Sample records for landing systems analysis

  1. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Class Simulation Overview and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and exploration or human-scale missions. The year one exploration class mission activity considered technologies capable of delivering a 40-mt payload. This paper provides an overview of the exploration class mission study, including technologies considered, models developed and initial simulation results from the EDL-SA year one effort.

  2. Title : "SMALL Savannah: An Information System for the integrated analysis of land use change in the Far North Cameroon"

    E-print Network

    Hille, Sander

    Title : "SMALL Savannah: An Information System for the integrated analysis of land use change and sharing on natural resources and land use. The case study of the far North region of Cameroon shows competition among land uses, more conflicts between actors and increasing poverty. The model developed

  3. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Exploration Feed-Forward Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Zang, Thomas A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; McGuire, M. Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Technology required to land large payloads (20 to 50 mt) on Mars remains elusive. In an effort to identify the most viable investment path, NASA and others have been studying various concepts. One such study, the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDLSA) Study [1] identified three potential options: the rigid aeroshell, the inflatable aeroshell and supersonic retropropulsion (SRP). In an effort to drive out additional levels of design detail, a smaller demonstrator, or exploration feed-forward (EFF), robotic mission was devised that utilized two of the three (inflatable aeroshell and SRP) high potential technologies in a configuration to demonstrate landing a two to four metric ton payload on Mars. This paper presents and overview of the maximum landed mass, inflatable aeroshell controllability and sensor suite capability assessments of the selected technologies and recommends specific technology areas for additional work.

  4. AIR LAND WATER ANALYSIS SYSTEM (ALEAS): A MULTI-MEDIA MODEL FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Land Water Analysis System (ALWAS) is a multi-media environmental model for describing the atmospheric dispersion of toxicants, the surface runoff of deposited toxicants, and the subsequent fate of these materials in surface water bodies. ALWAS dipicts the spatial and tem...

  5. Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Title: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions Topic (must choose one item from a drop-down list): Community Indicators Learning Objectives (must list 2): • What are the benefits and l...

  6. Preliminary analysis of several microwave landing system flare elevation configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goka, T.

    1975-01-01

    Configurations of MLS Flare Elevation Systems that can be considered reasonable and practical in actual implementation are identified. Each of these are analyzed and compared with respect to (1) computational requirement, (2) required coverage, and (3) accuracy including altitude and sink-rate estimation error performance.

  7. A Multidisciplinary Tool for Systems Analysis of Planetary Entry, Descent, and Landing (SAPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2009-01-01

    SAPE is a Python-based multidisciplinary analysis tool for systems analysis of planetary entry, descent, and landing (EDL) for Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. The purpose of SAPE is to provide a variable-fidelity capability for conceptual and preliminary analysis within the same framework. SAPE includes the following analysis modules: geometry, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermal, thermal protection system, and structural sizing. SAPE uses the Python language-a platform-independent open-source software for integration and for the user interface. The development has relied heavily on the object-oriented programming capabilities that are available in Python. Modules are provided to interface with commercial and government off-the-shelf software components (e.g., thermal protection systems and finite-element analysis). SAPE runs on Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X and has been partially tested on Linux.

  8. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world. PMID:26121142

  9. A Comparative Analysis on Assessment of Land Carrying Capacity with Ecological Footprint Analysis and Index System Method.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yao; Tang, Lina; Qiu, Quanyi; Xu, Tong; Liao, Jiangfu

    2015-01-01

    Land carrying capacity (LCC) explains whether the local land resources are effectively used to support economic activities and/or human population. LCC can be evaluated commonly with two approaches, namely ecological footprint analysis (EFA) and the index system method (ISM). EFA is helpful to investigate the effects of different land categories whereas ISM can be used to evaluate the contributions of social, environmental, and economic factors. Here we compared the two LCC-evaluation approaches with data collected from Xiamen City, a typical region where rapid economic growth and urbanization are found in China. The results show that LCC assessments with EFA and ISM not only complement each other but also are mutually supportive. Both assessments suggest that decreases in arable land and increasingly high energy consumption have major negative effects on LCC and threaten sustainable development for Xiamen City. It is important for the local policy makers, planners and designers to reduce ecological deficits by controlling fossil energy consumption, protecting arable land and forest land from converting into other land types, and slowing down the speed of urbanization, and to promote sustainability by controlling rural-to-urban immigration, increasing hazard-free treatment rate of household garbage, and raising energy consumption per unit industrial added value. Although EFA seems more appropriate for estimating LCC for a resource-output or self-sufficient region and ISM is more suitable for a resource-input region, both approaches should be employed when perform LCC assessment in any places around the world. PMID:26121142

  10. Instrument Landing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sanders

    1973-01-01

    A historical background of instrumental approach and landing equipment for aircraft is given beginning with post-World War I efforts of J. D. Doolittle and emphasizing military-civil standardization efforts that began in 1948 and are continuing. The inadequacies of the current Instrument Landing System (ILS) are detailed and the various efforts of special committees to define an eventual replacement system are

  11. Interfacing geographic information systems and remote sensing for rural land-use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nellis, M. Duane; Lulla, Kamlesh; Jensen, John

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of remote-sensing data in GISs for rural applications. Topics addressed include sampling procedures for rural land-use analyses; GIS-based mapping of agricultural land use and productivity; remote sensing of land use and agricultural, forest, rangeland, and water resources; monitoring the dynamics of irrigation agriculture; GIS methods for detecting changes in land use over time; and the development of land-use modeling strategies.

  12. Land system change and food security: towards multi-scale land system solutions?

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Peter H; Mertz, Ole; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Wu, Wenbin

    2013-01-01

    Land system changes are central to the food security challenge. Land system science can contribute to sustainable solutions by an integrated analysis of land availability and the assessment of the tradeoffs associated with agricultural expansion and land use intensification. A land system perspective requires local studies of production systems to be contextualised in a regional and global context, while global assessments should be confronted with local realities. Understanding of land governance structures will help to support the development of land use policies and tenure systems that assist in designing more sustainable ways of intensification. Novel land systems should be designed that are adapted to the local context and framed within the global socio-ecological system. Such land systems should explicitly account for the role of land governance as a primary driver of land system change and food production. PMID:24143158

  13. Uncertainty Analysis in the Decadal Survey Era: A Hydrologic Application using the Land Information System (LIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, K.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Santanello, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Computing and algorithmic advancements are making possible a more complete accounting of errors and uncertainties in earth science modeling. Knowledge of uncertainty can be critical in many application areas and can help to guide scientific research efforts. Here, we describe a plan and progress to date for a fuller accounting of hydrologic modeling uncertainties that addresses the challenges posed by decadal survey missions. These challenges include the need to account for a wide range of error sources (e.g., model error, stochastically varying inputs, observational error, downscaling) and uncertainties (model parameters, error parameters, model selection). In addition, there is a need to incorporate into an assessment all available data, which for decadal survey missions includes the wealth of data from ground, air and satellite observing systems. Our core tool is NASA’s Land Information System (LIS), a high-resolution, high-performance, land surface modeling and data assimilation system that supports a wide range of land surface research and applications. Support for parameter and uncertainty estimation was recently incorporated into the software architecture, and to date three optimization algorithms (Levenberg-Marquardt, Genetic Algorithm, and SCE-UA) and two Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for Bayesian analysis (random walk, Differential Evolution-Monte Carlo) have been added. Results and discussion center on a case study that was the focus of Santanello et al. (2007) who demonstrated the use of remotely sensed soil moisture for hydrologic parameter estimation in the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. We contrast results from uncertainty estimation to those from parameter estimation alone. We demonstrate considerable but not complete uncertainty reduction. From this analysis, we identify remaining challenges to a more complete accounting of uncertainties.

  14. Decision analysis and risk models for land development affecting infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Thekdi, Shital A; Lambert, James H

    2012-07-01

    Coordination and layering of models to identify risks in complex systems such as large-scale infrastructure of energy, water, and transportation is of current interest across application domains. Such infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to adjacent commercial and residential land development. Land development can compromise the performance of essential infrastructure systems and increase the costs of maintaining or increasing performance. A risk-informed approach to this topic would be useful to avoid surprise, regret, and the need for costly remedies. This article develops a layering and coordination of models for risk management of land development affecting infrastructure systems. The layers are: system identification, expert elicitation, predictive modeling, comparison of investment alternatives, and implications of current decisions for future options. The modeling layers share a focus on observable factors that most contribute to volatility of land development and land use. The relevant data and expert evidence include current and forecasted growth in population and employment, conservation and preservation rules, land topography and geometries, real estate assessments, market and economic conditions, and other factors. The approach integrates to a decision framework of strategic considerations based on assessing risk, cost, and opportunity in order to prioritize needs and potential remedies that mitigate impacts of land development to the infrastructure systems. The approach is demonstrated for a 5,700-mile multimodal transportation system adjacent to 60,000 tracts of potential land development. PMID:22050390

  15. Study of USGS/NASA land use classification system. [computer analysis from LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a computer mapping project using LANDSAT data and the USGS/NASA land use classification system are summarized. During the computer mapping portion of the project, accuracies of 67 percent to 79 percent were achieved using Level II of the classification system and a 4,000 acre test site centered on Douglasville, Georgia. Analysis of response to a questionaire circulated to actual and potential LANDSAT data users reveals several important findings: (1) there is a substantial desire for additional information related to LANDSAT capabilities; (2) a majority of the respondents feel computer mapping from LANDSAT data could aid present or future projects; and (3) the costs of computer mapping are substantially less than those of other methods.

  16. Revised Land Use Characteristic Dataset for Asia and Southwest Asia for the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Walker; K. Richardson; D. L. Westphal

    2002-01-01

    Presently, the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) uses the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) land use characteristic dataset to determine global dust emission areas. The USGS dataset was developed from Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer 1-km data from April 1992 to March 1993. In the past decade drastic changes in land and water use in Asia and Southwest Asia have

  17. LandCaRe DSS--an interactive decision support system for climate change impact assessment and the analysis of potential agricultural land use adaptation strategies.

    PubMed

    Wenkel, Karl-Otto; Berg, Michael; Mirschel, Wilfried; Wieland, Ralf; Nendel, Claas; Köstner, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Decision support to develop viable climate change adaptation strategies for agriculture and regional land use management encompasses a wide range of options and issues. Up to now, only a few suitable tools and methods have existed for farmers and regional stakeholders that support the process of decision-making in this field. The interactive model-based spatial information and decision support system LandCaRe DSS attempts to close the existing methodical gap. This system supports interactive spatial scenario simulations, multi-ensemble and multi-model simulations at the regional scale, as well as the complex impact assessment of potential land use adaptation strategies at the local scale. The system is connected to a local geo-database and via the internet to a climate data server. LandCaRe DSS uses a multitude of scale-specific ecological impact models, which are linked in various ways. At the local scale (farm scale), biophysical models are directly coupled with a farm economy calculator. New or alternative simulation models can easily be added, thanks to the innovative architecture and design of the DSS. Scenario simulations can be conducted with a reasonable amount of effort. The interactive LandCaRe DSS prototype also offers a variety of data analysis and visualisation tools, a help system for users and a farmer information system for climate adaptation in agriculture. This paper presents the theoretical background, the conceptual framework, and the structure and methodology behind LandCaRe DSS. Scenario studies at the regional and local scale for the two Eastern German regions of Uckermark (dry lowlands, 2600 km(2)) and Weißeritz (humid mountain area, 400 km(2)) were conducted in close cooperation with stakeholders to test the functionality of the DSS prototype. The system is gradually being transformed into a web version (http://www.landcare-dss.de) to ensure the broadest possible distribution of LandCaRe DSS to the public. The system will be continuously developed, updated and used in different research projects and as a learning and knowledge-sharing tool for students. The main objective of LandCaRe DSS is to provide information on the complex long-term impacts of climate change and on potential management options for adaptation by answering "what-if" type questions. PMID:23582740

  18. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars has been undertaken. Problem areas receiving attention include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. The following specific tasks have been under study: vehicle model design, mathematical modeling of a dynamic vehicle, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electromechanical controls, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer sybsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, chromatograph model evaluation and improvement.

  19. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1972-01-01

    The problems related to the design and control of a mobile planetary vehicle to implement a systematic plan for the exploration of Mars were investigated. Problem areas receiving attention include: vehicle configuration, control, dynamics, systems and propulsion; systems analysis; navigation, terrain modeling and path selection; and chemical analysis of specimens. The following specific tasks were studied: vehicle model design, mathematical modeling of dynamic vehicle, experimental vehicle dynamics, obstacle negotiation, electromechanical controls, collapsibility and deployment, construction of a wheel tester, wheel analysis, payload design, system design optimization, effect of design assumptions, accessory optimal design, on-board computer subsystem, laser range measurement, discrete obstacle detection, obstacle detection systems, terrain modeling, path selection system simulation and evaluation, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system concepts, chromatograph model evaluation and improvement and transport parameter evaluation.

  20. Parametric Mass Modeling for Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System Analysis Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.; Komar, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the parametric mass models used for the Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems Analysis study conducted by NASA in FY2009-2010. The study examined eight unique exploration class architectures that included elements such as a rigid mid-L/D aeroshell, a lifting hypersonic inflatable decelerator, a drag supersonic inflatable decelerator, a lifting supersonic inflatable decelerator implemented with a skirt, and subsonic/supersonic retro-propulsion. Parametric models used in this study relate the component mass to vehicle dimensions and mission key environmental parameters such as maximum deceleration and total heat load. The use of a parametric mass model allows the simultaneous optimization of trajectory and mass sizing parameters.

  1. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  2. Guidance and Control Algorithms for the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jody L.; CwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) study was to identify feasible technologies that will enable human exploration of Mars, specifically to deliver large payloads to the Martian surface. This paper focuses on the methods used to guide and control two of the contending technologies, a mid- lift-to-drag (L/D) rigid aeroshell and a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD), through the entry portion of the trajectory. The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) is used to simulate and analyze the trajectories of the contending technologies and guidance and control algorithms. Three guidance algorithms are discussed in this paper: EDL theoretical guidance, Numerical Predictor-Corrector (NPC) guidance and Analytical Predictor-Corrector (APC) guidance. EDL-SA also considered two forms of control: bank angle control, similar to that used by Apollo and the Space Shuttle, and a center-of-gravity (CG) offset control. This paper presents the performance comparison of these guidance algorithms and summarizes the results as they impact the technology recommendations for future study.

  3. Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS): Lessons Learned from Technology Infusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, J.; Rao, A.; Gao, F.; Davis, P.; Jackson, G.; Huang, C.; Weinstein, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS) combines grid technology, existing science modules, and dynamic workflows to enable users to complete advanced land data processing on data available from local and distributed archives. Changes in land cover represent a direct link between human activities and the global environment, and in turn affect Earth's climate. Thus characterizing land cover change has become a major goal for Earth observation science. Many science algorithms exist to generate new products (e.g., surface reflectance, change detection) used to study land cover change. The overall objective of the LC-ComPS is to release a set of tools and services to the land science community that can be implemented as a flexible LC-ComPS to produce surface reflectance and land-cover change information with ground resolution on the order of Landsat-class instruments. This package includes software modules for pre-processing Landsat-type satellite imagery (calibration, atmospheric correction, orthorectification, precision registration, BRDF correction) for performing land-cover change analysis and includes pre-built workflow chains to automatically generate surface reflectance and land-cover change products based on user input. In order to meet the project objectives, the team created the infrastructure (i.e., client-server system with graphical and machine interfaces) to expand the use of these existing science algorithm capabilities in a community with distributed, large data archives and processing centers. Because of the distributed nature of the user community, grid technology was chosen to unite the dispersed community resources. At that time, grid computing was not used consistently and operationally within the Earth science research community. Therefore, there was a learning curve to configure and implement the underlying public key infrastructure (PKI) interfaces, required for the user authentication, secure file transfer and remote job execution on the grid network of machines. In addition, science support was needed to vet that the grid technology did not have any adverse affects of the science module outputs. Other open source, unproven technologies, such as a workflow package to manage jobs submitted by the user, were infused into the overall system with successful results. This presentation will discuss the basic capabilities of LC-ComPS, explain how the technology was infused, and provide lessons learned for using and integrating the various technologies while developing and operating the system, and finally outline plans moving forward (maintenance and operations decisions) based on the experience to date.

  4. Variational sensitivity analysis and data assimilation studies of the coupled land surface-atmospheric boundary layer system

    E-print Network

    Margulis, Steven A. (Steven Adam), 1973-

    2002-01-01

    One of the fundamental components of Earth system science is understanding coupled land-atmosphere processes. The land plays an especially important role in the climate system principally via the regulation of surface ...

  5. Analysis and design of a capsule landing system and surface vehicle control system for Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, D. K.; Lashmet, P. K.; Moyer, W. R.; Sandor, G. N.; Shen, C. N.; Smith, E. J.; Yerazunis, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    The following tasks related to the design, construction, and evaluation of a mobile planetary vehicle for unmanned exploration of Mars are discussed: (1) design and construction of a 0.5 scale dynamic vehicle; (2) mathematical modeling of vehicle dynamics; (3) experimental 0.4 scale vehicle dynamics measurements and interpretation; (4) vehicle electro-mechanical control systems; (5) remote control systems; (6) collapsibility and deployment concepts and hardware; (7) design, construction and evaluation of a wheel with increased lateral stiffness, (8) system design optimization; (9) design of an on-board computer; (10) design and construction of a laser range finder; (11) measurement of reflectivity of terrain surfaces; (12) obstacle perception by edge detection; (13) terrain modeling based on gradients; (14) laser scan systems; (15) path selection system simulation and evaluation; (16) gas chromatograph system concepts; (17) experimental chromatograph separation measurements and chromatograph model improvement and evaluation.

  6. Analysis of Multiple Precipitation Products and Preliminary Assessment of Their Impact on Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Land Surface States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottschalck, Jon; Meng, Jesse; Rodel, Matt; Houser, paul

    2005-01-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are computer programs, similar to weather and climate prediction models, which simulate the stocks and fluxes of water (including soil moisture, snow, evaporation, and runoff) and energy (including the temperature of and sensible heat released from the soil) after they arrive on the land surface as precipitation and sunlight. It is not currently possible to measure all of the variables of interest everywhere on Earth with sufficient accuracy and space-time resolution. Hence LSMs have been developed to integrate the available observations with our understanding of the physical processes involved, using powerful computers, in order to map these stocks and fluxes as they change in time. The maps are used to improve weather forecasts, support water resources and agricultural applications, and study the Earth's water cycle and climate variability. NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) project facilitates testing of several different LSMs with a variety of input datasets (e.g., precipitation, plant type). Precipitation is arguably the most important input to LSMs. Many precipitation datasets have been produced using satellite and rain gauge observations and weather forecast models. In this study, seven different global precipitation datasets were evaluated over the United States, where dense rain gauge networks contribute to reliable precipitation maps. We then used the seven datasets as inputs to GLDAS simulations, so that we could diagnose their impacts on output stocks and fluxes of water. In terms of totals, the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) had the closest agreement with the US rain gauge dataset for all seasons except winter. The CMAP precipitation was also the most closely correlated in time with the rain gauge data during spring, fall, and winter, while the satellitebased estimates performed best in summer. The GLDAS simulations revealed that modeled soil moisture is highly sensitive to precipitation, with differences in spring and summer as large as 45% depending on the choice of precipitation input.

  7. Sensitivity Analysis of Land Unit Suitability for Conservation Using a Knowledge-Based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, Hope C.; Bourgeron, Patrick S.; Reynolds, Keith M.

    2010-08-01

    The availability of spatially continuous data layers can have a strong impact on selection of land units for conservation purposes. The suitability of ecological conditions for sustaining the targets of conservation is an important consideration in evaluating candidate conservation sites. We constructed two fuzzy logic-based knowledge bases to determine the conservation suitability of land units in the interior Columbia River basin using NetWeaver software in the Ecosystem Management Decision Support application framework. Our objective was to assess the sensitivity of suitability ratings, derived from evaluating the knowledge bases, to fuzzy logic function parameters and to the removal of data layers (land use condition, road density, disturbance regime change index, vegetation change index, land unit size, cover type size, and cover type change index). The amount and geographic distribution of suitable land polygons was most strongly altered by the removal of land use condition, road density, and land polygon size. Removal of land use condition changed suitability primarily on private or intensively-used public land. Removal of either road density or land polygon size most strongly affected suitability on higher-elevation US Forest Service land containing small-area biophysical environments. Data layers with the greatest influence differed in rank between the two knowledge bases. Our results reinforce the importance of including both biophysical and socio-economic attributes to determine the suitability of land units for conservation. The sensitivity tests provided information about knowledge base structuring and parameterization as well as prioritization for future data needs.

  8. Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Todling, Ricardo; Verter, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In an initial investigation, remotely sensed surface temperature is assimilated into a coupled atmosphere/land global data assimilation system, with explicit accounting for biases in the model state. In this scheme, an incremental bias correction term is introduced in the model's surface energy budget. In its simplest form, the algorithm estimates and corrects a constant time mean bias for each gridpoint; additional benefits are attained with a refined version of the algorithm which allows for a correction of the mean diurnal cycle. The method is validated against the assimilated observations, as well as independent near-surface air temperature observations. In many regions, not accounting for the diurnal cycle of bias caused degradation of the diurnal amplitude of background model air temperature. Energy fluxes collected through the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) are used to more closely inspect the surface energy budget. In general, sensible heat flux is improved with the surface temperature assimilation, and two stations show a reduction of bias by as much as 30 Wm(sup -2) Rondonia station in Amazonia, the Bowen ratio changes direction in an improvement related to the temperature assimilation. However, at many stations the monthly latent heat flux bias is slightly increased. These results show the impact of univariate assimilation of surface temperature observations on the surface energy budget, and suggest the need for multivariate land data assimilation. The results also show the need for independent validation data, especially flux stations in varied climate regimes.

  9. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  10. Revised Land Use Characteristic Dataset for Asia and Southwest Asia for the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. L.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Presently, the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) uses the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) land use characteristic dataset to determine global dust emission areas. The USGS dataset was developed from Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer 1-km data from April 1992 to March 1993. In the past decade drastic changes in land and water use in Asia and Southwest Asia have quickly outdated this dataset. In China and Mongolia, age-old practices of farming and animal husbandry have been abandoned. Herders have too many animals in one location allowing the grassland to be eaten away and leaving vast areas of topsoil exposed and primed for removal by the wind. In the case of Southwest Asia, a four-year drought is in progress. Many of the wetlands and marshes in the river deltas are drying up from the lack of water runoff. To compound the problem several new dams were and are being built along the major watersheds. In particular, Iraq's dam building in the 1990's and politically driven draining of the Mesopotamian marshes between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers has lead to the near disappearance of this historical marshland. To incorporate these changes we are updating the USGS land use characteristic dataset using GIS-like software named ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images), 1 km National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global topographical data, satellite imagery, and recently released governmental maps and reports. (For example, within the last two years the Chinese and Mongolian governments have released land degradation and desertification maps to satisfy the requirements set forth by United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification.) The steps taken to create the new land use characteristic database will be described in detail. Before (non-dust producing areas) and after (dust producing areas) examples will be shown.

  11. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  12. Guidance and control for lunar landing system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shohei Niwa; Masayuki Suzuki; Jun Zhou; Takahiro Kawasaki; Shunichiro Nakai; Kazuyuki Higashino

    1992-01-01

    Fundamental considerations on guidance and control problems are presented for the lunar landing system which will be developed in Japan in several years. The guidance and control system for the lunar landing system includes functions such as attitude and position control during descent, searching for optimum landing position, guidance to the landing position, and deceleration control for soft landing. Fundamental

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Land Unit Suitability for Conservation Using a Knowledge-Based System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hope C. Humphries; Patrick S. Bourgeron; Keith M. Reynolds

    2010-01-01

    The availability of spatially continuous data layers can have a strong impact on selection of land units for conservation purposes. The suitability of ecological conditions for sustaining the targets of conservation is an important consideration in evaluating candidate conservation sites. We constructed two fuzzy logic-based knowledge bases to determine the conservation suitability of land units in the interior Columbia River

  14. Agricultural drought analysis and famine early warning with the FEWS NET land data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Global and regional changes related to water resources and agriculture affect food and fresh water security. To mitigate and adapt to these changes it is important to quantify how climate variability and change has impacted agricultural production and water resources. This research examines trends in supply and demand for moisture availability in rain-fed agro-pastoral regions. With a focus on the Sahel region of Africa we ask the following two questions: (1) Do land surface models, forced with remotely sensed data, detect the spatio-temporal patterns of agricultural drought over the past 30 years? (2) How have these trends impacted agricultural productivity and food security? To explore implications of hydro-climatic (e.g. precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET)) change on agriculture, we use the Famine Early Warning Systems Network Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS) forced with rainfall from the University of California Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Infrared-Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset (1981-present) and 10 km meteorological data (wind, temperature, radiation, humidity) from Cheney and Sheffield, released in 2012, for continental Africa north of 10S (1979-2008). We examine trends in model outputs (e.g. soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET)), as well as composite indices, such at the evapotranspiration-rainfall ratio and water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI). We compare these results to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and microwave soil moisture. Finally, we examine how the different model outputs and composite indices relate to reported trends in agricultural production. Preliminary results show that the FLDAS Noah3.2 and geoWRSI models accurately estimate near surface (0-40cm) soil moisture anomalies as defined by microwave and in-situ observations across the Sahel. With respect to ET, the literature reports that vegetation biomass, as indicated by NDVI, has increased in conjunction with rainfall (i.e. ';re-greening' of the Sahel). However, at least one study has reported a downward trend in modeled ET in the Sahel. Preliminary results indicate that the spatial and temporal patterns of transpiration in Noah3.2 and geoWRSI are highly sensitive to their respective vegetation parameterizations. Our model runs explore the timing and magnitude of ';crop' vegetation parameters, such as LAI and green vegetation fraction, to assess agricultural drought trends and confirm findings from previous work.

  15. Dual Heat Pulse, Dual Layer Thermal Protection System Sizing Analysis and Trade Studies for Human Mars Entry Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Mary Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been recently updating design reference missions for the human exploration of Mars and evaluating the technology investments required to do so. The first of these started in January 2007 and developed the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA5). As part of DRA5, Thermal Protection System (TPS) sizing analysis was performed on a mid L/D rigid aeroshell undergoing a dual heat pulse (aerocapture and atmospheric entry) trajectory. The DRA5 TPS subteam determined that using traditional monolithic ablator systems would be mass expensive. They proposed a new dual-layer TPS concept utilizing an ablator atop a low thermal conductivity insulative substrate to address the issue. Using existing thermal response models for an ablator and insulative tile, preliminary hand analysis of the dual layer concept at a few key heating points indicated that the concept showed potential to reduce TPS masses and warranted further study. In FY09, the followon Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) project continued by focusing on Exploration-class cargo or crewed missions requiring 10 to 50 metric tons of landed payload. The TPS subteam advanced the preliminary dual-layer TPS analysis by developing a new process and updated TPS sizing code to rapidly evaluate mass-optimized, full body sizing for a dual layer TPS that is capable of dual heat pulse performance. This paper describes the process and presents the results of the EDL-SA FY09 dual-layer TPS analyses on the rigid mid L/D aeroshell. Additionally, several trade studies were conducted with the sizing code to evaluate the impact of various design factors, assumptions and margins.

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Land Unit Suitability for Conservation Using a Knowledge-Based System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hope C. HumphriesPatrick; Patrick S. Bourgeron; Keith M. Reynolds

    2010-01-01

    The availability of spatially continuous data layers can have a strong impact on selection of land units for conservation\\u000a purposes. The suitability of ecological conditions for sustaining the targets of conservation is an important consideration\\u000a in evaluating candidate conservation sites. We constructed two fuzzy logic-based knowledge bases to determine the conservation\\u000a suitability of land units in the interior Columbia River

  17. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  18. Land Surface Analysis and Reanalysis

    E-print Network

    on Reanalyses Silver Spring, MD, May 9, 2012 #12;Outline Introduction MERRA-Land · Motivation and data product is often called "LDAS" Example: The MERRA-Land data product http://gmao.gsfc.nasa.gov/research/merra/merra

  19. LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Binford, Michael W.

    FLORIDA LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM HANDBOOK JANUARY 1999 DEPARTMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SURVEYING AND MAPPING OFFICE GEOGRPAHIC MAPPING LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM ABOUT THIS EDITION: This is an updated FLORIDA LAND USE

  20. Testing Microwave Landing Systems With Satellite Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Less time and equipment needed to perform tests. Satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measures accuracy of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at airports used to support Shuttle landings. Provides time and three-dimensional information on position and velocity with unprecedented accuracy. Useful for testing other electronic navigation aids like LORAN, TACAN and microwave landing systems (MLS).

  1. Scaling the land use system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kok

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use\\/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity through deforestation or soil degradation through unsustainable land use, increasing importance is given to the

  2. Land mobile satellite demonstration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooch, Guy M.; Nicholas, David C.

    1988-01-01

    A land mobile satellite demonstration system is described. It ulilizes the INMARSAT MARECS B2 satellite at 26 degrees W. The system provides data transmission using a poll-response protocol with error detection and retransmission at 200 b/s rate. For most tests a 1.8 inch monopole antenna was used, along with a satellite EIRP normally used for four voice channels. A brief summary of the results are given and the overall system consisting of three elements in addition to the satellite (the mobile unit, the base station, and the office terminal and map display) is described. Throughput statistics from one trip are summarized.

  3. Static error budget analysis for a land-based dual-camera mobile mapping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiann-Yeou Rau; Liang-Chien Chen; Cheng-Chang Hsieh; Ting-Ming Huang

    2011-01-01

    A mobile mapping system (MMS) is developed based on a direct sensor orientation technique that integrates GPS\\/inertial measurement unit (IMU) and digital cameras. This system is capable of directly mapping geospatial information without the requirement of ground control. In this article, an MMS composed of two digital single-lens reflex cameras and an Applanix POS AV-510 is described. There are several

  4. Analysis of Landing-Gear Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milwitzky, Benjamin; Cook, Francis E

    1953-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical study of the behavior of the conventional type of oleo-pneumatic landing gear during the process of landing impact. The basic analysis is presented in a general form and treats the motions of the landing gear prior to and subsequent to the beginning of shock-strut deflection. The applicability of the analysis to actual landing gears has been investigated for the particular case of a vertical landing gear in the absence of drag loads by comparing calculated results with experimental drop-test data for impacts with and without tire bottoming. The calculated behavior of the landing gear was found to be in good agreement with the drop-test data.

  5. Crew Office Evaluation of a Precision Lunar Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Laura M.; Duda, Kevin R.; Hirsh, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A representative Human System Interface for a precision lunar landing system, ALHAT, has been developed as a platform for prototype visualization and interaction concepts. This facilitates analysis of crew interaction with advanced sensors and AGNC systems. Human-in-the-loop evaluations with representatives from the Crew Office (i.e. astronauts) and Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) were performed to refine the crew role and information requirements during the final phases of landing. The results include a number of lessons learned from Shuttle that are applicable to the design of a human supervisory landing system and cockpit. Overall, the results provide a first order analysis of the tasks the crew will perform during lunar landing, an architecture for the Human System Interface based on these tasks, as well as details on the information needs to land safely.

  6. A Lunar Landing Guidance System for Soft-Precision Landings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Vaeth; M. D. Sarles

    1964-01-01

    A logical development of a novel, minimum-complexity guidance system for precise and soft lunar landing is presented together with an evaluation of predominant error sensitivities. Selection of this minimum-complexity system is influenced by its ability to handle a wide range of initial condition, sensor, propulsion and control system errors with minimum fuel and accuracy penalty. The trajectory control technique allows

  7. Mars Landing Site Analysis Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian Hynek

    Brian Hynek, University of Colorado Summary Students use recent data acquired from Mars orbiters to assess the safety and scientific value of various proposed landing sites for a future Mars lander. Context Type ...

  8. Sensitivity Analysis in Agent-Based Models of Socio-Ecological Systems: An Example in Agricultural Land Conservation for Lake Water Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligmann-Zielinska, A.; Kramer, D. B.; Spence Cheruvelil, K.; Soranno, P.

    2012-12-01

    Socio-ecological systems are dynamic and nonlinear. To account for this complexity, we employ agent-based models (ABMs) to study macro-scale phenomena resulting from micro-scale interactions among system components. Because ABMs typically have many parameters, it is challenging to identify which parameters contribute to the emerging macro-scale patterns. In this paper, we address the following question: What is the extent of participation in agricultural land conservation programs given heterogeneous landscape, economic, social, and individual decision making criteria in complex lakesheds? To answer this question, we: [1] built an ABM for our model system; [2] simulated land use change resulting from agent decision making, [3] estimated the uncertainty of the model output, decomposed it and apportioned it to each of the parameters in the model. Our model system is a freshwater socio-ecological system - that of farmland and lake water quality within a region containing a large number of lakes and high proportions of agricultural lands. Our study focuses on examining how agricultural land conversion from active to fallow reduces freshwater nutrient loading and improves water quality. Consequently, our ABM is composed of farmer agents who make decisions related to participation in a government-sponsored Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) managed by the Farm Service Agency (FSA). We also include an FSA agent, who selects enrollment offers made by farmers and announces the signup results leading to land use change. The model is executed in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to generate a distribution of maps of fallow lands that are used for calculating nutrient loading to lakes. What follows is a variance-based sensitivity analysis of the results. We compute sensitivity indices for individual parameters and their combinations, allowing for identification of the most influential as well as the insignificant inputs. In the case study, we observe that farmland conservation is first and foremost driven by the FSA signup choices. Environmental criteria used in FSA offer selection play a secondary role in farmland-to-fallow-land conversion. Farmer decision making is mainly influenced by the willingness to reduce the potential annual rental payments. As the case study demonstrates, our approach leads to ABM simplification without the loss of outcome variability. It also shows how to represent the magnitude of ABM complexity and isolate the effects of the interconnected explanatory variables on the simulated emergent phenomena. More importantly, the results of our research indicate that some of the parameters exert influence on model outcomes only if analyzed in combination with other parameters. Without evaluating the interaction effects among inputs, we risk losing important functional relationships among ABM components and, consequently, we potentially reduce its explanatory power.

  9. Edwards plateau: Analysis of land cover trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, B.A.; Hester, D.J.; Casey, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends project studies the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) change in land use and land cover in the United States on an ecoregional basis. The Edwards Plateau ecoregion is the focus of this report. Landsat imagery from five dates during a nearly 30-year period are interpreted for randomly selected sample blocks. The resulting data provide the foundation for estimating change. Along with the image analysis, site visits to 90% of the sampled areas, geographical profiles, and socioeconomic data for the ecoregion are synthesized to assess regional driving forces and consequences of change. Complete project methodology can be found in Loveland et al [1].

  10. A visual navigation system for autonomous land vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALLEN M. WAXMAN; JACQUELINE J. LEMOIGNE; LARRY S. DAVIS; BABU SRINIVASAN; TODD R. KUSHNER; Eli Liang; THARAKESH SIDDALINGAIAH

    1987-01-01

    A modular system architecture has been developed to support visual navigation by an autonomous land vehicle. The system consists of vision modules performing image processing, three-dimensional shape recovery, and geometric reasoning, as well as modules for planning, navigating, and piloting. The system runs in two distinct modes, bootstrap and feedforward. The bootstrap mode requires analysis of entire images to find

  11. International Symposium on Urban Land Policies and Land Use Systems Center for Urban Studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 International Symposium on Urban Land Policies and Land Use Systems Center for Urban Studies original land-use tools, such as the Legal Density Ceiling, a kind of land tax that the Brazilian. Furthermore, the strong land-use control policy enforced after the second World War in France has enabled

  12. ELVIS: Eigenvectors for Land Vehicle Image System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Hancock; Charles E. Thorpe

    1995-01-01

    ELVIS (Eigenvectors for Land Vehicle Image System) is a road-following system designed to drive the CMU Navlabs. It is based on ALVINN, the neural network road-following system built by Dean Pomerleau at CMU. ELVIS is an attempt to more fully understand ALVINN and to determine whether it is possible to design a system that can rival ALVINN using the same

  13. Crew procedures for microwave landing system operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Leland G.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify crew procedures involved in Microwave Landing System (MLS) operations and to obtain a preliminary assessment of crew workload. The crew procedures were identified for three different complements of airborne equipment coupled to an autopilot. Using these three equipment complements, crew tasks were identified for MLS approaches and precision departures and compared to an ILS approach and a normal departure. Workload comparisons between the approaches and departures were made by using a task-timeline analysis program that obtained workload indexes, i.e., the radio of time required to complete the tasks to the time available. The results showed an increase in workload for the MLS scenario for one of the equipment complements. However, even this workload was within the capacity of two crew members.

  14. Analysis of MOLA data for the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Scott Anderson; Albert F. C. Haldemann; Nathan T. Bridges; Matthew P. Golombek; Timothy J. Parker; Gregory Neumann

    2003-01-01

    We have used Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data to demonstrate that selected landing sites meet the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing system topography and slope requirements at hectometer and kilometer scales. To provide a comprehensive analysis, we constrained slopes within each landing ellipse using four approaches: (1) measurements of local slopes at 1.2 km length scales using both an

  15. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours

  16. Trading Land Development Rights under a Planned Land Use System: The “Zhejiang Model”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Wang; Ran Tao; Juer Tong

    2009-01-01

    AbstractChina's state planned land use system, including regulations such as setting planned quotas for land use, basic cropland preservation, and pursuing a balance between the conversion of arable land into non-agricultural use and the supplement of new agricultural land, has substantially constrained the economic growth of industrial provinces in China. This article explores the innovative reforms adopted by Zhejiang Province

  17. Estimating Evapotranspiration with Land Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S. V.; Mocko, D. M.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in both land surface models (LSM) and land surface data assimilation, especially over the last decade, have substantially advanced the ability of land data assimilation systems (LDAS) to estimate evapotranspiration (ET). This article provides a historical perspective on international LSM intercomparison efforts and the development of LDAS systems, both of which have improved LSM ET skill. In addition, an assessment of ET estimates for current LDAS systems is provided along with current research that demonstrates improvement in LSM ET estimates due to assimilating satellite-based soil moisture products. Using the Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System, we assimilate both NASA and Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) soil moisture products into the Noah LSM Version 3.2 with the North American LDAS phase 2 (NLDAS-2) forcing to mimic the NLDAS-2 configuration. Through comparisons with two global reference ET products, one based on interpolated flux tower data and one from a new satellite ET algorithm, over the NLDAS2 domain, we demonstrate improvement in ET estimates only when assimilating the LPRM soil moisture product.

  18. Research priorities in land use and land-cover change for the Earth system and integrated assessment modelling

    E-print Network

    Hibbard, Kathy; Janetos, Anthony; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Pongtatz, Julia; Rose, Steven K.; Betts, Richard; Herold, Martin; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2010-01-01

    ). Copyright ? 2010 Royal Meteorological Society and Crown Copyright. KEY WORDS land use; land cover; Earth system models; integrated assessment models; research priorities Received 12 January 2009; Revised 9 March 2010; Accepted 14 March 2010 1. Introduction 1... biogeophysical, socio- economic and human decision-making perspectives. The Earth System Modeling (ESM) and the Integrated Assessment Modeling (IAM) communities play an impor- tant role in understanding and quantifying Earth system analysis and, specifically...

  19. Biofuels, land and water : a systems approach to sustainability.

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Snyder, S. W.; LaFreniere, L.

    2009-08-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially because of the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Sustainability will be a strong factor in the regulatory environment and investments in biofuels. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social, and economic impacts from biofuels. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy, and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. We focus on efficient use of land and water resources. We conducted a spatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration for the state of Nebraska. Results indicate that utilizing marginal land resources such as riparian and roadway buffer strips, brownfield sites, and marginal agricultural land could produce enough feedstocks to meet a maximum of 22% of the energy requirements of the state compared to the current supply of 2%. Degraded water resources such as nitrate-contaminated groundwater and wastewater were evaluated as sources of nutrients and water to improve feedstock productivity. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 96% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands. Other benefits of implementing this strategy include feedstock intensification to decrease biomass transportation costs, restoration of contaminated water resources, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Spectroradiometric considerations for advanced land observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1986-01-01

    Research aimed at improving the inflight absolute radiometric calibration of advanced land observing systems was initiated. Emphasis was on the satellite sensor calibration program at White Sands. Topics addressed include: absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing; atmospheric effects on reflected radiation; inflight radiometric calibration; field radiometric methods for reflectance and atmospheric measurement; and calibration of field relectance radiometers.

  1. Feasibility Analysis of Aircraft Landing Scheduling for Non-Controlled Airports

    E-print Network

    Valasek, John

    Feasibility Analysis of Aircraft Landing Scheduling for Non-Controlled Airports AIAA-2004 airports Air traffic control automation system development Trajectory analysis Aircraft landing scheduling aircraft scheduling will become the key operational issue at non-controlled airports as the operation

  2. GIS Toolsets for Planetary Geomorphology and Landing-Site Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Modern Geographic Information Systems (GIS) allow expert and lay users alike to load and position geographic data and perform simple to highly complex surface analyses. For many applications dedicated and ready-to-use GIS tools are available in standard software systems while other applications require the modular combination of available basic tools to answer more specific questions. This also applies to analyses in modern planetary geomorphology where many of such (basic) tools can be used to build complex analysis tools, e.g. in image- and terrain model analysis. Apart from the simple application of sets of different tools, many complex tasks require a more sophisticated design for storing and accessing data using databases (e.g. ArcHydro for hydrological data analysis). In planetary sciences, complex database-driven models are often required to efficiently analyse potential landings sites or store rover data, but also geologic mapping data can be efficiently stored and accessed using database models rather than stand-alone shapefiles. For landings-site analyses, relief and surface roughness estimates are two common concepts that are of particular interest and for both, a number of different definitions co-exist. We here present an advanced toolset for the analysis of image and terrain-model data with an emphasis on extraction of landing site characteristics using established criteria. We provide working examples and particularly focus on the concepts of terrain roughness as it is interpreted in geomorphology and engineering studies.

  3. A land mobile satellite data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, John D. B.

    1990-01-01

    The Telesat Mobile Incorporated (TMI) Mobile Data System (MDS) was developed to apply satellite technology to the transportation industry's requirement for a fleet management system. It will provide two-way messaging and automatic position reporting capabilities between dispatch centers and customers' fleets of trucks. The design was based on the Inmarsat L-Band space segment with system link parameters and margins adjusted to meet the land mobile satellite channel characteristics. The system interfaces with the Teleglobe Des Laurentides earth station at Weir, Quebec. The signaling protocols were derived from the Inmarsat Standard C packet signalling system with unique trucking requirements incorporated where necessary.

  4. Safer approaches and landings: A multivariate analysis of critical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Durwood J.

    The approach-and-landing phases of flight represent 27% of mission time while resulting in 61 of the accidents and 39% of the fatalities. The landing phase itself represents only 1% of flight time but claims 45% of the accidents. Inadequate crew situation awareness (SA), crew resource management (CRM), and crew decision-making (DM) have been implicated in 51%, 63%, and 73% respectively of these accidents. The human factors constructs of SA, CRM, and DM were explored; a comprehensive definition of SA was proposed; and a "proactive defense" safety strategy was recommended. Data from a 1997 analysis of worldwide fatal accidents by the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Approach-and-Landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force was used to isolate crew- and weather-related causal factors that lead to approach-and-landing accidents (ALAs). Logistic regression and decision tree analysis were used on samplings of NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident records ("near misses") and the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) accident reports to examine hypotheses regarding factors and factor combinations that can dramatically increase the opportunity for accidents. An effective scale of risk factors was introduced for use by crews to proactively counter safety-related error-chain situations.

