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Sample records for landsat overlay los

  1. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Metro Los Angeles, Calif.: Malibu to Mount Baldy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount San Antonio (more commonly known as Mount Baldy) crowns the San Gabriel Mountains northeast of Los Angeles in this computer-generated east-northeast perspective viewed from above the Malibu coastline. On the right, the Pacific Ocean and Santa Monica are in the foreground. Further away are downtown Los Angeles (appearing grey) and then the San Gabriel Valley, which lies adjacent to the mountain front. The San Fernando Valley appears in the left foreground, separated from the ocean by the Santa Monica Mountains. At 3,068 meters (10,064 feet) Mount Baldy rises above the tree line, exposing bright white rocks that are not snow capped in this early autumn scene.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), an enhanced color Landsat 7 satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is exaggerated one and one-half times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA

  2. SRTM Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay: Los Angeles to San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's topography poses challenges for road builders. Northwest of Los Angeles, deformation of Earth's crust along the Pacific-North American crustal plate boundary has made transportation difficult. Direct connection between metropolitan Los Angeles (image lower left) and California's Central Valley (image top center) through the rugged terrain seen on the left side of this image was long avoided in favor of longer, but easier paths. However, over the last century, three generations of roads have traversed this terrain. The first was 'The Ridge Route', a two-lane road, built in 1915, which followed long winding ridge lines that included 697curves. The second, built in 1933, was to become four-lane U.S. Highway 99. It generally followed widened canyon bottoms. The third is the current eight lane Interstate 5 freeway, built in the 1960s, which is generally notched into hillsides, but also includes a stretch of several miles where the two directions of travel are widely separated and driving is 'on the left', a rarity in the United States. Such an unusual highway configuration was necessary in order to optimize the road grades for uphill and downhill traffic in this topographically challenging setting.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary SRTM elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair, and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive

  3. Anaglyph, Landsat overlay Honolulu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area with limited space and water resources. This anaglyph, combining a Landsat image with SRTM topography, shows how the topography controls the urban growth pattern, causes cloud formation, and directs the rainfall runoff pattern. Red/blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. Features of interest in this scene include Diamond Head (an extinct volcano on the right side of the image), Waikiki Beach (just left of Diamond Head), the Punchbowl National Cemetary (another extinct volcano, left of center), downtown Honolulu and Honolulu harbor (lower left of center), and offshore reef patterns. The slopes of the Koolau mountain range are seen in the upper half of the image. Clouds commonly hang above ridges and peaks of the Hawaiian Islands, and in this rendition appear draped directly on the mountains. The clouds are actually about 1000 meters (3300 feet) above sea level. High resolution topographic and image data allow ecologists and planners to assess the effects of urban development on the sensitive ecosystems in tropical regions.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with a Landsat 7 satellite image collected coincident with the SRTM mission. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the

  4. Perspective with Landsat Overlay: Antelope Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Antelope Valley is bounded by two of the most active faults in California: the Garlock fault, which fronts the distant mountains in this view, and the San Andreas fault, part of which is seen bounding the mountains in the left foreground. In this view, Antelope Valley is in the foreground, the Tehachapi Mountains form the left skyline, and ranges within the southernmost Sierra Nevada form the right skyline. Antelope Valley is directly north of Los Angeles and is the westernmost part of the Mojave Desert. It is a closed basin. Stream flow here ends at Rosamond and Rogers dry lakes, which appear bright white. Dry lakes like these are common where tectonic activity raises and lowers parts of the Earth's crust, and thus the topographic surface, faster than stream flow can fill depressions with water, and then overflow and cut escape channels to other basins and eventually to the sea. The Sierra Nevada, the Tehachapi, and other mountains generally to the west create a rain shadow desert here. Thus, the area definitely has the active tectonics and low rainfall combination that leads to closed basin topography.

    This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Shading of the SRTM elevation model was added to enhance topographic appearance. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three

  5. Perspective view, Landsat overlay Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image shows a perspective view of the area around Pasadena, California, just north of Los Angeles. The cluster of hills surrounded by freeways on the left is the Verdugo Hills, which lie between the San Gabriel Valley in the foreground and the San Fernando Valley in the upper left. The San Gabriel Mountains are seen across the top of the image, and parts of the high desert near the city of Palmdale are visible along the horizon on the right. Several urban features can be seen in the image. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is the bright cluster of buildings just right of center; the flat tan area to the right of JPL at the foot of the mountains is a new housing development devoid of vegetation. Two freeways (the 210 and the 134) cross near the southeastern end of the Verdugo Hills near a white circular feature, the Rose Bowl. The commercial and residential areas of the city of Pasadena are the bright areas clustered around the freeway. These data will be used for a variety of applications including urban planning and natural hazard risk analysis.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers

  6. Anaglyph, Landsat Overlay: Wellington, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, is located on the shores of Port Nicholson, a natural harbor at the south end of North Island. The city was founded in 1840 by British emigrants and now has a regional population of more than 400,000 residents. As seen here, the natural terrain imposes strong control over the urban growth pattern. Rugged hills generally rising to 300 meters (1,000 feet) help protect the city and harbor from strong winter winds.

    New Zealand is seismically active and faults are readily seen in the topography. The Wellington Fault forms the straight northwestern (upper left) shoreline of the harbor. Toward the southwest (lower left) the fault crosses through the city, then forms linear canyons in the hills before continuing offshore. Toward the northeast (upper right) the fault forms the sharp mountain front along the northern edge of the heavily populated Hutt Valley.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then using the topographic data to create two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30 meter (99 foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and will provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space

  7. Perspective view, Landsat overlay Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area with limited space and water resources. This perspective view, combining a Landsat image with SRTM topography, shows how the topography controls the urban growth pattern, causes cloud formation, and directs the rainfall runoff pattern. Features of interest in this scene include downtown Honolulu (right), Honolulu Harbor (right), Pearl Harbor (center), and offshore reef patterns (foreground). The Koolau mountain range runs through the center of the image. On the north shore of the island are the Mokapu Peninsula and Kaneohe Bay (upper right). Clouds commonly hang above ridges and peaks of the Hawaiian Islands, and in this rendition appear draped directly on the mountains. The clouds are actually about 1000 meters (3300 feet) above sea level. High resolution topographic and image data allow ecologists and planners to assess the effects of urban development on the sensitive ecosystems in tropical regions.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat 7 satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated about six times vertically. The Landsat 7 image was acquired on February 12, 2000, and was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS)Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The

  8. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Sacramento, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    California's state capitol, Sacramento, can be seen clustered along the American and Sacramento Rivers in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the west. Folsom Lake is in the center and the Sierra Nevada is above, with the edge of Lake Tahoe just visible at top center.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 38.6 deg. North lat., 121.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: looking east Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  9. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska, Perspective with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Malaspina Glacier in southeastern Alaska is considered the classic example of a piedmont glacier. Piedmont glaciers occur where valley glaciers exit a mountain range onto broad lowlands, are no longer laterally confined, and spread to become wide lobes. Malaspina Glacier is actually a compound glacier, formed by the merger of several valley glaciers, the most prominent of which seen here are Agassiz Glacier (left) and Seward Glacier (right). In total, Malaspina Glacier is up to 65 kilometers (40 miles) wide and extends up to 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the mountain front nearly to the sea.

