Science.gov

Sample records for landlichen raums mikro

  1. Der interstellare Raum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    der Time-Life Bücher, Redaktion

    Contents: 1. Löcher im Sternenhimmel. Vom Staubkorn zum Stern. 2. Kartieren von Gas, Staub und Magnetismus. Komplexe Moleküle im All. 3. Die Geburtsstätten der Sterne. Molekulare Verstärker. 4. Jenseits der Galaxien. Der intergalaktische Raum.

  2. Die Natur der Natur. Wissen an den Grenzen von Raum und Zeit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, J. D.

    This book is a German translation, by A. Ehlers, of the English original "The world within the world", published in 1988 (see 45.003.031). Contents: 1. Prolog. 2. Vergangene Zeiten. 3. Ungesehene Welten. 4. Innerer und Ă€ußerer Raum. 5. Warum sind die Naturgesetze mathematisch? 6. Gibt es ĂŒberhaupt Naturgesetze? 7. Auswahleffekte.

  3. VariabilitÀt des Reviergesangs des Buchfinken (Fringilla coelebs) zur Raum-Zeit-Beschreibung von Metapopulationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Björn

    2003-10-01

    Der Buchfinkengesang wurde in Potsdam in zwei Hauptpopulationen ĂŒber drei Jahre aufgenommen. Jedes Individuum wurde eindeutig am individuellen Strophentypenrepertoire identifiziert. Ein weiterer Punkt der die individuelle Wiedererkennung bestĂ€tigt ist die hohe Standorttreue der adulten MĂ€nnchen. Die beschriebene Methode eignet sich fĂŒr die Untersuchung von gesamten Populationen, um den Wandel des Gesangs von Populationen in Raum und Zeit zu beschreiben. Die Haupterkenntnisse der Arbeit sind: - Die Gesamtanzahl der Grundstrophentypen innerhalb einer Population bleibt ĂŒber Jahre konstant. - Die relative HĂ€ufigkeit jedes einzelnen Strophentyps variiert von Jahr zu Jahr und von Population zu Population. - Gesangslernen erfolgt exakt mit einem Korrektheitsgrad von mindestens 96%. - Das Song-Sharing ist innerhalb der Population hoch. Die diskutierten Mechanismen fĂŒr das Song-Sharing sind: Die Lebenserwartung, das Zugverhalten, das Lernverhalten, die Etabliertheit von Strophentypen, WeibchenprĂ€ferenzen und die Reaktionen der territorialen MĂ€nnchen. - Weiterhin wurde ein Modell zur kulturellen Evolution des Buchfinkengesangs programmiert, um die Rolle der Einflussfaktoren, wie Fehlerquote, Abwanderungsrate und Laufzeit zu ermitteln. Der Wandel des Dialektes erfolgt graduell in Raum und Zeit. Daher sind keine scharfen Dialektgrenzen anzutreffen. Trotz dieser Tatsache markieren die etablierten Strophentypen die Population. 50 % der Juvenilen siedeln am Geburtsort, auf diese Weise bleibt der Dialekt erhalten und Inzest wird vermieden. -Analysiert man das Repertoire benachbarten MĂ€nnchen bei isolierten Alleen, so entspricht die Gesangsangleichung in etwa dem Zufall. -Intraindividuelle Vergleiche der quantitativen Parameter des jeweiligen Strophentyps wurden saisonal und annuell durchgefĂŒhrt. Saisonal konnten fĂŒr einen Strophentyp ein Trend ermittelt werden. Bei jĂ€hrlichen Vergleichen konnten intraindividuell ausschließlich nicht signifikante Ergebnisse ermittelt werden, wohingegen die interindividuelle Variation in zwei FĂ€llen signifikant war. In einem Fall bestand ein Trend und in einem weiteren Fall war die Variationsunterschiede nicht signifikant. - Der Verlauf der Brutsaison lĂ€sst sich an der jĂ€hrlichen GesangsaktivitĂ€t nachvollziehen. Chaffinch song was recorded in Potsdam in two major populations of chaffinches over a period of three years. Each male was identified unambiguously because of their individual song type repertoires. These are usually easy to distinguish from sonagrams as the variation is discontinuous. A further point for individual recognition is the fixed territorial behaviour of adult males. The described method is employed to examine whole populations and to observe changes with space and time in the song of a population. The major findings of the study are: - The total amount of basic song types in each population is constant over years. - The quantity of each basic song type is different and varies from year to year and from population to population. - Song copying is extremely accurate on at least 96% of occasions. - Song-type sharing is high within populations. Discussed mechanisms for song neighbourhoods are: expectation of life, semi-migratory behaviour, learning skills, establishment of song types, female choice and male vs male interaction. Furthermore a model of cultural evolution of chaffinch song was programmed to determine the role of factors like error rate, rate of emigration and running time. The changes are gradual in space and time. Hence the dialect borders are smooth. Despite this fact established song types mark the population. As every second juvenile bird settles in the population of his birth inbreeding is avoided and the dialect structure is retained. - Analysing the repertoires of neighbouring males (“next door neighbours”) in isolated avenues to examine mutual influences suggests that these have the same amount of song types in common than would be expected by chance. - Within intraindividual comparisons the quantitative parameters of the same song types remain seasonal and annual constant, whereas interindividual variations within the same song tip are statistically significant. - The breeding biology of the chaffinch can be observed by seasonal singing activity during the breeding cycle.

  4. Weyl's Raum, Zeit, Materie and its Early Reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckes, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Let us recall first some biographical data. Hermann Weyl (1885-1955) becomes professor at the ETH (ZĂŒrich) in 1913. At that time, he is well known for his contributions in pure mathematics: Riemann surfaces and integral equations. Already in his works on integral equations -- especially in 1912-1913 -- he has strong interest in mathematical physics. Weyl's career is almost immediately interrupted by the First World War. According to Thomas Hawkins "Although at first Weyl was judged physically unfit for military service by the German army, he was finally drafted in the spring of 1915 but was discharged the following spring at the request of the Swiss government." His scientific career begins anew in 1916. During the period 1916-1923, his research is mainly devoted to the formalization of special and general relativity...

  5. The Politics of Language in Education: The "Mikro" Case in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bargueno, David P.

    2012-01-01

    School language policies stand at the nexus of identity politics and human rights in contemporary South Africa. Since 1996, litigation on school language policies has been resolved on the basis of language rights. Courts have emphasized that the mere mention of single-medium schools in the constitution in no way privileges these institutions over


  6. Die Wirkung als Naturkraft und die Herkunft von Zeit, Raum, Dimensionen, NaturkrÀften, und Gesetzen von Logik, Geometrie und Physik bei der Entstehung der Welt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2011-02-01

    Das Wirkungs-Welt-Modell enthĂ€lt eine einfache Beschreibung des Anfanges der Welt, wonach, ausgehend vom einfachsten Zustand der logisch notwendigen Bejahung ihrer Existenz innerhalb ihr selbst, alles sukzessiv bewirkt wird, und ihre logischen, geometrischen und physikalischen Eigenschaften Aspekte der Verkörperung und Fortwirkung primordialer Fakten darstellen, ohne externe Schöpfung auszuschließen. Die ersten Dimensionen und sie formal und subjektiv charakterisierenden GrĂ¶ĂŸen sind: Informationsmenge und Wirkung, mit abzĂ€hlbarem Ereignis und Wirkungsquantum; Zeit und Energie, mit deren Planck-Einheiten; Geschwindigkeit oder Strecke und Impuls, mit Lichtgeschwindigkeit oder Planck-LĂ€nge; KrĂŒmmung oder zwei rĂ€umliche Richtungen, mit Gravitationskonstanten, und aus den ihnen entsprechenden primĂ€ren NaturkrĂ€ften setzen sich die uns gelĂ€ufigen zusammen.

  7. Screen Printing of SU-8 Layers for Microstructure Fabrication / Ar Sietspiedi Uzkl?tu SU-8 P?rkl?jumi Mikro-Strukt?ru Izgatavošanai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, J.; Mozolevskis, G.; Ozols A., A.; Nitiss, E.; Rutkis, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report on a screen printing fabrication process for large-area SU-8 layers utilised for the preparation of microstructures in display devices such as microelectronic, electrowetting or bistable devices. The screen printing method has been selected for its effectiveness and simplicity over traditionally used spin-coating ones. Layers and microstructures produced thereof have shown proper homogeneity. Relationships between screen parameters to coating thickness have been established. Coating on an ITO (indium tin oxide) hydrophobic surface is possible when surface has been treated by UV/Ozone to increase its aqueous ability. To this end, the hydrophilic microstructure grids have been successfully built on a hydrophobic layer by screen printing and traditional lithography processes. Compared to conventional spin-coating methods, the screen printing method offers the advantages of simple, cheap and fast fabrication, and is especially suitable for large-area display fabrication Rakst? aprakst?ta sietspiedes metode liela izm?ra SU-8 p?rkl?jumu ieg?šanai, lai izgatavotu mikrostrukt?ras mikroelektronikai, elektroslapin?šanas un bistabilajiem ekr?niem. Sietspiede ir efekt?v?ka un vienk?rš?ka metode nek? tradicion?li izmantot? spin-coating metode. Š?diem p?rkl?jumuiem un mikrostrukt?r?m ir pietiekoša homogenit?te. Tika atrasta sakar?ba starp sietu parametriem un p?rkl?jumu biezumu. P?rkl?jumus var uzkl?t uz hidrofobisk?s ITO (indija alvas oks?ds) virsmas, ja t? tiek apstr?d?ta ar UV/Ozonu, jo tas palielina ?dens slapin?šanas ?paš?bas. Tika izgatavoti hidrof?liskas mikrostrukt?ras rež?i uz hidrofobiskas pamatnes ar sietspiedi un tradicion?lo SU-8 litogr?fijas metodi. Sal?dzin?jum? ar tradicion?lo spin-coating metodi, sietspiede ir vienk?rša, l?ta un ?tra un ir labi piem?rota liela izm?ra ekr?nu izgatavošanai.

  8. Otto von Guericke's "World in empty space" - on Guericke's place in the history of astronomy; (German Title: Otto von Guerickes "Welt im leeren Raum" - ĂŒber Guerickes) Stellung in der Astronomiegeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, JĂŒrgen

    Until now, Guericke's book "Experimenta Nova" was hardly taken note of in the history of astronomy, it was only counted as important in the history of physics. Already the large volume in this book that is occupied by astronomy is opposed to this view. lt presents a concise outline of astronomical research of that time, based on the heliocentric world system and the telescopic discoveries. Guericke's own researches on the vacuum are of fundamental importance for cosmology and are an important step on the way to the rise of physical astronomy.

  9. Screen Printing of SU-8 Layers for Microstructure Fabrication / Ar Sietspiedi Uzklātu SU-8 Pārklājumi Mikro-Struktƫru Izgatavoƥanai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, J.; Mozolevskis, G.; Ozols A., A.; Nitiss, E.; Rutkis, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report on a screen printing fabrication process for large-area SU-8 layers utilised for the preparation of microstructures in display devices such as microelectronic, electrowetting or bistable devices. The screen printing method has been selected for its effectiveness and simplicity over traditionally used spin-coating ones. Layers and microstructures produced thereof have shown proper homogeneity. Relationships between screen parameters to coating thickness have been established. Coating on an ITO (indium tin oxide) hydrophobic surface is possible when surface has been treated by UV/Ozone to increase its aqueous ability. To this end, the hydrophilic microstructure grids have been successfully built on a hydrophobic layer by screen printing and traditional lithography processes. Compared to conventional spin-coating methods, the screen printing method offers the advantages of simple, cheap and fast fabrication, and is especially suitable for large-area display fabrication Rakstā aprakstÄ«ta sietspiedes metode liela izmēra SU-8 pārklājumu iegĆ«ĆĄanai, lai izgatavotu mikrostruktĆ«ras mikroelektronikai, elektroslapināƥanas un bistabilajiem ekrāniem. Sietspiede ir efektÄ«vāka un vienkārƥāka metode nekā tradicionāli izmantotā spin-coating metode. Ơādiem pārklājumuiem un mikrostruktĆ«rām ir pietiekoĆĄa homogenitāte. Tika atrasta sakarÄ«ba starp sietu parametriem un pārklājumu biezumu. Pārklājumus var uzklāt uz hidrofobiskās ITO (indija alvas oksÄ«ds) virsmas, ja tā tiek apstrādāta ar UV/Ozonu, jo tas palielina Ć«dens slapināƥanas Ä«paĆĄÄ«bas. Tika izgatavoti hidrofÄ«liskas mikrostruktĆ«ras reĆŸÄŁi uz hidrofobiskas pamatnes ar sietspiedi un tradicionālo SU-8 litogrāfijas metodi. SalÄ«dzinājumā ar tradicionālo spin-coating metodi, sietspiede ir vienkārĆĄa, lēta un ātra un ir labi piemērota liela izmēra ekrānu izgatavoĆĄanai.

  10. Gefahr aus dem All. Die Erde im Visier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von RĂ©tyi, A.

    Contents: 1. Geheimnisse des Universums. 2. Aus dem Dunkel des Raumes. 3. Auf Kollisionskurs. 4. Tief in der Kreide - das Sterben der Dinosaurier. 5. Keime aus dem Kosmos. 6. Schattenseiten der Sonne.

