approach for a Dynamic Spatial Decision Support System (DSDSS), named Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA), supported by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Through the empirical investigation in an operative case study, an integrated evaluative approach implemented in a DSDSS helps to elaborate "urbanization susceptibility maps", where spatial analysis combined with a multi-criteria method proved to be useful for facing the main issues related to land consumption and minimizing environmental impacts of spatial planning.
OBJECTIVE: This study provides an experimental and finite element analysis of knee-joint structure during extended-knee landing based on the extracted impact force, and it numerically identifies the contact pressure, stress distribution and possibility of bone-to-bone contact when a subject lands from a safe height. METHODS: The impact time and loads were measured via inverse dynamic analysis of free landing without knee flexion from three different heights (25, 50 and 75 cm), using five subjects with an average body mass index of 18.8. Three-dimensional data were developed from computed tomography scans and were reprocessed with modeling software before being imported and analyzed by finite element analysis software. The whole leg was considered to be a fixed middle-hinged structure, while impact loads were applied to the femur in an upward direction. RESULTS: Straight landing exerted an enormous amount of pressure on the knee joint as a result of the body's inability to utilize the lower extremity muscles, thereby maximizing the threat of injury when the load exceeds the height-safety threshold. CONCLUSIONS: The researchers conclude that extended-knee landing results in serious deformation of the meniscus and cartilage and increases the risk of bone-to-bone contact and serious knee injury when the load exceeds the threshold safety height. This risk is considerably greater than the risk of injury associated with walking downhill or flexion landing activities.
Makinejad, Majid Davoodi; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Bayat, Mehdi
The report presents an exploratory mathematical study of control systems for airdrop platform landings cushioned by airbags. The basic theory of airbags is reviewed and solutions to special cases are noted. A computer program is presented, which calculate...
This paper proposes that India's caste system and involuntary labor were joint responses by a nonworking landowning class to a low labor\\/land ratio in which the rules of the caste system supported the institution of involuntary labor. The hypothesis is tested in two ways: longitudinally, with data from ancient religious texts, and cross-sectionally, with twentieth-century statistics on regional population\\/land ratios
A methodology for analysis of a pilots' landing control at the visual approach has been developed using a neural network modeling. While our previous study analyzed flight simulator operations, this paper describes the analysis of a real flight landing case. An experimental method which utilizes image processing of recorded video data is developed to obtain necessary data such as time histories of visual cues and control inputs. The effectiveness of this proposed method is confirmed by comparing values and analysis results from the video data with results obtained using GPS/INS data. It is expected that these methods can be used to reveal the characteristic of pilot control in real flight operation.
Land surface models and assimilation systems have been used for a few decades to provide surface conditions and fluxes in numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems. Efforts to improve the representation of land surface prediction and analysis at Environment Canada have focused upon the development of a new version of the Canadian Land Data Assimilation System (CaLDAS). In this study we
M. Carrera; S. Belair; V. Fortin; D. Charpentier; I. Dore; B. Bilodeau; N. Bernier
In this paper we show how cost-benefit analysis can be used as a decision support mechanism for the location of new (urban) forest land, starting from the multifunctional role of these new forests. We start with a simple presentation of the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) technique. Key features of this evaluation technique are that (i) all - both positive and negative
A hybrid system which integrates Remote Sensing (RS) data and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) information, has been developed for land use survey in Hiroshima city. The system consists of three interrelated subsystems, i.e., a personal computer, a minicomputer and an engineering workstation: The system can handle an image data base consisting of satellite digital images such as Landsat TM and
...National Forest SystemLand for the Big Ice Cave; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...States Forest Service to protect the Big Ice Cave, its subterranean water supply, and...will manage the land to protect the Big Ice Cave, its subterranean water supply,...
This report presents an exploratory mathematical study of control systems for airdrop platform landings cushioned by airbags. The basic theory of airbags is reviewed and solutions to special cases are noted. A computer program is presented, which calculates the time-dependence of the principal variables during a landing under the action of various control systems. Two existing control systems of open-loop type are compared with a conceptual feedback (closed-loop) system for a fairly typical set of landing conditions. The feedback controller is shown to have performance much superior to the other systems. The feedback system undergoes an interesting oscillation not present in the other systems, the source of which is investigated. Recommendations for future work are included.
The hydrology and ecological linkages between Khecheopalri lake and its surrounding watershed (area: 12 km2) in Sikkim were investigated to assess the long-term impacts of land-use\\/cover change on the hydrology of the lake ecosystem and bog formation around the glaciated lake. Significant land-use\\/cover change occurred in the past 4 decades. The bog area expanded by 67%, while the area under
Test methods and criteria are needed to certify Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) LandingSystem (GLS) avionics. The government and industry committee developing GLS standards at RTCA Inc. is particularly concerned with the accuracy of the equipment when subjected to external radio frequency (RF) interference. The RTCA Special Committee 159 (SC-159) has allocated accuracy between ground and airborne system components
Since 1949, the information of land tenure has a positive effect on defining the scope of collective land and state-owned\\u000a land, implementing the system of cultivated land protection and land use control, designing general land use planning, etc.\\u000a But as the economic and social development, the existing land tenure information is not appropriate anymore and results in\\u000a many problems. The
This special issue has highlighted recent and innovative methods and results that integrate observations and AQ3 modelling analyses of regional to global aspect of biophysical and biogeochemical interactions of land-cover change with the climate system. Both the Earth System and the Integrated Assessment modeling communities recognize the importance of an accurate representation of land use and land-cover change to understand and quantify the interactions and feedbacks with the climate and socio-economic systems, respectively. To date, cooperation between these communities has been limited. Based on common interests, this work discusses research priorities in representing land use and land-cover change for improved collaboration across modelling, observing and measurement communities. Major research topics in land use and land-cover change are those that help us better understand (1) the interaction of land use and land cover with the climate system (e.g. carbon cycle feedbacks), (2) the provision of goods and ecosystem services by terrestrial (natural and anthropogenic) land-cover types (e.g. food production), (3) land use and management decisions and (4) opportunities and limitations for managing climate change (for both mitigation and adaptation strategies).
Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Pongratz, Julia; Rose, Steven K.; Betts, Richard; Herold, Martin; Feddema, Johannes J.
th and 25 th of 2004, respectively. The trajectory analysis performed to define the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) scenario is described. The entry requirements and constraints are presented, as well as uncertainties used in a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis to statistically assess the robustness of the entry design to off-nominal conditions. In the analysis, six-degree-of-freedom and three-degree-of-freedom trajectory re-
Inflatable landingsystems have been traditionally perceived as a cost-effective solution to the problem of landing a spacecraft on a planetary surface. To date the systems used have all employed the approach of surrounding the lander with non-vented airbags where the lander bounces on impact a number of times until the impact energy is dissipated. However the reliability record of such systems is not at all good. This paper examines the problems involved in the use of non-vented airbags, and how these problems have been overcome by the use of vented airbags in terrestrial systems. Using a specific case study, it is shown that even the basic passive type of venting can give significant mass reductions. It is also shown that actively controlling the venting based on the landing scenario can further enhance the performance of vented airbags.
Inflatable landingsystems have been traditionally perceived as a cost-effective solution to the problem of landing a spacecraft on a planetary surface. To date, the systems used have all employed the approach of surrounding the lander with non-vented airbags where the lander on impact bounces a number of times until the impact energy is dissipated. However, the reliability record of such systems is not at all good. This paper examines the problems involved in the use of non-vented airbags, and how these problems have been overcome by the use of vented airbags in terrestrial systems. Using a specific case study, it is shown that even the basic passive type of venting can give significant mass reductions. It is also shown that actively controlling the venting based on the landing scenario can further enhance the performance of vented airbags.
Three primary study sites were selected for measurement of plant phenological properties and spectral analysis. The sites selected represented typical sagebrush, creosote bush, and saltbush communities in Owens Valley, CA. Community composition was studie...
Patterns of land ownership and forest cover are related in complex and ecologically significant ways. Using a Geographic Information System and regression analysis, we tested for spatial relationships between the structure of land ownership and forest cover across 66 watersheds in the state of Oregon (USA), Coast Range mountains. We found that in these watersheds (1) forest cover diversity increased
Brooks J. Stanfield; John C. Bliss; Thomas A. Spies
A production-system model of problem solving is applied to the design of a vision system by which an autonomous land vehicle (ALV) navigates roads. The ALV vision task consists of hypothesizing objects in a scene model and verifying these hypotheses using the vehicles sensors. Object hypothesis generation is based on the local navigation task, and a priori road map, and
The paper analyzes the technical and market issues that influence the strategy of implementation of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the payload EMS (European Mobile System) embarked on ITALSAT F-2. The final goal is to determine services, network architecture, and added value chain that make LMSS via EMS profitable for a typical telecommunication company.
The US Army Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) program is a standardized method of data collection, analysis, and reporting\\u000a designed to meet multiple goals and objectives. The method utilizes vascular plant inventories, permanent field plot data,\\u000a and wildlife inventories. Vascular plant inventories are used for environmental documentation, training of personnel, species\\u000a identification during LCTA implementation, and as a survey for state
Victor E. Diersing; Robert B. Shaw; David J. Tazik
Since 1949, the information of land tenure has a positive effect on defining the scope of collective land and state-owned land, implementing the system of cultivated land protection and land use control, designing general land use planning, etc. But as the economic and social development, the existing land tenure information is not appropriate anymore and results in many problems. The emphasis in the near future should be placed on establishing rural land tenure information system including cadastral management system, the uniform property registration system and cadastral management information system, defining the scope and content of various collective land ownership, securing peasants' land tenure rights, shortening the gap between urban and rural areas, all of which will guarantee the effective use of information of land tenure for the government's decision-making.
A scientific approach to urban planning is required to ensure environmental protection and ecological sustainability. This paper presents a range of urban land-use scenarios and their implications for urban development and economic demand in the Old Town of Lijiang. Using geographic information system (GIS) and questionnaire analysis, three future urban planning scenarios were created based on data and storylines for
Rencai Dong; Hong Xu; Yaqing Gou; Xiao Fu; Gang Wu
At the Land Cover Summit meeting held in Washington, DC in September 2006 the North American Land Change Monitoring System (NLCMS) project was initiated between representatives from the US Geological Survey (USGS), the National Institute of Geographic Statistics and Information of Mexico (INEGI) and the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). The objective of the NALCMS is a joint effort to create a harmonized system for multi-scale and multi-temporal monitoring and reporting of North American land cover change. The proposed system couples 250m and 30m resolutions, offering products relevant at both spatial scales. The two spatial resolutions will provide users with investigation, confirmation, calibration, and assessment of 250m change products with 30m product support. This combination of spatial resolutions offers a valuable increase in temporal frequency, context, and strategic prioritization for 30m products. In due course these land change products can provide continental, national, and regional consistency to land cover and land cover change analysis.
Phase II includes the development of watershed ranking criteria, the selection of a study area, the development of a land use classification system suitable for classifying land use in the study area and in other parts of Kentucky, an in depth analysis of the study area, the development of criteria to define coal mining related land use impacts, and the
Land use planning is a science that determines the type of land use through studying the ecological character of the land as well as its socio-economic structure. It is possible to plan for the appropriate use of the land and to enhance the present management of the land use by utilizing Geographical Information System (GIS). To this end, our investigators
E. Taghvaye Salimi; K. Soleimani; M. Habibnejad Roshan; K. Sabetraftar
Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation
This test plan describes a series of flight tests using Microwave LandingSystem (MLS) back azimuth guidance for missed approach and departure procedures. Issues to be addressed during these flight tests are: (1) The proper point in a missed approach to s...
In choosing New Jersey for developing an environmentally oriented data bank ? system and for evaluating extreme surface flows in smaller areas, there were several ? considerations. It was felt that efficient environmental resources planning needs ? interdisciplinary data gathering concentrated in water interaction on the natural ? environment. To succeed in developing a model for a land-oriented water resources
This catalog serves as a single source reference for designers of landing and escape systems for spacecraft, aircraft, weapons, and airdrop system. It includes those facilities which may be required by a system designer in planning a development test program for many applications. The primary objective of this catalog is to provide a means for identifying critical facilities with the U.S. which can be used for the development of landing and escape systems. A secondary objective is to provide a useful tool to the system designer for picking and choosing facilities and capabilities. The six chapters in this volume include wind tunnels, drop zones, test aircraft, fabrication facilities, design tools, and other miscellaneous facilities. A different data sheet format is used for each of the chapters which provides information on performance, location, special capabilities, and a local point of contact. All inputs were solicited from the individual facilities and have not been independently verified for accuracy.
The objective of this paper is to present the implementation of so-called global\\/local approach to crash landinganalysis of the light composite aircraft. The analyses and experimental verifications have been performed for PZL I-23 aircraft, designed jointly by Institute of Aviation and PZL Swidnik aircraft factory. Some criteria for designing the light composite aircraft, according to the “safe-crash” rule have
Satellite-ground radio systems are now so sensitive that ionospheric changes can disrupt their performance. This paper discusses some satellite-to-ground propagation problems in the UHF and L bands caused by the Earth's ionosphere. Such problems include signal time delay, signal dispersion, Faraday rotation, and scintillation.
...2010-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210... Â§ 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition...AASHTO's âGuidelines for Bridge Management Systems.â 2 2...
...2009-04-01 false Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). 973.210... Â§ 973.210 Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition...AASHTO's âGuidelines for Bridge Management Systems.â 2 2...
...2010-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210... Â§ 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition...AASHTO's âGuidelines for Bridge Management Systems.â 2 2...
...2009-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 971.210... Â§ 971.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition...AASHTO's âGuidelines for Bridge Management Systems.â 2 2...
This paper discusses the methods and process of Geographic Information System (GIS) applied in soil spatial analysis, involving\\u000a the collection of soil spatial data that GIS required, spatial analysis method of soil nutrient, land use, slope and exposure\\u000a of geography, crop yield and other factors, and also including acquiring soil spatial information and creating thematic map,\\u000a and so on. Taking
A description is given of VITS (for vision task sequencer), the vision system for the autonomous land vehicle (ALV) Alvin, addressing in particular the task of road-following. The ALV vision system builds symbolic descriptions of road and obstacle boundaries using both video and range sensors. The authors discuss various road segmentation methods for video-based road-following, along with approaches to boundary
MATTHEW A. TURK; David G. Morgenthaler; Keith D. Gremban; Martin Marra
The Instrument LandingSystem (ILS), in its present 90/150 Hz format, had its beginnings in the United States and England during the years 1939 to 1945. Since then, it has served the aviation community worldwide. There have been many improvements to cope with ever increasing traffic, crowded airports, and difficult siting problems. There are those who say that it's time to replace the system with newer technology; are they right?
The document compares land use and development changes in Reidsville, North Carolina, over the seven years since the original planning studies were completed. As a result of these comparisons, the land development plan is revised and updated with recommen...
The document contains analyses of the population, economy, and land use. County goals and standards of development are defined, population and labor force projections are developed, and a land use plan was prepared.
This paper is part of a series of papers about the multi-institutional North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) project. It compares and evaluates streamflow and water balance results from four different land surface models (LSMs) within the continental United States. These LSMs have been run for the retrospective period from 1 October 1996 to 30 September 1999 forced by
Dag Lohmann; Kenneth E. Mitchell; Paul R. Houser; Eric F. Wood; John C. Schaake; Alan Robock; Brian A. Cosgrove; Justin Sheffield; Qingyun Duan; Lifeng Luo; R. Wayne Higgins; Rachel T. Pinker; J. Dan Tarpley
Observations over the last three decades show that desertification poses a serious threat to the livelihood and productivity of inhabitants of the Horqin Sandy Land region of China. We evaluated the dynamics and trends of changes of land cover in the Horqin Sandy Land by using Landsat archive images from 1975, 1987, 1999, and 2007. We applied two supervised classification
Hasi Bagan; Wataru Takeuchi; Tsuguki Kinoshita; Yuhai Bao; Yoshiki Yamagata
Management and planning of the natural environment requires spatially accurate and timely information on land use patterns. With repetitive satellite coverage, the rapid evolution of computer technology and the integration of satellite and spatial data, the development of land use applications have become ubiquitous. The integration of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has been widely applied and recognized as a powerful and effective tool in detecting land use change in urban areas. This paper presents the land use change analysis of the Beykoz region, which is the second largest administrative district of Istanbul. Land use changes and their impacts are monitored using Landsat (MSS - TM) and Spot 5 satellite data in the period of 1975-2001. The independent classification of each satellite image was used as a change analysis method and the resulting images were analyzed with GIS techniques. The results showed that forest area of Beykoz decreased from 80.55% to 70.5% between 1975 and 1984 and during the 1984-2001 periods, the forested area decreased from 70.5% to 68.86% and the urban growth rate was 4.65%. PMID:16114639
Microwave landingsystem (MLS) is a precision approach and landing guidance system which provides position information and various air to ground data. Position information is provided on a wide coverage sector and is determined by an azimuth angle measurement, an elevation angle measurement, and a range measurement. MLS performance standards and testing of the MLS airborne receiver is mainly governed by Technical Standard Order TSO-C104 issued by the Federal Aviation Administration. This TSO defines detailed test procedures for use in determining the required performance under standard and stressed conditions. It also imposes disciplines on software development and testing procedures. Testing performed on the CMA-2000 MLS receiver and methods used in its validation are described. A computer automated test system has been developed to test for compliance with RTCA/DO-177 Minimum Operation Performance Standards. Extensive software verification and traceability tests designed to ensure compliance with RTCA/DO-178 are outlined.
Pin-point landing is required to enable missions to land close, typically within 10 meters, to scientifically important targets in generally hazardous terrain. In Pin Point Landing both high accuracy and high speed estimation of position and orientation is needed to provide input to the control system to safely choose and navigate to a safe landing site. A proposed algorithm called
Arin Morfopolous; Brandon Metz; Carlos Villalpando; Larry Matthies; Navid Serrano
NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a comprehensive test and analysis program to evaluate the ability of LS-DYNA to model the materials and the phenomena involved in soil and water landing impacts of the Orion crew module. 12 Elemental, scale boilerplate, and full-scale prototype testing is being conducted in support of the simulation verification and validation approach. Aspects of
Gregory J. Vassilakos; David E. Stegall; Robin C. Hardy; Richard L. Boitnott; Mercedes Reaves; Stephen D. Mark; Martin S. Annett
Summary The albedo of vegetated land surfaces (surface albedo) is a key factor in climate modeling and in mechanistic accounting\\u000a of many ecological processes. This paper proposes a testable numerical equation for the analysis and projection of surface\\u000a albedo. Conceptualized as the manifestation of a canopy elements-determined basic property after modifications by temporal\\u000a and spatial circumstances, surface albedo was depicted
...Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways...Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in Â§ 970.204, the SMS must meet the following...
...Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways...Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in Â§ 970.204, the SMS must meet the following...
... Indian lands safety management system (SMS). 973.212 Section 973.212 Highways... Indian lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in Â§ 973.204, the SMS must meet the following...
...Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 971.212 Section 971.212 Highways...Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in Â§ 971.204, the SMS must meet the following...
...Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 972.212 Section 972.212 Highways...Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in Â§ 972.204, the SMS must meet the following...
... Indian lands safety management system (SMS). 973.212 Section 973.212 Highways... Indian lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in Â§ 973.204, the SMS must meet the following...
...Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 971.212 Section 971.212 Highways...Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in Â§ 971.204, the SMS must meet the following...
...Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 972.212 Section 972.212 Highways...Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in Â§ 972.204, the SMS must meet the following...
Advances in space robotics technology hinge to a large extent upon the development and deployment of sophisticated new vision-based methods for automated in-space mission operations and scientific survey. To this end, we have developed a new concept for automated terrain analysis that is based upon a generic image enhancement platform-multi-scale retinex (MSR) and visual servo (VS) processing. This pre-conditioning with the MSR and the VS produces a "canonical" visual representation that is largely independent of lighting variations, and exposure errors. Enhanced imagery is then processed with a biologically inspired two-channel edge detection process, followed by a smoothness based criteria for image segmentation. Landing sites can be automatically determined by examining the results of the smoothness-based segmentation which shows those areas in the image that surpass a minimum degree of smoothness. Though the MSR has proven to be a very strong enhancement engine, the other elements of the approach-the VS, terrain map generation, and smoothness-based segmentation-are in early stages of development. Experimental results on data from the Mars Global Surveyor show that the imagery can be processed to automatically obtain smooth landing sites. In this paper, we describe the method used to obtain these landing sites, and also examine the smoothness criteria in terms of the imager and scene characteristics. Several examples of applying this method to simulated and real imagery are shown.
Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.
In the era of state socialism under Mao, land in China was treated as a means of production and was allocated administratively by the state free of charge. To accommodate the interests of foreign investors without violating the socialist principle of public ownership, the Chinese state has, since the 1980s, separated land use rights from land ownership and opened up
LandScan (LANguage Driven SCene ANalysis) is presented as an integrated vision system which covers most levels of both vision and natural language processing. Computations are both data-driven and query-driven. In the report we focus on the design of the vision and control modules. Future work will investigate in more detail the design of the natural language interface. The data-driven system
Ruzena Bajcsy; Aravind K. Joshi; Eric Krotkov; Amy E. Zwarico
...National Forest SystemLand for the Red Cloud Campground; New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau...historical interpretive integrity of the Red Cloud Campground within the Cibola National Forest...investment expended to develop the Red Cloud Campground facility and the unique...
Abstact More and more lands worldwide are being cultivated for food production while forests are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. This paper aims to make a long-term forecast on land uses worldwide and provide the publics, researchers, and government officials with a clear profile for land uses in the future. Data of land uses since 1961 were used to fit historical
Retro rocket Earth landingsystem architectures for the Orion crew module were developed for the Constellation Program during the LandingSystem Advanced Development Project design trades. The architectures include both variable and fixed impulse base-mounted solid-propellant retro rocket motors for vertical and horizontal landing velocity control. Monte Carlo performance analyses were conducted, detailed motors were designed and support system configurations
C. Marrese-Reading; J. St. Vaughn; R. Prakash; G. Singh; R. Frisbee; M. Mandic; R. Pain; W. Slade; D. Rooney; D. Leipold; A. Ramos; D. Pierce; J. Corliss; R. Tutterow; W. True; R. Robbins; D. Barr; J. Stephens; R. Wirz
Integration of remote sensing data with other spatial\\/non-spatial data was carried out using ARC\\/INFO software package. A\\u000a simple classification technique was adopted for land cover\\/land-use change analyses in relation to elevation, slope, aspect\\u000a and bio-climatic classes. Suitability assessment of land where agricultural extension occurred between 1963 and 1993 was made\\u000a using GIS software package. Expansion of agriculture and was found
Simulation and analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Digital Data Processing System (DDPS) are reported. The mated flight and postseparation flight phases of the space shuttle's approach and landing test configuration were modeled utilizing the Informatio...
The computer-based GIS, with its remarkable ability to store, retrieve, manipulate and display vast quantities of spatial and attribute data, has become a very useful tool for urban planning. Yet the utility of GIS in urban planning and management is often hampered by a lack of current and sequential land-cover and land use information. This is because most of the
The incorporation of landscape ecological and fragmentation analyses within remote sensing science has expanded the inferential capabilities of such research. This issue presents a series of papers on the use of landscape ecological techniques to explore the relationship between land cover and land use spatial pattern and process in an international, comparative context. Methodologically, researchers seek to link spatial pattern
In the article, the author studies the relationship between land price and real estate bubbles through mathematical analysis. Firstly, through analyzing the situation in foreign countries, the author points out that the rising price of land makes the price of real estate keep rising because the land price is the most important part of real estate price. This is the
In order to radically solve the ever-increasing land problems of all kinds, the government has established the national land supervision system to enhance the supervision of provincial land administration. In accordance with the characteristics of land supervision, this paper discusses the establishment of remote sensing of national land using GPS and network technology to provide automatic, fast and accurate information of land use. The system will provide inspectors with an all-inclusive service of approval recording, rapid detection, validity examination, automatic updating, supervision of internal affairs, and inspection of external affairs.
The present paper investigates the hydrological land use conversion effects in a watershed that supplies 10 million people in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region of Brazil. The main point of this investigation is to identify, at the regional-scale, how much of the land use conversion from native forest to eucalyptus using a non-ideal tillage system is necessary to change the hydrological conditions. In addition to short and, often incomplete data records, determining cause-and-effect relationships was further complicated by concurrent and systematic changes in precipitation, land use, and discharge. Both minimum low flows following prolonged periods without precipitation and recession-flow analysis showed significant negative trends. During the same period, deforestation increased by 2.4 km2/year and eucalyptus-silviculture activity increased by 2.6 km2/year. The dry and wet seasons and annual discharge decreased significantly (p-value<0.01). The precipitation also decreased significantly (p-value<0.01). However, the evapotranspiration losses, estimated as the difference between annual precipitation and discharge, increased significantly (p-value<0.02). The results showed that the negative trends in all discharge analysis are partially related to decreasing precipitation. The increase evapotranspiration losses, given decreasing precipitation, are most likely related to the increases in silviculture and likely also contributed to decreases in discharge. The results indicate that both climate and land use alterations could have a huge impact in water supply in watersheds.