    This perspective view was created from a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landsat views both visible and infrared light, which have been combined here into a color composite that generally shows glacial ice in light blue, snow in white, vegetation in green, bare rock in grays and tans, and the ocean (foreground) in dark blue. The back (northern) edge of the data set forms a false horizon that meets a false sky.

    Glaciers erode rocks, carry them down slope, and deposit them at the edge of the melting ice, typically in elongated piles called moraines. The moraine patterns at Malaspina Glacier are quite spectacular in that they have huge contortions that result from the glacier crinkling as it gets pushed from behind by the faster-moving valley glaciers.

    Glaciers are sensitive indicators of climatic change. They can grow and thicken with increasing snowfall and/or decreased melting. Conversely, they can retreat and thin if snowfall decreases and/or atmospheric temperatures rise and cause increased melting. Landsat imaging has been an excellent tool for mapping the changing geographic extent of glaciers since 1972. The elevation measurements taken by SRTM in February 2000 now provide a near-global baseline against which future non-polar region glacial thinning or thickening can be assessed.

  10. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space

  11. Perspective with Landsat Overlay, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Kilimanjaro (Kilima Njaro or 'shining mountain' in Swahili), the highest point in Africa, reaches 5,895 meters (19,340 feet) above sea level, tall enough to maintain a permanent snow cap despite being just 330 kilometers (210 miles) south of the equator. It is the tallest free-standing mountain on the Earth's land surface world, rising about 4,600 meters (15,000 feet) above the surrounding plain. Kilimanjaro is a triple volcano (has three peaks) that last erupted perhaps more than 100,000 years ago but still exudes volcanic gases. It is accompanied by about 20 other nearby volcanoes, some of which are seen to the west (left) in this view, prominently including Mount Meru, which last erupted only about a century ago. The volcanic mountain slopes are commonly fertile and support thick forests, while the much drier grasslands of the plains are home to elephants, lions, and other savanna wildlife.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 7 satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved

  12. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska, Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph view of Malaspina Glacier in southeastern Alaska was created from a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Malaspina Glacier is considered the classic example of a piedmont glacier. Piedmont glaciers occur where valley glaciers exit a mountain range onto broad lowlands, are no longer laterally confined, and spread to become wide lobes. Malaspina Glacier is actually a compound glacier, formed by the merger of several valley glaciers, the most prominent of which seen here are Agassiz Glacier (left) and Seward Glacier (right). In total, Malaspina Glacier is up to 65 kilometers (40 miles) wide and extends up to 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the mountain front nearly to the sea.

    Glaciers erode rocks, carry them down slope, and deposit them at the edge of the melting ice, typically in elongated piles called moraines. The moraine patterns at Malaspina Glacier are quite spectacular in that they have huge contortions that result from the glacier crinkling as it gets pushed from behind by the faster-moving valley glaciers.

    Numerous other features of the glaciers and the adjacent terrain are clearly seen when viewing this image at full resolution. The series of tonal arcs on Agassiz Glacier's extension onto the piedmont are called 'ogives.' These arcs are believed to be seasonal features created by deformation of the glacier as it passes over bedrock irregularities at differing speeds through the year. Assuming one light-and-dark ogive pair per year, the rate of motion of the glacial ice can be estimated (in this case, about 200 meters per year where the ogives are most prominent). Just to the west, moraine deposits abut the eroded bedrock terrain, forming a natural dam that has created a lake. Near the northwest corner of the scene, a recent landslide has deposited rock debris atop a small glacier. Sinkholes are common in many areas of the moraine deposits. The sinkholes form when

  13. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  14. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Mt. Pinos, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Prominently displayed in this image, Mt. Pinos, at 2,692 meters (8,831 feet) is the highest peak in the Los Padres National Forest. Named for the mantle of pine trees covering its slopes and summit, it offers one of the best stargazing sites in Southern California. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data were combined with Landsat data to generate this perspective view looking toward the northwest. Not only is the mountain popular with astronomers and astro-photographers, it is also popular for hiking trails and winter sports.

    The broad low relief area in the right foreground is Cuddy Valley. Cuddy Valley Road is the bright line on the right (north)side of the valley. Just to the left and paralleling the road is a scarp (cliff) formed by the San Andreas fault. The fault slices through the mountains here and then bends and continues onto the Carrizo Plain (right center horizon). This entire segment of the San Andreas fault broke in a major earthquake in 1857.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter(98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National

  15. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Fernando Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Fernando Valley (lower right of center) is part of Los Angeles and includes well over one million people. Two major disasters have occurred here in the last few decades: the 1971 Sylmar earthquake and the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Both quakes caused major damage to homes, freeways, and other structures and included major injuries and fatalities. The Northridge earthquake was the one of the costliest natural disasters in United States history. Understanding earthquake risks requires understanding a location's geophysical setting, and topographic data are of substantial benefit in that regard. Landforms are often characteristic of specific tectonic processes, such as ground movement along faults. Elevation models, such as those produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), are particularly useful in visualizing regional scale landforms that are too large to be seen directly on-site. They can also be used to model the propagation of damaging seismic waves, which helps in urban planning. In recent years, elevation models have also been a critical input to radar interferometric studies, which reveal detailed patterns of ground deformation from earthquakes that had never before been seen.

    This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from SRTM. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect

  16. Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat, Los Angeles, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Los Angeles, Calif., is one of the world's largest metropolitan areas with a population of about 15 million people. The urban areas mostly cover the coastal plains and lie within the inland valleys. The intervening and adjacent mountains are generally too rugged for much urban development. This in large part because the mountains are 'young', meaning they are still building (and eroding) in this seismically active (earthquake prone) region.

    Earthquake faults commonly lie between the mountains and the lowlands. The San Andreas fault, the largest fault in California, likewise divides the very rugged San Gabriel Mountains from the low-relief Mojave Desert, thus forming a straight topographic boundary between the top center and lower right corner of the image. We present two versions of this perspective image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM): one with and one without a graphic overlay that maps faults that have been active in Late Quaternary times (white lines). The fault database was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    For the annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 2 mB jpeg)

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on May 4, 2001, about seven weeks before the summer solstice, so natural terrain shading is not particularly strong. It is also not especially apparent given a view direction (northwest) nearly parallel to the sun illumination (shadows generally fall on the backsides of mountains). Consequently, topographic shading derived from the SRTM elevation model was added to the Landsat image, with a false sun illumination from the left (southwest). This synthetic shading enhances the appearance of the topography.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and

  17. Perspective view, Landsat overlay San Andreas Fault, Palmdale, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is the San Andreas Fault. This segment of the fault lies near the city of Palmdale, California (the flat area in the right half of the image) about 60 kilometers (37 miles) north of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. The Lake Palmdale Reservoir, approximately 1.5 kilometers (0.9 miles) across, sits in the topographic depression created by past movement along the fault. Highway 14 is the prominent linear feature starting at the lower left edge of the image and continuing along the far side of the reservoir. The patterns of residential and agricultural development around Palmdale are seen in the Landsat imagery in the right half of the image. SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture

  18. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Mount Shasta, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The volcanic nature of Mount Shasta is clearly evident in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the northwest. At over 4,300 meters (14,000 feet), Mount Shasta is California's tallest volcano and part of the Cascade chain of volcanoes extending south from Washington. The twin summits of Shasta and Shastina tower over a lava flow on the flank of the volcano. Cutting across the lava flow is the bright line of a railroad. The bright area at the right edge is the town of Weed.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an online mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space

  19. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows the capital city of San Jose, Costa Rica, the gray area in the center of the image. The view is toward the northwest with the Pacific Ocean in the distance and shows a portion of the Meseta Central (Central Valley), home to about a third of Costa Rica's population.