  11. Faszination Weltall. Sehen und Verstehen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, C.

    This book is a German translation, by T. BĂŒhrke, of the English original "The amateur astronomer's pathfinder" published in 1992. Contents: 1. Die Erde im Universum. 2. Der Nachthimmel. 3. Die Erforschung von Raum und Zeit.

  12. Europäisches Organ der Festkörperforschung und DDR-Devisenbringer Die Zeitschrift Physica Status Solidi im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    Mit dem Ziele, ein einheitliches internationales Organ der Festkörperphysik fĂŒr den europĂ€ischen Raum zu schaffen, das eine rasche Publikation der fĂŒr das Festkörpergebiet reprĂ€sentative Arbeiten ermöglicht, wird durch ein internationales Herausgebergremium eine neue wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift gegrĂŒndet.

  13. Micro Machining Enhances Precision Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced thermal systems developed for the Space Station Freedom project are now in use on the International Space Station. These thermal systems employ evaporative ammonia as their coolant, and though they employ the same series of chemical reactions as terrestrial refrigerators, the space-bound coolers are significantly smaller. Two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts between Creare Inc. of Hanover, NH and Johnson Space Center developed an ammonia evaporator for thermal management systems aboard Freedom. The principal investigator for Creare Inc., formed Mikros Technologies Inc. to commercialize the work. Mikros Technologies then developed an advanced form of micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) to make tiny holes in the ammonia evaporator. Mikros Technologies has had great success applying this method to the fabrication of micro-nozzle array systems for industrial ink jet printing systems. The company is currently the world leader in fabrication of stainless steel micro-nozzles for this market, and in 2001 the company was awarded two SBIR research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to advance micro-fabrication and high-performance thermal management technologies.

  14. EinfĂŒhrung in die Astronomie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnenburg, W.

    Contents: 1. Forschungbereich Astronomie. 2. Astronomische Beobachtungstechnik. 3. Bewegungen am Sternenhimmel. 4. Dynamik im Planetensystem. 5. Aufbau des Planetensystems. 6. Die Sonne. 7. Meßbare Eigenschaften der Sterne. 8. Aufbau von Sternen. 9. VerĂ€nderliche Sterne und SonderfĂ€lle. 10. Der interstellare Raum. 11. Ko-Evolution von Sternen und Materie. 12. Astronomische Entfernungsbestimmung. 13. Milchstraßensystem. 14. Extragalaktische Systeme. 15. Das Weltall. 16. Grenzfragen.

  15. Zeit im Wandel der Zeit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichelburg, P. C.

    Contents: Einleitung(P. C. Aichelburg). 1. Über Zeit, Bewegung und VerĂ€nderung (Aristoteles). 2. Ewigkeit und Zeit (Plotin). 3. Was ist die Zeit? (Augustinus). 4. Von der Zeit (Immanuel Kant). 5. Newtons Ansichten ĂŒber Zeit, Raum und Bewegung (Ernst Mach). 6. Über die mechanische ErklĂ€rung irreversibler VorgĂ€nge (Ludwig Boltzmann). 7. Das Maß der Zeit (Henri PoincarĂ©). 8. Dauer und Intuition (Henri Bergson). 9. Die Geschichte des Unendlichkeitsproblems (Bertrand Russell). 10. Raum und Zeit (Hermann Minkowski). 11. Der Unterschied von Zeit und Raum (Hans Reichenbach). 12. Newtonscher und Bergsonscher Zeitbegriff (Norbert Wiener). 13. Die Bildung des Zeitbegriffs beim Kinde (JeanPiaget).14. Eine Bemerkung ĂŒber die Beziehungen zwischen RelativitĂ€tstheorie und der idealistischen Philosophie (Kurt Gödel). 15. Der zweite Hauptsatz und der Unterschied von Vergangenheit und Zukunft (Carl Friedrich v. WeizsĂ€cker). 16. Zeit als physikalischer Begriff (Friedrich Hund). 17. Zeitmessung und Zeitbegriff in der Astronomie (Otto Heckmann). 18. Kann die Zeit rĂŒckwĂ€rts gehen? (Martin Gardner). 19. Zeit und Zeiten (Ilya Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers). 20. Zeit als dynamische GrĂ¶ĂŸe in der RelativitĂ€tstheorie (P. C. Aichelburg).

  16. Detailed study of particle detectors OTA-based CMOS Semi-Gaussian shapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noulis, T.; Deradonis, C.; Siskos, S.; Sarrabayrouse, G.

    2007-12-01

    An analysis of readout front-end electronics Semi-Gaussian (S-G) shapers is carried out. An innovative design methodology is proposed and advanced filter design techniques based on Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTA) are used. Five CMOS shaper topologies are designed using OTAs and compared in terms of noise performance, total harmonic distortion, dynamic range and power consumption in order to examine which is the most preferable in readout applications. Although all shaper architectures are fully integrated, they exhibit a large peaking time. The results are obtained from SPICE simulations for implementations in a 0.6 ÎŒm process of Austria Mikro Systeme (AMS).

  17. Das unsichtbare Universum. An den Grenzen der modernen Astrophysik.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, G. B.; Chaisson, E. J.; Koch, B. P.

    German translation of the English original "The invisible Universe"; Boston 1985 (39.003.089).Contents: (1) Sichtbare und unsichtbare Strahlungen: Die SchlĂŒssel zum Universum.(2) Der interstellare Raum: Die dunklen Reiche des Nachthimmels. (3) Sonne und Fixsterne: SchauplĂ€tze unsichtbarer Urgewalten. (4) Planeten, Leben und Intelligenz: Sind wir allein? (5) Galaxien: Die großen Bausteine der Natur. (6) Kosmische Urgewalten: Schwarze Löcher, Quasare und der Urgrund. (7) Das Universum: Die großrĂ€umigeStruktur des Weltalls. (8) Die KrĂ€fte der Natur: An den Grenzen unseres Wissens.

  18. Neutronen-Forschung am Institut Laue-Langevin: Neutronen-Quelle und Experimente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubbers, Dirk; Scherm, Reinhard

    2003-05-01

    FĂŒr den Blick ins Innere der Materie steht uns nur eine kleine Anzahl verschiedener Teilchen als Sonden zur VerfĂŒgung, insbesondere Photonen, Elektronen und Neutronen. Sie alle werden gebraucht, um die komplexen ZusammenhĂ€nge im Innern der Materie aufklĂ€ren zu können. Neutronen spielen hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Sie sind sehr durchdringend, magnetisch und sind zugleich elektrisch neutral. Sie können sehr scharf zwischen verschiedenen Elementen und verschiedenen Isotopen unterscheiden. Und sie können simultan in Raum und Zeit sehen, wo die Atome sind und was sie tun.

  19. Knaurs moderne Astronomie. Das Standardwerk völlig neu bearbeitet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Störig, H. J.

    This elementary textbook covers the following topics: cosmic dimensions, the sun as a star, the solar system, basic knowledge about stars, binary and variable stars, the cosmic windows, birth and death of stars, the Milky Way, extragalactic systems and cosmology. Contents: 1. Weißt du, wieviel Sterne stehen... 2. Die Sonne als Durchschnittsstern. 3. Das Sonnensystem im Überblick. 4. Grundwissen ĂŒber Sterne. 5. Doppelsterne und VerĂ€nderliche. 6. Fenster zum Weltall. 7. Geburt und Tod der Sterne. 8. Die Milchstraße. 9. Extragalaktische Systeme. 10. Das Weltganze in Raum und Zeit.

  20. Elektronische Citizen Cards in Deutschland und Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Bernd

    Meine sehr geehrten Damen und Herren, der Bedarf an elektronischen IdentitĂ€ten entsteht durch die wachsende MobilitĂ€t der Gesellschaft bei einem gleichzeitig steigenden Bedarf an OnlineprĂ€senz. Diese elektronischen IdentitĂ€ten machen natĂŒrlich auch vor den staatlichen Ausweisen nicht halt, wie zum Beispiel dem Reisepass, aber auch dem Personalausweis und weiteren Ausweisdokumenten. Wobei es bei den staatlich herausgegebenen oder kontrollierten Ausweisen immer um zwei verschiedene Dinge geht: Einmal um die hoheitliche Funktion, wie zum Beispiel beim Reisepass. Hier geht es zum Beispiel darum, in einem Europa mit gefallenen Grenzen und bei freiem Reiseverkehr fĂŒr alle Personen, die in diesem Raum wohnen, insbesondere auch im Schengener Raum, die Möglichkeit zu schaffen, auch kĂŒnftig noch Personenkontrollen durchzufĂŒhren. Auch der Reiseverkehr ĂŒber die europĂ€ischen Grenzen hinaus ist insofern ein Problem, da die IdentitĂ€tenprĂŒfung an den Grenzkontrollen immer schwieriger wird. Deswegen braucht man an dieser Stelle Möglichkeiten, um eine PersonenĂŒberprĂŒfung durchzufĂŒhren, um feststellen zu können, dass diese Person auch zum Dokument gehört.

  1. Basic principles for measurement of intramuscular pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    We review historical and methodological approaches to measurements of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in humans. These techniques provide valuable measures of muscle tone and activity as well as diagnostic criteria for evaluation of exertional compartment syndrome. Although the wick and catheter techniques provide accurate measurements of IMP at rest, their value for exercise studies and diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome is limited because of low frequency response and hydrostatic (static and inertial) pressure artifacts. Presently, most information on diagnosis of exertional compartment syndromes during dynamic exercise is available using the Myopress catheter. However, future research and clinical diagnosis using IMP can be optimized by the use of a miniature transducer-tipped catheter such as the Millar Mikro-tip.

  2. Particle detector tunable monolithic Semi-Gaussian shaping filter based on transconductance amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noulis, T.; Deradonis, C.; Siskos, S.; Sarrabayrouse, G.

    2008-05-01

    An IC semi-Gaussian shaper architecture for X-rays silicon strip detectors is presented. The specific structure is based on operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) and was implemented using an alternative design technique. The shaper was designed and fabricated in a 0.35 ÎŒm process by Austria Mikro Systeme and provides continuous variable operating bandwidth in a relatively low-frequency region, capability that indicates it as an optimum selection for a variety of readout applications. Analysis is supported by measurement results confirming the advantageous shaping filter performance. The circuit appears to be low power providing 530 ÎŒW power dissipation, while the output noise performance is 167 ÎŒV (rms) for an operating bandwidth of 260 kHz. Extensive experimental results concerning the total harmonic distortion and the dynamic range of the circuit also confirm its satisfactory performance.

  3. Schirmung und Erdung, EMV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, GĂŒnter

    Eine Schirmung oder Abschirmung dient dazu, elektrische oder magnetische Störfelder von den Signalleitungen sowie von der Elektronik im Inneren von GerĂ€ten fernzuhalten. Die Abschirmung beruht auf dem Prinzip des Faradayschen KĂ€figs. Ein Raum ist von einem Material hoher LeitfĂ€higkeit (z. B. Metall) umgeben. Elektrische Felder dringen nicht in das Innere ein, selbst extrem hohe Spannungen wie bei einem Blitzschlag werden außen herum abgeleitet. FĂŒr die Wirkung ist es erforderlich, dass die Abschirmung tatsĂ€chlich allseits geschlossen ist. Dies gilt besonders fĂŒr Wechselfelder hoher Frequenz. Als Richtwert gilt, dass eine Offnung nicht grĂ¶ĂŸer sein darf als 10 % der WellenlĂ€nge.

  4. Examples of Finslerian Metric Tensors of the Space-Time Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanov, G. S.

    Continuing the previous work [1], where a way of associating the gauge fields with Finslerian metrics has been indicated, in the present note we propose a class of Finslerian metrics which are of interest for the following two reasons. Firstly, the metrics give rise to the Finslerian metric tensors of the space-time signature (+ - - -). Secondly, the associated indicatrices prove to be spaces of constant curvature, yielding examples of the Finslerian metrics which reflect the internal symmetry groups SU(2) and SU(2)SU(2).Translated AbstractBeispiel fĂŒr Finslerische Metriken mit Raum-Zeit-SignaturEs werden Finslerische Metriken mit Lorentzscher Signatur angegeben, die Verallgemeinerungen von allgemein-relativistischen Riemannschen RĂ€umen konstanter KrĂŒmmung sind und die die Gruppen SU(2) bzw. SU(2) × SU(2) als innere Symmetrien enthalten.

  5. Fehler begehen - Mathematik verstehen Über die Bedeutung von Fehlern für das Verstehen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käser, Udo

    Auch wenn eine historisch oder systematisch umfassende Darstellung zur Fehlerthematik bislang nicht vorliegt, ist die Idee, einer Fehleranalyse unter der Leitfrage, welche Fehler von Schülerinnen und Schülern aufgrund welcher epistemologischen Überzeugungen begangen werden, zentralen Raum für die Betrachtung von Verstehensprozessen einzuräumen, nicht neu. So ist es geradezu ein Charakteristikum einer modernen konstruktivistischen Didaktik, die eigenen Fehler von Lernenden als ihre individuellen Lerngelegenheiten zu begreifen, die einen wichtigen Motor für den subjektiven Lernfortschritt bilden. Diese Sichtweise wurzelt aus psychologischer Perspektive in Analysen in der Tradition Piagets, der in Abkehr von einer quantitativen, psychometrischen Beschreibung kognitiver Prozesse, wie sie sich zum Beispiel in Intelligenztheorien nach Binet findet, qualitativ zu beschreiben versuchte, in welcher Weise Kinder und Jugendliche denken und urteilen. Doch auch schon in der klassischen Philosophie sind entsprechende Ansätze zu finden. Prominente Beispiele hierfür sind die Idolenlehre Bacons und die Ideenlehre Platons.