  5. Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with a Passive Landing System for Impact Alleviation. An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of a reentry vehicle using a passive landing system to alleviate the landing-impact loads. The passive landing system consisted of a flexible heat shield with a small section of aluminum honeycomb placed between the heat shield and the crew compartment at the point that would be the first to contact the landing surface. The model was landed on concrete and sand landing surfaces at parachute letdown velocities. The investigations simulated a vertical velocity of 30 ft/sec (full scale), horizontal velocities of 0, 15, 30, 40, and 50 ft/sec (full scale), and landing attitudes ranging from -30 degrees to 20 degrees. The model investigation indicated that stable landings could be made on a concrete surface at horizontal velocities up to about 30 ft/sec, but the stable landing-attitude range at these speeds was small. The aluminum honeycomb bottomed occasionally during landings on concrete. When bottoming did not occur, maximum normal and longitudinal accelerations at the center of gravity of the vehicle were approximately 50g and 30g, respectively. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030981. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  6. Spatiotemporal analysis of land use and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guiying; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of land use and land cover (LULC) changes among three study areas with different biophysical environments in the Brazilian Amazon at multiple scales, from per-pixel, polygon, census sector, to study area. Landsat images acquired in the years of 1990/1991, 1999/2000, and 2008/2010 were used to examine LULC change trajectories with the post-classification comparison approach. A classification system composed of six classes – forest, savanna, other-vegetation (secondary succession and plantations), agro-pasture, impervious surface, and water, was designed for this study. A hierarchical-based classification method was used to classify Landsat images into thematic maps. This research shows different spatiotemporal change patterns, composition and rates among the three study areas and indicates the importance of analyzing LULC change at multiple scales. The LULC change analysis over time for entire study areas provides an overall picture of change trends, but detailed change trajectories and their spatial distributions can be better examined at a per-pixel scale. The LULC change at the polygon scale provides the information of the changes in patch sizes over time, while the LULC change at census sector scale gives new insights on how human-induced activities (e.g., urban expansion, roads, and land use history) affect LULC change patterns and rates. This research indicates the necessity to implement change detection at multiple scales for better understanding the mechanisms of LULC change patterns and rates. PMID:24127130

  7. Spatiotemporal analysis of land use and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dengsheng; Li, Guiying; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of land use and land cover (LULC) changes among three study areas with different biophysical environments in the Brazilian Amazon at multiple scales, from per-pixel, polygon, census sector, to study area. Landsat images acquired in the years of 1990/1991, 1999/2000, and 2008/2010 were used to examine LULC change trajectories with the post-classification comparison approach. A classification system composed of six classes - forest, savanna, other-vegetation (secondary succession and plantations), agro-pasture, impervious surface, and water, was designed for this study. A hierarchical-based classification method was used to classify Landsat images into thematic maps. This research shows different spatiotemporal change patterns, composition and rates among the three study areas and indicates the importance of analyzing LULC change at multiple scales. The LULC change analysis over time for entire study areas provides an overall picture of change trends, but detailed change trajectories and their spatial distributions can be better examined at a per-pixel scale. The LULC change at the polygon scale provides the information of the changes in patch sizes over time, while the LULC change at census sector scale gives new insights on how human-induced activities (e.g., urban expansion, roads, and land use history) affect LULC change patterns and rates. This research indicates the necessity to implement change detection at multiple scales for better understanding the mechanisms of LULC change patterns and rates. PMID:24127130

  8. Regional Analysis of Energy, Water, Land and Climate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Averyt, K.; Harriss, R. C.; Hibbard, K. A.; Newmark, R. L.; Rose, S. K.; Shevliakova, E.; Wilson, T.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, water, and land systems interact in many ways and are impacted by management and climate change. These systems and their interactions often differ in significant ways from region-to-region. To explore the coupled energy-water-land system and its relation to climate change and management a simple conceptual model of demand, endowment and technology (DET) is proposed. A consistent and comparable analysis framework is needed as climate change and resource management practices have the potential to impact each DET element, resource, and region differently. These linkages are further complicated by policy and trade agreements where endowments of one region are used to meet demands in another. This paper reviews the unique DET characteristics of land, energy and water resources across the United States. Analyses are conducted according to the eight geographic regions defined in the 2014 National Climate Assessment. Evident from the analyses are regional differences in resources endowments in land (strong East-West gradient in forest, cropland and desert), water (similar East-West gradient), and energy. Demands likewise vary regionally reflecting differences in population density and endowment (e.g., higher water use in West reflecting insufficient precipitation to support dryland farming). The effect of technology and policy are particularly evident in differences in the energy portfolios across the eight regions. Integrated analyses that account for the various spatial and temporal differences in regional energy, water and land systems are critical to informing effective policy requirements for future energy, climate and resource management. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. The Auto-Tuned Land Data Assimilation System (ATLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, W. T.; Yilmaz, M. Tugrul

    2014-01-01

    Land data assimilation systems are commonly tasked with merging remotely sensed surface soil moisture retrievals with information derived from a soil water balance model driven by observed rainfall. The performance of such systems can be degraded by the incorrect specification of parameters describing modeling and observation errors. Here the Auto-Tuned Land Data Assimilation System (ATLAS) is introduced to simultaneously solve for all parameters required for the application of a simple land data assimilation system to integrate satellite-based rainfall and soil moisture retrievals for drought monitoring applications. The approach is based on combining a triple collocation (TC) strategy with the statistical analysis of filtering innovations and designed to leverage the simultaneous availability of satellite-based soil moisture products acquired from both active and passive microwave remote sensing. A number of variants of the ATLAS approach—each based on a different strategy for leveraging TC and innovation analysis within an adaptive filtering framework—are derived and evaluated through a synthetic twin experiment. In addition, a preliminary real data analysis is conducted using actual satellite-based products and evaluated against independent ground-based observations. Results illustrate the potential of ATLAS to improve the analysis of soil moisture anomalies using data products derived from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and the NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive missions.

  10. Video guidance, landing, and imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Knickerbocker, R. L.; Tietz, J. C.; Grant, C.; Rice, R. B.; Moog, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The adaptive potential of video guidance technology for earth orbital and interplanetary missions was explored. The application of video acquisition, pointing, tracking, and navigation technology was considered to three primary missions: planetary landing, earth resources satellite, and spacecraft rendezvous and docking. It was found that an imaging system can be mechanized to provide a spacecraft or satellite with a considerable amount of adaptability with respect to its environment. It also provides a level of autonomy essential to many future missions and enhances their data gathering ability. The feasibility of an autonomous video guidance system capable of observing a planetary surface during terminal descent and selecting the most acceptable landing site was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The techniques developed for acquisition, pointing, and tracking show promise for recognizing and tracking coastlines, rivers, and other constituents of interest. Routines were written and checked for rendezvous, docking, and station-keeping functions.

  11. Comparison analysis of agricultural land gradation evaluation based on different weight making methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaobin; Zhang, Honghui; Zhou, Yinkang

    2008-10-01

    Agricultural land gradation links land classification and land appraisal. It indicates the difference in agricultural productivity resulted from differences in land's natural characteristics and/or the effectiveness and efficiency of agricultural production at present and in the future. Technically, agricultural land is graded based on the sum of weighted indices and further classified by equal-distance, or axis, or sum frequency curve. It is critical to define the system of weights in this process. In practice, a single or mixed weight system has been widely applied in agricultural land gradation. However, few studies put efforts in comparing outcomes in applying different systems of weights for a specific area. This research applied several popular systems of weights, such as AHP, factor analysis, grey relation analysis, entropy method, and etc., in gradating agricultural land in Jintan, Jiangsu province. Outcomes resulted from different systems of weights were compared. The result did illustrate the obvious differences among these outcomes, which in turn stood for differences among systems of weights. Considering biases inherent in different systems of weights, a system of combined weights is highly recommended for the general practice in agricultural land gradation.

  12. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Chen, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently places the Curiosity rove on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview to the MSL entry, descent and landing system design and preliminary flight performance results.

  13. Flight safety performance of the microwave landing system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Berninger; Cantillion Boulevard; Mays Landing

    1990-01-01

    The microwave landing system (MLS), which is scheduled to be implemented progressively over the next 10 years, is intended to supply the instrument landing system (ILS) as the international standard landing aid. MLS has been demonstrated to be superior to ILS from both performance and reliability standpoints, yet considerable debate persists on its relative merits. Although tolerance criteria for flight

  14. Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae State of Hawaii

    E-print Network

    Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae Production State of Hawaii Prepared for the U.S. Department agency thereof. #12;Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae Production State of Hawaii Prepared by Mele University of Hawaii at Manoa August 2011 #12;i Executive Summary Algae are considered to be a viable crop

  15. Experimental land observing data system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.

    1982-01-01

    An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.

  16. A new digital land mobile satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philip

    A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

  17. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  18. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane and engine performance deficiencies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system.

  19. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (inventor); Person, Lee H., Jr. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (VR) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  20. Preliminary study of a possible automatic landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, W. L.; Winfrey, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Navigation and control laws for a possible automatic landing system have been investigated. The system makes use of data from an inertial table and either an airborne or ground radar to generate signals that guide the airplane to a landing. All landing maneuvers take place within a zone that extends 6000 m out from the touchdown point, 4000 m on each side of the runway center line, and 540 m high. The results show that the system can adequately control the airplane on steep, curved decelerating approaches to a landing that takes place with small errors from the desired landing point and desired airplane attitude. The system studied would interface well with the scanning beam microwave landing system (MLS). The use of this system with the MLS makes it possible to incorporate an independent landing monitor.

  1. Position determination accuracy from the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis and results are given for the position determination accuracy obtainable from the microwave landing guidance system. Siting arrangements, coverage volumes, and accuracy standards for the azimuth, elevation, and range functions of the microwave system are discussed. Results are given for the complete coverage of the systems and are related to flight operational requirements for position estimation during flare, glide slope, and general terminal area approaches. Range rate estimation from range data is also analyzed. The distance measuring equipment accuracy required to meet the range rate estimation standards is determined, and a method of optimizing the range rate estimate is also given.

  2. Validation and Verification of Operational Land Analysis Activities at the Air Force Weather Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Michael; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cetola, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The NASA developed Land Information System (LIS) is the Air Force Weather Agency's (AFWA) operational Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) combining real time precipitation observations and analyses, global forecast model data, vegetation, terrain, and soil parameters with the community Noah land surface model, along with other hydrology module options, to generate profile analyses of global soil moisture, soil temperature, and other important land surface characteristics. (1) A range of satellite data products and surface observations used to generate the land analysis products (2) Global, 1/4 deg spatial resolution (3) Model analysis generated at 3 hours. AFWA recognizes the importance of operational benchmarking and uncertainty characterization for land surface modeling and is developing standard methods, software, and metrics to verify and/or validate LIS output products. To facilitate this and other needs for land analysis activities at AFWA, the Model Evaluation Toolkit (MET) -- a joint product of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Developmental Testbed Center (NCAR DTC), AFWA, and the user community -- and the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT), developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), have been adapted to operational benchmarking needs of AFWA's land characterization activities.

  3. US army land condition-trend analysis (LCTA) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diersing, Victor E.; Shaw, Robert B.; Tazik, David J.

    1992-05-01

    The US Army Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) program is a standardized method of data collection, analysis, and reporting designed to meet multiple goals and objectives. The method utilizes vascular plant inventories, permanent field plot data, and wildlife inventories. Vascular plant inventories are used for environmental documentation, training of personnel, species identification during LCTA implementation, and as a survey for state and federal endangered or threatened species. The permanent field plot data documents the vegetational, edaphic, topographic, and disturbance characteristics of the installation. Inventory plots are allocated in a stratified random fashion across the installation utilizing a geographic information system that integrates satellite imagery and soil survey information. Ground cover, canopy cover, woody plant density, slope length, slope gradient, soil information, and disturbance data are collected at each plot. Plot data are used to: (1) describe plant communities, (2) characterize wildlife and threatened and endangered species habitat, (3) document amount and kind of military and nonmilitary disturbance, (4) determine the impact of military training on vegetation and soil resources, (5) estimate soil erosion potential, (6) classify land as to the kind and amount of use it can support, (7) determine allowable use estimates for tracked vehicle training, (8) document concealment resources, (9) identify lands that require restoration and evaluate the effectiveness of restorative techniques, and (10) evaluate potential acquisition property. Wildlife inventories survey small and midsize mammals, birds, bats, amphibians, and reptiles. Data from these surveys can be used for environmental documentation, to identify state and federal endangered and threatened species, and to evaluate the impact of military activities on wildlife populations. Short- and long-term monitoring of permanent field plots is used to evaluate and adjust land management decisions.

  4. Magneto-rheological (MR) damper for landing gear system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahboubeh Khani

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the different sink speeds, angles of attack and masses; aircraft landing gears could face a wide range of impact conditions which may possibly cause structural damage or failure. Thus, in hard landing scenarios, the landing gear must absorb sufficient energy in order to minimize dynamic stress on the aircraft airframe. Semi-active control systems are the recent potential solutions

  5. Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Knocke, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover mission successfully landed two rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" on Mars on January 4th and 25th of 2004, respectively. The trajectory analysis performed to define the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) scenario is described. The entry requirements and constraints are presented, as well as uncertainties used in a Monte Carlo dispersion analysis to statistically assess the robustness of the entry design to off-nominal conditions. In the analysis, six-degree-of-freedom and three-degree-of-freedom trajectory results are compared to assess the entry characteristics of the capsule. Comparison of the preentry results to preliminary post-landing reconstruction data shows that all EDL parameters were within the requirements. In addition, the final landing position for both "Spirit" and "Opportunity" were within 15 km of the predicted landing location.

  6. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (inventor); Person, Lee H. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system which provides the pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V sub R) within the safe zone of the runway or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. An important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in headwind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system displays the position of the airplane on the runway, indicating runway used and runway available, summarizes the critical information into a situation advisory flag, flags engine failures and off-nominal acceleration performance, and indicates where on the runway particular events such as decision speed (V sub 1), rotation speed (V sub R) and expected stop points will occur based on actual or predicted performance. The display also indicates airspeed, wind vector, engine pressure ratios, second segment climb speed, and balanced field length (BFL). The system detects performance deficiencies by comparing the airplane's present performance with a predicted nominal performance based upon the given conditions.

  7. Evolutionary direction of land-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    Natural landscape is always subject to dynamic change, leaving characteristic patterns at various time scales. Noticeable patterns, ranging from meandering to fractal characteristics of river networks, have been investigated with physical modeling, mathematical modeling, and other manners. One revolutionary idea to foster holistic understanding of landscape evolution is the optimality concept. There have been several optimality hypotheses proposed for different types of landforms. However, none of them seems fully verified (Paik, 2012). It has been argued that lack of feedbacks between different processes into account is critical limitation of present optimality hypotheses (Paik and Kumar, 2010). In this regards, this study presents how optimality context to be formulated for a clear case where strong feedbacks are exchanged during co-evolution, i.e. land-atmosphere system. While most landscape evolution models, either physical, numerical, or optimality-based, assume simple spatio-temporal variability in climate forcing (e.g., rainfall), climatic field evolves together with landscape in reality. For example, orographic precipitation is enhanced as tectonic uplift continues. Accordingly, landscape and atmosphere are closely linked and we should look at them as a single system, rather than separated individuals. In this presentation, limitation of existing optimality hypotheses will be demonstrated with examples of coupled evolution of land-atmosphere system. Fundamental implications for general optimality concept for evolutionary direction of the coupled system will be discussed. Keywords: Optimal channel network; Landscape evolution; Orographic rainfall References Paik, K. and P. Kumar (2010) Optimality approaches to describe characteristic fluvial patterns on landscapes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, Vol.365, No.1545, pp.1387-1395, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0303. Paik, K. (2012) Search for the optimality signature of river network development, Physical Review E, Vol.86, 046110, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046110.

  8. Land System Science: between global challenges and local realities.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Peter H; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Mertz, Ole; Espindola, Giovana

    2013-10-01

    This issue of Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability provides an overview of recent advances in Land System Science while at the same time setting the research agenda for the Land System Science community. Land System Science is not just representing land system changes as either a driver or a consequence of global environmental change. Land systems also offer solutions to global change through adaptation and mitigation and can play a key role in achieving a sustainable future earth. The special issue assembles 14 articles that entail different perspectives on land systems and their dynamics, synthesizing current knowledge, highlighting currently under-researched topics, exploring scientific frontiers and suggesting ways ahead, integrating a plethora of scientific disciplines. PMID:24851141

  9. The effects of war on land-use/land-cover change: An analysis of Landsat imagery for northeast Bosnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witmer, Frank D. W.

    The use of satellite technology by military planners has a relatively long history as a tool of warfare, but little research has used satellite technology to study the effects of war. This research addresses this gap by applying satellite remote sensing imagery to study the effects of war on land-use/land-cover change in northeast Bosnia. The war in Bosnia, 1992-1995, resulted in over 100,000 deaths, many more wounded, and the mass displacement of nearly half the population of 4.2 million. When combined with the destruction of much of the transportation infrastructure and housing stock, widespread mine placement, and loss of agricultural machinery, the impacts to both the people and land were dramatic. Though the most severe war impacts are visible at local scales (e.g. destroyed buildings), this study focuses on impacts to agricultural land, a larger scale visible to satellite sensors. Multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data (30m pixels) from before and during the war in addition to recent imagery from 2004/05 were used to detect abandoned agricultural land. The satellite images were co-registered to enable a perpixel analysis of changes based on the statistical properties of the pixels using multiple change detection methods. Ground reference data were collected in May of 2006 at survey sites selected using a stratified random sampling approach based on the derived map of abandoned agricultural land. Fine resolution (60cm) Quickbird imagery was also used to verify the accuracy of the classification. The remote sensing analysis results were then used to test two hypotheses related to war outcomes: (a) land abandonment is due to wartime minefields and (b) land abandonment is greater in pre-war Croat areas and areas where ethnic cleansing was heaviest. The effects of minefields on land abandonment was first tested in a geographic information system (GIS), and then by using multiple regression models that account for spatial autocorrelation among observations. The spatial regression analysis was conducted at the opstina (county) areal unit and used minefield locations, refugee returns and population change data as predictors of abandoned agricultural land. Results from these analyses show that a supervised classification of the Landsat TM data identified abandoned agricultural land with an overall accuracy of 82.5%. The GIS and spatial regression analysis of how war affects agricultural land showed that the presence of minefields and population declines are both associated with abandoned agricultural land. This research holds significance for both the remote sensing and civil war research communities. The use of freely available Quickbird imagery both as training data for the supervised classifier and as supplementary ground reference data suggest these methods are applicable to other civil wars (e.g. Darfur region of Sudan and the Horn of Africa) that may still be too dangerous for researchers to conduct field work in. By extending these methods to other war zones, comparisons of similarities and differences between such studies can then be made to draw broader conclusions of war impacts to land use and land cover.

  10. GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dayi Wang; Xiangyu Huang; Yifeng Guan

    2008-01-01

    A pinpoint autonomous GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing is proposed. First, the descriptions of the mission outline for lunar soft landing are provided. Second, the GNC system design of the spacecraft is proposed. The baseline is a 3-axis stabilized system during all the phases of the mission. Orbit maneuvers are achieved by an assembled constant thrust or a

  11. Analysis of human spatial perception during lunar landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torin K. Clark; Alexander J. Stimpson; Laurence R. Young; Charles M. Oman; Kevin R. Duda

    2010-01-01

    Crewed lunar landings require astronauts to interact with automated systems to identify a location that is level and free of hazards and to guide the vehicle to the lunar surface through a controlled descent. However, vestibular limitations resulting from exposure to lunar gravity after short-term adaptation to weightlessness, combined with acceleration profiles unique to lunar landing trajectories may result in

  12. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.

  13. University of British Columbia Faculty of Land and Food Systems

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    of an aquaculture production facility, with a particular focus on land-based recirculating aquatic systems. ModuleUniversity of British Columbia Faculty of Land and Food Systems Principles of Aquaculture APBI 490 ways to further extend the boundaries of knowledge in a given topic. OVERVIEW Course Description

  14. Flight tests of the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, N.

    1984-01-01

    The design, development, implementation and flight tests of the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) are discussed. The system was implemented and flight tested on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV), a Boeing 737-100. The design uses modern optimal control methods. The direct digital design obtained uses a 10 Hz rate for the sampling of sensors and the control commands. The basic structure of the control law consists of a steady state Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix. The sensor information used includes Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, attitude, calibrated airspeed, and body accelerations. The phases of the final approach considered are localized and steep glideslope capture (which may be performed simultaneously or independently), localizer and glideslope track, crab/decrab, and flare to touchdown. The system can capture, track, and flare from conventional, as well as steep, glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg. All of the modes of the control law including the Kalman filters were implemented on the TSRV flight computers which use fixed point arithmetic with 16 bit words. The implementation considerations are described as well as an analysis of the flight test results.

  15. Cross-Site Comparison of Land-Use Decision-Making and Its Consequences across Land Systems with a

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Erle C.

    Cross-Site Comparison of Land-Use Decision-Making and Its Consequences across Land Systems, Maryland, United States of America Abstract Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper

  16. Preprint 11-June-2003: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS)1 Section 1.5 "Land Use and Land Cover"

    E-print Network

    Rossiter, D G "David"

    1 Preprint 11-June-2003: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS)1 Section 1.5 "Land Use .................................................... 9 7 Critical issues in using dynamic simulation models for land evaluation and Land Cover" Topic 1.5.27 "Biophysical Models in Land Evaluation" Copyright " 2003 by EOLSS Publishers

  17. A cost-effectiveness analysis of water security and water quality: impacts of climate and land-use change on the River Thames system.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Crossman, J; Balana, B B; Futter, M N; Comber, S; Jin, L; Skuras, D; Wade, A J; Bowes, M J; Read, D S

    2013-11-13

    The catchment of the River Thames, the principal river system in southern England, provides the main water supply for London but is highly vulnerable to changes in climate, land use and population. The river is eutrophic with significant algal blooms with phosphorus assumed to be the primary chemical indicator of ecosystem health. In the Thames Basin, phosphorus is available from point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and from diffuse sources such as agriculture. In order to predict vulnerability to future change, the integrated catchments model for phosphorus (INCA-P) has been applied to the river basin and used to assess the cost-effectiveness of a range of mitigation and adaptation strategies. It is shown that scenarios of future climate and land-use change will exacerbate the water quality problems, but a range of mitigation measures can improve the situation. A cost-effectiveness study has been undertaken to compare the economic benefits of each mitigation measure and to assess the phosphorus reductions achieved. The most effective strategy is to reduce fertilizer use by 20% together with the treatment of effluent to a high standard. Such measures will reduce the instream phosphorus concentrations to close to the EU Water Framework Directive target for the Thames. PMID:24080622

  18. Online Time Series Analysis of Land Products over Asia Monsoon Region via Giovanni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Time series analysis is critical to the study of land cover/land use changes and climate. Time series studies at local-to-regional scales require higher spatial resolution, such as 1km or less, data. MODIS land products of 250m to 1km resolution enable such studies. However, such MODIS land data files are distributed in 10ox10o tiles, due to large data volumes. Conducting a time series study requires downloading all tiles that include the study area for the time period of interest, and mosaicking the tiles spatially. This can be an extremely time-consuming process. In support of the Monsoon Asia Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, NASA GES DISC (Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center) has processed MODIS land products at 1 km resolution over the Asia monsoon region (0o-60oN, 60o-150oE) with a common data structure and format. The processed data have been integrated into the Giovanni system (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) that enables users to explore, analyze, and download data over an area and time period of interest easily. Currently, the following regional MODIS land products are available in Giovanni: 8-day 1km land surface temperature and active fire, monthly 1km vegetation index, and yearly 0.05o, 500m land cover types. More data will be added in the near future. By combining atmospheric and oceanic data products in the Giovanni system, it is possible to do further analyses of environmental and climate changes associated with the land, ocean, and atmosphere. This presentation demonstrates exploring land products in the Giovanni system with sample case scenarios.

  19. A Vision System for Landing an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Courtney S. Sharp; Orriid Shakernia; S. Shankar Sastry

    2001-01-01

    We present the design ami implementation of a real-time computer vision syslem for a rotor-craft un- manned aerial vehicle to land onto a known land- ing target. This vision system consists of customized software and off-the-shelf harc!ware which perform im- age processing, segmentation, feature point extraction, camera pan\\/tilt control, and motion estimation. We introduce the design of a landing target

  20. Development and evaluation of the mars pathfinder inflatable airbag landing system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cadogan; C. Sandy; M. Grahne

    2002-01-01

    The entry, descent, and landing system of the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft includes a unique subsystem of airbags for impact attenuation. The airbag geometric configuration and associated landing dynamic analysis was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (Mars pathfinder airbag impact attenuation system, paper AIAA-95-1552; Mars pathfinder impact, paper AIAA-95-1553). ILC Dover performed detailed design and fabrication

  1. Distributive analysis of rural land size and price relationships 

    E-print Network

    Rothe, Robert Joseph

    1980-01-01

    DISTRIBUTIFE ANALTSIS OF RURAL LAND SIZE PRICE RELATIONSHIPS A Thesis by Robert Joseph Roche Submitted to the Graduate College of. Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1980 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics DISTRIBUTIVE ANALYSIS OF RURAL LAND SIZE AND PRICE RELATIONSHIPS A Thesis by Robert Joseph Rothe Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Me er) Member) (Head o Department) August...

  2. LanguageLand : a multimodal conversational spoken language learning system

    E-print Network

    Lee, Vivienne C. (Vivienne Catherine)

    2004-01-01

    LanguageLand is a multimodal conversational spoken language learning system whose purpose is to help native English users learn Mandarin Chinese. The system is centered on a game that involves navigation on a simulated ...

  3. SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS - LAND APPLICATION AREAS, NEUSE RIVER WATERSHED, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Rural Economic Development Center (NCREDC) in conjunction with Hobbs, Upchurch & Associates developed the digital Sewer system land applications as mapped by individual system owners as required by contract. The data collected will facilitate planning, siting a...

  4. Preliminary analysis of knee stress in Full Extension Landing

    PubMed Central

    Makinejad, Majid Davoodi; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Bayat, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study provides an experimental and finite element analysis of knee-joint structure during extended-knee landing based on the extracted impact force, and it numerically identifies the contact pressure, stress distribution and possibility of bone-to-bone contact when a subject lands from a safe height. METHODS: The impact time and loads were measured via inverse dynamic analysis of free landing without knee flexion from three different heights (25, 50 and 75 cm), using five subjects with an average body mass index of 18.8. Three-dimensional data were developed from computed tomography scans and were reprocessed with modeling software before being imported and analyzed by finite element analysis software. The whole leg was considered to be a fixed middle-hinged structure, while impact loads were applied to the femur in an upward direction. RESULTS: Straight landing exerted an enormous amount of pressure on the knee joint as a result of the body's inability to utilize the lower extremity muscles, thereby maximizing the threat of injury when the load exceeds the height-safety threshold. CONCLUSIONS: The researchers conclude that extended-knee landing results in serious deformation of the meniscus and cartilage and increases the risk of bone-to-bone contact and serious knee injury when the load exceeds the threshold safety height. This risk is considerably greater than the risk of injury associated with walking downhill or flexion landing activities. PMID:24141832

  5. A land based radar polarimeter processing system 

    E-print Network

    Kronke, Chester William

    1984-01-01

    Operations Utility Package. 64 CHAPTER I PROJECT BACKGROUND The Remote Sensing Center (RSC) at Texas ARM University was con- tracted by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to design, build, and put into operation a mobile land based radar polarimeter [I...

  6. Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae State of Hawaii

    E-print Network

    Analysis of Land Suitable for Algae Production State of Hawaii Prepared by Mele Chillingworth Scott of Hawaii at Manoa August 2011 #12;i Executive Summary Algae are considered to be a viable crop for biofuel for biofuels has increased interest in growing algae in Hawaii for biofuels. An analysis of algae production

  7. Acquiring observation error covariance information for land data assimilation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work has presented the initial application of adaptive filtering techniques to land surface data assimilation systems. Such techniques are motivated by our current lack of knowledge concerning the structure of large-scale error in either land surface modeling output or remotely-sensed estimat...

  8. Land use data collection systems: Some problems of unification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Teitz

    1966-01-01

    Conclusion With all this, what can be said about the future of land use information collection, storage, and retrieval by governmental agencies? One thing is clear: there is not now enough information to justify an immediate attempt to establish a central land use data collection system almost anywhere. On the other hand, there do appear to be advantages to be

  9. Image interpretation for a multilevel land use classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential use is discussed of three remote sensors for developing a four level land use classification system. Three types of imagery for photointerpretation are presented: ERTS-1 satellite imagery, high altitude photography, and medium altitude photography. Suggestions are given as to which remote sensors and imagery scales may be most effectively employed to provide data on specific types of land use.

  10. Analysis-test correlation of airbag impact for Mars landing

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, M.; Davis, G.; Kuo, C.P. [and others

    1994-12-31

    The NASA Mars Pathfinder mission is intended to demonstrate key low cost technologies for use in future science missions to Mars. Among these technologies is the landing system. Upon entering in Martian atmosphere at about 7000 m/sec., the spacecraft will deploy a series of breaking devices (parachute and solid rockets) to slow down its speed to less than 20 m/sec. as it impacts with the Martian ground. To cushion science instruments form the landing impact, an airbag system is inflated to surround the lander approximately five seconds before impact. After multiple bounces, the lander/airbags comes to rest, the airbags are deflated and retracted, and the lander opens up its petals to allow a microrover to begin exploration. Of interest here, is the final landing phase. Specifically, this paper will focus on the methodology used to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of lander/airbags landing impact, and how this simulation correlates with initial tests.

  11. Incorporating land use land cover probability information into endmember class selections for temporal mixture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenliang; Wu, Changshan

    2015-03-01

    As a promising method for estimating fractional land covers within a remote sensing pixel, spectral mixture analysis (SMA) has been successfully applied in numerous fields, including urban analysis, forest mapping, etc. When implementing SMA, an important step is to select the number, type, and spectra of pure land covers (also termed endmember classes). While extensive studies have been conducted in addressing endmember variability (e.g. spectral variability of endmember classes), little research has paid attention to the selection of an appropriate number and types of endmember classes. To address this problem, in this study, we proposed to automatically select endmember classes for temporal mixture analysis (TMA), a variant of SMA, through incorporating land use land cover probability information derived from socio-economic and environmental drivers. This proposed model includes three consecutive steps, including (1) quantifying the distribution probability of each endmember class using a logistic regression analysis, (2) identifying whether each endmember class exists or not in a particular pixel using a classification tree method, and (3) estimating fractional land covers using TMA. Results indicate that the proposed TMA model achieves a significantly better performance than the simple TMA and a comparable performance with the METMA with an SE of 2.25% and an MAE of 3.18%. In addition, significantly better accuracy was achieved in less developed areas when compared to that of developed areas. This may indicate that an appropriate endmember class set might be more essential in less developed areas, while other factors like endmember variability is more important in developed areas.

  12. Analysis of feedback mechanisms in land-atmosphere interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaye L. Brubaker; Dara Entekhabi

    1996-01-01

    The initiation of a hydrologic drought may depend on large-scale or teleconnective causes; however, local positive feedbacks in the land-atmosphere system are believed to contribute to the observed persistence and intensification of droughts. In this study a basic linearization technique is combined with a nonlinear stochastic model of land-atmosphere interaction to analyze and, more importantly, quantify feedback mechanisms that arise

  13. Temporal Land Cover Analysis for Net Ecosystem Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Yinghai; Coleman, Andre M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2013-04-09

    We delineated 8 watersheds contributing to previously defined river reaches within the 1,468-km2 historical floodplain of the tidally influenced lower Columbia River and estuary. We assessed land-cover change at the watershed, reach, and restoration site scales by reclassifying remote-sensing data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Change Analysis Program’s land cover/land change product into forest, wetland, and urban categories. The analysis showed a 198.3 km2 loss of forest cover during the first 6 years of the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program, 2001–2006. Total measured urbanization in the contributing watersheds of the estuary during the full 1996-2006 change analysis period was 48.4 km2. Trends in forest gain/loss and urbanization differed between watersheds. Wetland gains and losses were within the margin of error of the satellite imagery analysis. No significant land cover change was measured at restoration sites, although it was visible in aerial imagery, therefore, the 30-m land-cover product may not be appropriate for assessment of early-stage wetland restoration. These findings suggest that floodplain restoration sites in reaches downstream of watersheds with decreasing forest cover will be subject to increased sediment loads, and those downstream of urbanization will experience effects of increased impervious surfaces on hydrologic processes.

  14. Applications of Skylab data to land use and climatological analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Lewis, J. E., Jr.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Jenner, C. B.; Outcalt, S. I.; Pease, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab study in Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site encompassed two separate but related tasks: (1) evaluation of photographic sensors S190A and B as sources of land use data for planning and managing land resources in major metropolitan regions, and (2) evaluation of the multispectral scanner S192 used in conjunction with associated data and analytical techniques as a data source on urban climates and the surface energy balance. Photographs from the Skylab S190B earth terrain camera were of greatest interest in the land use analysis task; they were of sufficiently high resolution to identify and map many level 2 and 3 land use categories. After being corrected to allow for atmosphere effects, output from thermal and visible bands of the S192 was employed in constructing computer map plots of albedo and surface temperature.

  15. Analysis of Atmospheric Mesoscale Models for Entry, Descent and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kass, D. M.; Schofield, J. T.; Michaels, T. I.; Rafkin, S. C. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Toigo, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    Each Mars Exploration Rover (MER) is sensitive to the martian winds encountered near the surface during the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) process. These winds are strongly influenced by local (mesoscale) conditions. In the absence of suitable wind observations, wind fields predicted by martian mesoscale atmospheric models have been analyzed to guide landing site selection. Two different models were used, the MRAMS model and the Mars MM5 model. In order to encompass both models and render their results useful to the EDL engineering team, a series of statistical techniques were applied to the model results. These analyses cover the high priority landing sites during the expected landing times (1200 to 1500 local time). The number of sites studied is limited by the computational and analysis cost of the mesoscale models.

  16. Ground-Based Calibration Of A Microwave Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John J.; Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Willis, Alfred D.; Erdogan, Temel; Reyes, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    System of microwave instrumentation and data-processing equipment developed to enable ground-based calibration of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at distances of about 500 to 1,000 ft from MSBLS transmitting antenna. Ensures accuracy of MSBLS near touchdown point, without having to resort to expense and complex logistics of aircraft-based testing. Modified versions prove useful in calibrating aircraft instrument landing systems.

  17. Multi-Scale Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2009-01-01

    The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov; Kumar et al., 2006; Peters- Lidard et al.,2007) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite- and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. As such, LIS represents a step towards the next generation land component of an integrated Earth system model. In recognition of LIS object-oriented software design, use and impact in the land surface and hydrometeorological modeling community, the LIS software was selected ase co-winner of NASA's 2005 Software of the Year award. LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has evolved from two earlier efforts North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS; Mitchell et al. 2004) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS; Rodell al. 2004) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of GLDAS and NLDAS now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations. In addition, LIS was recently transitioned into operations at the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to ultimately replace their Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) system, and is also used routinely by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) for their land data assimilation systems to support weather and climate modeling. LIS not only consolidates the capabilities of these two systems, but also enables a much larger variety of configurations with respect to horizontal spatial resolution, input datasets and choice of land surface model through "plugins,". As described in Kumar et al., 2007, and demonstrated in Case et al., 2008, and Santanello et al., 2009, LIS has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to support studies of land-atmosphere coupling the enabling ensembles of land surface states to be tested against multiple representations of the atmospheric boundary layer. LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation as described in Peters-Lidard et al. (2008) and Santanello et al. (2007), who showed that the use of sequential remotely sensed soil moisture products can be used to derive soil hydraulic and texture properties given a sufficient dynamic range in the soil moisture retrievals and accurate precipitation inputs. LIS has also recently been demonstrated for multi-model data assimilation (Kumar et al., 2008) using an Ensemble Kalman Filter for sequential assimilation of soil moisture, snow, and temperature. Ongoing work has demonstrated the value of bias correction as part of the filter, and also that of joint calibration and assimilation. Examples and case studies demonstrating the capabilities and impacts of LIS for hydrometeoroogical modeling, assimilation and parameter estimation will be presented as advancements towards the next generation of integrated observation and modeling systems.

  18. Multi-Scale Hydrometeorological Modeling, Land Data Assimilation and Parameter Estimation with the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2011-01-01

    The Land Information System (LIS; http://lis.gsfc.nasa.gov) is a flexible land surface modeling framework that has been developed with the goal of integrating satellite-and ground-based observational data products and advanced land surface modeling techniques to produce optimal fields of land surface states and fluxes. As such, LIS represents a step towards the next generation land component of an integrated Earth system model. In recognition of LIS object-oriented software design, use and impact in the land surface and hydrometeorological modeling community, the LIS software was selected as a co-winner of NASA?s 2005 Software of the Year award.LIS facilitates the integration of observations from Earth-observing systems and predictions and forecasts from Earth System and Earth science models into the decision-making processes of partnering agency and national organizations. Due to its flexible software design, LIS can serve both as a Problem Solving Environment (PSE) for hydrologic research to enable accurate global water and energy cycle predictions, and as a Decision Support System (DSS) to generate useful information for application areas including disaster management, water resources management, agricultural management, numerical weather prediction, air quality and military mobility assessment. LIS has e volved from two earlier efforts -- North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) that focused primarily on improving numerical weather prediction skills by improving the characterization of the land surface conditions. Both of GLDAS and NLDAS now use specific configurations of the LIS software in their current implementations.In addition, LIS was recently transitioned into operations at the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) to ultimately replace their Agricultural Meteorology (AGRMET) system, and is also used routinely by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) for their land data assimilation systems to support weather and climate modeling. LIS not only consolidates the capabilities of these two systems, but also enables a much larger variety of configurations with respect to horizontal spatial resolution, input datasets and choice of land surface model through "plugins". LIS has been coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to support studies of land-atmosphere coupling be enabling ensembles of land surface states to be tested against multiple representations of the atmospheric boundary layer. LIS has also been demonstrated for parameter estimation, who showed that the use of sequential remotely sensed soil moisture products can be used to derive soil hydraulic and texture properties given a sufficient dynamic range in the soil moisture retrievals and accurate precipitation inputs.LIS has also recently been demonstrated for multi-model data assimilation using an Ensemble Kalman Filter for sequential assimilation of soil moisture, snow, and temperature.Ongoing work has demonstrated the value of bias correction as part of the filter, and also that of joint calibration and assimilation.Examples and case studies demonstrating the capabilities and impacts of LIS for hydrometeorological modeling, assimilation and parameter estimation will be presented as advancements towards the next generation of integrated observation and modeling systems

  19. Controllable set analysis for planetary landing under model uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Jiateng; Gao, Ai; Cui, Pingyuan

    2015-07-01

    Controllable set analysis is a beneficial method in planetary landing mission design by feasible entry state selection in order to achieve landing accuracy and satisfy entry path constraints. In view of the severe impact of model uncertainties on planetary landing safety and accuracy, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the controllable set under uncertainties between on-board model and the real situation. Controllable set analysis under model uncertainties is composed of controllable union set (CUS) analysis and controllable intersection set (CIS) analysis. Definitions of CUS and CIS are demonstrated and computational method of them based on Gauss pseudospectral method is presented. Their applications on entry states distribution analysis under uncertainties and robustness of nominal entry state selection to uncertainties are illustrated by situations with ballistic coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio and atmospheric uncertainty in Mars entry. With analysis of CUS and CIS, the robustness of entry state selection and entry trajectory to model uncertainties can be guaranteed, thus enhancing the safety, reliability and accuracy under model uncertainties during planetary entry and landing.

  20. 7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Northeast view interior, air traffic control and landing system room 25 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  1. Control System Architecture for Unmanned Land Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandor Szabo; Karl N. Murphy; Harry A. Scott; Steven A. Legowik; Roger V. Bostelman

    A second major effort is currently underway toward the development of vehicles with autonomous capabilities. The Autonomous Land Vehicle and Advanced Ground Vehicle Technology programs highlighted the first efforts in autonomous vehicles. The second push is fueled by the Office of the Secretary of Defense's (OSD) Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) program. The Surrogate Teleoperated Vehicle and Demo I programs have

  2. High-performance Earth system modeling with NASA\\/GSFC's Land Information System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christa D. Peters-lidard; P. R. Houser; Y. Tian; S. V. Kumar; J. Geiger; S. Olden; L. Lighty; B. Doty; P. Dirmeyer; J. Adams; K. Mitchell; E. F. Wood; J. Sheffield

    2007-01-01

    The Land Information System software (LIS; http:\\/\\/lis.gsfc.nasa.gov\\/, 2006) has been developed to support high-performance\\u000a land surface modeling and data assimilation. LIS integrates parallel and distributed computing technologies with modern land\\u000a surface modeling capabilities, and establishes a framework for easy interchange of subcomponents, such as land surface physics,\\u000a input\\/output conventions, and data assimilation routines. The software includes multiple land surface models

  3. Sensitivity analysis of a land surface scheme using multicriteria methods

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Sensitivity analysis of a land surface scheme using multicriteria methods L. A. Bastidas, H. V sensitivity of the modeled variables to the parameters, thereby allowing the number of calibration parameters). The sensitivity results were found to be consistent with the physical properties of the different environments

  4. 76 FR 1629 - Public Land Order No. 7757; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Big Ice Cave; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ...National Forest System Land for the Big Ice Cave; Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...States Forest Service to protect the Big Ice Cave, its subterranean water supply, and...will manage the land to protect the Big Ice Cave, its subterranean water supply,...

  5. 76 FR 37826 - Public Land Order No. 7773; Emergency Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ...public and National Forest System lands from location and entry under the...section 204(e) of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. DATES...Interior by section 204 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976,...

  6. An analysis of landing rates and separations at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Erzberger, Heinz

    1996-01-01

    Advanced air traffic management systems such as the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) should yield a wide range of benefits, including reduced aircraft delays and controller workload. To determine the traffic-flow benefits achievable from future terminal airspace automation, live radar information was used to perform an analysis of current aircraft landing rates and separations at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. Separation statistics that result when controllers balance complex control procedural constraints in order to maintain high landing rates are presented. In addition, the analysis estimates the potential for airport capacity improvements by determining the unused landing opportunities that occur during rush traffic periods. Results suggest a large potential for improving the accuracy and consistency of spacing between arrivals on final approach, and they support earlier simulation findings that improved air traffic management would increase capacity and reduce delays.

  7. Automated Loads Analysis System (ATLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Stephen; Frere, Scot; O’Reilly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is a generalized solution that can be used for launch vehicles. ATLAS is used to produce modal transient analysis and quasi-static analysis results (i.e., accelerations, displacements, and forces) for the payload math models on a specific Shuttle Transport System (STS) flight using the shuttle math model and associated forcing functions. This innovation solves the problem of coupling of payload math models into a shuttle math model. It performs a transient loads analysis simulating liftoff, landing, and all flight events between liftoff and landing. ATLAS utilizes efficient and numerically stable algorithms available in MSC/NASTRAN.

  8. Jump-Landing Mechanics After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Landing Error Scoring System Study

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David Robert; Smith, Mason D.; Pennuto, Anthony P.; Stiffler, Mikel R.; Olson, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a clinical evaluation of jump-landing mechanics and may provide useful information in assisting with return-to-sport decisions in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, it is currently unknown how patients with ACLR perform on the LESS compared with healthy controls. Objective: To determine if the total LESS score differed between individuals with ACLR and healthy controls and to determine the types of errors that differ between groups. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 27 individuals with unilateral ACLR (age = 19.8 ± 1.8 years, height = 170 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 68.8 ± 11.9 kg) and 27 controls (age = 20.5 ± 1.7 years, height = 169 ± 8.4 cm, mass = 66.6 ± 9.0 kg) with no history of ACLR. Intervention(s): Each participant completed 3 trials of a standardized jump-landing task. Main Outcome Measure(s): Each jump landing was assessed for specific postures using standardized LESS criteria by a blinded evaluator. Individual LESS items were summed to create a total LESS score. The dominant limb was assessed in the control group, and the reconstructed limb was assessed in the ACLR group. Results: The ACLR group had higher LESS scores compared with controls (ACLR: 6.7 ± 2.1 errors, control: 5.6 ± 1.5 errors, P = .04). Additionally, the ACLR group was more likely to err when landing with lateral trunk flexion (Fisher exact test, P = .002). Conclusions: Individuals with ACLR had worse landing mechanics as measured by the LESS. Lateral trunk deviation may be related to quadriceps avoidance in the reconstructed limb or poor trunk neuromuscular control. The LESS is useful for evaluating landing errors in patients with ACLR and may help to identify areas of focus during rehabilitation and before return to sport. PMID:24905666

  9. US army land condition-trend analysis (LCTA) program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor E. Diersing; Robert B. Shaw; David J. Tazik

    1992-01-01

    The US Army Land Condition-Trend Analysis (LCTA) program is a standardized method of data collection, analysis, and reporting\\u000a designed to meet multiple goals and objectives. The method utilizes vascular plant inventories, permanent field plot data,\\u000a and wildlife inventories. Vascular plant inventories are used for environmental documentation, training of personnel, species\\u000a identification during LCTA implementation, and as a survey for state

  10. Operational considerations in utilization of microwave landing system approach and landing guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L. V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of microwave landing system (MLS) equipment are reviewed and the flight performance of the terminal configured vehicle B-737 airplane during nearly five years of flight experience with MLS is summarized. Most of these flights involved curved, descending flight paths with automatic landings and final approaches as short as 0.44 n. mi. Possible uses to solve noise abatement problems with MLS equipment of varying degrees of complexity are discussed. It is concluded that altitude derived from MLS is superior to other sources near the airport traffic pattern.

  11. Visualization and Analysis of Multi-scale Land Surface Products via Giovanni Portals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Kempler, Steven J.; Gerasimov, Irina V.

    2013-01-01

    Large volumes of MODIS land data products at multiple spatial resolutions have been integrated into the Giovanni online analysis system to support studies on land cover and land use changes,focused on the Northern Eurasia and Monsoon Asia regions through the LCLUC program. Giovanni (Goddard Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure) is a Web-based application developed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), providing a simple and intuitive way to visualize, analyze, and access Earth science remotely-sensed and modeled data.Customized Giovanni Web portals (Giovanni-NEESPI andGiovanni-MAIRS) have been created to integrate land, atmospheric,cryospheric, and societal products, enabling researchers to do quick exploration and basic analyses of land surface changes, and their relationships to climate, at global and regional scales. This presentation shows a sample Giovanni portal page, lists selected data products in the system, and illustrates potential analyses with imagesand time-series at global and regional scales, focusing on climatology and anomaly analysis. More information is available at the GES DISCMAIRS data support project portal: http:disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.govmairs.

  12. Ongoing Development of NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Kato, Hiroko; Zaitchik, Ben

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) produces global fields of land surface states (e.g., soil moisture and temperature) and fluxes (e.g., latent heat flux and runoff) by driving offline land surface models with observation-based inputs, using the Land Information System (LIS) software. Since production began in 2001, GLDAS has supported more than 100 scientific investigations and applications. Some examples are GEWEX and NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) global water and energy budget analyses, interpretations of hydrologic data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, and forecast model initiation studies at NOAA and NASA. At the same time, the GLDAS team has continued improve results through the development of new modeling and data assimilation techniques. Here we describe several recent and ongoing innovations. These include global implementation of a runoff routing procedure, GRACE data assimilation, advanced snow cover assimilation, and irrigation modeling.