    Like much of Central America, Costa Rica is generally cloud covered, so very little satellite imagery is available. The ability of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) instrument to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements will allow generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. These data were used to generate the image.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using elevation data from SRTM and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between

  20. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Bhuj, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the city of Bhuj, India, in the foreground (gray area). Bhuj and many other nearby towns and cities were almost completely destroyed by the shaking of an earthquake in western India on January 26, 2001. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the deadliest in the history of India with some 20,000 fatalities and over a million homes damaged or destroyed. The epicenter of the earthquake was in the area in the background of this view.

    Bhuj was the historical capital of the Kachchh region, and the Bhuj airport is the prominent dark line with light borders to the left of the center of the image. Highways and rivers appear as dark lines. Vegetation appears bright green in this false-color Landsat image. The Gulf of Kachchh (or Kutch) is the dark blue area in the upper right corner of the image. The hills reach up to 500 meters (1,500 feet) elevation. The light blue area in the background center of the image is low-lying salt flats called the Rann of Kachchh.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 5X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  1. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Bhuj and Anjar, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the city of Bhuj, India, in the foreground near the right side (dark gray area). Bhuj and many other towns and cities nearby were almost completely destroyed by the January 26, 2001, earthquake in western India. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the deadliest in the history of India with some 20,000 fatalities and over a million homes damaged or destroyed. The epicenter of the earthquake was in the area in the upper left corner of this view.

    The city of Anjar is in the dark gray area near the top center of the image. Anjar was previously damaged by a magnitude 6.1 earthquake in 1956 that killed 152 people and suffered again in the larger 2001 earthquake. The red hills to the left of the center of the image are the Has and Karo Hills, which reach up to 300 meter (900 feet) elevation. These hills are formed by folded red sandstone layers. Geologists are studying these folded layers to determine if they are related to the fault that broke in the 2001 earthquake. The city of Bhuj was the historical capital of the Kachchh region. Highways and rivers appear as dark lines. Vegetation appears bright green in this false-color Landsat image. The Gulf of Kachchh (or Kutch) is the blue area in the upper right corner of the image, and the gray area on the left side of the image is called the Banni plains.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 5X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States

  2. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Most of the population of Utah lives just west of the Wasatch Mountains in the north central part of the state. This broad east-northeastward view shows that region with the cities of Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo seen from left to right. The Great Salt Lake (left) and Utah Lake (right) are quite shallow and appear greenish in this enhanced natural color view. Thousands of years ago ancient Lake Bonneville covered all of the lowlands seen here. Its former shoreline is clearly seen as a wave-cut bench and/or light colored 'bathtub ring' at several places along the base of the mountain front - evidence seen from space of our ever-changing planet.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic, and a false sky. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  3. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Francisco Bay Area, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The cities of San Francisco and the East Bay are highlighted in this computer-generated perspective viewed from west of the Golden Gate. San Francisco occupies the peninsula jutting into the picture from the right. Golden Gate Park is the long rectangle near its left end and the Presidiois the green area at its tip, from which Golden Gate Bridge crosses to Marin. Treasure Island is the bright spot above San Francisco and Alcatraz Island is the small smudge below and to the left. Across the bay from San Francisco lie Berkeley (left) and Oakland (right). Mount Diablo, a landmark visible for many miles, rises in the distance at the upper right.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an on-line mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation

  4. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Santa Barbara, California, is often called 'America's Riviera.' It enjoys a Mediterranean climate, a mountain backdrop, and a long and varied coastline. This perspective view of the Santa Barbara region was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced Landsat satellite image. The view is toward the northeast, from the Goleta Valley in the foreground to a snow-capped Mount Abel (elevation 2526 m or 8286 feet) along the skyline. The coast here generally faces south. Consequently, Fall and Winter sunrises occur over the ocean, which is unusual for the U.S. west coast. The Santa Barbara 'back country' is very rugged and largely remains as undeveloped wilderness and an important watershed for local communities. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface.

    To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200-feet) long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL

  5. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Francisco Bay Area, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The defining landmarks of San Francisco, its bay and the San Andreas Fault are clearly seen in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the south. Running from the bottom of the scene diagonally up to the left, the trough of the San Andreas Fault is occupied by Crystal Springs Reservoir and San Andreas Lake. Interstate 280 winds along the side of the fault. San Francisco International Airport is the angular feature projecting into the bay just below San Bruno Mountain, the elongated ridge cutting across the peninsula. The hills of San Francisco can be seen beyond San Bruno Mountain and beyond the city, the Golden Gate.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D

  6. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Rann of Kachchh, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The earthquake that struck western India on January 26,2001, was the country's strongest in the past 50 years. This perspective view shows the area of the earthquake's epicenter in the lower left corner. The southern Rann of Kachchh appears in the foreground. The Rann is an area of low-lying salt flats that shows up with various shades of white and blue in this false-color Landsat image. The gray area on the middle of the image is called the Banni plains.

    The darker blue spots and curving lines in the Rann and the Banni plains are features that appeared after the January earthquake. Their true colors are shades of white and gray, but the infrared data used in the image gives them a blue or turquoise color. These features are the effects of liquefaction of wet soil, sand and mud layers caused by the shaking of the earthquake. The liquefaction beneath the surface causes water to be squeezed out at the surface forming mud volcanoes, sand blows and temporary springs. Some of the residents of this dry area were hopeful that they could use the water, but they found that the water was too salty in almost every place where it came to the surface.

    The city of Bhuj, India, appears as a gray area in the upper right of the image. Bhuj and many other towns and cities nearby were almost completely destroyed by the January 2001 earthquake. This magnitude 7.7 earthquake was the deadliest in the history of India with some 20,000 fatalities and over a million homes damaged or destroyed. The city of Bhuj was the historical capital of the Kachchh region. Highways and rivers appear as dark lines. Vegetation appears bright green in this false-color Landsat image.

    The city of Anjar is in the dark gray area near the upper left of the image. Previously damaged by a magnitude 6.1 earthquake in 1956 that killed 152people, Anjar suffered again in the larger 2001 earthquake.