  6. Future Research Challenges for a Computer-Based Interpretative 3D Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage - A German Community's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MĂŒnster, S.; KuroczyƄski, P.; Pfarr-Harfst, M.; Grellert, M.; Lengyel, D.

    2015-08-01

    The workgroup for Digital Reconstruction of the Digital Humanities in the German-speaking area association (Digital Humanities im deutschsprachigen Raum e.V.) was founded in 2014 as cross-disciplinary scientific society dealing with all aspects of digital reconstruction of cultural heritage and currently involves more than 40 German researchers. Moreover, the workgroup is dedicated to synchronise and foster methodological research for these topics. As one preliminary result a memorandum was created to name urgent research challenges and prospects in a condensed way and assemble a research agenda which could propose demands for further research and development activities within the next years. The version presented within this paper was originally created as a contribution to the so-called agenda development process initiated by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in 2014 and has been amended during a joint meeting of the digital reconstruction workgroup in November 2014.

  7. A 1280×1024-15ÎŒm CTIA ROIC for SWIR FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Isikhan, Murat; Bayhan, Nusret; Gulden, M. A.; Incedere, O. S.; Soyer, S. T.; Kocak, Serhat; Yalcin, Cem; Ustundag, M. Cem B.; Turan, Ozge; Eksi, Umut; Akin, Tayfun

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new SXGA format low-noise CTIA ROIC (MT12815CA-3G) suitable for mega-pixel SWIR InGaAs detector arrays for low-light imaging applications. MT12815CA-3G is the first mega-pixel standard ROIC product from Mikro-Tasarim, which is a fabless semiconductor company specialized in the development of ROICs and ASICs for visible and infrared hybrid imaging sensors. MT12815CA-3G is a low-noise snapshot mega-pixel CTIA ROIC, has a format of 1280 × 1024 (SXGA) and pixel pitch of 15 ÎŒm. MT12815CA-3G has been developed with the system-on-chip architecture in mind, where all the timing and biasing for this ROIC are generated on-chip without requiring any special external inputs. MT12815CA-3G is a highly configurable ROIC, where many of its features can be programmed through a 3-wire serial interface allowing on-the-fly configuration of many ROIC features. It performs snapshot operation both using Integrate-Then-Read (ITR) and Integrate-While-Read (IWR) modes. The CTIA type pixel input circuitry has 3 gain modes with programmable full-well-capacity (FWC) values of 10K e-, 20K e-, and 350K e- in the very high gain (VHG), high-gain (HG), and low-gain (LG) modes, respectively. MT12815CA-3G has an input referred noise level of less than 5 e- in the very high gain (VHG) mode, suitable for very low-noise SWIR imaging applications. MT12815CA-3G has 8 analog video outputs that can be programmed in 8, 4, or 2-output modes with a selectable analog reference for pseudo-differential operation. The ROIC runs at 10 MHz and supports frame rate values up to 55 fps in the 8-output mode. The integration time of the ROIC can be programmed up to 1s in steps of 0.1 ÎŒs. The ROIC uses 3.3 V and 1.8V supply voltages and dissipates less than 350 mW in the 4-output mode. MT12815CA-3G is fabricated using a modern mixed-signal CMOS process on 200 mm CMOS wafers, and there are 44 ROIC parts per wafer. The probe tests show that the die yield is higher than 70%, which corresponds to more than 30 working ROIC parts per wafer typically. MT12815CA-3G ROIC is available as tested wafers or dies, where a detailed test report and wafer map are provided for each wafer. A compact USB 3.0 based test camera and imaging software are also available for the customers to test and evaluate the imaging performance of SWIR sensors built using MT12815CA-3G ROICs. Mikro-Tasarim has also recently developed a programmable mixed-signal application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), called MTAS1410X8, which is designed to perform ROIC driving and digitization functions for ROICs with analog outputs, such as MT12815CA-3G and MT6415CA ROIC products of Mikro-Tasarim. MTAS1410X8 has 8 simultaneously working 14-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with integrated programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs), video input buffers, programmable controller, and high-speed digital video interface supporting various formats including Camera-Link. MT12815CA-3G ROIC together with MTAS1410X8 ASIC can be used to develop low-noise high-resolution SWIR imaging sensors with low power dissipation and reduced board area for the camera electronics.

  8. A miniature VGA SWIR camera using MT6415CA ROIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Yilmaz, S. Gokhan; Kocak, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new miniature VGA SWIR camera called NanoCAM-6415, which is developed to demonstrate the key features of the MT6415CA ROIC such as high integration level, low-noise, and low-power in a small volume. The NanoCAM-6415 uses an InGaAs Focal Plane Array (FPA) with a format of 640 × 512 and pixel pitch of 15 ÎŒm built using MT6415CA ROIC. MT6415CA is a low-noise CTIA ROIC, which has a system-on-chip architecture, allows generation of all the required timing and biases on-chip in the ROIC without requiring any external components or inputs, thus enabling the development of compact and low-noise SWIR cameras, with reduced size, weight, and power (SWaP). NanoCAM-6415 camera supports snapshot operation using Integrate-Then-Read (ITR) and Integrate-While-Read (IWR) modes. The camera has three gain settings enabled by the ROIC through programmable Full-Well-Capacity (FWC) values of 10.000 e-, 20.000 e-, and 350.000 e- in the very high gain (VHG), high-gain (HG), and low-gain (LG) modes, respectively. The camera has an input referred noise level of 10 e- rms in the VHG mode at 1 ms integration time, suitable for low-noise SWIR imaging applications. In order to reduce the size and power of the camera, only 2 outputs out of 8 of the ROIC are connected to the external Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) in the camera electronics, providing a maximum frame rate of 50 fps through a 26-pin SDR type Camera Link connector. NanoCAM-6415 SWIR camera without the optics measures 32 mm × 32 mm × 35 mm, weighs 45gr, and dissipates less than 1.8 W using a 5 V supply. These results show that MT6415CA ROIC can successfully be used to develop cameras for SWIR imaging applications where SWaP is a concern. Mikro-Tasarim has also developed new imaging software to demonstrate the functionality of this miniature VGA camera. Mikro-Tasarim provides tested ROIC wafers and also offers compact and easy-to-use test electronics, demo cameras, and hardware/software development kits for its ROIC customers to shorten their FPA and camera development cycles.

  9. Epistemic Primacy vs. Ontological Elusiveness of Spatial Extension: Is There an Evolutionary Role for the Quantum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauri, Massimo

    2011-11-01

    A critical re-examination of the history of the concepts of space (including spacetime of general relativity and relativistic quantum field theory) reveals a basic ontological elusiveness of spatial extension, while, at the same time, highlighting the fact that its epistemic primacy seems to be unavoidably imposed on us (as stated by A.Einstein "giving up the extensional continuum 
 is like to breathe in airless space"). On the other hand, Planck's discovery of the atomization of action leads to the fundamental recognition of an ontology of non-spatial, abstract entities (Quine) for the quantum level of reality (QT), as distinguished from the necessarily spatio-temporal, experimental revelations ( measurements). The elementary quantum act (measured by Planck's constant) has neither duration nor extension, and any genuinely quantum process literally does not belong in the Raum and time of our experience. As Heisenberg stresses: "WĂ€hrend also die klassische Physik ein objectives Geschehen in Raum and Zeit zum Gegenstand hat, fĂŒr dessen Existenz seine Beobachtung völlig irrelevant war, behandelt die Quantentheorie VorgĂ€nge, die sozusagen nur in den Momenten der Beobachtung als raumzeitliche PhĂ€nomene aufleuchten, und ĂŒber die in der zwischenzeit anschaulische physikalische Aussagen sinloss sind". An admittedly speculative, hazardous conjecture is then advanced concerning the relation of such quantum ontology with the role of the pre-phenomenal continuum (Husserl) in the perception of macroscopically distinguishable objects in the Raum and time of our experience. Although rather venturesome, it brings together important philosophical issues. Coherently with recent general results in works on the foundations of QT, it is assumed that the linearity of quantum dynamical evolution does not apply to the central nervous system of living beings at a certain level of the evolutionary ramification and at the pre-conscious stage of subjectivity. Accordingly, corresponding to the onset of a non-linear dynamic evolution, a `primary spatial' reduction is `continually' taking place, thereby constituting the neural precondition for the experience of distinguishable macroscopic objects in the continuous spatial extension. While preventing the theoretically possible quantum superpositions of macroscopic objects from being perceivable by living beings, the `primary reduction' has no effect on the standard processes concerning quantum level entities involved in laboratory man-made experiments. In this connection, an experimental check which might falsify the conjecture is briefly discussed. The approach suggested here, if sound, leads to a naturalization of that part of Kant's Transcendental Aesthetics than can survive the Euclidean catastrophe. According to such naturalized transcendentalism, "space can well be transcendental without the axioms being so", in agreement with a well-known statement by Boltzman. Finally, as far as QT is concerned, the conjecture entails that a scheme for quantum measurement of the von Neumann type cannot even `leave the ground', vindicating Bohr's viewpoint. A quantum theory of measurement, in a proper sense, turns out to be unnecessary and in fact impossible.

  10. Fractal Loop Heat Pipe Performance Comparisons of a Soda Lime Glass and Compressed Carbon Foam Wick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myre, David; Silk, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares heat flux performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) wick structure fabricated from compressed carbon foam with that of a wick structure fabricated from sintered soda lime glass. Each wick was used in an LHP containing a fractal based evaporator. The Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (FLHP) was designed and manufactured by Mikros Manufacturing Inc. The compressed carbon foam wick structure was manufactured by ERG Aerospace Inc., and machined to specifications comparable to that of the initial soda lime glass wick structure. Machining of the compressed foam as well as performance testing was conducted at the United States Naval Academy. Performance testing with the sintered soda lime glass wick structures was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Heat input for both wick structures was supplied via cartridge heaters mounted in a copper block. The copper heater block was placed in contact with the FLHP evaporator which had a circular cross-sectional area of 0.88 cm(sup 2). Twice distilled, deionized water was used as the working fluid in both sets of experiments. Thermal performance data was obtained for three different Condenser/Subcooler temperatures under degassed conditions. Both wicks demonstrated comparable heat flux performance with a maximum of 75 W/cm observed for the soda lime glass wick and 70 W /cm(sup 2) for the compressed carbon foam wick.

  11. A miniature low-cost LWIR camera with a 160×120 microbolometer FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepegoz, Murat; Kucukkomurler, Alper; Tankut, Firat; Eminoglu, Selim; Akin, Tayfun

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the development of a miniature LWIR thermal camera, MSE070D, which targets value performance infrared imaging applications, where a 160x120 CMOS-based microbolometer FPA is utilized. MSE070D features a universal USB interface that can communicate with computers and some particular mobile devices in the market. In addition, it offers high flexibility and mobility with the help of its USB powered nature, eliminating the need for any external power source, thanks to its low-power requirement option. MSE070D provides thermal imaging with its 1.65 inch3 volume with the use of a vacuum packaged CMOS-based microbolometer type thermal sensor MS1670A-VP, achieving moderate performance with a very low production cost. MSE070D allows 30 fps thermal video imaging with the 160x120 FPA size while resulting in an NETD lower than 350 mK with f/1 optics. It is possible to obtain test electronics and software, miniature camera cores, complete Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) and relevant documentation with MSE070D, as MikroSens want to help its customers to evaluate its products and to ensure quick time-to-market for systems manufacturers.

  12. [TUBB3 role in the response of tumor cells to epothilones and taxanes].