  13. An analysis of human-induced land transformations in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento area

    SciTech Connect

    Kirtland, D.; DeCola, L. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Gaydos, L.; Acevedo, W. (Geological Survey, Moffett Field, CA (United States)); Clarke, K. (Hunter Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography); Bell, C. (Johnson Controls World Services, Moffett Field, CA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Part of the US Geological Survey's Global Change Research Program involves studying the area from the Pacific Ocean to the Sierra foothills to enhance understanding of the role that human activities play in global change. The study investigates the ways that humans transform the land and the effects that changing the landscape may have on regional and global systems. To accomplish this research, scientists are compiling records of historical transformations in the region's land cover over the last 140 years, developing a simulation model to predict land cover change, and assembling a digital data set to analyze and describe land transformations. The historical data regarding urban growth focus attention on the significant change the region underwent from 1850 to 1990. The historical change is being used to calibrate a prototype cellular automata model, developed to predict changes in urban land cover 100 years into the future. These data aid in documenting and understanding human-induced land transformations from both historical and predictive perspectives. A descriptive analysis of the region is used to investigate the relationships among data characteristic of the region. These data consist of multilayer topography, climate, vegetation, and population data for a 256-km[sup 2] region of central California. A variety of multivariate analysis tools are used to integrate the data in raster format from map contours, interpolated climate observations, satellite observations, and population estimates.

  14. Land Administration, Spatial Systems and Cities - an Australian Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian P. Williamson

    The paper argues that any spatial information strategy for urban, local government or city jurisdiction is intimately linked to and influenced by the state or national land administration and cadastral systems where it is located. It is these state or national systems which usually provide the spatial infrastructure for urban information systems. Therefore to understand current trends in urban information

  15. 77 FR 21161 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ...Directives System will contain...information quality guidelines...Land Management Planning...national best management practices...for water quality in the Forest...Directives System, and that...national best management practices for water quality in the Forest...Directive System. Plan...

  16. 76 FR 8479 - National Forest System Land Management Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ...each system. Management to maintain...active and passive management and require different...conditions of the system. In designing...including air quality) and biological...National Forest System lands are also...importance, enhancing quality of life; sustaining...has guided NFS management since it...

  17. Design of automatic carrier landing system using H? control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suozhong Yuan; Yidong Yang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the design of an automatic carrier landing system (ACLS) is accomplished using H-infinity techniques, in which the single input\\/output design specifications were translated into the weighting functions of the H-infinity synthesis problem. The objective of the design is to improve the ACLS's path precision under the worst-case condition of a vertical gust during carrier landing. The design

  18. Analysis of land cover change and its driving forces in a desert oasis landscape of southern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amuti, T.; Luo, G.

    2014-07-01

    The combined effects of drought, warming and the changes in land cover have caused severe land degradation for several decades in the extremely arid desert oases of Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China. This study examined land cover changes during 1990-2008 to characterize and quantify the transformations in the typical oasis of Hotan. Land cover classifications of these images were performed based on the supervised classification scheme integrated with conventional vegetation and soil indexes. Change-detection techniques in remote sensing (RS) and a geographic information system (GIS) were applied to quantify temporal and spatial dynamics of land cover changes. The overall accuracies, Kappa coefficients, and average annual increase rate or decrease rate of land cover classes were calculated to assess classification results and changing rate of land cover. The analysis revealed that major trends of the land cover changes were the notable growth of the oasis and the reduction of the desert-oasis ecotone, which led to accelerated soil salinization and plant deterioration within the oasis. These changes were mainly attributed to the intensified human activities. The results indicated that the newly created agricultural land along the margins of the Hotan oasis could result in more potential areas of land degradation. If no effective measures are taken against the deterioration of the oasis environment, soil erosion caused by land cover change may proceed. The trend of desert moving further inward and the shrinking of the ecotone may lead to potential risks to the eco-environment of the Hotan oasis over the next decades.

  19. Research priorities in land use and land-cover change for the Earth system and integrated assessment modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Pongratz, Julia; Rose, Steven K.; Betts, Richard; Herold, Martin; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2010-11-15

    This special issue has highlighted recent and innovative methods and results that integrate observations and AQ3 modelling analyses of regional to global aspect of biophysical and biogeochemical interactions of land-cover change with the climate system. Both the Earth System and the Integrated Assessment modeling communities recognize the importance of an accurate representation of land use and land-cover change to understand and quantify the interactions and feedbacks with the climate and socio-economic systems, respectively. To date, cooperation between these communities has been limited. Based on common interests, this work discusses research priorities in representing land use and land-cover change for improved collaboration across modelling, observing and measurement communities. Major research topics in land use and land-cover change are those that help us better understand (1) the interaction of land use and land cover with the climate system (e.g. carbon cycle feedbacks), (2) the provision of goods and ecosystem services by terrestrial (natural and anthropogenic) land-cover types (e.g. food production), (3) land use and management decisions and (4) opportunities and limitations for managing climate change (for both mitigation and adaptation strategies).

  20. Application of the Auto-Tuned Land Assimilation System (ATLAS) to ASCAT and SMOS soil moisture retrieval products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land data assimilations are typically based on highly uncertain assumptions regarding the statistical structure of observation and modeling errors. Left uncorrected, poor assumptions can degrade the quality of analysis products generated by land data assimilation systems. Recently, Crow and van de...

  1. Improved inflatable landing systems for low cost planetary landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northey, Dave; Morgan, Chris

    2003-11-01

    Inflatable landing systems have been traditionally perceived as a cost-effective solution to the problem of landing a spacecraft on a planetary surface. To date the systems used have all employed the approach of surrounding the lander with non-vented airbags where the lander bounces on impact a number of times until the impact energy is dissipated. However the reliability record of such systems is not at all good. This paper examines the problems involved in the use of non-vented airbags, and how these problems have been overcome by the use of vented airbags in terrestrial systems. Using a specific case study, it is shown that even the basic passive type of venting can give significant mass reductions. It is also shown that actively controlling the venting based on the landing scenario can further enhance the performance of vented airbags.

  2. Improved inflatable landing systems for low cost planetary landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northey, Dave; Morgan, Chris

    2006-10-01

    Inflatable landing systems have been traditionally perceived as a cost-effective solution to the problem of landing a spacecraft on a planetary surface. To date, the systems used have all employed the approach of surrounding the lander with non-vented airbags where the lander on impact bounces a number of times until the impact energy is dissipated. However, the reliability record of such systems is not at all good. This paper examines the problems involved in the use of non-vented airbags, and how these problems have been overcome by the use of vented airbags in terrestrial systems. Using a specific case study, it is shown that even the basic passive type of venting can give significant mass reductions. It is also shown that actively controlling the venting based on the landing scenario can further enhance the performance of vented airbags.

  3. A Stochastic Model for the Landing Dispersion of Hazard Detection and Avoidance Capable Flight Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, L.

    2014-06-01

    To support landing site assessments for HDA-capable flight systems and to facilitate trade studies between the potential HDA architectures versus the yielded probability of safe landing a stochastic landing dispersion model has been developed.

  4. ON FARM SYSTEM DESIGN AND OPERATION AND LAND MANAGEMENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation water is applied to agricultural crops by many different methods. Irrigation methods can be divided into three broad categories - surface, sprinkler, and micro-irrigation. Surface irrigation systems depend on gravity to spread the water across the surface of the land. Surface systems ar...

  5. Land use, land cover change analysis with multitemporal remote sensing data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Suzanchi; R. N. Sahoo; N. Kalra; S. Pandey

    2006-01-01

    Presently, unplanned changes of land use have become a major problem. Most land use changes occur without a clear and logical planning with little attention to their environmental impacts. In last four-decade, urban growth in Delhi has occurred rapidly in some unwanted direction and destroyed valuable agriculture lands in its surround. Rapid changes in land use \\/ cover occurring over

  6. GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayi; Huang, Xiangyu; Guan, Yifeng

    2008-07-01

    A pinpoint autonomous GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing is proposed. First, the descriptions of the mission outline for lunar soft landing are provided. Second, the GNC system design of the spacecraft is proposed. The baseline is a 3-axis stabilized system during all the phases of the mission. Orbit maneuvers are achieved by an assembled constant thrust or a throttleable main engine. The attitude control actuators are thrusters. The attitude and orbit determination is performed by sun sensors, star sensors, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), altimeter, velocimeter and lunar imaging sensors. Third, some proposed autonomous navigation and guidance methods including hazard detection and avoidance for lunar soft landing are analyzed. Finally, we draw some conclusions.

  7. Historical land use and soil analysis guiding corridor landscape design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Renee Keydoszius; S. Knight Cox; Mary B. Haque; Elena Mikhailova; Christopher J. Post; William C. Stringer; Mark A. Schlautman

    2007-01-01

    Changing land use from forested environments to agricultural and\\/or urban spaces dramatically alters soil chemical, physical,\\u000a and biological properties and thereby influences the survivability of landscape plants installed in these areas. This site\\u000a analysis was conducted along New Hope Road, in Pickens County, SC, to develop a sustainable landscape design for the greenway\\u000a corridor to buffer future cuttings of pines

  8. Land-surface processes and monsoon climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Differential thermal heating of land and ocean and heat release into the atmosphere are important factors that determine the onset, strength, duration and spatial distribution of large-scale monsoons. A global and seasonal assessment of land surface process (LSP) effects on the monsoon system has been made based on general circulation models (GCM) coupled to different benchmark land models, which physically represent either comprehensive, or partial, or minimal LSP representations. Observed precipitation is applied as constrain and differences in simulation error are used to assess the effect of the LSP with different complexity. The AGCM results indicate that the land/atmosphere interaction has substantial impact on global water cycle, while the monsoon regions have had strongest impact at intraseasonal to decadal scales. Among monsoon regions, West Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Amazon regions have largest impact while some monsoon regions have less impact due to strong air/sea interactions and narrow land mass. LSP reduces the annual precipitation error by 58% over global monsoon regions, about 35% observed precipitation. The partial LSP effect (excluding soil moisture and vegetation albedo) reduces annual precipitation error over monsoon region that equals to about 13% of observed precipitation. It has also been suggested that LSP contribute to the abrupt jump in latitude of the East Asian monsoon as well as general circulation turning in some monsoon regions in its early stages. The LSP effects have also been assessed in the land use land cover change experiment. Based on recently compiled global land-use data from 1948-2005, the GCM simulation results indicate the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produce substantial precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation anomalies. More comprehensive studies with multi-models are imperatively necessary.

  9. Land-surface processes and monsoon climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongkang; De Sales, Fernando; Lau, William; Boone, Arron; Mechoso, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Yongkang Xue, F. De Sales, B. Lau, A. Boone, C. R. Mechoso Differential thermal heating of land and ocean and heat release into the atmosphere are important factors that determine the onset, strength, duration and spatial distribution of large-scale monsoons. A global and seasonal assessment of land surface process (LSP) effects on the monsoon system has been made based on general circulation models (GCM) coupled to different benchmark land models, which physically represent either comprehensive, or partial, or minimal LSP representations. Observed precipitation is applied as constrain and differences in simulation error are used to assess the effect of the LSP with different complexity. The AGCM results indicate that the land/atmosphere interaction has substantial impact on global water cycle, while the monsoon regions have had strongest impact at intraseasonal to decadal scales. Among monsoon regions, West Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Amazon regions have largest impact while some monsoon regions have less impact due to strong air/sea interactions and narrow land mass there. LSP reduces the annual precipitation error by 58% over global monsoon regions, about 35% observed precipitation. The partial LSP effect (excluding soil moisture and vegetation albedo) reduces annual precipitation error over monsoon region that equals to about 13% of observed precipitation. The LSP affects the monsoon evolution through different mechanisms at different scales. It affects the surface energy balance and energy partitioning in latent and sensible heat, the atmospheric heating rate, and general circulation. The LSP effects have also been assessed in the land use land cover change experiment. Based on recently compiled global land-use data from 1948-2005, the GCM simulation results indicate the degradation in Mexico, West Africa, south and East Asia and South America produce substantial precipitation anomalies, some of which are consistent with observed regional precipitation anomalies. More comprehensive studies with multi-models are imperatively necessary.

  10. Verification of the Shuttle Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, M. E.; Harton, P. L.

    A Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System (MSBLS) is the principal sensor for Shuttle autoland operations. MSBLS azimuth, elevation, and distance measurements are provided for use by the Shuttle navigation system during this critical period of flight. Each MSBLS installation is subjected to a thorough evaluation, which begins with a precise alignment of the scanning beam antennas. Alignment is followed by aircraft flight tests with a laser tracker for reference position measurements. Coverage and accuracy models were developed and used to predict MSBLS performance for each of the Shuttle landings. An important part of this effort is the evaluation of MSBLS measurements that were made during the landing phase of recent orbital flights. Error estimates are made by comparing these measurements with a best estimate of the trajectory (BET).

  11. 150th Anniversary of the Morrill Act Establishing the American Land-Grant System and the University of Florida as Florida's 1862 Land-Grant University

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    150th Anniversary of the Morrill Act Establishing the American Land-Grant System and the University of Florida as Florida's 1862 Land-Grant University known as land-grant universities; and WHEREAS, the University of Florida

  12. Commercialization of the land remote sensing system: An examination of mechanisms and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, J. K.; Gaelick, C.; Greenberg, J. S.; Logsdon, J.; Monk, T.

    1983-01-01

    In September 1982 the Secretary of Commerce was authorized (by Title II of H.R. 5890 of the 97th Congress) to plan and provide for the management and operation of the civil land remote sensing satellite systems, to provide for user fees, and to plan for the transfer of the ownership and operation of future civil operational land remote sensing satellite systems to the private sector. As part of the planning for transfer, a number of approaches were to be compared including wholly private ownership and operation of the system by an entity competitively selected, mixed government/private ownership and operation, and a legislatively-chartered privately-owned corporation. The results of an analysis and comparison of a limited number of financial and organizational approaches for either transfer of the ownership and operation of the civil operational land remote sensing program to the private sector or government retention are presented.

  13. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM APPROACH FOR MALAYSIA LAND ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SYSTEM WITH SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halim Hamzah; Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff; Ahmad Rodzi Mahmud

    The Strategic Management Information System (SMIS) with integrated approach as a one of method to achieve the capability information system for organization such land administration. However, must concern several issue such as integrate legal and institutional infrastructures; governance & cross-government collaboration; structure and cultural management; and information security; from implementation of spatial data infrastructure for land administration information system at

  14. Modelling an Aircraft Landing System in Dominique Mery

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Modelling an Aircraft Landing System in Event-B Dominique M´ery Universit´e de Lorraine, LORIA BP validation techniques such as simulation and testing. The increasing complexity and failure rate brings new of an aircraft. The formal models include the complex behaviour, temporal behaviour and sequence of operations

  15. Low cost airborne microwave landing system receiver, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. B.; Vancleave, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Work performed on the low cost airborne Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is summarized. A detailed description of the prototype low cost MLS receiver is presented. This detail includes block diagrams, schematics, board assembly drawings, photographs of subassemblies, mechanical construction, parts lists, and microprocessor software. Test procedures are described and results are presented.

  16. Orion Landing and Recovery Systems Development - Government Contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machin, Ricardo A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's work in development of landing and recovery systems for the Orion space craft. It includes a review of the available tools and skills that assist in analyzing the aerodynamic decelerators. There is a description of the work that is being done on the Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) parachutes that will be used with the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)

  17. Development of a total landed cost and risk analysis model for global strategic sourcing

    E-print Network

    Feller, Brian (Brian C.)

    2008-01-01

    Total landed cost and supply chain risk analysis are methods that many companies use to assess strategic sourcing decisions. For this project, landed cost is defined as those costs associated with material movement from a ...

  18. Demand Analysis Concerning the Promised Land White and Chocolate Milk Brands in Texas

    E-print Network

    Bingham, David Eldon

    2013-05-03

    analysis of the Promised Land brand. Previous work conducted by Capps and Salin (2010) provided the foundation for this thesis. The purpose of this thesis was threefold: 1. Estimate household demand functions for Promised Land white and chocolate milk using...

  19. TOXIC ORGANIC VOLATILIZATION FROM LAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methodology was evaluated for estimating volatilization of toxic organic chemicals from unsaturated soils. Projections were compared with laboratory data for simulated rapid infiltration wastewater treatment systems receiving primary municipal wastewater spiked with a suite of 18...

  20. The development and application of a decision support system for land management in the Lake Tahoe Basin—The Land Use Simulation Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Oldham, I. Benson; Crescenti, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This report describes and applies the Land Use Simulation Model (LUSM), the final modeling product for the long-term decision support project funded by the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act and developed by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Western Geographic Science Center for the Lake Tahoe Basin. Within the context of the natural-resource management and anthropogenic issues of the basin and in an effort to advance land-use and land-cover change science, this report addresses the problem of developing the LUSM as a decision support system. It includes consideration of land-use modeling theory, fire modeling and disturbance in the wildland-urban interface, historical land-use change and its relation to active land management, hydrologic modeling and the impact of urbanization as related to the Lahontan Regional Water Quality Control Board’s recently developed Total Maximum Daily Load report for the basin, and biodiversity in urbanizing areas. The LUSM strives to inform land-management decisions in a complex regulatory environment by simulating parcel-based, land-use transitions with a stochastic, spatially constrained, agent-based model. The tool is intended to be useful for multiple purposes, including the multiagency Pathway 2007 regional planning effort, the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA) Regional Plan Update, and complementary research endeavors and natural-resource-management efforts. The LUSM is an Internet-based, scenario-generation decision support tool for allocating retired and developed parcels over the next 20 years. Because USGS staff worked closely with TRPA staff and their “Code of Ordinances” and analyzed datasets of historical management and land-use practices, this report accomplishes the task of providing reasonable default values for a baseline scenario that can be used in the LUSM. One result from the baseline scenario for the model suggests that all vacant parcels could be allocated within 12 years. Results also include: assessment of model functionality, brief descriptions of the 7 basic output tables, assessment of the rate of change in land-use allocation pools over time, locations and amounts of the spatially explicit probabilities of land-use transitions by real estate commodity, and analysis of the state change from today’s existing land cover to potential land uses in the future. Assumptions and limitations of the model are presented. This report concludes with suggested next steps to support the continued utility of the LUSM and additional research avenues.

  1. Photogrammetric Measurements of CEV Airbag Landing Attenuation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Berry, Felecia C.; Dismond, Harriett R.; Cate, Kenneth H.

    2008-01-01

    High-speed photogrammetric measurements are being used to assess the impact dynamics of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) for ground landing contingency upon return to earth. Test articles representative of the Orion capsule are dropped at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility onto a sand/clay mixture representative of a dry lakebed from elevations as high as 62 feet (18.9 meters). Two different types of test articles have been evaluated: (1) half-scale metal shell models utilized to establish baseline impact dynamics and soil characterization, and (2) geometric full-scale drop models with shock-absorbing airbags which are being evaluated for their ability to cushion the impact of the Orion CEV with the earth s surface. This paper describes the application of the photogrammetric measurement technique and provides drop model trajectory and impact data that indicate the performance of the photogrammetric measurement system.

  2. The KamLAND Full-Volume Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    KamLAND Collaboration; Berger, B. E.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Decowski, M. P.; Dwyer, D. A.; Elor, G.; Frank, A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Galloway, M.; Gray, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Keefer, G.; Lendvai, C.; McKee, D.; O'Donnell, T.; Piepke, A.; Steiner, H. M.; Syversrud, D.; Wallig, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Ebihara, T.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Owada, K.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Tamae, K.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Grant, C.; Leonard, D. S.; Luk, K.-B.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Zhang, C.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.

    2009-03-05

    We have successfully built and operated a source deployment system for the KamLAND detector. This system was used to position radioactive sources throughout the delicate 1-kton liquid scintillator volume, while meeting stringent material cleanliness, material compatibility, and safety requirements. The calibration data obtained with this device were used to fully characterize detector position and energy reconstruction biases. As a result, the uncertainty in the size of the detector fiducial volume was reduced by a factor of two. Prior to calibration with this system, the fiducial volume was the largest source of systematic uncertainty in measuring the number of antineutrinos detected by KamLAND. This paper describes the design, operation and performance of this unique calibration system.

  3. Load-limiting landing gear footpad energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Tsai, Ted

    1994-01-01

    As a precursor to future manned missions to the moon, an inexpensive, unmanned vehicle that could carry small, scientific payloads to the lunar surface was studied by NASA. The vehicle, called the Common Lunar Lander, required extremely optimized structural systems to increase the potential payload mass. A lightweight energy-absorbing system (LAGFEAS), which also acts as a landing load-limiter was designed to help achieve this optimized structure. Since the versatile and easily tailored system is a load-limiter, it allowed for the structure to be designed independently of the ever-changing landing energy predictions. This paper describes the LAGFEAS system and preliminary verification testing performed at NASA's Johnson Space Center for the Common Lunar Lander program.

  4. Multiscale Land surface feedbacks within agricultural and urban systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, D.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will first discuss the interplay between agricultural landscapes and regional hydroclimatology with particular emphasis on the US Corn Belt. Results and experiences from studies underway as part of a multistate project (Making Climate Information Useful 2 Usable- U2U) will be summarized. The presentation will also highlight experiences regarding the different challenges in developing the regional assessment and guidance regarding sustainable futures. Study results will also be compared with findings from other geographical regions where agriculture - climate linkages are stretching the limits of sustainable water use. A vulnerability framework that can be considered for such agriculture - climate - water links will also be presented. The second issue the presentation will discuss relates to the urban land surface feedbacks and efforts underway to guide efforts related to greening as well as regional landuse planning. The complex links between city structures, urban layouts, and regional climate will be synthesized and the framework regarding a decision support system that is being developed will be presented. Salient points of the modeling efforts, data challenges, and the need for linking multiple disciplines will be presented with special focus on droughts and the need for considering complex multiscale coupled interactions within the analysis.

  5. VITS-A Vision System for Autonomous Land Vehicle Navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW A. TURK; David G. Morgenthaler; Keith D. Gremban; Martin Marra

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of VITS (for vision task sequencer), the vision system for the autonomous land vehicle (ALV) Alvin, addressing in particular the task of road-following. The ALV vision system builds symbolic descriptions of road and obstacle boundaries using both video and range sensors. The authors discuss various road segmentation methods for video-based road-following, along with approaches to boundary

  6. SoftLanding Base-Isolation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Kusunoki; Masaomi Teshigawara

    \\u000a The authors are developing a new retrofitting method for low seismic performance buildings, especially for soft-first-story\\u000a buildings. The concept of the method is that the new column, which has the base-isolation system at its middle height, is\\u000a attached to the existing column by the compression force with PC bars. The existing column will fail in shear during an earthquake,\\u000a and

  7. 77 FR 2563 - Public Land Order No. 7787; Withdrawal of Public and National Forest System Lands in the Grand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...Forest System Lands in the Grand Canyon Watershed; Arizona AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...in order to protect the Grand Canyon Watershed from adverse effects of locatable mineral...in order to protect the Grand Canyon Watershed from adverse effects of locatable...

  8. Videometric terminal guidance method and system for UAV accurate landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiang; Lei, Zhihui; Yu, Qifeng; Zhang, Hongliang; Shang, Yang; Du, Jing; Gui, Yang; Guo, Pengyu

    2012-06-01

    We present a videometric method and system to implement terminal guidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) accurate landing. In the videometric system, two calibrated cameras attached to the ground are used, and a calibration method in which at least 5 control points are applied is developed to calibrate the inner and exterior parameters of the cameras. Cameras with 850nm spectral filter are used to recognize a 850nm LED target fixed on the UAV which can highlight itself in images with complicated background. NNLOG (normalized negative laplacian of gaussian) operator is developed for automatic target detection and tracking. Finally, 3-D position of the UAV with high accuracy can be calculated and transfered to control system to direct UAV accurate landing. The videometric system can work in the rate of 50Hz. Many real flight and static accuracy experiments demonstrate the correctness and veracity of the method proposed in this paper, and they also indicate the reliability and robustness of the system proposed in this paper. The static accuracy experiment results show that the deviation is less-than 10cm when target is far from the cameras and lessthan 2cm in 100m region. The real flight experiment results show that the deviation from DGPS is less-than 20cm. The system implement in this paper won the first prize in the AVIC Cup-International UAV Innovation Grand Prix, and it is the only one that achieved UAV accurate landing without GPS or DGPS.

  9. Theoretical analysis of the global land carbon cycle: what determines the trajectory of future carbon uptake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Smith, M. J.; Luo, Y.; Leite, M.; Agusto, F.; Chen, B.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.

    2013-12-01

    The global land surface has taken up about 29% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions since preindustrial times. Yet it remains uncertain whether this significant buffer to the effects of anthropogenic climate change will continue in future. Some models predict that the global land biosphere will remain a carbon sink by the end of this century, but others predict it to become a major source. It is therefore important to understand what causes this divergence in predictions. In this presentation, we combined numerical and mathematical analysis to reveal general behaviour of global land models. Our analysis is based on the recognition that the terrestrial carbon cycle generally can be mathematically expressed by a system of first-order linear ordinary differential equations subject to an initial condition as follows: dC/dt = x(t)AC+BU(t) with C(t=0)=C0 where C(t) is the C pool size, A is the C transfer matrix, U is the photosynthetic input, B is a vector of partitioning coefficients, C0 is the initial value of the C pool, and x is an environmental scalar. In this equation, the linear carbon transfer among pools within one ecosystem is represented by matrix A and vector B, and the nonlinearity of environmental influences is represented by environmental scalar x(t) on carbon transfer and U(t) for carbon influx. We investigate how important variation in parameters controlling terrestrial carbon cycling are for three key predictions of the dynamics of future land carbon: the maximum carbon uptake, Fmax, the number of years it takes to reach Fmax, tmax, and the year in which the land biosphere changes from a carbon sink to a source, t1 (if it happens). The parameters included the sensitivity of net primary production to atmospheric [CO2], ?, the temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition, Q10, and the sensitivity of global mean land surface to atmospheric [CO2],?. Our theoretical analyses reveal that a theoretical maximal amount carbon accumulated by land biosphere can be estimated from Fmax and the residence times of the different carbon pools, and that an estimate on the time it takes for the system to approach its new equilibrium can be obtained from the residence time of the slowest pool. Our numerical analyses reveal that a 3-D parameter space can bound the range of land carbon uptake trajectories from 1850 to 2100 predicted by all Earth System Models for the 5th assessment report of the IPCC. The maximal amount of carbon accumulated, tmax and t1 increases with ? and decreases with Q10 and ?. The sensitivities of all three model predictions to ? and Q10 increase with ? .

  10. Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, P.J.; Kohley, T.W.; Oakleaf, J.

    2000-01-01

    Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support systems could aid solution of this problem. We developed a pilot biodiversity expert systems tool (BEST) to test that hypothesis and learn what additional scientific and technological advancements are required for broad implementation of such a system. BEST uses data from the U.S. Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and other data in a desktop GIS environment. The system provides predictions of conflict between proposed land uses and biotic elements and is intended for use at the start of the development review process. Key challenges were the development of categorization systems that relate named land-use types to ecological impacts, and relate sensitivities of biota to ecological impact levels. Although the advent of GAP and sophisticated desktop GIS make such a system feasible for broad implementation, considerable ongoing research is required to make the results of such a system scientifically sound, informative, and reliable for the regulatory process. We define a role for local government involvement in biodiversity impact assessment, the need for a biodiversity decision support system, the development of a prototype system, and scientific needs for broad implementation of a robust and reliable system.

  11. Implementation of pin point landing vision components in an FPGA system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arin Morfopolous; Brandon Metz; Carlos Villalpando; Larry Matthies; Navid Serrano

    2011-01-01

    Pin-point landing is required to enable missions to land close, typically within 10 meters, to scientifically important targets in generally hazardous terrain. In Pin Point Landing both high accuracy and high speed estimation of position and orientation is needed to provide input to the control system to safely choose and navigate to a safe landing site. A proposed algorithm called

  12. Farmers' responses to land transfer under the household responsibility system in Chongqing (China): a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing'an Shao; Chaofu Wei; Deti Xie; Jiyuan Liu

    2007-01-01

    Chinese farmers are traditionally family-centered in their thinking and behavior and are passionately attached to their land. In a market economy, farmers are the principal agents in agricultural land use, and are directly involved in the allocation of land resources. In the present study, we intended to acquire reasonable interpretations of land transfer under the household responsibility system (HRS) from

  13. Land-mobile satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Tsun-Yee (Inventor); Rafferty, William (Inventor); Dessouky, Khaled I. (Inventor); Wang, Charles C. (Inventor); Cheng, Unjeng (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A satellite communications system includes an orbiting communications satellite for relaying communications to and from a plurality of ground stations, and a network management center for making connections via the satellite between the ground stations in response to connection requests received via the satellite from the ground stations, the network management center being configured to provide both open-end service and closed-end service. The network management center of one embodiment is configured to provides both types of service according to a predefined channel access protocol that enables the ground stations to request the type of service desired. The channel access protocol may be configured to adaptively allocate channels to open-end service and closed-end service according to changes in the traffic pattern and include a free-access tree algorithm that coordinates collision resolution among the ground stations.

  14. Land

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The solid Earth is the foundation upon which the entire system rests, and provides the critical substrate and reservoir of raw materials the rest of the system. The solid Earth also records the past in the ...

  15. Digital photogrammetric analysis of the IMP camera images: Mapping the Mars Pathfinder landing site in three dimensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Kirk; E. Howington-Kraus; T. Hare; E. Dorrer; D. Cook; K. Becker; K. Thompson; B. Redding; J. Blue; D. Galuszka; E. M. Lee; L. R. Gaddis; J. R. Johnson; L. A. Soderblom; A. W. Ward; P. H. Smith; D. T. Britt

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes our photogrammetric analysis of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder data, part of a broader program of mapping the Mars Pathfinder landing site in support of geoscience investigations. This analysis, carried out primarily with a commercial digital photogrammetric system, supported by our in-house Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS), consists of three steps: (1) geometric control: simultaneous

  16. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands...continued nationwide aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands...The Forest Service is working to restore fire-adapted ecosystems through...

  17. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Koryanov, Valeri; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valeri; Martynov, Maxim; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Victor; Martin, Susana

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface. Our development and assessments show clearly that this kind of inflatable technology originally developed for the Martian atmosphere, is feasible for use by Earth entry and descent applications. The preliminary results are highly promising indicating that the current Mars probe design could be used as it is for the Earth. According tp our analyses, the higher atmospheric pressure at an altitude of 12 km and less requires an additional pressurizing device for the in atable system increasing the entry mass by approximately 2 kg. These analyses involved the calculation of 120 different atmospheric entry and descent trajectories. The analysis of the existing technologies and current trends have indicated that the kind of inflatable technology pursued by RITD has high potential to enhance the European space technology expertise. This kind of technology is clearly feasible for utilization by Earth entry and descent applications.

  18. An approach based on spatial multicriteria analysis to map the nature conservation value of agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Geneletti, Davide

    2007-04-01

    Knowledge of the nature conservation value of agricultural land provides a useful input to land-use planning. However, the scarcity of suitable data causes this component to rarely play a role. The paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data to assess the nature conservation value of agricultural landscapes, and to generate cartographic results to be used as decision variables in planning. The approach relies on landscape ecological indicators and on the application of multicriteria analysis in a Geographical Information System (GIS) context. Four criteria were selected: the agricultural landscape type, the cover of vegetation remnants and marginal features, the length of forest-agriculture ecotones, and the proximity to nature reserves. These criteria were assessed directly or by means of specific indicators, generating maps that were subsequently aggregated through spatial multicriteria analysis. The approach was tested in an alpine area located in Trentino (northern Italy). PMID:16806658

  19. Airborne antenna polarization study for the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilreath, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the microwave landing system (MLS) airborne antenna pattern coverage requirements are investigated for a large commercial aircraft using a single omnidirectional antenna. Omnidirectional antennas having vertical and horizontal polarizations were evaluated at several different station locations on a one-eleventh scale model Boeing 737 aircraft. The results obtained during this experimental program are presented which include principal plane antenna patterns and complete volumetric coverage plots.

  20. Landing dispersions for the Commercial Experiment Transporter Recovery System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd J. McCusker; Steven M. Hill

    1993-01-01

    This document records the three standard deviations (3-sigma) landing dispersions for the Commercial Experiment Transporter Recovery System as determined through comprehensive Monte Carlo trajectory simulations. A combination of exoatmospheric three-degree-of-freedom simulation and endoatmospheric six-degree-of-freedom simulation was used. Results are presented for deorbits from the expected high, low, and nominal orbit altitudes, as well as two more eccentric orbits. Significant and

  1. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands. 2650.4-6...Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every...which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to...

  2. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands. 2650.4-6...Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every...which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to...

  3. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands. 2650.4-6...Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every...which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to...

  4. 43 CFR 2650.4-6 - National wildlife refuge system lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National wildlife refuge system lands. 2650.4-6...Generally § 2650.4-6 National wildlife refuge system lands. (a) Every...which includes lands within the national wildlife refuge system shall, as to...

  5. A satellite system for land-mobile communications in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.; Rogard, R.

    1988-05-01

    There exists a great unsatisified demand for land mobile communications in Europe, particularly in sectors of business activity such as the road transport industry. This demand could best be satisfied by means of satellite-based private networks providing voice and data communications in a hub configuration. The potential market is estimated to encompass several hundred thousand road vehicles and the transmission capacity required would be several thousand channels. ESA is currently demonstrating the potential of satellite communications for this type of application, using a system called PRODAT. System studies are being performed with the aim of defining the architecture of a regional satellite system for Europe.

  6. Land Use and Land Cover Baseline Report

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Land Use and Land Cover Baseline Report September 2012 Data and analysis of land use and land cover of the findings of land use and land cover mapping in the South Department of Haiti a baseline measurement of land cover and land use conditions in the region

  7. Scaling Water and Energy Fluxes in Climate Systems: Three Land-Atmospheric Modeling Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric F. Wood; Venkataraman Lakshmi

    1993-01-01

    The effects of small-scale heterogeneity in land-surface characteristics on the large-scale fluxes of water and energy in the land-atmosphere system have become a central focus of many of the climatology research experiments. The acquisition of high-resolution land-surface data through remote sensing and intensive land-climatology field experiments (like HAPEX and EIFE) has provided data to investigate the interactions between microscale land-atmosphere

  8. Analysis of continuous GPS measurements from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Several years of continuous data have been collected at remote bedrock Global Positioning System (GPS) sites in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Annual to sub-annual variations are observed in the position time-series. An atmospheric pressure loading (APL) effect is calculated from pressure field anomalies supplied by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model loading an elastic Earth model. The predicted APL signal has a moderate correlation with the vertical position time-series at McMurdo, Ross Island (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) station MCM4), produced using a global solution. In contrast, a local solution in which MCM4 is the fiducial site generates a vertical time series for a remote site in Victoria Land (Cape Roberts, ROB4) which exhibits a low, inverse correlation with the predicted atmospheric pressure loading signal. If, in the future, known and well modeled geophysical loads can be separated from the time-series, then local hydrological loading, of interest for glaciological and climate applications, can potentially be extracted from the GPS time-series.

  9. Landing impact studies of a 0.3-scale model air cushion landing system for a Navy fighter airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leland, T. J. W.; Thompson, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in order to determine the landing-impact behavior of a 0.3-scale, dynamically (but not physically) similar model of a high-density Navy fighter equipped with an air cushion landing system. The model was tested over a range of landing contact attitudes at high forward speeds and sink rates on a specialized test fixture at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The investigation indicated that vertical acceleration at landing impact was highly dependent on the pitch angle at ground contact, the higher acceleration of approximately 5g occurring near zero body-pitch attitude. A limited number of low-speed taxi tests were made in order to determine model stability characteristics. The model was found to have good pitch-damping characteristics but stability in roll was marginal.

  10. Precipitation, Recycling, and Land Memory: An Integrated Analysis

    E-print Network

    Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    A synthesis of several approaches to quantifying land–atmosphere interactions is presented. These approaches use data from observations or atmospheric reanalyses applied to atmospheric tracer models and stand-alone land ...

  11. Advancing Our Understanding of the Impacts of Historic and Projected Land Use in the Earth System: The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, D. M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Brovkin, V.; Calvin, K. V.; de Noblet-Ducoudre, N.; Jones, C.; Pongratz, J.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Shevliakova, E.

    2014-12-01

    Earth System Models (ESMs) are including increasingly comprehensive treatments of land use and land management, representing not only land cover change, but also land use in the form of prognostic crop and pasture models, irrigation, fertilization, wood harvest, and urbanization. The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) is a new (proposed) satellite-MIP within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) that is designed to address the following main science questions: (1) What are the effects of land use and land-use change on climate (past-future)? (2) What are the effects of climate change on land-use and land-use change? (3) Are there regional land management strategies with promise to help mitigate and adapt to climate change? LUMIP will coordinate across existing land use change projects such as LUCID, AgMIP, GSWP3, Trendy, and LUC4C. LUMIP encompasses three major activities: (1) input and output data harmonization and standardization, (2) development of model metrics to assess ESM performance with respect to the impact of land use on climate and carbon cycling, and (3) design and execution of a concise set of land model and ESM experiments for assessment of the impacts of historic and projected land use on the climate system and to separate effects of fossil fuel vs. land use, biogeochemical vs biogeophysical processes, and land cover vs land management. Preliminary results from idealized model experiments will be presented.

  12. Microwave landing system modeling with application to air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulose, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Compared to the current instrument landing system, the microwave landing system (MLS), which is in the advanced stage of implementation, can potentially provide significant fuel and time savings as well as more flexibility in approach and landing functions. However, the expanded coverage and increased accuracy requirements of the MLS make it more susceptible to the features of the site in which it is located. An analytical approach is presented for evaluating the multipath effects of scatterers that are commonly found in airport environments. The approach combines a multiplane model with a ray-tracing technique and a formulation for estimating the electromagnetic fields caused by the antenna array in the presence of scatterers. The model is applied to several airport scenarios. The reduced computational burden enables the scattering effects on MLS position information to be evaluated in near real time. Evaluation in near real time would permit the incorporation of the modeling scheme into air traffic control automation; it would adaptively delineate zones of reduced accuracy within the MLS coverage volume, and help establish safe approach and takeoff trajectories in the presence of uneven terrain and other scatterers.

  13. Human Planetary Landing System (HPLS) Capability Roadmap: Wrap Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Rob

    2005-01-01

    When and how does the full scale system and subsystems need to be qualified & Human-rated for flight? Answer: No later than 29. Full scale AEDL Flight Tests can and should be done at Earth (need to get fast turn around between multiple tests). Do we need a Full Scale Validation Flight Test at Mars? Answer: Not, specifically, but the AEDL community is very uncomfortable with the notion of the very first full scale AEDL being piloted. The full scale unpiloted AEDL advance cargo mission that immediately precedes the human landing could do the trick. What kind of precursor AEDL Flight Tests are needed at Mars? Answer: We need to validate our performance & aerodynamic models by flying a scaled (1/10th?) version of the Full Scale Mission by 22. When and how do we decide on the AEDL system to fly? Answer: No later than 2015 (earlier is harder). We need to do multi-path full scale flight simulations and subscale / component development testing starting ASAP. If we find an AEDL for a landing mass of 40 MT, will this same architecture and technology paradigm extend to landing 80 MT? 120 MT? Is there another break point? Answer: We do not know yet.

  14. Development of a New Geospatial Data Sharing/overlay System for Land Environmental Studies - Ceres GAIA -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateishi, R.; Sri Sumantyo, J. T.; Miyazaki, A.; Sumitani, H.

    2012-07-01

    A new geospatial data sharing/overlay system, CEReS Gaia, has developed. The purpose of the system development is to promote land surface environmental studies. The system has developed to meet the requirements by academic users who wish easy data analysis by using his/her own data with existing other data. The system has the following features; a) internationally unlimited expansion of servers, b) multi-language capability (currently, only English), c) free access without user registration, d) data upload/download by registered users, e) capability to overlay user's data on other registered data, f) option of open or selective data distribution.

  15. Topographic Analysis of the Proposed Landing Area of Sinus Iridum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, X. D.; Liu, J. J.; Mou, L. L.; Ren, X.; Li, K.; Zhao, J. J.; Liu, Y. X.; Li, C. L.

    2012-09-01

    The Chinese first lunar lander/rover Chang'E-3 is planned to land on the Sinus Iridum landing area in 2013. Using the Chang'E-2 CCD image data, we analyzed the topographic features of the proposed landing area.

  16. A stop-sign-recognition system for an autonomous land-vehicle 

    E-print Network

    Bergenback, Bruce Edward

    1989-01-01

    . Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, 1983. 45 (28, , 29 [30] B. D. Mysliwetz and E. D. Dickmanns. "Distributed scene analysis for au- tonornous road vehicle guidance, " in Mobile Robots II, SPIE, Vol. 852, Cam- bridge, MA, 1987, pp. 72...A STOP SIGN RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR AN AUTONOMOUS LAND-VEHICLE A Thesis by BRUCE EDWARD BERGENBACH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies oi' Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  17. Seasonal-scale Observational Data Analysis and Atmospheric Phenomenology for the Cold Land Processes Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulos, Gregory S.; Stamus, Peter A.; Snook, John S.

    2005-01-01

    The Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) experiment emphasized the development of a strong synergism between process-oriented understanding, land surface models and microwave remote sensing. Our work sought to investigate which topographically- generated atmospheric phenomena are most relevant to the CLPX MSA's for the purpose of evaluating their climatic importance to net local moisture fluxes and snow transport through the use of high-resolution data assimilation/atmospheric numerical modeling techniques. Our task was to create three long-term, scientific quality atmospheric datasets for quantitative analysis (for all CLPX researchers) and provide a summary of the meteorologically-relevant phenomena of the three MSAs (see Figure) over northern Colorado. Our efforts required the ingest of a variety of CLPX datasets and the execution an atmospheric and land surface data assimilation system based on the Navier-Stokes equations (the Local Analysis and Prediction System, LAPS, and an atmospheric numerical weather prediction model, as required) at topographically- relevant grid spacing (approx. 500 m). The resulting dataset will be analyzed by the CLPX community as a part of their larger research goals to determine the relative influence of various atmospheric phenomena on processes relevant to CLPX scientific goals.

  18. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Stardust Re-Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desao, Prasun N.; Lyons, Dan T.; Tooley, Jeff; Kangas, Julie

    2006-01-01

    On the morning of January 15, 2006, the Stardust capsule successfully landed at the Utah Test and Training range in northwest Utah returning cometary samples from the comet Wild-2. An overview of the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) trajectory analysis that was performed for targeting during the Stardust Mission Navigation Operations Phase upon final approach to Earth is described. In addition, how the predicted landing location and the resulting overall 99 percentile landing footprint ellipse obtained from a Monte Carlo analysis changed over the final days and hours prior to entry is also presented. The navigation and EDL operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.1 km from the target, which was well within the allowable landing area.

  19. Normalising impacts in an environmental systems analysis of wastewater systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kärrman; H. Jönsson

    In an environmental systems analysis of four wastewater systems, the environmental aspects were prioritised by normalisation of predicted impacts from the studied systems to the total impacts from society. Priority Group 1 (highest priority) consisted of discharges (flows) of nitrogen, cadmium, lead and mercury to water, recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus to arable land and flows of heavy metals to

  20. Integrated Display System for Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beskenis, Sharon Otero; Green, David F., Jr.; Hyer, Paul V.; Johnson, Edward J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the software products and system architectures developed by Lockheed Martin in support of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) program at NASA Langley Research Center. It presents an overview of the technical aspects, capabilities, and system integration issues associated with an integrated display system (IDS) that collects, processes and presents information to an aircraft flight crew during all phases of landing, roll-out, turn-off, inbound taxi, outbound taxi and takeoff. Communications hardware, drivers, and software provide continuous real-time data at varying rates and from many different sources to the display programs for presentation on a head-down display (HDD) and/or a head-up display (HUD). An electronic moving map of the airport surface is implemented on the HDD which includes the taxi route assigned by air traffic control, a text messaging system, and surface traffic and runway status information. Typical HUD symbology for navigation and control of the aircraft is augmented to provide aircraft deceleration guidance after touchdown to a pilot selected exit and taxi guidance along the route assigned by ATC. HUD displays include scene-linked symbolic runways, runway exits and taxiways that are conformal with the actual locations on the airport surface. Display formats, system architectures, and the various IDS programs are discussed.

  1. The phylogeny of land plants: A cladistic analysis based on male gametogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Garbary; Karen S. Renzaglia; Jeffrey G. Duckett

    1993-01-01

    A cladistic analysis was carried out to resolve phylogenetic pattern among bryophytes and other land plants. The analysis used 22 taxa of land plants and 90 characters relating to male gametogenesis.Coleochaete orChara\\/Nitella were the outgroups in various analyses using HENNIG86, PAUP, and MacClade, and the land plant phylogeny was unchanged regardless of outgroup utilized. The most parsimonious cladograms from HENNIG86

  2. Satellite-aided land mobile communications system implementation considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, B. E.

    1982-01-01

    It was proposed that a satellite-based land mobile radio system could effectively extend the terrestrial cellular mobile system into rural and remote areas. The market, technical and economic feasibility for such a system is studied. Some of the aspects of implementing an operational mobile-satellite system are discussed. In particular, two key factors in implementation are examined: (1) bandwidth requirements; and (2) frequency sharing. Bandwidth requirements are derived based on the satellite antenna requirements, modulation characteristics and numbers of subscribers. Design trade-offs for the satellite system and potential implementation scenarios are identified. Frequency sharing is examined from a power flux density and modulation viewpoint. Previously announced in STAR as N82-25290

  3. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Development Challenges and Preliminary Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent, and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview of the MSL entry, descent, and landing system, a discussion of a subset of its development challenges, and include a discussion of preliminary results of the flight reconstruction effort.