    The red hills in the center of the image are the Has and Karo Hills, which reach up to 300 m (900 feet

  7. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Jose, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the capital city of San Jose, Costa Rica, in the right center of the image (gray area). Rising behind it are the volcanoes Irazu, 3402 meters high (11,161 feet) and Turrialba, 3330 meters high (10,925 feet.)

    Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and is located in the Irazu Volcano National Park, established in 1955. There have been at least 23 eruptions of Irazu since 1723, the most recent during 1963 to 1965. This activity sent tephra and secondary mudflows into cultivated areas, caused at least 40 deaths, and destroyed 400 houses and some factories.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle

  8. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.

    This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large

  9. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Lakes Managua and Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows Lakes Managua and Nicaragua near the Pacific coast of Nicaragua. Lake Managua is the 65-kilometer (40-mile)-long fresh water lake in the foreground of this south-looking view, emptying via the Tipitapa River into the much larger Lake Nicaragua in the distance. The capital city of Managua, with a population of more than 500,000, is located along the southern shore of Lake Managua, the area with the highest population density in Nicaragua.

    The physical setting of Lake Managua is dominated by the numerous volcanic features aligned in a northwest-southeast axis. The cone-like feature in the foreground is Momotombo, a 1,280-meter (4,199-foot)-high stratovolcano located on the northwest end of the lake. Two water-filled volcanic craters (Apoyegue and Jiloa volcanoes) reside on the Chiltepe Peninsula protruding into the lake from the west. Two volcanoes can also be seen on the island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua: El Maderas rising to 1,394 meters (4,573 feet) and the active El Conception at 1,610 meters (5,282 feet).

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne

  10. SRTM Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay: Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph satellite image shows Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands, located south of Newfoundland, Canada. These islands are a self-governing territory of France. A 'tombolo' (sand bar) unites Grande Miquelon to the north and Petite Miquelon to the south. Saint Pierre Island, located to the lower right, includes a harbor, an airport, and a small town. Glaciers once covered these islands and the direction of glacial flow is evident in the topography as striations and shoreline trends running from the upper right to the lower left. The darkest image features are freshwater lakes that fill glacially carved depressions and saltwater lagoons that are bordered by barrier beaches. The lakes and the lagoons are fairly calm waters and reflect less sunlight than do the wave covered and sediment laden nearshore ocean currents.

    The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over preliminary digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  11. Perspective View, Landsat Overlay, Salalah, Oman, Southern Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. The city is located on the broad, generally bright coastal plain and includes areas of green irrigated crops. This view was generated from a Landsat image draped over a preliminary elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The edges of the dataset are to the upper right, left, and lower left. The Arabian Sea (lower right) is represented by the blue false-colored area. Vertical exaggeration of topography is 3X.

    This scene illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. The Arabian Peninsula is very arid. However, the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains wrings moisture from the summer monsoons allowing for growth of natural vegetation (green along the mountain fronts and in the canyons), and soil development (dark brown areas), as well as cultural development of the coastal plain. The monsoons also provide moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot)spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was

  12. Perspective with Landsat Overlay: Mojave to Ventura, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Southern California's dramatic topography plays acritical role in its climate, hydrology, ecology, agriculture, and habitability. This image of Southern California, from the desert at Mojave to the ocean at Ventura, shows a variety of landscapes and environments. Winds usually bring moisture to this area from the west, moving from the ocean, across the coastal plains, to the mountains, and then to the deserts. Most rainfall occurs as the air masses rise over the mountains and cool with altitude. Continuing east, and now drained of their moisture, the air masses drop in altitude and warm as they spread across the desert. The mountain rainfall supports forest and chaparral vegetation, seen here, and also becomes ground water and stream flow that supports citrus, avocado, strawberry, other crops, and a large and growing population on the coastal plains.

    This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. It shows the Tehachapi Mountains in the right foreground, the city of Ventura on the coast at the distant left, and the eastern most Santa Ynez Mountains forming the skyline at the distant right.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and

  13. Strait of Gibraltar, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This perspective view shows the Strait of Gibraltar, which is the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Europe (Spain) is on the left. Africa (Morocco) is on the right. The Rock of Gibraltar, administered by Great Britain, is the peninsula in the back left.

    The Strait of Gibraltar is the only natural gap in the topographic barriers that separate the Mediterranean Sea from the world's oceans. The Sea is about 3700 kilometers (2300 miles) long and covers about 2.5 million square kilometers (one million square miles), while the Strait is only about 13 kilometers (8 miles) wide. Sediment samples from the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea that include evaporite minerals, soils, and fossil plants show that about five million years ago the Strait was topographically blocked and the Sea had evaporated into a deep basin far lower in elevation than the oceans. Consequent changes in the world's hydrologic cycle, including effects upon ocean salinity, likely led to more ice formation in polar regions and more reflection of sunlight back to space, resulting in a cooler global climate at that time. Today, topography plays a key role in our regional climate patterns. But through Earth history, topographic change, even perhaps over areas as small as 13 kilometers across, has also affected the global climate.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view is eastward with a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene (green vegetation, blue water, brown soil, white beaches) are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30

  14. Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles)west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar

  15. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Rann of Kachchh, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The earthquake that struck western India on January 26,2001, was the country's strongest in the past 50 years. This perspective view shows the area of the earthquake's epicenter in the lower left corner. The southern Rann of Kachchh appears in the foreground. The Rann is an area of low-lying salt flats that shows up with various shades of white and blue in this false-color Landsat image. The gray area on the middle of the image is called the Banni plains.

    The darker blue spots and curving lines in the Rann and the Banni plains are features that appeared after the January earthquake. Their true colors are shades of white and gray, but the infrared data used in the image gives them a blue or turquoise color. These features are the effects of liquefaction of wet soil, sand and mud layers caused by the shaking of the earthquake. The liquefaction beneath the surface causes water to be squeezed out at the surface forming mud volcanoes, sand blows and temporary springs. Some of the residents of this dry area were hopeful that they could use the water, but they found that the water was too salty in almost every place where it came to the surface.

    The city of Bhuj, India, appears as a gray area in the upper right of the image. Bhuj and many other towns and cities nearby were almost completely destroyed by the January 2001 earthquake. This magnitude 7.7 earthquake was the deadliest in the history of India with some 20,000 fatalities and over a million homes damaged or destroyed. The city of Bhuj was the historical capital of the Kachchh region. Highways and rivers appear as dark lines. Vegetation appears bright green in this false-color Landsat image.

    The city of Anjar is in the dark gray area near the upper left of the image. Previously damaged by a magnitude 6.1 earthquake in 1956 that killed 152people, Anjar suffered again in the larger 2001 earthquake.