    PubMed

    Marczak, Agnieszka; Rogalska, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    Because of increased incidence of cancer and the development of resistance after treatment with typical drugs, new insights into the mechanisms of action of individual compounds are extremely valuable. In this article, we focus on taxanes, drugs belonging to the group of microtubule stabilizers, and their new generation - epothilones. Facing the fact that the molecular target for these compounds are microtubules, our attention was focused primarily on the role of overexpression of one of tubulin isotypes in response of tumor cells, particularly ovarian cancer to treatment with these compounds. On the basis of the literature data it can be concluded that one reason for the ineffectiveness of taxane is the resistance growing in the case of overexpression of b-tubulin class III- (TUBB3). Epothilones, however, due to their ability to bind equally to b-tubulin class I and III are effective in these cells, giving them an advantage over taxanes. It is necessary to emphasize the role of mikroRNA, transcription factors and other proteins associated with the activation of microtubules in development of resistance to taxanes and overcoming the resistance of the epothilones. Particularly interesting tubuseems to be the link between expression of TUBB3 and Glis proteins, which are end-effectors of Hedgehog pathway. Thanks to the confirmation that Gli1 overexpression is associated with decreased response to chemotherapy, it was possible to sensitize cells to epothilones after addition a suitable inhibitor. PMID:25661915

  13. Plum pomaces as a potential source of dietary fibre: composition and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Milala, Joanna; Kosmala, Monika; SĂłjka, MichaƂ; KoƂodziejczyk, Krzysztof; ZbrzeĆșniak, Monika; Markowski, JarosƂaw

    2013-10-01

    Plums because of their composition, especially of dietary fibre, sorbitol and polyphenols content, have positive influence on human health. Generally growing interest in cloudy juices production due to their prevalence compared to clear ones resulted in the appearance of plum cloudy juices on the market. Cloudy plum juice may be the attractive plum product, however during juice production some pomace appears, which is discarded or used for feeding animals most of all. This by product might be a source of valuable health-promoting compounds. The aim of this work was to characterize the composition and properties of pomaces of three cultivars obtained in pilot plant scale. The influence of drying parameters and cultivar on bioactive components and antioxidant activity were measured. Plum pomaces were characterized by 38-49% of total dietary fibre in d. m., with the share of soluble fraction from 7 to 13%. Energy value was from 202 to 240 kcal 100 g(-1) d.m. Antioxidant activity was from 10 to 17.4 mikroM TEAC g(-1) d.m. Cultivar and technology of drying had significant influence on polyphenols content of investigated plum pomaces. Considering their health-beneficial components: dietary fiber and polyphenols, plum pomaces can be used for production of dietary fiber preparations. PMID:24426011

  14. Pressures generated within the chambers of the MagScrew TAH: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Flick, Christine R; Weber, Stephan; Luangphakdy, Viviane; Klatte, Ryan S; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Smith, William A

    2008-01-01

    Incompetent inflow valves have been reported with clinical pulsatile left ventricular assist devices that use bioprosthetic valves. Suspected as the cause of premature valve failure within these devices, absolute pressures and instantaneous pressure changes were evaluated in the MagScrew total artificial heart (TAH). The MagScrew TAH is a passively filling pulsatile pump which uses a reciprocating magnetic actuating mechanism under various control modes to propel blood into circulation. Both right and left ejection speeds were modulated and optimized at the onset of hydraulic eject. These various speed profiles were evaluated in vitro at 220 beats per minute (bpm), 100% pump fill, mean aortic pressure of 100 mm Hg and mean pulmonary artery pressure of 20 mm Hg. The pressure inside the left and right pump chambers was measured with Millar Mikro-Tip catheter and captured using Power Lab at a rate of 40 kHz. The pump chamber peak pressure, operating with unmodified eject speeds, measured on average 183 mm Hg for the left and 133 mm Hg for the right. Eject speed profiling for both pumps reduced the peak pressure by 10% and 28% for the left and right pump, respectively. Future studies will assess software controlled optimization of the eject speed profiles under any operating condition and how effective it is in vivo. PMID:18204317

  15. Models of the Dynamic Deformations of Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzhievsky, Lev; Voronin, Mihail; Korchagina, Anna

    2013-06-01

    In the process of deformation under the influence of external loading polymeric mediums show the complicated behavior connected with features of their structure. For amorphous polymers distinguish three physical conditions - glasslike, highlyelastic and viscoplastic. To each of the listed conditions there corresponds to mikro - meso- and macrostructural mechanisms of irreversible deformation. In the report the review of results of construction of models for the description of dynamic and shock-wave deformation of the polymers which are based on developed authors representations about mechanisms of irreversible deformation is made. Models include the formulation of the equations of conservation laws, considering effect of a relaxation of shear stresses in the process of deformation. For closing of models the equations of states with nonspherical tensor of deformations and relation for time of a relaxation of shear stresses are constructed. With using of the formulated models a number of problems of dynamic and shock wave deformations has been solved. The results are compared with corresponding experimental date. Development of the used approach are in summary discussed. To taking into account memory and fractal properties of real polymers is supposed of derivatives and integrals of a fractional order to use. Examples of constitutive equations with derivatives of a fractional order are presented. This work is supported by the Integration project of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science 64 and grant RFBR 12-01-00726.

  16. Fontinalis antipyretica as a bioindicator of environmental conditions in freshwater ecosystem from Sava River watershed and CerkniƟko Lake, Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanduč, Tjaơa; Mechora, Ơpela; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2014-05-01

    Polluted waters recharging from agriculture water systems into watersheds have influence on water quality and living habitat. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in combination with other minor and trace elements are often used to trace biogeochemical processes and contamination of water systems. The aim of the study was to assess state of environment with minor and trace elements and stable isotopes of C and N in selected Slovenian streams. Ten locations in Notranjska region, Slovenia, with different land use in the catchment (town, village, agricultural areas, farms, dairy farms), including reference point considered as non-polluted site, were sampled. Samples of water and aquatic moss F. antipyretica in Slovenian fresh waters were taken in all four seasons during years 2010 and 2012, but for stable isotope analyses of C and N only in three seasons during years 2010 and 2011. The water chemistry of investigated locations is dominated by hydrogen carbonate - calcium - magnesium, concentrations of nitrate seasonally range from 2.07 mg/l to 6.4 mg/l and at reference site does not exceed 1.3 mg/l. Total alkalinity of water at investigated locations ranges from 2.9 to 6.02 mM. The pH of investigated water range from 7.2 to 8.5, waters are saturated with oxygen (up to 134%) and conductivity ranges from 295 to 525 mikroS/cm, while at reference site conductivity is up to 180 mikroS/cm. The content of minor and trace elements in F. antipyretica ranged for Ni 4-38 mikrog/g, Zn 17-105 mikrog/g, Pb 2-28 mikrog/g, Cd 220-1953 ng/g, Cu 4-27 mikrog/g, Cr 4-49 mikrog/g, As 1-6 mikrog/g and Se 0.33-3.24 mikrog/g. The most polluted watershed was PĆĄata stream (agricultural areas, cattle farm) with highest values for Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn and As. The highest content of Se, was found in village (dairy farms) in Ćœerovniơčica stream. The highest values were measured in February and October. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon seasonally range from -13.3 to -8.1‰, and indicate waters dominated by degradation of organic matter and dissolution of carbonates. At the reference point average measured isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon value is -2.7‰ which confirmed that this is a non-polluted site. Isotopic composition of carbon of F. antipyretica seasonally ranges from -45 to -32.9‰ and isotopic composition of nitrogen from -0.2‰ to 6.5‰, respectively. In comparison to C3 terrestrial plants F. antipyretica has more negative isotopic composition of carbon value, which is probably related with the difference in CO2 plant fixation and depends on isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in water, which is primarily controlled by geological composition and soil thickness in the watershed. Higher isotopic composition of nitrogen value found in F. antipyretica is related to agricultural activity in watershed, while at the reference site measured isotopic composition of nitrogen value is -4.1 ‰. From our study it is evident that isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen is useful tracer of natural and anthropogenic inputs from terrestrial (fertilizing, sewage sludge) to water system.

  17. MT3825BA: a 384×288-25”m ROIC for uncooled microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Gulden, M. Ali; Bayhan, Nusret; Incedere, O. Samet; Soyer, S. Tuncer; Ustundag, Cem M. B.; Isikhan, Murat; Kocak, Serhat; Turan, Ozge; Yalcin, Cem; Akin, Tayfun

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new microbolometer Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) called MT3825BA. It has a format of 384 × 288 and a pixel pitch of 25ÎŒm. MT3825BA is Mikro-Tasarim's second microbolometer ROIC product, which is developed specifically for resistive surface micro-machined microbolometer detector arrays using high-TCR pixel materials, such as VOx and a-Si. MT3825BA has a system-on-chip architecture, where all the timing, biasing, and pixel non-uniformity correction (NUC) operations in the ROIC are applied using on-chip circuitry simplifying the use and system integration of this ROIC. The ROIC is designed to support pixel resistance values ranging from 30 KΩ to 100 KΩ. MT3825BA is operated using conventional row based readout method, where pixels in the array are read out in a row-by-row basis, where the applied bias for each pixel in a given row is updated at the beginning of each line period according to the applied line based NUC data. The NUC data is applied continuously in a row-by-row basis using the serial programming interface, which is also used to program user configurable features of the ROIC, such as readout gain, integration time, and number of analog video outputs. MT3825BA has a total of 4 analog video outputs and 2 analog reference outputs, placed at the top and bottom of the ROIC, which can be programmed to operate in the 1, 2, and 4-output modes, supporting frames rates well above 60 fps at a 3 MHz pixel output rate. The pixels in the array are read out with respect to reference pixels implemented above and below actual array pixels. The bias voltage of the pixels can be programmed over a 1.0 V range to compensate for the changes in the detector resistance values due to the variations coming from the manufacturing process or changes in the operating temperature. The ROIC has an on-chip integrated temperature sensor with a sensitivity of better than 5 mV / K, and the output of the temperature sensor can be read out the output as part of the analog video stream. MT3825BA can be used to build a microbolometer FPAs with an NETD value below 100 mK using a microbolometer detector array fabrication technology with a detector resistance value up to 100 KΩ, a high TCR value (< 2 % / K), and a sufficiently low pixel thermal conductance (Gth ≀ 20 nW / K). MT3825BA measures 13.0 mm × 13.5 mm and is fabricated on 200 mm CMOS wafers. The microbolometer ROIC wafers are engineered to have flat surface finish to simplify the wafer level detector fabrication and wafer level vacuum packaging (WLVP). The ROIC runs on 3.3 V analog and 1.8 V digital supplies, and dissipates less than 85 mW in the 2-output mode at 30 fps. Mikro-Tasarim provides tested ROIC wafers and offers compact test electronics and software for its ROIC customers to shorten their FPA and camera development cycles.

  18. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische InterprĂ€tation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frĂŒhsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder SpĂ€teres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primĂ€re NaturkrĂ€fte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und NaturkrĂ€fte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementĂ€re' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. ErhaltungssĂ€tze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmĂ€ĂŸigen wie globale AffinitĂ€t und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder rĂ€umlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom VorgĂ€nger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren VerhĂ€ltnis oder dem ihrer globalen ZustandsgrĂ¶ĂŸen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, LĂ€ngen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim Ă€ltesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren KrĂ€ften, selbst und im VerhĂ€ltnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten Reichweite. Bei Fakten und ihrer Wirkung etwa: Autonomie und PrioritĂ€t von Selbstwahrnehmung und Eigensystem; etwaige Wahrnehmung durch einen Beobachter und wie sie ihm seinen Kontakt zum Objekt und dessen Darstellbarkeit in seinem Raum wiederspiegelt oder Ă€ndert, als nur fĂŒr ihn relevant; in dessen Dimensionen sichtbare geometrische Bedingungen wegen diskreter Wirkung, oder logische Effekte bei Objekten kleinster Informationsmengen mit unzureichender Lokalisierbarkeit oder ihrer inadĂ€quaten Betrachtung oder Bestimmung dort. Geboten sind genauere Untersuchungen zu Informationsgehalt, Wirkung, deren Reichweite und GĂŒltigkeit bei einzelnen Photonen, mit Emission und durch direkt benachbart hinzukommende Absorption beendetem ereignisartigen Eigensystem, aber fĂŒr materielle Beobachter unserer Welt und ihre Dimensionen zur vollstĂ€ndigen Lokalisierbarkeit zuwenigen wirksamen Informationen, was dort außer makroskopisch relevanten Projektionen auf Raum und Zeit sowie Lichtartigkeit auch mikroskopisch zwischenliegende Ereignisse wie Wechselwirkung in Medien oder Beugung und Retadierung oder Welleneigenschaften mit RichtungsĂ€nderung ganzzahliger Elementar- oder WellenlĂ€ngen, mit jeweiliger Kompensation im Bogen; NichtlokalitĂ€t; UnschĂ€rfen bei Bestimmung komplementĂ€rer also auf identischen Information beruhender GrĂ¶ĂŸen; und andere Effekte hervorruft. Voran stehen Erfahrungen zur notwendigen Bewirkung von Neuem durch alles Existente als nicht-materielle funktionelle QualitĂ€t seiner Individuation und Konkretisierung, und daher Ereignissen und Wirkung als primĂ€re direkt etwas produzierende Naturkraft und Geometrie. NachgefĂŒgt wurde noch eine GegenĂŒberstellung des Modelles mit kosmogonischen Aussagen der Offenbarungen (nur 2. Auflage).

  19. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    1997-05-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische InterprĂ€tation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frĂŒhsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder SpĂ€teres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primĂ€re NaturkrĂ€fte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und NaturkrĂ€fte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementĂ€re' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. ErhaltungssĂ€tze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmĂ€ĂŸigen wie globale AffinitĂ€t und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder rĂ€umlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom VorgĂ€nger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren VerhĂ€ltnis oder dem ihrer globalen ZustandsgrĂ¶ĂŸen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, LĂ€ngen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim Ă€ltesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren KrĂ€ften, selbst und im VerhĂ€ltnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten Reichweite. Bei Fakten und ihrer Wirkung etwa: Autonomie und PrioritĂ€t von Selbstwahrnehmung und Eigensystem; etwaige Wahrnehmung durch einen Beobachter und wie sie ihm seinen Kontakt zum Objekt und dessen Darstellbarkeit in seinem Raum wiederspiegelt oder Ă€ndert, als nur fĂŒr ihn relevant; in dessen Dimensionen sichtbare geometrische Bedingungen wegen diskreter Wirkung, oder logische Effekte bei Objekten kleinster Informationsmengen mit unzureichender Lokalisierbarkeit oder ihrer inadĂ€quaten Betrachtung oder Bestimmung dort. Geboten sind genauere Untersuchungen zu Informationsgehalt, Wirkung, deren Reichweite und GĂŒltigkeit bei einzelnen Photonen, mit Emission und durch direkt benachbart hinzukommende Absorption beendetem ereignisartigen Eigensystem, aber fĂŒr materielle Beobachter unserer Welt und ihre Dimensionen zur vollstĂ€ndigen Lokalisierbarkeit zuwenigen wirksamen Informationen, was dort außer makroskopisch relevanten Projektionen auf Raum und Zeit sowie Lichtartigkeit auch mikroskopisch zwischenliegende Ereignisse wie Wechselwirkung in Medien oder Beugung und Retadierung oder Welleneigenschaften mit RichtungsĂ€nderung ganzzahliger Elementar- oder WellenlĂ€ngen, mit jeweiliger Kompensation im Bogen; NichtlokalitĂ€t; UnschĂ€rfen bei Bestimmung komplementĂ€rer also auf identischen Information beruhender GrĂ¶ĂŸen; und andere Effekte hervorruft. Voran stehen Erfahrungen zur notwendigen Bewirkung von Neuem durch alles Existente als nicht-materielle funktionelle QualitĂ€t seiner Individuation und Konkretisierung, und daher Ereignissen und Wirkung als primĂ€re direkt etwas produzierende Naturkraft und Geometrie. NachgefĂŒgt wurde noch eine GegenĂŒberstellung des Modelles mit kosmogonischen Aussagen der Offenbarungen (nur 2. Auflage).