More and more lands worldwide are being cultivated for food production while forests are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. This paper aims to make a long-term forecast on land uses worldwide and provide the public, researchers, and government officials with a clear profile for land uses in the future. Data of land uses since 1961 were used to fit historical trajectories and make the forecast. The results show that trajectories of land areas can be well fitted with univariate linear regressions. The forecasts of land uses during the coming 25 years were given in detail. Areas of agricultural land, arable land, and permanent pasture land worldwide would increase by 6.6%, 7.2%, and 6.3% respectively in the year 2030 as compared to the current areas. Permanent crops land area all over the world is forecasted to increase 0.64% by 2030. By the year 2030 the areas of forests and woodland, nonarable and nonpermanent land worldwide would decrease by 2.4% and 0.9% against the current areas. All other land area in the world would dramatically decline by 6.4% by the year 2030. Overall the land area related to agriculture would tend to decrease in developed countries, industrialized countries, Europe, and North and Central America. The agriculture related land area would considerably increase in developing countries, least developed countries, low-income countries, Asia, Africa, South America, etc. Developing countries hold larger total land area than developed countries. Dramatic and continuous growth in agricultural land area of developing countries would largely contribute to the expected growth of world agricultural land area in the coming years. Population explosion, food shortage and poverty in the world, especially in developing countries, together caused the excessive cultivation of land for agricultural uses in the past years. Increasing agricultural land area exacerbates the climate changes and degradation of environment. How to limit the growth of human population is a key problem for reducing agricultural land expansion. Development and use of high-yielding and high-quality crop and animal varieties, diversification of human food sources, and technical and financial assistance to developing countries from developed countries, should also be implemented and strengthened in the future in order to slow down or even reverse the increase trend of agricultural land area. Sustainable agriculture is the effective way to stabilize the agricultural land area without food shortage. Through various techniques and measures, sustainable agriculture may meet the food production goals with minimum environmental risk. Public awareness and interest in sustainable agriculture will help realize and ease the increasing stress from agricultural land expansion. PMID:16741808
This paper describes an experimental methodology for comparing vision systems that might be used to control a teleoperated, land vehicle. A pilot study compared three forward-looking vision systems in two modes of driver interaction: (1) actual remote driving; and (2) video simulation. Remote driving has the advantage of realism, but is subject to variability in driving strategies and can be hazardous to equipment. Video simulation provides a more controlled environment in which to compare vision-system parameters, but at the expense of some realism. If results demonstrate that relative differences among the visual systems are consistent in the two test modes, then subsequent experimentation, aimed at optimizing vision-system parameters will rely on the more cost-effective, video-simulation approach. The results of the pilot study will be discussed in the conference session.
Best Management Practices (BMP's) in farming were found to significantly reduce agricultural non-point water pollution in Central Indiana. Through the implementation of systems of conservation tillage practices and structural measures at the farm level, reductions in runoff were achieved, thereby minimizing erosion and subsequent sedimentation and pollution of the surface water system. These conclusions resulted from a three and one-half year study entitled, ``The Indiana Heartland Model Implementation Project'' administered by the Indiana Heartland Coordinating Commission, involving cooperation and coordination of farmers, citizens, and a multi-agency, multi-disciplinary team comprised of four universities and numerous governmental agencies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded research, while the U.S. Department of Agriculture provided cost share monies for BMP implementation. A comprehensive geographically encoded computer-aided data base was constructed which included information on land cover, elevation, slope, aspect, soils, etc. Land cover map files were compiled through remote sensing including Landsat MSS digital data and low altitude color infrared aerial photography sources. This digital data base was suited for spatial and statistical analyses and transferred easily as input to Purdue University's ANSWERS Model for further watershed assessment. The ANSWERS Model is a distributed deterministic model which simulates the monitored reaction of subwatersheds to actual storm events. Through this model inferences were made as to the expected water quality improvements, given BMP's were implemented at critical areas for erosion throughout both watersheds.
Regional land use change has been and will continue to be one of the hugest human impacts on the environment. Understanding the spatial configuration of urban areas will be important for quantifying dynamic change of land use. Arable land plays an important role in agricultural and economic development of China especially in Guangdong province. It is not only the basic material of crop production, but also the foundation and guarantee for implementing crop security. Based on the analysis of present situation of arable land, a land management policy for dynamic equilibrium of total arable land can be implemented. In order to understand the landscape pattern and the gradient characteristic of arable land along the middle-lower of Dongjiang River, we quantify the arable pattern with the combination of gradient analysis and landscape metrics. It is found that: (1) paddy land is the dominating land use type, the pattern of paddy land has strong effect on the whole landscape pattern, (2) The same metric value about different arable land use type has the obvious difference (3) Through out the gradient analysis, the metric chart of the arable land pattern has the inflexion near the borderline of the cities.
This paper describes our photogrammetric analysis of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder data, part of a broader program of mapping the Mars Pathfinder landing site in support of geoscience investigations. This analysis, carried out primarily with a commercial digital photogrammetric system, supported by our in-house Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS), consists of three steps: (1) geometric control: simultaneous
R. L. Kirk; E. Howington-Kraus; T. Hare; E. Dorrer; D. Cook; K. Becker; K. Thompson; B. Redding; J. Blue; D. Galuszka; E. M. Lee; L. R. Gaddis; J. R. Johnson; L. A. Soderblom; A. W. Ward; P. H. Smith; D. T. Britt
Methods of determining the potential overall impact of land-based biomass production on the agricultural and forestry sectors of the US economy were evaluated. The availability of the factor that possibly limits biomass production the most, land is examined. A summary by US Department of Agriculture regions of the amount of available land with potential for biomass production and not presently
The Chinese first lunar lander/rover Chang'E-3 is planned to land on the Sinus Iridum landing area in 2013. Using the Chang'E-2 CCD image data, we analyzed the topographic features of the proposed landing area.
Zou, X. D.; Liu, J. J.; Mou, L. L.; Ren, X.; Li, K.; Zhao, J. J.; Liu, Y. X.; Li, C. L.
The Existing Land Use Study of Griffin, Georgia presents the acreage of each land use for the City and the nineteen planning areas. The existing land use is also analyzed and presented in summary form for the City and each of the planning areas. The domin...
The update of existing land use in an integral part of the continuing planning process land use information and maps are inputs for the preparation of the council's land use plan and the development of the regional comprehensive plan. This data is also ne...
The importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization of land surface modeling can be clear upon considering the wide range of performance characteristics of numerical land surface models realizable through various combinations of factors. Such factors might include model physics and numerics, resolution, and forcing datasets used in operational implementation versus those that might have been involved in any prior development benchmarking. Of course, decisions concerning operational implementation may be better informed through more effective benchmarking of performance under various blends of such aforementioned operational factors. To facilitate this and other needs for landanalysis activities at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA), the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) - a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community - and the land information system (LIS) Verification Toolkit (LVT) - developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) - have been adapted to the operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities in order to compare the performance of new land modeling and related activities with that of previous activities as well as observational or analyzed datasets. In this talk, three examples of adaptations of MET and LVT to evaluation of LIS-related operations at AFWA will be presented. One example will include comparisons of new surface rainfall analysis capabilities, towards forcing of AFWA's LIS, with previous capabilities. Comparisons will be relative to retrieval-, model-, and measurement-based precipitation fields. Results generated via MET's grid-stat, neighborhood, wavelet, and object based evaluation (MODE) utilities adapted to AFWA's needs will be discussed. This example will be framed in the context of better informing optimal blends of land surface model (LSM) forcing data sources - namely precipitation data- under various atmospheric and land surface conditions through consideration of various metrics and their tradeoffs. A second example, conducted through both the adapted MET utilities and those of LVT, will involve comparisons of several of AFWA's LIS output surface flux and state variables with those of the Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) model and various retrieval- and measurement-based datasets towards judging relative performance. A third example will highlight LVT's capabilities towards data assimilation (DA) through LIS and LVT, and the benefits of LVT as both a benchmarking tool and facilitator of LIS DA. All examples will highlight benefits and lessons learned through operational, systematic benchmarking contexts.
Shaw, M.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Cetola, J.
The processing subsystem of a land based radar polarimeter was designed and constructed. This subsystem is labeled the remote data acquisition and distribution system (RDADS). The radar polarimeter, an experimental remote sensor, incorporates the RDADS to control all operations of the sensor. The RDADS uses industrial standard components including an 8-bit microprocessor based single board computer, analog input/output boards, a dynamic random access memory board, and power supplis. A high-speed digital electronics board was specially designed and constructed to control range-gating for the radar. A complete system of software programs was developed to operate the RDADS. The software uses a powerful real time, multi-tasking, executive package as an operating system. The hardware and software used in the RDADS are detailed. Future system improvements are recommended.
Rapid land-use change has taken place in many arid and semi-arid regions of China such as Yulin prefecture over the last decade due to rehabilitation measures. In this paper, land-use change dynamics were investigated by the combined use of satellite remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS). Our objectives were to determine land-use transition rates among land-use types in Yulin
Helicopter hover, landing, and take-offs in dust, fog, rain, snow, and high winds is an integral part of military and commercial flight operations. OADS has developed and flight-tested an LDV-based optical sensor suite capable of measuring height above ground, groundspeed, and air data at a FCS capable data rate from a helicopter platform under all environmental and weather conditions. This paper presents capabilities and flight-test results of this high-resolution standalone Precision Flight Instrumentation System.
Mamidipudi, Priyavadan; Dakin, Elizabeth A.; Dakin, Daniel C.; Bienlien, Timothy; Vang, Donald; Rogers, Philip
The Land Information System (LIS; http:lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a hydrologic modeling system that integrates various community land surface models, ground and satellite-based observations, and high performance computing and data management tools to enable assessment and prediction of hydrologic conditions at various spatial and temporal scales. Recently, the LIS framework has been enhanced by developing an interoperable extension for sequential data assimilation,
S. V. Kumar; R. Reichle; C. Peters-Lidard; R. Koster
Land change model outcomes are vulnerable to multiple types of uncertainty, including uncertainty in input data, structural uncertainties in the model and uncertainties in model parameters. In coupled model systems the uncertainties propagate between the models. This paper assesses uncertainty of changes in future spatial allocation of agricultural land in Europe as they arise from a general equilibrium model coupled to a spatial land use allocation model. Two contrasting scenarios are used to capture some of the uncertainty in the development of typical combinations of economic, demographic and policy variables. The scenario storylines include different measurable assumptions concerning scenario specific drivers (variables) and parameters. Many of these assumptions are estimations and thus include a certain level of uncertainty regarding their true values. This leads to uncertainty within the scenario outcomes. In this study we have explored how uncertainty in national-level assumptions within the contrasting scenario assumptions translates into uncertainty in the location of changes in agricultural land use in Europe. The results indicate that uncertainty in coarse-scale assumptions does not translate into a homogeneous spread of the uncertainty within Europe. Some regions are more certain than others in facing specific land change trajectories irrespective of the uncertainty in the macro-level assumptions. The spatial spread of certain and more uncertain locations of land change is dependent on location conditions as well as on the overall scenario conditions. Translating macro-level uncertainties to uncertainties in spatial patterns of land change makes it possible to better understand and visualize the land change consequences of uncertainties in model input variables. PMID:23026356
Potential contamination of groundwater because of nitrogen leaching has been an important concern in municipal wastewater land application systems; however, few efforts have made to measure nitrogen leaching (total N, NO(3-)-N, and NH(4+)-N) under field conditions. This research successfully developed a conceptual nitrogen mass balance model and quantified its components at a wastewater land application system located at the City of Littlefield, Texas, from October 2005 to September 2007. The concentrations of total nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen in the leachate were significantly less than 10 mg/L, therefore, there was no potential nitrogen contamination to groundwater found at this site during the research period. Linear regression models were analyzed and resulted in R2 values of 0.918, 0.966, and 0.833 between cumulative applied total nitrogen mass and cumulative leached total nitrogen mass, cumulative applied nitrate-nitrogen mass and cumulative leached nitrate-nitrogen mass, and cumulative applied ammonia-nitrogen mass and cumulative leached ammonia-nitrogen mass, respectively. The nitrogen mass balance design approach for this site resulted in significant nitrogen removal. Organic nitrogen may leach with other forms of nitrogen, and denitrification plays an important role in nitrogen removal during the winter and spring seasons when the grass is dry. PMID:20369566
Duan, Runbin; Fedler, Clifford B; Sheppard, Christopher D
Abstract—Jumping and landing movements are characterized by large instantaneous forces, short duration, and a high uncertainty concerning take off and landing points. Such characteristics make conventional types of control and robot design inadequate. Here we present an approach to realize motor control of jumping and landing which exploits the synergy between control and mechanical structure. Our experimental system is a
Degraded or sub-standard soils and marginal lands occupy a significant proportion of boreal, temperate and tropical biomes. Management of these lands with a wide range of existing, site-specific, integrated, agroforest systems represents a significant global opportunity to reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Establishment of extensive agricultural, agroforest, and alternative land-use systems on marginal or degraded lands
Robert K. Dixon; Jack K. Winjum; Kenneth J. Andrasko; Jeffrey J. Lee; Paul E. Schroeder
Theories on the reciprocal relationship between land-use and transport address changes in locational decisions and travel behavior of private actors (households and firms) due to alternations in the transport system, respectively land-use system. Although the impact of land-use system on travel behaviour (transport system) has been the subject of much research (for reviews, see, e.g. Handy, 2002; Stead and Marshall,
Traditional land management system based on PC has some shortages, such as bad openness and bad timeliness. And, it is hard to unify the criteria of data norm and database construction, easy to result in data redundancy. As a new development stage of GIS, WebGIS has perfectly solved the above-mentioned problems, so it is greatly meaningful to study digital land WebGIS. The system adopts GeoBeans6.5 as the platform which is developed by institute of remote sensing applications, CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences). In addition, using ncgmec.jar component supplied by GeoBeans6.5, the system which is called "A WebGIS system on the base of spatial data processing system for land application" is developed under the support of IIS5.1 and java virtual machine. In the end, the main function of this system is demoed.
Snow cover and terrestrial snow processes have a crucial influence on heat fluxes between the land and atmosphere because of its high albedo and insulating thermal properties, which impact the energy and water balance on land. For this reason, special emphasis is put on the modeling of snow processes and on the application of initial conditions for these processes in environmental prediction system (weather and hydrology). The snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow cover fraction (SCF) are of particular importance for accurate representation of sensible and latent heat fluxes in atmospheric model and of water availability in hydrological model. To account for this, a high resolution ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) analysis scheme has been developed to include observed SWE and SCF into the Canadian Land Data Assimilation System (CaLDAS), to be proposed for operational implementation at the Canadian Meteorological Service in the next year or so. Ultimately, CaLDAS will be integrated into the coupled land-atmosphere system. The main objective of this study is to include the following space-based remote sensing data in CaLDAS for the assimilation of terrestrial snow. Snow remote sensing data by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) produces daily coarse-resolution (25 km) SWE products. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS) provides global snow cover products on a daily basis at a spatial resolution of 4 km, but the SCF only contains partial information about the SWE state. The Interactive Multi sensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS, from NOAA) data are also available on a polar stereographic projection at 4 km resolution which classifies data points as either land, sea, sea ice or snow. As a first step, daily and 5-day average (pentad) passive microwave SWE data for a period from November 2006 to April 2007 will be compared to snow water equivalent data derived from the GEM land surface model through Western Canada (500 - 650 N latitude, 2400 - 2650 longitude) with 10 km resolution covering of the study area (forest, tundra and prairie). A subsequent modeling study to compare the daily MODIS SCF and IMS imageries for spring 2007 with the land surface model output will also be carried out for the same region.
Solomon, S. J.; Belair, S.; Derksen, C.; Wang, L.; Carrera, M. L.; Bilodeau, B.
The goal of this dissertation is to investigate novel methods of remote sensing/geographic information system (GIS) technologies to improve the accuracy of mapping urban land cover. Medium spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery is comparatively very cheap, but has a critical drawback "mixed" pixels (i.e., mixtures of impervious surface, lawn and tree cover with a single pixel) in the complex urban landscape. Accordingly, there are two major research areas that I propose to address: (1) Improving the specificity and accuracy of remotely sensed indicators of human land use, with a focus on impervious surface, lawn and urban tree cover; and (2) Testing the utility of newly available high (IKONOS) and medium (Landsat ETM) resolution remotely sensed image data for such purposes. While previous studies have focused on the estimation of impervious surface, this study is the first to thoroughly investigate the lawn and tree cover as separate urban green space components. I tested three different sub-pixel analysis methods: Linear Mixture Model (LMM), Fuzzy c-means Clustering (FCM), and Self-Organizing Map Neural Network (SOM). Overall, the SOM method provided the best estimates of the three land cover components: impervious surface estimated ranged from +/-4˜12%, lawn ranged from +/-8˜11%, and tree ranged from +/-11˜19% as compared to reference data. The linear mixture assumption of the endmember spectra of LMM is upheld to a large extent as evidenced by the rather high accuracy of impervious surface estimation, but the spectral reflectance of lawn and urban tree are not linearly mixed. LMM and FCM do not correctly estimate pure pixels of lawn and urban tree, while SOM_LVQ estimates these pure pixels quite accurately. Providing higher spatial resolution by the merging of higher spatial resolution panchromatic and lower spatial resolution multispectral Landsat ETM imagery did not improve the estimation of urban land cover components. The results of this study provide comprehensive information of the utility of sub-pixel analysis for the estimation of urban land cover components and suggest that the comparatively accurate land cover estimation of urban land cover components is attainable from medium resolution satellite imagery. These results are significant in that they demonstrate that medium resolution remotely sensed imagery such as Landsat ETM can provide a cost effective image data source for urban monitoring.
Rotary wing aircraft continue to experience mishaps caused by the loss of visual situational awareness and spatial disorientation due to brownout or whiteout in dusty, sandy or snowy conditions as the downwash of the rotor blades creates obscurant clouds that completely engulf the helicopter during approaches to land. BAE Systems has developed a "see-through" brownout landing aid system technology (BLAST) based on a small and light weight 94GHz radar with proven ability to penetrate dust, coupled with proprietary antenna tracking, signal processing and digital terrain morphing algorithms to produce a cognitive real-time 3D synthetic image of the ground and proximate surface hazards in and around the landing zone. A series of ground and flight tests have been conducted at the United States Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona that reflect operational scenarios in relevant environments to progressively mature the technology. A description of the BLAST solution developed by BAE Systems and results from recent flight tests is provided.
Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152
Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003.
We compare the results of geomorphological analysis of a 260-km sector of the Transantarctic Mountains in southern Victoria Land with offshore records of sedimentation in adjacent offshore cores (Cape Roberts and CIROS-1) and seismic results from wider areas of the Ross Sea shelf. Interpretation of the independent records shows good agreement and allows the following synthesis of the climatic evolution
Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems’ sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems in eastern Uganda from 1960 to 2001 in a place-based analysis combined with a comparative analysis of similar low input systems in southern Mali. This study showed that policy-institutional factors next to population growth have driven land use changes in the Teso systems, and that nutrient balances of farm households are useful indicators to identify their sustainability. During the period of analysis, the fraction of land under cultivation increased from 46 to 78%, and communal grazing lands nearly completely disappeared. Cropping diversified over time; cassava overtook cotton and millet in importance, and rice emerged as an alternative cash crop. Impacts of political instability, such as the collapse of cotton marketing and land management institutions, of communal labour arrangements and aggravation of cattle rustling were linked to the changes. Crop productivity in the farming systems is poor and nutrient balances differed between farm types. Balances of N, P and K were all positive for larger farms (LF) that had more cattle and derived a larger proportion of their income from off-farm activities, whereas on the medium farms (MF), small farms with cattle (SF1) and without cattle (SF2) balances were mostly negative. Sustainability of the farming system is driven by livestock, crop production, labour and access to off-farm income. Building private public partnerships around market-oriented crops can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to boost productivity in such African farming systems. However, intervention strategies should recognise the diversity and heterogeneity between farms to ensure efficient use of these external inputs.
de Ridder, Nico; de Jager, Andre; Delve, Robert J.; Bekunda, Mateete A.; Giller, Ken E.
A radiative transfer model (RTM) that provides a link between model states and satellite observations (e.g., brightness temperature) can act as an observation operator in land data assimilation to directly assimilate brightness temperatures. In this study, a microwave Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) was developed with three RTMs (The radiative transfer model for bare field (QH), land emissivity model (LandEM), and Community Microwave Emission Model (CMEM)) as its multi-observation operators (LDAS-MO). Assimilation experiments using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) satellite brightness temperature data from July 2005 to December 2008 were then conducted to investigate the impact of the RTMs on the assimilated results over China. It was found that the assimilated volumetric soil-water content using each of the three observation operators improved the estimation of soil moisture content in the top soil layer (0-10 cm), with reduced root mean square errors (RMSEs), and increased correlation coefficients with field observations (OBS) as compared to a control run with no assimilation for the absence of frozen or snow-covered conditions. The assimilated soil moisture for the QH model, which was more sensitive to dry soil than the other models, produced closer correlations with OBS in arid and semi-arid regions while smaller RMSEs were observed for LandEM. CMEM agreed most closely with OBS over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River due to its better simulation of the brightness temperature over densely vegetated areas. To improve assimilation accuracy, a Bayesian model averaging (BMA) scheme for the LDAS-MO was developed. The BMA scheme was found to significantly enhance assimilation capability producing the soil moisture analysis, showing the lowest RMSEs and highest correlations with OBS over all areas. It was demonstrated that the BMA scheme with LDAS-MO has the potential to estimate soil moisture with high accuracy.
Various recovery and landlandingsystems for spacecraft, including non-steerable aerodynamic decelerators (parachutes, ballute, and paraballute), steerable aerodynamic decelerators, deployable flexible wings, and lifting-body and winged vehicles, are considered. Materials used, design and performance characteristics, and deployment techniques are described. Non-steerable decelerators are applicable to vertical descent modes. The Space Shuttle booster recovery system and Viking Mars landingsystem both
Two largely separate literatures exist on regional economic development and land use economics. In this chapter, we argue that a full understanding of each of the two areas requires greater knowledge of their interrelationship. We review key studies of the two literatures, particularly those related to the close interconnectedness of regional economic development and land use. We contend that a
The study inventories and analyzes existing land use within the Collins Planning Area. The study is based on a lot-by-lot visual survey of development patterns. Other topics such as land development problems and comparison with similar communities are inc...
Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol production facilities. Since a valuable byproduct of corn ethanol production is Distiller's Grain Solubles (DGS), siting of ethanol plants was considered with regard to both corn production by county within the conterminous United States and head of cattle available to use this output as feed. We found that many counties outside the Midwest could sustain smaller sized ethanol plants, especially when considering that most large production facilities need to redistribute their DGS in dried form sometimes as far as California which has negative impacts on the Net Energy Value of corn based ethanol. The future of ethanol expansion however lies with cellulosic feedstock which is bulkier and thus more costly to transport than corn. Our results indicate that cellulosic ethanol plants should be smaller in capacity, especially when compared to corn ethanol plants where 100 million gallons a year (mgy) plants are more the norm. Only 7 out of 3109 counties in the conterminous United States contain enough wood, switchgrass or crop residue feedstock to sustain plants that produce greater than 40 mgy of biofuel, meaning that larger plants would need to import feedstock from considerable distances and thus incur greater feedstock transport costs. The last section explored co-location options for siting lignocellulosic ethanol plant production facilities.
...2013-04-01 false Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). 972.210...Systems Â§ 972.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition... (a) The FWS shall have a BMS for bridges which are under the FWS...
Computational intelligence that utilizes adaptive fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) to aircraft automatic landingsystem is proposed in this paper. The proposed intelligent scheme uses CMAC and type-2 fuzzy system. Current flight control law is adopted in the controller design. Lyapunov stability theory is applied to obtain adaptive learning rule and to guarantee stability of the automatic landingsystem.
The use of satellite time series provides precious information to understand vegetation dynamics. In particular, they can be profitably used for studying magnitudo and spatial extent of the Earth's land cover alterations, which affect directly biodiversity, can contribute to land degradation, and are linked to climate change by feedback mechanisms. In the framework of PRO-LAND project (PO-FESR Basilicata 2007-2013), we used NDVI-MODIS satellite time series (250 m), available as 16-day composite from the NASA LPDAAC dataset, to analyze land cover changes occurred in Basilicata region (Southern Italy) during the period 2000-2010. We performed a phenological clustering for the years 2000 and 2010 by means of the unsupervised classification fuzzy k-means which is able to identify gradual differences among phenological patterns. The time domain considered is from April to October in order to reduce disturbances due to the presence of clouds, which can distort actual vegetation phenological profiles. The optimal number of clusters to capture the heterogeneity of the examined area was fixed at ten, because it seemed to be a good trade-off between the need of an efficient representation of ecosystems and the ability to detect local fragmentation effects. Results show that the temporal patterns of the ten clusters can be organised in a continuum of phenological curves. They can be sorted unambiguously according to increasing percentage of man-made areas (decreasing percentage of natural areas) and allow us to well discriminate different land cover compositions by looking not only at differences in mean NDVI values but also at differences in the seasonal timing. The cluster sequence for both the examined years mostly follows the spatial arrangement of the land cover classes, and the complex orography of the investigated region. In general, results show that a slight variability characterize the arrangement of cluster cores, particularly for the clusters with a dominance of natural or anthropic covers, whereas a slightly higher variability appears at the cluster borders (especially for clusters where anthropic and natural covers are mixed). Overall, this study puts into evidence a fair decrease in the number of patches (~ -10%) accompanied by the increase of the mean patch area (~ +10%), which means that there is a tendency to compaction of the areas that are classified in the same phenological cluster. This phenomenon is particularly interesting for mountainous natural areas. A coupled analysis of meteo-climatic conditions and implemented land cover management policies can enable to identify the causes behind the observed phenomena, allowing for a more complete picture and a better interpretation of the occurred land cover changes.
Simoniello, Tiziana; Imbrenda, Vito; Lanfredi, Maria
The application of the WELMM (water, energy, land, materials, manpower) systems approach to the analysis of the competitiveness of solar energy conversion systems is discussed. Economic analyses of solar energy conversion systems are shown to depend on the values of parameters (interest and inflation rates and the price of petroleum) which are difficult to predict over the long term. The
Detecting land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes in rural-urban fringe areas (RUFAs) timely and accurately using satellite imagery is essential for land-use planning and management in China. Although traditional spectral-based change-vector analysis (CVA) can effectively detect LULC change in many cases, it encounters difficulties in RUFAs because of deficiencies in the spectral information of satellite images. To detect LULC changes in RUFAs effectively, this paper proposes an extended CVA approach that incorporates textural change information into the traditional spectral-based CVA. The extended CVA was applied to three different pilot RUFAs in China with different remotely sensed data, including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) images. The results demonstrated the improvement of the extended CVA compared to the traditional spectral-based CVA with the overall accuracy increased between 4.66% and 8.00% and the kappa coefficient increased between 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. The advantage of the extended CVA lies in its integration of both spectral and textural change information to detect LULC changes, allowing for effective discrimination of LULC changes that are spectrally similar but texturally different in RUFAs. The extended CVA has great potential to be widely used for LULC-change detection in RUFAs, which are often heterogeneous and fragmental in nature, with rich textural information.