    The red hills in the center of the image are the Has and Karo Hills, which reach up to 300 m (900 feet

  16. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    San Joaquin, the name given to the southern portion of California's vast Central Valley, has been called the world's richest agricultural valley. In this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image, we are looking toward the southwest over a checkerboard pattern of agricultural fields. Mt. Pinos, a popular location for stargazing at 2,692 meters (8,831 feet) looms above the valley floor and is visible on the left side of the image. The productive southern San Joaquin is in reality a desert, averaging less than 12.7 cm (5 inches) of rain per year. Through canals and irrigation, the region nurtures some two hundred crops including grapes, figs, apricots, oranges, and more than 4,047 square-km (1,000,000 acres) of cotton. The California Aqueduct, transporting water from the Sacramento River Delta through the San Joaquin, runs along the base of the low-lying Wheeler Ridge on the left side of the image. The valley is not all agriculture though. Kern County, near the valley's southern end, is the United States' number one oil producing county, and actually produces more crude oil than Oklahoma. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U

  17. Budapest, Hungary, Perspective View, SRTM Elevation Model with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After draining the northern flank of the Alps Mountains in Germany and Austria, the Danube River flows east as it enters this west-looking scene (upper right) and forms the border between Slovakia and Hungary. The river then leaves the border as it enters Hungary and transects the Transdanubian Mountains, which trend southwest to northeast. Upon exiting the mountains, the river turns southward, flowing past Budapest (purplish blue area) and along the western margin of the Great Hungarian Plain.

    South and west of the Danube, the Transdanubian Mountains have at most only about 400 meters (about 1300 feet) of relief but they exhibit varied landforms, which include volcanic, tectonic, fluvial (river), and eolian (wind) features. A thick deposit of loess (dust deposits likely blown from ancient glacial outwash) covers much of this area, and winds from the northwest, funneled between the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are apparently responsible for a radial pattern of erosional streaks across the entire region.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The false colors of the scene result from displaying Landsat bands 1, 4, and 7 in blue, green, and red, respectively. Band 1 is visible blue light, but bands 4 and 7 are reflected infrared light. This band combination maximizes color contrasts between the major land cover types, namely vegetation (green), bare ground (red), and water (blue). Shading of the elevation model was used to further highlight the topographic features.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on

  18. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Manhattan Island, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this image of Manhattan, the city's skyscrapers appear as ghostly white spikes. The green patch in the middle of the image is Central park. The Hudson River is visible on the upper left-hand side and the east River on the upper right. Although not designed to measure the heights of buildings, the radar used by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was so sensitive that it easily detected the Manhattan skyscrapers but could not distinguish individual structures.

    The image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and enhanced true-color Landsat 5 satellite images. Topographic shading in the image was enhanced with false shading derived from the elevation model. Topographic expression is exaggerated 6X.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60-meters (about 200-feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective, Manhattan is about 3.5 km (2.2 miles) across. Location: 40.8 deg. North lat., 74 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 (SRTM)

  19. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.

    But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural process

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar

  20. Pasadena, California Perspective View with Aerial Photo and Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada-Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene.

    This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation

  1. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 3-D Perspective with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view, looking up the Tigil River, shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The image shows that the Tigil River has eroded down from a higher and differing landscape and now flows through, rather than around the large green-colored bedrock ridge in the foreground. The older surface was likely composed of volcanic ash and debris from eruptions of nearby volcanoes. The green tones indicate that denser vegetation grows on south facing sunlit slopes at the northern latitudes. High resolution SRTM elevation data will be used by geologists to study how rivers shape the landscape, and by ecologists to study the influence of topography on ecosystems.

    This image shows how data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) can be used to enhance other satellite images. Color and natural shading are provided by a Landsat 7 image acquired on January 31, 2000. Terrain perspective and shading were derived from SRTM elevation data acquired on February 12, 2000. Topography is exaggerated by about six times vertically. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  2. Digital overlay of cartographic information on Landsat MSS data for soil surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Irons, J. R.; Petersen, G. W.; Sykes, S. G.

    1982-01-01

    Cartographic soils data were digitized, spatially registered, and merged with processed Landsat image data. The Landsat Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (MSS) image data were used to generate a thematic map representing different soil surface characteristics and an enhanced image. The thematic map was generated using supervised and unsupervised classification procedures. The enhanced image was generated by performing a linear contrast stretch on data altered by a principal components transformation. Although both procedures yielded images useful for soil unit delineation, image enhancement was determined to be more suitable because it was more expedient and inexpensive. Enhanced images cost $0.06 per hectare, spectral classifications cost $0.08 per hectare. The overlay of cartographic data on Landsat data facilitates comparisons between the various processing methods used for soil unit boundary determination, delineation, and verification. This technique also provides for accurate and expedient spatial referencing for field observations and cartographic correlation.

  3. Los Alamos Fires From Landsat 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On May 9, 2000, the Landsat 7 satellite acquired an image of the area around Los Alamos, New Mexico. The Landsat 7 satellite acquired this image from 427 miles in space through its sensor called the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Evident within the imagery is a view of the ongoing Cerro Grande fire near the town of Los Alamos and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Combining the high-resolution (30 meters per pixel in this scene) imaging capacity of ETM+ with its multi-spectral capabilities allows scientists to penetrate the smoke plume and see the structure of the fire on the surface. Notice the high-level of detail in the infrared image (bottom), in which burn scars are clearly distinguished from the hotter smoldering and flaming parts of the fire. Within this image pair several features are clearly visible, including the Cerro Grande fire and smoke plume, the town of Los Alamos, the Los Alamos National Laboratory and associated property, and Cerro Grande peak. Combining ETM+ channels 7, 4, and 2 (one visible and two infrared channels) results in a false color image where vegetation appears as bright to dark green (bottom image). Forested areas are generally dark green while herbaceous vegetation is light green. Rangeland or more open areas appear pink to light purple. Areas with extensive pavement or urban development appear light blue or white to purple. Less densely-developed residential areas appear light green and golf courses are very bright green. The areas recently burned appear black. Dark red to bright red patches, or linear features within the burned area, are the hottest and possibly actively burning areas of the fire. The fire is spreading downslope and the front of the fire is readily detectable about 2 kilometers to the west and south of Los Alamos. Combining ETM+ channels 3, 2, and 1 provides a true-color image of the greater Los Alamos region (top image). Vegetation is generally dark to medium green. Forested areas are very dark green

  4. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Monica Bay to Mount Baden-Powell, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Los Angeles may be the world's entertainment capital, but it is a difficult place to locate television and radio antennas. The metropolitan area spreads from the Pacific Ocean to Southern California's upper and lower deserts, valleys, mountains, canyons and coastal plains. While this unique geography offers something for everyone in terms of urban, suburban, small-town, and even semi-rural living, reception of television and radio signals can be problematic where there is no line-of-sight to a transmitting antenna. Broadcasters must choose antenna sites carefully in order to reach the greatest number of customers. Most local television towers are located atop Mount Wilson (elevation 1740 m =5710 ft), which is located on the front range of the San Gabriel Mountains (indistinctly visible, just right of the image center). This site is preferable to the highest peak seen here (Mount Baden-Powell, 2865 m =9399 ft) because it's closer to the urban center and has fewer obstructing peaks. It is also situated at a protruding bend in the mountain front and has few obstructions to the left and right. Computer automated methods combined with elevation models produced by SRTM will quantitatively optimize such factors in the siting of future transmission antenna installations worldwide.