  20. Vom Urknall zum Durchknall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unzicker, Alexander

    Lautstarker Applaus erhob sich im Salon III/IV des Marriott-Hotels von Crystal City im amerikanischen Bundesstaat Virginia. In dem ĂŒberfĂŒllten Konferenzraum starrten alle wie gebannt auf die Leinwand, wo nicht mehr zu sehen war als ein nĂŒchternes Diagramm aus zahlreichen Punkten und einer geschwungenen Kurve. Nureine eigenartige Personengruppe konnte sich davon zu Emotionen hinreißen lassen - Physiker auf der Jahrestagung der Astronomischen Gesellschaft, die ihren Begeisterungssturm noch minutenlang fortsetzten. Was war geschehen? Die im Diagramm aufgetragenen Daten bestĂ€tigten mit einer nie da gewesenen Genauigkeit ein fundamentales Naturgesetz zur WĂ€rmeabstrahlung von heißen Körpern. 1900 von Max Planck entdeckt, leuchtete es nun in geradezu mathematischer Reinheit auf. Noch sensationeller war der Ursprung der Daten - Mikrowellensignale verschiedener Frequenzen, die nicht aus einem irdischen Labor stammten, sondern von einem heißen Urzustand des Universums! Ein Feuerball aus Wasserstoff und Helium, noch ohne jegliche Strukturen, die irgendwann Leben ermöglichen sollten, ließ damals seinem Licht freien Lauf. Mehr als zehn Milliarden Jahre war es bis zu den Detektoren des vom Menschen gebauten Satelliten COBE unterwegs, der wenige Tage zuvor die Daten ĂŒbertragen hatte. Wenn ich das alles wie einen Film in meiner Vorstellung ablaufen lasse, bekomme ich immer eine GĂ€nsehaut, als wĂŒrde ich die inzwischen extrem abgekĂŒhlte Strahlung tatsĂ€chlich spĂŒren. Ihre Gleichverteilung im Raum macht uns auch deutlich, dass wir uns nicht einbilden dĂŒrfen, an einem besonderen Ort im Universum zu leben - intelligente Aliens könnten sich seitdem ĂŒberall entwickelt haben! Sollten sie - was nicht wahrscheinlich ist - uns wirklich von Zeit zu Zeit ĂŒber die Schulter schauen, dann hĂ€tten sie an jenem Nachmittag des 13. Januar 1990, als der Vortrag stattfand, bestimmt anerkennend mit ihrem großen Kopf genickt.

  1. Identification of a uniquely immunodominant, cross-reacting site in the human immunodeficiency virus endonuclease protein.

    PubMed Central

    Björling, E; Utter, G; Stćlhandske, P; Norrby, E; Chiodi, F

    1991-01-01

    One of the features of the life cycle of retroviruses is insertion of the proviral DNA into host chromosomes. A protein encoded by the 3' end of the pol gene of the virus genome has been shown to possess endonuclease activity (D. P. Grandgenett, A. C. Vora, and R. D. Schiff, Virology 89:119-132, 1978), which is necessary for DNA integration. Sera from the majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals react with endonuclease protein p31 in serological tests (J. S. Allan, J. E. Coligan, T.-H. Lee, F. Barin, P. J. Kanki, S. M'Boup, M. F. McLane, J. E. Groopman, and M. Essex, Blood 69:331-333, 1987; E. F. Lillehoj, F. H. R. Salazar, R. J. Mervis, M. G. Raum, H. W. Chan, N. Ahmad, and S. Venkatesan, J. Virol. 62:3053-3058, 1988; K. S. Steimer, K. W. Higgins, M. A. Powers, J. C. Stephans, A. Gyenes, G. George-Nascimento, P. A. Liciw, P. J. Barr, R. A. Hallewell, and R. Sanchez-Pescador, J. Virol. 58:9-16, 1986). It is not known, however, which part of the protein represents the target(s) for antibody response. To study this, we synthesized peptides and used them in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system to map the reactivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody-positive sera to the different regions of the HIV endonuclease. A uniquely antigenic, HIV-1- and HIV-2-cross-reacting site was identified in the central part of this protein from Phe-663 to Trp-670. PMID:2072463

  2. On the Theory of Gravitational Field in Finsler Spaces - III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Satoshi

    From the vector bundle-like standpoint, the Finslerian gravitational field is regarded as the total space of the vector bundle whose fibre is the internal (y)-field spanned by vectors {y} (i.e., the so-called internal space spanned by {y}) and whose base is the external (x)-field spanned by points {x} (i.e., the Einstein's gravitational field). Along this line, in this paper, different from a previous paper [1], the so-called mapping process of the (y)-field on the (x)-field is not taken into account and following Miron's method [2, 3], the Finslerian field equations will be derived from the Einstein's field equation for the total space. Some physical considerations will be made on those field equations.Translated AbstractZur Theorie des Gravitationsfeldes in Finslerschen RĂ€umen. IIIVon einem vektorbĂŒndelĂ€hnlichen Standpunkt aus betrachtet, bilden die GesamtrĂ€ume des VektorbĂŒndels das Finslersche Gravitationsfeld, dessen Fasern das (y)-Feld, aufgespannt durch die Vektoren {y} sind, und dessen Basis das Ă€ußere (x)-Feld, aufgespannt durch die Punkte {x}, ist. {y} ist der sogenannte innere Raum und {x} das Einsteinsche Gravitationsfeld. Im Unterschied zu einer frĂŒheren Arbeit [1] wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit entsprechend dieser Auffassung der Abbildungsprozeß des (y)-auf das (x)-Feld nicht betrachtet, und der Methode von Miron [2, 3] gefolgt. Die Finslerschen Feldgleichungen werden aus den Einsteinschen Feldgleichungen fĂŒr den Gesamtraum abgeleitet. Zu diesen Feldgleichungen werden physikalische Betrachtungen angestellt.

  3. Allgemeine RelativitĂ€tstheorie. Eine EinfĂŒhrung in die Theorie des Gravitationsfeldes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, H.

    Contents:EinfĂŒhrung:1. Die krĂ€ftefreie Bewegung von Massenpunkten in der Newtonschen Mechanik.Grundlagen der Riemannschen Geometrie:2. Warum ĂŒberhaupt Riemannsche Geometrie? 3. Der Riemannsche Raum. 4. Tensoralgebra. 5. Kovariante Ableitung und Parallelverschiebung. 6. Der KrĂŒmmungstensor. 7. Differentialoperatoren, Integrale und IntegralsĂ€tze. 8. Grundgesetze der Physik in Riemannschen RĂ€umen.Grundlagen der Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie:9. Die Grundgleichungen der Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie. 10. DieSchwarzschild-Lösung. 11. Die innere Schwarzschild-Lösung. 12. Die Reissner-Weyl-Lösung.Linearisierte Gravitationstheorie,Fernfelder und Gravitationswellen:13. Die linearisierte Einsteinsche Gravitationstheorie. 14. Fernfelder beliebiger Materieverteilungen und Bilanzgleichungen fĂŒr Impuls und Drehimpuls. 15. Gravitationswellen. 16. Das Cauchy-Problem der Einsteinschen Feldgleichungen.Invariante Charakterisierung strenger Lösungen:17. Ausgezeichnete Vektorfelder und ihre Eigenschaften. 18. Die Petrow-Klassifizierung. 19. Killing-Vektoren und Bewegungsgruppen. 20. Die Einbettung Riemannscher RĂ€ume in flache RĂ€ume höherer Dimension. 21. Übersicht ĂŒber einige ausgewĂ€hlte Lösungsklassen.Gravitationskollaps und schwarze Löcher:22. Die Schwarzschild-SingularitĂ€t. 23. Gravitationskollaps - die mögliche Lebensgeschichte eines kugelsymmetrischen Sterns. 24. Rotierende schwarze Löcher.Kosmologie:25. Die Robertson-Walker-Metriken und ihre Eigenschaften. 26. Die Dynamik der Robertson-Walker-Metriken und die Friedmannschen Weltmodelle. 27. Unsere Welt als Friedmann-Kosmos. 28. Allgemeinere kosmologische Modelle.Nichteinsteinsche Gravitationstheorien:29. Klassische Feldtheorien. 30. RelativitĂ€tstheorie und Quantentheorie.

  4. Diagnose und Therapie einer Depression im höheren Lebensalter – EinflĂŒsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen

    PubMed Central

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Bönte, Markus; Siegrist, Johannes; Marceau, Lisa; Link, Carol; McKinlay, John

    2013-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Studienergebnissee aus dem englischsprachigen Raum zeigen, dass diagnostische und therapeutische Entscheidungen von HausĂ€rzten bei der Versorgung von depressiven Patienten systematischen EinflĂŒssen unterliegen, und dass sowohl Merkmale des Arztes als auch des Patienten unabhĂ€ngig vom Krankheitsbild Einfluss auf diese Entscheidungen haben. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden Ergebnisse einer deutschen Studie prĂ€sentiert, in der die EinflĂŒsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen auf diagnostische und therapeutische Ă€rztliche Entscheidungen bei einer Depression untersucht wurden. Unter Anwendung eines faktoriellen Experimentaldesigns spielten professionelle Schauspieler in Videofilmen die Rolle von Patienten, die Symptome fĂŒr eine depressive Erkrankung Ă€ußern. In den Videofilmen, die alle auf einem identischen Skript basieren, wurden systematisch die Patientenmerkmale Alter (55 vs. 75 Jahre), Geschlecht und sozialer Status (Hausmeister vs. Lehrer) variiert. Die randomisierte Ärztestichprobe wurde nach dem Arztgeschlecht und professioneller Erfahrung (< 5 vs. > 15 Jahre) geschichtet. Der Videofilm wurde insgesamt 128 niedergelassenen Ärzten fĂŒr Allgemeinmedizin und hausĂ€rztlich tĂ€tigen Internisten in ihrer Praxis vorgespielt. Danach wurden die Ärzte zu unterschiedlichen Aspekten von Diagnose und Therapie befragt. Es wurde erhoben, ob der Arzt dem Patienten ĂŒber das gezeigte GesprĂ€ch hinausgehende Fragen stellen wĂŒrde, welche Diagnosen er fĂŒr wahrscheinlich hĂ€lt, wie sicher er sich mit seiner Diagnose ist, welche diagnostischen Tests er anordnen wĂŒrde, ob er den Patienten ĂŒberweisen wĂŒrde oder ob er Medikamente verordnen oder ihm Empfehlungen zur Änderung seines Lebensstils geben wĂŒrde. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass sowohl die Diagnose als auch die Therapie einer Depression durch niedergelassene HausĂ€rzte in Deutschland nur geringfĂŒgig durch die untersuchten Merkmale der Patienten und der behandelnden Ärzte beeinflusst wird. PMID:19274607

  5. Field Theoretic Renormalization Group and the Scaling Behaviour in Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanow, S.

    Quantum field theoretic regularization methods are used to regularize the set of end-to-end chain correlation functions. The renormalization group invariance of the polymer theory allows to calculate the parameters g and S which in the regularized theory take on the role of z and Nl2 of the two parameter theory accordingly. The second virial coefficient A2 and the mean-square end-to-end polymer distance R2 of a polymer solution are represented in powers of g. g and S are evaluated up to order 2 ( = 4 - d, where d is the space dimension). A2 and R2 are calculated up to order g2 and g, respectively, and compared with results obtained by ELDERFIELD and des CLOIZEAUX.Translated AbstractQuantenfeldtheoretische Renormierungsgruppe und das Scaling-Verhalten in PolymerlösungenDie quantenfeldtheoretischen Regularisierungsmethoden wurden zur Regularisierung der Korrelationsfunktionen der Kettenenden angewendet. Die Renormierungsgruppeninvarianz der Polymertheorie ermöglicht die Berechnung der effektiven Parameter g und S, die in der regularisierten Theorie entsprechend die Rolle der GrĂ¶ĂŸen z und Nl2 der Zweiparametertheorie ĂŒbernehmen. Der zweite Virialkoeffizient A2 der Polymerlösung und das mittlere Quadrat des Kettenendenabstandes R2 lassen sich in der regularisierten Theorie als Reihen nach den Potenzen von g darstellen. g und S wurden bis zu Gliedern 2 ( = 4 - d, d ist die Dimension des Raumes) berechnet. A2, und R2 wurden entsprechend bis zu Gliedern g2 und g berechnet und mit den Ergebnissen von ELDERFIELD und des CLOIZEAUX verglichen.