Over the long-term, short-rotation wood production systems can provide a sustained supply of wood as a renewable energy resource. Short-rotation forestry is an alternative to conventional agriculture on marginal land. Since several harvests occur from a single planting, short rotation systems provide relatively permanent vegetation. The potential for improved land use and resource conservation exists in conversion of marginal land
This paper studies the political economy of urban governance and land?use planning mechanisms in the ‘one country, two systems’ of mainland China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR). It is argued that the market economy of Hong Kong had, over the years as a British colony, established an efficiently?run regulatory system of land?use planning. The current land?use planning
Droughts are pervasive natural hazards, which cause large economic losses and human suffering. While the absolute magnitude of these losses is greatest in the developed world, the relative impact is much higher in the developing world. Nonetheless, our ability to monitor and predict the development and occurrence of droughts at a global scale in near real-time is limited. This ability is of particular importance in estimating regional crop production and thus current and future prices of agricultural commodities, as well as the implementation of emergency measures in areas where the effects of drought threaten lives and livelihoods. We describe the implementation of a multi-model drought monitoring system, which provides near real-time estimates of soil moisture conditions for the global land areas between 50S and 50N with a latency of about one day. The system is an extension of similar systems developed by both the University of Washington and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction for use in the U.S. Drought Monitor. Global application of the protocols used in the U.S. systems poses new challenges, particularly with respect to the generation of meteorological forcings with which to drive the land surface models used in such a system. The global system we describe uses satellite-based precipitation (as contrasted with gridded station data in the U.S. systems) as well as temperature estimates based on global weather model analysis fields to track the evolution of soil moisture in near real-time at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree using multiple land surface models. By comparing the modeled, near real-time soil moisture values with the results from long-term retrospective simulations, the model estimates can be placed in historic context (as soil moisture percentiles) and used to monitor the development of droughts around the world. We evaluate the performance of our system for historic droughts, and compare with other drought analyses and analytical data.
Nijssen, Bart; Shukla, Shrad; Lin, Chi-Yu; Lettenmaier, Dennis
The objective of the current project is to modify an existing pathway-to-man computer program, the MAXI1 computer program, for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in reviewing proposed onsite burials of radioactive materials by its licensees. The policy of the NRC is to review proposed onsite burial of radioactive waste on a case-by-case basis. As part of our earlier work on this project, specific human intrusion scenarios were developed that consider various potential combinations of direct exposure to penetrating radiation, inhalation of airborne radionuclides, ingestion of agricultural products raised in contaminated soil, and ingestion of radionuclides in drinking water. As a continuation of our earlier efforts, enhancements to the ONSITE/MASI1 computer software package are being made that will account for additional optional shielding factors that could influence external exposure to penetrating radiation, provide options for alternative land-use conditions, and permit the user to select from a complete diet, meat diet, or vegetable diet. Additional modifications underway include (1) conversion to the ICRP 26/30 dosimetric system for assessing human exposure to radioactive materials and (2) inclusion of an optional 50-year effective committed dose equivalent calculation. The resulting computer software package will provide the necessary flexibility to conduct analyses of human-intrusion scenarios that are applicable to the terrestrial disposal of radioactive materials for a wide variety of conditions. 8 refs., 1 fig.
Introduce green infrastructure, concepts and land use alternatives, to City of Cleveland operations staff. Discuss potential of green alternatives to impact daily operations and routine maintenance activities. Tie in sustainability concepts to long-term City planning and discu...
This report presents computations and analyses of land use in the Town of Bamberg, South Carolina, and the surrounding environs comprising the Greater Bamberg Planning Area. Specific problems are discussed relating to residential, commercial, industrial, ...
...HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems Â§ 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition...A) Identifies alternative strategies to improve pavement...
...HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems Â§ 970.210 Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In addition... (1) Identify alternative strategies to improve bridge...
... Federal lands bridge management system (BMS). In...Guidelines for Bridge Management Systems.â 2 2 âGuidelines for Bridge Management Systems,â AASHTO...Identify alternative strategies to improve bridge...
... Indian lands bridge management system (BMS). In...Guidelines for Bridge Management Systems.â 2 2 âGuidelines for Bridge Management Systems,â AASHTO...Identify alternative strategies to improve bridge...
This paper presents a landscape analysis of land cover change in the Municipality of Rome from 1954 to 2001. The overall objective of the analysis is to characterise the temporal and spatial pattern of change and to explore its potential ecological impact. We used three original land cover layers and a set of landscape metrics to describe variations in composition
Raffaella Frondoni; Barbara Mollo; Giulia Capotorti
Many methods of data mining model were widely applied for land evaluation, and they show different characteristics of the application for land evaluation. In order to analyze different classification model effect for land evaluation, this paper took land in Longchuan County as a case study, established three models using decision tree, back propagation neural network (BP) and logistic regression on land evaluation. The result of study shows that the accuracy of three models changes remarkably according to 6 groups of training samples. The accuracy of the decision tree and BP model can reach high level in support of 4000 training samples, but decision tree model is superior to BP model at intelligibility of model and consuming-time aspects. The overall performance of Logistic regression model is worse than other models at the massive samples. Moreover, three model have different the characteristic of error distribution by means of confusion matrix. The error of decision tree distributes evenly, and the error distribution of BP has opposite result of Logistic regression. Results indicate that the model of decision tree is the best model for evaluating Longchun County land at comprehensive thought, and it has a good effect on application.
The stand-off detection and analysis of environmental land samples have been demonstrated using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. The samples of interest have included soils and vegetation powder. Elements Hg, As, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr have been spectrally analysed with a focus on Hg as a trace contaminant in the samples. It is found that element Fe, usually contained in land samples, is a main source of spectral interference for Hg detection due to its ever present iron emission line at 253.68 nm that is closely adjacent to the strongest Hg emission line at 253.65 nm, and hence, a high resolution of spectral detection is necessary. The strong spectral signals from Bremsstrahlung emission in laser-induced plasma and atomic emission of Fe of high concentration caused a significant reduction in detection resolution in the use of image intensifier of an ICCD. The limit of detection at ~8 ppm for Hg detection in soil samples with iron as a minor constituent has been achieved, using an optical chopper and a CCD detector for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) signal detection. Such detection method in LIBS system has shown a great advantage in determining trace elements from interfering elemental constituents in land sample matrixes.
Land surface is an important interface that exchanges energy with atmosphere, which controlled by many key factors such as albedo, soil moisture, soil temperature, surface roughness, soil emissivity and more, where albedo and surface emissitivity will contribute to the energy redistribution, soil temperature may directly affect the sensible heat in land-atmosphere exchange and soil moisture controls the partitioning of the latent and sensible heat fluxes to the atmosphere, influencing precipitation recycling. For the land products retrieved from the remotely sensed datasets better using in the land surface model and weather/climate model to improve the exchange interface between atmosphere and land surface, the Chinese Land Data Assimilation Systems (LDAS) based on EnKF, 3Dvar Technology and Community Land Model, has been developed at NSMC/CMA. In the context of numerical weather prediction applications, LDAS can provide optimal estimates of land surface state initial conditions, such soil moisture and soil temperature, by integrating with an ensemble of land surface models, the available atmospheric forcing data, remotely sensed observations of precipitation, radiation and some land surface parameters such as land cover and leaf area index. On 27 May 2008, China has successfully launched the FY-3A meteorological satellite as a research and development (R&D) satellite, with 11 payloads mounted, containing 3 earth observation instruments: Visible and InfraRed Radiometer (VIRR), MEdium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) and MicroWave Radiation Imager (MWRI) , which will help to improve our understanding in land surface process and forecast skill to land surface temperature and moisture. In this paper, some works on assimilating FY3A MWRI+VIRR Window Channel Data into Chinese Land Data Assimilation System are introduced and the preliminary results are demonstrated.
Goffette-Nagot F., Reginster I. and Thomas I. Spatial analysis of residential land prices in Belgium: accessibility, linguistic border, and environmental amenities, Regional Studies. This paper explores the spatial variation of land prices in Belgium. The originality of the methodology is threefold: to work at the spatial extent of an entire country; to compute accessibility measures to all jobs and several
Florence Goffette-Nagot; Isabelle Reginster; Isabelle Thomas
Sumber Jaya catchment in South Sumatra, Indonesia, has experienced rapid land use change in the past 20 years. To investigate the impact of land cover change on catchment function for large spatial and temporal scales, a frequency distribution and time series analysis of daily rainfall and water discharge (1974-1998) were used. Rainfall from three gages distributed along the main river
A joint analysis of solar neutrino data together with the new KamLAND data is presented in the RSFP framework. It is investigated that how the new KamLAND data effects the allowed regions at different $\\\\mu B$ values. A limit on $\\\\mu B$ value is found at the different confidence level intervals. It is shown that the RSFP scenerio does not
A water harvesting, agricultural production system, field tested as a means of reclaiming strip-mined land is described. Though the technical feasibility of the system is becoming increasingly apparent, economic feasibility and legal issues may determine ...
This paper applies a system dynamics model for the sustainable land use and urban development in Hong Kong. The model is used to test the outcomes of development policy scenarios and make forecasts. It consists of five sub-systems including population, economy, housing, transport and urban\\/developed land, respectively. Two distinctively different development schemes concerning urban population density are simulated by the
Qiping Shen; Qing Chen; Bo-sin Tang; Stanley Yeung; Yucun Hu; Gordon Cheung
The Lubbock Land Treatment System Research and Demonstration Project, funded by Congress in 1978 (H.R. 9375), was designed to address the various issues concerning the use of slow rate land application of municipal wastewater. Information provided in the volume details the system...
The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 required the Interior Department to experiment with alternatives to the traditional bidding system in leasing offshore lands for oil and gas development. This experiment, extending over a 5-year period, is scheduled to end in September 1983. The alternative systems are designed to reduce the amount of up-front money required by companies
Web map service is a new map service mode actualized by the use of internet technology, computer technology and GIS technology. This article applies Web map service to the release of land use information, and tries to use Google Maps API and XML to build a network release system of regional land use information. The system integrates Google Maps data
This trade study was conducted as a part of the Orion landingsystem advanced development project to determine possible terminal descent sensor (TDS) architectures that could be used for a rocket assisted landingsystem. Several technologies were considered for the Orion TDS including radar, lidar, GPS applications, mechanical sensors, and gamma ray altimetry. A preliminary down selection occurred by comparing
We present shear-wave splitting results obtained from analysis of core refracted teleseismic phases recorded by permanent and temporary seismographic stations located in the Victoria Land region (Antarctica). We used eigenvalue technique to linearize the rotated and shifted shear-wave particle motion, in order to determine the best splitting parameters. A well-scattered distribution of single shear-wave measurements has been obtained. Average values show clearly that dominant fast axis direction is NE-SW oriented, accordingly with previous measurements obtained around this zone. Only two stations, OHG and STAR show different orientations, with N-S and NNW-SSE main directions. On the basis of the periodicity of single shear-wave splitting measurements with respect to back-azimuths of events under study, we inferred the presence of lateral and vertical changes in the deep anisotropy direction. To test this hypothesis we have modelling waveforms using a cross-convolution technique in one and two anisotropic layer's cases. We obtained a significant improvement on the misfit in the double layer case for the cited couple of stations. For stations where a multi-layer structure does not fit, we looked for evidences of lateral anisotropy changes at depth through Fresnel zone computation. As expected, we find that anisotropy beneath the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) is considerably different from that beneath the Ross Sea. This feature influences the measurement distribution for the two permanent stations TNV and VNDA. Our results show a dominant NE-SW direction over the entire region, but other anisotropy directions are present and find an interpretation when examined in the context of regional tectonics.
Salimbeni, Simone; Pondrelli, Silvia; Danesi, Stefania; Morelli, Andrea
We present here shear wave splitting results obtained from analysis of core refracted teleseismic phases in the Victoria Land region (Antarctica). We used data belonging to permanent and temporary stations in the area. The temporary stations are located around the David Glaciers and installation is part of two expeditions inside the Italian National Antarctic program (PNRA, Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide). The network was composed by 8 seismic stations, located on rocky outcrops around the glacier, and has been active from November 2003 to February 2004, and from November 2005 to February 2006. One of this (STAR) became permanent on 2004 and data until 2007 are analyzed. We use eigenvalue technique of Silver and Chan (1991) to linearize the rotated and shifted shear wave particle motions and determine the best splitting parameters. Scattered distribution of single shear-wave measurements is obtained. Null measurements follow the same distribution. Average measurements show clearly that the main anisotropy direction is NE-SW, accordingly with previous measurements obtained around this zone. Only two stations, OHG and STAR, have a different orientation and a N-S and NNW-SSE main directions are obtained respectively. The distribution of single shear-wave splitting measurements evidenced periodicity respect the back-azimuth of the events analyzed, therefore a possible two layers anisotropic structures could be supposed. To test this hypothesis we used the Menke and Levin (2003) code that allow to model waveforms using a cross convolution technique in one and two layer's cases. Significant improvements of the misfit in the double layer case allow choosing this more complex model. The one layer structure is the best for permanent stations TNV and VNDA with directions and delay time accordingly with average measurements. The double layer models fit better the data on stations STAR, located near the coast, and OHG located inland, and show in both cases the same contribution of the anisotropy.
Salimbeni, S.; Pondrelli, S.; Danesi, S.; Morelli, A.
Deforestation and degradation of forest areas, including those in the Protected Areas (PAs), are major concerns in India. There were 2 broad objectives of the study: the technological objective pertained to the development of state-of-art programs that could serve as Decision Support Systems while finalizing plans and policy interventions, while the other objective aimed at generating geo-spatial data in 2 PAs. A part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, Manas Tiger Reserve (MTR), Assam, India having an area of 2837.12 sq km and an important part of Rajaji-Corbett Tiger Conservation Unit, Rajaji National Park (RNP), Uttarakhand, India, having an area of 820.42 sq km, were taken for the assessment of land use and land cover (LULC) change during 1990--2004. Simulation was undertaken in a smaller area of 1.2 km * 1.2 km right on the fringe of RNP. Three advanced geo-spatial programs---Multi-Algorithm Automation Program (MAAP), Data Automatic Modification Program (DAMP) and Multi-Stage Simulation Program (MUSSIP)---developed by the author were used extensively. Based on the satellite data, MAAP was used for the rapid assessments of LULC of 2004 and 1990; DAMP was used for the spectral modification of the satellite data of the adjacent scenes of 2004 and of 1990; and MUSSIP was used to simulate LULC maps for the future periods (till 2018). These programs produced very high accuracy levels: 91.12% in 2004 and 89.67% in 1990 were obtained for MTR; and 94.87% in 2004 and 94.10% in 1990 were obtained for RNP; 93.40% pixel-to-pixel accuracy and 0.7904 for kappa were achieved for simulation. The annual rate of loss of forests (0.41% in MTR and 1.20% in RNP) and loss of water (1.79% in MTR and 1.69% in RNP) during 1990-2004 is a matter of serious concern. The scenario analysis in the study area for simulation revealed that the deforestation rate of 1.27% per year during 2004--2018 would increase to 2.04% if the human population growth rate is enhanced by 10%. Hence these PAs need urgent restoration measures and effective conservation planning to address the problems of deforestation, severe degradation and immense loss of water.
EXPERT is a re-entry vehicle designed for validation of aero-thermodynamic models, numerical schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics codes and test facilities for measuring flight data under an Earth re-entry environment. This paper addresses the design for the descent and landing sequence for EXPERT. It includes the descent sequence, the choice of drogue and main parachutes, and the parachute deployment condition, which can be supersonic or subsonic. The analysis is based mainly on an engineering tool, PASDA, together with some hand calculations for parachute sizing and design. The tool consists of a detailed 6-DoF simulation performed with the aerodynamics database of the vehicle, an empirical wakes model and the International Standard Atmosphere database. The aerodynamics database for the vehicle is generated by DNW experimental data and CFD codes within the framework of an ESA contract to CIRA. The analysis will be presented in terms of altitude, velocity, accelerations, angle-of- attack, pitch angle and angle of rigging line. Discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each parachute deployment condition is included in addition to some comparison with the available data based on a Monte-Carlo method from a Russian company, FSUE NIIPS. Sensitivity on wind speed to the performance of EXPERT is shown to be strong. Supersonic deployment of drogue shows a better performance in stability at the expense of a larger G-load than those from the subsonic deployment of drogue. Further optimization on the parachute design is necessary in order to fulfill all the EXPERT specifications.
An improved understanding of land use/land cover change at local and regional scales is important in an increasingly human-dominated biosphere. The land surface provides resources necessary for human survival (e.g., cropland, water, raw materials) as well as providing other services such as habitat for native species, carbon storage, and nutrient cycling. A goal of land change science is to identify where land cover change is taking place, understand how land use may affect that change, and determine what the consequences of change may be. In the Great Basin Desert of the Western U.S., an important form of land cover change is invasion by non-native cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Cheatgrass invasion destroys native shrub ecosystems, leading to a loss of biodiversity, loss of viable rangeland and increased fire frequency. In this work, I show how remote sensing can be used to detect the regional and local extents of cheatgrass invasion. Remote sensing results are then used to assess the spatial patterns of cheatgrass invasion over time to determine how land use might have affected invasion. Further, I consider the long-term impacts of cheatgrass invasion on biodiversity and carbon storage in the Great Basin. In addition to an analysis of cheatgrass, this thesis presents a new methodology for time series modeling, which can be used to better interpret annual and inter-annual vegetation community phenology. I apply this modeling methodology to all land cover in the Great Basin to assess long-term land cover trends and localized anomalous response within the range of land cover classes present. By investigating regional land cover change I am able to provide more detailed analysis of the drivers of change for land managers while working at a scale relevant to studies of global environmental change.
High-speed photogrammetric measurements are being used to assess the impact dynamics of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) for ground landing contingency upon return to earth. Test articles representative of the Orion capsule are dropped at the NASA...
A. W. Burner D. A. Barrows F. C. Berry H. R. Dismond K. H. Cate
Agroforestry is a promising land use practice to maintain or increase agricultural productivity while preserving or improving fertility. n extensive literature survey was conducted to evaluate the carbon dynamics of agroforestry practices and to assess their potential to store ca...
Measures of final landing approach performance during day and night aircraft carrier recovery are analyzed and interpreted. Approximately 1,800 recoveries were recorded for experienced and inexperienced pilots across four aircraft carriers, six different ...
Forest policymakers, public lands managers, and scientists in the Pacific Northwest (USA) seek ways to evaluate the landscape-level effects of policies and management through the multidisciplinary development and application of spatially explicit methods and models. The Interagency Mapping and Analysis Project (IMAP) is an ongoing effort to generate landscape-wide vegetation data and models to evaluate the integrated effects of disturbances and management activities on natural resource conditions in Oregon and Washington (USA). In this initial analysis, we characterized the spatial distribution of forest and range land development in a four-county pilot study region in central Oregon. The empirical model describes the spatial distribution of buildings and new building construction as a function of population growth, existing development, topography, land-use zoning, and other factors. We used the model to create geographic information system maps of likely future development based on human population projections to inform complementary landscape analyses underway involving vegetation, habitat, and wildfire interactions. In an example application, we use the model and resulting maps to show the potential impacts of future forest and range land development on mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) winter range. Results indicate significant development encroachment and habitat loss already in 2000 with development located along key migration routes and increasing through the projection period to 2040. The example application illustrates a simple way for policymakers and public lands managers to combine existing data and preliminary model outputs to begin to consider the potential effects of development on future landscape conditions.
As complex self-adaptive systems, land ecosystems usually tend to produce intricate vegetation patterns under specific environmental constraints, which have ever puzzled us for decades. In this paper, a universal principle on pattern formation of land ecosystems is highlighted as: a land ecosystem always tries to find an optimal process to acquire maximized flux under a certain constraint or price. The underlying microscopic dynamic mechanism that induces complex vegetation patterns in land ecosystems is then revealed. Based on the Holdridge life zone system, evolutionary dynamic processes and structural classifications of several typical vegetation patterns are then simulated and discussed. Good agreements between theoretical analyses and numerical results are found. This paper demonstrates that the new theoretical analyses and simulation technique can be possibly applied to the whole land ecosystem, not only benefiting academic study on the formation and dynamics of vegetation patterns, but also providing implications for vegetation classification, vegetation protection and soil erosion control.
The paper describes an implementation scenario of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the EMS (European Mobile System) payload embarked on Italsat F-2. Some emphasis is given on market issues aiming at singling out business niches of Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) in Europe. Other crucial issues exist such as: the alternate/competitive systems, the problems of interworking with other existing and/or planned systems, the definition of network architecture that better fits the user requirements, the marketing strategy and, last but not least, the financial evaluation of the project. The paper, on the basis of a study performed by Telespazio on behalf of ESA, discusses some of these issues with emphasis on competitive market aspects.
In this study we present a novel method of land surface classification using surface-reflected GPS signals in combination with digital imagery. Two GPS-derived classification features are merged with visible image data to create terrain-moisture (TM) clas...
This article evaluates the effect of moving window (MW) size on observed fragmentation spatial patterns and proposes a method to identify an effective MW size using Simpson's diversity index. To test the robustness of the proposed method, we demonstrate its use in six cities in the Phoenix metropolitan area that have substantial variation in land composition and configuration. Next we
Sainan Zhang; Abigail M. York; Christopher G. Boone; Milan Shrestha
Luna 24 landed on the moon in the southeast region of Mare Crisium, 12 deg 45 min S, 62 deg 12 min E. Photogeologic mapping results show that the material forming the plain of Mare Crisium is fairly homogeneous. Only one complex of soils is detected here, which, depending on the stratigraphic scale used, belongs to Procellarian, Upper Imbrian, or
SUMMARY The Land Reform programme in Zimbabwe has been a major area of international discussion for almost five years now; mainly due to the hitherto unprecedented approach taken by the government of Zimbabwe to address this very emotive issue. From the world's marginalized communities there has been a lot of admiration for such a bold move, while there has been
The increasing use of food commodities for biofuel production has substantial impact on prices and quantities of these and other food commodities. It is therefore likely that this trend also intensifies the competition for arable land. However, evidence for this hypothesis is generated by calibrated models while empirical evidence is rare. In this paper we analyze the effects of crude
An historical review and critique of federal agency procedures for leasing oil shale resources on public lands is provided. On the basis of this review and critique, issues of public policy are identified and possible alternative courses of action with respect to such issues evaluated. Major emphasis is placed upon the governmental revenue and oil production aspects of alternative leasing
Fields precision leveled to a zero grade require significantly less applied water and provide significant savings in annual production expenses relative to contour levee rice fields. However, zero-grade is a land improvement and requires a large initial capital investment. This study uses a Net Present Value (NPV) approach to evaluate the monetary benefits of zero-grade rice production for tenants and
Jeffrey A. Hignight; K. Bradley Watkins; Merle M. Anders
The debate over land reform in Africa is embedded in evolutionary models, in which it is assumed landholding systems are evolving into individualized systems of ownership with greater market integration. This process is seen to be occurring even without state protection of private land rights through titling. Gender as an analytical category is excluded in evolutionary models. Women are accommodated
A primary goal of Earth system modelling is to improve understanding of the interactions and feedbacks between human decision making and biophysical processes. The nexus of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and the climate system is an important example. LULCC contributes to global and regional climate change, while climate affects the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and LULCC. However, at present, LULCC is poorly represented in Global Circulation Models (GCMs). LULCC models that are explicit about human behaviour and decision making processes have been developed at local to regional scales, but the principles of these approaches have not yet been applied to the global scale level in ways that deal adequately with both direct and indirect feedbacks from the climate system. In this article, we explore current knowledge about LULCC modelling and the interactions between LULCC, GCMs and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). In doing so, we propose new ways forward for improving LULCC representations in Earth System Models. We conclude that LULCC models need to better conceptualise the alternatives for up-scaling from the local to global. This involves better representation of human agency, including processes such as learning, adaptation and agent evolution, formalising the role and emergence of governance structures, institutional arrangements and policy as endogenous processes and better theorising about the role of tele-connections and connectivity across global networks. Our analysis underlines the importance of observational data in global scale assessments and the need for coordination in synthesising and assimilating available data.
Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Arneth, A.; Alexander, P.; Brown, D. G.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Ellis, E.; Finnigan, J.; Galvin, K.; Grigg, N.; Harman, I.; Lennox, J.; Magliocca, N.; Parker, D.; O'Neill, B. C.; Verburg, P. H.; Young, O.
This article develops a spatial analysis applied to examine the main driving forces of land-cover and land-use (LCLU) change in a Mediterranean region. Three different tools have been used in order to differentiate LCLU changes, driving forces and landscape dynamics. LCLU changes have been quantified with remote sensing techniques, driving forces have been analysed with multiple logistic regressions combining biophysical
Land use planning and drought early warning systems both require an understanding of ecological potential and resilience, and how they vary across space and through time. A large body of literature and local knowledge has documented the importance of considering soil variability for land use plannin...
The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is a multiyear NASA technology development effort focused on A(utonomous)-GNC and sensor technology to enable safe and precise planetary landings. The culmination of this project work involves field testing of the developed technology in a relevant terrestrial environment. These tests will demonstrate the capability of the ALHAT AGNC and sensor system,
Mapping geohazards is important factor to the decision making for strategic land use planning. This paper aims at setting a geographic information system (GIS) based methodology for identifying and mapping areas of land collapse hazard and its possible impacts on vulnerable areas. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data was used to create terrain characteristics layers. These maps include elevation zones
SUMMARY: Indeed the earthquakes and tsunami that thoroughly shattered part of Aceh and Nias in North Sumatra brought particular damage to property rights marks and to the land administration system in general. Land rights recovery and protection, therefore, are necessary and should be recovered as soon as soon as possible. In this situation the role of BPN, as an organization
The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...