    This perspective view looks northeastward from the Santa Monica Bay. The San Fernando Valley is on the left, Pasadena is against the mountain front at right-center, and downtown Los Angeles is on the coastal plain directly in front of Mount Baden-Powell. This image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired

  5. Digital overlaying of the Universal Transverse Mercator Grid with LANDSAT-data derived products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Software has been written in FORTRAN IV for a Varian 73 computer which reformats LANDSAT-data-derived surface classifications and pictorial representations into a digital array which corresponds to the Universal Transverse Mercator Grid.

  6. Digital overlaying of the universal transverse Mercator grid with LANDSAT data derived products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    Picture elements of data from the LANDSAT multispectral scanner are correlated with the universal tranverse Mercator grid. In the procedure, a series of computer modules was used to make approximations of universal transverse Mercator grid locations for all picture elements from the grid locations of a limited number of known control points and to provide display and digital storage of the data. The software has been written in FORTRAN 4 language for a Varian 70-series computer.

  7. SRTM Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay: Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This stereoscopic satellite image shows Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands, located south of Newfoundland, Canada. These islands are a self-governing territory of France. A 'tombolo' (sand bar) unites Grande Miquelon to the north and Petite Miquelon to the south. Saint Pierre Island, located to the lower right, includes a harbor, an airport, and a small town. Glaciers once covered these islands and the direction of glacial flow is evident in the topography as striations and shoreline trends running from the upper right to the lower left. The darkest image features are freshwater lakes that fill glacially carved depressions and saltwater lagoons that are bordered by barrier beaches. The lakes and the lagoons are fairly calm waters and reflect less sunlight than do the wave covered and sediment laden nearshore ocean currents.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar

  8. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This computer generated perspective image provides a northward looking 'view from space' that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling, and the nearby Snow Basin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City area ski resorts host the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  9. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Caliente Range and Cuyama Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Before the arrival of Europeans, California's Cuyama Valley was inhabited by Native Americans who were culturally and politically tied to the Chumash tribes of coastal Santa Barbara County. Centuries later, the area remains the site of noted Native American rock art paintings. In the 1800s, when Europeans established large cattle and horse-breeding ranches in the valley, the early settlers reported the presence of small villages along the Cuyama River. This perspective view looks upstream toward the southeast through the Cuyama Valley. The Caliente Range, with maximum elevations of 1,550 meters (5,085 feet), borders the valley on the left. The Cuyama River, seen as a bright meandering line on the valley floor, enters the valley from headwaters more than 2,438 meters (8,000 feet) above sea level near Mount Abel and flows 154 kilometers (96 miles) before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river's course has been determined in large part by displacement along numerous faults.

    Today, the Cuyama Valley is the home of large ranches and small farms. The area has a population of 1,120 and is more than an hour and a half drive from the nearest city in the county.

    This image was generated by draping an enhanced Landsat satellite image over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  10. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Paula, and Santa Clara River Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Rectangular fields of the agriculturally rich Santa Clara River Valley are visible in this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image. The Santa Clara River, which lends its name to this valley, flows from headwaters near Acton, California, 160 km (100 miles) to the Pacific Ocean, and is one of only two natural river systems remaining in southern California. In the foreground of this image, the largely dry riverbed can be seen as a bright feature as it winds its way along the base of South Mountain. The bright region at the right end of this portion of the valley is the city of Santa Paula, California. Founded in 1902, this small, picturesque town at the geographic center of Ventura County is referred to as the 'Citrus Capital of the World.' The city is surrounded by orange, lemon, and avocado groves and is a major distribution point for citrus fruits in the United States. The bright, linear feature in the center of the valley is State Highway 126, the valley's 'main drag.' For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  11. Landsat - SRTM Shaded Relief Comparison, Los Angeles and Vicinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs), such as those produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), allow user-controlled visualization of the Earth's landforms that is not possible using satellite imagery alone. This three-view comparison shows Los Angeles, Calif., and vicinity, with a Landsat image (only) on the left, a shaded relief rendering of the SRTM DEM on the right, and a merge of the two data sets in the middle. Note that topographic expression in the Landsat image alone is very subtle due to the fairly high sun angle (63 degrees above the horizon) during the satellite overflight in late morning of a mid-Spring day (May 4, 2001). In contrast, computer generated topographic shading of the DEM provides a pure and bold image of topographic expression with a user specified illumination direction. The middle image shows how combining the Landsat and DEM shaded relief can result in a topographically enhanced satellite image in which the information content of both data sets is merged into a single view.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA

  12. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Syracuse, Oneida Lake, Upstate New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the lower center of this perspective view of upstate New York, the city of Syracuse hugs the southeastern banks (top right side) of Lake Onondaga, the smaller of the two dark features that dominate the scene. The view is toward the east. The urban area appears bright in stark contrast to the dark waterways and the greens, browns and yellows of the vegetated areas. Both of the two black features are lakes. Oneida Lake , the larger of the two is to the left of the scene center. About 1/3 of the way between Lakes Onondaga and Oneida are the triangular shaped runways of the Syracuse Hancock International Airport. The Adirondack Mountains are to the upper left while the less rugged Catskills can be seen in the upper right. A faint outline of the Mohawk River can be seen as threads its way down from the Adirondacks toward the city of Rome, the bright area in the valley between the lake and the Adirondacks. The Erie Canal and the Oswego River are part of the network of waterways seen in the left image foreground.

    Fall foliage in a variety of colors can be seen in the Landsat data used here. Redder vegetation generally occurs at higher elevations and toward the north (left), especially in the Adirondack Mountains. The back edge of the data set forms a false skyline. The image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and enhanced true-color Landsat 5 satellite images. Topographic shading in the image was enhanced with false shading derived from the elevation model. Topographic expression is exaggerated 6X. Syracuse lies at the geographic center of the state of New York and has been the site of its state fair for most of that event's 154 years. It is located in an agricultural and resort area. The yellowish rectangular features in the foreground of the image are farmlands. Parts of Skaneateles and Otisco Lakes, some of central New York's Finger Lakes, can be seen in the bottom right corner of the image.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by

  13. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Mt. Pinos and San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Ask any astronomer where the best stargazing site in Southern California is, and chances are they'll say Mt. Pinos. In this perspective view generated from SRTM elevation data the snow-capped peak is seen rising to an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet), in stark contrast to the flat agricultural fields of the San Joaquin valley seen in the foreground. Below the summit, but still well away from city lights, the Mt. Pinos parking lot at 2,468 meters (8,100 feet) is a popular viewing area for both amateur and professional astronomers and astro-photographers. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Distance to Horizon: 176 kilometers (109 miles) Location: 34.83 deg. North lat., 119.25 deg. West lon. View: Toward the Southwest Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

  14. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Ventura, and Lake Casitas, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    .

    Distance to Horizon: 54.5 kilometers (33.8 miles) Location: 34.38 deg. North lat., 119.3 deg. West lon. View: Toward the North Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

  15. Landsat with SRTM Shaded Relief, Los Angeles and Vicinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Los Angeles and vicinity seen from space, as viewed by the Landsat 7 satellite from an altitude of 437 miles on May 4, 2001. North is at the top. Topographic shading has been enhanced using an elevation data set acquired by the Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000. Downtown Los Angeles is just south of the image center, with L.A. and Long Beach harbors to the south, Santa Monica Bay to the west, San Fernando Valley to the northwest, San Gabriel Valley to the east, and Orange County to the southeast. The San Andreas fault forms the straight diagonal mountain front bordering the Mojave Desert at the top of the image. At full resolution, features on the ground as small as 15 meters (49 feet) across can be distinguished, including street patterns and large buildings, as well as boats and their wakes on the ocean. More than ten million people live within this scene.