  4. A web-based system for supporting global land cover data production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gang; Chen, Jun; He, Chaoying; Li, Songnian; Wu, Hao; Liao, Anping; Peng, Shu

    2015-05-01

    Global land cover (GLC) data production and verification process is very complicated, time consuming and labor intensive, requiring huge amount of imagery data and ancillary data and involving many people, often from different geographic locations. The efficient integration of various kinds of ancillary data and effective collaborative classification in large area land cover mapping requires advanced supporting tools. This paper presents the design and development of a web-based system for supporting 30-m resolution GLC data production by combining geo-spatial web-service and Computer Support Collaborative Work (CSCW) technology. Based on the analysis of the functional and non-functional requirements from GLC mapping, a three tiers system model is proposed with four major parts, i.e., multisource data resources, data and function services, interactive mapping and production management. The prototyping and implementation of the system have been realised by a combination of Open Source Software (OSS) and commercially available off-the-shelf system. This web-based system not only facilitates the integration of heterogeneous data and services required by GLC data production, but also provides online access, visualization and analysis of the images, ancillary data and interim 30 m global land-cover maps. The system further supports online collaborative quality check and verification workflows. It has been successfully applied to China's 30-m resolution GLC mapping project, and has improved significantly the efficiency of GLC data production and verification. The concepts developed through this study should also benefit other GLC or regional land-cover data production efforts.

  5. During an autoland flight test of Stanford's Integrity Beacon Landing System in October 1994, one approach

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    involved navigating a Boeing 737 airliner down a precision approach to a fully automatic landing, resulting in 110 successful automatic landings [1]. One landing approach was aborted due to a brief loss high-elevation satellites before each approach. Our postflight analysis showed that both our airborne

  6. Mars Science Laboratory: Entry, Descent, and Landing System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.; Chen, Allen; Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, Alejandro M.; Burkhart, Paul D.; mendeck, Gavin F.

    2006-01-01

    In 2010, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. To do so, MSL will fly a guided lifting entry at a lift-to-drag ratio in excess of that ever flown at Mars, deploy the largest parachute ever at Mars, and perform a novel Sky Crane maneuver. Through improved altitude capability, increased latitude coverage, and more accurate payload delivery, MSL is allowing the science community to consider the exploration of previously inaccessible regions of the planet. The MSL EDL system is a new EDL architecture based on Viking heritage technologies and designed to meet the challenges of landing increasing massive payloads on Mars. In accordance with level-1 requirements, the MSL EDL system is being designed to land an 850 kg rover to altitudes as high as 1 km above the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter defined areoid within 10 km of the desired landing site. Accordingly, MSL will enter the largest entry mass, fly the largest 70 degree sphere-cone aeroshell, generate the largest hypersonic lift-to-drag ratio, and deploy the largest Disk-Gap-Band supersonic parachute of any previous mission to Mars. Major EDL events include a hypersonic guided entry, supersonic parachute deploy and inflation, subsonic heatshield jettison, terminal descent sensor acquisition, powered descent initiation, sky crane terminal descent, rover touchdown detection, and descent stage flyaway. Key performance metrics, derived from level-1 requirements and tracked by the EDL design team to indicate performance capability and timeline margins, include altitude and range at parachute deploy, time on radar, and propellant use. The MSL EDL system, which will continue to develop over the next three years, will enable a notable extension in the advancement of Mars surface science by delivering more science capability than ever before to the surface of Mars. This paper describes the current MSL EDL system performance as predicted by end-to-end EDL simulations, highlights the sensitivity of this baseline performance to several key environmental assumptions, and discusses some of the challenges faced in delivering such an unprecedented rover payload to the surface of Mars.

  7. REDUCING STORMWATER RUNOFF THROUGH LAND SUITABILITY ANALYSIS AND LOW-IMPACT SUBDIVISION DESIGN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We demonstrate an approach to reduce the anticipated increase in stormwater runoff from development under conventional subdivision design by incorporating hydrologic factors into a land suitability analysis and a low-impact subdivision design. A typical land suitability analysis assesses attributes ...

  8. Development of land based radar polarimeter processor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronke, C. W.; Blanchard, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The processing subsystem of a land based radar polarimeter was designed and constructed. This subsystem is labeled the remote data acquisition and distribution system (RDADS). The radar polarimeter, an experimental remote sensor, incorporates the RDADS to control all operations of the sensor. The RDADS uses industrial standard components including an 8-bit microprocessor based single board computer, analog input/output boards, a dynamic random access memory board, and power supplis. A high-speed digital electronics board was specially designed and constructed to control range-gating for the radar. A complete system of software programs was developed to operate the RDADS. The software uses a powerful real time, multi-tasking, executive package as an operating system. The hardware and software used in the RDADS are detailed. Future system improvements are recommended.

  9. Carbon balances during land conversion in early bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenone, T.; Chen, J.; Gelfand, I.; Robertson, G. P.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we established a field experiment and deployed seven eddy-covariance towers to quantify the roles of land use change and the subsequent carbon (C) balances of three different bioenergy systems (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie species) that were developed from two historical land use types: monocultural grasslands dominated by smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) and lands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Three CRP fields and three cropland fields were converted to soybean in 2009 (conversion year) before establishing the cellulosic biofuel cropping systems in 2010 (establishment year). A CRP perennial grassland site was kept undisturbed as a reference. Conversion of CRP to soybean induced net C emissions during the conversion year (134 -262 g C m-2 yr-1), while in the same year the net C balance at the CRP grassland reference was -35 g C m-2 yr-1 (i.e., net C sequestration). The establishment of switchgrass and mixed prairie induced a cumulative C balance of -113 g C m-2 (switchgrass from CRP), 250 g C m-2 (switchgrass from cropland), 706 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from CRP), and 59 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from cropland) over the three-year study period. The cumulative three-year C balance of corn converted from CRP and from cropland was -151 g C m-2 and -183 g C m-2, respectively. Eddy flux measurements during cellulosic biofuel crop establishment reveal annual changes in C balance that cannot be detected using conventional mass balance approaches. When end-use of harvested biomass was considered, the C balances for all studied systems, except the reference site, exhibited large C emissions ranging from 150 to 990 g C m-2 over the three-year conversion phase.

  10. Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis. Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to establish the Simulation Framework for Rapid Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Analysis assessment, which involved development of an enhanced simulation architecture using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) simulation tool. The assessment was requested to enhance the capability of the Agency to provide rapid evaluation of EDL characteristics in systems analysis studies, preliminary design, mission development and execution, and time-critical assessments. Many of the new simulation framework capabilities were developed to support the Agency EDL Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) team, that is conducting studies of the technologies and architectures that are required to enable higher mass robotic and human mission to Mars. The appendices to the original report are contained in this document.

  11. Regional land salinization assessment and simulation through cellular automaton-Markov modeling and spatial pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, De; Lin, Zhulu; Liu, Liming

    2012-11-15

    Land salinization and desalinization are complex processes affected by both biophysical and human-induced driving factors. Conventional approaches of land salinization assessment and simulation are either too time consuming or focus only on biophysical factors. The cellular automaton (CA)-Markov model, when coupled with spatial pattern analysis, is well suited for regional assessments and simulations of salt-affected landscapes since both biophysical and socioeconomic data can be efficiently incorporated into a geographic information system framework. Our hypothesis set forth that the CA-Markov model can serve as an alternative tool for regional assessment and simulation of land salinization or desalinization. Our results suggest that the CA-Markov model, when incorporating biophysical and human-induced factors, performs better than the model which did not account for these factors when simulating the salt-affected landscape of the Yinchuan Plain (China) in 2009. In general, the CA-Markov model is best suited for short-term simulations and the performance of the CA-Markov model is largely determined by the availability of high-quality, high-resolution socioeconomic data. The coupling of the CA-Markov model with spatial pattern analysis provides an improved understanding of spatial and temporal variations of salt-affected landscape changes and an option to test different soil management scenarios for salinity management. PMID:23085467

  12. Analysis of Links Positions in Landing Gear Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewczy?ski, D.; Tora, G.

    2014-08-01

    This article contains a kinematic analysis of an aircraft chassis mechanism in a range of positions. The mechanism of the chassis is made up of several smaller subsystems with different functions. The first mechanism is used to eject the chassis before landing (touchdown) and fold it to hatchway after the lift off. The second mechanism is designed to perform rotation of the crossover with the wheel, in order to adjust the position of the wheel to fit it in the limited space in the hold. The third mechanism allows movement of the chassis resulting from the change in length of the damper. To determine the position of the following links of the mechanism calculus of vectors was applied in which unit vectors were used to represent the angular position of the links. The aim of the analysis is to determine the angle of convergence and the angle of heel wheels as a function of the variable length of hydraulic cylinder, length of the shock absorber, length of the regulations rods

  13. Sustainability analysis of bioenergy based land use change under climate change and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.; Brouder, S. M.; Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Frankenberger, J.; Goforth, R. R.; Gramig, B. M.; Volenec, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability analyses of futuristic plausible land use and climate change scenarios are critical in making watershed-scale decisions for simultaneous improvement of food, energy and water management. Bioenergy production targets for the US are anticipated to impact farming practices through the introduction of fast growing and high yielding perennial grasses/trees, and use of crop residues as bioenergy feedstocks. These land use/land management changes raise concern over potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crop production scenarios, both in terms of water availability and water quality; impacts that may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. The objective of the study was to assess environmental, economic and biodiversity sustainability of plausible bioenergy scenarios for two watersheds in Midwest US under changing climate scenarios. The study considers fourteen sustainability indicators under nine climate change scenarios from World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3). The distributed hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to simulate perennial bioenergy crops such as Miscanthus and switchgrass, and corn stover removal at various removal rates and their impacts on hydrology and water quality. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) developed to evaluate stream fish response to hydrology and water quality changes associated with land use change were used to quantify biodiversity sustainability of various bioenergy scenarios. The watershed-scale sustainability analysis was done in the St. Joseph River watershed located in Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio; and the Wildcat Creek watershed, located in Indiana. The results indicate streamflow reduction at watershed outlet with increased evapotranspiration demands for high-yielding perennial grasses. Bioenergy crops in general improved in-stream water quality compared to conventional cropping systems (maize-soybean). Water quality benefits due to land use change were generally greater than the effects of climate change variability.

  14. Land Data Assimilation of Satellite-Based Soil Moisture Products Using the Land Information System Over the NLDAS Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mocko, David M.; Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will include results from data assimilation simulations using the NASA-developed Land Information System (LIS). Using the ensemble Kalman filter in LIS, two satellite-based soil moisture products from the AMSR-E instrument were assimilated, one a NASA-based product and the other from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM). The domain and land-surface forcing data from these simulations were from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase-2, over the period 2002-2008. The Noah land-surface model, version 3.2, was used during the simulations. Changes to estimates of land surface states, such as soil moisture, as well as changes to simulated runoff/streamflow will be presented. Comparisons over the NLDAS domain will also be made to two global reference evapotranspiration (ET) products, one an interpolated product based on FLUXNET tower data and the other a satellite- based algorithm from the MODIS instrument. Results of an improvement metric show that assimilating the LPRM product improved simulated ET estimates while the NASA-based soil moisture product did not.

  15. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  16. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Alexashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2012-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behaviour of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyse and test the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favourable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  17. Method and Early Results of Applying the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) in the Third Global Reanalysis of NCEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J.; Mitchell, K.; Wei, H.; Yang, R.; Kumar, S.; Geiger, J.; Xie, P.

    2008-05-01

    Over the past several years, the Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the U.S. National Weather Service has developed a Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). For its computational infrastructure, the GLDAS applies the NASA Land Information System (LIS), developed by the Hydrological Science Branch of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The land model utilized in the NCEP GLDAS is the NCEP Noah Land Surface Model (Noah LSM). This presentation will 1) describe how the GLDAS component has been included in the development of NCEP's third global reanalysis (with special attention to the input sources of global precipitation), and 2) will present results from the GLDAS component of pilot tests of the new NCEP global reanalysis. Unlike NCEP's past two global reanalysis projects, this new NCEP global reanalysis includes both a global land data assimilation system (GLDAS) and a global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS). The new global reanalysis will span 30-years (1979-2008) and will include a companion realtime operational component. The atmospheric, ocean, and land states of this global reanalysis will provide the initial conditions for NCEP's 3rd- generation global coupled Climate Forecast System (CFS). NCEP is now preparing to launch a 28-year seasonal reforecast project with its new CFS, to provide the reforecast foundation for operational NCEP seasonal climate forecasts using the new CFS. Together, the new global reanalysis and companion CFS reforecasts constitute what NCEP calls the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis and Reforecast (CFSRR) project. Compared to the previous two generations of NCEP global reanalysis, the hallmark of the GLDAS component of CFSRR is GLDAS use of global analyses of observed precipitation to drive the land surface component of the reanalysis (rather than the typical reanalysis approach of using precipitation from the assimilating background atmospheric model). Specifically, the GLDAS merges two global analyses of observed precipitation produced by the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) of NCEP, as follows: 1) a new CPC daily gauge-only land-only global precipitation analysis at 0.5-degree resolution and 2) the well-known CPC CMAP global 2.0 x 2.5 degree 5-day precipitation analysis, which utilizes satellite estimates of precipitation, as well as some gauge observations. The presentation will describe how these two analyses are merged with latitude-dependent weights that favor the gauge-only analysis in mid-latitudes and the satellite-dominated CMAP analysis in tropical latitudes. Finally, we will show some impacts of using GLDAS to initialize the land states of seasonal CFS reforecasts, versus using the previous generation of NCEP global reanalysis as the source for CFS initial land states.

  18. Navigation for space shuttle approach and landing using an inertial navigation system augmented by data from a precision ranging system or a microwave scan beam landing guidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Smith, G. L.; Hegarty, D. M.; Merrick, R. B.; Carson, T. M.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1970-01-01

    A preliminary study has been made of the navigation performance which might be achieved for the high cross-range space shuttle orbiter during final approach and landing by using an optimally augmented inertial navigation system. Computed navigation accuracies are presented for an on-board inertial navigation system augmented (by means of an optimal filter algorithm) with data from two different ground navigation aids; a precision ranging system and a microwave scanning beam landing guidance system. These results show that augmentation with either type of ground navigation aid is capable of providing a navigation performance at touchdown which should be adequate for the space shuttle. In addition, adequate navigation performance for space shuttle landing is obtainable from the precision ranging system even with a complete dropout of precision range measurements as much as 100 seconds before touchdown.

  19. Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    de Ridder, Nico; de Jager, Andre; Delve, Robert J.; Bekunda, Mateete A.; Giller, Ken E.

    2010-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone changes in land use, productivity and sustainability. Understanding of the drivers that have led to changes in land use in these systems and factors that influence the systems’ sustainability is useful to guide appropriate targeting of intervention strategies for improvement. We studied low input Teso farming systems in eastern Uganda from 1960 to 2001 in a place-based analysis combined with a comparative analysis of similar low input systems in southern Mali. This study showed that policy-institutional factors next to population growth have driven land use changes in the Teso systems, and that nutrient balances of farm households are useful indicators to identify their sustainability. During the period of analysis, the fraction of land under cultivation increased from 46 to 78%, and communal grazing lands nearly completely disappeared. Cropping diversified over time; cassava overtook cotton and millet in importance, and rice emerged as an alternative cash crop. Impacts of political instability, such as the collapse of cotton marketing and land management institutions, of communal labour arrangements and aggravation of cattle rustling were linked to the changes. Crop productivity in the farming systems is poor and nutrient balances differed between farm types. Balances of N, P and K were all positive for larger farms (LF) that had more cattle and derived a larger proportion of their income from off-farm activities, whereas on the medium farms (MF), small farms with cattle (SF1) and without cattle (SF2) balances were mostly negative. Sustainability of the farming system is driven by livestock, crop production, labour and access to off-farm income. Building private public partnerships around market-oriented crops can be an entry point for encouraging investment in use of external nutrient inputs to boost productivity in such African farming systems. However, intervention strategies should recognise the diversity and heterogeneity between farms to ensure efficient use of these external inputs. PMID:20628448

  20. Application of Calspan pitch rate control system to the Space Shuttle for approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingarten, N. C.; Chalk, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    A pitch rate control system designed for use in the shuttle during approach and landing was analyzed and compared with a revised control system developed by NASA and the existing OFT control system. The design concept control system uses filtered pitch rate feedback with proportional plus integral paths in the forward loop. Control system parameters were designed as a function of flight configuration. Analysis included time and frequency domain techniques. Results indicate that both the Calspan and NASA systems significantly improve the flying qualities of the shuttle over the OFT. Better attitude and flight path control and less time delay are the primary reasons. The Calspan system is preferred because of reduced time delay and simpler mechanization. Further testing of the improved flight control systems in an in-flight simulator is recommended.

  1. Towards a South Asia Land Data Assimilation System: first results for transboundary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Ghatak, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.; Limaye, A. S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Bajracharya, B.; Shrestha, B. R.; Iceland, C.; Narula, K.; Lee, S.; Mourad, B.; Doorn, B.

    2014-12-01

    South Asia faces a remarkably complex and diverse set of hydrologic stresses, including melting glaciers, variable snowpack, intensively utilized transboundary rivers, rapid groundwater depletion due to irrigation, flood and drought hazard, and rapidly changing land use/cover and climate conditions. The management and prediction challenges posed by these conditions are compounded by the sparseness of in situ monitoring sites, particularly in headwaters regions, and a lack of open sharing of hydrometeorological data across national boundaries. As a result, uncertainties in availability in a situation of rising demands are leading to increasing competing and exploitive use of a limited resource, being experienced at various scales. An open water information system for decision support is an absolute necessity. In order to provide an open and spatially complete water information system for decision support across the region, we are implementing a customized Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) designed to provide best-available estimates of hydrologic states and fluxes across South Asia, both retrospectively and in near-real time. The LDAS merges advanced land surface models with satellite-derived and in situ observations. In the case of South Asia, multiple satellite-derived hydrological fields are relevant to complete water balance analysis, including precipitation from multiple sources (e.g., TRMM, CHIRPS, GPM), water storage anomalies from GRACE, thermal infrared evapotranspiration estimates, and snowpack characteristics from visible and microwave sensors. Each of these observation types can either be ingested to South Asia LDAS or used as an independent observation for comparison. Here we present the first results of this South Asian Land Data Assimilation System, with a focus on complete water balance analysis for selected river basins in South Asia.

  2. A Decision Support System Based on Support Vector Machine for Hard Landing of Civil Aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Xu-hui; Shu Ping; Rong Xiang; Nie Lei

    2009-01-01

    Hard landing event affect the flight safety seriously. In this paper, a decision support system that classifiers the hard landing signals of the civil aircraft to two classes (normal and abnormal) is presented to support fault diagnosis. As our previous paper where ANN is used as a classifier for event detection from measured hard landing signals. In this paper, our

  3. Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India

    PubMed Central

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

  4. Air traffic control using a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershzohn, G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of air traffic controllers using a simulated microwave landing system to control the landing of STOL aircraft is investigated. In a series of two experiments, controllers were asked to achieve a 60-sec separation between targets at the missed approach point when only two targets were on the simulated radar scope, and in the presence of 25 targets, with up to 10 on the screen at any one time. In both experiments, the presence of a ground wind is found to degrade separation performance, and an increased work load results in even greater separation variability, as the controllers did not have time to convert aircraft distances into times. In addition, curved courses are found to have an effect on performance. It is thus recommended that in order to create a practical air traffic control system with separation standards based on time, as in the MLS, controller work loads should be reduced and aircraft positions should be displayed with respect to time rather than distance.

  5. Integrated land-use systems: Assessment of promising agroforest and alternative land-use practices to enhance carbon conservation and sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert K. Dixon; Jack K. Winjum; Kenneth J. Andrasko; Jeffrey J. Lee; Paul E. Schroeder

    1994-01-01

    Degraded or sub-standard soils and marginal lands occupy a significant proportion of boreal, temperate and tropical biomes. Management of these lands with a wide range of existing, site-specific, integrated, agroforest systems represents a significant global opportunity to reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Establishment of extensive agricultural, agroforest, and alternative land-use systems on marginal or degraded lands

  6. Integrating regional economic development analysis and land use economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Partridge; Dan S. Rickman

    2012-01-01

    Two largely separate literatures exist on regional economic development and land use economics. In this chapter, we argue that a full understanding of each of the two areas requires greater knowledge of their interrelationship. We review key studies of the two literatures, particularly those related to the close interconnectedness of regional economic development and land use. We contend that a

  7. A Summary of the Development of a Nominal Land Landing Airbag Impact Attenuation System for the Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tutt, Ben; Gill, Susannah; Wilson, Aaron; Johnson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Airborne Systems North America (formally Irvin Aerospace Inc) has developed an Airbag Landing System for the Orion Crew Module of the Crew Exploration Vehicle. This work is in support of the NASA Langley Research Center Landing System Advanced Development Project. Orion is part of the Constellation Program to send human explorers back to the moon, and then onwards to Mars and other destinations in the Solar System. A component of the Vision for Space Exploration, Orion is being developed to also enable access to space following the retirement of the Space Shuttle in the next decade. This paper documents the development of a conceptual design, fabrication of prototype assemblies, component level testing and two generations of airbag landing system testing. The airbag system has been designed and analyzed using the transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA(RegisteredTradeMark). The landing system consists of six airbag assemblies; each assembly comprising a primary impact venting airbag and a non-venting anti-bottoming airbag. The anti-bottoming airbag provides ground clearance following the initial impact attenuation sequence. Incorporated into each primary impact airbag is an active vent that allows the entrapped gas to exit the control volume. The size of the vent is tailored to control the flow-rate of the exiting gas. An internal shaping structure is utilized to control the shape of the primary or main airbags prior to ground impact; this significantly improves stroke efficiency and performance.

  8. The NASA-Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling Framework - Land Information System: Global Land/atmosphere Interaction with Resolved Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, Karen Irene; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2013-01-01

    The present generation of general circulation models (GCM) use parameterized cumulus schemes and run at hydrostatic grid resolutions. To improve the representation of cloud-scale moist processes and landeatmosphere interactions, a global, Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) coupled to the Land Information System (LIS) has been developed at NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. The MMFeLIS has three components, a finite-volume (fv) GCM (Goddard Earth Observing System Ver. 4, GEOS-4), a 2D cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble, GCE), and the LIS, representing the large-scale atmospheric circulation, cloud processes, and land surface processes, respectively. The non-hydrostatic GCE model replaces the single-column cumulus parameterization of fvGCM. The model grid is composed of an array of fvGCM gridcells each with a series of embedded GCE models. A horizontal coupling strategy, GCE4fvGCM4Coupler4LIS, offered significant computational efficiency, with the scalability and I/O capabilities of LIS permitting landeatmosphere interactions at cloud-scale. Global simulations of 2007e2008 and comparisons to observations and reanalysis products were conducted. Using two different versions of the same land surface model but the same initial conditions, divergence in regional, synoptic-scale surface pressure patterns emerged within two weeks. The sensitivity of largescale circulations to land surface model physics revealed significant functional value to using a scalable, multi-model land surface modeling system in global weather and climate prediction.

  9. The Use of Urban Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Techniques for analyzing scientific information from the lunar and planetary missions now are being applied to land-resource management in and around cities. Two systems have been formalized by Jet Propulsion Laboratory and are being applied in the Los Angeles area. The first, called the 'Land Use Management Information System' incorporates maps, aerial photos, and other land data into routine city and county census records. The second system, 'multiple-input land use' combines satellite imagery with other data sources. Essentially a city street map in computer readable form, the system will help planners in traffic accident analysis, mapping, and land-record.

  10. Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting land cover change estimation by use of the National Land Cover Dataset and raingage network partitioning analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharpe, Jennifer B.; Soong, David T.

    2015-01-01

    This study used the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) and developed an automated process for determining the area of the three land cover types, thereby allowing faster updating of future models, and for evaluating land cover changes by use of historical NLCD datasets. The study also carried out a raingage partitioning analysis so that the segmentation of land cover and rainfall in each modeled unit is directly applicable to the HSPF modeling. Historical and existing impervious, grass, and forest land acreages partitioned by percentages covered by two sets of raingages for the Lake Michigan diversion SCAs, gaged basins, and ungaged basins are presented.

  11. Surface Temperature Assimilation in the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Houser, Paul R.; Atlas, Robert M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is a global land parameterization that uses prescribed meteorology as forcing in order to determine regular gridded land surface states (temperature and moisture) and other properties (e.g. water and heat fluxes). In the present experiment, the assimilation of surface skin temperature is incorporated into the land parameterizations. The meteorological forcing was derived from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-3) Data Assimilation System (DAS) for the full year of 1998 GLDAS can use several land parameterizations, but here we use the Mosaic land surface model and the Common Land Model (CLM). TOVS surface temperature observations are assimilated into GLDAS. The TOVS observations are less frequent that observations used in previous experiments (ISCCP). The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate the impact of the TOVS assimilation on both Mosaic and CLM. We will especially consider the impact of coarse temporal observations on the assimilation and bias correction.

  12. Orion Crew Module Landing System Simulation and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Stegall, David E.; Hardy, Robin C.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Reaves, Mercedes; Mark, Stephen D.; Annett, Martin S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a comprehensive test and analysis program to evaluate the ability of LS-DYNA to model the materials and the phenomena involved in soil and water landing impacts of the Orion crew module. Elemental, scale boilerplate, and full-scale prototype testing is being conducted in support of the simulation verification and validation approach. Aspects of the simulations evaluated against test data include soil constitutive properties, water equations of state, and contact algorithms. Subsystems tested include airbags, crushable energy absorbing honeycomb materials, and energy absorbing seat support struts. The procedures, instrumentation, and general observations from each test series are presented. Plans for a series of swing tests of a full-scale boilerplate into a purpose-built water basin are described. Further plans for swing tests of flight-like prototypes into the water basin are noted.

  13. Uncertainty in Multi-Criteria Evaluation Techniques When Used for Land Suitability Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Benke; C. Pelizaro; K. E. Lowell

    \\u000a Uncertainty analysis is rarely considered in the application of predictive models in agriculture, resource planning and land\\u000a suitability analysis. Uncertainty in modeling land suitability for agricultural production arises from a variety of sources.\\u000a An important source of error is due to uncertainty in model inputs and parameters, especially in the case of multi-criteria\\u000a analysis requiring data from physical measurements or

  14. On the Impact of Future Land Use Assumptions on Risk Analysis for Superfund Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter T. Katsumata; William E. Kastenberg

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, assumptions regarding future land use as a key uncertainty is considered and its impact on risk analysis for contaminated sites is assessed. Risks are assessed for two land use scenarios (current-use industrial and future-use residential) using probabilistic models that incorporate uncertainty and variability in the exposure parameters. Residual risks are calculated for both industrial and residential cleanup

  15. Manifesting Destiny: A Land Education Analysis of Settler Colonialism in Jamestown, Virginia, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Globally, colonization has been and continues to be enacted in the take-over of Indigenous land and the subsequent conversion of agriculture from diverse food and useful crops to large-scale monoculture and cash crops. This article uses a land education analysis to map the rise of the ideology and practices of Manifest Destiny in Virginia.…

  16. Zoning and urban development control. A strategic analysis of land and real estate markets regulation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Zoning and urban development control. A strategic analysis of land and real estate markets involved on real estate and land markets contribute to create new flexible ways to use and apply the rules that this approach of housing markets enable us to better understand why and how local public authorities in France

  17. Improvements to NOAA's Historical Merged LandOcean Surface Temperature Analysis (18802006)

    E-print Network

    Improvements to NOAA's Historical Merged Land­Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (1880­2006) THOMAS M. SMITH NOAA/NESDIS/STAR/SCSD, and CICS/ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park Observations of sea surface and land­near-surface merged temperature anomalies are used to monitor climate

  18. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.

    2006-01-01

    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  19. Complex Adaptive Systems, soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification: A multivariate assessment of Italian agro-forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Luca; Mavrakis, Anastasios; Colantoni, Andrea; Mancino, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Agostino

    2015-07-15

    Degradation of soils and sensitivity of land to desertification are intensified in last decades in the Mediterranean region producing heterogeneous spatial patterns determined by the interplay of factors such as climate, land-use changes, and human pressure. The present study hypothesizes that rising levels of soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification are reflected into increasingly complex (and non-linear) relationships between environmental and socioeconomic variables. To verify this hypothesis, the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) framework was used to explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of eleven indicators derived from a standard assessment of soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification in Italy. Indicators were made available on a detailed spatial scale (773 agricultural districts) for various years (1960, 1990, 2000 and 2010) and analyzed through a multi-dimensional exploratory data analysis. Our results indicate that the number of significant pair-wise correlations observed between indicators increased with the level of soil and land degradation, although with marked differences between northern and southern Italy. 'Fast' and 'slow' factors underlying soil and land degradation, and 'rapidly-evolving' or 'locked' agricultural districts were identified according to the rapidity of change estimated for each of the indicators studied. In southern Italy, 'rapidly-evolving' districts show a high level of soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification during the whole period of investigation. On the contrary, those districts in northern Italy are those experiencing a moderate soil degradation and land sensitivity to desertification with the highest increase in the level of sensitivity over time. The study framework contributes to the assessment of complex local systems' dynamics in affluent but divided countries. Results may inform thematic strategies for the mitigation of land and soil degradation in the framework of action plans to combat desertification. PMID:25847168

  20. Using GIS and outranking multicriteria analysis for land-use suitability assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florent Joerin; Marius Thériault; André Musy

    2001-01-01

    Land-useplanners oftenmake complexdecisionswithin a shortperiod of time when they must take into account sustainable developmentand economic competitiveness. A set of land-use suitability maps would be very useful in this respect.Ideally, thesemapsshouldincorporatecomplexcriteriaintegratingseveral stakeholders' points of view. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, a land suitability map for housing was realised for a small region of Switzerland. Geographical Information System technology

  1. Green Infrastructure & Sustainable Urban Land Use Decision Analysis Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduce green infrastructure, concepts and land use alternatives, to City of Cleveland operations staff. Discuss potential of green alternatives to impact daily operations and routine maintenance activities. Tie in sustainability concepts to long-term City planning and discu...

  2. Some findings on the applications of ERTS and Skylab imagery for metropolitan land use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work undertaken on a three-sensor land use data evaluation for a portion of the Phoenix area is reported. Analyses between land use data generated from 1970 high altitude photography and that detectable from ERTS and Skylab, especially in terms of changes in land use indicate that ERTS and Skylab imagery can be used effectively to detect and identify areas of post-1970 land use change, especially those documenting urban expansion at the rural-urban fringe. Significant preliminary findings on the utility of ERTS and Skylab data for metropolitan land use analysis, substantiated by evaluation with 1970 and 1972 ground control land use data are reported.

  3. The Environment Analysis in the CE-3 Landing Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, X.; Gao, X.; Yan, W.; Zou, X.; Li, C.

    2014-12-01

    To understand the environment and select detecting objects for the Yutu Rover, NAOC used the DEM and DOM data obtained by CE-2, geological data released by USGS, and high resolution image captured by CE-3 and LRO-NAC to analyze the topographical characteristic, geologic age, Geomorphological feathers and new dust distribution in two scale levels. The first level is 45km×75km, and another one is 4km×4km. The center of the study region is the CE-3 landing site (19.51°W, 44.12°N). The following is the initial conclusions: (1) CE-3 landed on a relatively flat region in the Mare Imbrium with an elevation of -2615m. The geological age of the landing site belongs to young Eratoshenian. 10km to the north of the landing site is the older Mare Imbrium stratum, and the location of the landing site is just on the intersection area of these two stratums. (2) The landing site lies on the edge of a lunar mountain with a decline tendency from west to east, and the topographic slope and roughness of the landing region is low, which is the typical characteristic of lunar mare. There is a big crater with diameter of 430 meters in the west of the landing site, and lots of stones in different colors on the rim of this crater, shown in the Figure2. (3) By comparing the images captured by LRO-NAC before and after the landing, much lunar dust was blown away by the engine plume during the landing of CE-3. The change scope is about 60m with from east-west and 135m length from south-north. The direction of landing is from south-north, so the length is larger than the width, shown in the figure 3. (4) In the initial stage, the Yutu Rover was suggested to move in south direction and late in north direction, which would get more scientific data and result.

  4. Land Cover and Landscape Diversity Analysis in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Szymon; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to present the land cover structure and landscape diversity in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve. The land cover classification was performed using Object Based Image Analysis in Trimble eCognition Developer 8 software. The retrospective land cover changes analysis in 3 lake catchments (Kleszczów, Moszne, Bia³eW³odawskie Lakes)was performed on the basis of archival aerial photos taken in 1952, 1971, 1984, 1992, 2007 and one satellite scene from 2003 (IKONOS).On the basis of land cover map structure, Shannon diversity index was estimated with the moving window approach enabled in Fragstats software. The conducted research has shown that the land cover structure of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve is diverse and can be simply described by selected landscape metrics. The highest level of land cover diversity, as showed by Shannon Diversity Index, was identified in the western part of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve, which is closely related to the agricultural character of land cover structure in those regions. The examples of three regional retrospective land cover analyses demonstrated that the character of land cover structure has changed dramatically over the last 40 years.

  5. 78 FR 58555 - Public Land Order No. 7821; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Steamboat Rock Picnic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ...National Forest System Land for Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds; South Dakota AGENCY...uses and improvements at the Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds within the Black Hills National...uses and improvements within the Steamboat Rock Picnic Grounds. Order By virtue of...

  6. 77 FR 8895 - Public Land Order No. 7788; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Red Cloud...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for the Red Cloud Campground; New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau...historical interpretive integrity of the Red Cloud Campground within the Cibola National...capital investment expended to develop the Red Cloud Campground facility and the...

  7. An equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aken, H. M.; van Veldhoven, A. K.; Veth, C.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.; van Leeuwen, P. J.; Drijfhout, S. S.; Whittle, C. P.; Rouault, M.

    2014-06-01

    Global land use structure is changing rapidly due to unceasing population growth and accelerated urbanization, which leads to fierce competition between the rigid demand for built-up area and the protection of cultivated land, forest, and grassland. It has been a great challenge to realize the sustainable development of land resources. Based on a computable general equilibrium model of land use change with a social accounting matrix dataset, this study implemented an equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province during the period of 2008-2020 under three scenarios, the baseline scenario, low TFP (total factor productivity) scenario, and high TFP scenario. The results indicated that under all three scenarios, area of cultivated land declined significantly along with a remarkable expansion of built-up area, while areas of forest, grassland, and unused land increased slightly. The growth rate of TFP had first negative and then positive effects on the expansion of built-up area and decline of cultivated land as it increased. Moreover, the simulated changes of both cultivated land and built-up area were the biggest under the low TFP scenario, and far exceeded the limit in the Overall Plan for Land Utilization in the Yunnan Province in 2020. The scenario-based simulation results are of important reference value for policy-makers in making land use decisions, balancing the fierce competition between the protection of cultivated land and the increasing demand for built-up area, and guaranteeing food security, ecological security, and the sustainable development of land resources.

  8. Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Amelie Y.

    Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol production facilities. Since a valuable byproduct of corn ethanol production is Distiller's Grain Solubles (DGS), siting of ethanol plants was considered with regard to both corn production by county within the conterminous United States and head of cattle available to use this output as feed. We found that many counties outside the Midwest could sustain smaller sized ethanol plants, especially when considering that most large production facilities need to redistribute their DGS in dried form sometimes as far as California which has negative impacts on the Net Energy Value of corn based ethanol. The future of ethanol expansion however lies with cellulosic feedstock which is bulkier and thus more costly to transport than corn. Our results indicate that cellulosic ethanol plants should be smaller in capacity, especially when compared to corn ethanol plants where 100 million gallons a year (mgy) plants are more the norm. Only 7 out of 3109 counties in the conterminous United States contain enough wood, switchgrass or crop residue feedstock to sustain plants that produce greater than 40 mgy of biofuel, meaning that larger plants would need to import feedstock from considerable distances and thus incur greater feedstock transport costs. The last section explored co-location options for siting lignocellulosic ethanol plant production facilities.

  9. Short-rotation wood production systems for marginal land in the Great Lakes region: Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majerus

    1986-01-01

    Over the long-term, short-rotation wood production systems can provide a sustained supply of wood as a renewable energy resource. Short-rotation forestry is an alternative to conventional agriculture on marginal land. Since several harvests occur from a single planting, short rotation systems provide relatively permanent vegetation. The potential for improved land use and resource conservation exists in conversion of marginal land

  10. Anticipating Forest and Range Land Development in Central Oregon (USA) for Landscape Analysis, with an Example Application Involving Mule Deer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Jeffrey D.; Moses, Alissa; Burcsu, Theresa

    2010-05-01

    Forest policymakers, public lands managers, and scientists in the Pacific Northwest (USA) seek ways to evaluate the landscape-level effects of policies and management through the multidisciplinary development and application of spatially explicit methods and models. The Interagency Mapping and Analysis Project (IMAP) is an ongoing effort to generate landscape-wide vegetation data and models to evaluate the integrated effects of disturbances and management activities on natural resource conditions in Oregon and Washington (USA). In this initial analysis, we characterized the spatial distribution of forest and range land development in a four-county pilot study region in central Oregon. The empirical model describes the spatial distribution of buildings and new building construction as a function of population growth, existing development, topography, land-use zoning, and other factors. We used the model to create geographic information system maps of likely future development based on human population projections to inform complementary landscape analyses underway involving vegetation, habitat, and wildfire interactions. In an example application, we use the model and resulting maps to show the potential impacts of future forest and range land development on mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) winter range. Results indicate significant development encroachment and habitat loss already in 2000 with development located along key migration routes and increasing through the projection period to 2040. The example application illustrates a simple way for policymakers and public lands managers to combine existing data and preliminary model outputs to begin to consider the potential effects of development on future landscape conditions.

  11. Anticipating forest and range land development in central Oregon (USA) for landscape analysis, with an example application involving mule deer.

    PubMed

    Kline, Jeffrey D; Moses, Alissa; Burcsu, Theresa

    2010-05-01

    Forest policymakers, public lands managers, and scientists in the Pacific Northwest (USA) seek ways to evaluate the landscape-level effects of policies and management through the multidisciplinary development and application of spatially explicit methods and models. The Interagency Mapping and Analysis Project (IMAP) is an ongoing effort to generate landscape-wide vegetation data and models to evaluate the integrated effects of disturbances and management activities on natural resource conditions in Oregon and Washington (USA). In this initial analysis, we characterized the spatial distribution of forest and range land development in a four-county pilot study region in central Oregon. The empirical model describes the spatial distribution of buildings and new building construction as a function of population growth, existing development, topography, land-use zoning, and other factors. We used the model to create geographic information system maps of likely future development based on human population projections to inform complementary landscape analyses underway involving vegetation, habitat, and wildfire interactions. In an example application, we use the model and resulting maps to show the potential impacts of future forest and range land development on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) winter range. Results indicate significant development encroachment and habitat loss already in 2000 with development located along key migration routes and increasing through the projection period to 2040. The example application illustrates a simple way for policymakers and public lands managers to combine existing data and preliminary model outputs to begin to consider the potential effects of development on future landscape conditions. PMID:20300934

  12. Effects of Urban Land Supply Policy on Real Estate in China: An Econometric Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Zhang

    Since 2005, the Chinese government has frequently strengthened controls on the real estate market. Land supply policy was included in the system of state macro-control on the real estate market and state economic development. This paper examines the following issues after analyzing the panel data of Yunnan Province and other provinces of China. (1) Does land supply have significant effects

  13. Analysis of On-Board Hazard Detection and Avoidance for Safe Lunar Landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew E. Johnson; Andres Huertas; Robert A. Werner; James F. Montgomery

    2008-01-01

    Landing hazard detection and avoidance technology is being pursued within NASA to improve landing safety and increase access to sites of interest on the lunar surface. The performance of a hazard detection and avoidance system depends on properties of the terrain, sensor performance, algorithm design, vehicle characteristics and the overall all guidance navigation and control architecture. This paper analyzes the

  14. A rhetorical analysis of new student handbooks at land grant universities 

    E-print Network

    Muntean, Kathy Ann

    1976-01-01

    A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF NEW STUDENT HANDBOOKS AT LAND GRANT UNIVERSITIES A Thesis KATHY ANN MUNTEAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A!4M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS May... 1976 Major Subject: English A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF NEW STUDENT HANDBOOKS AT LAND GRANT UNIVERSITIES A Thesis KATHY ANN MUNTEAN Approved as to style and content by: ( airman of Committee) (Member) ( Alen&be r) ) 'ay 1976 ABSTRACT A...

  15. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : programmer's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus, C. M.; Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  16. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Costing Land Application Systems - Module 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module expands on the concepts of cost estimation and comparison of costs among various treatment alternatives which were presented in a previous module. The need for useful published cost data is stressed. Criteria for selecting cost references are presented, and examples of charts and graphs from several of these are used in comparing land

  17. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Brown, Daniel G; Ellis, Erle C

    2014-01-01

    Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM) as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model) landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model enhancement. PMID:24489696

  18. Cross-Site Comparison of Land-Use Decision-Making and Its Consequences across Land Systems with a Generalized Agent-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Ellis, Erle C.

    2014-01-01

    Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM) as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model) landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model enhancement. PMID:24489696

  19. Landing Characteristics of the Apollo Spacecraft with Deployed Heat Shield Impact Attenuation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Landing Characteristics of the Apollo Spacecraft with Deployed Heat Shield Impact Attenuation Systems. An experimental investigation was made to determine the landing characteristics of a 1/4-scale dynamic model of the Apollo spacecraft command module using two different active (heat shield deployed prior to landing) landing systems for impact attenuation. One landing system (configuration 1) consisted of six hydraulic struts and eight crushable honeycomb struts. The other landing system (configuration 2), consisted of four hydraulic struts and six strain straps. Tests made on water and the hard clay-gravel composite landing surfaces simulated parachute letdown (vertical) velocities of 23 ft/sec (7.0 m/s) (full scale). Landings made on the sand landing surface simulated vertical velocities of 30 ft/sec (9.1 m/s). Horizontal velocities of from 0 to 50 ft/sec (15 m/s) were simulated. Landing attitudes ranged from -30'degrees to 20 degrees, and the roll attitudes were O degrees, 90 degrees, and 180 degrees. For configuration 1, maximum normal accelerations at the vehicle center of gravity for landings on water, sand, and the hard clay-gravel composite surface were 9g, 20g, and 18g, respectively. The maximum normal center-of-gravity acceleration for configuration 2 which was landed only on the hard clay-gravel landing surface was approximately 19g. Accelerations for configuration 2 were generally equal to or lower than accelerations for configuration 1 and normal. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030975. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  20. Analysis of the geomorphology surrounding the Chang'e-3 landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Lai; Mu, Ling-Li; Zou, Xiao-Duan; Liu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Xin; Zeng, Xing-Guo; Yang, Yi-Man; Zhang, Zhou-Bin; Liu, Yu-Xuan; Zuo, Wei; Li, Han

    2014-12-01

    Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landed on the Mare Imbrium basin in the east part of Sinus Iridum (19.51°W, 44.12°N), which was China's first soft landing on the Moon and it started collecting data on the lunar surface environment. To better understand the environment of this region, this paper utilizes the available high-resolution topography data, image data and geological data to carry out a detailed analysis and research on the area surrounding the landing site (Sinus Iridum and 45 km×70 km of the landing area) as well as on the topography, landform, geology and lunar dust of the area surrounding the landing site. A general topographic analysis of the surrounding area is based on a digital elevation model and digital elevation model data acquired by Chang'e-2 that have high resolution; the geology analysis is based on lunar geological data published by USGS; the study on topographic factors and distribution of craters and rocks in the surrounding area covering 4 km×4 km or even smaller is based on images from the CE-3 landing camera and images from the topographic camera; an analysis is done of the effect of the CE-3 engine plume on the lunar surface by comparing images before and after the landing using data from the landing camera. A comprehensive analysis of the results shows that the landing site and its surrounding area are identified as typical lunar mare with flat topography. They are suitable for maneuvers by the rover, and are rich in geological phenomena and scientific targets, making it an ideal site for exploration.

  1. A regional analysis of drivers and impacts of land cover change and long-term land cover trends in the Great Basin, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Bethany Adella

    An improved understanding of land use/land cover change at local and regional scales is important in an increasingly human-dominated biosphere. The land surface provides resources necessary for human survival (e.g., cropland, water, raw materials) as well as providing other services such as habitat for native species, carbon storage, and nutrient cycling. A goal of land change science is to identify where land cover change is taking place, understand how land use may affect that change, and determine what the consequences of change may be. In the Great Basin Desert of the Western U.S., an important form of land cover change is invasion by non-native cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Cheatgrass invasion destroys native shrub ecosystems, leading to a loss of biodiversity, loss of viable rangeland and increased fire frequency. In this work, I show how remote sensing can be used to detect the regional and local extents of cheatgrass invasion. Remote sensing results are then used to assess the spatial patterns of cheatgrass invasion over time to determine how land use might have affected invasion. Further, I consider the long-term impacts of cheatgrass invasion on biodiversity and carbon storage in the Great Basin. In addition to an analysis of cheatgrass, this thesis presents a new methodology for time series modeling, which can be used to better interpret annual and inter-annual vegetation community phenology. I apply this modeling methodology to all land cover in the Great Basin to assess long-term land cover trends and localized anomalous response within the range of land cover classes present. By investigating regional land cover change I am able to provide more detailed analysis of the drivers of change for land managers while working at a scale relevant to studies of global environmental change.

  2. Development of automatic and manual flight director landing systems for the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft in helicopter mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, L. G.; Hoh, R. H.; Jewell, W. F.; Teper, G. L.; Patel, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to determine IFR approach path and touchdown dispersions for manual and automatic XV-15 tilt rotor landings, and to develop missed approach criteria. Only helicopter mode XV-15 operation is considered. The analysis and design sections develop the automatic and flight director guidance equations for decelerating curved and straight-in approaches into a typical VTOL landing site equipped with an MLS navigation aid. These system designs satisfy all known pilot-centered, guidance and control requirements for this flying task. Performance data, obtained from nonstationary covariance propagation dispersion analysis for the system, are used to develop the approach monitoring criteria. The autoland and flight director guidance equations are programmed for the VSTOLAND 1819B digital computer. The system design dispersion data developed through analysis and the 1819B digital computer program are verified and refined using the fixed-base, man-in-the-loop XV-15 VSTOLAND simulation.