This paper discusses competition for land between communal grazing livestock systems and emerging preferences for wildlife-based tourism land uses in the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Renewed efforts to improve livestock production as a tool for rural development in Southern Africa come at a time that new transfrontier parks present new opportunities for rural communities to generate incomes from tourism. These
P. Chaminuka; H. M. J. Udo; C. H. A. M. Eilers; Zijpp van der A. J
Land Surface Models (LSMs) are being developed within frameworks such as the Land Information System (LIS) to enable them to assimilate currently-available observations. With the development of intelligent sensors and communication in the next generation satellite constellations that provides an opportunity to enhance information retrieval via 2-way information flow between the LSMs and the sensors. In this presentation, recent progress
H. Su; P. Houser; Y. Tian; S. Kumar; J. Geiger; D. Belvedere
This study assesses the cold season process modeling in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Simulations from the four land surface models (Noah, MOSAIC, SAC and VIC) in the NLDAS are compared with observational data for a 3-year retrospective period over the USA. Observed snow cover extent data are from the IMS (Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping
This paper presents how fuzzy goal programming can be efficiently used for modelling and solving land-use planning problems in agricultural systems for optimal production of several seasonal crops in a planning year. In the model formulation of the problem, utilization of total cultivable land, supply of productive resources, aspiration levels of various production of crops as well as the total
We provide cartography and information system support to the LUNA-GLOB mission and assess candidate landing sites  on the basis of different available remote sensing data sets. The main goal of our work is to identify science opportunities in the sub-polar areas and to detect possible hazards for any landing spacecraft.
Kokhanov, A.; Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Zubarev, A.; Robinson, M. S.
The Lubbock Land Treatment System Research and Demonstration Project, funded by Congress in 1978 (H.R. 9375), was designed to address the various issues concerning the use of slow rate land application of municipal wastewater. The project involved the (1) physical expansion of an...
The report describes how land titles are now recorded in Peru. Also describes the proposed Torrens system for recording land titles and the chief nonpolitical objections to it. It discusses the need for aerial photographs or cadastral maps as the basis fo...
The Marine Corps has recently embarked on the development of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) to replace the aging Pioneer Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system. This thesis examines the critical elements this platform must po...
Since the PHARE Programme of the European Union started in 1990, substantial support has been given for the modernization of land information systems in different countries in Central Europe. The land information systems comprise mainly the cadastral systems and the 1:10,000 (digital) mapping programs. After five years the PHARE Programme was renewed and multi-annual indicative programs for the coming five
An automated land cover change detection method is proposed that uses coarse spatial resolution hyper-temporal earth observation satellite time series data. The study compared three different unsupervised clustering approaches that operate on short term Fourier transform coefficients computed over subsequences of 8-day composite MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data that were extracted with a temporal sliding window. The method
Brian P. Salmon; Jan Corne Olivier; Konrad J. Wessels; Waldo Kleynhans; Frans van den Bergh; Karen C. Steenkamp
The Mississippi Research Consortium (MRC) is implementing a computational Rapid Prototyping Capabilities (RPC) infrastructure, based on a systems engineering concept, advocated by the NASA Applied Sciences Program, in order to identify, evaluate, and integrate research results for applications. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) is a "functional Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS)" that incorporates a suite of land models in an interoperable computational framework. LIS currently is comprised of a LIS core, a number of community land models, data servers, and visualization systems - integrated in a high-performance computing environment. LIS uses model independent software frameworks, such as the Earth Systems Modeling Framework (ESMF) and Assistance for Land Modeling Activities (ALMA), in order to enable interactions with other earth system model and decision support systems (DSS). The LIS user interface (UI) can be used to query, browse, and download LIS derived products. Besides, any clients that support OpenDAP can be used to access the model results. NASA LIS has been identified to be integrated into the RPC infrastructure as a cross-cutting applications framework (AF). The land models in LIS incorporate surface and atmospheric parameters of temperature, snow/water, vegetation, albedo, soil conditions, topography, and radiation. Many of these parameters are available from in- situ observations, numerical model analysis, and from NASA, NOAA, and other remote sensing satellite platforms at various spatial and temporal resolutions. Since the land models in LIS require normal spin-up times of 5 years or more for most experiments, the necessary multi-year retrospective initialization and forcing fields (estimated to grow to 10 TB in size) are also stored and managed in the RPC infrastructure. The computational resources, available to LIS via the RPC infrastructure, support e-Science experiments involving the global modeling of land-atmosphere studies at 1km spatial resolutions as well as regional studies at finer resolutions. Thus the LIS AF with-in RPC can be used to rapidly prototype experiments in order to evaluate the viability of basic research results toward applications of societal benefits. Besides, use case scenarios developed using LIS are also used to specify and refine the system requirements for RPC. The approach used for the integration of LIS as an applications framework into RPC and the lessons learned will be shared during the presentation.
Considerable interest continues both in the aerospace industry and the military in the concept of autonomous landing guidance, and as previously reported, BAE Systems has been engaged for some time on an internally funded program to replace the high voltage power supply, tube and deflection amplifiers of its head up displays with an all digital solid state illuminated image system, based on research into the requirements for such a display as part of an integrated Enhanced Vision System. This paper describes the progress made to date in realising and testing a weather penetrating system incorporating an all digital head up display as its pilot-machine interface.
The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.
Klaus, C. M.; Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.
The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.
Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.
The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) is producing changes in the learning system. One of the new learning system is the use of Moodle which is an Open Source Course Management System (CMS), also known as a Learning Management System (LMS) or a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). It has become very popular among educators around the world as a tool for creating online dynamic web sites for their students. Professors of Soil Science Department of Universidad Politécnica de Madrid are introducing the use of moodle combined with the portfolio development in the learning of the subject of Land Evaluation. The objective of this subject is the application of the land capability system to the land evaluation of an specific area. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of the application of LMS in the teaching of Land Evaluation at University level.
Gascó, G.; Guerrero, F.; Gallardo, J.; Gascó, J. M.; Saa, A.
This report documents the concepts and methods used by the Comprehensive Resource Inventory and Evaluation System (CRIES) Project to classify and evaluate land for national planning and policy analysis. The classification system uses two components -- soi...
Measures of final landing approach performance during day and night aircraft carrier recovery are analyzed and interpreted. Approximately 1,800 recoveries were recorded for experienced and inexperienced pilots across four aircraft carriers, six different types of jet aircraft, and various environmental conditions. The salient features of the findings are reviewed and evaluated for their operational implications, with special emphasis on night
Clyde A. Brictson; Anthony P. Ciavarelli; Joseph W. Wulfeck
Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia with a population of about 10 million people, inhabiting an area of about 25 × 25 km. It has been reported for sometime that locations in Jakarta are subsiding at different rates. Up to the present, there has been no comprehensive information about the characteristics and pattern of land subsidence in the Jakarta
Hasanuddin Z. Abidin; Rochman Djaja; Dudy Darmawan; Samsul Hadi; Arifin Akbar; H. Rajiyowiryono; Y. Sudibyo; I. Meilano; M. A. Kasuma; J. Kahar; Cecep Subarya
The End-to-End Mars Sample Return analysis group goals are to (1) define objectives, (2) define criteria for sampling and landing site definition (3) identify reference landing sites and (4) propose technological inputs for the overall sample return campaign (from the first mission to the analysis of samples on Earth), and not just one segment of this program. Here, a focus is on the definition of landing site criteria to provide reference sites for the proposed MSR campaign. The purpose of the reference sites will be to help the engineers design the mission elements in a way that at least some sites of interest could be accessed. These reference sites will not carry any formal status; there is to be an independent landing site competition.
Land use in Ecuador was investigated by means of statistical analysis with the purpose of deriving quantitative estimates of the relative areas of land use types on the basis of biogeophysical, socio-economic and infrastructural conditions. The smallest spatial units of investigation were 5 by 5 minute (9.25×9.25km) cells of a homogenous geographical grid covering the whole country. Through aggregations of
Relative baseflow volume and streamflow flashiness indices were used to assess relationships between land use\\/cover and streamflow regime in nine New Jersey (NJ) Pinelands streams. Baseflow index (BFI) and Richards-Baker flashiness index (RBI) were estimated on an October-September water year, with period-of-record changes assessed by trend analysis and differences between watersheds assessed by examining index versus land-use\\/cover relationships using a
Landscape ecology and landscape pattern analysis are important components of national-scale programs to identify trends in\\u000a land cover change because: 1) Statistics on changes in land cover proportions are not spatial. A change matrix derived from\\u000a GIS provides useful information, but it does not show the spatial form of change in the landscape. Landscape pattern metrics\\u000a reveal spatial pattern. 2)
This technical note describes microwave landingsystem (MLS) mathematical modeling performed for runway 22L, Midway Airport, Chicago, Illinois. This study considered multipath and shadowing effects of buildings and aircraft. Results are provided as plots ...
The report describes efforts leading to the determination of minimum suitable scan rates for the azimuth and Elevation functions of the microwave Landing Guidance System (LGS) proposed by RTCA SC-117, based on performance requirements of two conventionall...
This report gives an explanation of the procedure used in the application of the Geographic Information System for the generation of the standard Bureau of Reclamation Irrigation Suitability Land Classification drawing layouts. The procedure uses various ...
...Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services...deletes a rule setting forth backup power requirements for communications...deletes a rule providing that UHF television translators on Channels...such operations. There are no UHF television translators...
This study investigated links between drainage-basin characteristics and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri. It was designed as an associative study - the two parks were divided into their principle tributary drainage basins and then basin-scale and stream-habitat data sets were gathered and compared between them. Analyses explored the relative influence of different drainage-basin characteristics on stream habitat conditions. They also investigated whether a relation between land use and stream characteristics could be detected after accounting for geologic and physiographic differences among drainage basins. Data were collected for three spatial scales: tributary drainage basins, tributary stream reaches, and main-stem river segments of the Current and Buffalo Rivers. Tributary drainage-basin characteristics were inventoried using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and included aspects of drainage-basin physiography, geology, and land use. Reach-scale habitat surveys measured channel longitudinal and cross-sectional geometry, substrate particle size and embeddedness, and indicators of channel stability. Segment-scale aerial-photo based inventories measured gravel-bar area, an indicator of coarse sediment load, along main-stem rivers. Relations within and among data sets from each spatial scale were investigated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Study basins encompassed physiographically distinct regions of the Ozarks. The Buffalo River system drains parts of the sandstone-dominated Boston Mountains and of the carbonate-dominated Springfield and Salem Plateaus. The Current River system is within the Salem Plateau. Analyses of drainage-basin variables highlighted the importance of these physiographic differences and demonstrated links among geology, physiography, and land-use patterns. Buffalo River tributaries have greater relief, steeper slopes, and more streamside bluffs than the Current River tributaries. Land use patterns in both river systems correlate with physiography - cleared land area is negatively associated with drainage-basin average slope. Both river systems are dominantly forested (0-35 per-cent cleared land), however, the potential for landscape disturbance may be greater in the Buffalo River system where a larger proportion of cleared land occurs on steep slopes (>15 degrees). When all drainage basins are grouped together, reach-scale channel characteristics show the strongest relations with drainage-basin physiography. Bankfull channel geometry and residual pool dimensions are positively correlated with drainage area and topographic relief variables. After accounting for differences in drainage area, channel dimensions in Buffalo River tributaries tend to be larger than in Current River tributaries. This trend is consistent with the flashy runoff and large storm flows that can be generated in rugged, sandstone-dominate terrain. Substrate particle size is also most strongly associated with physiography; particle size is positively correlated with topographic relief variables. When tributaries are subset by river system, relations with geology and land use variables become apparent. Buffalo River tributaries with larger proportions of carbonate bedrock and cleared land area have shallower channels, better-sorted, gravel-rich substrate, and more eroding banks than those with little cleared land and abundant sandstone bedrock. Gravel-bar area on the Buffalo River main stem was also larger within 1-km of carbonate-rich tributary junctions. Because geology and cleared land are themselves correlated, relations with anthropogenic and natural factors could often not be separated. Channel characteristics in the Current River system show stronger associations with physiography than with land use. Channels are shallower and have finer substrates in the less rugged, karst-rich, western basins than in the
In the last few years serious flood events occurred at the watershed of the river Tisza (both in Hungary and in Ukraine). One of the reasons of these floods is heavy precipitation at the region, which may result in severe runoff consequences because of the significant change in land-use\\/land-cover. In this paper land-use\\/land cover change occurred during the last decade
Land use conflicts are becoming increasingly apparent from local to global scales. Surface gold mining is an extreme source of such a conflict, but mining impacts on local livelihoods often remain unclear. Our goal here was to assess land cover change due to gold surface mining in Western Ghana, one of the world's leading gold mining regions, and to study how these changes affected land use systems. We used Landsat satellite images from 1986-2002 to map land cover change and field interviews with farmers to understand the livelihood implications of mining-related land cover change. Our results showed that surface mining resulted in deforestation (58%), a substantial loss of farmland (45%) within mining concessions, and widespread spill-over effects as relocated farmers expand farmland into forests. This points to rapidly eroding livelihood foundations, suggesting that the environmental and social costs of Ghana's gold boom may be much higher than previously thought. PMID:21848141
Summary \\u000a This paper is concerned with sea\\/land-breeze systems over relatively flat tropical islands to the north of continental Australia.\\u000a The purpose of this study is to contribute to the relatively small body of knowledge on tropical island sea\\/land-breeze systems\\u000a in this region and to highlight their particular characteristics. The evolution and structure of coastal circulations over\\u000a the Tiwi Islands, northern
Several multidecadal simulations have been carried out with the new version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). This paper reports an analysis of the land component of these simulations. Global annual averages over land appear to be within the uncertainty of observational datasets, but the seasonal cycle over land of temperature and precipitation appears to be too weak. These departures from observations appear to be primarily a consequence of deficiencies in the simulation of the atmospheric model rather than of the land processes. High latitudes of northern winter are biased sufficiently warm to have a significant impact on the simulated value of global land temperature. The precipitation is approximately doubled from what it should be at some locations, and the snowpack and spring runoff are also excessive. The winter precipitation over Tibet is larger than observed. About two-thirds of this precipitation is sublimated during the winter, but what remains still produces a snowpack that is very large compared to that observed with correspondingly excessive spring runoff. A large cold anomaly over the Sahara Desert and Sahel also appears to be a consequence of a large anomaly in downward longwave radiation; low column water vapor appears to be most responsible. The modeled precipitation over the Amazon basin is low compared to that observed, the soil becomes too dry, and the temperature is too warm during the dry season.
Dickinson, Robert E. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Oleson, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Thornton, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Vertenstein, Mariana [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Yang, Zong-Liang [University of Texas, Austin; Zeng, Xubin [University of Arizona
Over the past several years, the Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the U.S. National Weather Service has developed a Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). For its computational infrastructure, the GLDAS applies the NASA Land Information System (LIS), developed by the Hydrological Science Branch of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The land
J. Meng; K. Mitchell; H. Wei; R. Yang; S. Kumar; J. Geiger; P. Xie
There are three main objectives of this monograph: (i) to provide an introduction to geographical information technology along with an historical perspective on the evolving role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in planning, (ii) to overview relevant methods and techniques for GIS-based land-use suitability mapping and modeling, and (iii) to identify the trends, challenges and prospects of GIS-based land-use suitability
Terrestrial measurements of neutrinos produced by the Sun have been of great interest for over half a century because of their ability to test the accuracy of solar models. The first solar neutrinos detected with KamLAND provided a measurement of the 8B solar neutrino interaction rate above an analysis threshold of 5.5 MeV. This work describes efforts to extend KamLAND's detection sensitivity to solar neutrinos below 1 MeV, more specifically, those produced with an energy of 0.862 MeV from the 7Be electron-capture decay. Many of the difficulties in measuring solar neutrinos below 1 MeV arise from backgrounds caused abundantly by both naturally occurring, and man-made, radioactive nuclides. The primary nuclides of concern were 210Bi, 85Kr, and 39Ar. Since May of 2007, the KamLAND experiment has undergone two separate purification campaigns. During both campaigns a total of 5.4 ktons (about 6440 m3) of scintillator was circulated through a purification system, which utilized fractional distillation and nitrogen purging. After the purification campaign, reduction factors of 1.5 x 103 for 210Bi and 6.5 x 10 4 for 85Kr were observed. The reduction of the backgrounds provided a unique opportunity to observe the 7Be solar neutrino rate in KamLAND. An observation required detailed knowledge of the detector response at low energies, and to accomplish this, a full detector Monte Carlo simulation, called KLG4sim, was utilized. The optical model of the simulation was tuned to match the detector response observed in data after purification, and the software was optimized for the simulation of internal backgrounds used in the 7Be solar neutrino analysis. The results of this tuning and estimates from simulations of the internal backgrounds and external backgrounds caused by radioactivity on the detector components are presented. The first KamLANDanalysis based on Monte Carlo simulations in the energy region below 2 MeV is shown here. The comparison of the chi2 between the null hypothesis and the existence of the 7Be solar neutrino signal in the data shows a change of 27.9 units, providing evidence that the signal is statistically favored. This analysis reports a measured interaction rate from 7Be solar neutrinos of R = 343.3 +/- 65.0(stat) +/- 99.2(syst) events/(kton·day), which corresponds to a total flux of phi = (3.41 +/- 1.18) x 109 cm-2s-1. The 7Be solar neutrino flux reported in this work is only the second measurement made of this quantity worldwide. It provides an important cross-check of the Borexino experiment. The flux measurement reported here agrees within 1sigma with the standard solar model predictions thus validating our basic understanding of solar fusion reaction processes.
The implementation of a spatial decision support system (DSS) developed as a tool for rural land use planning at the management unit level is described. The DSS fulfils the need for a tool that allows rural land managers to explore their land use options and the potential impacts of land use change. The DSS is based on five components: a
In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time--with community enclosure--by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of "land-use" poverty traps--a "subsistence crop" trap and a "short fallow" trap--and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179
Coomes, Oliver T; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M
The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.
Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba [National Aerospace Laboratories, P.B. No: 1779, Airport Road, Bangalore-560017 (India)
Nitrogenous fertilizers increase agricultural productivity, ultimately feeding the planet. Yet, it is possible to have too much of a good thing, and nitrogen is no exception. When in excess nitrogen has been shown to accelerate eutrophication of water bodies, and act as a chronic toxin (e.g. methemoglobinemia). As land-use intensity continues to rise in response to increases in agricultural productivity, the risk of adverse effects of nitrogen loading on surface water bodies will also increase. Stable isotope proxies are potential tracers of nitrate, the most common nitrogenous phase in surface waters. Applying stable isotope proxies therefore presents an opportunity to identify and manage sources of excess nitrogen before aquatic systems are severely degraded. However, the heterogeneous nature of potential pollution sources themselves, and their distribution with a modified catchment network, make understanding this issue highly complex. The Banks Peninsula, an eroded late tertiary volcanic complex located on the east coast of the South Island New Zealand, presents a unique opportunity to study and understand the sources and fates of nitrate within streams in a contemporary mixed land-use setting. Within this small geographic area there a variety of agricultural activities are practiced, including: heavily fertilized golf courses; stands of regenerating native forest; and areas of fallow gorse (Ulex europaeus; a invasive N-fixing shrub). Each of these landuse classes has its own unique nitrogen budget. Multivariate analysis was used on stream nitrate concentrations to reveal that stream reaches dominated by gorse had significantly higher nitrate concentrations than other land-use classes. Nitrate ?15N & ?18O data from these sites show strong covariance, plotting along a distinct fractionation line (r2 = 0.96). This finding facilitates interpretation of what processes are controlling nitrate concentration within these systems. Further, complementary aquatic foodweb ?15N ?13C analyses of multiple species in various trophic positions allow for a unique, holistic insight in to the fate of gorse-derived nitrate at an ecosystem level. We present here physicochemical and stable isotopic data from a variety of aqueous and aquatic foodweb components. Data is generated using emerging and established analytical techniques, in order to explore links between foodweb ecology, ecosystem function, and fate and transport of excess nitrate along longitudinal gradients of mixed land-use catchments.
Stewart, S. D.; Young, M. B.; Horton, T. W.; Harding, J. S.
Under the support of the remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) techniques, we acquire the land use data in 1990 and 2008 regarding 6 inhabited islands, namely Longxue Island, Hengmen Island, Weiyuan Island, Oi'ao Island, Hengqin Island and Gaolan Island in Pearl River Estuary . By using dynamic degree of land use, land use change intensity, relative change rate
Tao Li; Yi Gao; Xiao-min Li; Tuan-jie Li; Xiao-ming Li; Qin Yang
A sensitivity analysis was carried out to investigate the uncertainty in the simulation of soil moisture by integrating a land surface model, forced with hydro-meteorological data. The study seeks to address the characterization of two sources of uncertainty: 1) errors in the rainfall estimation from sensor observations; and, 2) the land surface model parametric error, which manifests as non-uniqueness in soil hydraulic parameters. The study is conducted in the Oklahoma region, which presents a good coverage by weather radars, multi-year satellite rainfall products and in-situ meteorological and soil moisture measurement stations. The land surface model that has been chosen is the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM; Koster et al., 2000). The framework to characterize the parametric error is represented by the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) technique. The forcing rainfall uncertainty is analyzed through an error model included in the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS), which is applied to satellite rainfall fields to obtain an ensemble of equiprobable realizations of precipitation. The perturbed precipitation fields are propagated through CLSM to produce multiple ensembles of soil moisture. This numerical experiment allows us to quantify the propagation of uncertainty from rainfall to soil moisture prediction, accounting for the two main error sources, i.e. rainfall forcing and land surface model parameterizations. In previous studies we have shown how satellite-rainfall error alone can impact soil moisture uncertainty. Results from this study will complement these initial findings to quantify the relative impact of rainfall vs modeling error and the combined uncertainty on the prediction of soil moisture.
Recent advances in information systems technology have significantly improved our ability to fully exploit the information content of remote sensing data. In this talk, we discuss a range of applications for the optimization and uncertainty tools recently incorporated into the NASA Land Information System (LIS) to address this challenge. LIS is a high-resolution, high-performance, land surface modeling and data assimilation system that supports a wide range of land surface research and applications. The applications of the new optimization and uncertainty tools involve several LIS land-coupled models, including the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), models of land microwave emission (the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Community Microwave Emission Model (CMEM)), radiative transfer (Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation's Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM)), landslide and streamflow simulation. The impact of parameter estimation on land surface modeling is investigated for a range of studies, including soil moisture modeling in the Walnut Gulch experimental watershed, land data assimilation over the continental United States, and coupled land-atmosphere forecasts using WRF for the Southern Great Plains. In addition, the uncertainty in the outputs of such coupled systems is investigated. The uncertainty methods include Monte Carlo for propagating parameter uncertainties and model errors as well as Markov chain Monte Carlo methods that enable the updating of parameter uncertainties with remote sensing data. The tradeoffs between uncertainty estimation and parameter estimation are also highlighted. Finally, remaining challenges for the development of information systems of this kind are identified, including challenges in their use as part of mission simulation experiments.
Harrison, K.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Santanello, J. A.; Kirschbaum, D. B.
Environmental managers are interested to know land use\\/cover types and their change detection in time series for sustainable land management. Remotely sensed data due to periodic covering, data integrity and provide data in different range of electromagnetic radiation and possibility to use by different hardware and software, having high ability to prepare land cover\\/use maps. Major aim of this study
A. Soffianian; S. Maleki Najfabdai; S. J. Khajeddin
A ground proximity warning system and a detector for aircraft having fixed or non-retractable landing gear which rather accurately detects a landing phase of flight in order to adjust the warning envelope to minimize nuisance warnings during such a phase of flight. In particular, the system monitors the flap position to provide an indication to the ground proximity warning system that the aircraft is either in an approach, cruise or landing phase of flight. Cams mounted to the air flaps system indicate a landing phase of flight when the approach flaps are configured for a normal landing, such as 16.degree.-18.degree. flaps or an approach phase of flight when the flaps are configured for a normal approach, for example, 5.degree.-7.degree. flaps. By providing a relatively accurate indication of the phase of flight for an aircraft with non-retractable landing gear, nuisance alarms will be virtually eliminated, while maximum protection is provided during all phases of flight.
A comparative analysis by computer simulation of the land mobile satellite system (LMSS) is presented for the uncoded quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), rate 2/3 8-PSK trellis coded modulation (TCM), and rate 4/6 multiplicity 2 8-PSK TCM schemes. An analytical model is used for simulating the fading channel. The simulation results show that under Rayleigh fades, the TCM designed for the fading channel is superior to uncoded QPSK and to the conventional TCM optimized for the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The performance of differentially detected TCM under AWGN and fading is examined based on the preliminary results. Results of the uncoded QPSK with fading channel modeled with the empirical fade data are given.
Kim, Junghwan; Haschart, D.; Kwatra, S. C.; Vanderaar, Mark J.; Stevens, G. H.
In this article, linear programming and fuzzy optimization models are developed for planning and management of available land-water-crop system of Mahanadi-Kathajodi delta in eastern India. The models are used to optimize the economic return, production and labour utilization, and to search the related cropping patterns and intensities with specified land, water, fertilizer and labour availability, and water use pattern constraints.
Accurate and timely information about land use and land cover (LULC) and its changes in urban areas are crucial for urban land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring and urban planning. Also, monitoring and representation of urban sprawl and its effects on the LULC patterns and hydrological processes of an urbanized watershed is an essential part of water resource planning and management. This paper presents an image analysis study using multi temporal digital satellite imagery of LULC and changes in the Kucukcekmece Watershed (Metropolitan Istanbul, Turkey) from 1992 to 2006. The Kucukcekmece Basin includes portions of the Kucukcekmece District within the municipality of Istanbul so it faces a dramatic urbanization. An urban monitoring analysis approach was first used to implement a land cover classification. A change detection method controlled with ground truth information was then used to determine changes in land cover. During the study period, the variability and magnitude of hydrological components based on land-use patterns were cumulatively influenced by urban sprawl in the watershed. The proposed approach, which uses a combination of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, is an effective tool that enhances land-use monitoring, planning, and management of urbanized watersheds.
Land surface models and assimilation systems have been used for a few decades to provide surface conditions and fluxes in numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems. Efforts to improve the representation of land surface prediction and analysis at Environment Canada have focused upon the development of a new version of the Canadian Land Data Assimilation System (CaLDAS). In this study we discuss the development and validation of the land-surface modeling component used in CaLDAS to provide the first guess (or background state) of the land surface. In the context of a project funded by the National Agri-Environmental Standards Initiative (NAESI), the Interaction Sol-Biosphère-Atmosphère (ISBA) land-surface model was integrated in an external mode to produce a six-year reanalysis of water balance indicators for the South Saskatchewan River Basin (SSRB) in western Canada. Owing to the impact of snow accumulation and subsequent melt upon the streamflow regime within the SSRB, we present an evaluation of the simulated Rocky Mountain snow pack, including issues related to both the snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow cover extent and duration. A series of manual snow surveys combined with snow cover data from the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) analysis is used to evaluate the snow pack simulations. This work is a precursor to the assimilation of space-based remote-sensing data for snow coverage area (MODIS optical data) and for snow water equivalent (AMSR-E microwave emissions).