    This image was generated by first geographically matching the Landsat scene to a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. A measure of topographic slope along a southeast-northwest trend was then calculated, such that southeast facing slopes appear bright and northwest facing slopes appear dark. This slope image was then added to the enhanced Landsat scene in order to intensify the appearance of topography. Topographic shading was subtle in the original Landsat scene due to the fairly high sun angle (63 degrees above the horizon) during the satellite overflight in late morning of a mid-Spring day.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the

  16. The use of radar and LANDSAT data for mineral and petroleum exploration in the Los Andes region, Venezuela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    A geological study of a 27,500 sq km area in the Los Andes region of northwestern Venezuela was performed which employed both X-band radar mosaics and computer processed Landsat images. The 3.12 cm wavelength radar data were collected with horizontal-horizontal polarization and 10 meter spatial resolution by an Aeroservices SAR system at an altitude of 12,000 meters. The radar images increased the number of observable suspected fractures by 27 percent over what could be mapped by LANDSAT alone, owing mostly to the cloud cover penetration capabilities of radar. The approximate eight fold greater spatial resolution of the radar images made possible the identification of shorter, narrower fractures than could be detected with LANDSAT data alone, resulting in the discovery of a low relief anticline that could not be observed in LANDSAT data. Exploration targets for petroleum, copper, and uranium were identified for further geophysical work.

  17. Generic Overlay Framework

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-01

    This software provides a framework for building application layter overlay networks. It includes example overlays that can be used without modification. Also provided are example multicast and routing protocols that can be used with the overlays.

  18. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to < 0.5nm, it becomes crucial to include also systematic error contributions which affect the accuracy of the metrology. Here we discuss fundamental aspects of overlay accuracy and a methodology to improve accuracy significantly. We identify overlay mark imperfections and their interaction with the metrology technology, as the main source of overlay inaccuracy. The most important type of mark imperfection is mark asymmetry. Overlay mark asymmetry leads to a geometrical ambiguity in the definition of overlay, which can be ~1nm or less. It is shown theoretically and in simulations that the metrology may enhance the effect of overlay mark asymmetry significantly and lead to metrology inaccuracy ~10nm, much larger than the geometrical ambiguity. The analysis is carried out for two different overlay metrology technologies: Imaging overlay and DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  19. Landsat: Space Activities for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Steven K.

    1979-01-01

    An aerospace education activity is described which is suitable for grades 3-12. Students piece together several images from the Landsat satellite to make a mosaic of their state. From the mosaic clear acetate overlay maps can be made relating to such subjects as agriculture, geology, hydrology, or urban planning. (BB)

  20. Timber inventory using Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The results of recent efforts to apply Landsat MSS imagery, in concert with topological maps, to forestry timber inventories via the FOCIS program are reported. FOCIS (Forests Classification and Inventory System) was defined for inventorying the lumber volume of coniferous tree types in rugged terrain regions. Data from four bands serve as input for unsupervised clustering and iterative labeling of the elevation, slope angle, and subregions of interest. Simulated photographic maps are generated which serve as overlays for regular maps for assessing timber harvests and sales goals. Sample procedures followed in mapping the Eldorado region forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains are discussed.

  1. New holographic overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopwood, Anthony I.

    1991-10-01

    This paper discusses a new type of holographic overlay, FLASHPRINT, which may be used in both security and packaging applications. Unlike the more common embossed holograms currently used, FLASHPRINT leads to reduced set-up costs and offers a simpler process. This reduces the long lead times characteristic of the existing technology and requires the customer to provide only two-dimensional artwork. The overlay material contains a covert 2-D image. The image may be switched on or off by simply tilting the overlay in a light source. The overlay is replayed in the 'on' position to reveal the encoded security message as a highly saturated gold colored image. This effect is operable for a wide range of lighting conditions and viewing geometries. In the 'off' position the overlay is substantially transparent. These features make the visual effect of the overlay attractive to incorporate into product design. They may be laminated over complex printed artwork such as labels and security passes without masking the printed message. When switched 'on' the image appears both sharp and more than seven times brighter than white paper. The image remains sharp and clear even in less favorable lighting conditions. Although the technique offers a low set-up cost for the customer, through its simplicity, it remains as technically demanding and difficult to counterfeit as any holographic process.

  2. Accuracy in optical overlay metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringoltz, Barak; Marciano, Tal; Yaziv, Tal; DeLeeuw, Yaron; Klein, Dana; Feler, Yoel; Adam, Ido; Gurevich, Evgeni; Sella, Noga; Lindenfeld, Ze'ev; Leviant, Tom; Saltoun, Lilach; Ashwal, Eltsafon; Alumot, Dror; Lamhot, Yuval; Gao, Xindong; Manka, James; Chen, Bryan; Wagner, Mark

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we discuss the mechanism by which process variations determine the overlay accuracy of optical metrology. We start by focusing on scatterometry, and showing that the underlying physics of this mechanism involves interference effects between cavity modes that travel between the upper and lower gratings in the scatterometry target. A direct result is the behavior of accuracy as a function of wavelength, and the existence of relatively well defined spectral regimes in which the overlay accuracy and process robustness degrades (`resonant regimes'). These resonances are separated by wavelength regions in which the overlay accuracy is better and independent of wavelength (we term these `flat regions'). The combination of flat and resonant regions forms a spectral signature which is unique to each overlay alignment and carries certain universal features with respect to different types of process variations. We term this signature the `landscape', and discuss its universality. Next, we show how to characterize overlay performance with a finite set of metrics that are available on the fly, and that are derived from the angular behavior of the signal and the way it flags resonances. These metrics are used to guarantee the selection of accurate recipes and targets for the metrology tool, and for process control with the overlay tool. We end with comments on the similarity of imaging overlay to scatterometry overlay, and on the way that pupil overlay scatterometry and field overlay scatterometry differ from an accuracy perspective.

  3. Characterization of overlay mark fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, Mike; Ghinovker, Mark; Poplawski, Jorge M.; Kassel, Elyakim; Izikson, Pavel; Pollentier, Ivan K.; Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David W.