  6. Characterization of Two Microbial Isolates from Andean Lakes in Bolivia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demergasso, C.; Blamey, J.; Escudero, L.; Chong, G.; Casamayor, E. O.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Hock, A.; Kiss, A.; Borics, G.

    2004-01-01

    We are currently investigating the biological population present in the highest and least explored perennial lakes on earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several volcanic crater lakes of more than 6000 m elevation, in combination of microbiological and molecular biological methods. Our samples were collected in saline lakes of the Laguna Blanca Laguna Verde area in the Bolivian Altiplano and in the Licancabur volcano crater (27 deg. 47 min S/67 deg. 47 min. W) in the ongoing project studying high altitude lakes. The main goal of the project is to look for analogies with Martian paleolakes. These Bolivian lakes can be described as Andean lakes following the classification of Chong. We have attempted to isolate pure cultures and phylogenetically characterize prokaryotes that grew under laboratory conditions. Sediment samples taken from the Licancabur crater lake (LC), Laguna Verde (LV), and Laguna Blanca (LB) were analyzed and cultured using enriched liquid media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. All cultures were incubated at room temperature (15 to 20 C) and under light exposure. For the reported isolates, 36 hours incubation were necessary for reaching optimal optical densities to consider them viable cultures. Ten serial dilutions starting from 1% inoculum were required to obtain a suitable enriched cell culture to transfer into solid media. Cultures on solid medium were necessary to verify the formation of colonies in order to isolate pure cultures. Different solid media were prepared using several combinations of both trace minerals and carbohydrates sources in order to fit their nutrient requirements. The microorganisms formed individual colonies on solid media enriched with tryptone, yeast extract and sodium chloride. Cells morphology was studied by optical and electronic microscopy. Rodshape morphologies were observed in most cases. Total bacterial genomic DNA was isolated from 50 ml late-exponential phase culture by using the CTAB miniprep protocol. The 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR using both Bacteria- and Archaeauniversal primer sets: 27f and 1492r, 21f and 1492r respectively. Sequences of 16S rRNA gene were determined and initially compared with reference sequences contained in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database by using the BLAST program and were subsequently aligned with 16S rRNA reference sequences in the ARB package (http://www.mikro.biologie.tu-muenchen.de). Aligned sequences were inserted within a stable phylogenetic tree by using the ARB parsimony tool. In this work we report the morphology and phylogenetic characterization of two isolates belonged to Laguna Blanca sediments.

  7. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Pathobiology Group standard operating procedure for the preparation of human tumour tissue extracts suited for the quantitative analysis of tissue-associated biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Manfred; Mengele, Karin; Schueren, Elisabeth; Sweep, Fred C G J; Foekens, John A; BrĂŒnner, Nils; Laabs, Juliane; Malik, Abha; Harbeck, Nadia

    2007-03-01

    With the new concept of 'individualized treatment and targeted therapies', tumour tissue-associated biomarkers have been given a new role in selection of cancer patients for treatment and in cancer patient management. Tumour biomarkers can give support to cancer patient stratification and risk assessment, treatment response identification, or to identifying those patients who are expected to respond to certain anticancer drugs. As the field of tumour-associated biomarkers has expanded rapidly over the last years, it has become increasingly apparent that a strong need exists to establish guidelines on how to easily disintegrate the tumour tissue for assessment of the presence of tumour tissue-associated biomarkers. Several mechanical tissue (cell) disruption techniques exist, ranging from bead mill homogenisation and freeze-fracturing through to blade or pestle-type homogenisation, to grinding and ultrasonics. Still, only a few directives have been given on how fresh-frozen tumour tissues should be processed for the extraction and determination of tumour biomarkers. The PathoBiology Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer therefore has devised a standard operating procedure for the standardised preparation of human tumour tissue extracts which is designed for the quantitative analysis of tumour tissue-associated biomarkers. The easy to follow technical steps involved require 50-300 mg of deep-frozen cancer tissue placed into small size (1.2 ml) cryogenic tubes. These are placed into the shaking flask of a Mikro-Dismembrator S machine (bead mill) to pulverise the tumour tissue in the capped tubes in the deep-frozen state by use of a stainless steel ball, all within 30 s of exposure. RNA is isolated from the pulverised tissue following standard procedures. Proteins are extracted from the still frozen pulverised tissue by addition of Tris-buffered saline to obtain the cytosol fraction of the tumour or by the Tris buffer supplemented with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, and, after high-speed centrifugation, are found in the tissue supernatant. The resulting tissue cell debris sediment is a rich source of genomic DNA. PMID:17321128

  8. MT6415CA: a 640×512-15”m CTIA ROIC for SWIR InGaAs detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Isikhan, Murat; Bayhan, Nusret; Gulden, M. Ali; Incedere, O. Samet; Soyer, S. Tuncer; Kocak, Serhat; Yilmaz, Gokhan S.; Akin, Tayfun

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new low-noise CTIA ROIC (MT6415CA) suitable for SWIR InGaAs detector arrays for low-light imaging applications. MT6415CA is the second product in the MT6400 series ROICs from Mikro-Tasarim Ltd., which is a fabless IC design house specialized in the development of monolithic imaging sensors and ROICs for hybrid imaging sensors. MT6415CA is a low-noise snapshot CTIA ROIC, has a format of 640 × 512 and pixel pitch of 15 ”m, and has been developed with the system-on-chip architecture in mind, where all the timing and biasing for this ROIC are generated on-chip without requiring any external inputs. MT6415CA is a highly configurable ROIC, where many of its features can be programmed through a 3-wire serial interface allowing on-the-fly configuration of many ROIC features. It performs snapshot operation both using Integrate-Then-Read (ITR) and Integrate-While-Read (IWR) modes. The CTIA type pixel input circuitry has three gain modes with programmable full-well-capacity (FWC) values of 10.000 e-, 20.000 e-, and 350.000 e- in the very high gain (VHG), high-gain (HG), and low-gain (LG) modes, respectively. MT6415CA has an input referred noise level of less than 5 e- in the very high gain (VHG) mode, suitable for very low-noise SWIR imaging applications. MT6415CA has 8 analog video outputs that can be programmed in 8, 4, or 2-output modes with a selectable analog reference for pseudo-differential operation. The ROIC runs at 10 MHz and supports frame rate values up to 200 fps in the 8-output mode. The integration time can be programmed up to 1s in steps of 0.1 ”s. The ROIC uses 3.3 V and 1.8V supply voltages and dissipates less than 150 mW in the 4-output mode. MT6415CA is fabricated using a modern mixed-signal CMOS process on 200 mm CMOS wafers, and tested parts are available at wafer or die levels with test reports and wafer maps. A compact USB 3.0 camera and imaging software have been developed to demonstrate the imaging performance of SWIR sensors built with MT6415CA ROIC

  9. Perceived comfort and pressure distribution in casual footwear.

    PubMed

    Jordan, C; Payton, CJ; Bartlett, RM

    1997-04-01

    INTRODUCTION:: Footwear manufacturers view comfort as a basic customer need that is growing in importance and is increasingly competing with fashion as a reason for buying shoes. A number of researchers have suggested that pressures and forces between the foot and the insole may influence perceptions of comfort (Chen et al., 1994). To date, no study has attempted to measure the relationship between pressure variables and perceived comfort in a range of commercially available footwear and, furthermore, little attention had been given to the dorsum of the foot with respect to comfort and pressure distribution. METHODS:: Twenty male subjects without foot pathology walked the length of a 10 m walkway at a self-selected pace. A 'perception of comfort' questionnaire was designed to measure perceived plantar comfort in six regions (rearfoot medial, rearfoot lateral, midfoot medial, midfoot lateral, forefoot medial and forefoot lateral) and perceived dorsal comfort in two regions (flex-line and lacing). Ten commercially available shoes were selected to represent two distinct groups in terms of perceived comfort: comfortable and uncomfortable. Plantar and dorsal pressure data were collected using a Pedar in-shoe system and Mikro-EMED system (Novel GmbH) respectively. Analysis of variance tests were used to determine differences (p<0.01) between the two shoe groups. RESULTS:: Peak Pressure was found to be significantly greater for the uncomfortable group both for the total plantar surface and for the all regions of the foot measured. Maximum force was significantly greater for the uncomfortable group for the rearfoot and forefoot regions but significantly lower for the midfoot regions of the plantar surface. For the dorsal surface maximum force was found to be significantly greater for the uncomfortable group. Contact area was significantly greater for the comfortable group in the midfoot regions of the plantar surface but was significantly lower for the comfortable group at the dorsal surface. DISCUSSION:: This study showed that perceived comfort at the plantar and dorsal surfaces could be related to peak pressure and maximum force in all regions and contact area in the midfoot region of the plantar surface and the total dorsal surface. The relationship between perceived comfort and peak pressure was consistently negative across the entire surface of the foot, whereas the relationship between maximum force and perceived comfort varied depending on foot region. This emphasises the need for researchers to address specific regions of the shoe when measuring comfort. The findings of this study suggest that pressure measurement systems could be used by footwear manufacturers' attempting to improve the comfort of their footwear. PMID:11415701

  10. Possibilities for a valorisation of geomorphologic research deliverables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilhausen, M.; Götz, J.; Otto, J.-C.; Schrott, L.

    2009-04-01

    Many geomorphological studies focus on fundamental research questions in large parts, although there are lots of applied fields like landslide hazard assessment or water framework directive. As fundamental research is a common property, their outcomes should be more "open" and accessible to the public. This means that scientists have to find new ways presenting their results and outcomes besides publishing in scientific journals. This paper shows possibilities for a valorisation of geomorphologic research deliverables using print as well as digital media. Geotrails explain remarkable and exciting landscape features using information boards and become more and more popular and important for tourism in many parts of the world. With the growing interest in environmental change and outdoor activities, print media like field guides reach an increasing number of people. Field guides and Geotrails can be coupled in order to arise awareness about geomorphological landforms and to deliver more specific information on the site beyond the information given on the boards in the field. As field guides are designed for the general public they can be used for educational purposes as well. Today, this information can also be found in the internet offering virtual trips through landscapes using dynamic maps. Here, server side GIS technologies (WebGIS) using standardised interfaces provide new possibilities to show geomorphic data to the public and to share them with the scientific community. Furthermore, data formats like XML or KML are powerful tools for data exchange and can be used in interactive data viewers like Google Earth. We will present the Geotrail "Geomorphologischer Lehrpfad am Fuße der Zugspitze. Das Reintal - Eine Wanderung durch Raum und Zeit" (Bavarian Alps, Germany). Additionally, three geomorphologic WebGIS applications (Geomorphologic map Turtmanntal, Permafrostmap of Austria, Geomorphologic maps of Germany) will exemplify how geomorphologic information and data can be presented in the internet. These examples illustrate the dissemination of geomorphologic research deliverables with modern web technologies and classic print media aimed to laymen, students, and scientists in order to valorise geomorphologic research.

  11. Hermitesche RelativitÀtstheorie, Chromodynamik und Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treder, H.-J.

    Die Ausdehnung der Riemannschen Metrik der Allgemeinen RelativitĂ€tstheorie ins Komplexe bedeutet die Ersetzung der Symmetrie-BedingungenfĂŒr den metrischen Tensor, AffinitĂ€t und Ricci-Tensor durch die Hermiteschen BedingungenMit diesen Bedingungen fĂŒhrt das Einstein-Hilbert-Hamilton-Prinzipzu einer erweiterten Gravitationstheorie (Einstein), die im Sinne der EIH-Approximation neben der Newton-Einsteinschen Gravodynamik, auch die Chromodynamik der Elementarteilchenphysik enthĂ€lt.Die von den Einstein-Schrödingerschen Feldgleichungen der Hermiteschen RelativitĂ€tstheorie implizierte Wechselwirkung zwischen Gravo- und Chromodynamik erzwingt das Confinement. Ohne dieses Confinement wĂŒrde das Gravitationspotential divergieren, d.h., es könnte keine - nach Maßgabe der Einstein-Schrödingerschen Feldgleichungen - Riemannsche Raum-Zeit-Metrik gik = aik geben.Translated AbstractHermitian Relativity, Chromodynamics and ConfinementThe extension of the Riemannian metrics of General Relativity to the complex domain, i.e. the substitution of the symmetry conditions for the fundamental tensor gik, the affinity lik and the Ricci curvature Rik by the conditions of Hermiticity gives a Generalized Theory of Gravity (Einstein) which describes the Newton-Einstein gravodynamics combined with the chromodynamics of quarks.The Hermitian Theory of Relativity starts form the Einstein Lagrangian with and the Einstein-Schrödinger field equations result: > In the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann approximation (EIH) of General Relativity between point-like particles forces > are given by the conditions of integrability (generalized Bianchi-identics).Furthermore, solutions for the symmetrical part >

    of the equations exist only if there is confinement for the charges QA = 0. Then the field masses MA are given by
    >

    with the distance L between the charges QA.The equations of motions with distance-independent forces QAQB and the confinement QA = 0 are a consequence of the Einstein-Schrödinger equations for Hermitian Relativity. The forte Einstein-Straus equations (with Rik = 0) do not give charges QA and therefore the Newtonian forces only.>
  12. Gauge Fields in General Parametrical Approach and Their Finslerian Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanov, G. S.