Carrera, M.; Belair, S.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Dore, I.; Bilodeau, B.; Bernier, N.
The Brazilian Cerrado, a biodiverse savanna ecoregion covering ?1.8 millionkm2 south and east of the Amazon rainforest, is in rapid decline because of the expansion of modern agriculture. Previous studies of Cerrado land-use and land-cover (LULC) change imply spatial homogeneity, report widely varying rates of land conversion, use ambiguous LULC categories, and generally do not attempt to validate results. This
Christian Brannstrom; Wendy Jepson; Anthony M. Filippi; Daniel Redo; Zengwang Xu; Srinivasan Ganesh
A simple, inexpensive design is presented for the rapid conversion of the popular MD-4 Polaroid land camera to a high quality digital gel documentation system. Images of ethidium bromide stained DNA gels captured using the digital system were compared to images captured on Polaroid instant film. Resolution and sensitivity were enhanced using the digital system. In addition to the low cost and superior image quality of the digital system, there is also the added convenience of real-time image viewing through the swivel LCD of the digital camera, wide flexibility of gel sizes, accurate automatic focusing, variable image resolution, and consistent ease of use and quality. Images can be directly imported to a computer by using the USB port on the digital camera, further enhancing the potential of the digital system for documentation, analysis, and archiving. The system is appropriate for use as a start-up gel documentation system and for routine gel analysis. PMID:16472866
The challenge in Maryland and across the nation is allowing economic growth while protecting our environment. Maryland's Smart Growth policies provide a strong foundation for conserving resource land, minimizing nutrient loadings from new development, and revitalizing our urban/suburban communities. To assist local governments and communities, MDP has developed the Watershed Planning System (WPS). It is an analytical tool to conduct watershed-based assessments of the impacts of current and alternative programs and policies on land and water resources. The WPS consists of two GIS-based models, the Growth Management Simulation, and the Pollution Simulation Management models. The Growth Management Simulation Model estimates changes in land uses by watershed as a function of population and household projections, as well as state and county policies, regulations, and programs. The model allows evaluation of different future land use scenarios by changing assumptions associated with comprehensive plans and zoning, subdivision, and environmental regulations through which plans are implemented. The Pollution Simulation Management model evaluates the effects of pollution management alternatives on current land use and future land use conditions. The output provides a basis for selecting a feasible mix of management alternatives that can be implemented through program changes, such as: comprehensive plans, soil conservation and water quality plans, nutrient management programs, zoning and subdivision programs, and sensitive area protection programs, and through implementation of best management practices. The WPS has been applied in the 13 counties, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George's, St. Mary's, Worcester, Cecil, Wicomico, Frederick, Carroll, and Harford, to address a variety of land use management, resource conservation, and pollution control objectives. In addition, the model has been used to produce statewide 2020 land use projections essential for sound land use planning.
The Yellow River Delta, one of China's three major river deltas, is becoming a major region for the development of agriculture and fisheries. Protecting the delicate ecology of newly formed aquatic systems as well as the evolution of soils, natural vegetation, and fauna on older upland environments in the delta is a priority in planning for the wise use of the delta's resources for future agricultural development. In this article, we use a Geographic Information System (GIS) to analyze relationships between land-use/ land-cover characteristics in the Dongying municipality, one of the most intensely developed areas of the delta, and spatial variations in soil salinity and landforms. This analysis reveals that soil salt content decreases from regionally high values in isolated depressions to relatively moderate values in embanked former back swamps, with the lowest values occurring in abandoned river courses. Comparing the present land use on this soil salinity-landform pattern shows that it is basically at odds with general concepts of land suitability for agricultural utilization of saline soils. Crop-based agriculture in the region is probably overdeveloped, whereas more appropriate agricultural development, like cattle and forest production, is underrepresented. Future development should focus on converting farmland in embanked former back swamps and abandoned river courses into grasslands and forests. Crop-based agriculture (up to 151,000 ha) could be planned at the low-salinity terrace uplands and flood plains. The article provides guidelines for decision-makers regarding agricultural land use and wetland protection in the Yellow River Delta. PMID:15984065
Quantifying the effects of land-use changes on Earth system dynamics requires adequate information on both past and future land-use activities in a format appropriate for models capable of tracking relevant impacts. This presentation will review past approaches to understanding the role of land-use change on the Earth system dynamics, and summarize new work involving ‘land-use harmonization' (Hurtt et al. 2009) to advance the understanding for IPCC-AR5 and beyond. Emphasis will be placed on the importance and accuracy of historical maps, uncertainties in future projections, and key challenges for the future. Hurtt, G. C., L. P. Chini, S. Frolking, R. Betts, J. Feedema, G. Fischer, K. Klein Goldewijk, K. Hibbard, A. Janetos, C. Jones, G. Kindermann, T. Kinoshita, K. Riahi, E. Shevliakova, S. Smith, E. Stehfest, A. Thomson, P. Thorton, D. van Vuuren, Y. Wang (2009), Harmonization of Global Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100 for IPCC-AR5. Integrated Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Processes Study (iLEAPS) Newsletter 7:6-8.
Phosphorus (P) is commonly known as a major plant nutrient, which can act as a limiting factor for plant growth in many ecosystems, including different land use systems. Organic P (Po), transformations in soil are important in determining the overall biological availability of P and additionally Po depletion is caused by land cultivation. It is expected that changes of land use modifies the distribution of soil P among the various P-pools (Ptotal, Plabile, Po), where the Plabile forms are considered to be readily available to plants and Po plays an important role with P nutrition supply for plants. The aim of the study was to measure the different soil P pools under different land use systems. The study was carried out in northeast of Brandenburg in Germany. Different land use systems were studied: i) different in age pine-oak mixed forest stands, ii) silvopastoral land, iii) arable lands. Samples were taken from two mineral soil layers: 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Recently, a variety of analytical methods are available to determine specific Po compounds in soils. The different P forms in the soil were obtained by a sequential P fractionation by using acid and alkaline extractants, which mean that single samples were subjected to increasingly stronger extractants, consequently separating the soil P into fractions based on P solubility. The soil Ptotal for the forest stands ranged from 100 to 183 mg kg -1 whereas Po from 77 to 148 mg kg -1. The Po and Plabile in both soil layers increased significantly with increase of age-old oak trees. The most available-P fraction was Plabile predominate in the oldest pine-oak forest stand, accounting for 29% of soil Ptotal. For the silvopasture and arable study sites the Ptotal content was comparable. However, the highest value of Ptotal was measured in the 30 years old silvopastoral system with 685 mg kg-1 and 728 mg kg-1 at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively than in arable lands. The results have shown that the 30 years old silvopastoral system contained larger amounts of Plabilethan arable lands, represented on average 10% of Ptotal, whereas the arable lands around 6% for both soil layers. The highest amount of Plabile in relation to the Ptotal had the pine-oak forest stand.
Human activities result in different significant environmental changes, these complex feedback processes may cause dramatic changes in our everyday life. Among others they include land-use and consequently land-cover changes. In order to study such complex variables full spatial coverage of the given area is one of the key issues. Rapid development of satellite use in different topics of research has
The alpha-scattering experiment aboard soft-landing Surveyor VI has provided a chemical analysis of the surface of the moon in Sinus Medii. The preliminary results indicate that, within experimental errors, the composition is the same as that found by Surveyor V in Mare Tranquillitatis. This finding suggests that large portions of the lunar maria resemble basalt in composition. PMID:17749448
The alpha-scattering experiment aboard soft-landing Surveyor VI has provided a chemical analysis of the surface of the moon in Sinus Medii. The preliminary results indicate that, within experimental errors, the composition is the same as that found by Surveyor V in Mare Tranquillitatis. This finding suggests that large portions of the lunar maria resemble basalt in composition.
Anthony L. Turkevich; James H. Patterson; Ernest J. Franzgrote
To understand how urbanization has transformed the desert landscape in the central Arizona - Phoenix region of the United States, we conducted a series of spatial analyses of the land-use pattern from 1912-1995. The results of the spatial analysis show that the extent of urban area has increased exponentially for the past 83 years, and this urban expansion is correlated
This paper describes spectral analysis of several coastal land cover types on South Padre Island, Texas, using AISA+hyperspectral remote sensing data. AISA+hyperspectral data (1.5 meter) were acquired throughout the area on 9 March 2005. Data over mangrove areas were converted to percent reflecta...
The study of changes in land cover and land use is emerging as a major focus of global change research. The research is aimed at determining the drivers and processes of land cover change, understanding the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of land use change and providing an assessment of future land use change. Recognizing that satellite remote sensing provides a unique means for mapping and monitoring land cover change, NASA includes a Land-Cover and Land-Use Change (LCLUC) program as an essential element of the Earth Science Enterprise. The NASA satellite systems provide improved tools for the multi-scale monitoring of land-cover change. MODIS instrument provides moderate resolution data in many spectral bands for mapping land cover and snow, and detection and monitoring of fires. Landsat 7 provides high resolution global coverage of the Earth's changing biosphere. The commercial hyper-spatial resolution Ikonos sensor provides information for land-cover characterization on a local scale, assisting in identifying features unresolved by MODIS and Landsat-7. The exploratory mission EO-1 with the imaging spectrometer Hyperion onboard provides new potential for repeated observations and spectrometry analysis of various areas of the globe. This talk will provide examples of how the new data are being used for tackling the science questions formulated in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise strategic plan: 1) what changes are occurring in global land cover and land use, and what are their causes? and 2) what are the consequences of land-cover and land-use change for human societies and the sustainability of ecosystems?
This paper describes a spin-up experiment conducted over South America using the Simplified Simple Biosphere (SSiB) land surface model to study the process of model adjustment to atmospheric forcing data. The experiment was carried out as a precursor to the use of SSiB in a South American Land Data Assimilation System (SALDAS). The results from an 11 year long recursive
L. Gustavo Goncalves de Goncalves; William James Shuttleworth; Eleanor J. Burke; Paul Houser; David L. Toll; Matthew Rodell; Kristi Arsenault
A method is presented for the selection of optimal modular building blocks for platforming of manned Moon and Mars landingsystems employing modularity on the subsystem level; platforming shall here be defined as the reuse of designs across different systems. The motivation for platforming is the need to reduce overall Moon and Mars exploration architecture lifecycle cost by lowering spacecraft
Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land
This paper explores the use of ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSARL-band (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) and RADARSAT-2 C-band data for land-cover classification in a tropical moist region. Transformed divergence was used to identify potential textural images which were calculated with the gray-level co-occurrence matrix method. The standard deviation of selected textural images and correlation coefficients between them were then used to determine the best combination of texture images for land-cover classification. Classification results based on different scenarios with maximum likelihood classifier were compared. Based on the identified best scenarios, different classification algorithms - maximum likelihood classifier, classification tree analysis, Fuzzy ARTMAP (a neural-network method), k-nearest neighbor, object-based classification, and support vector machine were compared for examining which algorithm was suitable for land-cover classification in the tropical moist region. This research indicates that the combination of radiometric images and their textures provided considerably better classification accuracies than individual datasets. The L-band data provided much better land-cover classification than C-band data but neither L-band nor C-band was suitable for fine land-cover classification system, no matter which classification algorithm was used. L-band data provided reasonably good classification accuracies for coarse land-cover classification system such as forest, succession, agropasture, water, wetland, and urban with an overall classification accuracy of 72.2%, but C-band data provided only 54.7%. Compared to the maximum likelihood classifier, both classification tree analysis and Fuzzy ARTMAP provided better performances, object-based classification and support vector machine had similar performances, and k-nearest neighbor performed poorly. More research should address the use of multitemporal radar data and the integration of radar and optical sensor data for improving land-cover classification.
The goal of this dissertation is to investigate novel methods of remote sensing\\/geographic information system (GIS) technologies to improve the accuracy of mapping urban land cover. Medium spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery is comparatively very cheap, but has a critical drawback \\
Land use, as a part of the geo-economic system has important structural variations over a short period of time. The Nicolina hydrographic bas in is intensely modified by the urban pressure of nearby city of Iai. This pressure has become more and more intense i n the last decade as a result of growing constructed area towa rds the \\
With China's economic rapid progress and people's living standard increasing, public management and public services play more important role in the process of urbanization, and its land valuation, the basic natural factors is paid more and more attention. Against the background of the establishment of China's socialist market economic system, governments also used free-free period configuration in traditional planned economy
This paper describes the results of a simulation study carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of a Self Adaptive ACLS. Results indicate that such a system can successfully reduce system errors due to nonlinearities and noise effects.
A general trend in the current status of representation of Land Surface schemes into Earth System models is driven by the parameterisation of "cycles" instead of individual processes. Particular emphasis is made to account for couplings among the individual cycles, as between the carbon and water cycles. Moreover, the current tendency is to use the measured data -time series in most cases- together with models, in a data assimilation scenario where inputs from multiple sources are integrated. Such approach is more and more necessary as land models tend to be more complex, and particularly due to the fact that land surface variability is not just driven by physical and chemical processes, but intricate biological processes also altered by anthropogenic influences. Human influences in the landsystem (land use changes, urban development, etc.) and the impacts of natural disasters are becoming also part of land models, but critical data in high spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to properly model such processes. Until now, problems with data availability, data inconsistency and lack of adequate temporal sampling have limited the potential usefulness of such observations in modelling land surface processes. The availability of the GMES / Sentinel series of satellites represents a quite unique opportunity for consolidation of current tendencies and development of new science based on the new type of data that soon will become available. The usefulness of the different Sentinel missions for Land science has been recognised. Although the Sentinel satellite series were primarily designed to provide observations for operational services and routine applications, there is a growing interest in the scientific community towards the usage of Sentinel data for more advanced and innovative science. Moreover, the availability of consistent time series covering a period of over 20 years opens possibilities never explored before, such as systematic data assimilation approaches exploiting the time-series concept, or the incorporation in the modelling approaches of processes covering time scales from weeks to decades. Sentinel-1 will provide continuity for applications already developed by using ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT ASAR data, although now with improved capabilities and more regular and systematic data availability. The all-weather capability of radar data provides time series of land surface properties even in areas with persistent cloud coverage. Sentinel-3 will provide continuity to current ENVISAT MERIS/AATSR capabilities, but with enhanced performances by means of the new OLCI and SLST instruments. The results already derived from MERIS will be more systematically exploited by using OLCI in synergy with SLST. Particularly innovative is the case of Sentinel-2, which is specifically designed for land applications, providing global and systematic acquisitions with high spatial resolution and with a high revisit time tailored towards the needs of land monitoring. A key element in the exploitation of the Sentinel series will be the adequate use of data synergy. The synergistic use of the data is recognised as a convenient way of extracting the maximum potential of the combined time series, but in practice the synergy among the different types of data will require new developments due to the different spatial / temporal / spectral sampling of the different Sentinels. Such synergistic exploitation of data coming from the different Sentinels systems will open new possibilities for improved Land Models within the context of Earth System Science, beyond operational services. The Land community has suffered in the past a large dispersion of objectives due to the intrinsic complicate processes to be addressed involving different approaches and the diversity of scientific topics and applications. The GMES / Sentinel programme can serve as an incentive to put together activities in a coordinated way, making possible a Land Data Assimilation scheme that can guarantee a proper scientific exploitation of the data, studying and mo
This dissertation develops spatially explicit econometric models by linking Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery with household survey data to test behavioral propositions of semi-subsistence farmers in the Southern Yucatan Peninsular Region (SYPR) of Mexico. Covering 22,000 km2, this agricultural frontier contains one of the largest and oldest expanses of tropical forests in the Americas outside of Amazonia. Over the past 30 years, the SYPR has undergone significant land-use change largely owing to the construction of a highway through the region's center in 1967. These landscape dynamics are modeled by exploiting a spatial database linking a time series of TM imagery with socio-economic and geo-referenced land-use data collected from a random sample of 188 farm households. The dissertation moves beyond the existing literature on deforestation in three principal respects. Theoretically, the study develops a non-separable model of land-use that relaxes the assumption of profit maximization almost exclusively invoked in studies of the deforestation issue. The model is derived from a utility-maximizing framework that explicitly incorporates the interdependency of the household's production and consumption choices as these affect the allocation of resources. Methodologically, the study assembles a spatial database that couples satellite imagery with household-level socio-economic data. The field survey protocol recorded geo-referenced land-use data through the use of a geographic positioning system and the creation of sketch maps detailing the location of different uses observed within individual plots. Empirically, the study estimates spatially explicit econometric models of land-use change using switching regressions and duration analysis. A distinguishing feature of these models is that they link the dependent and independent variables at the level of the decision unit, the land manager, thereby capturing spatial and temporal heterogeneity that is otherwise obscured in studies using data aggregated to higher scales of analysis. The empirical findings suggest the potential of various policy initiatives to impede or otherwise alter the pattern of land-cover conversions. In this regard, the study reveals that consideration of missing or thin markets is critical to understanding how farmers in the SYPR reach subsistence and commercial cropping decisions.
Land, energy and water are our most precious resources, but the manner and extent to which they are exploited contributes to climate change. Meanwhile, the systems that provide these resources are themselves highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Efficient resource management is therefore of great importance, both for mitigation and for adaptation purposes. We postulate that the lack of integration in resource assessments and policy-making leads to inconsistent strategies and inefficient use of resources. We present CLEWs (climate, land-use, energy and water strategies), a new paradigm for resource assessments that we believe can help to remedy some of these shortcomings.
In this hardware-in-the-loop simulation system, according to the technology system and navigation principle of the microwave landingsystem (MLS), and according to the characteristics of the laser beam, we use the controllable laser transmitting equipment to simulate the function of the angle navigation antenna of the MLS, radiating well directional laser scanning signal. According to the electromagnetic similitude theory, we
Urbanization has been an important component of land use and land cover change. Quantifying land use patterns and their changes\\u000a is essential for monitoring and assessing the impact of urbanization. Data on existing and changing land use provide crucial\\u000a clues for future development. Combining the application of remote sensing with geographic information systems (GIS) data,\\u000a this study accomplishes (i) the creation
Firstly, based on the principle of binocular vergence eye movements ,a new type of method about field fixed point landing of the Subminiature robot helicopter is put forward. Secondly, according to oculomotor neural pathways, the oculomotor control system model is established. Then the control model of SHR landingsystem is discussed in detail. Some key problems about the control system
Hengyu Li; Jun Luo; Shaorong Xie; Tao Wang; Rui Liu
The report contains written and mapped recommendations for future land use based upon survey and analysis of land use, land capability, and area economic-demographic projections fitted within a framework of local community development objectives and land ...
Purpose – The research in this paper is aimed at re-engineering existing approaches to the analysis of proposed developments in local authorities – from land pricing to planning permission – hence reducing the loss of revenue in councils, and nurture property development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is a case study of seven city councils on the Copperbelt province of Zambia
The aim of this study was to characterize the short-term land-cover change processes that were detected in Eastern Africa,\\u000a based on a set of change metrics that allow for the quantification of interannual changes in vegetation productivity, changes\\u000a in vegetation phenology and a combination of both. We tested to what extent land use, fire activity and livestock grazing\\u000a modified the
The use of satellite technology by military planners has a relatively long history as a tool of warfare, but little research has used satellite technology to study the effects of war. This research addresses this gap by applying satellite remote sensing imagery to study the effects of war on land-use\\/land-cover change in northeast Bosnia. The war in Bosnia, 1992-1995, resulted
Scientists have aimed at exploring land use and land cover change (LUCC) and modeling future landscape pattern in order to\\u000a improve our understanding of the causes and consequences of these phenomena. This study addresses LUCC in the upper reaches\\u000a of Minjiang River, China, from 1974 to 2000. Based on remotely sensed images, LUCC and landscape pattern change were assessed\\u000a using
This paper assesses how the widely perceived changes in the economy and society of China will affect future land use at the regional level. It also shows the consequences of these changes on future inter-regional and international trade flows of land-based products. In order to conduct an integrated and consistent assessment, we develop a mixed input–output model characterized by strong
AbstractThis paper considers the issue of local “land finance” in the context of China's fast urban expansion. In an analysis of China s land requisition and public leasing system we argue that low-cost land acquisition is the fundamental cause of land-related distortions that have occurred during China s urbanization. Granting farmers the power to negotiate directly with land users during
A concept of a modular multisensor system for use on an airborne platform is presented. THe sensor system comprises two high resolution IR sensors working in the mid and far IR spectral regions, a RGB video camera with its sensitivity extended to the near IR in connection with a laser illuminator, and a radar with a spatial resolution adapted to
In the Mediterranean area land degradation phenomena are becoming more and more important due to future climate change and increasing climate variability as highlighted in recent global assessment projects such as the "Millennium Ecosystem Assessment" or "The Dialogue on water and Climate". Thus, there are consistent evidences that extreme events such as droughts and floods are more frequent than before. On the other hand the Mediterranean area is strongly influenced by human activities such as cultivations over hundreds of years. However, in the last decades the cultivation methods and techniques are subject to profound changes such as mechanization, use of fertilizer and pesticides, remodellation of entire hillslopes etc.. This particular situation leads to, and aggravates the existing stress on land resources. As a result, land degradation and soil erosion phenomena are leading to decreasing soil productivity or the loss of fertile top soil and related water quality and quantity issues. The aim of this paper is to assess land degradation sensitivity by scenario analysis. As a proxi for land degradation surface wash erosion processes such as rill-interill erosion processes are chosen. This present day processes are identified by aerial photo interpretation and subsequently modelled with a simple RUSLE approach on a monthly basis. In this study boundary conditions such as future precipitation were taken form the A2 future climate scenario published by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). Moreover, current landuse was identified from aerial photographs and future land use scenarios were developed considering ecological and socio-economical issues for present day conditions of the test area. Subsequently, the different climate and landuse scenarios were analysed to study soil erosion susceptibility on the landscape scale. The study shows that even with a decline in precipitation volume till 2070, in some months higher erosion rates occur due to higher values in rainfall erosivities. Furthermore, landuse changes play an important role for soil erosion susceptibility
Discrete function theory, which extends switching function theory and multiple-valued logic function theory, is introduced into multistate systemanalysis. Some theoretical conclusions and algorithms which play key roles in multistate systemanalysis are presented. The concepts of s-coherence and duality in binary-state systemanalysis are generalized. The set of minimal upper (maximum lower) vectors for level j, which play the
Spatially explicit land cover land use (LCLU) change information is needed to drive biogeochemical models that simulate soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Such information is increasingly being mapped using remotely sensed satellite data with classification schemes and uncertainties constrained by the sensing system, classification algorithms and land cover schemes. In this study, automated LCLU classification of multi-temporal Landsat satellite data were used to assess the sensitivity of SOC modeled by the Global Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). The GEMS was run for an area of 1560 km2 in Senegal under three climate change scenarios with LCLU maps generated using different Landsat classification approaches. This research provides a method to estimate the variability of SOC, specifically the SOC uncertainty due to satellite classification errors, which we show is dependent not only on the LCLU classification errors but also on where the LCLU classes occur relative to the other GEMS model inputs.
Dieye, A. M.; Roy, D. P.; Hanan, N. P.; Liu, S.; Hansen, M.; Touré, A.
The paper illustrates how a satellite paging system may be superimposed on an existing terrestrial paging system. The implementation of a proof-of-concept mobile receiver to be used during field trials is described; and results of measurements of the antenna radiation pattern, G/T, and demodulator implementation loss are provided. A powerful coding scheme, using MFSK, Reed-Solomon coding, and dual time diversity transmission, promises to provide the required performance. It is concluded that a system configured around existing paging terrestrial infrastructure and an Inmarsat satellite is feasible.
This report promulgates results of a project to develop pilot/aircraft behavior models for an automated LSO training system. Data supporting the identification of critical LSO task conditions were collected through literature search, accident report revie...
This paper is focused on the problem of frame loss and truncation on multi-channel universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART) embedded in Integrated Navigation Systems, and it contains attitude heading reference system (AHRS) and global positioning system (GPS). An advanced design based on FPGA and ARM processor is discussed in this paper, in which FPGA would be used to coordinate with each logic modules, expand UART for GPS and AHRS, resolve navigation information, and save specify data to SD card, which can reduce the delay in data receiving and resolving, while ARM is applied in the area of parameters estimation and navigation algorithms. The experiment results show that this navigation system can use UART to receive, resolve data frames and save data while ARM execute parameter estimation and navigation algorithms in real time. This integrated navigation can effectively avoid the phenomenon of data frame loss or truncation in UART receiving, and can improve the navigation precision.
An atmosphere tracer study using SFâ was conducted on July 22, 1977, to examine the origin of the high particulate sulfate concentrations observed in coastal Los Angeles County. It was found that the sea breeze\\/land breeze circulation system in the Los Angeles Basin both increases the retention time for sulfate formation in the marine environment and causes individual air parcels
Over the long-term, short-rotation wood production systems can provide a sustained supply of wood as a renewable energy resource. Short-rotation forestry is an alternative to conventional agriculture on marginal land. Since several harvests occur from a s...
The ever increasing demand in the airline industry to reduce the costs associated with weather- related flight delays and cancellations has resulted in the need to be able to land an aircraft in low visibility. This has influenced research in recent years in the development of enhanced vision systems which allow all-weather operations, by providing both visual cues to the pilot and an independent integrity monitor. This research has focused on providing aircraft users with both enhanced performance and a cost effective landing solution with less dependence on ground systems, and has interested both the military and civil aircraft operator communities. The Autonomous Landing Guidance (ALG) system provides the capability to land in low visibility by displaying to the pilot an image of the real world without the need for an onboard Category II or III (CAT II/III) autoload system and without the associated ground facilities normally required. Besides the inherent advantage of saving the cost of expensive installations at airports, ALG also has the effect of inevitably solving the airport capacity problem, weather-related delays and diversions, and airport closures. Low visibility conditions typically cause the complete shutdown of smaller regional airports and reduces the availability of runways at major hubs, which creates a capacity problem to airlines.