  3. A Terminal Descent Sensor Trade Study Overview for the Orion Landing and Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Catherine; Prakash, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    This trade study was conducted as a part of the Orion Landing System Advanced Development Project to determine possible Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS) architectures that could be used for a rocket assisted landing system. Several technologies were considered for the Orion TDS including radar, lidar, GPS applications, mechanical sensors, and gamma ray altimetry.

  4. Experimental and analytical studies of advanced air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, E. G. S.; Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Rutishauser, H. J.; Farley, H. L.; Fish, R. B.; Jeffcoat, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Several concepts are developed for air cushion landing systems (ACLS) which have the potential for improving performance characteristics (roll stiffness, heave damping, and trunk flutter), and reducing fabrication cost and complexity. After an initial screening, the following five concepts were evaluated in detail: damped trunk, filled trunk, compartmented trunk, segmented trunk, and roll feedback control. The evaluation was based on tests performed on scale models. An ACLS dynamic simulation developed earlier is updated so that it can be used to predict the performance of full-scale ACLS incorporating these refinements. The simulation was validated through scale-model tests. A full-scale ACLS based on the segmented trunk concept was fabricated and installed on the NASA ACLS test vehicle, where it is used to support advanced system development. A geometrically-scaled model (one third full scale) of the NASA test vehicle was fabricated and tested. This model, evaluated by means of a series of static and dynamic tests, is used to investigate scaling relationships between reduced and full-scale models. The analytical model developed earlier is applied to simulate both the one third scale and the full scale response.

  5. The analysis accuracy assessment of CORINE land cover in the Iberian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grullón, Yraida R.; Alhaddad, Bahaaeddin; Cladera, Josep R.

    2009-09-01

    Corine land cover 2000 (CLC2000) is a project jointly managed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the European Environment Agency (EEA). Its aim is to update the Corine land cover database in Europe for the year 2000. Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) satellite images were used for the update and were acquired within the framework of the Image2000 project. Knowledge of the land status through the use of mapping CORINE Land Cover is of great importance to study of interaction land cover and land use categories in Europe scale. This paper presents the accuracy assessment methodology designed and implemented to validate the Iberian Coast CORINE Land Cover 2000 cartography. It presents an implementation of a new methodological concept for land cover data production, Object- Based classification, and automatic generalization to assess the thematic accuracy of CLC2000 by means of an independent data source based on the comparison of the land cover database with reference data derived from visual interpretation of high resolution satellite imageries for sample areas. In our case study, the existing Object-Based classifications are supported with digital maps and attribute databases. According to the quality tests performed, we computed the overall accuracy, and Kappa Coefficient. We will focus on the development of a methodology based on classification and generalization analysis for built-up areas that may improve the investigation. This study can be divided in these fundamental steps: -Extract artificial areas from land use Classifications based on Land-sat and Spot images. -Manuel interpretation for high resolution of multispectral images. -Determine the homogeneity of artificial areas by generalization process. -Overall accuracy, Kappa Coefficient and Special grid (fishnet) test for quality test. Finally, this paper will concentrate to illustrate the precise accuracy of CORINE dataset based on the above general steps.

  6. The Unparalleled Systems Engineering of MSL's Backup Entry, Descent, and Landing System: Second Chance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roumeliotis, Chris; Grinblat, Jonathan; Reeves, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Second Chance (SECC) was a bare bones version of Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Entry Descent & Landing (EDL) flight software that ran on Curiosity's backup computer, which could have taken over swiftly in the event of a reset of Curiosity's prime computer, in order to land her safely on Mars. Without SECC, a reset of Curiosity's prime computer would have lead to catastrophic mission failure. Even though a reset of the prime computer never occurred, SECC had the important responsibility as EDL's guardian angel, and this responsibility would not have seen such success without unparalleled systems engineering. This paper will focus on the systems engineering behind SECC: Covering a brief overview of SECC's design, the intense schedule to use SECC as a backup system, the verification and validation of the system's "Do No Harm" mandate, the system's overall functional performance, and finally, its use on the fateful day of August 5th, 2012.

  7. Predicting land-use change and its impact on the groundwater system of the Kleine Nete catchment, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dams, J.; Woldeamlak, S. T.; Batelaan, O.

    2008-12-01

    Land-use changes are frequently indicated to be one of the main human-induced factors influencing the groundwater system. For land-use change, groundwater research has mainly focused on the change in water quality thereby neglecting changes in quantity. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of land-use changes, from 2000 until 2020, on the hydrological balance and in particular on groundwater quantity, as results from a case study in the Kleine Nete basin, Belgium. New is that this study tests a methodology, which couples a land-use change model with a water balance and a steady-state groundwater model. Four future land-use scenarios (A1, A2, B1 and B2) based on the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) are modelled with the CLUE-S model. Water balance components, groundwater level and baseflow are simulated using the WetSpass model in conjunction with a steady-state MODFLOW groundwater flow model. Results show that the average recharge decreases with 2.9, 1.6, 1.8 and 0.8% for scenario A1, A2, B1 and B2, respectively, over the 20 covered years. The predicted reduction in recharge results in a small decrease of the average groundwater level in the basin, ranging from 2.5 cm for scenario A1 to 0.9 cm for scenario B2, and a reduction of the baseflow with maximum 2.3% and minimum 0.7% for scenario A1 and B2, respectively. Although these averages appear to indicate small changes in the groundwater system, spatial analysis shows that much larger changes are located near the major cities in the study area. Hence, spatial planning should take better account of effects of land-use change on the groundwater system and define mitigating actions for reducing the negative impacts of land-use change.

  8. Multi-Agent Systems for the Simulation of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn C. Parker; Steven M. Manson; Marco A. Janssen; Matthew J. Hoffmann; Peter Deadman

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an overview of multi-agent system models of land-use\\/cover change (MAS\\/LUCC models). This special class of LUCC models combines a cellular landscape model with agent-based representations of decision making, integrating the two components through specification of interdependencies and feedbacks between agents and their environment. The authors review alternative LUCC modeling techniques and discuss the ways in which MAS\\/LUCC

  9. Modeling the influences of land reclamation on groundwater systems: A case study in Shekou peninsula, Shenzhen, China

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Modeling the influences of land reclamation on groundwater systems: A case study in Shekou form 16 February 2010 Accepted 18 April 2010 Available online 24 April 2010 Keywords: Land reclamation of land has been reclaimed around the Shekou peninsula, Shenzhen, China. Land reclamation may have

  10. LAND REFORM IN NAMIBIA: AN ANALYSIS OF MEDIA COVERAGE

    E-print Network

    Engelbrecht, Petrus J.

    2014-08-31

    , and economic factors that affect access to information.” 28. Martin Buch Larsen, The media environment in Namibia, 1990-2007 (Windhoek: Media Institute of Southern Africa - Namibia, 2007), 20-21. 29. Links, "'We write what we like' The role of independent..., SWAPO became the Swapo Party, or simply Swapo. 60. Chris Alden and Ward Anseeuw, Land, liberation and compromise in Southern Africa (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 126. 61. SWAPO, "Swapo Election Manifesto, 1989," 11-12. 62. Alden and Anseeuw...

  11. Landing Site Analysis for Low-Budget Lunar Missions — Landing Site Candidates of Team Puli Space, Participant of the Google Lunar X Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deák, M.

    2011-03-01

    The landing site analysis of privately funded low-budget lunar missions, for example, the mission of the Google Lunar X Prize participant Team Puli Space, is more influenced by technological possibilities than the government-funded missions.

  12. Joint analysis of solar neutrino and new KamLAND data in the RSFP framework

    E-print Network

    D. Yilmaz

    2008-10-06

    A joint analysis of solar neutrino data together with the new KamLAND data is presented in the RSFP framework. It is investigated that how the new KamLAND data effects the allowed regions at different $\\mu B$ values. A limit on $\\mu B$ value is found at the different confidence level intervals. It is shown that the RSFP scenerio does not have a crucial role on the solar neutrino data.

  13. Towards the development of an on-line model error identification system for land surface models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the complexity of potential error sources in land surface models, the accurate specification of model error parameters has emerged as a major challenge in the development of effective land data assimilation systems for hydrologic and hydro-climatic applications. While several on-line procedur...

  14. Representation of heterogeneity effects in earth system modeling: Experience from land surface modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filippo Giorgi; Roni Avissar

    1997-01-01

    The land surface is characterized by pronounced spatial heterogeneity that spans a wide range of scales. This heterogeneity affects the surface energy and water budgets, as well as the land-atmosphere exchanges of momentum, heat, water and other constituents, through a number of highly nonlinear processes. The resolution of present-day Earth (or climate) system models is still too coarse to explicitly

  15. REPRESENTATION OF HETEROGENEITY EFFECTS IN EARTH SYSTEM MODELING: EXPERIENCE FROM LAND SURFACE MODELING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filippo Giorgi

    The land surface is characterized by pro- nounced spatial heterogeneity that spans a wide range of scales. This heterogeneity affects the surface energy and water budgets, as well as the land-atmosphere exchanges of momentum, heat, water and other constituents, through a number of highly nonlinear processes. The resolution of present-day Earth (or climate) system models is still too coarse to

  16. Representation of heterogeneity effects in Earth system modeling: Experience from land surface modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filippo Giorgi; Roni Avissar

    1997-01-01

    The land surface is characterized by pronounced spatial heterogeneity that spans a wide range of scales. This heterogeneity affects the surface energy and water budgets, as well as the land-atmosphere exchanges of momentum, heat, water and other constituents, through a number of highly nonlinear processes. The resolution of present-day Earth (or climate) system models is still too coarse to explicitly

  17. From Brigade to Village Community: The Land Tenure System and Rural Development in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Zhu; Zhongyi Jiang

    1993-01-01

    Although there are manifold problems in the current land tenure and land use systems, family tenure has been a better organizational form for utilizing farmland than was collective tenure. Community-based allocation is an important element in a transitional economic operating mechanism and it may be merely a temporary phenomenon. Market coordination can only be introduced gradually into the process of

  18. On Modeling A Dynamic Hybrid System with Constraints: Computing Aircraft Landing

    E-print Network

    Artiouchine, Konstantin

    On Modeling A Dynamic Hybrid System with Constraints: Computing Aircraft Landing Trajectories of computing trajectories of a set of aircraft in their final descent, right before landing. Trajectories must be compatible with aircraft dynamics while keeping distance between aircraft large enough. Our objective

  19. Cartography and Information Systems for the Luna-Glob Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanov, A.; Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Zubarev, A.; Robinson, M. S.

    2012-09-01

    We provide cartography and information system support to the LUNA-GLOB mission and assess candidate landing sites [1] on the basis of different available remote sensing data sets. The main goal of our work is to identify science opportunities in the sub-polar areas and to detect possible hazards for any landing spacecraft.

  20. Assessment of snow modeling in the North American land data assimilation system (NLDAS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pan

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses the cold season process modeling in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Simulations from the four land surface models (Noah, MOSAIC, SAC and VIC) in the NLDAS are compared with observational data for a 3-year retrospective period over the USA. Observed snow cover extent data are from the IMS (Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping

  1. Energy and resource consumption of land-based hatchery systems for finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...

  2. Dust in the Earth system: the biogeochemical linking of land, air and sea.

    PubMed

    Ridgwell, Andy J

    2002-12-15

    Understanding the response of the Earth's climate system to anthropogenic perturbation has been a pressing priority for society since the late 1980s. However, recent years have seen a major paradigm shift in how such an understanding can be reached. Climate change demands analysis within an integrated 'Earth-system' framework, taken to encompass the suite of interacting physical, chemical, biological and human processes that, in transporting and transforming materials and energy, jointly determine the conditions for life on the whole planet. This is a highly complex system, characterized by multiple nonlinear responses and thresholds, with linkages often between apparently disparate components. The interconnected nature of the Earth system is wonderfully illustrated by the diverse roles played by atmospheric transport of mineral 'dust', particularly in its capacity as a key pathway for the delivery of nutrients essential to plant growth, not only on land, but perhaps more importantly, in the ocean. Dust therefore biogeochemically links land, air and sea. This paper reviews the biogeochemical role of mineral dust in the Earth system and its interaction with climate, and, in particular, the potential importance of both past and possible future changes in aeolian delivery of the micro-nutrient iron to the ocean. For instance, if, in the future, there was to be a widespread stabilization of soils for the purpose of carbon sequestration on land, a reduction in aeolian iron supply to the open ocean would occur. The resultant weakening of the oceanic carbon sink could potentially offset much of the carbon sequestered on land. In contrast, during glacial times, enhanced dust supply to the ocean could have 'fertilized' the biota and driven atmospheric CO(2) lower. Dust might even play an active role in driving climatic change; since changes in dust supply may affect climate, and changes in climate, in turn, influence dust, a 'feedback loop' is formed. Possible feedback mechanisms are identified, recognition of whose operation could be crucial to our understanding of major climatic transitions over the past few million years. PMID:12626273

  3. Spatio-temporal analysis on land transformation in a forested tropical landscape in Jambi Province, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melati, Dian N.; Nengah Surati Jaya, I.; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Zuhdi, Muhammad; Fehrmann, Lutz; Magdon, Paul; Kleinn, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) in forested tropical landscapes is very dynamically developing. In particular, the pace of forest conversion in the tropics is a global concern as it directly impacts the global carbon cycle and biodiversity conservation. Expansion of agriculture is known to be among the major drivers of forest loss especially in the tropics. This is also the case in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia where it is the mainly expansion of tree crops that triggers deforestation: oil palm and rubber trees. Another transformation system in Jambi is the one from natural forest into jungle rubber, which is an agroforestry system where a certain density of forest trees accompanies the rubber tree crop, also for production of wood and non-wood forest products. The spatial distribution and the dynamics of these transformation systems and of the remaining forests are essential information for example for further research on ecosystem services and on the drivers of land transformation. In order to study land transformation, maps from the years 1990, 2000, 2011, and 2013 were utilized, derived from visual interpretation of Landsat images. From these maps, we analyze the land use/land cover change (LULCC) in the study region. It is found that secondary dryland forest (on mineral soils) and secondary swamp forest have been transformed largely into (temporary) shrub land, plantation forests, mixed dryland agriculture, bare lands and estate crops where the latter include the oil palm and rubber plantations. In addition, we present some analyses of the spatial pattern of land transformation to better understand the process of LULC fragmentation within the studied periods. Furthermore, the driving forces are analyzed.

  4. A Monte Carlo approach to Beryllium-7 solar neutrino analysis with KamLAND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Christopher Peter

    Terrestrial measurements of neutrinos produced by the Sun have been of great interest for over half a century because of their ability to test the accuracy of solar models. The first solar neutrinos detected with KamLAND provided a measurement of the 8B solar neutrino interaction rate above an analysis threshold of 5.5 MeV. This work describes efforts to extend KamLAND's detection sensitivity to solar neutrinos below 1 MeV, more specifically, those produced with an energy of 0.862 MeV from the 7Be electron-capture decay. Many of the difficulties in measuring solar neutrinos below 1 MeV arise from backgrounds caused abundantly by both naturally occurring, and man-made, radioactive nuclides. The primary nuclides of concern were 210Bi, 85Kr, and 39Ar. Since May of 2007, the KamLAND experiment has undergone two separate purification campaigns. During both campaigns a total of 5.4 ktons (about 6440 m3) of scintillator was circulated through a purification system, which utilized fractional distillation and nitrogen purging. After the purification campaign, reduction factors of 1.5 x 103 for 210Bi and 6.5 x 10 4 for 85Kr were observed. The reduction of the backgrounds provided a unique opportunity to observe the 7Be solar neutrino rate in KamLAND. An observation required detailed knowledge of the detector response at low energies, and to accomplish this, a full detector Monte Carlo simulation, called KLG4sim, was utilized. The optical model of the simulation was tuned to match the detector response observed in data after purification, and the software was optimized for the simulation of internal backgrounds used in the 7Be solar neutrino analysis. The results of this tuning and estimates from simulations of the internal backgrounds and external backgrounds caused by radioactivity on the detector components are presented. The first KamLAND analysis based on Monte Carlo simulations in the energy region below 2 MeV is shown here. The comparison of the chi2 between the null hypothesis and the existence of the 7Be solar neutrino signal in the data shows a change of 27.9 units, providing evidence that the signal is statistically favored. This analysis reports a measured interaction rate from 7Be solar neutrinos of R = 343.3 +/- 65.0(stat) +/- 99.2(syst) events/(kton·day), which corresponds to a total flux of phi = (3.41 +/- 1.18) x 109 cm-2s-1. The 7Be solar neutrino flux reported in this work is only the second measurement made of this quantity worldwide. It provides an important cross-check of the Borexino experiment. The flux measurement reported here agrees within 1sigma with the standard solar model predictions thus validating our basic understanding of solar fusion reaction processes.

  5. Indigenous Land Rights Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Constraint on Productivity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Hazell; Benoît Blarel

    1991-01-01

    This article uses cross-sectional evidence from Ghana, Kenya, and Rwanda in 1987-88 to examine the question, Are indigenous land rights systems in sub-Saharan Africa a constraint on productivity? The evidence supports the hypothesis suggested by historical studies, that African indigenous land rights systems have spontaneously evolved from systems of communal control toward individual sized rights in response to increases in

  6. Message handling system concepts and services in a land mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barberis, S.; Settimo, F.; Giralda, A.; Mistretta, I.; Loisy, C.; Parmentier, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture containing the capabilities offered by the Message Handling System (MHS) to the PRODAT Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS) is described taking into account the constraints of a preexisting satellite system which is going to become operational. The mapping between MHS services and PRODAT requirements is also reported and shows that the supplied performance can be significantly enhanced to both fixed and mobile users. The impact of the insertion of additional features on the system structure, especially on the centralized control unit, are also addressed.

  7. NASA Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC) Supports Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H.; Hrubiak, P.; Kato, H.; Rodell, M.; Teng, W. L.; Vollmer, B. E.

    2007-12-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is generating a series of land surface state (e.g., soil moisture and surface temperature) and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products simulated by four land surface models (CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC). These products are now accessible at the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), a component of NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). In addition to the basic anonymous data downloading, HDISC provides several advanced data search and downloading services, such as Mirador, OPeNDAP, and Giovanni. Mirador is a Google-based search tool that provides discovery of and access to data based on keywords. Mirador also provides users the capability to perform on-the-fly spatial and parameter subsetting and temporal aggregation of selected data. OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) enables remote OPeNDAP clients to access OPeNDAP served data regardless of local storage format. Giovanni is an online visualization and analysis tool that provides a simple way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of data without having to download the data. With Giovanni, users can perform spatial and temporal subsetting and explore spatial and temporal correlation of various parameters. Current GLDAS data hosted at HDISC include a set of 1.0 degree resolution data products, covering 1979 to the present, from the four models and a 0.25 degree data product, covering 2000 to the present, from the Noah model. The HDISC has the capability to support more hydrology data products and more advanced analysis tools. The goal is to develop HDISC as a data and services portal that supports weather and climate forecast, and water and energy cycle research.

  8. UNIVERSITY-NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC LABORATORY SYSTEM Moss Landing Marine Laboratories 8272 Moss Landing Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039

    E-print Network

    ) and is administered by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and U.S. Coast Guard. Under the MTSA, certain. The Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) is designed to be a security measure that will ensure transportation system. TWIC was established by Congress through the Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA

  9. Hispanic-serving land-grant colleges: Analysis and plan for an educational policy initiative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford Wayne Young

    2001-01-01

    Hispanics and other minority Americans are denied access to higher education by a system that needs structural reform. The purpose of the research was to determine whether creating Hispanic-serving land-grant colleges, similar to the Morrill land-grant colleges serving Black and Native Americans, might be an effective strategy to increase the access of Hispanic students to quality higher education. In addition

  10. An economic analysis of land use alternatives on CRP land trees after the CRP contracts expire in east Texas 

    E-print Network

    Arekere, Marigowda Dhananjaya

    1996-01-01

    Landowners who have planted trees on CRP land must decide whether to retain the trees or divert land to others uses after the contracts expire. An economic tool is developed to assist landowners in making the most profitable ...

  11. Capturing interactions between nitrogen and hydrological cycles under historical climate and land use: Susquehanna watershed analysis with the GFDL land model LM3-TAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P. C. D.; Jaffé, P. R.

    2014-10-01

    We developed a process model LM3-TAN to assess the combined effects of direct human influences and climate change on terrestrial and aquatic nitrogen (TAN) cycling. The model was developed by expanding NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land model LM3V-N of coupled terrestrial carbon and nitrogen (C-N) cycling and including new N cycling processes and inputs such as a soil denitrification, point N sources to streams (i.e., sewage), and stream transport and microbial processes. Because the model integrates ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes, it captures key controls of the transport and fate of N in the vegetation-soil-river system in a comprehensive and consistent framework which is responsive to climatic variations and land-use changes. We applied the model at 1/8° resolution for a study of the Susquehanna River Basin. We simulated with LM3-TAN stream dissolved organic-N, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N loads throughout the river network, and we evaluated the modeled loads for 1986-2005 using data from 16 monitoring stations as well as a reported budget for the entire basin. By accounting for interannual hydrologic variability, the model was able to capture interannual variations of stream N loadings. While the model was calibrated with the stream N loads only at the last downstream Susquehanna River Basin Commission station Marietta (40°02' N, 76°32' W), it captured the N loads well at multiple locations within the basin with different climate regimes, land-use types, and associated N sources and transformations in the sub-basins. Furthermore, the calculated and previously reported N budgets agreed well at the level of the whole Susquehanna watershed. Here we illustrate how point and non-point N sources contributing to the various ecosystems are stored, lost, and exported via the river. Local analysis of six sub-basins showed combined effects of land use and climate on soil denitrification rates, with the highest rates in the Lower Susquehanna Sub-Basin (extensive agriculture; Atlantic coastal climate) and the lowest rates in the West Branch Susquehanna Sub-Basin (mostly forest; Great Lakes and Midwest climate). In the re-growing secondary forests, most of the N from non-point sources was stored in the vegetation and soil, but in the agricultural lands most N inputs were removed by soil denitrification, indicating that anthropogenic N applications could drive substantial increase of N2O emission, an intermediate of the denitrification process.

  12. Capturing interactions between nitrogen and hydrological cycles under historical climate and land use: Susquehanna watershed analysis with the GFDL land model LM3-TAN

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, Paul C. D.; Jaffé, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a process model LM3-TAN to assess the combined effects of direct human influences and climate change on terrestrial and aquatic nitrogen (TAN) cycling. The model was developed by expanding NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land model LM3V-N of coupled terrestrial carbon and nitrogen (C-N) cycling and including new N cycling processes and inputs such as a soil denitrification, point N sources to streams (i.e., sewage), and stream transport and microbial processes. Because the model integrates ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes, it captures key controls of the transport and fate of N in the vegetation–soil–river system in a comprehensive and consistent framework which is responsive to climatic variations and land-use changes. We applied the model at 1/8° resolution for a study of the Susquehanna River Basin. We simulated with LM3-TAN stream dissolved organic-N, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N loads throughout the river network, and we evaluated the modeled loads for 1986–2005 using data from 16 monitoring stations as well as a reported budget for the entire basin. By accounting for interannual hydrologic variability, the model was able to capture interannual variations of stream N loadings. While the model was calibrated with the stream N loads only at the last downstream Susquehanna River Basin Commission station Marietta (40°02' N, 76°32' W), it captured the N loads well at multiple locations within the basin with different climate regimes, land-use types, and associated N sources and transformations in the sub-basins. Furthermore, the calculated and previously reported N budgets agreed well at the level of the whole Susquehanna watershed. Here we illustrate how point and non-point N sources contributing to the various ecosystems are stored, lost, and exported via the river. Local analysis of six sub-basins showed combined effects of land use and climate on soil denitrification rates, with the highest rates in the Lower Susquehanna Sub-Basin (extensive agriculture; Atlantic coastal climate) and the lowest rates in the West Branch Susquehanna Sub-Basin (mostly forest; Great Lakes and Midwest climate). In the re-growing secondary forests, most of the N from non-point sources was stored in the vegetation and soil, but in the agricultural lands most N inputs were removed by soil denitrification, indicating that anthropogenic N applications could drive substantial increase of N2O emission, an intermediate of the denitrification process.

  13. Geographical information systems as a tool to explore land characteristics and land use, with reference to Costa Rica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Stoorvogel

    1995-01-01

    An adequate inventory of land characteristics and land use is increasingly necessary to support agricultural land use planning, especially in view of the conflicting demands on scarce land resources. Fortunately new tools like GIS are being developed and adapted to support these inventories. Although GIS may be a useful tool for the storage and management of spatial data, its development

  14. Simulating the Conversion of Rural Settlements to Town Land Based on Multi-Agent Systems and Cellular Automata

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans. PMID:24244472

  15. The Community Land Model and Its Climate Statistics as a Component of the Community Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, Robert E. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Oleson, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Thornton, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Vertenstein, Mariana [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Yang, Zong-Liang [University of Texas, Austin; Zeng, Xubin [University of Arizona

    2006-01-01

    Several multidecadal simulations have been carried out with the new version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). This paper reports an analysis of the land component of these simulations. Global annual averages over land appear to be within the uncertainty of observational datasets, but the seasonal cycle over land of temperature and precipitation appears to be too weak. These departures from observations appear to be primarily a consequence of deficiencies in the simulation of the atmospheric model rather than of the land processes. High latitudes of northern winter are biased sufficiently warm to have a significant impact on the simulated value of global land temperature. The precipitation is approximately doubled from what it should be at some locations, and the snowpack and spring runoff are also excessive. The winter precipitation over Tibet is larger than observed. About two-thirds of this precipitation is sublimated during the winter, but what remains still produces a snowpack that is very large compared to that observed with correspondingly excessive spring runoff. A large cold anomaly over the Sahara Desert and Sahel also appears to be a consequence of a large anomaly in downward longwave radiation; low column water vapor appears to be most responsible. The modeled precipitation over the Amazon basin is low compared to that observed, the soil becomes too dry, and the temperature is too warm during the dry season.

  16. Mars Exploration Rovers Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Knocke, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present a novel method of land surface classification using surface-reflected GPS signals in combination with digital imagery. Two GPS-derived classification features are merged with visible image data to create terrain-moisture (TM) classes, defined here as visibly identifiable terrain or landcover classes containing a surface/soil moisture component. As compared to using surface imagery alone, classification accuracy is significantly improved for a number of visible classes when adding the GPS-based signal features. Since the strength of the reflected GPS signal is proportional to the amount of moisture in the surface, use of these GPS features provides information about the surface that is not obtainable using visible wavelengths alone. Application areas include hydrology, precision agriculture, and wetlands mapping.

  17. Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in cropland and grazing land systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop and grazing land management influences greenhouse gas emissions, which can be reduced by adopting conservation practices. Operators of cropland systems use a variety of practices that have implications for emissions, such as nutrient additions, irrigation, liming applications, tillage practices...

  18. Design of an Automatic Landing System for the Meridian UAV using Fuzzy Logic

    E-print Network

    Royer, David Andrew

    2010-04-22

    This document describes the design of an automatic landing system for the Meridian unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in development for glacial ice research. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), established by the National Science...

  19. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS...use the SMS to ensure that safety is considered and implemented...rear-end, head-on, pedestrian-related), location, description... (ii) An inventory of safety appurtenances such as...

  20. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS...use the SMS to ensure that safety is considered and implemented...rear-end, head-on, pedestrian-related), location, description... (ii) An inventory of safety appurtenances such as...

  1. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS...use the SMS to ensure that safety is considered and implemented...rear-end, head-on, pedestrian-related), location, description... (ii) An inventory of safety appurtenances such as...

  2. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS...use the SMS to ensure that safety is considered and implemented...rear-end, head-on, pedestrian-related), location, description... (ii) An inventory of safety appurtenances such as...

  3. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS...use the SMS to ensure that safety is considered and implemented...rear-end, head-on, pedestrian-related), location, description... (ii) An inventory of safety appurtenances such as...

  4. Modelling Habitat Suitability for Deciduous Forest Focal Species – A Sensitivity Analysis using Different Satellite Land Cover Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Manton; Per Angelstam; Grzegorz Mikusi?ski

    2005-01-01

    We explored the usefulness of three satellite land cover data sets available to land managers in south-central Sweden for conservation planning using four deciduous forest focal resident bird species with different habitat requirements. Habitat suitability models using empirical species-specific habitat parameters and a Geographic Information System were applied to evaluate and compare the degree of consistency among three different land

  5. A survey of the needs of land information system users 

    E-print Network

    Grunig, Melissa Margaret

    1976-01-01

    by the National Pesources Planning Board formed in the 1930's as part of the New Deal. The Board continued to arouse public intern?t in 1;ind use prob'ieiis rhroughoui. i+s brief life span Pari. of that intere' t focused on land use. d for agri cult. ure. Cur...

  6. Atmosphere, ocean, and land: Critical gaps in Earth system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.; Hartley, Dana

    1992-01-01

    We briefly review current knowledge and pinpoint some of the major areas of uncertainty for the following fundamental processes: (1) convection, condensation nuclei, and cloud formation; (2) oceanic circulation and its coupling to the atmosphere and cryosphere; (3) land surface hydrology and hydrology-vegetation coupling; (4) biogeochemistry of greenhouse gases; and (5) upper atmospheric chemistry and circulation.

  7. Land Subsidence of Jakarta (Indonesia) and its Geodetic Monitoring System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasanuddin Z. Abidin; Rochman Djaja; Dudy Darmawan; Samsul Hadi; Arifin Akbar; H. Rajiyowiryono; Y. Sudibyo; I. Meilano; M. A. Kasuma; J. Kahar; Cecep Subarya

    2001-01-01

    Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia with a population of about 10 million people, inhabiting an area of about 25 × 25 km. It has been reported for sometime that locations in Jakarta are subsiding at different rates. Up to the present, there has been no comprehensive information about the characteristics and pattern of land subsidence in the Jakarta

  8. Building a Global Arid Lands Information System: A Collaborative Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Hutchinson

    For nearly all of its more than thirty year history, the Office of Arid Lands Studies (OALS), through its various divisions, has been involved in the research, collection, and dissemination of information about the drylands of the World. This has included interdisciplinary applied research programs in economic botany and natural product development, the application of remote sensing and geographic information

  9. An economic analysis of the effects of land subsidence in the Houston-Baytown region, Texas

    E-print Network

    Warren, J. P

    1974-01-01

    AV ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF LAND SUBSIDENCE IN THE HOUSTON-EiAYTOWN REGION, TEXAS A Thesis JOHN PATRICK WARREN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1974 Major Subjects Agricultural Economics AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF LAND SUBSIDENCE IN THE HOUSTON-BAYTOWN REGION, TEXAS A Thesis by JOHN PATRICK WARREN ApprpYed as to style and content by~ (' ~ 'g&g'~', I...

  10. Analysis of Land Use Change and Urbanization in the Kucukcekmece Water Basin (Istanbul, Turkey) with Temporal Satellite Data using Remote Sensing and GIS

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, H. Gonca; Alganci, Ugur; Usta, Gokce

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and timely information about land use and land cover (LULC) and its changes in urban areas are crucial for urban land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring and urban planning. Also, monitoring and representation of urban sprawl and its effects on the LULC patterns and hydrological processes of an urbanized watershed is an essential part of water resource planning and management. This paper presents an image analysis study using multi temporal digital satellite imagery of LULC and changes in the Kucukcekmece Watershed (Metropolitan Istanbul, Turkey) from 1992 to 2006. The Kucukcekmece Basin includes portions of the Kucukcekmece District within the municipality of Istanbul so it faces a dramatic urbanization. An urban monitoring analysis approach was first used to implement a land cover classification. A change detection method controlled with ground truth information was then used to determine changes in land cover. During the study period, the variability and magnitude of hydrological components based on land-use patterns were cumulatively influenced by urban sprawl in the watershed. The proposed approach, which uses a combination of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, is an effective tool that enhances land-use monitoring, planning, and management of urbanized watersheds.

  11. INTEGRATED LAND-USE SYSTEMS: ASSESSMENT OF PROMISING AGROFOREST AND ALTERNATIVE LAND-USE PRACTICES TO ENHANCE CARBON CONSERVATION AND SEQUESTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Degraded or sub-standard soils and marginal lands occupy a significant proportion of boreal, temperate and tropical biomes. anagement of these lands with a wide range of existing, site-specific, integrated, agroforest systems represents a significant global opportunity to reduce ...

  12. Decision-support systems for natural-hazards and land-management issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinitz, Laura; Forney, William; Byrd, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS Western Geographic Science Center are developing decision-support systems (DSSs) for natural-hazards and land-management issues. DSSs are interactive computer-based tools that use data and models to help identify and solve problems. These systems can provide crucial support to policymakers, planners, and communities for making better decisions about long-term natural hazards mitigation and land-use planning.

  13. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ON THE SHANGHAI LAND USE MASTER PLAN: A SYSTEM DYNAMICS APPROACH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanfen LIN; Wei TU; Huijuan HAN; Xiaolu WU; Weichun MA

    2006-01-01

    This study developed a prototype of an environmental assessment tool, SEA_LUP_SD, based on the system dynamics model. SEA_LUD_SD can simulate and evaluate information feedback of land use plan options and three related systems, population change, economic development, and environment conditions. This tool was then applied to the Shanghai land use master plan (1997–2010) and three other hypothetical planning options to

  14. Using soft-systems methods to evaluate the outputs from multi-objective land use planning tools

    E-print Network

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Using soft-systems methods to evaluate the outputs from multi-objective land use planning tools K.B. Matthews , K. Buchan , A.R. Sibbald , and Susan Craw The Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Aberdeen, AB effects on the financial, social and environmental sustainability of land use systems. One approach

  15. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems and Synthetic Vision Systems for NextGen Approach and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory standards and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for using EFVS to conduct approach, landing, and roll-out operations in visibility as low as 1000 feet runway visual range (RVR). Also, SVS was tested to evaluate the potential for lowering decision heights (DH) on certain instrument approach procedures below what can be flown today. Expanding the portion of the visual segment in which EFVS can be used in lieu of natural vision from 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation to touchdown and rollout in visibilities as low as 1000 feet RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was acceptable without any apparent workload penalties. A lower DH of 150 feet and/or possibly reduced visibility minima using SVS appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  16. L A N D U S E S / S Y S T E M S & O B J E C T I V E S | EXISTING AND PROPOSED LAND USES Land Uses/Systems &

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    L A N D U S E S / S Y S T E M S & O B J E C T I V E S | EXISTING AND PROPOSED LAND USES Land Uses/Systems & Objectives EXISTING AND PROPOSED LAND USES The 2003 LRDP identifies 16 land use categories covering a range of built environ- ments and open lands. The Existing Land Use diagram in this section presents cur- rent

  17. Towards a public, standardized, diagnostic benchmarking system for land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowitz, G.

    2012-06-01

    This work examines different conceptions of land surface model benchmarking and the importance of internationally standardized evaluation experiments that specify data sets, variables, metrics and model resolutions. It additionally demonstrates how essential the definition of a priori expectations of model performance can be, based on the complexity of a model and the amount of information being provided to it, and gives an example of how these expectations might be quantified. Finally, the Protocol for the Analysis of Land Surface models (PALS) is introduced - a free, online land surface model benchmarking application that is structured to meet both of these goals.

  18. Towards a public, standardized, diagnostic benchmarking system for land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowitz, G.

    2012-02-01

    We examine different conceptions of land surface model benchmarking and illustrate the importance of internationally standardized evaluation experiments that specify data sets, variables, metrics and model resolutions. We additionally show how essential the definition of a priori expectations of model performance can be, based on the complexity of a model and the amount of information being provided to it, and give an example of how these expectations might be quantified. Finally, we introduce the Protocol for the Analysis of Land Surface models (PALS), a free, online land surface model benchmarking application, and show how it is structured to meet both of these goals.

  19. Object-Based Analysis of Aerial Photogrammetric Point Cloud and Spectral Data for Land Cover Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debella-Gilo, M.; Bjørkelo, K.; Breidenbach, J.; Rahlf, J.

    2013-04-01

    The acquisition of 3D point data with the use of both aerial laser scanning (ALS) and matching of aerial stereo images coupled with advances in image processing algorithms in the past years provide opportunities to map land cover types with better precision than before. The present study applies Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) to 3D point cloud data obtained from matching of stereo aerial images together with spectral data to map land cover types of the Nord-Trøndelag county of Norway. The multi-resolution segmentation algorithm of the Definiens eCognition™ software is used to segment the scenes into homogenous objects. The objects are then classified into different land cover types using rules created based on the definitions given for each land cover type by the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute. The quality of the land cover map was evaluated using data collected in the field as part of the Norwegian National Forest Inventory. The results show that the classification has an overall accuracy of about 80% and a kappa index of about 0.65. OBIA is found to be a suitable method for utilizing 3D remote sensing data for land cover mapping in an effort to replace manual delineation methods.

  20. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Stardust Entry Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Dan T.; Tooley, Jeff; Kangas, Julie

    2008-01-01

    On the morning of January 15, 2006, the Stardust capsule successfully landed at the Utah Test and Training range in northwest Utah returning cometary samples from the comet Wild-2. An overview of the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) trajectory analysis that was performed for targeting during the mission operations phase upon final approach to Earth is described. The final orbit determination solution produced an inertial entry flight-path angle of -8.21 deg (the desired nominal value) with a 3-sigma uncertainty of +/-0.0017 deg (2% of the requirement). The navigation and EDL operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.1 km from the target, which was well within the allowable landing area. Overall, the Earth approach operation procedures worked well and there were no issues (logistically or performance based) that arose. As a result, the process of targeting a capsule from an interplanetary trajectory and accurately landing it on Earth was successfully demonstrated.

  1. Information Processing Analysis of Human Land Mine Detection Skill James J. Staszewski1

    E-print Network

    Creswell, J. David

    sophisticated hand-held land mine detection system used by US forces is the AN/19, PSS-12 metal detector in th concluded that "human operators perform better with any detector system than the corresponding fully show that a skilled PSS-12 operator can detect low-metal mines with considerable accuracy. A first

  2. Regional groundwater discharge: phreatophyte mapping, groundwater modelling and impact analysis of land-use change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Batelaan; F. De; L. Triestb Smedt

    The relationship between groundwater recharge and discharge is one of the most important aspects in the protection of ecologically valuable areas. Knowledge of groundwater systems is therefore a pre-requisite for up-to-date integrated land and water management. A methodology is presented for assessing the relative importance of different recharge - discharge systems, with respect to ecological status or development, including mapping

  3. Modeling regional aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence in Yunlin County, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, W.-C.; Hwang, C. W.; Kuo, C. L.; Yeh, T. K.

    2012-04-01

    Yunlin is a county in central Taiwan that is home to several major economic development projects. Extracting groundwater has caused large-scale land subsidence in Yunlin, with the largest cumulative subsidence being 135 cm over 1992-2010. A multi-sensor monitoring system consisting of continuous GPS stations (CGPSs), a leveling network, gravity network, 300 m-deep multi-layer compaction monitoring wells and groundwater wells is deployed to monitor land subsidence and its mechanism in Yunlin. GPS data at CGPS station HWES in Huwei Township of Yunlin show a cumulative subsidence of 19.9 cm over May 2007- October 2011. Data from a nearby monitoring well show that the subsidence is caused by compactions occurring mainly at aquifers 2, 3 and 4. An analysis of subsidence and compaction at HWES suggests that the compaction is ongoing at depths > 300 m. Four hydrogeological parameters of the three sediment layers in Huwei, i.e., vertical hydraulic conductivity, elastic skeletal specific storage, inelastic skeletal specific storage, and the initial maximum preconsolidation stress, in the one-dimensional compaction model COMPAC, are estimated using the genetic algorithm. With the parameters, COMPAC predicts compactions to an accuracy consistent with in situ measurements, and the root mean square error are below 5mm. The result provides a key reference for water management in central Taiwan.

  4. Covariance Analysis Tool (G-CAT) for Computing Ascent, Descent, and Landing Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Bayard, David S.

    2013-01-01

    G-CAT is a covariance analysis tool that enables fast and accurate computation of error ellipses for descent, landing, ascent, and rendezvous scenarios, and quantifies knowledge error contributions needed for error budgeting purposes. Because GCAT supports hardware/system trade studies in spacecraft and mission design, it is useful in both early and late mission/ proposal phases where Monte Carlo simulation capability is not mature, Monte Carlo simulation takes too long to run, and/or there is a need to perform multiple parametric system design trades that would require an unwieldy number of Monte Carlo runs. G-CAT is formulated as a variable-order square-root linearized Kalman filter (LKF), typically using over 120 filter states. An important property of G-CAT is that it is based on a 6-DOF (degrees of freedom) formulation that completely captures the combined effects of both attitude and translation errors on the propagated trajectories. This ensures its accuracy for guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) analysis. G-CAT provides the desired fast turnaround analysis needed for error budgeting in support of mission concept formulations, design trade studies, and proposal development efforts. The main usefulness of a covariance analysis tool such as G-CAT is its ability to calculate the performance envelope directly from a single run. This is in sharp contrast to running thousands of simulations to obtain similar information using Monte Carlo methods. It does this by propagating the "statistics" of the overall design, rather than simulating individual trajectories. G-CAT supports applications to lunar, planetary, and small body missions. It characterizes onboard knowledge propagation errors associated with inertial measurement unit (IMU) errors (gyro and accelerometer), gravity errors/dispersions (spherical harmonics, masscons), and radar errors (multiple altimeter beams, multiple Doppler velocimeter beams). G-CAT is a standalone MATLAB- based tool intended to run on any engineer's desktop computer.

  5. BATSE spectroscopy analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Bansal, Sandhia; Basu, Anju; Brisco, Phil; Cline, Thomas L.; Friend, Elliott; Laubenthal, Nancy; Panduranga, E. S.; Parkar, Nuru; Rust, Brad

    1992-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) Spectroscopy Analysis System (BSAS) is the software system which is the primary tool for the analysis of spectral data from BATSE. As such, Guest Investigators and the community as a whole need to know its basic properties and characteristics. Described here are the characteristics of the BATSE spectroscopy detectors and the BSAS.

  6. Marine algae and land plants share conserved phytochrome signaling systems

    PubMed Central

    Duanmu, Deqiang; Bachy, Charles; Sudek, Sebastian; Wong, Chee-Hong; Jiménez, Valeria; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Ngan, Chew Yee; Reistetter, Emily N.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Price, Dana C.; Wei, Chia-Lin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Lagarias, J. Clark; Worden, Alexandra Z.

    2014-01-01

    Phytochrome photosensors control a vast gene network in streptophyte plants, acting as master regulators of diverse growth and developmental processes throughout the life cycle. In contrast with their absence in known chlorophyte algal genomes and most sequenced prasinophyte algal genomes, a phytochrome is found in Micromonas pusilla, a widely distributed marine picoprasinophyte (<2 µm cell diameter). Together with phytochromes identified from other prasinophyte lineages, we establish that prasinophyte and streptophyte phytochromes share core light-input and signaling-output domain architectures except for the loss of C-terminal response regulator receiver domains in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Phylogenetic reconstructions robustly support the presence of phytochrome in the common progenitor of green algae and land plants. These analyses reveal a monophyletic clade containing streptophyte, prasinophyte, cryptophyte, and glaucophyte phytochromes implying an origin in the eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. Transcriptomic measurements reveal diurnal regulation of phytochrome and bilin chromophore biosynthetic genes in Micromonas. Expression of these genes precedes both light-mediated phytochrome redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased expression of photosynthesis-associated genes. Prasinophyte phytochromes perceive wavelengths of light transmitted farther through seawater than the red/far-red light sensed by land plant phytochromes. Prasinophyte phytochromes also retain light-regulated histidine kinase activity lost in the streptophyte phytochrome lineage. Our studies demonstrate that light-mediated nuclear translocation of phytochrome predates the emergence of land plants and likely represents a widespread signaling mechanism in unicellular algae. PMID:25267653

  7. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover

    PubMed Central

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time—with community enclosure—by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of “land-use” poverty traps—a “subsistence crop” trap and a “short fallow” trap—and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  8. Land Classification and Change Intensity Analysis in a Coastal Watershed of Southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, Jinliang; Robert Gilmore, Pontius; Hong, Huasheng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of land changes in the Jiulong River watershed, a coastal watershed of Southeast China. We developed a stratified classification methodology for land mapping, which combines linear stretching, an Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) clustering algorithm, and spatial reclassification. The stratified classification for 2002 generated less overall error than an unstratified classification. The stratified classifications were then used to examine temporal differences at 1986, 1996, 2002, 2007 and 2010. Intensity Analysis was applied to analyze land changes at three levels: time interval, category, and transition. Results showed that land use transformation has been accelerating. Woodland's gains and losses were dormant while the gains and losses of Agriculture, Orchard, Built-up and Bare land were active during all time intervals. Water's losses were active and stationary. The transitions from Agriculture, Orchard, and Water to Built-up were systematically targeting and stationary, while the transition from Woodland to Built-up was systematically avoiding and stationary. PMID:24988380

  9. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-01

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  10. WATERWAY 365 System Analysis of Challenges in Increased Urban Mobility

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    WATERWAY 365 System Analysis of Challenges in Increased Urban Mobility by Utilization of the Water and that complement the land-based transport systems in order to achieve an over-all sustainable urban mobility performance parameters for personal transport and city logistics systems on the waterways in urban

  11. Commercial and industrial land use change, job decentralization and growth controls: a spatially explicit analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michail Fragkias; Jacqueline Geoghegan

    2010-01-01

    This article studies the creation of commercial and industrial spaces and consequently jobs in suburban and exurban areas of Montgomery County, MD – part of the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. We utilize a spatially explicit framework of land use change analysis – which to date, has been applied solely in studies of residential decentralization and sprawl – to examine employment

  12. Reconciling Agency and Structure in Empirical Analysis: Smallholder Land Use in the Southern

    E-print Network

    Roy Chowdhury, Rinku

    Reconciling Agency and Structure in Empirical Analysis: Smallholder Land Use in the Southern Yucata, University of Miami w Graduate School of Geography, Clark University The agent-structure binary in human-economic structures as the anthropogenic force driving landscape change. This binary has, in part, separated cultural

  13. Landing motion analysis of human-body model considering impact and ZMP condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Rok So; Byung-Ju Yi; Sang-Rok Oh; Young Soo Kim

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with modeling and analysis for the landing motion of a human-body model. First, the dynamic model of a floating human body and the impact model are derived and the external impulse exerted on the ground as well as the internal impulse experienced at the joints of the human body model are investigated. Second, a motion planning algorithm

  14. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF COASTAL VEGETATION AND LAND COVER USING AISA+HYPERSPECTRAL DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes spectral analysis of several coastal land cover types on South Padre Island, Texas, using AISA+hyperspectral remote sensing data. AISA+hyperspectral data (1.5 meter) were acquired throughout the area on 9 March 2005. Data over mangrove areas were converted to percent reflecta...