    The covariance principle of general relativity is extended to internal space. Associated gauge fields and tensors are systematically described, whereupon the variational principle is set up for all gauge fields by applying a Palatini-type method, thereby giving rise to an attractive self-contained theory in which the Einstein equations are intrinsically synthesized with the generalized Yang-Mills equations. General gauge-covariant physical field equations are formulated, showing that currents, external + internal spin tensors, and energy-momentum tensors can be introduced unambiguously under these general conditions and that the associated conservation laws can be derived. The electromagnetic field finds its gauge-geometric origin as the gauge field related to internal densities. To be operative with the tensor indices of external and internal types, this general theory must be bimetric. The assumptions that the gauge-covariant derivatives of metric tensors should vanish simplify the theory to the level of a Finslerian gauge approach.Translated AbstractEichfelder in einem allgemeinen parametrisierten Ansatz und ihre Finslersche ReduktionDas Kovarianzprinzip der allgemeinen RelativitĂ€t wird auf den inneren Raum ausgedehnt. Die damit verbundenen Eichfelder und Tensoren werden systematisch beschrieben, wobei das Variationsprinzip fĂŒr alle Eichfelder durch Anwendung einer der Palatinischen Ă€hnlichen Methode aufgestellt wird. Es entsteht eine selbstkonsistente Theorie, die die Einstein-Gleichungen mit den verallgemeinerten Yang-Mills-Gleichungen organisch verbindet. Die allgemeinen eich-kovarianten physikalischen Feldgleichungen werden gebildet. Sie zeigen, daß die Ströme, die Ă€ußeren und inneren Spintensoren und die Energie-Impulstensoren, unter diesen allgemeinen Bedingungen eingefĂŒhrt werden können, und die damit verbundenen ErhaltungssĂ€tze ableitbar sind. Das elektromagnetische Feld findet seinen eich-geometrischen Ursprung als Eichfeld der inneren Dichte. Um die fĂŒr das Innere und das Äußere geltenden Tensorindizes zu beinhalten, muß die allgemeine Theorie bimetrisch sein. Die Annahme, daß die eich-kovarianten Ableitungen des metrischen Tensors verschwinden sollen, vereinfachen die Theorie auf das Niveau eines Finslerschen Eichansatzes.

  13. The influence of bandage characteristics and inter-individual application variations on underneath bandage pressures.

    PubMed

    Morlock, MM; Nassutt, R; Bonin, V

    1997-04-01

    INTRODUCTION:: Cohesive bandages are applied to the legs of racehorses and horses with limb injuries for protection (prevention of abrasion) and support (reduction of movement at the fetlock joint). The support capacity of all commercially available bandages has been questioned. Consequently, the protection aspect of bandaging and the negative side effects, which can be caused by bandaging (eg pressure induced ischemia with subsequent necrosis), were emphasized. High pressures underneath bandages were shown to cause reduced blood flow. Pressures underneath certain types of bandages were shown to be higher than under others. It is unclear if these differences were due to differences in material characteristics between the bandage types or caused by differences in application by the trainers. The purpose of this study was to determine (a) if differences between different types of bandages are observed if these are applied similarly and (b) if earlier observed differences in pressures underneath bandages are reproducible when wrapped by different trainers. METHODS AND MATERIAL:: (a) A wrapping machine for the application of bandages to an artificial joint (simulating the human knee joint) was designed and built. The machine allows to wrap bandages with adjustable, constant tension under well defined wrapping angles in order to simulate a wrapping technique similar to the wrapping by trainers. The artificial joint is equipped with two pressure sensors (Parotec, Germany). After bandage application, the artificial joint was placed in a specially designed testing machine and cycled through 200 cycles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees of flexion at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Pressure data were collected at a frequency of 20 Hz. The force required to unwind the bandage from its core was measured with a material testing machine. Five samples each of four different 4" wide cohesive bandages were tested: 'E': high modulus latex, 'V': low mod. latex, 'C': low mod. latex, 'F': medium mod. laminate non-latex. All bandages were applied at manufacturer suggested tensions (50% intercept length). (b) Fifth-three trainers from the Kentucky Horse Center (Lexington, KY) and the Payson Park Training Facility (Indiantown, FL) volunteered for the study. They applied their favoured brand and a type 'F' bandage to an artificial horse limb. Underneath bandage pressures were collected using a pressure mat (Mikro Emed, Novel GmbH, Germany) placed over the fetlock joint. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:: (a) Maximum pressures during maximum flexion underneath the type 'E' bandage (5.7+/-0.4 N/cm(2)) were significantly higher than for all other bandages (no difference between other bandages, range 3.5+/-0.6 to 4.0+/-0.4 N/cm). The unwinding force for the type 'F' bandage was significantly lower (10.1+/-5.5N) than for all other bandages (range 22.7+/-11.3 to 42.3+/-15.1N). (b) Trainers applied the type 'E' bandage significantly tighter than the other bandages (18.7+/-3.7 N/cm(2) vs a range of 7.5+/-5.4 to 10.4+/-6.1 N/cm(2)); a tendency was observed that the type 'F' bandage was applied looser than the type 'V' bandage. The results of part (b) of this study are consistent with the earlier study. Based on the results of part (a) of this study it can be speculated that (I) The high pressures underneath the type 'E' bandage are clearly due to its material characteristics, and (II) The differences between the other bandages are not caused by material characteristics but probably by the differences in unwinding force. If the unwinding force is higher than the force required to extend the bandage to 50% intercept length, trainers will probably wrap tighter as suggested and desired. PMID:11415709

  14. MT3250BA: a 320×256-50”m snapshot microbolometer ROIC for high-resistance detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Akin, Tayfun

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new microbolometer readout integrated circuit (MT3250BA) designed for high-resistance detector arrays. MT3250BA is the first microbolometer readout integrated circuit (ROIC) product from Mikro-Tasarim Ltd., which is a fabless IC design house specialized in the development of monolithic CMOS imaging sensors and ROICs for hybrid photonic imaging sensors and microbolometers. MT3250BA has a format of 320 × 256 and a pixel pitch of 50 ”m, developed with a system-on-chip architecture in mind, where all the timing and biasing for this ROIC are generated on-chip without requiring any external inputs. MT3250BA is a highly configurable ROIC, where many of its features can be programmed through a 3-wire serial interface allowing on-the-fly configuration of many ROIC features. MT3250BA has 2 analog video outputs and 1 analog reference output for pseudo-differential operation, and the ROIC can be programmed to operate in the 1 or 2-output modes. A unique feature of MT3250BA is that it performs snapshot readout operation; therefore, the image quality will only be limited by the thermal time constant of the detector pixels, but not by the scanning speed of the ROIC, as commonly found in the conventional microbolometer ROICs performing line-by-line (rolling-line) readout operation. The signal integration is performed at the pixel level in parallel for the whole array, and signal integration time can be programmed from 0.1 ”s up to 100 ms in steps of 0.1 ”s. The ROIC is designed to work with high-resistance detector arrays with pixel resistance values higher than 250 kΩ. The detector bias voltage can be programmed on-chip over a 2 V range with a resolution of 1 mV. The ROIC has a measured input referred noise of 260 ”V rms at 300 K. The ROIC can be used to build a microbolometer infrared sensor with an NETD value below 100 mK using a microbolometer detector array fabrication technology with a high detector resistance value (≄ 250 KΩ), a high TCR value (≄ 2.5 % / K), and a sufficiently low pixel thermal conductance (Gth ≀ 20 nW / K). The ROIC uses a single 3.3 V supply voltage and dissipates less than 75 mW in the 1-output mode at 60 fps. MT3250BA is fabricated using a mixed-signal CMOS process on 200 mm CMOS wafers, and tested wafers are available with test data and wafer map. A USB based compact test electronics and software are available for quick evaluation of this new microbolometer ROIC.

  15. Comprehensive structural and chemical (CO2, Fe/Fe Mg, H2O) investigations of Mg-Fe cordierite with micro Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefeker, U.; Kaindl, R.; Tropper, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Mg-Fe silicate cordierite with the idealized formula (Fe, Mg)2Al4Si5O18 occurs as a hexagonal and an orthorhombic polymorph with disordered/ordered Al-Si distribution on the tetrahedral sites. Most of the natural cordierites are fully ordered. Six-membered rings of (Si,Al)O4 are piled in the direction of the crystallographic c-axis and form channels, laterally and vertically linked by additional (Al, Si) tetrahedrons. Mg and Fe in varying fractions occupy the octahedrally coordinated M-sites. CO2 and H2O (and other volatiles) can be incorporated into the structural channels, thus cordierite can be used for paleofluid reconstruction. The vibration energies of incorporated volatiles, their interaction with the lattice and variations of certain lattice-vibration energies caused by the Mg-Fe exchange can be determined with Raman spectroscopy, allowing chemical quantifications and structural investigations. A method for the semi-quantitative determination of CO2-contents of natural cordierites by Kaindl et al. (2006) was optimized and enhanced by Haefeker et al. (2007). CO2 contents can be measured in single crystals and thin sections with an error of ± 0.05 - 0.09 wt.-%. Based on the Mg-Fe exchange with garnet, cordierite can be used as a geothermobarometer. Recent investigations of synthetic Mg-Fe cordierites with XFe = 0 - 1 have shown a linear downshift of six selected lattice peaks between 100 and 1250 cm-1 with the Mg-Fe contents. Correlation diagrams allow an estimation of the Mg-Fe contents in synthetic and natural samples. The experimental data are in good agreement with the results of quantum-mechanical calculations of the Raman spectra of Mg- and Fe cordierite (Kaindl et al., 2011) allowing the assignment of the peaks to specific vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Natural Mg-Fe cordierites are mainly orthorhombic with a fully ordered Al/Si distribution on the tetrahedral sites. However, the disordered hexagonal polymorph is observed in many experiments. Raman spectroscopy allows easy distinguishing between the two polymorphs by the splitting of a characteristic peak at ~569 cm-1. Crystallographic and Raman spectroscopic data of the Fe endmember polymorphs are rare in literature, therefore, Raman and single-crystal x-ray data of synthetic samples were collected and compared with the well-known Mg and Mg-Fe cordierites. First compositional Raman maps show a relation between the degree of ordering of Fe cordierite and the amount of water incorporated into the channels. The effects of water incorporation on the Raman spectra of Mg cordierites is currently being evaluated. Preliminary investigations indicate a downshift of the peak at ~1186 cm-1with increasing water contents. Literature: Kaindl, R., Tropper P., Deibl, I. (2006) A semi-quantitative technique for determination of CO2in cordierite by Raman spectroscopy in thin sections. Eur. J. Mineral, 18, 331-335 Haefeker, U. (2007) Verbesserte semiquantitative Analyse von CO2 in natĂŒrlichem Cordierit mit Hilfe der Mikro-Raman-Spektroskopie. Unpublished master thesis. University of Innsbruck, 86p Kaindl, R., Többens, D. M., Haefeker, U. (2011) Quantum-mechanical calculations of the Raman spectra of Mg- and Fe-cordierite. American Mineralogist, 96, 1568-1574

  16. PREFACE: NC-AFM 2004: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Udo

    2005-03-01

    With the ongoing miniaturization of devices and controlled nanostructuring of materials, the importance of atomic-scale information on surfaces and surface properties is growing continuously. The astonishing progress in nanoscience and nanotechnology that took place during the last two decades was in many ways related to recent progress in high-resolution imaging techniques such as scanning tunnelling microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Since the mid-1990s, non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) performed in ultrahigh vacuum has evolved as an alternative technique that achieves atomic resolution, but without the restriction to conducting surfaces of the previously established techniques. Advances of the rapidly developing field of NC-AFM are discussed at annual conferences as part of a series that started in 1998 in Osaka, Japan. This special issue of Nanotechnology is a compilation of original work presented at the 7th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy that took place in Seattle, USA, 12-15 September 2004. Over the years, the conference grew in size and scope. Atomic resolution imaging of oxides and semiconductors remains an issue. Noticeable new developments have been presented in this regard such as, e.g., the demonstrated ability to manipulate individual atoms. Additionally, the investigation of individual molecules, clusters, and organic materials gains more and more attention. In this context, considerable effort is undertaken to transfer the NC-AFM principle based on frequency modulation to applications in air and liquids with the goal of enabling high-resolution surface studies of biological material in native environments, as well as to reduce the experimental complexity, which so far involves the availability of (costly) vacuum systems. Force spectroscopy methods continue to be improved and are applied to topics such as the imaging of the three-dimensional force field as a function of the distance with atomic resolution, the investigation of near-surface electronic states, the quantification of adhesion forces, and the lateral mapping of surface potentials. The origin of energy dissipation, which is closely related to an in-depth understanding of tip-surface interactions and imaging mechanisms, was the subject of an ongoing discussion and addressed by various theoretical, computational, and experimental contributions. A characteristic of the NC-AFM conference series is the lively and friendly atmosphere, which year after year stimulates scientific discussions between the participants. This time, the programme included 5 invited talks, 84 contributed presentations, and 113 participants; furthermore, three educational lectures were given as part of a pre-conference workshop targeted at NC-AFM newcomers, which was attended by 30 participants. I would like to thank the members of the international steering committee and the programme committee for their continued effort in organizing the meeting. Special thanks go to the chair of the programme and local organizing committees S Fain and the conference manager J Kvamme for making the meeting a success. Financial support is acknowledged from the corporate sponsors MikroMasch USA, Nanonis GmbH, Nanosurf AG, Omicron Nanotechnology, PSIA, Inc., and RHK Technology, as well as from the institutional sponsors National Science Foundation and PNNL/UW Joint Institute for Nanoscience. Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to everyone who participated in assembling this special issue including the authors, the reviewers, and, in particular, the excellent and experienced journal team from the Institute of Physics Publishing headed by Nina Couzin, for devoting their time and efforts so that we could make this issue a useful representation of the progress in NC-AFM while maintaining our tight publication schedule. In conclusion, I would like to mention that the Seattle conference was the first one of the NC-AFM series that took place in the USA. As such, it was part of a series of recent activities within the USA, which will help in establishing a strong domestic NC-AFM community.