This paper develops an empirical confidence bound for barometric altimeter altitude errors and shows how this bound may improve the performance of GPS-based approach and landingsystems. This empirical bound is developed using historical meteorological data collected at a set of geographically diverse locations over a thirty year period. The confidence bound developed is shown to provide a Gaussian overbound
Shau-Shiun Jan; Demoz Gebre-Egziabher; Todd Walter; Per Enge
Land disturbance is already recognized as detrimental to ecological settings. Yet we need to better understand and model how degradation events - natural or human-caused - contribute to the evolution of environmental management and affect relations of society in general. To this purpose we have developed a physical-social conceptual model that explains linkages between physical and social systems for a
This proposal describes a 2-year project intended to advance the landscape change agenda first sponsored by the NSF through the Landscape Change Workshop in 2001. The objectives of the study are to better understand the interaction between landscape change and land management activities using open space preservation as a model system and to advance the study of landscape change as
Fires are critical elements in the Earth System, linking climate, humans, and vegetation. With 200-500 Mha burnt annually, fire disturbs a greater area over a wider variety of biomes than any other natural disturbance. Fire ignition, propagation, and impacts depend on the interactions among climate, vegetation structure, and land use on local to regional scales. Therefore, fires and their effects
Sandra Lavorel; Mike D. Flannigan; Eric F. Lambin; Mary C. Scholes
Summary form only given. A development and demonstration project has been conducted to increase landing capacity on closely spaced parallel runways. The project developed new equipment and procedures, and demonstrated them in a variety of ways at two different airports. The monitoring equipment consists of radars and displays. The system installed at Raleigh, NC included an electronically scanned antenna capable
The movement and distribution of water in the hydrologic cycle is affected by the level and type of land surface parameters. Thus accurate representation of the physical and biological features of the landscape within a watershed is required. A strong link exists between climate variability and the resulting changes in such land surface parameters as energy fluxes, land-cover and surface microclimates. Imagery from Landsat and other satellites provide land-cover and surface microclimate information with high temporal and spatial accuracy. This paper utilizes the land surface temperature (LST) derived from the thermal band of Landsat images and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from its red and near-infrared bands to further improve land-cover and surface microclimate mapping. Remotely-sensed spatially distributed surface latent and sensible heat fluxes were also estimated. The study was conducted on the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota/Minnesota. Over the period of 1974-2002, seven images from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus sensors were used. Landsat images were processed using an unsupervised classification. Corrected LST and NDVI, which indicate a strong relationship with the land-cover data, were identified using scattergrams. Surface microclimate parameters (fractional vegetation cover, FVC and fractional impervious surface, FIS area) were estimated and their spatial and temporal distributions determined. Surface energy fluxes (latent and sensible heat) were assessed over space and time. The results indicate that vegetation cover (FVC >0.5) increased from 7% in 1974 to 48% in 1998 due to cropland farming in the Red River Valley and an increase in impervious areas (FIS >0.5) (by 79% from 1974 to 2001) attributed to the growing cities in the valley for the period of study. The study also indicated an increase in sensible and latent heat fluxes from 1998 to 2002 for areas classified as developed and cropland, respectively. Hydrograph analysis of the flow at Grand Forks gauging station also indicated runoff response of the basin has increased between 1993 and 2002 with all years having percent runoff greater than 10% compared to only 42% of the years between 1974 and 1993. Keywords: Fractional vegetation cover; Landsat; Land-cover; Energy flux; Surface microclimate; Red River
Remote sensing data from both Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 systems were utilized to assess urban area thermal characteristics in Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida, and the Las Vegas valley of southern Nevada. To quantitatively determine urban land use extents and development densities, sub-pixel impervious surface areas were mapped for both areas. The urban-rural boundaries and urban development densities were defined by selecting certain imperviousness threshold values and Landsat thermal bands were used to investigate urban surface thermal patterns. Analysis results suggest that urban surface thermal characteristics and patterns can be identified through qualitatively based urban land use and development density data. Results show the urban area of the Tampa Bay watershed has a daytime heating effect (heat-source), whereas the urban surface in Las Vegas has a daytime cooling effect (heat-sink). These thermal effects strongly correlated with urban development densities where higher percent imperviousness is usually associated with higher surface temperature. Using vegetation canopy coverage information, the spatial and temporal distributions of urban impervious surface and associated thermal characteristics are demonstrated to be very useful sources in quantifying urban land use, development intensity, and urban thermal patterns. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper provides a preliminary examination of present and projected land use in Africa to estimate the potential availability of land in 2025 for use in producing biomass energy. Fifty countries are included in the analysis. Future cropland requirements are projected on the basis of average African cereal crop yield improvements since 1972, and minimum nutritional requirements are assumed to
This paper assesses the ability of General Dynamics LandSystems to survive as a viable, profitable defense contractor for the rest of this century. In order to understand the possible options available to LandSystems, the paper reviews the environment i...
The chemical quality of streams under three agricultural landsystems viz Agbogbo Amuta, and Abagbooro catchments was investigated with the aim of determining the physicochemical parameters of the streams and to understand nutrients loss and water pollution levels of the three different agricultural landsystems. Mechanized farming is practiced in the Amuta catchment while peasant farming and tree cropping is
PULSAR is an Ultra Wide Band (UWB) short pulse Radar developed by the CELAR (French Technical Center for Armament Electronics) and the IRCOM (Research Institute of Microwave and Optical Communications) in order to detect foliage and ground concealed mines. An instrumentation measurement system has been designed and implemented, in particular new 2D broad band antennas with a very low pulse
Joel Andrieu; Frederic Gallais; Vincent Mallepeyre; Valerie Bertrand; Bruno Beillard; Bernard Jecko; Regis Guillerey; Marc Legoff
The ILS/MLS transition plan highlights the technical and operational problems to be solved with the implementation of MLS. Taking into account present developments in guidance and control automation in the airplane cockpit as well as in ATC systems, the f...
Remote sensing data cover large areas and can be acquired in a regular repeatable manner. Automatic land-cover classification in satellite images is an important topic and has applied in remote sensing widely. In this paper, we consider Landsat5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the Qinghai-Tibet highway of 1986 and 1994 to analyze the changes of land-cover. Statistics and artificial intelligence method are combined to improve the classification precision. And the classification result can provide quantitative data for road environment issue, road location selection, and landscape design. In this paper, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to character the main information of TM land-cove image. Then two neural network models are used to classify the TM image: Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Self-organizing feature map (SOFM) neural network. BP neural network is widely used. Contingency matrix is used to evaluate the classification precision. By comparing classification accuracy and Kappa quotient, conclusion is drawn that the classification accuracy of SOFM is higher than BP and MLC and the classification ability of BP is not as good as MLC. Overall accuracy of SOFM is 94.0%, Kappa is 0.9114, and overall accuracy is 14.9% and 9.8% higher than BP and MLC. So SOFM is used to classify image of 1986. In the end the land-cover changes of two year are analyzed.
An, Jubai; Zhou, Ling; Yang, Zifeng; Zhang, Hongcai
The Greater Vancouver area has undergone significant land use and land cover (LULC) change over the past several decades, often adversely affecting stream health and water quality, particularly in those areas that have undergone the most urbanization. In this study 30 years of historical LULC and water quality data were examined using GIS and statistical analysis to better understand these impacts and to help build a broader understanding of cause and effect relationships of changing LULC, especially since urbanization is increasingly occurring within sensitive watersheds at greater distances from the City of Vancouver. Urban, agriculture, and disturbed LULC data from 1976, 1986, and 2000 were examined within a number of watersheds and related to historical water quality data sampled from streams during similar time frames. Additional higher resolution 2006 LULC data from a smaller number of watersheds were then examined and compared to stream health data to investigate the sensitivity of LULC data resolution on monitoring watershed impact. While LULC impact can be clearly seen at both high and lower resolutions, issues of ambiguous land cover and land use designations can potentially affect the magnitude of the relationship.
\\u000a With the current problem of population,resources and environment becoming increasingly intense day by day,the land use\\/land\\u000a cover change (LUCC) is one of the core topics on the Present World Change Study.And with the worsening of the global environment,the\\u000a exhausting of energy and the population explosion,the controversy between the development of oasis economy and the environment\\u000a has become more and more
Hongwei Wang; Tash Tiyip; Jianli Ding; Jiangyan Luo
STEPS THAT THE LIBRARY CAN TAKE IN PREPARING FOR A CHANGE TO AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM WERE INVESTIGATED. THE METHOD DESCRIBED WAS BASED ON AN ANALYSIS OF CLERICAL AND OFFICE WORK CALLED INTEGRATED PROCEDURES OF CONTROL (IPC). THE APPLICATION OF LIBRARY SYSTEMSANALYSIS (LISA) TO THE LEHIGH UNIVERSITY LIBRARY IS DESCRIBED. THIS PROCESS INVOLVED (1)…
According to embodiments of the present invention, a fluorescence analysissystem includes a light emitting diode (LED) array to excite a fluorophor sample for analysis. The system includes an LED array driver that pulses the LEDs in the array with curren...
\\u000a The aim of this review is to introduce and compare some of the latest progress in the development of decision support systems\\u000a (DSSs) for the management of contaminated sites.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Integration of different disciplines, knowledge and decision support are critical in the remediation and management of contaminated\\u000a sites. Many issues must be considered such as: reduction of risk, socio-economic impacts on
Paola Agostini; Andrea Critto; Elena Semenzin; Antonio Marcomini
In the turmoil of a rapidly changing economy the Albanian government needs accurate and timely information for management of their natural resources and formulation of land-use policies. The transformation of the forestry sector has required major changes in the legal, regulatory and management framework. The World Bank financed Albanian National Forest Inventory project provides an analysis of spatially explicit land-cover/use change dynamics in the period 1991-2001 using the FAO/UNEP Land Cover Classification System for codification of classes, satellite remote sensing and field survey for data collection and elements of the object-oriented geo-database approach to handle changes as an evolution of land-cover/use objects, i.e. polygons, over time to facilitate change dynamics analysis. Analysis results at national level show the trend of natural resources depletion in the form of modifications and conversions that lead to a gradual shift from land-cover/use types with a tree cover to less dense tree covers or even a complete removal of trees. Policy failure (e.g., corruption, lack of law enforcement) is seen as the underlying cause. Another major trend is urbanisation of areas near large urban centres that change urban-rural linkages. Furthermore, after privatisation agricultural areas increased in the hills where environmental effects may be detrimental, while prime agricultural land in the plains is lost to urbanisation. At district level, the local variability of spatially explicit land-cover/use changes shows different types of natural resources depletion. The distribution of changes indicates a regional prevalence, thus a decentralised approach to the natural resources management could be advocated. PMID:16770509
Jansen, Louisa J M; Carrai, Giancarlo; Morandini, Luca; Cerutti, Paolo O; Spisni, Andrea
This contribution summarizes DLR's recent development of a considerable robust and reliable method to estimate the relative position of an aircraft with respect to a runway based on camera images only (TV, infrared or even PMMW radar). The special advantage of the proposed method is, that neither a calibrated camera (referring to focus length and mounting angles relative to the aircraft) is required, nor any knowledge of special points of the runway (3-D world coordinates and their 2-D identification within the image) is needed. The only reference to the 3-D world, which has to be known, is the width of the runway stripe. The proposed algorithm computes the relative height of the aircraft above the runway stripe and the lateral deviation from the centre line of the runway as well. Additionally, several image analysis procedures are presented which allow to detect the runway stripe by either grouping the asphalt/grass border lines, or by analyzing the alignment structure of runway lights. The proposed image analysis method fulfills real-time requirements and has been tested with several image sequences acquired with different types of IR-cameras.
Rapid land use change has taken place in many coastal regions of China such as the Zhujiang Delta over the past two decades due to accelerated industrialization and urbanization. In this paper, land use change dynamics were investigated by the combined use of satellite remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), and stochastic modelling technologies. The results indicated that there has
The eastern Qinghai province is located in the transitional belt between the Loess Plateau and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. In this paper, the spatial and temporal change patterns of land use were quantified by visually interpreting remote sensing (RS) data and use geographical information system (GIS). The objectives of this paper were to investigate the land use situation and the change
Xiaohong Gao; Yingzhi Guo; Yanli Wang; Yimou Wang; Lidong Ma
Scientists have aimed at exploring land use and land cover change (LUCC) and modeling future landscape pattern in order to improve our understanding of the causes and consequences of these phenomena. This study addresses LUCC in the upper reaches of Minjiang River, China, from 1974 to 2000. Based on remotely sensed images, LUCC and landscape pattern change were assessed using cross-tabulation and landscape metrics. Then, using the CLUE-S model, changes in area of four types of land cover were predicted for two scenarios considering forest polices over the next 20 years. Results showed that forestland decreased from 1974 to 2000 due to continuous deforestation, while grassland and shrubland increased correspondingly. At the same time, the farmland and settlement land increased dramatically. Landscape fragmentation in the study area accompanied these changes. Forestland, grassland, and farmland take opposite trajectories in the two scenarios, as does landscape fragmentation. LUCC has led to ecological consequences, such as biodiversity loss and lowering of ecological carrying capacity.
Scientists have aimed at exploring land use and land cover change (LUCC) and modeling future landscape pattern in order to improve our understanding of the causes and consequences of these phenomena. This study addresses LUCC in the upper reaches of Minjiang River, China, from 1974 to 2000. Based on remotely sensed images, LUCC and landscape pattern change were assessed using cross-tabulation and landscape metrics. Then, using the CLUE-S model, changes in area of four types of land cover were predicted for two scenarios considering forest polices over the next 20 years. Results showed that forestland decreased from 1974 to 2000 due to continuous deforestation, while grassland and shrubland increased correspondingly. At the same time, the farmland and settlement land increased dramatically. Landscape fragmentation in the study area accompanied these changes. Forestland, grassland, and farmland take opposite trajectories in the two scenarios, as does landscape fragmentation. LUCC has led to ecological consequences, such as biodiversity loss and lowering of ecological carrying capacity. PMID:19290569
Vertical land movement (VLM) affects many regions around the world and can have various causes, such as tectonics, glacial isostatic adjustment and resource extraction. Geodetic monitoring systems are employed in different configurations to identify VLM to provide knowledge for hazard mapping, risk assessment and land planning. We describe results from historical geodetic observations, and efforts to establish a monitoring system in the Western Australian city of Perth, which is subject to VLM, most probably caused by groundwater extraction over the past ~100 years. The most direct evidence of VLM in Perth is provided by two continuously operating GNSS (CGNSS) stations HIL1 (from 1997) and PERT (from 1992). However, these stations provide estimates only at discrete locations. In addition, the data from HIL1 is subject to frequent equipment changes and PERT ceased operation in early 2012. The CGNSS VLM rates reach ~-6 mm/yr, but are not linear over time and appear to be highly correlated with the rates of groundwater extraction. Limited sequences of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images are available over short periods between 1992-2009, and although these suggest spatially variable VLM rates reaching -5 mm/yr at some locations, the uncertainty from the small number of images suggest that these results should be treated cautiously. If it remains necessary to extract groundwater for Perth (possibly at increased rates), an ongoing monitoring programme is needed. This should be based on combined GNSS, InSAR and levelling observation programmes. Historical levelling data from the early 1970s is currently being extracted from hardcopy archives into digital file format for analysis and adjustment. These data will be used to establish an original reference network for later geodetic observations comprising repeat levelling campaigns connected to periodic GNSS campaigns and CGNSS stations, but most importantly, a regular and structured acquisition of InSAR imagery. The InSAR component is necessary to avoid reliance on discrete monitoring stations and to provide larger scale mapping of the subsidence. As the framework for an ongoing monitoring programme, images are being acquired from the German Aerospace Centre's (DLR's) TerraSAR-X satellite mission under a collaborative science project among Geoscience Australia, Curtin University of Technology, Landgate and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. This programme initially covers ~13 months (up to 30 images) and will provide sufficient data to lay the foundation for ongoing monitoring. This monitoring programme will be used to determine linear and non-linear VLM in Perth at time scales ranging from seasonal to long term over multiple years.
Filmer, Mick; Featherstone, Will; Morgan, Linda; Schenk, Andreas
The safety of astronauts would be severely threatened if the lunar-landing spacecraft were under an emergency during the near\\u000a moon phase of flight, which was far from the Earth. For the problem of mission abort caused by the main engine (service propulsion\\u000a system, SPS) failure during lunar orbit insertion, firstly, the family of trajectories resulted from SPS premature shutdown\\u000a and
The paper uses two years (1997–1999) of data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System at National Centers for Environmental Prediction to analyze the variability of physical variables contributing to the hydrological cycle over the conterminous United States. The five hydrological variables considered in this study are precipitation, top layer soil moisture (0–10 cm), total soil moisture (0–200 cm),
Tajdarul Hassan Syed; Venkat Lakshmi; Evan Paleologos; Dag Lohmann; Kenneth Mitchell; James S. Famiglietti
U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Communications Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has performed early work to develop a Distributed Aperture System (DAS). The DAS aims at improving the situational awareness of armored fighting vehicle crews under closed-hatch conditions. The concept is based on a plurality of sensors configured to create a day and night dome of surveillance coupled with heads up displays slaved to the operator's head to give a "glass turret" feel. State-of-the-art image processing is used to produce multiple seamless hemispherical views simultaneously available to the vehicle commander, crew members and dismounting infantry. On-the-move automatic cueing of multiple moving/pop-up low silhouette threats is also done with the possibility to save/revisit/share past events. As a first step in this development program, a contract was awarded to United Defense to further develop the Eagle VisionTM system. The second-generation prototype features two camera heads, each comprising four high-resolution (2048x1536) color sensors, and each covering a field of view of 270°hx150°v. High-bandwidth digital links interface the camera heads with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based custom processor developed by Sarnoff Corporation. The processor computes the hemispherical stitch and warp functions required for real-time, low latency, immersive viewing (360°hx120°v, 30° down) and generates up to six simultaneous extended graphics array (XGA) video outputs for independent display either on a helmet-mounted display (with associated head tracking device) or a flat panel display (and joystick). The prototype is currently in its last stage of development and will be integrated on a vehicle for user evaluation and testing. Near-term improvements include the replacement of the color camera heads with a pixel-level fused combination of uncooled long wave infrared (LWIR) and low light level intensified imagery. It is believed that the DAS will significantly increase situational awareness by providing the users with a day and night, wide area coverage, immersive visualization capability.
Fortin, Jean; Bias, Jason; Wells, Ashley; Riddle, Larry; van der Wal, Gooitzen; Piacentino, Mike; Mandelbaum, Robert
The export coefficient model has been applied worldwide to the estimation of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Determining the export coefficients (ECs) from each pollution source and different space-time progressions is problematic because of uncertainty in the ECs of nitrogen from different land-use patterns. Bayesian theory uses the prior probability distribution and likelihood data to generate a posterior probability distribution. The total nitrogen (TN) ECs and stream loss rates K (d(-1)) for five land-use patterns were estimated by combining published results with monthly data for ChangLe River system for 2004-08. After 10(4) iterations, the results had small Markov chain Monte Carlo errors and convergence was obtained. Average TN ECs for the entire watershed were 26.1 ± 8.8, 70.3 ± 9.4, 41.7 ± 6.9, 8.9 ± 1.6 and 6.2 ± 0.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for paddy field, dry land, residential land, woodland and barren land with coefficients of variation (CVs) of 16.9, 6.31, 8.91, 13.3 and 27.9% among sub-catchments respectively. The average K value was 0.33 d(-1) with a CV of 11.3%. Estimated ECs, K and the coupling water quality model were used to predict the years 2008 and 2009; the results validated the model. This Bayesian model can determine ECs using prior knowledge and monitored data, overcoming the problems of the regression model. The model facilitates explicit consideration of uncertainty in NPS management. PMID:23925192
Background: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in athletes and have serious sequelae. A valid clinical tool that reliably identifies individuals at an increased risk for ACL injury would be highly useful for screening sports teams, because individuals identified as “high-risk” could then be provided with intensive prevention programs.Hypothesis: A clinical screening tool (the Landing Error Scoring System, or LESS)
Darin A. Padua; Stephen W. Marshall; Michelle C. Boling; Charles A. Thigpen; William E. Garrett; Anthony I. Beutler
In Korea, rapid industrialization and economic growth have led to serious problems including reduced open space, environmental degradation, traffic congestion, and urban sprawl. These problems have been exacerbated by the absence of effective conservation and governance, and have resulted in various social conflicts. This study analyzed ecosystem service value over the past 20 years using previously reported coefficients. In addition, using logistic regression, we projected the land-cover distribution in 2020 according to the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map and analyzed ecosystem service value based on land use changes. Between 1985 and 2005, built-up areas had increased threefold. In the same time period, forest, grassland, and wetland areas decreased. Because of these trends, ecosystem service value decreased from 7,300 million USD to 6,525 million USD. By analyzing land-cover distribution with 2020 land-cover maps, we determined that farmland, grassland, and bare land areas had declined by approximately 24.3%. The 2020 land-cover map with considering ECVAM showed a decrease of 89 million USD in ecosystem service value, while the map without considering ECVAM showed a decrease of 165 million USD. The results of this analysis indicate that environmentally sustainable systems and urban development must be applied to achieve sustainable development and environmental protection.
United Nations Peacekeeping forces around the world need to transport food, personnel and medical supplies through disputed regions were land mines are in active use as road blocks and terror weapons. A method of fast, effective land mine detection is needed to combat this threat to road transport. The technique must operate from a vehicle travelling at a reasonable velocity and give warning far enough ahead for the vehicle to stop in time to avoid the land mine. There is particular interest in detecting low- metallic content land mines. One possible solutionis the use of ultra-wide-band (UWB) radar. The Australian Defence Department is investigating the feasibility of using UWB radar for land mine detection from a vehicle. A 3 GHz UWB system has been used to collect target response from a series of inert land mines and mine-like objects placed on the ground and buried in the ground. The targets measured were a subset of those in the target set described in Wong et al. with the addition of inert land mines corresponding to some of the surrogate targets in this set. The results are encouraging for the detection of metallic land mines and the larger non-metallic land mines. Smaller low-metallic- content anti-personnel land mines are less likely to be detected.
This study evaluates the cold season process modeling in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and consists of two parts: (1) assessment of land surface model simulations of snow cover extent and (2) evaluation of snow water equivalent. In this first part, simulations of snow cover extent from the four land surface models (Noah, MOSAIC, Sacramento land surface
Justin Sheffield; Ming Pan; Eric F. Wood; Paul R. Houser; John C. Schaake; Alan Robock; Dag Lohmann; Brian Cosgrove; Qingyun Duan; Lifeng Luo; R. Wayne Higgins; Rachel T. Pinker; J. Dan Tarpley; Bruce H. Ramsay
The implementation of a spatial decision support system (DSS) developed as a tool for rural land use planning at the management unit level is described. The DSS fulfils the need for a tool that allows rural land managers to explore their land use options and the potential impacts of land use change. The DSS is based on five components: a
The report presents the generalized existing land use within Newton, Pike and Upson Counties. Every parcel of land was addressed in a general schematic presentation. The acreage devoted to each use, dominant land use, general development patterns, major l...
Three Denver neighborhoods are used in this comparative analysis to investigate the extent to which racial composition, population, or income influence commercial land use succession patterns and total business composition. (EB)
The community land model (CLM) was primarily designed for coupling with atmospheric models to simulate water, energy, and carbon fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere. In principle, CLM can be run at any resolution, however, validations were mostly conducted at large river basin, continental, or global scales for studies on inter-annual and inter-decadal variability, paleoclimate regimes, and projections of future changes of the global climate system, with limited case studies at flux tower sites and small watersheds. With the emergence of integrated earth system models (iESMs) at global and regional scales, and increasing interests of applying CLM at finer resolutions, it is critical to evaluate and improve the capability of CLM for hydrologic simulations at various scales, so that CLM could be used to represent hydrology, soil, managed and unmanaged ecosystems, and biogeochemical processes across scales, and provide hydrologic information being passed through all the components in a single modeling framework of iESMs. In this presentation, we will report our efforts on the development and validation of CLM hydrologic processes featuring: (1) improved land surface hydrology that incorporates hydrologic processes from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model, including the parameterizations of subgrid variability, dynamic surface- and groundwater interactions, and hydraulic redistribution; (2) a semi-distributed extension of CLM (DCLM) for more spatially-explicit hydrologic modeling, which is critical for regional land and water management decisions under climate change mitigation and adaptation scenarios; and (3) applications of CLM at multiple scales ranging from flux towers, small and large watersheds, to continental scales.
Huang, M.; Ke, Y.; Li, H.; Liu, Y.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Coleman, A.; Leung, L.
Nearly all river catchments are affected directly or indirectly by human actions, e.g. varying agricultural land use or interventions into to river course and flow lead to significant geomorphic changes. The rates of fluvial change are accelerating in many river catchments and public and institutional awareness of these changes and their consequences has grown. This trend leads to an increasing need for a deeper understanding of how the system elements are interrelated (connected) and how fluvial systems respond to human activities. Most of the studies relating to such topics focus on extrinsic (e.g. climatic) factors, although vegetation cover is one of the primary intrinsic factors on sediment yield to a river and even the most susceptible factor for human alterations. Furthermore, nearly all of the published studies are dealing with large rivers, disregarding the much more abundant smaller ones, which in sum do also influence larger rivers. The presented study contributes to gain a deeper understanding of how river systems geomorphologically respond to human activities. The focus in this study is on the importance of hillslope-channel connectivity relationships, as well as on connectivity relationships between the channel reaches in catchments with agricultural land use. Therefore, aerial photograph and airborne laserscan-interpretations were used to create detailed land use and river maps in order to gather current land use and river planform geometry conditions. The land use data was integrated to a GIS-related spatial soil erosion model so as to determine sources of fine sediment from eroding top soil in agricultural areas. Furthermore, a DEM-based multiple-flow model was applied to examine hillslope-channel connectivity relationships. River bed sediment composition, sediment embeddedness and in-channel accumulation of fine sediments were surveyed as potential indicators for geomorphic system response to agricultural land-use, as well as to determine connectivity relationships between the different channel reaches. The study area watersheds of the mixed-load rivers ‘Fugnitz’ and ‘Kaja’ are located in the Eastern part of the Bohemian Massif in Austria (Europe). These drainage basins can be morphologically subdivided into two units: The upper and middle reaches exhibit low river gradients, low slope angles (plateau character) and wide open valleys with sides flaring out. The lower reaches show high river gradients, high slope angles, V-shaped valleys, some of them with alluvial fills. In the upper and middle reaches, land-use is prevalently characterized by agriculture with only partially forested zones, whereas the lower reaches are dominated by forests and woodlands. This study area conditions allow comprehensive comparison of the connectivity between several system components. The results highlight that agricultural land use is a major driving factor in altering the sediment regime of fluvial systems, leading to bed sediment fining, especially in areas with high channel-hillslope connectivity. Converging to the lower reaches of the study areas, where minimum agricultural land-use is present, amounts of fine sediments are decreasing continuously because of sediment storage in pools or in the hyporheic zone.