  15. Improving the global land surface climatology product to support the Global Drought Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J.; Ek, M. B.; Xia, Y.; Yang, R.; Dong, J.

    2013-12-01

    Global reanalyses are widely used to generate regional and global land surface hydro-climatological fields, such as soil moisture, soil temperature, snowpack, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff that may be used for drought related research. The NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) soil moisture has been evaluated against the soil moisture data from the NCEP Global Reanalysis 2 (R2), the NCEP North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), and surface observations. It is concluded that the CFSR soil moisture yields an improved representation of land surface climatology and climatological anomalies over R2. However, the evaluation also indicates the need for further improved design and execution of the CFSR Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) including, for instance, spin up, continuous single-stream simulation, and land surface physics upgrades. To achieve this goal, a single-stream GLDAS-replay experiment has been conducted using a more sufficient 15-year spin up of initial land states and executed continuously through the entire period of CFSR (1979-2010). Result shows that the retrospective single-stream GLDAS-replay (GLDAS2) is able to preclude the known discontinuity of soil moisture and other land states in the multi-stream CFSR, e.g., 1999, 2005. The temporal anomaly correlation between GLDAS2 and NLDAS (0.82) is also improved from that between CFSR and NLDAS (0.79) across the contiguous United States domain (CONUS). The NLDAS products have been used to provide initial conditions for the hydrological and drought predictions as well as real time drought monitoring over CONUS. With improved global land surface climatology reference and anomalies, the current NLDAS drought monitor and prediction system approach can be expanded to global to support the global drought research activities and the Global Drought Information System.

  16. Forcing a Global, Offline Land Surface Modeling System with Observation-Based Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; Houser, Paul R.; Jambor, U.; Gottschalck, J.; Radakovich, J.; Arsenault, K.; Meng, C.-J.; Mitchell, K. E.

    2002-01-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) drives multiple uncoupled land surface models in order to produce optimal output fields of surface states in near-real time, globally, at 1/4 degree spatial resolution. These fields are then made available for coupled atmospheric model initialization and further research. One of the unique aspects of GLDAS is its ability to ingest both modeled and observation-derived forcing for running global scale land surface models. This paper compares results of runs forced by modeled and observed precipitation and shortwave radiation fields. Differences are examined and the impact of the observations on model skill is assessed.

  17. Mars Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation Design and Modelling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Jill L.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Mars Phoenix Lander was launched in August of 2007 on a ten month cruise to reach the northern plains of Mars in May 2008. Its mission continues NASA s pursuit to find evidence of water on Mars. Phoenix carries upon it a slew of science instruments to study soil and ice samples from the northern region of the planet, an area previously undiscovered by robotic landers. In order for these science instruments to be useful, it was necessary for Phoenix to perform a safe entry, descent, and landing (EDL) onto the surface of Mars. The EDL design was defined through simulation and analysis of the various phases of the descent. An overview of the simulation and various models developed to characterize the EDL performance is provided. Monte Carlo statistical analysis was performed to assess the performance and robustness of the Phoenix EDL system and are presented in this paper. Using these simulation and modelling tools throughout the design and into the operations phase, the Mars Phoenix EDL was a success on May 25, 2008.

  18. Land use classification utilizing remote multispectral scanner data and computer analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, P. N.; Johannsen, C. J.; Yanner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner was used to collect the visible and reflective infrared data. A small subdivision near Lafayette, Indiana was selected as the test site for the urban land use study. Multispectral scanner data were collected over the subdivision on May 1, 1970 from an altitude of 915 meters. The data were collected in twelve wavelength bands from 0.40 to 1.00 micrometers by the scanner. The results indicated that computer analysis of multispectral data can be very accurate in classifying and estimating the natural and man-made materials that characterize land uses in an urban scene.

  19. Mowgli: A Bipedal Jumping and Landing Robot with an Artificial Musculoskeletal System

    E-print Network

    Mowgli: A Bipedal Jumping and Landing Robot with an Artificial Musculoskeletal System Ryuma Niiyama robot called "Mowgli". Mowgli's artificial musculoskeletal system consists of six McKibben pneumatic musculoskeletal system as a physical feedback loop in explosive movements. I. INTRODUCTION The ability to move

  20. Modeling Land-Use Change in a Decision-Support System for Coastal-Zone Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Luc de Kok; Guy Engelen; Roger White; Herman G. Wind

    2001-01-01

    RaMCo is a prototype version of a decision-support system for coastal-zone management. The model is based on the findings of a multidisiciplinary research program, conducted in Southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia. Different management strategies can be compared on the basis of the short- and long-term consequences. Land-use change has been included in RaMCo in view of the impacts of land-based human activities

  1. Biogeophysical effects of historical land cover changes simulated by six Earth system models of intermediate complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Brovkin; M. Claussen; E. Driesschaert; T. Fichefet; D. Kicklighter; M. F. Loutre; H. D. Matthews; N. Ramankutty; M. Schaeffer; A. Sokolov

    2006-01-01

    Six Earth system models of intermediate complexity that are able to simulate interaction between atmosphere, ocean, and land\\u000a surface, were forced with a scenario of land cover changes during the last millennium. In response to historical deforestation\\u000a of about 18 million sq km, the models simulate a decrease in global mean annual temperature in the range of 0.13–0.25°C. The\\u000a rate of this cooling

  2. Outdoor Recreation on Government Lands in Texas, An Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, David J.; Reid, Leslie M.

    This study represents an inventory of major government, non-urban outdoor recreation programs and facilities in Texas, as well as an indication of visitor use reported by individual agencies. The purpose of the analysis is to illustrate the importance of outdoor recreation in Texas and the contribution of various agencies, rather than to determine…

  3. Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Franciska T; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C; d'Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W H Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-08-27

    Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world. PMID:23940339

  4. Farming System Options for Poverty Alleviation in the Sloping Lands of Northern Laos: How Pro-Poor Are They?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Calub; S. Mahathirath

    Sustainable development of sloping lands in the Lao PDR requires striking a balance between natural resource conservation and poverty alleviation among upland communities. Participatory farm systems research could be one area where farmers, researchers and extension staff jointly develop pro-poor land- use alternatives to shifting cultivation on sloping lands. Responding to the National Growth and Poverty Eradication Strategy of the

  5. From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Chini, Louise; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Truesdale, John; Craig, Anthony; Calvin, Kate; Jones, Andrew; Collins, William; Edmonds, Jae; Hurtt, George; Thornton, Peter; Thomson, Allison

    2015-04-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. For RCP4.5, CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because GCAM relied on afforestation to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications and sharing forest area between GCAM and GLM within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to include 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases CESM vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, which demonstrates that CESM without additional afforestation simulates a different RCP4.5 scenario than prescribed by GCAM. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to increase fidelity between IAM scenarios and ESM simulations and realize the full potential of scenario-based earth system simulations.

  6. From land use to land cover: restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment-earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chini, L. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Truesdale, J.; Craig, A.; Calvin, K.; Jones, A.; Collins, W. D.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Thornton, P.; Thomson, A.

    2014-11-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across integrated assessment and earth system models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. For RCP4.5, CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because GCAM relied on afforestation to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications and sharing forest area between GCAM and GLM within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to include 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases CESM vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, which demonstrates that CESM without additional afforestation simulates a different RCP4.5 scenario than prescribed by GCAM. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to increase fidelity between IAM scenarios and ESM simulations and realize the full potential of scenario-based earth system simulations.

  7. An economic analysis of land use alternatives on CRP land trees after the CRP contracts expire in east Texas

    E-print Network

    Arekere, Marigowda Dhananjaya

    1996-01-01

    Landowners who have planted trees on CRP land must decide whether to retain the trees or divert land to others uses after the contracts expire. An economic tool is developed to assist landowners in making the most profitable choice between retaining...

  8. Topographic modeling and analysis of the landing site of Chang'E-3 on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Li, Fei; Ye, Lei; Qiao, Si; Huang, Jun; Wu, Xueying; Zhang, He

    2014-11-01

    The Chinese lunar probe Chang'E-3, carrying the “Jade Rabbit” lunar rover, successfully landed in the Sinus Iridum area on the Moon on December 14, 2013. This paper presents the characterization activities that were done for the selection of the landing area, including topographic modeling and analysis based on multisource lunar remote sensing data. Seven meter-resolution Chang'E-2 imagery and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter data were integrated to generate a digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution of 20 m for the entire Sinus Iridum landing area. Long baseline slopes were assessed according to this DEM for all of this area. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter narrow-angle camera images and 1.5 m-resolution Chang'E-2 imagery were used to derive DEMs with higher resolution (4 m) at several local regions within the Sinus Iridum landing area. Slope analyses at lander footprint scale (˜8 m) were performed in these local regions. Craters were detected from the DEMs and the derived orthophotos, and size-frequency distributions were generated. Crater morphological statistics, including the depth/diameter ratios, rim height/diameter ratios and wall slopes, were analyzed. The results showed that the Sinus Iridum landing area is relatively flat. Most of the area has slopes of less than 15°. The steeper slopes are mainly alongside craters and ridges. The crater size-frequency distribution is close to the equilibrium distribution. The crater ages, as indicated by their morphological statistics, vary from mature to relatively fresh in different regions. These topographic modeling and analysis results were used for strategic planning to identify the landing site for the Chang'E-3 and made a useful contribution to the success of the Chang'E-3 mission.

  9. Mixed breeding system in the hermaphroditic land slug Arion intermedius (Stylommatophora, Arionidae).

    PubMed

    Jordaens, Kurt; Van Houtte, Natalie; Helsen, Philippe; Breugelmans, Karin; Jaksons, Peter; Backeljau, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    Theory suggests that hermaphroditic plants and animals should be either entirely outcrossing or entirely selfing. As such, very few hermaphroditic plants and basommatophoran snails have a mixed breeding system. However, reliable estimates of selfing rates are lacking for most hermaphroditic animals. This partly prevents to delineate the relative contributions of the selective factors that determine selfing and outcrossing rates in hermaphroditic animal taxa. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of, and breeding system in, 11 populations of the hermaphroditic land slug Arion intermedius using five polymorphic microsatellite loci. Moreover, genotype frequencies deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations for most of the loci in all populations suggesting some level of selfing. Estimates of the selfing level s, suggest moderate levels of outcrossing (mean s based on FIS = 0.84; mean s based on the two-locus heterozygosity disequilibrium = 0.20, or with a ML approach = 0.22). Our study therefore suggests that A. intermedius has a mixed breeding system. A re-analysis of allozyme data from another arionid slug ( subgenus Carinarion) indicates that mixed breeding may be more common in arionid slugs than hitherto was assumed. These results seem therefore at variance with current theoretical and empirical predictions and opens perspectives for the study on the evolutionary factors driving mixed breeding systems in animals. PMID:24164457

  10. The Watershed Planning System: A Tool for Integrated Land Use Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, D. G.

    2002-05-01

    The challenge in Maryland and across the nation is allowing economic growth while protecting our environment. Maryland's Smart Growth policies provide a strong foundation for conserving resource land, minimizing nutrient loadings from new development, and revitalizing our urban/suburban communities. To assist local governments and communities, MDP has developed the Watershed Planning System (WPS). It is an analytical tool to conduct watershed-based assessments of the impacts of current and alternative programs and policies on land and water resources. The WPS consists of two GIS-based models, the Growth Management Simulation, and the Pollution Simulation Management models. The Growth Management Simulation Model estimates changes in land uses by watershed as a function of population and household projections, as well as state and county policies, regulations, and programs. The model allows evaluation of different future land use scenarios by changing assumptions associated with comprehensive plans and zoning, subdivision, and environmental regulations through which plans are implemented. The Pollution Simulation Management model evaluates the effects of pollution management alternatives on current land use and future land use conditions. The output provides a basis for selecting a feasible mix of management alternatives that can be implemented through program changes, such as: comprehensive plans, soil conservation and water quality plans, nutrient management programs, zoning and subdivision programs, and sensitive area protection programs, and through implementation of best management practices. The WPS has been applied in the 13 counties, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George's, St. Mary's, Worcester, Cecil, Wicomico, Frederick, Carroll, and Harford, to address a variety of land use management, resource conservation, and pollution control objectives. In addition, the model has been used to produce statewide 2020 land use projections essential for sound land use planning.

  11. Apollo 17 Landing Site Topography from LROC NAC Stereo Data — First Analysis and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, J.; Scholten, F.; Matz, K.-D.; Roatsch, T.; Wählisch, M.; Haase, I.; Gläser, P.; Gwinner, K.; Robinson, M. S.; Lroc Team

    2010-03-01

    The LROC NAC camera onboard the LRO mission provides stereo data with a ground scale of 0.5-1.5 m. We used our DLR photogrammetric processing system to compute a digital terrain model (DTM) of the Apollo 17 landing site and show first results.

  12. Apollo 17 Landing Site Topography from LROC NAC Stereo Data --- First Analysis and Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Oberst; F. Scholten; K.-D. Matz; T. Roatsch; M. Wählisch; I. Haase; P. Gläser; K. Gwinner; M. S. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The LROC NAC camera onboard the LRO mission provides stereo data with a ground scale of 0.5-1.5 m. We used our DLR photogrammetric processing system to compute a digital terrain model (DTM) of the Apollo 17 landing site and show first results.

  13. Fiber optic security systems for land- and sea-based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crickmore, Roger I.; Nash, Phillip J.; Wooler, John P. F.

    2004-11-01

    QinetiQ have been developing security systems for land and sea applications using interferometric based fiber optic sensors. We have constructed and tested a multi-channel fiber-optic hydrophone seabed array, which is designed for maritime surveillance and harbor security applications. During a recent trial it was deployed in a coastal location for an 8 day period during which it successfully detected and tracked a wide variety of traffic. The array can be interfaced with an open architecture processing system that carries out automatic detection and tracking of targets. For land based applications we have developed a system that uses high sensitivity fiber optic accelerometers and buried fiber optic cable as sensor elements. This uses the same opto-electronic interrogator as the seabed array, so a combined land and sea security system for coastal assets could be monitored using a single interrogator.

  14. Exposure Analysis Modeling System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) is an interactive software application for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals including pesticides, industrial materials, and leachates f...

  15. Remote sensing applications for urban planning - The LUMIS project. [Land Use Management Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.; Diegert, C.

    1975-01-01

    The Santa Monica mountains of Los Angeles consist primarily of complexly folded sedimentary marine strata with igneous and metamorphic rocks at the eastern end of the mountains. With the increased development of the Santa Monicas, a study was conducted to determine the critical land use data items in the mountains. Two information systems developed in parallel are described. One capitalizes on the City's present computer line printer system, and the second utilizes map overlay techniques on an interactive computer terminal. Results concerning population, housing, and land improvement illustrate the successful linking of ordinal and nominal data files in the interactive system.-

  16. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  17. Shuttle landing facility cloud cover study: Climatological analysis and two tenths cloud cover rule evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atchison, Michael K.; Schumann, Robin; Taylor, Greg; Warburton, John; Wheeler, Mark; Yersavich, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The two-tenths cloud cover rule in effect for all End Of Mission (EOM) STS landings at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) states: 'for scattered cloud layers below 10,000 feet, cloud cover must be observed to be less than or equal to 0.2 at the de-orbit burn go/no-go decision time (approximately 90 minutes before landing time)'. This rule was designed to protect against a ceiling (below 10,000 feet) developing unexpectedly within the next 90 minutes (i.e., after the de-orbit burn decision and before landing). The Applied Meteorological Unit (AMU) developed and analyzed a database of cloud cover amounts and weather conditions at the Shuttle Landing Facility for a five-year (1986-1990) period. The data indicate the best time to land the shuttle at KSC is during the summer while the worst time is during the winter. The analysis also shows the highest frequency of landing opportunities occurs for the 0100-0600 UTC and 1300-1600 UTC time periods. The worst time of the day to land a shuttle is near sunrise and during the afternoon. An evaluation of the two-tenths cloud cover rule for most data categorizations has shown that there is a significant difference in the proportions of weather violations one and two hours subsequent to initial conditions of 0.2 and 0.3 cloud cover. However, for May, Oct., 700 mb northerly wind category, 1500 UTC category, and 1600 UTC category there is some evidence that the 0.2 cloud cover rule may be overly conservative. This possibility requires further investigation. As a result of these analyses, the AMU developed nomograms to help the Spaceflight Meteorological Group (SMG) and the Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility (CCFF) forecast cloud cover for EOM and Return to Launch Site (RTLS) at KSC. Future work will include updating the two tenths database, further analysis of the data for several categorizations, and developing a proof of concept artificial neural network to provide forecast guidance of weather constraint violations for shuttle landings.

  18. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Waste Application Systems - Module 12, Objectives, and Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    Land application systems are discussed with reference to the options available for applying wastewater and sludge to the site. Spray systems, surface flow methods, and sludge application schemes are all included with discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of each option within these categories. A distinction is made between the choice of…

  19. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Del Grosso; W. Parton; P. Adler; S. Ogle

    2008-01-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land

  20. A probe into the modeling method for GIS-based urban land grading information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanzhong Liu; Zuo Zhang; Jiangfeng Li; Fengjuan Wei

    2010-01-01

    Determination of the grading method, sizing of the grading unit and generation of the weight values of the grading factors are the key links of the construction of the GIS-based urban land grading information system, and there are different methods to determine these links. Selection of the modeling methods will determine whether the system building is reasonable or not. Based

  1. The Navajo Nation has collected hydroclimate data throughout the Nation lands but the system has been

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    The Navajo Nation has collected hydroclimate data throughout the Nation lands but the system has- toring network, data collection and quality control systems. Investigators Gregg Garfin (UA) - Lead-based advice to improve data collection and processing in support of climate, drought and hydrologic analyses

  2. Modular Building Blocks for Manned Spacecraft: A Case Study for Moon and Mars Landing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfried Hofstetter

    A method is presented for the selection of optimal modular building blocks for platforming of manned Moon and Mars landing systems employing modularity on the subsystem level; platforming shall here be defined as the reuse of designs across different systems. The motivation for platforming is the need to reduce overall Moon and Mars exploration architecture lifecycle cost by lowering spacecraft

  3. Near Real Time Land Surface Temperature in the MODIS Rapid Response System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Pinheiro; J. Descloitres; J. L. Privette

    2003-01-01

    The MODIS Rapid Response System was developed to expedite availability of select MODLAND products for online distribution within hours after satellite overpass. To date, this system has produced the active fire product and imagery for selectable locations worldwide. This has primarily served wildfire fighting and community outreach purposes. Recently, we adapted the MODLAND Land Surface Temperature Product for using in

  4. Parametrized Verification of Distributed Cyber-Physical Systems: An Aircraft Landing Protocol Case Study

    E-print Network

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Parametrized Verification of Distributed Cyber-Physical Systems: An Aircraft Landing Protocol Case called the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). Each aircraft is modeled as a timed automaton with (possibly unbounded) counters. SATS is then described as the composition of N such aircraft, where N

  5. Arctic Transitions in the Land–Atmosphere System (ATLAS): Background, objectives, results, and future directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. McGuire; M. Sturm; F. S. Chapin

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the background, objectives, and results of the Arctic Transitions in the Land–Atmosphere System (ATLAS) Project to date and provides thoughts on future directions. The key goal of the ATLAS Project is to improve understanding of controls over spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial processes in the Arctic that have potential consequences for the climate system, i.e.,

  6. Arctic Transitions in the Land-Atmosphere System (ATLAS): Background, objectives, results, and future directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. McGuire; M. Sturm; F. S. Chapin

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the background, objectives, and results of the Arctic Transitions in the Land-Atmosphere System (ATLAS) Project to date and provides thoughts on future directions. The key goal of the ATLAS Project is to improve understanding of controls over spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial processes in the Arctic that have potential consequences for the climate system, i.e.,

  7. Strapdown system redundancy management flight demonstration. [vertical takeoff and landing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The suitability of strapdown inertial systems in providing highly reliable short-term navigation for vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft operating in an intra-urban setting under all-weather conditions was assessed. A preliminary design configuration of a skewed sensor inertial reference system employing a redundancy management concept to achieve fail-operational, fail-operational performance, was developed.

  8. Space lab system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rives, T. B.; Ingels, F. M.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of the Automated Booster Assembly Checkout System (ABACS) has been conducted. A computer simulation of the ETHERNET LAN has been written. The simulation allows one to investigate different structures of the ABACS system. The simulation code is in PASCAL and is VAX compatible.

  9. Demand analysis system elasticities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. N. Cohen; J. A. Holte; P. J. Werbos

    1985-01-01

    The Demand Analysis System (DAS) provides energy consumption projections for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors to 1995. These projections are developed within an integrated supply\\/demand balance framework known as the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS). Each of the end-use sectors is represented by a detailed structural econometric model within IFFS. These models are fully described in documentation reports,

  10. Evaluation of global stream flow routing based on gridded run-off fluxes of Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, R. K.; Xia, Y.; Meng, J.; Dirmeyer, P.; Ek, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The current Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) project provides detailed estimates of energy fluxes and water budget, with currently planned upgrades including improved Land Surface Model (LSM) physics, enhanced global meteorological forcing data sets, more robust soil moisture initialization, updated model specific parameter sets and an advanced snow data assimilation scheme. Because of these advancements made in the GLDAS experiment, the spatio-temporal variability of hydrologic fluxes is expected to be as good as other key land-surface fluxes. Gridded surface runoff from GLDAS experiment provides a unique opportunity to implement flow routing along the network of river system. In this experiment, we add stream flow routing in the GLDAS and investigate the stream flow variability using a computationally expensive cell-to-cell (C2C) routing scheme and a simpler source-to-sink (S2S) routing scheme. Appropriate parameterization of C2C is difficult, but it can use a detailed set of parameters, which provide an opportunity to develop a robust and realistic flow routing. On the other hand, the S2S offers simplified and computationally efficient routing solution but it needs periodic adjustments to its parameters. We will present a comparative analysis of these routing experiments, which may be useful for hydrologic estimations in data scarce regions as well as to establish an operational global stream flow prediction system.

  11. Development of Supersonic Retro-Propulsion for Future Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Studak, Joseph W.; Tiggers, Michael A.; Kipp, Devin M.; Prakash, Ravi; Trumble, Kerry A.; Dupzyk, Ian C.; Korzun, Ashley M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have concluded that Viking-era entry system technologies are reaching their practical limits and must be succeeded by new methods capable of delivering large payloads (greater than 10 metric tons) required for human exploration of Mars. One such technology, termed Supersonic Retro-Propulsion, has been proposed as an enabling deceleration technique. However, in order to be considered for future NASA flight projects, this technology will require significant maturation beyond its current state. This paper proposes a roadmap for advancing the component technologies to a point where Supersonic Retro-Propulsion can be reliably used on future Mars missions to land much larger payloads than are currently possible using Viking-based systems. The development roadmap includes technology gates that are achieved through testing and/or analysis, culminating with subscale flight tests in Earth atmosphere that demonstrate stable and controlled flight. The component technologies requiring advancement include large engines capable of throttling, computational models for entry vehicle aerodynamic/propulsive force and moment interactions, aerothermodynamic environments modeling, entry vehicle stability and control methods, integrated systems engineering and analyses, and high-fidelity six degree-of-freedom trajectory simulations. Quantifiable metrics are also proposed as a means to gage the technical progress of Supersonic Retro-Propulsion. Finally, an aggressive schedule is proposed for advancing the technology through sub-scale flight tests at Earth by 2016.

  12. 43 CFR 1610.5-7 - Situations where action can be taken based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. 1610.5-7 Section...based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. These regulations authorize...Field Manager may use the plans or the land use analysis of other agencies when...

  13. 43 CFR 1610.5-7 - Situations where action can be taken based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. 1610.5-7 Section...based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. These regulations authorize...Field Manager may use the plans or the land use analysis of other agencies when...

  14. 43 CFR 1610.5-7 - Situations where action can be taken based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. 1610.5-7 Section...based on another agency's plan, or a land use analysis. These regulations authorize...Field Manager may use the plans or the land use analysis of other agencies when...

  15. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF MILITARY LANDS

    E-print Network

    decision support framework for the collection, storage, manipulation, and output of multidisciplinary data and Modeling · Remote Sensing Data Processing, Feature Extraction, and Analysis · GIS Programming (.Net

  16. Three-season Hyperspectral Mapping of Land Cover in Northern California using Multiple-Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilham, N. E.; Clark, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission is a full-range hyperspectral and thermal satellite being considered for development by NASA (hyspiri.jpl.nasa.gov). A hyperspectral satellite, such as HyspIRI, will provide detailed spectral and temporal information at global scales that could greatly improve our ability to map land cover with greater class detail and spatial and temporal accuracy than possible with conventional multispectral satellites (e.g., Landsat OLI). The broad goal of our research is to assess multi-temporal, HyspIRI-like satellite imagery for improved land cover mapping across a range of environmental and anthropogenic gradients in California. In this study, we mapped FAO Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) classes over 30,000 km2 in Northern California using multi-temporal HyspIRI imagery simulated from the AVIRIS airborne sensor. The three-season hyperspectral data were used to extract image endmembers for input into a Multiple-Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA). Classified maps are compared to that from Landsat 8 OLI. We hypothesize that the inclusion of phenological spectral variability from three-seasons, and the ability to resolve spectral features in the hyperspectral HyspIRI imagery, will improve the final classified map, especially with respect to deciduous tree species.

  17. Chesapeake Bay Land Margin Ecosystem Research (LMER): Trophic Interactions in Estuarine Systems (TIES)

    E-print Network

    investigates factors regulating secondary production in distinctive regions of the land-sea interface using patches. 2001 Accomplishments In FY2001 we collaborated with other TIES researchers to compile and analyze into a collaboration and analysis phase of the project, so communications among investigators have intensified

  18. Nurturing property investment by re-engineered systems for land pricing by local authorities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfred M. Matipa; Ronald Barham

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The research in this paper is aimed at re-engineering existing approaches to the analysis of proposed developments in local authorities – from land pricing to planning permission – hence reducing the loss of revenue in councils, and nurture property development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is a case study of seven city councils on the Copperbelt province of Zambia

  19. Structural analysis of three global land models on carbon cycle simulations using a traceability framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, R.; Xia, J.; Hararuk, O.; Luo, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Modeled carbon (C) storage capacity is largely determined by the C residence time and net primary productivity (NPP). Extensive research has been done on NPP dynamics but the residence time and their relationships with C storage are much less studied. In this study, we implemented a traceability analysis to understand the modeled C storage and residence time in three land surface models: CSIRO's Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) with 9 C pools, Community Land Model (version 3.5) combined with Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CLM3.5-CASA) with 12 C pools and Community Land Model (version 4) (CLM4) with 26 C pools. The globally averaged C storage and residence time was computed at both individual pool and total ecosystem levels. The spatial distribution of total ecosystem C storage and residence time differ greatly among the three models. The CABLE model showed a closer agreement with measured C storage and residence time in plant and soil pools than CLM3.5-CASA and CLM4. However, CLM3.5-CASA and CLM4 were close to each other in modeled C storage but not with measured data. CABLE stores more C in root whereas CLM3.5-CASA and CLM4 store more C in woody pools, partly due to differential NPP allocation in respective pools. The C residence time in individual C pools is greatly different among models, largely because of different transfer coefficient values among pools. CABLE had higher bulk residence time for soil C pools than the other two models. Overall, the traceability analysis used in this study can help fully characterizes the behavior of complex land models.

  20. A wideband channel model for land mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, Axel; Buonomo, Sergio; Sforza, Mario; Lutz, Erich

    1995-01-01

    A wideband channel model for Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) services is presented which characterizes the time-varying transmission channel between a satellite and a mobile user terminal. The channel model statistic parameters are the results of fitting procedures to measured data. The data used for fitting have a time resolution of 33 ns corresponding to a bandwidth of 30 MHz. Thus, the model is capable to characterize the channel behaviour for a wide range of services e.g., voice transmission, digital audio broadcasting (DAB), and spread spectrum modulation schemes. The model is presented for different environments and scenarios. The model is derived for a quasi-mobile user with hand-held terminal being in two different environments: rural and urban. The parameters needed for the description are (a) the number of echoes, (b) the distribution of the echo power, and (c) the distribution of the echo delay. It is shown that the direct path follows a Rician distribution whereas the reflected paths are Rayleigh/lognormal distributed. The parameters are given for an elevation angle of 25 deg.

  1. Forecasting land-use change and its impact on the groundwater system of the Kleine Nete catchment, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dams, J.; Woldeamlak, S. T.; Batelaan, O.

    2007-11-01

    Land-use change and climate change, along with groundwater pumping are frequently indicated to be the main human-induced factors influencing the groundwater system. Up till now, research has mainly been focusing on the effect of the water quality of these human-induced changes on the groundwater system, often neglecting changes in quantity. The focus in this study is on the impact of land-use changes in the near future, from 2000 until 2020, on the groundwater quantity and the general hydrologic balance of a sub-catchment of the Kleine Nete, Belgium. This study tests a new methodology which involves coupling a land-use change model with a water balance model and a groundwater model. The future land-use is modelled with the CLUE-S model. Four scenarios (A1, A2, B1 and B2) based on the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) are used for the land-use modelling. Water balance components, groundwater level and baseflow are simulated using the WetSpass model in conjunction with a MODFLOW groundwater model. Results show that the average recharge slowly decreases for all scenarios, the decreases are 2.9, 1.6, 1.8 and 0.8% for respectively scenario A1, A2, B1 and B2. The predicted reduction in recharge results in a small decrease of the average groundwater level, ranging from 2.5 cm for scenario A1 to 0.9 cm for scenario B2, and a reduction of the total baseflow with maximum 2.3% and minimum 0.7% respectively for scenario A1 and B2. Although these average values do not indicate significant changes for the groundwater system, spatial analysis of the changes shows the changes are concentrated in the neighbourhood of the major cities in the study areas. It is therefore important for spatial managers to take the groundwater system into account for reducing the negative impacts of land-use and climate change as much as possible.

  2. The role of GMES / Sentinels in Land-Surface Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J.

    2009-04-01

    A general trend in the current status of representation of Land Surface schemes into Earth System models is driven by the parameterisation of "cycles" instead of individual processes. Particular emphasis is made to account for couplings among the individual cycles, as between the carbon and water cycles. Moreover, the current tendency is to use the measured data -time series in most cases- together with models, in a data assimilation scenario where inputs from multiple sources are integrated. Such approach is more and more necessary as land models tend to be more complex, and particularly due to the fact that land surface variability is not just driven by physical and chemical processes, but intricate biological processes also altered by anthropogenic influences. Human influences in the land system (land use changes, urban development, etc.) and the impacts of natural disasters are becoming also part of land models, but critical data in high spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to properly model such processes. Until now, problems with data availability, data inconsistency and lack of adequate temporal sampling have limited the potential usefulness of such observations in modelling land surface processes. The availability of the GMES / Sentinel series of satellites represents a quite unique opportunity for consolidation of current tendencies and development of new science based on the new type of data that soon will become available. The usefulness of the different Sentinel missions for Land science has been recognised. Although the Sentinel satellite series were primarily designed to provide observations for operational services and routine applications, there is a growing interest in the scientific community towards the usage of Sentinel data for more advanced and innovative science. Moreover, the availability of consistent time series covering a period of over 20 years opens possibilities never explored before, such as systematic data assimilation approaches exploiting the time-series concept, or the incorporation in the modelling approaches of processes covering time scales from weeks to decades. Sentinel-1 will provide continuity for applications already developed by using ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT ASAR data, although now with improved capabilities and more regular and systematic data availability. The all-weather capability of radar data provides time series of land surface properties even in areas with persistent cloud coverage. Sentinel-3 will provide continuity to current ENVISAT MERIS/AATSR capabilities, but with enhanced performances by means of the new OLCI and SLST instruments. The results already derived from MERIS will be more systematically exploited by using OLCI in synergy with SLST. Particularly innovative is the case of Sentinel-2, which is specifically designed for land applications, providing global and systematic acquisitions with high spatial resolution and with a high revisit time tailored towards the needs of land monitoring. A key element in the exploitation of the Sentinel series will be the adequate use of data synergy. The synergistic use of the data is recognised as a convenient way of extracting the maximum potential of the combined time series, but in practice the synergy among the different types of data will require new developments due to the different spatial / temporal / spectral sampling of the different Sentinels. Such synergistic exploitation of data coming from the different Sentinels systems will open new possibilities for improved Land Models within the context of Earth System Science, beyond operational services. The Land community has suffered in the past a large dispersion of objectives due to the intrinsic complicate processes to be addressed involving different approaches and the diversity of scientific topics and applications. The GMES / Sentinel programme can serve as an incentive to put together activities in a coordinated way, making possible a Land Data Assimilation scheme that can guarantee a proper scientific exploitation of the data, studying and mo

  3. Sensitivity analysis of the GEMS soil organic carbon model to land cover land use classification uncertainties under different climate scenarios in senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieye, A. M.; Roy, D. P.; Hanan, N. P.; Liu, S.; Hansen, M.; Touré, A.

    2012-02-01

    Spatially explicit land cover land use (LCLU) change information is needed to drive biogeochemical models that simulate soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Such information is increasingly being mapped using remotely sensed satellite data with classification schemes and uncertainties constrained by the sensing system, classification algorithms and land cover schemes. In this study, automated LCLU classification of multi-temporal Landsat satellite data were used to assess the sensitivity of SOC modeled by the Global Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). The GEMS was run for an area of 1560 km2 in Senegal under three climate change scenarios with LCLU maps generated using different Landsat classification approaches. This research provides a method to estimate the variability of SOC, specifically the SOC uncertainty due to satellite classification errors, which we show is dependent not only on the LCLU classification errors but also on where the LCLU classes occur relative to the other GEMS model inputs.

  4. The ERTS-1 investigation (ER-600): A compendium of analysis results of the utility of ERTS-1 data for land resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The results of the ERTS-1 investigations conducted by the Earth Observations Division at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center are summarized in this report, which is an overview of documents detailing individual investigations. Conventional image interpretation and computer-aided classification procedures were the two basic techniques used in analyzing the data for detecting, identifying, locating, and measuring surface features related to earth resources. Data from the ERTS-1 multispectral scanner system were useful for all applications studied, which included agriculture, coastal and estuarine analysis, forestry, range, land use and urban land use, and signature extension. Percentage classification accuracies are cited for the conventional and computer-aided techniques.

  5. Tributary Analysis Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley, E. (Inventor); Coffey, Neil C. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Woodman, Keith L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A monitoring system for a fleet of vehicles includes at least one data acquisition and analysis module (DAAM) mounted on each vehicle in the fleet, a control module on each vehicle in communication with each DAAM, and terminal module located remotely with respect to the vehicles in the fleet. Each DAAM collects/analyzes sensor data to generate analysis results that identify the state of a plurality of systems of the vehicle. Each vehicle's control module collects/analyzes the analysis results from each onboard DAAM to generate vehicle status results that identify potential sources of vehicle anomalies. The terminal module collects/analyzes the analysis results and vehicle status results transmitted from each control module from the fleet of vehicles to identify multiple occurrences of vehicle anomalies and multiple occurrences of those vehicle systems operating at a performance level that is unacceptable. Results of the terminal module's analysis are provided to organizations responsible for the operation, maintenance and manufacturing of the vehicles in the fleet as well as the plurality of systems used in the fleet.

  6. Biomedical systems analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Biomedical monitoring programs which were developed to provide a system analysis context for a unified hypothesis for adaptation to space flight are presented and discussed. A real-time system of data analysis and decision making to assure the greatest possible crew safety and mission success is described. Information about man's abilities, limitations, and characteristic reactions to weightless space flight was analyzed and simulation models were developed. The predictive capabilities of simulation models for fluid-electrolyte regulation, erythropoiesis regulation, and calcium regulation are discussed.

  7. Modeling and Validation of a Navy A6-Intruder Actively Controlled Landing Gear System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Daugherty, Robert H.; Martinson, Veloria J.

    1999-01-01

    Concepts for long-range air travel are characterized by airframe designs with long, slender, relatively flexible fuselages. One aspect often overlooked is ground-induced vibration of these aircraft. This paper presents an analytical and experimental study of reducing ground-induced aircraft vibration loads by using actively controlled landing gear. A facility has been developed to test various active landing gear control concepts and their performance, The facility uses a Navy A6 Intruder landing gear fitted with an auxiliary hydraulic supply electronically controlled by servo valves. An analytical model of the gear is presented, including modifications to actuate the gear externally, and test data are used to validate the model. The control design is described and closed-loop test and analysis comparisons are presented.

  8. Land use change detection based on multi-date imagery from different satellite sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stow, Douglas A.; Collins, Doretta; Mckinsey, David

    1990-01-01

    An empirical study is conducted to assess the accuracy of land use change detection using satellite image data acquired ten years apart by sensors with differing spatial resolutions. The primary goals of the investigation were to (1) compare standard change detection methods applied to image data of varying spatial resolution, (2) assess whether to transform the raster grid of the higher resolution image data to that of the lower resolution raster grid or vice versa in the registration process, (3) determine if Landsat/Thermatic Mapper or SPOT/High Resolution Visible multispectral data provide more accurate detection of land use changes when registered to historical Landsat/MSS data. It is concluded that image ratioing of multisensor, multidate satellite data produced higher change detection accuracies than did principal components analysis, and that it is useful as a land use change enhancement method.

  9. Simulating the impact of future land-use change on the groundwater system, a case study in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dams, J.; Woldeamlak, S. T.; Batelaan, O.

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater is a major source of drinking water across the world and plays a vital role in maintaining the ecological value of many areas. However, in many places the quantity and quality of groundwater is jeopardized due to increasing human activity. Assessing the impact of human-induced factors influencing the groundwater system and predicting the magnitude of change in the future is therefore a major scientific challenge. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of land-use changes, from 2000 until 2020, on the hydrological balance and in particular on groundwater quantity, as results from a case study in the Kleine Nete basin, Belgium. Four future land-use scenarios (A1, A2, B1 and B2) based on the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) indicate the area of land-use change in the studied basin. The novelty of this study is the successful coupling of a land-use change allocation model (CLUE-S) with a groundwater flow model as alternative to relying on expert judgment for the spatial distribution of the land-use changes in the basin. The CLUE-S model dynamically allocates land-use changes based on a combination of empirical and spatial analyses. Water balance components, groundwater level and baseflow are simulated using the distributed WetSpass model in conjunction with a steady-state MODFLOW groundwater flow model. The applied methodology allows an improved estimation of the range and spatial distribution of the effects of future land-use change on the groundwater system. Results show that the average recharge decreases with 2.9, 1.6, 1.8 and 0.8% for scenario A1, A2, B1 and B2, respectively, over the 20 covered years. The predicted reduction in recharge results in a small decrease of the average groundwater level in the basin, ranging from 2.5 cm for scenario A1 to 0.9 cm for scenario B2, and a reduction of the baseflow with maximum 2.3% and minimum 0.7% for scenario A1 and B2, respectively. Although these averages appear to indicate small changes in the groundwater system, spatial analysis shows that changes in recharge and groundwater level are concentrated within the vicinity of urban centers. Future urbanization as well as areas with a groundwater level decline of more than 5 cm, for all scenarios, are mainly situated within 3 km from current urban centers. The local maximum simulated groundwater level decrease is 45 cm for scenario A1. Hence, spatial planning should take better account of effects of land-use change on the groundwater system and define mitigating actions for reducing the negative impacts of land-use change.

  10. Lidar Systems for Precision Navigation and Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Petway, Larry B.; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of lidar technology to provide three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, high precision distance to the ground, and approach velocity can enable safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles with a high degree of precision. Currently, NASA is developing novel lidar sensors aimed at needs of future planetary landing missions. These lidar sensors are a 3-Dimensional Imaging Flash Lidar, a Doppler Lidar, and a Laser Altimeter. The Flash Lidar is capable of generating elevation maps of the terrain that indicate hazardous features such as rocks, craters, and steep slopes. The elevation maps collected during the approach phase of a landing vehicle, at about 1 km above the ground, can be used to determine the most suitable safe landing site. The Doppler Lidar provides highly accurate ground relative velocity and distance data allowing for precision navigation to the landing site. Our Doppler lidar utilizes three laser beams pointed to different directions to measure line of sight velocities and ranges to the ground from altitudes of over 2 km. Throughout the landing trajectory starting at altitudes of about 20 km, the Laser Altimeter can provide very accurate ground relative altitude measurements that are used to improve the vehicle position knowledge obtained from the vehicle navigation system. At altitudes from approximately 15 km to 10 km, either the Laser Altimeter or the Flash Lidar can be used to generate contour maps of the terrain, identifying known surface features such as craters, to perform Terrain relative Navigation thus further reducing the vehicle s relative position error. This paper describes the operational capabilities of each lidar sensor and provides a status of their development. Keywords: Laser Remote Sensing, Laser Radar, Doppler Lidar, Flash Lidar, 3-D Imaging, Laser Altimeter, Precession Landing, Hazard Detection

  11. The effect of control and display lag on unmanned air system internal pilot manual landing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Marshall Everett

    An important characteristic of UASs is lag because it can become a considerable challenge to successful human-in-the-loop control. As such, UASs are designed and configured to minimize system lag, though this can increase acquisition and operation costs considerably. In an effort to cut costs, an organization may choose to accept greater risk and deploy a UAS with high system lag. Before this risk can be responsibly accepted, it must be quantified. While many studies have examined system lag, very few have been able to quantify the risk that various levels of lag pose to an internally piloted, manually landed UAS. This study attempted to do so by evaluating pilot landing performance in a simulator with 0 ms, 240 ms, and 1000 ms of additional lag. Various measures were used, including a novel coding technique. Results indicated that 1000 ms of lag was unsafe by all measures. They also indicate that 240 ms of lag degrades performance, but participants were able to successfully land the simulated aircraft. This study showed the utility of using several measures to evaluate the effect of lag on landing performance and it helped demonstrate that while 1000 ms poses a high risk, 240 ms of lag may be a much more manageable risk. Future research suggested by this research includes: investigating lag between 240 ms and 1000 ms, introducing different weather phenomena, developing system lag training techniques for operators, and investigating the effect of aides such as predictive displays and autopilot-assisted recovery.

  12. Evaluation of VICAR software capability for land information support system needs. [Elk River quadrangle, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the processing capability of the VICAR software for land information support system needs is presented. The geometric and radiometric properties of four sets of LANDSAT data taken over the Elk River, Idaho quadrangle were compared. Storage of data sets, the means of location, pixel resolution, and radiometric and geometric characteristics are described. Recommended modifications of VICAR programs are presented.

  13. Real-time and retrospective forcing in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) project

    E-print Network

    Robock, Alan

    Real-time and retrospective forcing in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) project has produced retrospective (1996­2002) and real-time (1999­present) data sets to support its LSM/cloud and radiation test bed, and Surface Radiation observation data. The real-time forcing data set is constantly

  14. Renewable Energy Assessment of Bureau of Reclamation Land and Facilities Using Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heimiller, D.; Haase, S.; Melius, J.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes results of geographic information system screening for solar and wind potential at select Bureau of Reclamation lands in the western United States. The study included both utility-scale and facility-scale potential. This study supplements information in the report titled Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation: Final Report.

  15. Description of Proposed Revision of Handbook on: Propagation Effects for Land Mobile Satellite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1996-01-01

    The original Handbook on Propagation Effects for Land Mobile Satellite Systems contains only referenced material through 1991. This paper describes a proposed revision to the Handbook based on some pertinent mobile satellite experiments performed and modeling results obtained since 1991. A suggested title is proposed and a summary of the type of new material to be included in the revised text is given.

  16. ASSESSING INTERACTION BETWEEN LANDSCAPE CHANGE AND LAND MANAGEMENT POLICY: OPEN SPACE POLICY AS A MODEL SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Tulloch; Richard Lathrop

    This proposal describes a 2-year project intended to advance the landscape change agenda first sponsored by the NSF through the Landscape Change Workshop in 2001. The objectives of the study are to better understand the interaction between landscape change and land management activities using open space preservation as a model system and to advance the study of landscape change as

  17. Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.

    2007-01-01

    In this project final report, entitled "Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas," we provide a detailed description and model representation for the wireless channel in the airport surface environment in this band. In this executive summary, we review report contents, describe the achieved objectives and major findings, and highlight significant conclusions and recommendations.

  18. Economic feasibility analysis of water-harvesting techniques for mined-land reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Marti, M.H.