  17. The effect of pre-Hispanic agriculture practices on soils in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes (region Laramate, 14.5°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leceta, Fernando; MĂ€chtle, Bertil; Schukraft, Gerd; Eitel, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    An integrated geoarchaeological study focuses on a group of three archaeological sites. This study comprises soils on pre-Columbian artificial terraces against their nondisturbed pedological context. Six terraces and three soils lacking of archaeological evidence and actual use, are examined to identify morphological and geochemical features generated by the sustained agrarian use. Aim is to understand the land-use and pedological history of the Laramate region, as an agricultural center in pre-Columbian times. Preliminary results show recurrent sequences within the terraces, characterized by two edaphic cycles; a poorly developed Ap modern topsoil is underlaid by one well-preserved 2Ah paleosol. Analytical data shows prehispanic terraces as a sustained agricultural system. Marked by its use and position, higher availability of nutrients and deeper soils, are found at agricultural terraces, located over a debris cone. Significant charcoal fragments for radiocarbon dating at Ayllapampa and Sihulca archeological sites, with a minimum age for terrace construction of Cal 1 sigma AD 675-766 and 782-893 respectively; it remains unclear if another stage of construction. There is no evidence that the terraces have alternated between periods of cultural decline and boom. Rather, reconstructions or modifications to the original structure and the absence of paleosols, address to a continuous use until its abandonment. Today, they produce only under fallow-system. There are no archeological signs of massive irrigation systems (Reindel 2011, pers. comm.). Its installation could only be linked to more favorable climatic conditions, like those described for The Early Horizon (800-200 BC), The Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD), and The Late Intermediate (Period 1000-1438 AD) (Eitel et al. 2005, MĂ€chtle 2007). As reported on other archeological sites in southern Peru (Branch et al. 2007), an extensive terrace agricultural system during the Middle Horizon (500-1000 AD) could be also attested in the Laramate area. Retention of eroded loessic material transported against the terrace walls could be associated to periods of increased geomorphodynamics founded in the surroundings by 600 AD (Forbriger & Schittek 2011, unpublished raw data). References Branch, N., Kemp, R., Silva, B., Meddens F., Williams, A., Kendall, A., Vivanco Pomacanchari, C. (2007): Testing the sustainability and sensitivity to climatic change of terrace agricultural systems in the Peruvian Andes: a pilot study. Journal of Archaeological Science 34 (2007) 1-9. Eitel, B., Hecht, S., MĂ€chtle, B., Schukraft, G., Kadereit, A., Wagner, G. A., Kromer, B., Unkel, I., Reindel, M. (2005): Geoarchaeological evidence from desert loess in the Nasca-Palpa region, southern Peru: Palaeoenvironmental changes and their impact on Pre-Columbian cultures. Archaeometry 47, 137-185. MĂ€chtle, B. (2007): Geomorphologisch-bodenkundliche Untersuchungen zur Rekonstruktion der holozĂ€nen Umweltgeschichte in der nördlichen Atacama im Raum Palpa/SĂŒdperu. Dissertation, Heidelberger Geographische Arbeiten 123.- 227 S.

  18. The member of the Academy H.P. Keres and the Relativity theory in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusk, P.; Muursepp, P. V.; Piir, Ivar

    1987-10-01

    The first popular lecture on the Einstein theory of relativity was given in Estonia already in 1914 by Jaan Sarv (1877-1954)[1],afterwards a professor of mathematics at the Tartu University. The first student courses on special relativity were delivered by Professor of Mathematics Juri Nuut (1892-1952): non-Euclidean geometry (1930), the mathematical theory of relativity (1932/1933),the Lorenz transformations (1937). His own research work concerned the Lobachevsky geometry [7] and its application to cosmology [6]. Harald Keres qraguated from the Tartu University in 1936. He gave the first student course on general relativity (based on books [11-14]in 1940.In 1942,he got the dr.phil.nat degree form the Tartu University for his theses "Raum und Zeit in der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie". The degree of the doctor of mathematical and physical sciences was confirmed by VAK (the All-Union Higher Attestation Commission) in 1949.In this period, he got aquainted with the leading Soviet scientists working on General Relativity, prof.V.A.Fock,Prof.D.D.Ivanenko,Prof.A.Z.Petrov,and Prof.M.F.Shirokov. After World War two all-union university courses were introduced in Tartu State University. According to the curriculum of the course the special theory of relativity is a part of electrodynamics obligatory for all students of the department of Physics. From 1947 till 1985 this course was delivered by Prof.PaulKard(1914-1985).He also published a number of text-books on the subject [15-19]. The general theory of relativity was read by Prof.H.Keres in 1951-1960 and later by his pupils R.Lias and A.Koppel [20-23] as a special course for students specializing in theoretical Physics. The first PHD-s in general relativity were made by R.Lias [27](1954) and I.Piir [28] (1955). In 1961, Prof.H.Keres was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R. He left the TArtu State University and began to work in the Institute of Physics as the head of the Department of THeoretical Physics.His main scientific works [35-40]were made in the sixties.In his works he introduced inertial systems that can be used in the Einstein theory as well as in the Newton theory of gravitation.these systems are determined by freely falling particles and clocks and cannot be realized as a rigid frame of references. In these frames, the non-relativistic Newtonian theory can be considered as a limit of the relativistic Einstein theory. Currently the main directions of the research on general relativity in Tartu are the following: 1) connections between the relativistic and non-relativistic theories of gravitation and the corresponding exact solutions (A.Koppel), 2) radiation fields fields in a curved space-time,especially the propagation and detection of gravitational waves (I.Piir,V.Unt, R.Tamello, R.Mankin). The modern trends in theoretical physics are represented by the investigations in supergravity,curved superspace and superstrings (P.Kuusk). A detailed history of the research work on cosmology in Estonia is the subject of a subsequent paper.

  19. Soft-sediment deformation structures in Late Pleistocene alluvial-aeolian sediments caused by GIA induced seismicity along the Osning Thrust (northern Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Christian; Winsemann, Jutta

    2013-04-01

    Historic sources report that northern Germany was affected by significant earthquakes during the last 500 years (Leydecker 2009), but the only modern study so far on earthquake related soft-sediment deformation structures was carried out by Hoffmann and Reicherter (2012) for the Baltic Sea coast area of northeastern Germany. We present new data on seismically triggered soft-sediment deformation structures in Pleniglacial to Late Glacial alluvial fan and aeolian sand-sheet deposits of the upper Senne (MĂŒnsterland Embayment) and link this soft-sediment deformation directly to Late Glacial earthquakes generated along the Osning Thrust, which is one of the major fault systems in Central Europe. The reactivation of the Mesozoic Osning Thrust was an effect of glacial isostatic adjustment during the Pleniglacial to Late Glacial (Brandes et al., 2012). Young tectonic activity in this area is indicated by the 1612 Bielefeld earthquake (Vogt & GrĂŒnthal 1994). The analysed soft-sediment deformation structures are exposed in two sand pits in the vicinity of the Osning Thrust and include a complex fault and fold pattern, clastic dykes, sand volcanoes, sills, irregular intrusive sedimentary bodies, flower- to antler-like dewatering structures, flame structures, and ball-and-pillow structures. There is a distinct variation of the soft-sediment deformation style parallel to the trend of the Osning Thrust. In the northwestern part of the study area, close to Oerlinghausen there is a wide range of structures developed that is mainly related to fluidization processes. In contrast, in the southeast only flower- to antler-like dewatering structures and normal fault-arrays occur. This might indicate that the epicentre of the Late Pleniglacial to Late Glacial seismic event was close to Oerlinghausen. It is the first time in northern Germany, that fluidization and liquefaction features can be directly related to a fault. The occurrence of seismicity in the Late Pleniglacial to Late Glacial together with the 17th century seismicity indicates ongoing crustal movements along the Osning Thrust and sheds new light on the seismic activity of northern Germany. The association of soft-sediment deformation structures implies that the Late Glacial earthquake had a Richter magnitude of at least 5. References Brandes C, Winsemann J, Roskosch J, Meinsen J, Tanner DC, Frechen M, Steffen H, Wu P (2012). Activity of the Osning thrust during the late Weichselian: ice-sheet and lithosphere interactions. Quat Sci Rev 38:49-62 Hoffmann G, Reicherter K (2012) Soft-sediment deformation of Late Pleistocene sediments along the southwestern coast of the Baltic Sea (NE Germany). Int J Earth Sci 101:351-363 Leydecker G (2009) Erdbebenkatalog fĂŒr die Bundesrepublik Deutschland mit Randgebieten fĂŒr die Jahre 800 - 2007. Datenfile www.bgr.de/quakecat, Bundesanstalt fĂŒr Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover. Vogt J, GrĂŒnthal G (1994) Die Erdbebenfolge vom Herbst 1612 im Raum Bielefeld. Geowissenschaften 12:236-240

  20. Advanced Key Technologies for Hot Control Surfaces in Space Re- Entry Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogigli, Michael; Pradier, Alain; Tumino, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    (1)MAN Technologie AG, D- 86153 Augsburg, Germany (2,3) ESA, 2200 Noordwijk ZH, The Netherlands Current space re-entry vehicles (e.g. X-38 vehicle 201, the prototype of the International Space Station's Crew Return Vehicle (CRV)) require advanced control surfaces (so called body flaps). Such control surfaces allow the design of smaller and lighter vehicles as well as faster re-entries (compared to the US Shuttle). They are designed as light-weight structures that need no metallic parts, need no mass or volume consuming heat sinks to protect critical components (e.g. bearings) and that can be operated at temperatures of more than 1600 "C in air transferring high mechanical loads (dynamic 40 kN, static 70 kN) at the same time. Because there is a need for CRV and also for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) in future, the European Space Agency (ESA) felt compelled to establish a "Future European Space Transportation and Investigation Program,, (FESTIP) and a "General Support for Technology Program,, (GSTP). One of the main goals of these programs was to develop and qualify key-technologies that are able to master the above mentioned challenging requirements for advanced hot control surfaces and that can be applied for different vehicles. In 1996 MAN Technologie has started the development of hot control surfaces for small lifting bodies in the national program "HeiĂŒ Strukturen,,. One of the main results of this program was that especially the following CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) key technologies need to be brought up to space flight standard: Complex CMC Structures, CMC Bearings, Metal-to-CMC Joining Technologies, CMC Fasteners, Oxidation Protection Systems and Static and Dynamic Seals. MAN Technologie was contracted by ESA to continue the development and qualification of these key technologies in the frame of the FESTIP and the GSTP program. Development and qualification have successfully been carried out. The key technologies have been applied for the X-38 vehicle 201 body flaps that have been designed, manufactured and qualified also by MAN Technologie in the frame of the national TETRA program ("Technologien fu zuku ftige Raum-Transportsysteme,,). A set of two body flaps will be delivered to NASA at the beginning of 2002 to be integrated into the vehicle 201. Based on development- and qualification tests, the paper describes main technical properties and features of these key technologies that at the same time represent the status of the art. In a qualification test (simultaneous application of thermal and mechanical loads with bearing movements in oxidising atmosphere) of a full scaled CMC bearing, five complete re-entries have been simulated successfully. The paper informs about applied mechanical load and temperature histories as well as about the number of intermittent bearing movements. The paper further informs about the complex CMC attachment structures (attachment of bearing into the body flap and load introduction) that have been qualified together with the CMC bearing. The attachment of the body flap to the vehicle's aft structure has also been qualified by tests in which also four re- entries have been simulated successfully. The attachment in principle is an interfacing structure between the "hot" (1600 "C) CMC body flap and the "cold,, (175 "C) metallic vehicle's aft structure that is able to transfer high me- chanical loads at high temperatures and minimise the heat flux through interfacing components in such way that the temperature difference of 1600 "C 175 "C = 1425 "C is brought down over a structure-length of only 200 mm. The paper informs about applied mechanical load and temperature histories and about the safety margins that have been demonstrated by rupture tests. Mechanical load carrying capacity and thermal resistance of ceramic fasteners have been demonstrated in several development tests which cover tension-, shear-, fatigue- and self locking-tests as well as tests with fastener assemblies representative for the body flaps. The reliability of these fasteners has also been demonstrated in the bearing and body flap qualification tests. In a comprehensive development test campaign, oxidation protection systems as well as repair methods have been developed and successfully applied for the body flap structure and components that reliably can be protected at least for four re-entries. The development of key technologies is continued in the national ASTRA program ("Basistechnologien fu keramische Hochtemperatur-Komponenten,,) and in international programs that among others focus on to improve the reusability of high temperature CMC components for RLVs.