Poeppl, R.; Keiler, M.; Glade, T.; Engage-Geomorphological Systems; Risk Research
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based radio navigation system. The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is a version of Differential GPS (DGPS) designed to reliably support aircraft precision approaches. The Integrity Monitor Testbed (IMT) is a prototype of the LAAS Ground Facility (LGF) that is used to evaluate whether the LGF can meet system integrity requirements. To insure high integrity, the IMT has a variety of monitors to detect all possible failures. It also contains a failure-handling logic, known as Executive Monitoring (EXM), to exclude faulty measurements and recover once the failure disappears. Spatial ionospheric gradients are major threats to the LAAS. One focus of this thesis is exploring methods to quickly detect ionospheric gradients given the required low probability of false alarms. The first part of the thesis introduces GPS, LAAS, and the IMT and explains the algorithms and functionalities of IMT integrity monitors in detail. It then analyzes the failure responses of the integrity monitors under the most general measurement failure model. This analysis not only qualitatively maps the integrity monitors into the entire failure space, but also provides a tool to quantitatively compare the performance of different integrity monitors. In addition, the analysis examines the limitations of the existing monitors in detecting small but hazardous ionospheric gradients. The divergence Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) method is then derived and assessed. It can reduce the time required to detect marginal ionospheric gradients by about 30%. With the divergence CUSUM method implemented in the IMT, system integrity and performance are greatly improved. Different monitors can respond to the same failures. The last part of this thesis shows that the combination of these different monitors can detect certain failures more quickly than any individual monitor. This idea leads to a new method, called failure-specific testing, which can significantly improve the detection speed of small failures, including ionospheric gradients. Used as aids to diagnosis and exclusion, failure-specific tests can soften the current EXM logic so that the LAAS can meet the tighter continuity requirements that apply to Category III precision landings.
Land tenure rights reflect the deeper structures of society, particularly gender distinctions in relation to land. Considering\\u000a the structural differences between patrilineal and matrilineal customary tenure systems in East Timor are understudied, this\\u000a paper explores men and women’s experiences in accessing land under such arrangements. The comparative analysis of two patrilineal\\u000a with one matrilineal land tenure systems in Ainaro and
Pyone Myat Thu; Steffanie Scott; Kimberly P. Van Niel
Many observational and modeling studies have demonstrated the strong links between changes in land use and climate, and anthropogenic alterations of the land surface are now recognized to have consequences at the local, regional, and global scales. However, the effects of such changes on the local and regional climate system are not well understood, and yet, are critical to understanding
This is the second part of a study on the cold season process modeling in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). The first part concentrates on the assessment of model simulated snow cover extent. In this second part, the focus is on the evaluation of simulated snow water equivalent (SWE) from the four land surface models (Noah, MOSAIC,
Ming Pan; Justin Sheffield; Eric F. Wood; Kenneth E. Mitchell; Paul R. Houser; John C. Schaake; Alan Robock; Dag Lohmann; Brian Cosgrove; Qingyun Duan; Lifeng Luo; R. Wayne Higgins; Rachel T. Pinker; J. Dan Tarpley
The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) is an interactive software application for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals including pesticides, industrial materials, and leachates f...
The patent application describes a system for the combustion preparation of samples for scintillation analysis comprising a combustion tube containing a combustion catalyst, a chimney tube positioned within the combustion tube and resting on the catalyst ...
Administrators of 301 home economics units in institutions not associated with the land-grant system1were surveyed regarding their 1977 fiscal year research activity. Seventy-four sub mitted data concerning: (1) number of research projects and project equivalents in home economics priority goal categories; (2) personnel engaged in research activity; (3) source and level of funding; and (4) method and amount of sharing
This talk presents the results of the multi-institution partnership to develop, execute, validate and improve a realtime and retrospective North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) sponsored by GAPP. NOAA NCEP, NASA\\/GSFC, NWS Hydrology Lab, NESDIS, Princeton University, University of Washington, University of Maryland, and Rutgers University have undertaken the development and prototype realtime demonstration of national, realtime, hourly, 15-km,
D. Lohmann; K. Mitchell; P. Houser; E. Wood; J. Schaake; D. Lettenmaier; A. Robock; B. Cosgrove; Q. Duan; L. Luo
Technological advancements in positioning\\/navigation and imaging sensors that occurred during the last decade of the twentieth century, practically redefined the concept of airborne and land-based mapping. The advent of first Mobile Mapping Systems in early 1990s initiated the process of establishing modern, fully digital, virtually ground control-free photogrammetry and mapping. By the end of the last decade, Mobile Mapping technology
Dorota A. Grejner-Brzezinska; Ron Li; Norbert Haala; Charles Toth
The current trend in the aircraft industry is to evolve towards more rdquopower-by-wirerdquo or rdquoMore Electricrdquo architectures in which electrical power moves aircraft flight surfaces. Benefits of a more electric architecture include improvements in environmental impact and reliability as well as reduced maintenance costs. In this paper power electronic technology used in the rdquopower-by-wirerdquo type nose landing gear system is
Thiwanka Wijekoon; Lee Empringham; Pat Wheeler; Jon Clare
During the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landings, the Descent Image Motion Estimation System (DIMES) was used for horizontal\\u000a velocity estimation. The DIMES algorithm combined measurements from a descent camera, a radar altimeter, and an inertial measurement\\u000a unit. To deal with large changes in scale and orientation between descent images, the algorithm used altitude and attitude\\u000a measurements to rectify images to
Andrew Edie Johnson; Reg G. Willson; Yang Cheng; Jay Goguen; Chris Leger; Miguel Sanmartin; Larry Matthies
GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) is an international project to survey a majority of the world's glaciers with the accuracy and precision needed to assess recent changes and determine trends in glacial environments. This will be accomplished by: comprehensive periodic satellite measurements, coordinated distribution of screened image data, analysis of images at worldwide Regional Centers, validation of analyses, and a publicly accessible database. The primary data source will be from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer) instrument aboard the EOS Terra spacecraft, and Landsat ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), currently in operation. Approximately 700 ASTER images have been acquired with GLIMS gain settings as of mid-2001. GLIMS is a collaborative effort with the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Aeronautics Space Adminstration (NASA), other U.S. Federal Agencies and a group of internationally distributed glaciologists at Regional Centers of expertise. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) is developing the information management system for GLIMS. We will ingest and maintain GLIMS-analyzed glacier data from Regional Centers and provide access to the data via the World Wide Web. The GLIMS database will include measurements (over time) of glacier length, area, boundaries, topography, surface velocity vectors, and snowline elevation, derived primarily from remote sensing data. The GLIMS information management system at NSIDC will provide an easy to use and widely accessible service for the glaciological community and other users needing information about the world's glaciers. The structure of the international GLIMS consortium, status of database development, sample imagery and derived analyses and user search and order interfaces will be demonstrated. More information on GLIMS is available at: http://www.glims.org/.
Machado, A. E.; Scharfen, G. R.; Barry, R. G.; Khalsa, S. S.; Raup, B.; Swick, R.; Troisi, V. J.; Wang, I.
Quantification of groundwater model uncertainties is one of the key aspects when using models to direct land use or water management. An esker aquifer with a size of 90 km2 was studied to understand how the surrounding peatland forestry drainage, groundwater abstraction and climate variability can affect the aquifer groundwater level and the water levels of groundwater dependent lakes of the area. Aquifer was studied with steady state groundwater models using three alternative conceptual geological models of the esker and running calibration constrained Null Space Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis and linear analysis to each model. This kind of simulation approach has not been used in peatland management previously. Models and analyses were used to observe effects of different land use scenarios, e.g. peatland drainage restoration or water abstraction for a nearby city, and climate variability. Data from the models and analyses give the decision makers insight of how different management practices in peatlands can affect the groundwater system given the uncertainties arising from the geological understanding, hydrological measurements, and model conceptualization. Results from the models can be used, for example, to pinpoint restoration or conservation of specific peatland drainage areas in which the models suggest clearest connection to aquifer water level.
Rapid urbanization is the main driving force of land cover change in metropolitan Wuhan. This is especially critical with respect to the many lakes and shallow water bodies. Land cover changes from 1991 to 2006 were mapped by classifying Landsat TM images (1991, 2002, and 2006). Different band combinations were used to build high-quality false-color images; the spectral separability of sets of training pixels was then evaluated by contingency matrices and feature space plots. Maximum likelihood supervised classification was applied to extract built-up areas, vegetated areas and water bodies. Post-classification was carried out to detect the land cover changes. From the classification, vegetation and built-up areas expanded at the expense of water bodies. Further comparison of the variety in LULC was analyzed in both temporal and spatial aspects between 1991-2002 and 2002-2006. The growth rate of built-up area from 2002-2006 is 55.7%, which is much higher than the rate from 1991 to 2002, whereas water bodies decreased more in the first period. Vegetation increased in the first period and then decreased slightly in the second. This analysis showed urban expansion is mainly along Yangtze River and along the East-West axis. These spatio-temporal characteristics should allow urban planners to better understand the processes of urban sprawl in Wuhan.
Each passing year amplifies the demands placed on communities across the US in terms of population growth, increased tourism, and stresses resulting from escalated use. The conflicting concerns of recreational users, local citizens, environmentalists, and traditional economic interests cause land managers to contend with controversial decisions regarding development and protection of watersheds. Local history and culture, politics, economic goals, and science are all influential factors in land use decision making. Here we report on a scientific study to determine the sensitivity of alpine areas, and the adaptation of this study into a decision support framework. We use water quality data as an indicator of ecosystem health across a variety of alpine and subalpine landscapes, and input this information into a spatially-based decision support tool that planners can use to make informed land use decisions. We develop this tool in a case study in San Juan County, Colorado, a site chosen because its largest town, Silverton, is a small mountain community experiencing a recent surge in tourism and development, and its fragile high elevation locale makes it more sensitive to environmental changes. Extensive field surveys were conducted in priority drainages throughout the county to map the spatial distribution and aerial extent of landscape types during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Surface water samples were collected and analyzed for inorganic and organic solutes, and water quality values were associated with different land covers to enable sensitivity analysis at the landscape scale. Water quality results for each watershed were entered into a module linked to a geographic information system (GIS), which displays maps of sensitive areas based on criteria selected by the user. The decision support system initially incorporates two major water quality parameters: acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and nitrate (NO3-) concentration, and several categories of sensitivity were created based on ANC and NO3- levels (e.g., pristine, slightly sensitive, moderately sensitive, highly sensitive, sensitive but unimpacted, disturbance impacted). We based threshold concentrations for these water quality parameters on first principles developed at the Niwot Ridge LTER site. Additional parameters such as specific conductance, base cation concentration, sulfate concentration, and dissolved organic carbon concentration may be added for a particular landscape type. Superimposed on this categorization, federal, state, and county planners are able to make decisions about the degree of potential impairment or enhancement produced by a particular project, or the maximum level of acceptable impairment to a particular area. Because water quality parameters are correlated with landscape types, the model returns a map of the watershed, partitioned by landscape type, presenting the sensitivity level of each area. This format provides land use managers with spatial criteria for project implementation.
The purpose of the Chicago River and Lock systemanalysis was (1) to describe and analyze the traffic conditions existing on the waterway system, including traffic conflicts; (2) to project the probable future traffic volume growth; (3) to determine the c...
The objective of this study is to develop techniques for assessing and analysing land desertification in Yulin of Northwest China, as a typical monitoring region through the use of remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS). The methodology included the use of Landsat TM data from 1987, 1996 and 2006, supplemented by aerial photos in 1960, topographic maps, field work and use of other existing data. From this, land cover, the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), farmland, woodland and grassland maps at 1:100,000 were prepared for land desertification monitoring in the area. In the study, all data was entered into a GIS using ILWIS software to perform land desertification monitoring. The results indicate that land desertification in the area has been developing rapidly during the past 40 years. Although land desertification has to some extent been controlled in the area by planting grasses and trees, the issue of land desertification is still serious. The study also demonstrates an example of why the integration of remote sensing with GIS is critical for the monitoring of environmental changes in arid and semi-arid regions, e.g. in land desertification monitoring in the Yulin pilot area. However, land desertification monitoring using remote sensing and GIS still needs to be continued and also refined for the purpose of long-term monitoring and the management of fragile ecosystems in the area. PMID:18197462
The purpose and objective of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) surface and subsurface conveyor system (for a list of conveyor subsystems see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the conveyor structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the hazards related to the design of conveyor structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) that occur during normal operation. Hazards occurring during assembly, test and maintenance or ''off normal'' operations have not been included in this analysis. Construction related work activities are specifically excluded per DOE Order 5481.1B section 4. c.
The farm real estate market is different from commodity markets because land has unique characteristics such as durability and immobility. Moreover, the heterogeneity of land and relatively low activity of land transactions limits the availability of pricing information for specific properties. Because land is the primary asset and the least liquid of any farm company, its valuation plays an important
A subsidence research program began in 1985 to document the extent and magnitude of land subsidence in Sacramento Valley, California, an area of about 15 600 km2m, using Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying. In addition to periodic conventional spirit levelling, an examination was made of the changes in GPS-derived ellipsoidal height differences (summary differences) between pairs of adjacent bench marks in central Sacramento Valley from 1986 to 1989. The average rates of land subsidence in the southern Sacramento Valley for the past several decades were determined by comparing GPS-derived orthometric heights with historic published elevations. A maximum average rate of 0.053 m year-1 (0.90 m in 17 years) of subsidence has been measured. -Author
This study aims to clarify the mass balance of pollutants during both dry periods and storm events and to discuss the effects of some strategies such as pollutant removal, land use planning and new drainage systems by simulation. Three subjects are discussed in this paper. First, the amount of pollutants entering Lake Biwa from an urban area have been roughly estimated by using data collected by the local government. Second, many additional samples were collected from road surfaces, house roofs and parking lots to consider the role of land use in pollutant runoff. Third, some ongoing BMP projects in an urban area are introduced. As a result, some ideas on how to solve the problem of diffuse pollution in urban areas have been obtained. PMID:11724489
We synthesized nine studies that examined the influence of land use at different spatial scales in structuring biotic assemblages and stream channel characteristics in southeastern Minnesota streams. Recent studies have disagreed about the relative importance of catchment versus local characteristics in explaining variation in fish assemblages. Our synthesis indicates that both riparian- and catchment-scale land use explained significant variation in water quality, channel morphology, and fish distribution and density. Fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages can be positively affected by increasing the extent of perennial riparian and upland vegetation. Our synthesis is robust; more than 425 stream reaches were examined in an area that includes a portion of three ecoregions. Fishes ranged from coldwater to warmwater adapted. We suggest that efforts to rehabilitate stream system form and function over the long term should focus on increasing perennial vegetation in both riparian areas and uplands and on managing vegetation in large, contiguous blocks. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Vondracek, B.; Blann, K. L.; Cox, C. B.; Nerbonne, J. F.; Mumford, K. G.; Nerbonne, B. A.; Sovell, L. A.; Zimmerman, J. K. H.
Models developed and experiments performed to characterize the propagation environment associated with land mobile communication using satellites are discussed. Experiments were carried out with transmitters on stratospheric balloons, remotely piloted aircraft, helicopters, and geostationary satellites. This text is comprised of compiled experimental results for the expressed use of communications engineers, designers of planned Land Mobile Satellite Systems (LMSS), and modelers of propagation effects. The results presented here are mostly derived from systematic studies of propagation effects for LMSS geometries in the United States associated with rural and suburban regions. Where applicable, the authors also draw liberally from the results of other related investigations in Canada, Europe, and Australia. Frequencies near 1500 MHz are emphasized to coincide with frequency bands allocated for LMSS by the International Telecommunication Union, although earlier experimental work at 870 MHz is also included.
Electric power generation that relies on various sources as the primary sources of energy is expected to bring down CO2 emissions levels to support the overall strategy to curb global warming. Accordingly, utilities are moving towards integrating more renewable sources for generation, mostly dispersed, and adopting Smart Grid Technologies for system control. In order to construct, operate, and maintain power systems stably and economically in such background, thorough understanding about the characteristics of power systems and their components is essential. This paper presents modeling and simulation techniques available for the analysis of critical aspects such as thermal capacity, stability, voltage stability, and frequency dynamics, vital for the stable operation of power systems.
Significant global changes affect the carbon and water cycles as well as the biodiversity on earth. Mapping and monitoring these changes can aid in the understanding and distinction between anthropogenic and biophysical impacts on the land surface. In the context of scientific and social debate on the pace and extent of global climate change, it is extremely important to have methods that are capable of distinguishing between expected variability and significant change. In this dissertation I have presented a statistical framework for the analysis of long image time series that consists of robust techniques for step change analysis, temporal trend analysis, and the modeling of land surface phenology (LSP) and analysis of LSP change. This framework helps to fill a gap in the remote sensing literature on appropriate approaches to quantitative change analysis. I have described two main application areas for the statistical framework: (1) Quality analysis of NOAA AVHRR NDVI datasets. The analysis of more than 2 million km2 of desert and semi-desert ecoregions in Central Asia revealed significant sensor artifacts in the Pathfinder AVHRR Land (PAL) NDVI dataset. I have found that the comparison of data from any combination of NOAA-7, NOAA-9 and NOAA-14 can be used for land surface change analyses, but that the inclusion of NOAH-11 AVHRR NDVI data in trend analyses may result in the detection of spurious trends. Furthermore, I have shown that two versions of NOAA AVHRR NDVI datasets with similar characteristics can yield very different conclusions on land surface change. (2) Using the PAL NDVI data, I applied the framework to address the question of whether the institutional changes accompanying the collapse of the Soviet Union resulted in significant changes in land surface phenologies across Northern Eurasia and Kazakhstan in particular. Using multiple lines of evidence provided by the statistical framework, I was able to distinguish between anthropogenic impacts and interannual climatic fluctuations on the land surface phenology.
The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 required the Interior Department to experiment with alternatives to the traditional bidding system in leasing offshore lands for oil and gas development. This experiment, extending over a 5-year period, is scheduled to end in September 1983. The alternative systems are designed to reduce the amount of up-front money required by companies to obtain an offshore lease, in return for a greater share of the revenues from any follow-on production. By reducing up-front money, the alternative systems are supposed to increase participation and competition in offshore lease sales. GAO found that the initial effects of the alternative systems on company participation and competition have generally paralleled or bettered the results of the traditional system, although up-front money required to obtain leases was not always reduced as theorized. Additional time and testing are needed before the full effects on the leasing program can be determined. Accordingly, GAO recommends that the legislation be amended to require use of the alternative systems or an additional 5 years so that more information will be available to judge their overall merits.
The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is a collaboration project between NASA/GSFC, NOAA, Princeton Univ., and the Univ. of Washington. NLDAS has created a surface meteorology dataset using the best-available observations and reanalyses...
Change-vector analysis in multi-temporal space is a powerful tool to analyse the nature and magnitude of land-cover change. The change vector compares the difference in the time-trajectory of a biophysical indicator for successive time periods. This change detection method is applied to three remotely-sensed indicators of land-surface conditions—vegetation index, surface temperature and spatial structure—in order to improve the capability to
China's current cropland taxation policy is based on the results of a land survey carried out in the 1950s. There is an urgent need to evaluate cropland quality so that land can be taxed and managed using up-to-date informa- tion. In China, different agricultural areas are taxed at different rates, based on land evaluation assessment. Farmers on more favourable land
Yang Qinke; Tim R. McVicar; Li Rui; Xiaoping Zhang
Under NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) framework, EOS instrument science teams share responsibility with independently selected scientists for the validation of EOS land products. In 1997, these groups began developing the infrastructure and resources for a global effort of systematic measurements under the leadership of the MODIS Land Science Team. The project is anchored by 25 Core Sites for which various independent satellite data sets (e.g., EOS-Terra, IKONOS, Landsat, SeaWiFS) are routinely acquired and distributed online at no cost to the public. The Core Site network overlaps with other scientific networks (e.g., AERONET sunphotometry, FLUXNET) which provide correlative data in kind. The project has grown through the addition of unique services from EOS Earth Science Information Partners (ESIPs Type 1 and 2) and voluntary data submissions by other research groups. This presentation will describe the current validation framework and its role in an emerging international effort sponsored by the new Land Product Validation Subgroup of the CEOS Working Group for Calibration and Validation. We will also address theoretical considerations in designing a cost-effective field network suitable for assigning quantitative uncertainties to global products.
An atmosphere tracer study using SF/sub 6/ was conducted on July 22, 1977, to examine the origin of the high particulate sulfate concentrations observed in coastal Los Angeles County. It was found that the sea breeze/land breeze circulation system in the Los Angeles Basin both increases the retention time for sulfate formation in the marine environment and causes individual air parcels to make multiple passes over large coastal emissions sources. Day-old sulfur oxides emissions advected out to sea by the land breeze at night were estimated to be the largest single contributor to 24-hour average sulfate air quality over land the next day. In contrast, 24-hour average SO/sub 2/ concentrations were dominated by fresh emissions from nearby sources. The overall rate of SO/sub 2/ transformation to form particular sulfur oxides along some trajectories that spent a considerable time over the ocean at night probably exceeds the rate that can be explained by known photochemical processes acting during the daylight portion of these trajectories. This suggests that appreciable aerosol formation may occur in a polluted marine environment at night.
There is a vast range of prospects on remote sensing, land mapping, resources survey, natural disaster monitoring by using multispectral camera. It is useful for improving national economic development and realizing numerical earth. Optical tolerance is a critical step in the optical design process. Sensitivity analysis and inverse sensitivity analysis are used to compute the effect, which reduce the optical system performance by the each tolerance parameter. Suitable tolerating requirements and compensators may be defined to model allowable adjustments after fabrication. The optical system with high image quality and low distortion is produced according to the tolerance requirements. The tested result shows the MTF of multi-spectral can reach to 0.243 at Nyquist frequency; the tolerance analysis methods are correct and feasible.
The construction of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River in China has an extensive impact on the ecosystems and local population. For evaluating its impact, the Xiangxi River's watershed is taken as an example. The inflow of the Xiangxi River, a northern tributary of the Yangtze River, is located about 40 km upstream of the Three Gorges Dam. In order to develop and establish sustainable land use strategies, a vulnerability analysis will be conducted to examine the risks and impacts of landslides on the local population as well as on material assets. Analysing land use based on remote sensing techniques, is one objective of the project. During a field survey carried out in September 2008, land use types as well as cropping cycles in the project area were evaluated. Training areas were mapped for supervised classification, using Landsat-5 imagery. The result of the classification is a land use map of Xiangxi watershed. After interpreting remote sensing data from 1987 and examining land use maps from 1992, depicting the pre-Three Gorges Project phase, the results will be compared with current land use to document any change. Knowledge of current land use and change analysis will be utilized as a basis for vulnerability analysis to identify elements at risk and to determine the damage potential. The elements at risk will be mapped, labelled and then processed in conjunction with possible damage intensities in a GIS. This project is part of the Sino-German Yangtze-Project: Land Use Change, Erosion and Landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir. The funding for the project is provided by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).
Seeber, C.; Bissing-Olson, M. J.; Hartmann, H.; King, L.
The purpose of this research was to model, design and fabricate a biodynamic analysis microsystem required for determination of various molecular transport properties of the biological fluids. In order to achieve this, a lab-on-a-chip device was fabricated. The microchannel system developed satisfies the objectives for the study of microcirculation and the characterization of cell rheological properties, functions and behavior. The
|There have been many attempts to understand how the Internet affects our modern world. There have also been numerous attempts to understand specific areas of the Internet. This article applies Immanuel Wallerstein's World SystemsAnalysis to our informationalist society. Understanding this world as divided among individual core, semi-periphery,…
Based on RS (Remote Sensing) data sources and GIS (Geographic Information System)technology and by ways of mapping models and LUCC analysis models, the land use and land cover change of 300m off the central line of YuJing Expressway are being studied. The qualitative and quantitative evaluations of land use and land cover change in that area unveil the temporal and
Agricultural land use changes have been quite dramatic in the last few decades in the Indo-Gangetic plains as an outcome of many factors including the green revolution. But, there are wide-spread disparities in the agricultural land use practices and its intensification, in addition to the economic outcome of these sub-regions within the Gangetic basin as one moves from the west to the east. In addition to the geo-physical and ecological differences, this can be attributed to a mix of demographic, social, economic, and political and policy differences. Water use within the agricultural system is widely influenced by these human factors. An integrated framework has been proposed by the authors for identifying and quantifying the linkages between land use and water use in this coupled human-environment system. The research being carried out here will discuss the framework with reference to the analysis of the changes in the agricultural system in the past five decades within the Indo-Gangetic plains, with links to the water use, and the ecological, economical and social indicators of change within the coupled system context. Based on the experiences of the authors in developing agent based land use (AGENT-LUC) models at the regional and national scales, this integrated framework will also form the basis for the agent based modelling approach. It is estimated that the model proposed would help understand the competition and allocation of water needs of the different land use regimes (for eg. agricultural vs. urban water use) and help evaluate sustainable management strategies within the basin.