    1981-07-01

    A water harvesting, agricultural production system, field tested as a means of reclaiming strip-mined land is described. Though the technical feasibility of the system is becoming increasingly apparent, economic feasibility and legal issues may determine its potential application. The purpose of this study is to explore the economic feasibility of the system and to provide information for use in assessing whether further investigation of water harvesting reclamation techniques is warranted. The economic feasibility of the PNL reclamation system hinges on whether its net benefits exceed those of conventional reclamation. This preliminary feasibility study assesses the net private benefits of each system using data for the Peabody Coal Company's Kayenta mine on the Black Mesa in Arizona. To compare the alternative reclamation systems, the present value of direct net benefits (income minus production and reclamation costs) is calculated for grazing (conventional reclamation) or for cropping (PNL reclamation). Three of the PNL system slope treatments have lower estimated total costs than conventional reclamation. The difference is $3895/acre for compacted slope, $3025/acre for salt-compacted slope and $2310/acre for crop-on-slope. These differences constitute a substantial cost advantage for the system on the basis of the present value of land reclamation and maintenance costs. The system also has advantages based on the estimated value of agricultural production capacity. Even the lowest yield levels considered for alfalfa, corn, and pinto beans had higher net present values than grazing.

  19. The Utility of the Real-Time NASA Land Information System Data for Drought Monitoring Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Kristopher D.; Case, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture are a crucial component for the proper monitoring of drought conditions. The large spatial variability of soil moisture complicates the problem. Unfortunately, in situ soil moisture observing networks typically consist of sparse point observations, and conventional numerical model analyses of soil moisture used to diagnose drought are of coarse spatial resolution. Decision support systems such as the U.S. Drought Monitor contain drought impact resolution on sub-county scales, which may not be supported by the existing soil moisture networks or analyses. The NASA Land Information System, which is run with 3 km grid spacing over the eastern United States, has demonstrated utility for monitoring soil moisture. Some of the more useful output fields from the Land Information System are volumetric soil moisture in the 0-10 cm and 40-100 cm layers, column-integrated relative soil moisture, and the real-time green vegetation fraction derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) swath data that are run within the Land Information System in place of the monthly climatological vegetation fraction. While these and other variables have primarily been used in local weather models and other operational forecasting applications at National Weather Service offices, the use of the Land Information System for drought monitoring has demonstrated utility for feedback to the Drought Monitor. Output from the Land Information System is currently being used at NWS Huntsville to assess soil moisture, and to provide input to the Drought Monitor. Since feedback to the Drought Monitor takes place on a weekly basis, weekly difference plots of column-integrated relative soil moisture are being produced by the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center and analyzed to facilitate the process. In addition to the Drought Monitor, these data are used to assess drought conditions for monthly feedback to the Alabama Drought Monitoring and Impact Group and the Tennessee Drought Task Force, which are comprised of federal, state, and local agencies and other water resources professionals.

  20. Analysis of process controls in land surface hydrological cycle over the continental United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tajdarul Hassan Syed; Venkat Lakshmi; Evan Paleologos; Dag Lohmann; Kenneth Mitchell; James S. Famiglietti

    2004-01-01

    The paper uses two years (1997–1999) of data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System at National Centers for Environmental Prediction to analyze the variability of physical variables contributing to the hydrological cycle over the conterminous United States. The five hydrological variables considered in this study are precipitation, top layer soil moisture (0–10 cm), total soil moisture (0–200 cm),

  1. Characteristic analysis and design of near moon abort trajectory for manned lunar landing mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WenDe Huang; XiaoNing Xi; Wei Wang

    2010-01-01

    The safety of astronauts would be severely threatened if the lunar-landing spacecraft were under an emergency during the near\\u000a moon phase of flight, which was far from the Earth. For the problem of mission abort caused by the main engine (service propulsion\\u000a system, SPS) failure during lunar orbit insertion, firstly, the family of trajectories resulted from SPS premature shutdown\\u000a and

  2. BER analysis of GMSK with differential detection in a land mobile channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabodh Varshney; J. Eric Salt; Surinder Kumar

    1993-01-01

    The BER performance of a land mobile radio communication system with GMSK modulation is analyzed using one-bit differential detection. In particular, the effect of the IF filter bandwidth on the BFR is analyzed. The optimum bandwidth for the IF filter is found to be a function of signal-to-noise power ratio, signal-to-co-channel-signal power ratio, and signal-to-delayed-signal power ratio. Several graphs are

  3. Digital Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Vance S.

    2009-01-01

    There have been many attempts to understand how the Internet affects our modern world. There have also been numerous attempts to understand specific areas of the Internet. This article applies Immanuel Wallerstein's World Systems Analysis to our informationalist society. Understanding this world as divided among individual core, semi-periphery,…

  4. A robust guidance system for aircraft approach and landing 

    E-print Network

    Yu, Ren-Jye

    1999-01-01

    Plant +0 Pfapproach Pftouchdoron QFT RCS RE2 RAE SA SAGAT SARS SART SHUD SISO S(s) Nominal Plant Score of Approach Performance Score of Touchdohvn Performance Quantitative Feedback Theory Runway Coordinate System SGI Onyx Reality...

  5. Status and Plans of CMA Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chunxiang; Jiang, Lipeng; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Bin; Han, Shuai

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, frequent drought events have caused enormous losses. High quality space-time soil moisture products are urgent to support CMA in China drought monitoring services. Soil moisture retrieved from satellite observation or simulated from land surface models or from in-situ observations has different advantages and defections. Merging all the soil moisture information together may have the ability to obtain high quality soil moisture continuously. Therefore, CMA Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) Project is proposed to meet the demand of drought monitoring and other meteorological, agricultural and hydrological requirements over China. CLDAS project consists of three stages. The first stage aims to realize STMAS operation for producing forcing data; to realize operational running of CLM; to evaluate forcing and CLM's output; and to publish the operational products for users. The second stage aims to build retrospective forcing data set since 1995 over China; to develop multi-LSMs operational system; and to develop multi-satellite merged soil moisture product. The third stage aims to assimilate multi-satellite merged soil moisture; to assimilate satellite radiance or brightness temperature. The first stage of CLDAS (V1.0) has been put into operation at the end of Jun 2013 in national meteorological information center of CMA. The product coverage is 70-150E, 0-60N and the spatial resolution is 1/16 (0.0625) degree. Hourly gridded forcing data, including air temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed, downward shortwave radiation and precipitation, are used to drive CLM in CLDAS. STMAS (Space-Time Multi-scale Analysis System) are used to combining NCEP/GFS data with regional automatic surface observation temperature (over 30000) over China, and the result are validated using national automatic observation (more than 2400) . The result shows that the combined temperature product is closer to surface observations than GFS product. Air pressure, relative humidity and wind speed are processed similar as temperature. The Downward shortwave radiation (DSR) is retrieved from FY-2(C-F) series geostationary meteorological satellites, operated by CMA. The DISORT method for radiation transfer calculations with the climatic data sets from the ISCCP C2 is used in the retrieval. The DSR is evaluated against ground-based observations (OBS) from 94 stations over mainland China. Grid precipitation is produced by merging more than 30000 rain gauge data and CMORPH product. CMA began to establish automatic soil moisture observation network since 2009. More than 2000 stations have been put into operation till now. The automatic observation network will gradually replace the human observation network which has more than 700 stations since 1981. After quality control, soil moisture observations are used to evaluate CLDAS soil moisture product.

  6. Land, sea, and air unmanned systems research and development at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Laird, Robin; Kogut, Greg; Andrews, John; Fletcher, Barbara; Webber, Todd; Arrieta, Rich; Everett, H. R.

    2009-05-01

    The Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) has a long and extensive history in unmanned systems research and development, starting with undersea applications in the 1960s and expanding into ground and air systems in the 1980s. In the ground domain, we are addressing force-protection scenarios using large unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and fixed sensors, and simultaneously pursuing tactical and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations with small man-portable robots. Technology thrusts include improving robotic intelligence and functionality, autonomous navigation and world modeling in urban environments, extended operational range of small teleoperated UGVs, enhanced human-robot interaction, and incorporation of remotely operated weapon systems. On the sea surface, we are pushing the envelope on dynamic obstacle avoidance while conforming to established nautical rules-of-the-road. In the air, we are addressing cooperative behaviors between UGVs and small vertical-takeoff- and-landing unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Underwater applications involve very shallow water mine countermeasures, ship hull inspection, oceanographic data collection, and deep ocean access. Specific technology thrusts include fiber-optic communications, adaptive mission controllers, advanced navigation techniques, and concepts of operations (CONOPs) development. This paper provides a review of recent accomplishments and current status of a number of projects in these areas.

  7. A study of space shuttle energy management, approach and landing analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morth, R.

    1973-01-01

    The steering system of the space shuttle vehicle is presented for the several hundred miles of flight preceding landing. The guidance scheme is characterized by a spiral turn to dissipate excess potential energy (altitude) prior to a standard straight-in final approach. In addition, the system features pilot oriented control, drag brakes, phugoid damping, and a navigational capacity founded upon an inertial measurement unit and an on-board computer. Analytic formulas are used to calculate, represent, and insure the workability of the system's specifications

  8. An Analysis of Spacecraft Localization from Descent Image Data for Pinpoint Landing on Mars and other Cratered Bodies Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansar, Adnan; Cheng, Yang

    2005-01-01

    A pinpoint landing capability will be a critical component for many planned NASA missions to Mars and beyond. Implicit in the requirement is the ability to accurately localize the spacecraft with respect to the terrain during descent. In this paper, we present evidence that a vision-based solution using craters as landmarks is both practical and will meet the requirements of next generation missions. Our emphasis in this paper is on the feasibility of such a system in terms of (a) localization accuracy and (b) applicability to Martian terrain. We show that accuracy of well under 100 meters can be expected under suitable conditions. We also present a sensitivity analysis that makes an explicit connection between input data and robustness of our pose estimate. In addition, we present an analysis of the susceptibility of our technique to inherently ambiguous configurations of craters. We show that probability of failure due to such ambiguity is becoming increasingly small.

  9. Is soil degradation unrelated to deforestation? Examining soil parameters of land use systems in upland Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Dechert; Edzo Veldkamp; Iswandi Anas

    2004-01-01

    It is generally assumed that declining soil fertility during cultivation forces farmers to clear forest. We wanted to test this for a rainforest margin area in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We compared soil characteristics in different land-use systems and after different length of cultivation. 66 sites with four major land-use systems (maize, agroforestry, forest fallow and natural forest) were sampled. Soils

  10. Web-GIS Based System for the Management of Objections to a Comprehensive Municipal Land Use Plan

    E-print Network

    Touriño, Juan

    Web-GIS Based System for the Management of Objections to a Comprehensive Municipal Land Use Plan the land planning process. Geographic information Systems (GIS) have traditionally been used in daily municipalities in which the lack of resources or expert staff who can use this technology makes GIS

  11. Dissolved and particulate organic matter fluorescence in coastal river systems in relation to land use and carbon transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence has been employed in river systems to understand carbon cycling, land use, and to some degree climate change. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of DOM fluorescence spectra can be modeled using multivariate statistical approaches (e.g., parallel factor analysis, PARAFAC) to elucidate discrete and subtle changes to DOM properties. These changes are then often related to watershed properties (e.g., land use-land cover), hydrology, etc. This talk will build on that body of work, but also introduce the EEM-PARAFAC technique for water- and base-extractable OM (WEOM and BEOM, respectively) from particles in the Neuse River, eastern North Carolina, a coastal river which is under stress from land use (urbanization and agriculture) and climatic changes (periods of drought and increasing frequency and intensity of tropical storms) occurring in its watershed. POM fluorescence EEMs will be discussed in tandem with corresponding DOM fluorescence EEMs in several tributaries of the Neuse River, in addition to the Neuse Proper. The fluorescence data will be interpreted in the context of stream discharge, particle concentrations, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. Results from experiments and PARAFAC models showing the similarities and differences between WEOM, BEOM, and DOM fluorescence properties illuminate distinct relationships between POM and DOM cycling, and carbon transfer between these organic matter pools. The overall aim of this talk is to introduce the combined WEOM+BEOM+DOM fluorescence approach as a way to model organic matter in river systems through data fusion of these three fluorescence signatures.

  12. The Met Office Coupled Atmosphere/Land/Ocean/Sea-Ice Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Daniel; Mirouze, Isabelle; King, Robert; Martin, Matthew; Hines, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The Met Office has developed a weakly-coupled data assimilation (DA) system using the global coupled model HadGEM3 (Hadley Centre Global Environment Model, version 3). At present the analysis from separate ocean and atmosphere DA systems are combined to produced coupled forecasts. The aim of coupled DA is to produce a more consistent analysis for coupled forecasts which may lead to less initialisation shock and improved forecast performance. The HadGEM3 coupled model combines the atmospheric model UM (Unified Model) at 60 km horizontal resolution on 85 vertical levels, the ocean model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) at 25 km (at the equator) horizontal resolution on 75 vertical levels, and the sea-ice model CICE at the same resolution as NEMO. The atmosphere and the ocean/sea-ice fields are coupled every 1-hour using the OASIS coupler. The coupled model is corrected using two separate 6-hour window data assimilation systems: a 4D-Var for the atmosphere with associated soil moisture content nudging and snow analysis schemes on the one hand, and a 3D-Var FGAT for the ocean and sea-ice on the other hand. The background information in the DA systems comes from a previous 6-hour forecast of the coupled model. To isolate the impact of the coupled DA, 13-month experiments have been carried out, including 1) a full atmosphere/land/ocean/sea-ice coupled DA run, 2) an atmosphere-only run forced by OSTIA SSTs and sea-ice with atmosphere and land DA, and 3) an ocean-only run forced by atmospheric fields from run 2 with ocean and sea-ice DA. In addition, 5-day and 10-day forecast runs, have been produced from initial conditions generated by either run 1 or a combination of runs 2 and 3. The different results have been compared to each other and, whenever possible, to other references such as the Met Office atmosphere and ocean operational analyses or the OSTIA SST data. The performance of the coupled DA is similar to the existing separate ocean and atmosphere DA systems. This is despite the fact that the assimilation error covariances have not yet been tuned for coupled DA. In addition, the coupled model also exhibits some biases which do not affect the uncoupled models. An example is precipitation and run off errors affecting the ocean salinity. This of course impacts the performance of the ocean data assimilation. This does, however, highlight a particular benefit of data assimilation in that it can help to identify short term model biases by using, for example, the differences between the observations and model background (innovations) and the mean increments. Coupled DA has the distinct advantage that this gives direct information about the coupled model short term biases. By identifying the biases and developing solutions this will improve the short range coupled forecasts, and may also improve the coupled model on climate timescales.

  13. Land mine detection with an ultra-wideband SAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrieu, Joel; Gallais, Frederic; Mallepeyre, Vincent; Bertrand, Valerie; Beillard, Bruno; Jecko, Bernard; Guillerey, Regis; Legoff, Marc

    2002-08-01

    PULSAR is an Ultra Wide Band (UWB) short pulse Radar developed by the CELAR (French Technical Center for Armament Electronics) and the IRCOM (Research Institute of Microwave and Optical Communications) in order to detect foliage and ground concealed mines. An instrumentation measurement system has been designed and implemented, in particular new 2D broad band antennas with a very low pulse distortion. The clutter suppression is based on background subtraction and wavelet transforms. These data are used to obtain SAR ultra wide band images by transient methods. The following discussion describes the device, the experimental results and the signal processing currently utilized. Future development efforts on this system (generator, acquisition means .) are detailed. At the same time a theoretical study is made to estimate target transient responses captured by the system. So a FDTD code is modified to simulate buried objects detection by the radar.

  14. The Impact of Land Abandonment on Species Richness and Abundance in the Mediterranean Basin: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam; Huntsinger, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size ?=?0.2109, P<0.0001) plant and animal species richness and abundance overall, though results were heterogeneous, with differences in effect size between taxa, spatial-temporal scales, land uses, landforms, and climate. In conclusion, there is no “one-size-fits-all” conservation approach that applies to the diverse contexts of land abandonment in the Mediterranean Basin. Instead, conservation policies should strive to increase awareness of this heterogeneity and the potential trade-offs after abandonment. The strong role of factors at the farm and landscape scales that was revealed by the analysis indicates that purposeful management at these scales can have a powerful impact on biodiversity. PMID:24865979

  15. An automatic system for AVHRR land surface product generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. D. M. Esquerdo; J. F. G. Antunes; D. G. Baldwin; W. J. Emery; Zullo J. Júnior

    2006-01-01

    Making products from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar?orbiting satellites can be time consuming and an automated technique for image processing is required to generate long time series of AVHRR imagery. This paper aims to describe the development of a system for fully?automated AVHRR image processing, including radiometric calibration,

  16. Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Products, Services and Application from NASA Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Rodell, matthew; Teng, William L.; Vollmer, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is generating a series of land surface state (e.g., soil moisture and surface temperature) and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products simulated by four land surface models (CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC). These products are now accessible at the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), a component of the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Current data holdings include a set of 1.0 degree resolution data products from the four models, covering 1979 to the present; and a 0.25 degree data product from the Noah model, covering 2000 to the present. The products are in Gridded Binary (GRIB) format and can be accessed through a number of interfaces. Users can search the products through keywords and perform on-the-fly spatial and parameter subsetting and format conversion of selected data. More advanced visualization, access and analysis capabilities will be available in the future. The long term GLDAS data are used to develop climatology of water cycle components and to explore the teleconnections of droughts and pluvial.

  17. Evaluation of the North American Land Data Assimilation System over the southern Great Plains during the warm season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan; Luo, Lifeng; Wood, Eric F.; Wen, Fenghua; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Houser, Paul R.; Schaake, John C.; Lohmann, Dag; Cosgrove, Brian; Sheffield, Justin; Duan, Qingyun; Higgins, R. Wayne; Pinker, Rachel T.; Tarpley, J. Dan; Basara, Jeffery B.; Crawford, Kenneth C.

    2003-11-01

    North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) land surface models have been run for a retrospective period forced by atmospheric observations from the Eta analysis and actual precipitation and downward solar radiation to calculate land hydrology. We evaluated these simulations using in situ observations over the southern Great Plains for the periods of May-September of 1998 and 1999 by comparing the model outputs with surface latent, sensible, and ground heat fluxes at 24 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Cloud and Radiation Testbed stations and with soil temperature and soil moisture observations at 72 Oklahoma Mesonet stations. The standard NLDAS models do a fairly good job but with differences in the surface energy partition and in soil moisture between models and observations and among models during the summer, while they agree quite well on the soil temperature simulations. To investigate why, we performed a series of experiments accounting for differences between model-specified soil types and vegetation and those observed at the stations, and differences in model treatment of different soil types, vegetation properties, canopy resistance, soil column depth, rooting depth, root density, snow-free albedo, infiltration, aerodynamic resistance, and soil thermal diffusivity. The diagnosis and model enhancements demonstrate how the models can be improved so that they can be used in actual data assimilation mode.

  18. A Computerized Data-Base System for Land-Use and Land-Cover Data Collected at Ground-Water Sampling Sites in the Pilot National Water Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Jonathon C.

    1989-01-01

    Data-base software has been developed for the management of land-use and land-cover data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a pilot program to test and refine concepts for a National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report describes the purpose, use, and design of the land-use and land-cover data-base software. The software provides capabilities for interactive storage and retrieval of land-use and land-cover data collected at ground-water sampling sites. Users of the software can add, update, and delete land-use and land-cover data. The software also provides capabilities to group, print, and summarize the data. The land-use and land-cover data-base software supports multiple data-base systems so that data can be accessed by persons in different offices. Data-base systems are organized in a tiered structure. Each data-base system contains all the data stored in the data-base systems located in the lower tiers of the structure. Data can be readily transmitted from lower tiers to high tiers of the structure. Therefore, the data-base system at the highest tier of the structure contains land-use and land-cover data for the entire pilot program.

  19. Reliability evaluation of soil moisture and land surface temperature simulated by Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) using AMSR-E data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiu-li; Wang, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is often used as a test bed for innovative modeling and assimilation capabilities. So its reliability is very important, the validation and the evaluation of product from GLDAS often use in-situ observations. Now remote sensing has been an important observation source, but satellite observations have not directly relation with the output of GLDAS, their relationships are so complex even fuzzy with many parameters. This study analyzed the reliability of soil moisture and land surface temperature simulated by GLDAS using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) data for the periods of one year based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation theory, Results demonstrate that both of them are relatively believable, and the land surface temperature is more reliable than the soil moisture.

  20. Neptune Aerocapture Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae

    2004-01-01

    A Neptune Aerocapture Systems Analysis is completed to determine the feasibility, benefit and risk of an aeroshell aerocapture system for Neptune and to identify technology gaps and technology performance goals. The high fidelity systems analysis is completed by a five center NASA team and includes the following disciplines and analyses: science; mission design; aeroshell configuration screening and definition; interplanetary navigation analyses; atmosphere modeling; computational fluid dynamics for aerodynamic performance and database definition; initial stability analyses; guidance development; atmospheric flight simulation; computational fluid dynamics and radiation analyses for aeroheating environment definition; thermal protection system design, concepts and sizing; mass properties; structures; spacecraft design and packaging; and mass sensitivities. Results show that aerocapture can deliver 1.4 times more mass to Neptune orbit than an all-propulsive system for the same launch vehicle. In addition aerocapture results in a 3-4 year reduction in trip time compared to all-propulsive systems. Aerocapture is feasible and performance is adequate for the Neptune aerocapture mission. Monte Carlo simulation results show 100% successful capture for all cases including conservative assumptions on atmosphere and navigation. Enabling technologies for this mission include TPS manufacturing; and aerothermodynamic methods and validation for determining coupled 3-D convection, radiation and ablation aeroheating rates and loads, and the effects on surface recession.

  1. Mapping land cover gradients through analysis of hyper-temporal NDVI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Amjad; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Skidmore, A. K.; Scarrott, R. G.; Hamad, Amina; Venus, V.; Lymberakis, Petros

    2013-08-01

    The green cover of the earth exhibits various spatial gradients that represent gradual changes in space of vegetation density and/or in species composition. To date, land cover mapping methods differentiate at best, mapping units with different cover densities and/or species compositions, but typically fail to express such differences as gradients. Present interpretation techniques still make insufficient use of freely available spatial-temporal Earth Observation (EO) data that allow detection of existing land cover gradients. This study explores the use of hyper-temporal NDVI imagery to detect and delineate land cover gradients analyzing the temporal behavior of NDVI values. MODIS-Terra MVC-images (250 m, 16-day) of Crete, Greece, from February 2000 to July 2009 are used. The analysis approach uses an ISODATA unsupervised classification in combination with a Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA). Clustering of class-specific temporal NDVI profiles through HCA resulted in the identification of gradients in landcover vegetation growth patterns. The detected gradients were arranged in a relational diagram, and mapped. Three groups of NDVI-classes were evaluated by correlating their class-specific annual average NDVI values with the field data (tree, shrub, grass, bare soil, stone, litter fraction covers). Multiple regression analysis showed that within each NDVI group, the fraction cover data were linearly related with the NDVI data, while NDVI groups were significantly different with respect to tree cover (adj. R2 = 0.96), shrub cover (adj. R2 = 0.83), grass cover (adj. R2 = 0.71), bare soil (adj. R2 = 0.88), stone cover (adj. R2 = 0.83) and litter cover (adj. R2 = 0.69) fractions. Similarly, the mean Sorenson dissimilarity values were found high and significant at confidence interval of 95% in all pairs of three NDVI groups. The study demonstrates that hyper-temporal NDVI imagery can successfully detect and map land cover gradients. The results may improve land cover assessment and aid in agricultural and ecological studies.

  2. Customer-oriented Data Formats and Services for Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Products at the NASA GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Hongliang; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matthew; Teng, BIll; Vollmer, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) is generating a series of land surface state (e.g., soil moisture and surface temperature) and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products simulated by four land surface Models (CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC). These products are now accessible at the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), a component of NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GESDISC).

  3. Predicting land-use change and its impact on the groundwater system of the Kleine Nete catchment, Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dams; S. T. Woldeamlak; O. Batelaan

    2008-01-01

    Land-use changes are frequently indicated to be one of the main human-induced factors influencing the groundwater system. For land-use change, groundwater research has mainly focused on the change in water quality thereby neglecting changes in quantity. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of land-use changes, from 2000 until 2020, on the hydrological balance and in particular

  4. Uncertainty Analysis of Runoff Simulations and Parameter Identifiability in the Community Land Model – Evidence from MOPEX Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Maoyi; Hou, Zhangshuan; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ke, Yinghai; Liu, Ying; Fang, Zhufeng; Sun, Yu

    2013-12-01

    With the emergence of earth system models as important tools for understanding and predicting climate change and implications to mitigation and adaptation, it has become increasingly important to assess the fidelity of the land component within earth system models to capture realistic hydrological processes and their response to the changing climate and quantify the associated uncertainties. This study investigates the sensitivity of runoff simulations to major hydrologic parameters in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4) by integrating CLM4 with a stochastic exploratory sensitivity analysis framework at 20 selected watersheds from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) spanning a wide range of climate and site conditions. We found that for runoff simulations, the most significant parameters are those related to the subsurface runoff parameterizations. Soil texture related parameters and surface runoff parameters are of secondary significance. Moreover, climate and soil conditions play important roles in the parameter sensitivity. In general, site conditions within water-limited hydrologic regimes and with finer soil texture result in stronger sensitivity of output variables, such as runoff and its surface and subsurface components, to the input parameters in CLM4. This study demonstrated the feasibility of parameter inversion for CLM4 using streamflow observations to improve runoff simulations. By ranking the significance of the input parameters, we showed that the parameter set dimensionality could be reduced for CLM4 parameter calibration under different hydrologic and climatic regimes so that the inverse problem is less ill posed.

  5. A System Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; ESPINOZA,JUAN

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we describe a tool for analyzing systems. The analysis is based on program slicing. It answers the following question for the software: if the value of a particular variable changes, what other variable values also change, and what is the path in between? program slicing was developed based on intra-procedure control and data flow. It has been expanded commercially to inter-procedure flow. However, we extend slicing to collections of programs and non-program entities, which we term multi-domain systems. The value of our tool is that an analyst can model the entirety of a system, not just the software, and we believe that this makes for a significant increase in power. We are building a prototype system.

  6. Engineering Complex Systems with an Emphasis on Robustness: Utility-Based Analysis with Focus on Robustness 

    E-print Network

    Baxter, Benjamin Andrew

    2013-05-24

    vi Page 5.2. Utility-Based Approach for Increased System Robustness Steps .................... 40 5.3 Comparison of New Utility-Based Analysis To Standard ............................... 41 6. CASE STUDY OF ENTRY, DESCENT, AND LANDING OF MARS... .................................. 54 6.3. Mars Rover Entry, Descent, and Landing Case Study Conclusion .................. 81 7. SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 84 REFERENCES...

  7. Risk assessment of flash floods in central Pyrenees (Spain) through land use change analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Mora, Daniel; Sánchez-Fabre, Miguel; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Ollero, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the main cause of the damages to human areas is the increased risk exposure. The urbanization in touristic areas in Pyrenees has increased enormously in last 25 years, and the most of urban development have been made on land occupied by the stream channel. We present two different case studies in central Pyrenees: one in Aragón river and one in Ésera river. We made a land use analysis from 1956 to 2013 in the headwaters of these two rivers delimiting the channel in different flash floods events, and analysing the amount and distribution of precipitation at the same time. The results show that the risk exposure is one of the main factors of the impact of flash floods. We found that most of the damage on urbanization and human activities was caused by the urban occupation of areas that were located on the floodplain of the river. For both Aragon and Esera headwaters precipitation events were considered extreme in their time series. However, the amount of precipitation of these extreme events does not support the consequences in geomorphological and human environments. The events of high intensity rainfall over the last years could be expected, yet, it had unexpected consequences that could be predictable by land managers through an appropriate regional planning.

  8. Environmental impacts of land use and land cover change in the Zhujiang Delta, China: An analysis using an integrated GIS, remote sensing, and spatial modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Qihao

    This dissertation attempts to apply an integrated approach of remote sensing, GIS, and spatial modeling for environmental studies. The feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of this integrated approach are investigated through land use and land cover change modeling, environmental impact analysis, and stochastic analysis. By applying this approach to the Zhujiang Delta, this dissertation also attempts to examine the environmental implications of China's economic reform policies. This study finds that the integration among remote sensing, GIS, and spatial modeling is necessary and effective for solving many environmental problems. Integration by exchanging data files among these three elements is feasible in spite of its time-consuming and error-prone nature. Satellite remote sensing collects multispectral, multiresolution, and multitemporal data, and turns them into information valuable for environmental studies. GIS technology provides a flexible environment for entering, analyzing, and displaying digital data from various sources, and can incorporate socioeconomic data necessary for environmental problem solving. However, GIS needs to be further integrated with various spatial modeling techniques, because the current generation of GIS lacks the necessary predictive and analytical capabilities. The case study in the Zhujiang Delta examines its land use and land cover changes and environmental impacts between 1989 and 1997. Results show, first, that urban/built-up areas and horticulture farms have increased, while cropland has decreased. These changes are related to industrial and agricultural development as well as population growth during the period. The spatial process of urban expansion shows an intimate relationship with the distance from major roads and from the geometric center of a city. Second, urban land development tends to bring down greenness, raise surface radiant temperatures, and increase surface runoff. In contrast, horticulture farms promote greenness and lowers surface radiant temperatures. Cropland losses might cause a reduction in greenness and a rise in surface temperatures. The spatial patterns of biomass decrease, radiant temperature increase, and surface runoff change are positively correlated with the pattern of. urban expansion. Finally, Markovian modeling indicates that the land conversion process is not homogeneous in time, indicating temporal changes in the transition mechanism. Future land development in the delta is still unpredictable.

  9. Imaging Flash Lidar for Safe Landing on Solar System Bodies and Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Vincent E.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Carrion, William A; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Noe, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been pursuing flash lidar technology for autonomous, safe landing on solar system bodies and for automated rendezvous and docking. During the final stages of the landing from about 1 kilometer to 500 meters above the ground, the flash lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes. The onboard flight computer can then use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe location. As an automated rendezvous and docking sensor, the flash lidar can provide relative range, velocity, and bearing from an approaching spacecraft to another spacecraft or a space station. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and demonstrated a flash lidar sensor system capable of generating 16,000 pixels range images with 7 centimeters precision, at 20 Hertz frame rate, from a maximum slant range of 1800 m from the target area. This paper describes the lidar instrument and presents the results of recent flight tests onboard a rocket-propelled free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus) built by NASA Johnson Space Center. The flights were conducted at a simulated lunar terrain site, consisting of realistic hazard features and designated landing areas, built at NASA Kennedy Space Center specifically for this demonstration test. This paper also provides an overview of the plan for continued advancement of the flash lidar technology aimed at enhancing its performance to meet both landing and automated rendezvous and docking applications.

  10. Lidar systems for precision navigation and safe landing on planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego; Petway, Larry; Hines, Glenn; Roback, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    The ability of lidar technology to provide three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, high precision distance to the ground, and approach velocity can enable safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles with a high degree of precision. Currently, NASAis developing novel lidar sensors aimed at the needs of future planetary landing missions.These lidar sensors are a 3-Dimensional Imaging Flash Lidar, a Doppler Lidar, and a Laser Altimeter. The Flash Lidar is capable of generating elevation maps of theterrain toindicate hazardous features such as rocks, craters, and steep slopes. The elevation maps, which arecollected during the approach phase of a landing vehicle from about 1 km above the ground, can be used to determine the most suitable safe landing site. The Doppler Lidar provides highly accurate ground relative velocity and distance data thusenablingprecision navigation to the landing site. Our Doppler lidar utilizes three laser beams that are pointed indifferent directions to measure line-of-sight velocities and ranges to the ground from altitudes of over 2 km.Starting at altitudes of about 20km and throughout the landing trajectory,the Laser Altimeter can provide very accurate ground relative altitude measurements that are used to improve the vehicle position knowledge obtained from the vehicle'snavigation system. Betweenaltitudesof approximately 15 km and 10 km, either the Laser Altimeter or the Flash Lidar can be used to generate contour maps of the terrain, identifying known surface features such as craters to perform Terrain relative Navigation thus further reducing the vehicle's relative position error. This paper describes the operational capabilities of each lidar sensorand provides a status of their development.

  11. From Land Use to Land Cover: Restoring the Afforestation Signal in a Coupled Integrated Assessment - Earth System Model and the Implications for CMIP5 RCP Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chini, L. P.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Truesdale, J. E.; Craig, A.; Calvin, K. V.; Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Edmonds, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Thornton, P. E.; Thomson, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). The CMIP5 project used a novel "land use harmonization" based on the Global Land use Model (GLM) to provide ESMs with consistent 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAM projections. A direct coupling of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), GLM, and the Community ESM (CESM) has allowed us to characterize and partially address a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design: the lack of a corresponding land cover harmonization. The CMIP5 CESM global afforestation is only 22% of GCAM's 2005 to 2100 RCP4.5 afforestation. Likewise, only 17% of GCAM's 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation, and zero pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within the directly coupled model. This is a problem because afforestation was relied upon to achieve RCP4.5 climate stabilization. GLM modifications within the directly coupled model did not increase CESM afforestation. Modifying the CESM land use translator in addition to GLM, however, enabled CESM to simulate 66% of GCAM's afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM's pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different RCP4.5 climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Although the IAMs and ESMs were not expected to have exactly the same climate forcing, due in part to different terrestrial carbon cycles and atmospheric radiation algorithms, the ESMs were expected to project climates representative of the RCP scenarios. Similar land cover inconsistencies exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between IAM and ESM models. High RCP4.5 afforestation might also contribute to inconsistencies as some ESMs might impose bioclimatic limits to potential forest area and have different rates of forest growth than projected by RCP4.5. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to address this problem.

  12. A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-20

    Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff. More systematic analyses are needed to determine the relative merits of the subbasin representation compared to the commonly used grid-based representation, especially when land surface models are approaching higher resolutions.

  13. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreves, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    The Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) was conceived as a low-cost, rapidly-developed means of providing soft landing for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) crew module (CM). Its experimental main parachute cluster deployment technique and off-the-shelf hardware necessitated a full-scale drop test prior to the MLAS mission in order to reduce overall mission risk. This test was successfully conducted at Wallops Flight Facility on March 6, 2009, with all vehicle and parachute systems functioning as planned. The results of the drop test successfully qualified the LPD system for the MLAS flight test. This document captures the design, concept of operations and results of the drop test.

  14. Calibration of the Space Shuttle Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System using a laser tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, K.

    1979-01-01

    Verification tests of the Space Shuttle Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System (MSBLS) performed with respect to the Precision Laser Tracking System are reported. MSBLS ground station measurements of the azimuth, elevation and range of a NASA Jetstar aircraft equipped with a laser retroreflector, a MSBLS antenna and commissioning instruments including a MSBLS navigation set of the type installed in the Orbiter, during the performance of radial, orbital and glideslope runs with respect to the ground station were compared with laser ground station measurements of aircraft position. Data obtained from flight testing at Shuttle landing sites reveal MSBLS distance measuring equipment performance to be very good, with elevation errors found at very low elevation angles and azimuth errors as a function of aircraft attitude. The Precision Laser Tracking System has thus proven to be a satisfactory instrument for determining MSBLS performance, and an ideal instrument for its calibration.

  15. The role of ERTS in the establishment and of a nationwide land cover information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abram, P.; Tullos, J.

    1974-01-01

    The economic potential of utilizing an ERTS type satellite in the development, updating, and maintenance of a nation-wide land cover information system in the post-1977 time frame was examined. Several alternative acquisition systems were evaluated for land cover data acquisition, processing, and interpretation costs in order to determine, on a total life cycle cost basis, under which conditions of user demand (i.e., area of coverage, frequency of coverage, timeliness of information, and level of information detail) an ERTS type satellite would be cost effective, and what the annual cost savings benefits would be. It was concluded that a three satellite system with high and low altitude aircraft and ground survey team utilizing automatic interpretation and classification techniques is an economically sound proposal.

  16. Snow process modeling in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS): 1. Evaluation of model-simulated snow cover extent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Sheffield; Ming Pan; Eric F. Wood; Kenneth E. Mitchell; Paul R. Houser; John C. Schaake; Alan Robock; Dag Lohmann; Brian Cosgrove; Qingyun Duan; Lifeng Luo; R. Wayne Higgins; Rachel T. Pinker; J. Dan Tarpley; Bruce H. Ramsay

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluates the cold season process modeling in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and consists of two parts: (1) assessment of land surface model simulations of snow cover extent and (2) evaluation of snow water equivalent. In this first part, simulations of snow cover extent from the four land surface models (Noah, MOSAIC, Sacramento land surface

  17. Analysis of arable land loss and its impact on rural sustainability in Southern Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y S; Wang, J Y; Long, H L

    2010-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization in southern Jiangsu Province have consumed a huge amount of arable land. Through comparative analysis of land cover maps derived from TM images in 1990, 2000 and 2006, we identified the trend of arable land loss. It is found that most arable land is lost to urbanization and rural settlements development. Urban settlements, rural settlements, and industrial park-mine-transport land increased, respectively, by 87 997 ha (174.65%), 81 041 ha (104.52%), and 12 692 ha (397.99%) from 1990 to 2006. Most of the source (e.g., change from) land covers are rice paddy fields and dryland. These two covers contributed to newly urbanized areas by 37.12% and 73.52% during 1990-2000, and 46.39% and 38.86% during 2000-2006. However, the loss of arable land is weakly correlated with ecological service value, per capita net income of farmers, but positively with grain yield for some counties. Most areas in the study site have a low arable land depletion rate and a high potential for sustainable development. More attention should be directed at those counties that have a high depletion rate but a low potential for sustainable development. Rural settlements should be controlled and rationalized through legislative measures to achieve harmonious development between urban and rural areas, and sustainable development for rural areas with a minimal impact on the ecoenvironment. PMID:19853366

  18. Adaptation Options for Land Drainage Systems Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Environment: A Czech Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulhavý, Zbyn?k; Fu?ík, Petr

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, issues of agricultural drainage systems are introduced and discussed from the views of their former, current and future roles and functioning in the Czech Republic (CR). A methodologically disparate survey was done on thirty-nine model localities in CR with different intensity and state of land drainage systems, aimed at description of commonly occurred problems and possible adaptations of agricultural drainage as perceived by farmers, land owners, landscape managers or by protective water management. The survey was focused on technical state of drainage, fragmentation of land ownership within drained areas as well as on possible conflicts between agricultural and environmental interests in a landscape. Achieved results confirmed that there is obviously an increasing need to reassess some functions of prevailingly single-purpose agricultural drainage systems. Drainage intensity and detected unfavourable technical state of drainage systems as well as the risks connected with the anticipated climate change from the view of possible water scarcity claims for a complex solution. An array of adaptation options for agricultural drainage systems is presented, aiming at enhancement of water retention time and improvement of water quality. It encompasses additional flow-controlling measures on tiles or ditches, or facilities for making selected parts of a drainage system inoperable in order to retain or slow down the drainage runoff, to establish water accumulation zones and to enhance water self-cleaning processes. However, it was revealed that the question of landowner parcels fragmentation on drained land in CR would dramatically complicate design and realization of these measures. Presented solutions and findings are propounded with a respect to contemporary and future state policies and international strategies for sustainable agriculture, water management and environment.

  19. Ultrawideband radar echoes of land mine targets measured at oblique incidence using a 250-kW impulse radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chant, Ian J.; Staines, Geoff

    1997-07-01

    United Nations Peacekeeping forces around the world need to transport food, personnel and medical supplies through disputed regions were land mines are in active use as road blocks and terror weapons. A method of fast, effective land mine detection is needed to combat this threat to road transport. The technique must operate from a vehicle travelling at a reasonable velocity and give warning far enough ahead for the vehicle to stop in time to avoid the land mine. There is particular interest in detecting low- metallic content land mines. One possible solutionis the use of ultra-wide-band (UWB) radar. The Australian Defence Department is investigating the feasibility of using UWB radar for land mine detection from a vehicle. A 3 GHz UWB system has been used to collect target response from a series of inert land mines and mine-like objects placed on the ground and buried in the ground. The targets measured were a subset of those in the target set described in Wong et al. with the addition of inert land mines corresponding to some of the surrogate targets in this set. The results are encouraging for the detection of metallic land mines and the larger non-metallic land mines. Smaller low-metallic- content anti-personnel land mines are less likely to be detected.

  20. Integration between terrestrial-based and satellite-based land mobile communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcidiancono, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    A survey is given of several approaches to improving the performance and marketability of mobile satellite systems (MSS). The provision of voice/data services in the future regional European Land Mobile Satellite System (LMSS), network integration between the Digital Cellular Mobile System (GSM) and LMSS, the identification of critical areas for the implementation of integrated GSM/LMSS areas, space segment scenarios, LMSS for digital trunked private mobile radio (PMR) services, and code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques for a terrestrial/satellite system are covered.

  1. Implications of agricultural land use for sustainability of gravity fed water distribution systems relying on natural springs in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, L. M.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Reents, N.

    2009-12-01

    Gravity-fed distribution systems from natural springs are frequently used as a method for providing drinking water to developing communities throughout the world. They are seen as an appropriate technology for their relatively simple operation and maintenance requirements. Spring discharge, however, depends on recharge rates in the spring’s catchment area, and the storage and distribution system must be designed with this potentially non-stationary input in mind. The dependence of recharge rates on land use varies with slope, soil type, vegetation, and humidity of the region. Therefore, in many developing communities where there is little watershed monitoring, little is known about how changes in land use may result in variability or long term trends in spring flow. Appropriate, low cost methods that can be carried out with local knowledge and labor are required for assessing the sustainability of natural springs as sources of drinking water in local settings, especially where land use is rapidly changing. We present results from an analysis evaluating the sustainability of discharge from springs supplying gravity-fed water systems in the Alto Beni region of Bolivia, where land use is rapidly changing from forest to agriculture. This analysis is accomplished using appropriate data collection methods with the assistance of local technicians and could be readily transferred to other watershed studies in developing communities. The study involves eleven local watersheds with varying percentage of land use devoted to agriculture area. Preliminary results show that discharge variability is higher in watersheds with more agriculture, suggesting that recharge rates in the region decrease with increased land area devoted to agriculture.

  2. Impact of Land Surface Initialization Approach on Subseasonal Forecast Skill: a Regional Analysis in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, Annette L.; Kala, Jatin; Pitman, Andy J.; Carouge, Claire; Evans, Jason P.; Haverd, Vanessa; Mocko, David

    2014-01-01

    The authors use a sophisticated coupled land-atmosphere modeling system for a Southern Hemisphere subdomain centered over southeastern Australia to evaluate differences in simulation skill from two different land surface initialization approaches. The first approach uses equilibrated land surface states obtained from offline simulations of the land surface model, and the second uses land surface states obtained from reanalyses. The authors find that land surface initialization using prior offline simulations contribute to relative gains in subseasonal forecast skill. In particular, relative gains in forecast skill for temperature of 10%-20% within the first 30 days of the forecast can be attributed to the land surface initialization method using offline states. For precipitation there is no distinct preference for the land surface initialization method, with limited gains in forecast skill irrespective of the lead time. The authors evaluated the asymmetry between maximum and minimum temperatures and found that maximum temperatures had the largest gains in relative forecast skill, exceeding 20% in some regions. These results were statistically significant at the 98% confidence level at up to 60 days into the forecast period. For minimum temperature, using reanalyses to initialize the land surface contributed to relative gains in forecast skill, reaching 40% in parts of the domain that were statistically significant at the 98% confidence level. The contrasting impact of the land surface initialization method between maximum and minimum temperature was associated with different soil moisture coupling mechanisms. Therefore, land surface initialization from prior offline simulations does improve predictability for temperature, particularly maximum temperature, but with less obvious improvements for precipitation and minimum temperature over southeastern Australia.

  3. Change in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000) Quadrangle, Arizona between 1970 and 1972: Successful use of proposed land use classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Changes in land use in the Phoenix (1:250,000 scale) Quadrangle in Arizona have been mapped using only the images from ERTS-1, tending to verify the utility of a land use classification system proposed for use with ERTS images. The period of change investigated was from November 1970 to late summer or early fall, 1972. Seasonal changes also were studied using successive ERTS images. Types of equipment used to aid interpretation included a color additive viewer, a twenty-power magnifier, a density slicer, and a diazo copy machine for making ERTS color composites in hard copy. Types of changes detected have been: (1) cropland or rangeland developed for new residential areas; (2) rangeland converted to new cropland; and (3) possibly new areas of industrial or commercial development. A map of land use previously compiled from air photos was updated in this manner.

  4. Uncertainty Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis During Calibration of TRANUS, an Integrated Land Use and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , an integrated land use and transport model (ILUTM), has been investigated. It has also been examined, through testing, integrated land use and transport models, TRANUS, Grenoble. I. INTRODUCTION Integrated land use of such models have come into existence [1], [2]. It is well known that integration of land use and transport

  5. Glacier Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) and the GLIMS Information Management System at NSIDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, A. E.; Scharfen, G. R.; Barry, R. G.; Khalsa, S. S.; Raup, B.; Swick, R.; Troisi, V. J.; Wang, I.

    2001-12-01

    GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) is an international project to survey a majority of the world's glaciers with the accuracy and precision needed to assess recent changes and determine trends in glacial environments. This will be accomplished by: comprehensive periodic satellite measurements, coordinated distribution of screened image data, analysis of images at worldwide Regional Centers, validation of analyses, and a publicly accessible database. The primary data source will be from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer) instrument aboard the EOS Terra spacecraft, and Landsat ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), currently in operation. Approximately 700 ASTER images have been acquired with GLIMS gain settings as of mid-2001. GLIMS is a collaborative effort with the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Aeronautics Space Adminstration (NASA), other U.S. Federal Agencies and a group of internationally distributed glaciologists at Regional Centers of expertise. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) is developing the information management system for GLIMS. We will ingest and maintain GLIMS-analyzed glacier data from Regional Centers and provide access to the data via the World Wide Web. The GLIMS database will include measurements (over time) of glacier length, area, boundaries, topography, surface velocity vectors, and snowline elevation, derived primarily from remote sensing data. The GLIMS information management system at NSIDC will provide an easy to use and widely accessible service for the glaciological community and other users needing information about the world's glaciers. The structure of the international GLIMS consortium, status of database development, sample imagery and derived analyses and user search and order interfaces will be demonstrated. More information on GLIMS is available at: http://www.glims.org/.