Agricultural land use has often been linked to nutrient enrichment, habitat degradation, hydrologic alteration, and loss of biotic integrity in streams. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program sampled 226 stream sites located in eight agriculture-dominated study units across the United States to investigate the geographic variability and causes of agricultural impacts on stream biotic integrity. In this analysis we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to develop a national and set of regional causal models linking agricultural land use to measured instream conditions. We then examined the direct, indirect, and total effects of agriculture on biotic integrity as it acted through multiple water quality and habitat pathways. In our nation-wide model, cropland affected benthic communities by both altering structural habitats and by imposing water quality-related stresses. Regionspecific modeling demonstrated that geographic context altered the relative importance of causal pathways through which agricultural activities affected stream biotic integrity. Cropland had strong negative total effects on the invertebrate community in the national, Midwest, and Western models, but a very weak effect in the Eastern Coastal Plain model. In theWestern Arid and Eastern Coastal Plain study regions, cropland impacts were transmitted primarily through dissolved water quality contaminants, but in the Midwestern region, they were transmitted primarily through particulate components of water quality. Habitat effects were important in the Western Arid model, but negligible in the Midwest and Eastern Coastal Plain models. The relative effects of riparian forested wetlands also varied regionally, having positive effects on biotic integrity in the Eastern Coastal Plain andWestern Arid region models, but no statistically significant effect in the Midwest. These differences in response to cropland and riparian cover suggest that best management practices and planning for the mitigation of agricultural land use impacts on stream ecosystems should be regionally focused. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.
Riseng, C. M.; Wiley, M. J.; Black, R. W.; Munn, M. D.
Water resources planning and management is fundamental for food security, environmental conservation, economic development and livelihoods. In complex basins like the Indus Basin, water is utilized by different land cover and land uses. Up to date information about these Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) classes provide essential information on the water flow path. Traditionally, landscapes are described by cover
This work provides integrated transportation land use modeling guidance to practitioners in Texas regions of all sizes. The research team synthesized existing land use modeling experiences from MPOs across the country, examined the compatibility of TELUMs...
A. Anjomani B. Zhou J. Duthie K. Kockelman K. P. Kunapareddychinna S. Marepally S. K. Kakaraparthi
Military lands not only support traditional training and testing activities, some of which are inherently damaging, but an increasingly diverse nonmilitary agenda. Army Regulation AR 200-3 requires commanders and land managers to consider the impacts of A...
We present an overview of the recent results from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory land modeling team toward the Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) project. One of the goals of the CSSEF project is to improve and accelerate the climate model development process leading toward the 6th generation of the Community Earth System Model (CESM3). Here we focus on subgrid scale land hydrology modeling, separation of the above and below ground litter and soil organic matter pools, and parameter sensitivity studies using the Community Land Model (CLM) to improve uncertainty quantification (UQ). On the subgrid land hydrology subproject, the effects of using the available higher resolution land cover and soil texture data sets (15 to 30 arcsecond) to increase the heterogeneity within a typical half degree latitude and longitude land model grid cell were tested by doing model simulations with CLM4 at increasingly higher resolutions near the Niwot Ridge North American Carbon Program (NACP) site. Another central objective of the project is detailed quantification of Earth system model prediction uncertainty. The overall uncertainty quantification approach, from the perspective of land model evaluation and development, is to first characterize uncertainty in model parameter values, then to quantify the components of that prediction uncertainty (e. g. parameter uncertainty, structural uncertainty, and model forcings). As a first step toward these goals, at another NACP site, University of Michigan Biological Station, parameters within CLM were systematically varied to characterize uncertainty in model parameter values.
Branstetter, M. L.; Thornton, P. E.; Bisht, G.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Yang, X.
Land plants are anchored to their substratum from which essential inorganic nutrients are taken up. These functions are carried out by a system of rhizoids in early diverging groups of land plants, such as mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Physcomitrella patens RHD SIX-LIKE1 (PpRSL1) and PpRSL2 transcription factors are necessary for rhizoid development in mosses. Similar proteins, AtRHD6 and AtRSL1, control the development of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Auxin positively regulates root hair development independently of AtRHD6 and AtRSL1 in A. thaliana but the regulatory interactions between auxin and PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 are unknown. We show here that co-expression of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 is sufficient for the development of the rhizoid system in the moss P. patens; constitutive expression of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 converts developing leafy shoot axes (gametophores) into rhizoids. During wild-type development, PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 are expressed in the specialized cells that develop rhizoids, indicating that cell-specific expression of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 is sufficient to promote rhizoid differentiation during wild-type P. patens development. In contrast to A. thaliana, auxin promotes rhizoid development by positively regulating PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 activity in P. patens. This indicates that even though the same genes control the development of root hairs and rhizoids, the regulation of this transcriptional network by auxin is different in these two species. This suggests that auxin might have controlled the development of the first land plant soil anchoring systems that evolved 465 million years ago by regulating the expression of RSL genes and that this regulatory network has changed since mosses and angiosperms last shared a common ancestor. PMID:21558375
A non-linear dynamic game between land supply and housing prices, based on disequilibrium theory and non-linear cobweb mode, is established in this paper. The influence of land price adjustment measures on housing prices is analysed with the assumption that the demand function is non-linear and the supply function is linear. Given a fully inelastic land supply, a land price adjustment
Selected WanDing river basin as a case study which is located in Yunnan frontier area, based on comprehensive integrated application of remote sensing and GIS technology, this research used interpretation method to extract study area's land use\\/land cover information in 2004, and adopted spectrum direct comparison method to extract its land use\\/land cover change information from 1990 to 2004. In
Knowledge of key sources and biogeochemical processes that affect the transport of nitrate (NO3-) in streams can inform watershed management strategies for controlling downstream eutrophication. We applied dual isotope analysis of NO3- to determine the dominant sources and processes that affect NO3- concentrations in six stream/river watersheds of different land uses. Samples were collected monthly at a range of flow conditions for 15 mo during 2004-05 and analyzed for NO3- concentrations, ?? 15NNO3, and ??18ONO3. Samples from two forested watersheds indicated that NO3- derived from nitrification was dominant at baseflow. A watershed dominated by suburban land use had three ??18ONO3 values greater than +25???, indicating a large direct contribution of atmospheric NO 3- transported to the stream during some high flows. Two watersheds with large proportions of agricultural land use had many ??15NNO3 values greater than +9???, suggesting an animal waste source consistent with regional dairy farming practices. These data showed a linear seasonal pattern with a ??18O NO3:??15NNO3 of 1:2, consistent with seasonally varying denitrification that peaked in late summer to early fall with the warmest temperatures and lowest annual streamflow. The large range of ?? 15NNO3 values (10???) indicates that NO 3- supply was likely not limiting the rate of denitrification, consistent with ground water and/or in-stream denitrification. Mixing of two or more distinct sources may have affected the seasonal isotope patterns observed in these two agricultural streams. In a mixed land use watershed of large drainage area, none of the source and process patterns observed in the small streams were evident. These results emphasize that observations at watersheds of a few to a few hundred km2 may be necessary to adequately quantify the relative roles of various NO 3- transport and process patterns that contribute to streamflow in large basins. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.
Burns, D. A.; Boyer, E. W.; Elliott, E. M.; Kendall, C.
To address roadway congestion problems, communities throughout the nation that are at risk for air quality problems are proposing major and costly beltway highway projects. In this study, an integrated land use and transportation model and an advanced travel demand model linked to a land allocation model are applied to evaluate different combinations of transit and highway investment alternatives, land
To address some of the uncertainties inherent in large-scale models, two very different urban models, an advanced travel demand model and an integrated land use and transportation model, are applied to evaluate land use, transit, and auto pricing policies in the Sacramento, CA (US), region. The empirical and modeling literature is reviewed to identify effective land use, transit, and pricing
Caroline J. Rodier; Robert A. Johnston; John E. Abraham
AbstractSince 2003, the Chinese Government has been using land policy as an important macroeconomic policy. The present paper analyzes the impact of the expansion of construction land on economic growth in terms of the capital-output ratio. Using provincial panel data for China from 1999 to 2005, we conclude that the excess expansion of China's construction land led to an increase
On ground stereo vision system is used for autonomous hovering and landing of a quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV). This kind of system has an advantage to support embedded vision system for autonomous hovering and landing, since an embedded vision system occasionally gives inaccurate distance calculation due to either vibration problem or unknown geometry of the landing target. Color based object tracking by using Continuously Adaptive Mean Shift (CAMSHIFT) algorithm was examined. Nonlinear model of quad-rotor MAV and a PID controller were used for autonomous hovering and landing. The result shows that the Camshift based object tracking algorithm has good performance. Additionally, the comparison between the stereo vision system based and GPS based autonomous hovering of a quad-rotor MAV shows that stereo vision system has better performance. The accuracy of the stereo vision system is about 1 meter in the longitudinal and lateral direction when the quad-rotor flies in 6 meters of altitude. In the same experimental condition, the GPS based system accuracy is about 3 meters. Additionally, experiment on autonomous landing gives a reliable result.
Proper specification of model parameters is critical to the performance of land surface models (LSMs). Due to high dimensionality and parameter interaction, estimating parameters of an LSM is a challenging task. Sensitivity analysis (SA) is a tool that can screen out the most influential parameters on model outputs. In this study, we conducted parameter screening for six output fluxes for the Common Land Model: sensible heat, latent heat, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture. A total of 40 adjustable parameters were considered. Five qualitative SA methods, including local, sum-of-trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, delta test and Morris methods, were compared. The proper sampling design and sufficient sample size necessary to effectively screen out the sensitive parameters were examined. We found that there are 2-8 sensitive parameters, depending on the output type, and about 400 samples are adequate to reliably identify the most sensitive parameters. We also employed a revised Sobol' sensitivity method to quantify the importance of all parameters. The total effects of the parameters were used to assess the contribution of each parameter to the total variances of the model outputs. The results confirmed that global SA methods can generally identify the most sensitive parameters effectively, while local SA methods result in type I errors (i.e., sensitive parameters labeled as insensitive) or type II errors (i.e., insensitive parameters labeled as sensitive). Finally, we evaluated and confirmed the screening results for their consistency with the physical interpretation of the model parameters.
Li, J.; Duan, Q. Y.; Gong, W.; Ye, A.; Dai, Y.; Miao, C.; Di, Z.; Tong, C.; Sun, Y.
Spatial evapotranspiration (ET) is usually estimated by Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land. The average accuracy of the algorithm is 85% on daily basis and 95% on seasonable basis. However, the accuracy of the algorithm varies from 67% to 95% on instantaneous ET estimates and, as reported in 18 studies, 70% to 98% on 1 to 10-day ET estimates. There is a need to understand the sensitivity of the ET calculation with respect to the algorithm variables and equations. With an increased understanding, information can be developed to improve the algorithm, and to better identify the key variables and equations. A Modified Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (MSEBAL) was developed and validated with data from a pecan orchard and an alfalfa field. The MSEBAL uses ground reflectance and temperature data from ASTER sensors along with humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation data from a local weather station. MSEBAL outputs hourly and daily ET with 90 m by 90 m resolution. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for MSEBAL on ET calculation. In order to observe the sensitivity of the calculation to a particular variable, the value of that variable was changed while holding the magnitudes of the other variables. The key variables and equations to which the ET calculation most sensitive were determined in this study. href='http://weather.nmsu.edu/pecans/SEBALFolder/San%20Francisco%20AGU%20meeting/ASensitivityAnalysisonMSE">http://weather.nmsu.edu/pecans/SEBALFolder/San%20Francisco%20AGU%20meeting/ASensitivityAnalysisonMSE
The purpose of this project is to provide improved estimates of Louisiana wetland land loss due to hurricane impacts between 2004 and 2009 based upon a change detection mapping analysis that incorporates pre- and post-landfall (Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike) fractional water classification of a combination of high resolution (QuickBird, IKONOS and Geoeye-1) and medium resolution (Landsat) satellite imagery. This second dataset focuses on Hurricanes Katrina and Gustav, which made landfall on August 29, 2005, and September 1, 2008, respectively. The study area is an approximately 1208-square-kilometer region surrounding Delacroix, Louisiana, in the eastern Delta Plain. Overall, 77 percent of the area remained unchanged between 2004 and 2009, and over 11 percent of the area was changed permanently by Hurricane Katrina (including both land gain and loss). Less than 3 percent was affected, either temporarily or permanently, by Hurricane Gustav. A related dataset (SIM 3141) focused on Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on the Louisiana/Texas border on September 24, 2005, as a Category 3 hurricane.
Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Kranenburg, Christine; Brock, John C.
Six treatments of eastern Kansas tallgrass prairie--native prairie, hayed, mowed, grazed, burned and untreated--were studied to examine the biophysical effects of land management practices on grasslands. On each treatment, measurements of plant biomass, leaf area index, plant cover, leaf moisture and soil moisture were collected. In addition, measurements were taken of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is derived from spectral reflectance measurements. Measurements were taken in mid-June, mid-July and late summer of 1990 and 1991. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine whether there were differences in the set of variables among treatments and years. Follow-up tests included univariate t-tests to determine which variables were contributing to any significant difference. Results showed a significant difference (p < 0.0005) among treatments in the composite of parameters during each of the months sampled. In most treatment types, there was a significant difference between years within each month. The univariate tests showed, however, that only some variables, primarily soil moisture, were contributing to this difference. We conclude that biomass and % plant cover show the best potential to serve as longterm indicators of grassland condition as they generally were sensitive to effects of different land management practices but not to yearly change in weather conditions. NDVI was insensitive to precipitation differences between years in July for most treatments, but was not in the native prairie. Choice of sampling time is important for these parameters to serve effectively as indicators. PMID:11393427
Trend Analysis is a powerful tool for HVAC troubleshooting. It can help: solve operating problems; increase energy efficiency; locate defective hardware; identify out-of-calibration devices; improve occupant comfort; and extend equipment life. It would be impossible to anticipate all variables when developing and implementing a sequence of operation for an air handling system. The designer must be able to see the unit in action, and the interaction between the different devices. The designer must also be able to see the unit`s operation over a significant period of time and over a wide range of conditions. HVAC Trend Analysis can do all these things.
Austin, S.B. [Glaxo Wellcome, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)
This study presents a parameter sensitivity analysis of a complex land surface model, the Community Land Model (CLM), revision 3.5. We use different output fluxes, i.e. the fluxes of latent- and sensible heat, and C3/C4 photosynthesis for the analysis. Our objective function represents the sum of the normalized relative deviations of these fluxes. We extended the standard method by weighting the deviations with the flux magnitudes. We use all (66) parameters of CLM in a random sampling design, including different vegetation and soil properties. Parameter sensitivities at the random parameter combinations result in a sensitivity matrix S. The use of eigendecomposition of the STS matrix gives information about parameter importance while taking into account interactions between the different parameters. We examine seven methods to determine parameter importance from the eigenvector matrix and associated eigenvalues. The most elaborate method focuses on parameters that become relevant due to their interactions with others. It distinguishes between parameters of high, medium and low relevance by using three arbitrary thresholds. We created a new criterion with only one threshold acting on the parameter importance index. In the results strikes one outstandingly sensitive parameter that is used in the description of soil evaporation resistance. We therefore excluded the oversensitive parameter from further analysis and suggest rather reformulation of the process. Five methods for parameter importance determination result in a very similar picture. The elaborate method, on the other site, marks comparatively more parameters as relevant. We show that the new criterion performs very similar to the elaborate method. it retains two thirds of the CLM parameters for a later parameter estimation procedure. It ensures that these parameters generate 99% of the overall model variation. The used method gives a consistent picture if different combinations of output fluxes are used. This means, for example, that specific leaf area and nitrogen limitation become important only if sensitivity is limited with respect to photosynthesis.
Quantifying, understanding, and predicting the hydrological impacts of land use changes and land management practices are important objectives of both the academic hydrologist and the civil engineer. Relationships between stormflow response and land use have been most readily observed at small spatial scales (e.g., hillslopes, small experimental watersheds), but have proved difficult to establish in larger basins where (1) high-resolution precipitation data are usually unavailable, (2) land use patterns are often exceedingly complex, and (3) land use changes are essentially uncontrolled. In the Central Appalachian Mountains of the U.S., conversion of forests to mined lands (through devegetation, excavation of overburden and coal deposits, and subsequent reclamation) is the dominant land use change presently occurring. In the Georges Creek basin in western Maryland, for example, the portion of the watershed classified as mined (including active, reclaimed, and abandoned surface mines) increased from 3.8 to 15.5% from 1962 to 1997; modest urbanization of the basin (2.4 to 4.7%) also occurred during this period. In 1999, we initiated a comparative field study to determine if surface coal-mining and subsequent land reclamation practices affect stormflow responses at multiple spatial scales: (1) plot, (2) small watershed, and (3) river basin scales. Results from the plot-scale experiments suggested that soil infiltration capacity is grossly reduced during mining and reclamation, apparently due to loss of forest litter and soil compaction by heavy machinery. At the small watershed (<25 ha) scale, a comparative analysis of a pair of gaged watersheds indicated that conventional methods of surface mining and reclamation can increase peak stormflow, total storm runoff, and storm runoff coefficient by about 250% relative to similar forested watersheds in the same region. Finally, frequency analysis of long-term runoff data from the larger, extensively-mined Georges Creek (area = 127 sq. km.) and predominantly-forested Savage River (area = 188 sq. km.) watersheds in western Maryland was unable to establish a comparable land use effect on stormflow response, due to inherent climatic variability. Such an effect was suggested, however, when high-resolution, gage-adjusted rainfall data generated from NEXRAD (NEXt generation weather RADar; WSR-88D) radars were employed for developing unit hydrographs for specific extreme events. Inadequacies in spatial rainfall estimation thus appear to be a major limiting factor in scaling changes in observed stormflow responses from small experimental watersheds to larger river basins undergoing extensive land use changes. We conclude that land use change effects in gaged river basins can be discerned if flood hydrographs are interpreted using accurate, areal precipitation data.
Since thousands of years mankind has altered the surface of the Earth by clearing forests for agricultural purposes and logging of wood for fuel and construction works. In total about half of the global land surface have at some point in history been altered by humans. Land use and land use changes (LULCC) have not only changed the physical surface properties of the Earth (albedo, roughness length) but also results in a release of carbon to the atmosphere (land use emissions, LUE). These fluxes have exceeded those from fossil fuel well into the 20th century and still amount to more than 10% of present day fossil fuel emissions. Thus quantification of the LUE is important for understanding the past and the prediction of the future climate. Therefore the last generation of Earth System Models (ESMs) used for the model intercomparison studies for the IPCC 5th assessment report include LULCC and LUE, but the implementation details and thus results are diverse. One important difference is whether sub-grid scale LULCC practices such as shifting cultivation (that is: clearing land, cultivating it for a few years then abandoning it again while clearing a new land piece), which is very important in certain regions of the world, is accounted for (gross transitions) or not (net transitions). The difference between the two approaches has been quantified using the ESM of the Max-Planck-Institute (MPI-ESM) by reducing the LULCC information which include shifting cultivation (gross transitions) to include net transitions only. Accumulated over the period 1850-2005 the LUE were about 85GtC (almost 40%) lower when accounting for net transitions only. Through differences in fuel availability also fire occurrence was changed, though only regionally important. Using the RCP-senarios, the results were projected until year 2100. The differences between the two transition implementations diminishes at different speed in the different RCPs but has (almost) vanished in 2100 in all projections. This study highlights that model implementation details of LUC severely influences the estimate of LUE and thus the role of LULCC in climate change.
Wilkenskjeld, Stiig; Kloster, Silvia; Pongratz, Julia; Reick, Christian
SELENE-2 is the first lunar landing mission of Japan. We are developing a broadband seismometer system as a powerful candidate for a payload instrument. In this paper, we demonstrate the necessity of broadband seismometer observation and its scientific targets. The Apollo projects in 1970's installed an equilateral triangle seismograph network at apexes where Apollo 12,14,15 and 16 landed. The passive
H. Shiraishi; N. Kobayashi; N. Takeuchi; H. Murakami; P. Lognonne; D. Giardini; U. R. Christensen; T. Okamoto; K. Kuge; D. Zhao; A. Mocquet; D. Mimoun; S. de Raucourt; T. Nebut; S. Tillier; T. Kawamura; D. Mance; P. Zweifel; M. Bierwirth; R. Roll; Y. Ishihara; E. Araki; K. Ogawa; R. Yamada; K. Shirai; Y. Iijima; M. Hayakawa; S. Tanaka; H. Kakuma; I. Yamada
In order to solve the problem of information sharing, updating, maintaining and interacting of agricultural land grading of the test area in Hubei Province, China, we discuss the innovative software solutions based on the Asp.Net technique and ArcIMS platform in this paper. Consequently, this paper focuses on the design and implementation of Information Publication System of Agricultural Land Grading (IPS-ALG).
The report contains an introduction to land use data application; a projection of land use data and quantities, together with a comparison of projected and estimated future land use requirements; supporting analysis, and the recommended land use plan. (Au...
The Design-through-Analysis Realization Team (DART) is chartered with reducing the time Sandia analysts require to complete the engineering analysis process. The DART systemanalysis team studied the engineering analysis processes employed by analysts in Centers 9100 and 8700 at Sandia to identify opportunities for reducing overall design-through-analysis process time. The team created and implemented a rigorous analysis methodology based on a generic process flow model parameterized by information obtained from analysts. They also collected data from analysis department managers to quantify the problem type and complexity distribution throughout Sandia's analyst community. They then used this information to develop a community model, which enables a simple characterization of processes that span the analyst community. The results indicate that equal opportunity for reducing analysis process time is available both by reducing the ''once-through'' time required to complete a process step and by reducing the probability of backward iteration. In addition, reducing the rework fraction (i.e., improving the engineering efficiency of subsequent iterations) offers approximately 40% to 80% of the benefit of reducing the ''once-through'' time or iteration probability, depending upon the process step being considered. Further, the results indicate that geometry manipulation and meshing is the largest portion of an analyst's effort, especially for structural problems, and offers significant opportunity for overall time reduction. Iteration loops initiated late in the process are more costly than others because they increase ''inner loop'' iterations. Identifying and correcting problems as early as possible in the process offers significant opportunity for time savings.
Boggs, Paul T.; Althsuler, Alan (Exagrid Engineering); Larzelere, Alex R. (Exagrid Engineering); Walsh, Edward J.; Clay, Ruuobert L.; Hardwick, Michael F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)
We introduce the land-cover cascade (LCC) as a conceptual framework to quantify the transfer of land-cover-disturbance effects to stream biota. We hypothesize that disturbance is propagated through multivariate systems through key variables that transform a disturbance and pass a reorganized disturbance effect to the next hierarchical level where the process repeats until ultimately affecting biota. We measured 31 hydrologic, geomorphic, erosional, and substrate variables and 26 biotic responses that have been associated with land-use disturbance in third- and fourth-order streams in the Blue Ridge physiographic province in western North Carolina (USA). Regression analyses reduced this set of variables to include only those that responded to land cover and/or affected biota. From this reduced variable set, hypotheses were generated that predicted the disturbance pathways affecting each biotic response following the land-cover-cascade design. Cascade pathways began with land cover and ended with biotic responses, passing through at least one intermediate ecosystem abiotic component. Cascade models were tested for predictive ability and goodness-of-fit using path analysis. Biota were influenced by near-stream urban, agricultural, and forest land cover as propagated by hydrologic (e.g., discharge), geomorphic (e.g., stream bank height), erosional (e.g., suspended sediments), and depositional streambed (e.g., substrate size) features occurring along LCC pathways, reflecting abiotic mechanisms mediating land-cover disturbance. Our results suggest that communities are influenced by land-cover change indirectly through a hierarchy of associated abiotic components that propagate disturbance to biota. More generally, the land-cover cascade concept and experimental framework demonstrate an organized approach to the generic study of cascades and the complex relationships between landscapes and streams. PMID:17489471
A population of 638 timber harvest areas in northwestern California was sampled for data related to the occurrence of critical amounts of erosion (>153 m3 within 0.81 ha). Separate analyses were done for forest roads and logged areas. Linear discriminant functions were computed in each analysis to contrast site conditions at critical plots with randomly selected controls. Bootstrapping was used extensively in the development and testing of the equations, in estimating prediction bias, and in placing confidence limits around parameters and posterior probabilities. The resulting three-variable equations had classification accuracy, corrected for prediction bias, of 77.7% for road plots and 69.2% for logged area plots. The use of linear discriminant functions facilitates the explicit consideration of erosion risk when planning land-disturbing activities.
This paper briefly reviews the background, objectives, and results of the Arctic Transitions in the Land-Atmosphere System (ATLAS) Project to date and provides thoughts on future directions. The key goal of the ATLAS Project is to improve understanding of controls over spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial processes in the Arctic that have potential consequences for the climate system, i.e., processes that affect the exchange of water and energy with the atmosphere, the exchange of radiatively active gases with the atmosphere, and the delivery of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. Three important conclusions have emerged from research associated with the ATLAS Project. First, associated with the observation that the Alaskan Arctic has warmed significantly in the last 30 years, permafrost is warming, shrubs are expanding, and there has been a temporary release of carbon dioxide from tundra soils. Second, the winter is a more important period of biological activity than previously appreciated. Biotic processes, including shrub expansion and decomposition, affect snow structure and accumulation and affect the annual carbon budget of tundra ecosystems. Third, observed vegetation changes can have a significant positive feedback to regional warming. These vegetation effects are, however, less strong than those exerted by land-ocean heating contrasts and the topographic constraints on air mass movements. The papers of this special section provide additional insights related to these conclusions and to the overall goal of ATLAS.
The INSHORE system (INtegrated System for High Operational REsolution in shore monitoring) is a land-base survey system designed and developed for the specific task of monitoring the evolution in time of sandy shores. This system was developed with two main objectives: (1) to produce highly accurate 3D coordinates of surface points (in the order of 0.02 to 0.03 m); and (2) to be extremely efficient in surveying a beach stretch of several kilometres. Previous tests have demonstrated that INSHORE systems fulfil such objectives. Now, the usefulness of the INSHORE system as a survey tool for the production of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of sandy shores is demonstrated. For this purpose, the comparison of DEMs obtained with the INSHORE system and with other relevant survey techniques is presented. This comparison focuses on the final DEM accuracy and also on the survey efficiency and its impact on the costs associated with regular monitoring programmes. The field survey method of the INSHORE system, based on profile networks, has a productivity of about 30 to 40 ha/h, depending on the beach surface characteristics. The final DEM precision, after interpolation of the global positioning system profile network, is approximately 0.08 to 0.12 m (RMS), depending on the profile network's density. Thus, this is a useful method for 3D repre