  6. AgRISTARS: Renewable resources inventory. Land information support system implementation plan and schedule. [San Juan National Forest pilot test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The planning and scheduling of the use of remote sensing and computer technology to support the land management planning effort at the national forests level are outlined. The task planning and system capability development were reviewed. A user evaluation is presented along with technological transfer methodology. A land management planning pilot test of the San Juan National Forest is discussed.

  7. A priority based interval-valued Goal Programming approach for land utilization planning in agricultural system: A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bijay Baran Pal; Mousumi Kumar; Shyamal Sen

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a Goal Programming (GP) Procedure for modeling and solving land utilization planning problems having interval-valued objective goals for optimal production of seasonal crops in agricultural system. In the proposed approach, utilization of total land for cultivation, aspiration levels of production of crops, expected profit from the farm as well as certain ratios of crops production and profit

  8. Analysis of land use\\/cover changes and urban expansion of Nairobi city using remote sensing and GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Mundia; M. Aniya

    2005-01-01

    We used three Landsat images together with socio?economic data in a post?classification analysis to map the spatial dynamics of land use\\/cover changes and identify the urbanization process in Nairobi city. Land use\\/cover statistics, extracted from Landsat Multi?spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) images for 1976, 1988 and 2000 respectively, revealed that the built?up area

  9. Taking the Next Step: Using Water Quality Data in a Decision Support System for County, State, and Federal Land Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raby, K. S.; Williams, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    Each passing year amplifies the demands placed on communities across the US in terms of population growth, increased tourism, and stresses resulting from escalated use. The conflicting concerns of recreational users, local citizens, environmentalists, and traditional economic interests cause land managers to contend with controversial decisions regarding development and protection of watersheds. Local history and culture, politics, economic goals, and science are all influential factors in land use decision making. Here we report on a scientific study to determine the sensitivity of alpine areas, and the adaptation of this study into a decision support framework. We use water quality data as an indicator of ecosystem health across a variety of alpine and subalpine landscapes, and input this information into a spatially-based decision support tool that planners can use to make informed land use decisions. We develop this tool in a case study in San Juan County, Colorado, a site chosen because its largest town, Silverton, is a small mountain community experiencing a recent surge in tourism and development, and its fragile high elevation locale makes it more sensitive to environmental changes. Extensive field surveys were conducted in priority drainages throughout the county to map the spatial distribution and aerial extent of landscape types during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Surface water samples were collected and analyzed for inorganic and organic solutes, and water quality values were associated with different land covers to enable sensitivity analysis at the landscape scale. Water quality results for each watershed were entered into a module linked to a geographic information system (GIS), which displays maps of sensitive areas based on criteria selected by the user. The decision support system initially incorporates two major water quality parameters: acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and nitrate (NO3-) concentration, and several categories of sensitivity were created based on ANC and NO3- levels (e.g., pristine, slightly sensitive, moderately sensitive, highly sensitive, sensitive but unimpacted, disturbance impacted). We based threshold concentrations for these water quality parameters on first principles developed at the Niwot Ridge LTER site. Additional parameters such as specific conductance, base cation concentration, sulfate concentration, and dissolved organic carbon concentration may be added for a particular landscape type. Superimposed on this categorization, federal, state, and county planners are able to make decisions about the degree of potential impairment or enhancement produced by a particular project, or the maximum level of acceptable impairment to a particular area. Because water quality parameters are correlated with landscape types, the model returns a map of the watershed, partitioned by landscape type, presenting the sensitivity level of each area. This format provides land use managers with spatial criteria for project implementation.

  10. Analysis on Land Development and Consolidation in Mountainous Area ——A case of land development and consolidation project in Haiba Village of Fengjie County

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao-qiang Tian; Chun-rong Zuo; Xian-long Tan; Yan-jun Li

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the land use situation in the project area from two aspects. Firstly, natural situation (landscape, temperature, soil hydrology, natural disaster); secondly, land use situation (land use structure, project construction scale, land area of different vegetation classes). Through the research on the land development and consolidation of Haiba Village of Fengjie County, the project is concluded and the

  11. San Juan National Forest Land Management Planning Support System (LMPSS) requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werth, L. F. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The role of remote sensing data as it relates to a three-component land management planning system (geographic information, data base management, and planning model) can be understood only when user requirements are known. Personnel at the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado were interviewed to determine data needs for managing and monitoring timber, rangelands, wildlife, fisheries, soils, water, geology and recreation facilities. While all the information required for land management planning cannot be obtained using remote sensing techniques, valuable information can be provided for the geographic information system. A wide range of sensors such as small and large format cameras, synthetic aperture radar, and LANDSAT data should be utilized. Because of the detail and accuracy required, high altitude color infrared photography should serve as the baseline data base and be supplemented and updated with data from the other sensors.

  12. Development of Lidar Sensor Systems for Autonomous Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierottet, Diego F.; Petway, Larry B.; Vanek, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Lidar has been identified by NASA as a key technology for enabling autonomous safe landing of future robotic and crewed lunar landing vehicles. NASA LaRC has been developing three laser/lidar sensor systems under the ALHAT project. The capabilities of these Lidar sensor systems were evaluated through a series of static tests using a calibrated target and through dynamic tests aboard helicopters and a fixed wing aircraft. The airborne tests were performed over Moon-like terrain in the California and Nevada deserts. These tests provided the necessary data for the development of signal processing software, and algorithms for hazard detection and navigation. The tests helped identify technology areas needing improvement and will also help guide future technology advancement activities.

  13. Modeling of Instrument Landing System (ILS) localizer signal on runway 25L at Los Angeles International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Knox, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    A joint NASA/FAA flight test has been made to record instrument landing system (ILS) localizer receiver signals for use in mathematically modeling the ILS localizer for future simulation studies and airplane flight tracking tasks. The flight test was conducted on a portion of the ILS localizer installed on runway 25L at the Los Angeles International Airport. The tests covered the range from 10 to 32 n.mi. from the localizer antenna. Precision radar tracking information was compared with the recorded localizer deviation data. Data analysis showed that the ILS signal centerline was offset to the left of runway centerline by 0.071 degrees and that no significant bends existed on the localizer beam. Suggested simulation models for the ILS localizer are formed from a statistical analysis.

  14. Design Through Operation of an Image-Based Velocity Estimation System for Mars Landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Edie Johnson; Reg G. Willson; Yang Cheng; Jay Goguen; Chris Leger; Miguel Sanmartin; Larry Matthies

    2007-01-01

    During the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landings, the Descent Image Motion Estimation System (DIMES) was used for horizontal\\u000a velocity estimation. The DIMES algorithm combined measurements from a descent camera, a radar altimeter, and an inertial measurement\\u000a unit. To deal with large changes in scale and orientation between descent images, the algorithm used altitude and attitude\\u000a measurements to rectify images to

  15. Soil landscape constraint mapping for coastal land use planning using geographic information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Yang; J. M. Gray; G. A. Chapman; M. A. Young

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to delineate soil landscape constraints to various land uses for urban and regional planning in the coastal areas of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Soil landscape units mapped at 1:100,000 or coarser were sub-divided into component facets using advanced terrain modelling techniques in a geographic information system (GIS). The output facet grids were further

  16. Vulnerability of land systems to fire: Interactions among humans, climate, the atmosphere, and ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Lavorel; Mike D. Flannigan; Eric F. Lambin; Mary C. Scholes

    2007-01-01

    Fires are critical elements in the Earth System, linking climate, humans, and vegetation. With 200–500 Mha burnt annually,\\u000a fire disturbs a greater area over a wider variety of biomes than any other natural disturbance. Fire ignition, propagation,\\u000a and impacts depend on the interactions among climate, vegetation structure, and land use on local to regional scales. Therefore,\\u000a fires and their effects

  17. Compact dual-output power converter for an Aerospace electrical landing gear actuation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thiwanka Wijekoon; Lee Empringham; Pat Wheeler; Jon Clare

    2009-01-01

    The current trend in the aircraft industry is to evolve towards more rdquopower-by-wirerdquo or rdquoMore Electricrdquo architectures in which electrical power moves aircraft flight surfaces. Benefits of a more electric architecture include improvements in environmental impact and reliability as well as reduced maintenance costs. In this paper power electronic technology used in the rdquopower-by-wirerdquo type nose landing gear system is

  18. Land tenure system in Fiji: the poverty implications of expiring leases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahendra Reddy; Vijay Naidu

    The land problem in Fiji is complex primarily because, unlike in many other countries, most land is under indigenous communal ownership. Of the total land area, 7.5 per cent is held by the government, 10 per cent is freehold and the Fijian landowning units hold 82.5 per cent ('native land'). Since the small proportion of state and freehold land is

  19. Results of land cover change detection analysis in and around Cordillera Azul National Park, Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Halsing, David L.

    2005-01-01

    The first product of the Optimizing Design and Management of Protected Areas for Conservation Project is a land cover change detection analysis based on Landsat thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) imagery collected at intervals between 1989 and 2002. The goal of this analysis was to quantify and analyze patterns of forest clearing, land conversion, and other disturbances in and around the Cordillera Azul National Park in Peru. After removing clouds and cloud shadows from the imagery using a series of automatic and manual processes, a Tasseled Cap Transformation was used to detect pixels of high reflectance, which were classified as bare ground and areas of likely forest clearing. Results showed a slow but steady increase in cleared ground prior to 1999 and a rapid and increasing conversion rate after that time. The highest concentrations of clearings have spread upward from the western border of the study area on the Huallaga River. To date, most disturbances have taken place in the buffer zone around the park, not within it, but the data show dense clearings occurring closer to the park border each year.

  20. Land-cover change analysis in 50 global cities by using a combination of Landsat data and analysis of grid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, Hasi; Yamagata, Yoshiki

    2014-05-01

    Global urban expansion has created incentives to convert green spaces to urban/built-up area. Therefore, understanding the distribution and dynamics of the land-cover changes in cities is essential for better understanding of the cities’ fundamental characteristics and processes, and of the impact of changing land-cover on potential carbon storage. We present a grid square approach using multi-temporal Landsat data from around 1985-2010 to monitor the spatio-temporal land-cover dynamics of 50 global cities. The maximum-likelihood classification method is applied to Landsat data to define the cities’ urbanized areas at different points in time. Subsequently, 1 km2 grid squares with unique cell IDs are designed to link among land-cover maps for spatio-temporal land-cover change analysis. Then, we calculate land-cover category proportions for each map in 1 km2 grid cells. Statistical comparison of the land-cover changes in grid square cells shows that urban area expansion in 50 global cities was strongly negatively correlated with forest, cropland and grassland changes. The generated land-cover proportions in 1 km2 grid cells and the spatial relationships between the changes of land-cover classes are critical for understanding past patterns and the consequences of urban development so as to inform future urban planning, risk management and conservation strategies.

  1. Development of the mechanical cryocooler system for the Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilletti, Adam; Burgess, Christopher; Donchev, Anton; Watson, Stuart; Weatherstone Akbar, Shane; Gamo-Albero, Victoria; Romero-Largacha, Victor; Caballero-Olmo, Gema

    2014-11-01

    The Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer is a dual view Earth observing instrument developed as part of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security programme. It is scheduled for launch on two satellites, Sentinel 3A and 3B in 2014. The instrument detectors are cooled to below 85 K by two split Stirling Cryocoolers running in hot redundancy. These coolers form part of a cryocooler system that includes a support structure and drive electronics. Aspects of the system design, including control and reduction of exported vibration are discussed; and results, including thermal performance and exported vibration from the Engineering Model Cryooler System test campaign are presented.

  2. Power systems analysis and planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the basic principles, applications, future outlook, and problems facing the Arab world (e.g., interconnection among power systems and standardization) in the area of power system engineering. Contents, abridged: Fault analysis. Load flow analysis. Transient stability analysis. Network interconnections equivalents. Power system planning. Index.

  3. Attributes of mesoscale convective systems at the land-ocean transition in Senegal during NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delonge, Marcia S.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Chan, Stephen; Kucera, Paul A.; Joseph, Everette; Gaye, Amadou T.; Daouda, Badiane

    2010-05-01

    In this study we investigate the development of a mesoscale convective system (MCS) as it moved from West Africa to the Atlantic Ocean on 31 August 2006. We document surface and atmospheric conditions preceding and following the MCS, particularly near the coast. These analyses are used to evaluate how thermodynamic and microphysical gradients influence storms as they move from continental to maritime environments. To achieve these goals, we employ observations from NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) from the NASA S band polarimetric Doppler radar, a meteorological flux tower, upper-air soundings, and rain gauges. We show that the MCS maintained a convective leading edge and trailing stratiform region as it propagated from land to ocean. The initial strength and organization of the MCS were associated with favorable antecedent conditions in the continental lower atmosphere, including high specific humidity (18 g kg-1), temperatures (300 K), and wind shear. While transitioning, the convective and stratiform regions became weaker and disorganized. Such storm changes were linked to less favorable thermodynamic, dynamic, and microphysical conditions over ocean. To address whether storms in different life-cycle phases exhibited similar features, a composite analysis of major NAMMA events was performed. This analysis revealed an even stronger shift to lower reflectivity values over ocean. These findings support the hypothesis that favorable thermodynamic conditions over the coast are a prerequisite to ensuring that MCSs do not dissipate at the continental-maritime transition, particularly due to strong gradients that can weaken West African storms moving from land to ocean.

  4. Beta systems error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric backscatter coefficient, beta, measured with an airborne CO Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) system operating in a continuous wave, focussed model is discussed. The Single Particle Mode (SPM) algorithm, was developed from concept through analysis of an extensive amount of data obtained with the system on board a NASA aircraft. The SPM algorithm is intended to be employed in situations where one particle at a time appears in the sensitive volume of the LDV. In addition to giving the backscatter coefficient, the SPM algorithm also produces as intermediate results the aerosol density and the aerosol backscatter cross section distribution. A second method, which measures only the atmospheric backscatter coefficient, is called the Volume Mode (VM) and was simultaneously employed. The results of these two methods differed by slightly less than an order of magnitude. The measurement uncertainties or other errors in the results of the two methods are examined.

  5. From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Chini, Louise M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Truesdale, John E.; Craig, Anthony P.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Hurtt, George; Thornton, Peter E.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-11-27

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). To facilitate consistency, CMIP5 used a novel land use harmonization to provide ESMs with seamless, 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. However, we have identified and partially addressed a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design. The CMIP5 Community ESM (CESM) global afforestation is only 22% of RCP4.5 afforestation from 2005 to 2100. Likewise, only 17% of the Global Change Assessment Model’s (GCAM’s) 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation signal, and none of the pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within a newly integrated model. This is a critical problem because afforestation is necessary for achieving the RCP4.5 climate stabilization. We attempted to rectify this problem by modifying only the ESM component of the integrated model, enabling CESM to simulate 66% of GCAM’s afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM’s pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Similar inconsistencies likely exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models, with possible contributions from afforestation exceeding model-specific, potentially viable forest area. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to adequately rectify this problem.

  6. Quantified and integrated crop and livestock production analysis at the farm level : exploring options for land use of mixed farms on heavy limestone soils south of Malang, East Java, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Efdé

    1996-01-01

    To develop adequate and sustainable land use plans, a clear assessment of the potential of the land and of the existing farming systems, as well as an identification of ways to attain these potentials is required. The agricultural system in the limestone area south of Malang is classified into different land units, land uses and livestock units. Land uses include

  7. Metro Rail Red Line MOS-2 corridor land-use analysis and joint-development potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, I.N.

    1992-04-17

    Land use patterns and opportunities to reshape land use intensities in areas surrounding the nine transit stations in the Minimum Operating Segment, Phase 2 (MOS-2) of the Metro Red Line Rail Transit Project was studied. The primary objective of the study was to identify sites where private investment is likely to occur once the transit system is operational and to identify the scope of public policy intervention necessary to encourage transit usage and to reduce automobile dependence in the transit corridor.

  8. Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle with Canted Multiple Air Bag Load Alleviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Investigation of the Landing Characteristics of a Re-entry Vehicle Having a Canted Multiple Air Bag Load Alleviation System. An investigation was made to determine the landing-impact characteristics of a reentry vehicle having a multiple-air-bag load-alleviation system. A 1/16-scale dynamic model having four canted air bags was tested at flight-path angles of 90 degrees (vertical), 45 degrees, and 27 degrees for a parachute or paraglider vertical letdown velocity of 30 feet per second (full scale). Landings were made on concrete at attitudes ranging from -l5 degrees to 20 degrees. The friction coefficient between the model heat shield and the concrete was approximately 0.4. An aluminum diaphragm, designed to rupture at 10.8 pounds per square inch gage, was used to maintain initial pressure in the air bags for a short time period. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030986. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  9. Microwave landing system modeling with application to air traffic control automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulose, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    Compared to the current instrument landing system, the microwave landing system (MLS), which is in the advanced stage of implementation, can potentially provide significant fuel and time savings as well as more flexibility in approach and landing functions. However, the expanded coverage and increased accuracy requirements of the MLS make it more susceptible to the features of the site in which it is located. An analytical approach is presented for evaluating the multipath effects of scatterers that are commonly found in airport environments. The approach combines a multiplane model with a ray-tracing technique and a formulation for estimating the electromagnetic fields caused by the antenna array in the presence of scatterers. The model is applied to several airport scenarios. The reduced computational burden enables the scattering effects on MLS position information to be evaluated in near real time. Evaluation in near real time would permit the incorporation of the modeling scheme into air traffic control automation; it would adaptively delineate zones of reduced accuracy within the MLS coverage volume, and help establish safe approach and takeoff trajectories in the presence of uneven terrain and other scatterers.

  10. Evaluation ofthe Middle East and North Africa Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John D.; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Bergaoui, Karim B.; Khalaf, Adla J.; McDonnell, Rachael A.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is dominated by dry, warm deserts, areas of dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. Due to the scarcity, high intensity, and short duration of rainfall in the MENA, the region is prone to hydro climatic extremes that are realized by devastating floods and times of drought. However, given its widespread water stress and the considerable demand for water, the MENA remains relatively poorly monitored. This is due in part to the shortage of meteorological observations and the lack of data sharing between nations. As a result, the accurate monitoring of the dynamics of the water cycle in the MENA is difficult. The Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS) has been developed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. As an extension of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the MENA LDAS was designed to aid in the identification and evaluation of regional hydrological anomalies by synergistically combining the physically-based Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) with observations from several independent data products including soil-water storage variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and irrigation intensity derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this fashion, we estimate the mean and seasonal cycle of the water budget components across the MENA.

  11. Propagation effects for land mobile satellite systems: Overview of experimental and modeling results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1992-01-01

    Models developed and experiments performed to characterize the propagation environment associated with land mobile communication using satellites are discussed. Experiments were carried out with transmitters on stratospheric balloons, remotely piloted aircraft, helicopters, and geostationary satellites. This text is comprised of compiled experimental results for the expressed use of communications engineers, designers of planned Land Mobile Satellite Systems (LMSS), and modelers of propagation effects. The results presented here are mostly derived from systematic studies of propagation effects for LMSS geometries in the United States associated with rural and suburban regions. Where applicable, the authors also draw liberally from the results of other related investigations in Canada, Europe, and Australia. Frequencies near 1500 MHz are emphasized to coincide with frequency bands allocated for LMSS by the International Telecommunication Union, although earlier experimental work at 870 MHz is also included.

  12. Global positioning system surveying to monitor land subsidence in Sacramento Valley, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    A subsidence research program began in 1985 to document the extent and magnitude of land subsidence in Sacramento Valley, California, an area of about 15 600 km2m, using Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying. In addition to periodic conventional spirit levelling, an examination was made of the changes in GPS-derived ellipsoidal height differences (summary differences) between pairs of adjacent bench marks in central Sacramento Valley from 1986 to 1989. The average rates of land subsidence in the southern Sacramento Valley for the past several decades were determined by comparing GPS-derived orthometric heights with historic published elevations. A maximum average rate of 0.053 m year-1 (0.90 m in 17 years) of subsidence has been measured. -Author

  13. Propagation effects for land mobile satellite systems: Overview of experimental and modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1992-02-01

    Models developed and experiments performed to characterize the propagation environment associated with land mobile communication using satellites are discussed. Experiments were carried out with transmitters on stratospheric balloons, remotely piloted aircraft, helicopters, and geostationary satellites. This text is comprised of compiled experimental results for the expressed use of communications engineers, designers of planned Land Mobile Satellite Systems (LMSS), and modelers of propagation effects. The results presented here are mostly derived from systematic studies of propagation effects for LMSS geometries in the United States associated with rural and suburban regions. Where applicable, the authors also draw liberally from the results of other related investigations in Canada, Europe, and Australia. Frequencies near 1500 MHz are emphasized to coincide with frequency bands allocated for LMSS by the International Telecommunication Union, although earlier experimental work at 870 MHz is also included.

  14. Land use, spatial scale, and stream systems: Lessons from an agricultural region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vondracek, B.; Blann, K.L.; Cox, C.B.; Nerbonne, J.F.; Mumford, K.G.; Nerbonne, B.A.; Sovell, L.A.; Zimmerman, J.K.H.

    2005-01-01

    We synthesized nine studies that examined the influence of land use at different spatial scales in structuring biotic assemblages and stream channel characteristics in southeastern Minnesota streams. Recent studies have disagreed about the relative importance of catchment versus local characteristics in explaining variation in fish assemblages. Our synthesis indicates that both riparian- and catchment-scale land use explained significant variation in water quality, channel morphology, and fish distribution and density. Fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages can be positively affected by increasing the extent of perennial riparian and upland vegetation. Our synthesis is robust; more than 425 stream reaches were examined in an area that includes a portion of three ecoregions. Fishes ranged from coldwater to warmwater adapted. We suggest that efforts to rehabilitate stream system form and function over the long term should focus on increasing perennial vegetation in both riparian areas and uplands and on managing vegetation in large, contiguous blocks. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  15. Atmospheric Risk Assessment for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Allen; Vasavada, Ashwin; Cianciolo, Alicia; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Dan; Hinson, David; Lewis, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. As with previous Mars landers, atmospheric conditions during entry, descent, and landing directly impact the performance of MSL's EDL system. While the vehicle's novel guided entry system allows it to "fly out" a range of atmospheric uncertainties, its trajectory through the atmosphere creates a variety of atmospheric sensitivities not present on previous Mars entry systems and landers. Given the mission's stringent landing capability requirements, understanding the atmosphere state and spacecraft sensitivities takes on heightened importance. MSL's guided entry trajectory differs significantly from recent Mars landers and includes events that generate different atmospheric sensitivities than past missions. The existence of these sensitivities and general advancement in the state of Mars atmospheric knowledge has led the MSL team to employ new atmosphere modeling techniques in addition to past practices. A joint EDL engineering and Mars atmosphere science and modeling team has been created to identify the key system sensitivities, gather available atmospheric data sets, develop relevant atmosphere models, and formulate methods to integrate atmosphere information into EDL performance assessments. The team consists of EDL engineers, project science staff, and Mars atmospheric scientists from a variety of institutions. This paper provides an overview of the system performance sensitivities that have driven the atmosphere modeling approach, discusses the atmosphere data sets and models employed by the team as a result of the identified sensitivities, and introduces the tools used to translate atmospheric knowledge into quantitative EDL performance assessments.

  16. A new GIS toolbox for integrating massive heterogeneous GIS data for land use change analysis A new GIS toolbox for integrating

    E-print Network

    Köbben, Barend

    A new GIS toolbox for integrating massive heterogeneous GIS data for land use change analysis A new GIS toolbox for integrating massive heterogeneous GIS data for land use change analysis by Birgit- sential for the analysis of causal connections, GIS data regarding all necessary information was gath

  17. Space lab system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.; Rives, T. B.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical analysis of the HOSC Generic Peripheral processing system was conducted. The results are summarized and they indicate that the maximum delay in performing screen change requests should be less than 2.5 sec., occurring for a slow VAX host to video screen I/O rate of 50 KBps. This delay is due to the average I/O rate from the video terminals to their host computer. Software structure of the main computers and the host computers will have greater impact on screen change or refresh response times. The HOSC data system model was updated by a newly coded PASCAL based simulation program which was installed on the HOSC VAX system. This model is described and documented. Suggestions are offered to fine tune the performance of the ETERNET interconnection network. Suggestions for using the Nutcracker by Excelan to trace itinerate packets which appear on the network from time to time were offered in discussions with the HOSC personnel. Several visits to the HOSC facility were to install and demonstrate the simulation model.

  18. The influence of water, land, energy and soil-nutrient resource interactions on the food system in Uganda

    E-print Network

    Mukuve, Feriha Mugisha; Fenner, Richard A.

    2014-12-31

    and agronomical challenges, rapid population growth, and the effects of adverse climate change. These causes however, are linked to complex interactions, constraints and dependencies amongst the key physical resources in food systems, namely – Water, Land, Energy...

  19. Development of Thermal Protection Materials for Future Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Alan M.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Arnold, James O.; Hwang, Helen; Wright, Michael J.; Szalai, Christine E.; Blosser, Max; Poteet, Carl C.

    2010-01-01

    Entry Systems will play a crucial role as NASA develops the technologies required for Human Mars Exploration. The Exploration Technology Development Program Office established the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. An assessment of current entry system technologies identified significant opportunity to improve the current state of the art in thermal protection materials in order to enable landing of heavy mass (40 mT) payloads. To accomplish this goal, the EDL Project has outlined a framework to define, develop and model the thermal protection system material concepts required to allow for the human exploration of Mars via aerocapture followed by entry. Two primary classes of ablative materials are being developed: rigid and flexible. The rigid ablatives will be applied to the acreage of a 10x30 m rigid mid L/D Aeroshell to endure the dual pulse heating (peak approx.500 W/sq cm). Likewise, flexible ablative materials are being developed for 20-30 m diameter deployable aerodynamic decelerator entry systems that could endure dual pulse heating (peak aprrox.120 W/sq cm). A technology Roadmap is presented that will be used for facilitating the maturation of both the rigid and flexible ablative materials through application of decision metrics (requirements, key performance parameters, TRL definitions, and evaluation criteria) used to assess and advance the various candidate TPS material technologies.

  20. Analysis and simulation of land use spatial pattern in Harbin prefecture based on trajectories and cellular automata-Markov modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wenfeng; Yuan, Li; Fan, Wenyi; Stott, Philip

    2015-02-01

    There have been rapid population and accelerating urban growth with associated changes in land use and soil degradation in northeast China, an important grain-producing region. The development of integrated use of remote sensing, geographic information systems, and combined cellular automata- Markov models has provided new means of assessing changes in land use and land cover, and has enabled projection of trajectories into the future. We applied such techniques to the prefecture-level city of Harbin, the tenth largest city in China. We found that there had been significant losses of the land uses termed "cropland", "grassland", "wetland", and "floodplain" in favour of "built-up land" and lesser transformations from "floodplain" to "forestland" and "water body" over the 18-year period. However, the transition was not a simple process but a complex network of changes, interchanges, and multiple transitions. In the absence of effective land use policies, projection of past trajectories into a balance state in the future would result in the decline of cropland from 65.6% to 46.9% and the increase of built-up area from 7.7% to 23.0% relative to the total area of the prefecture in 1989. It also led to the virtual elimination of land use types such as unused wetland and floodplain.

  1. Influence of Land Related Factors on Sustainable Land Management in the Ethiopian Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Ritsema, Coen

    2014-05-01

    Land is a scarce resource in the highlands of Ethiopia. Its sustainable use is highly affected among other factors by bio-physical and institutional aspects of land. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems on interrelated sustainable land management (SLM) investments in the North Western Ethiopian Highlands. A multivariate probit regression model is used to analyse interdependent investment decisions of SLM practices using a multiple parcel-level observations. The analysis indicates that farmers invest a combination of practices at parcels levels by considering substitution and complementarity effects of the practices. The results also reveal that land quality (e.g. slope and soil fertility status), land fragmentation (parcel size and distance of parcel from homestead) and tenure arrangements influence farmers' investments in SLM practices. The overall results indicate that farm land attributes promote or hinder investments, and tenure systems regulate the decisions about investments. Policy makers should take into consideration these various land related factors in designing and implementing SLM policies and programmes. Key words: Land quality, land fragmentation, tenure arrangements, sustainable land management, multivariate probit

  2. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  3. LUMIS: Land Use Management and Information Systems; coordinate oriented program documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An integrated geographic information system to assist program managers and planning groups in metropolitan regions is presented. The series of computer software programs and procedures involved in data base construction uses the census DIME file and point-in-polygon architectures. The system is described in two parts: (1) instructions to operators with regard to digitizing and editing procedures, and (2) application of data base construction algorithms to achieve map registration, assure the topological integrity of polygon files, and tabulate land use acreages within administrative districts.

  4. Statistically improved Analysis of Neutrino Oscillation Data with the latest KamLAND result

    E-print Network

    V. Antonelli; E. Torrente-Lujan

    2005-11-11

    We present an updated analysis of all available solar and reactor neutrino data, emphasizing in particular the totality of the KamLAND (314d live time) results and including for the first time the solar $SNO$ (391d live time, phase II NaCl-enhanced) spectrum data. As a novelty of the statistical analysis, we study the variability of the KamLand results with respect the use of diverse statistics. A new statistic, not used before is proposed. Moreover, in the analysis of the SNO spectrum a novel technique is used in order to include full correlated errors among bins. Combining all data, we obtain the following best-fit parameters: we determine individual neutrino mixing parameters and their errors $ \\Delta m^2= 8.2\\pm 0.08\\times 10^{-5} \\eV^2,\\quad \\tan^2\\theta= 0.50^{+0.12}_{-0.07}.$ The impact of these results is discussed. We also estimate the individual elements of the neutrino mass matrix. In the framework of three neutrino oscillations we obtain the mass matrix: \\begin{eqnarray}M&=& eV \\pmatrix{1.0+ 4.0\\pm 3.2 10^{-5}& 4.2\\pm 3.2 10^{-5} &-13.5\\pm 14.0 10^{-5} \\cr 4.2\\pm 3.2 10^{-5}& 1.0+4.3\\pm 3.5 10^{-5} &-13.5\\pm 14.5 10^{-5} \\cr 13.5\\pm 14.0 10^{-5}& -13.5\\pm 14.5 10^{-5} &1.0+100.0\\pm 30.0\\ 10^{-5}}.\\end{eqnarray}

  5. Minimizing impacts of land use change on ecosystem services using multi-criteria heuristic analysis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Fournier, Eric; Fox, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    Development of natural landscapes to support human activities impacts the capacity of the landscape to provide ecosystem services. Typically, several ecosystem services are impacted at a single development site and various footprint scenarios are possible, thus a multi-criteria analysis is needed. Restoration potential should also be considered for the area surrounding the permanent impact site. The primary objective of this research was to develop a heuristic approach to analyze multiple criteria (e.g. impacts to various ecosystem services) in a spatial configuration with many potential development sites. The approach was to: (1) quantify the magnitude of terrestrial ecosystem service (biodiversity, carbon sequestration, nutrient and sediment retention, and pollination) impacts associated with a suite of land use change scenarios using the InVEST model; (2) normalize results across categories of ecosystem services to allow cross-service comparison; (3) apply the multi-criteria heuristic algorithm to select sites with the least impact to ecosystem services, including a spatial criterion (separation between sites). As a case study, the multi-criteria impact minimization algorithm was applied to InVEST output to select 25 potential development sites out of 204 possible locations (selected by other criteria) within a 24,000 ha property. This study advanced a generally applicable spatial multi-criteria approach for 1) considering many land use footprint scenarios, 2) balancing impact decisions across a suite of ecosystem services, and 3) determining the restoration potential of ecosystem services after impacts. PMID:25794964

  6. A multivariate analysis of biophysical parameters of tallgrass prairie among land management practices and years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.A.; Price, K.P.; Martinko, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Six treatments of eastern Kansas tallgrass prairie - native prairie, hayed, mowed, grazed, burned and untreated - were studied to examine the biophysical effects of land management practices on grasslands. On each treatment, measurements of plant biomass, leaf area index, plant cover, leaf moisture and soil moisture were collected. In addition, measurements were taken of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is derived from spectral reflectance measurements. Measurements were taken in mid-June, mid-July and late summer of 1990 and 1991. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine whether there were differences in the set of variables among treatments and years. Follow-up tests included univariate t-tests to determine which variables were contributing to any significant difference. Results showed a significant difference (p < 0.0005) among treatments in the composite of parameters during each of the months sampled. In most treatment types, there was a significant difference between years within each month. The univariate tests showed, however, that only some variables, primarily soil moisture, were contributing to this difference. We conclude that biomass and % plant cover show the best potential to serve as long-term indicators of grassland condition as they generally were sensitive to effects of different land management practices but not to yearly change in weather conditions. NDVI was insensitive to precipitation differences between years in July for most treatments, but was not in the native prairie. Choice of sampling time is important for these parameters to serve effectively as indicators.

  7. Behavior-based aggregation of land categories for temporal change analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwaik, Safaa Zakaria; Onsted, Jeffrey A.; Pontius, Robert Gilmore, Jr.

    2015-03-01

    Comparison between two time points of the same categorical variable for the same study extent can reveal changes among categories over time, such as transitions among land categories. If many categories exist, then analysis can be difficult to interpret. Category aggregation is the procedure that combines two or more categories to create a single broader category. Aggregation can simplify interpretation, and can also influence the sizes and types of changes. Some classifications have an a priori hierarchy to facilitate aggregation, but an a priori aggregation might make researchers blind to important category dynamics. We created an algorithm to aggregate categories in a sequence of steps based on the categories' behaviors in terms of gross losses and gross gains. The behavior-based algorithm aggregates net gaining categories with net gaining categories and aggregates net losing categories with net losing categories, but never aggregates a net gaining category with a net losing category. The behavior-based algorithm at each step in the sequence maintains net change and maximizes swap change. We present a case study where data from 2001 and 2006 for 64 land categories indicate change on 17% of the study extent. The behavior-based algorithm produces a set of 10 categories that maintains nearly the original amount of change. In contrast, an a priori aggregation produces 10 categories while reducing the change to 9%. We offer a free computer program to perform the behavior-based aggregation.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Land Loss in Coastal Louisiana Using Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, P. M.; Kuszmaul, J.; Roberts, C.

    2005-12-01

    For the past thirty-five years the land loss along the Louisiana Coast has been recognized as a growing problem. One of the clearest indicators of this land loss is that in 2000 smooth cord grass (spartina alterniflora) was turning brown well before its normal hibernation period. Over 100,000 acres of marsh were affected by the 2000 browning. In 2001 data were collected using low altitude helicopter based transects of the coast, with 7,400 data points being collected by researchers at the USGS, National Wetlands Research Center, and Louisiana Department of Natural Resources. The surveys contained data describing the characteristics of the marsh, including latitude, longitude, marsh condition, marsh color, percent vegetated, and marsh die-back. Creating a model that combines remote sensing images, field data, and statistical analysis to develop a methodology for estimating the margin of error in measurements of coastal land loss (erosion) is the ultimate goal of the study. A model was successfully created using a series of band combinations (used as predictive variables). The most successful band combinations or predictive variables were the braud value [(Sum Visible TM Bands - Sum Infrared TM Bands)/(Sum Visible TM Bands + Sum Infrared TM Bands)], TM band 7/ TM band 2, brightness, NDVI, wetness, vegetation index, and a 7x7 autocovariate nearest neighbor floating window. The model values were used to generate the logistic regression model. A new image was created based on the logistic regression probability equation where each pixel represents the probability of finding water or non-water at that location in each image. Pixels within each image that have a high probability of representing water have a value close to 1 and pixels with a low probability of representing water have a value close to 0. A logistic regression model is proposed that uses seven independent variables. This model yields an accurate classification in 86.5% of the locations considered in the 1997 and 2001 survey locations. When the logistic regression was modeled to the satellite imagery of the entire Louisiana Coast study area a statewide loss was estimated to be 358 mi2 to 368 mi2, from 1997 to 2001, using two different methods for estimating land loss.

  9. 2007 Mars Phoenix Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation and Modeling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Jill L.; Grover, Myron R.; Desai, Prasun N.; Queen, Eric M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the entry, descent, and landing of the 2007 Mars Phoenix lander. Aerodynamics characteristics along with Monte Carlo analyses are also presented for launch and landing site opportunities.

  10. EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE PRACTICES ON STREAM WATER QUALITY: ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution requires that economically feasible land use practices be selected and implemented. Since non-point source pollution from agricultural lands can be controlled by best management practices (BMPs), a food understanding ...

  11. Integrated fluorescence analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Buican, Tudor N. (Los Alamos, NM); Yoshida, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    An integrated fluorescence analysis system enables a component part of a sample to be virtually sorted within a sample volume after a spectrum of the component part has been identified from a fluorescence spectrum of the entire sample in a flow cytometer. Birefringent optics enables the entire spectrum to be resolved into a set of numbers representing the intensity of spectral components of the spectrum. One or more spectral components are selected to program a scanning laser microscope, preferably a confocal microscope, whereby the spectrum from individual pixels or voxels in the sample can be compared. Individual pixels or voxels containing the selected spectral components are identified and an image may be formed to show the morphology of the sample with respect to only those components having the selected spectral components. There is no need for any physical sorting of the sample components to obtain the morphological information.

  12. Land-use intensity and the effects of organic farming on biodiversity: a hierarchical meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tuck, Sean L; Winqvist, Camilla; Mota, Flávia; Ahnström, Johan; Turnbull, Lindsay A; Bengtsson, Janne

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of organic farming to biodiversity in agricultural landscapes continue to be hotly debated, emphasizing the importance of precisely quantifying the effect of organic vs. conventional farming. We conducted an updated hierarchical meta-analysis of studies that compared biodiversity under organic and conventional farming methods, measured as species richness. We calculated effect sizes for 184 observations garnered from 94 studies, and for each study, we obtained three standardized measures reflecting land-use intensity. We investigated the stability of effect sizes through time, publication bias due to the ‘file drawer’ problem, and consider whether the current literature is representative of global organic farming patterns. On average, organic farming increased species richness by about 30%. This result has been robust over the last 30 years of published studies and shows no sign of diminishing. Organic farming had a greater effect on biodiversity as the percentage of the landscape consisting of arable fields increased, that is, it is higher in intensively farmed regions. The average effect size and the response to agricultural intensification depend on taxonomic group, functional group and crop type. There is some evidence for publication bias in the literature; however, our results are robust to its impact. Current studies are heavily biased towards northern and western Europe and North America, while other regions with large areas of organic farming remain poorly investigated. Synthesis and applications. Our analysis affirms that organic farming has large positive effects on biodiversity compared with conventional farming, but that the effect size varies with the organism group and crop studied, and is greater in landscapes with higher land-use intensity. Decisions about where to site organic farms to maximize biodiversity will, however, depend on the costs as well as the potential benefits. Current studies have been heavily biased towards agricultural systems in the developed world. We recommend that future studies pay greater attention to other regions, in particular, areas with tropical, subtropical and Mediterranean climates, in which very few studies have been conducted. PMID:25653457

  13. Singular Spectrum Analysis for Filling Gaps and Reducing Uncertainties of MODIS Land Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongdong Wang; Shunlin Liang

    2008-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data have been used to produce various land products of biophysical variables. However, there are some problems within current MODIS land data sets which restrict the application of such data sets in understanding land surface dynamics. These problems include discontinuity and gaps due to snow and cloud coverage and uncertainties with single product. Some efforts

  14. Vision-based multisensor machine perception system for autonomous aircraft landing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Stefan; Fuerst, Simon; Dickmanns, Dirk; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1996-05-01

    A machine perception system for aircraft and helicopters using multiple sensor data for state estimation is presented. By combining conventional aircraft sensors like gyros, accelerometers, artificial horizon, aerodynamic measuring devices and GPS with vision data taken by conventional CCD-cameras mounted on a pan and tilt platform, the position of the craft can be determined as well as the relative position to runways or helicopter landing spots. The vision data are required to improve position estimates of GPS is available only in the S/A mode. The architectural design of the machine perception system allows the connection of other processing modules, for example a radar sensor, using the pre-defined interface structure. The system presented also incorporates a control module which uses estimated vehicle states for navigation and control in order to conduct automatic flight and landing. The system has been tested in real-time within a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Simulated aircraft measurements corrupted by noise and other characteristic sensor errors have been fed into the machine perception system; the image processing module for relative state estimation was driven by computer generated imagery. Results from real-time simulation runs are given.

  15. Effect of external disturbances and data rate on the response of an automatic landing system capable of curved trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of steady wind, turbulence, data sample rate, and control-actuator natural frequency on the response of a possible automatic landing system were investigated in a nonstatistical study. The results indicate that the system, which interfaces with the microwave landing system, functions well in winds and turbulence as long as the guidance law contains proper compensation for wind. The system response was satisfactory down to five data samples per second, which makes the system compatible with the microwave landing system. No adverse effects were observed when actuator natural frequency was lowered. For limiting cases, those cases where the roll angle goes to zero just as the airplane touches down, the basic method for computing the turn-algorithm gains proved unsatisfactory and unacceptable landings resulted. Revised computation methods gave turn-algorithm gains that resulted in acceptable landings. The gains provided by the new method also improved the touchdown conditions for acceptable landings over those obtained when the gains were determined by the old method.

  16. Customer-oriented Data Formats and Services for Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) Products at the NASA GES DISC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H.; Kato, H.; Rodell, M.; Teng, W. L.; Vollmer, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) has been generating a series of land surface state (e.g., soil moisture and surface temperature) and flux (e.g., evaporation and sensible heat flux) products, simulated by four land surface models (CLM, Mosaic, Noah and VIC). These products are now accessible at the Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), a component of the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Current GLDAS data hosted at HDISC include a set of 1.0° data products, covering 1979 to the present, from the four models and a 0.25° data product, covering 2000 to the present, from the Noah model. In addition to the basic anonymous ftp data downloading, users can avail themselves of several advanced data search and downloading services, such as Mirador and OPeNDAP. Mirador is a Google-based search tool that provides keywords searching, on-the-fly spatial and parameter subsetting of selected data. OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol) enables remote OPeNDAP clients to access OPeNDAP served data regardless of local storage format. Additional data services to be available in the near future from HDISC include (1) on-the-fly converter of GLDAS to NetCDF and binary data formats; (2) temporal aggregation of GLDAS files; and (3) Giovanni, an online visualization and analysis tool that provides a simple way to visualize, analyze, and access vast amounts of data without having to download the data.

  17. A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Emissivity Earth System Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuteson, R. O.; Borbas, E. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Anderson, M. C.; Pinker, R. T.; Hain, C.; Guillevic, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) data are essential for a wide variety of studies from calculating the evapo-transpiration of plant canopies to retrieving atmospheric water vapor. LST&E products are generated from data acquired by sensors in low Earth orbit (LEO) and by sensors in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO). Although these products represent the same measure, they are produced at different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions using different algorithms. The different approaches used to retrieve the temperatures and emissivities result in discrepancies and inconsistencies between the different products. NASA has identified a major need to develop long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are valid across multiple missions and satellite sensors. This poster will introduce the land surface emissivity product of the NASA MEASUREs project called A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) Earth System Data Record (ESDR). To develop a unified high spectral resolution emissivity database, the MODIS baseline-fit emissivity database (MODBF) produced at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the ASTER Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) produced at JPL will be merged. The unified Emissivity ESDR will be produced globally at 5km in mean monthly time-steps and for 12 bands from 3.6-14.3 micron and extended to 417 bands using a PC regression approach. The poster will introduce this data product. LST&E is a critical ESDR for a wide variety of studies in particular ecosystem and climate modeling.

  18. Assimilation of SMOS Retrieved Soil Moisture into the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Clay; Case, Jonathan; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture retrievals from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) instrument are assimilated into the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS). Before assimilation, SMOS retrievals are bias-corrected to match the model climatological distribution using a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) matching approach. Data assimilation is done via the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The goal is to improve the representation of soil moisture within the LSM, and ultimately to improve numerical weather forecasts through better land surface initialization. We present a case study showing a large area of irrigation in the lower Mississippi River Valley, in an area with extensive rice agriculture. High soil moisture value in this region are observed by SMOS, but not captured in the forcing data. After assimilation, the model fields reflect the observed geographic patterns of soil moisture. Plans for a modeling experiment and operational use of the data are given. This work helps prepare for the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) retrievals in the near future.

  19. Applied Behavior Analysis Is Ideal for the Development of a Land Mine Detection Technology Using Animals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B. M

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient detection technologies. Remote explosive scent tracing (REST) using trained dogs has the potential to be one such technology. However, details regarding how best to train, test, and deploy dogs in this role have never been made publicly available. This article describes how the key characteristics of applied behavior analysis, as described by Baer, Wolf and Risley (1968, 1987), served as important objectives for the research and development of the behavioral technology component of REST while the author worked in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532731

  20. Applied behavior analysis is ideal for the development of a land mine detection technology using animals.

    PubMed

    Jones, B M

    2011-01-01

    The detection and subsequent removal of land mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) from many developing countries are slow, expensive, and dangerous tasks, but have the potential to improve the well-being of millions of people. Consequently, those involved with humanitarian mine and UXO clearance are actively searching for new and more efficient detection technologies. Remote explosive scent tracing (REST) using trained dogs has the potential to be one such technology. However, details regarding how best to train, test, and deploy dogs in this role have never been made publicly available. This article describes how the key characteristics of applied behavior analysis, as described by Baer, Wolf and Risley (1968, 1987), served as important objectives for the research and development of the behavioral technology component of REST while the author worked in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532731