    2003-05-01

    In this publication we introduce a new metric for process robustness of overlay metrology in microelectronic manufacturing. By straightforward statistical analysis of overlay metrology measurements on an array of adjacent, nominally identical overlay targets the Overlay Mark Fidelity (OMF) can be estimated. We present the results of such measurements and analysis on various marks, which were patterned using a DUV scanner. The same reticle set was used to pattern wafers on different process layers and process conditions. By appropriate statistical analysis, the breakdown of the total OMF into a reticle-induced OMF component and a process induced OMF component was facilitated. We compare the OMF of traditional box-in-box overlay marks with that of new gratingbased overlay marks and show that in all cases the grating marks are superior. The reticle related OMF showed an improvement of 30 % when using the new grating-based overlay mark. Furthermore, in a series of wafers run through an STI-process with different Chemical Mechanical Polish (CMP) times, the random component of the OMF of the new grating-based overlay mark was observed to be 40% lower and 50% less sensitive to process variation compared with Box in Box marks. These two observations are interpreted as improved process robustness of the grating mark over box in box, specifically in terms of reduced site by site variations and reduced wafer to wafer variations as process conditions change over time. Overlay Mark Fidelity, as defined in this publication, is a source of overlay metrology uncertainty, which is statistically independent of the standard error contributors, i.e. precision, TIS variability, and tool to tool matching. Current overlay metrology budgeting practices do not take this into consideration when calculating total measurement uncertainty (TMU). It is proposed that this be reconsidered, given the tightness of overlay and overlay metrology budgets at the 70 nm design rule node and below.

  4. Electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, J. J.; Webster, R. P.

    1984-08-01

    The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic protection for the highway industry. Laboratory studies indicate that electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays using conductive fillers, such as calcined coke breeze, in conjunction with polyester or vinyl ester resins have resistivities of 1 to 10 ohm-cm. Both multiple-layer and premixed mortar-type overlays were made. Shear bond strengths of the conductive overlays to concrete substrates vary from 600 to 1300 psi, with the premixed overlays having bond strengths 50 to 100% higher than the multiple-layer overlays.

  5. Computer mapping of LANDSAT data for environmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Mckeon, J. B.; Reed, L. E.; Schmidt, N. F.; Schecter, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Land cover overlays and maps produced from LANDSAT are providing information on existing land use and resources throughout the 208 study area. The overlays are being used to delineate drainage areas of a predominant land cover type. Information on cover type is also being combined with other pertinent data to develop estimates of sediment and nutrients flows from the drainage area. The LANDSAT inventory of present land cover together with population projects is providing a basis for developing maps of anticipated land use patterns required to evaluate impact on water quality which may result from these patterns. Overlays of forest types were useful for defining wildlife habitat and vegetational resources in the region. LANDSAT data and computer assisted interpretation was found to be a rapid cost effective procedure for inventorying land cover on a regional basis. The entire 208 inventory which include acquisition of ground truth, LANDSAT tapes, computer processing, and production of overlays and coded tapes was completed within a period of 2 months at a cost of about 0.6 cents per acre, a significant improvement in time and cost over conventional photointerpretation and mapping techniques.

  6. Commercial LANDSAT?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Private industry should assume responsibility either for the United States' land satellite (LANDSAT) system or for both the land and the weather satellite systems, recommends the Land Remote Sensing Satellite Advisory Committee. The committee (Eos, June 29, 1982, p. 553), composed of representatives from academia, industry, and government, has a working group that is evaluating the potential for commercialization of remote sensing satellites.The recommendations call for industry ownership or operation of either or both of the remote sensing systems, but only up to and including the holding of raw, unprocessed data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) currently operates LANDSAT but will be relinquishing its responsibility to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on January 31. NOAA already operates the U.S. civilian weather satellite service, which includes the NOAA-5, NOAA-6, and the Geostationary Operational Environmental (GOES) satellites (Eos, June 2, 1981, p. 522).

  7. Overlay similarity: a new overlay index for metrology tool and scanner overlay fingerprint methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Chih-Ming; Kao, Ching-Pin; Wang, Yu-Hsi; Hu, Jimmy; Chang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Jung; Yen, Anthony; Lin, Burn J.

    2009-03-01

    For different CD metrologies like average CD from CD SEM and optical CD (OCD) from scatterometry, CD point-to-point R2 has been well adopted as the CD correlation index. For different overlay metrologies like image-based box-in-box overlay and scatterometry-based overlay, we propose the cosine similarity as the correlation index of overlay. The cosine similarity is a measure of similarity between two vectors of n dimensions by finding the cosine of the angle between them, often used to compare documents in text mining. It has been widely used in web and document search engines and can be used as the similarity index of overlay tool-to-tool matching and scanner tool-to-tool or day-to-day fingerprint. In this paper, we demonstrate that the cosine similarity has a very high sensitivity to the overly tool performance. We compared the similarities of three generations (A1, A2, A3) of the overlay tools of venders A and B and found that after target re-training and TIS correction on each tool A1 similarity to A3 can be improved from 0.9837 to 0.9951. Overlay point-to-point matching with A3 vs. A1 can be reduced from 4.8 to 2.1 nm. The tool precision similarities, i.e. tool self best similarity, for A1, A2, A3 and B are 0.9986, 0.9990, 0.9995, and 0.9994 respectively. From this table, we demonstrate that we can use old-generation overlay tool with suitable hardware maintenance, to match to the latest-generation overlay tool.

  8. Landsat Legacy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Landsat resources survey system spawned a number of companies engaged in commercial applications of remote sensing, among them International Imaging Systems (I2S). With initial NASA assistance, I2S has provided remote sensing hardware and software to several foreign countries, developed meteorological analysis systems, medical diagnostic software and scanning equipment for government and commercial use. Latest product is an advanced image-based photogrammetric system employing digital technology - not optical or mechanical systems - to generate terrain elevation data and other processing functions. Called PRI2SM, it compensates automatically for topographic relief displacement, is cheaper, faster, and easier to use and maintain. Company product line includes four major areas: image processing equipment for Earth Resources Management; meteorological analysis systems; satellite ground processing systems; and digital photogrammetric mapping systems.

  9. New analytical algorithm for overlay accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Boo-Hyun; Yun, Sangho; Kwak, Min-Cheol; Ha, Soon Mok; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Nam, Suk-Woo

    2012-03-01

    The extension of optical lithography to 2Xnm and beyond is often challenged by overlay control. With reduced overlay measurement error budget in the sub-nm range, conventional Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) data is no longer sufficient. Also there is no sufficient criterion in overlay accuracy. In recent years, numerous authors have reported new method of the accuracy of the overlay metrology: Through focus and through color. Still quantifying uncertainty in overlay measurement is most difficult work in overlay metrology. According to the ITRS roadmap, total overlay budget is getting tighter than former device node as a design rule shrink on each device node. Conventionally, the total overlay budget is defined as the square root of square sum of the following contributions: the scanner overlay performance, wafer process, metrology and mask registration. All components have been supplying sufficiently performance tool to each device nodes, delivering new scanner, new metrology tools, and new mask e-beam writers. Especially the scanner overlay performance was drastically decreased from 9nm in 8x node to 2.5nm in 3x node. The scanner overlay seems to reach the limitation the overlay performance after 3x nod. The importance of the wafer process overlay as a contribution of total wafer overlay became more important. In fact, the wafer process overlay was decreased by 3nm between DRAM 8x node and DRAM 3x node. We develop an analytical algorithm for overlay accuracy. And a concept of nondestructive method is proposed in this paper. For on product layer we discovered the layer has overlay inaccuracy. Also we use find out source of the overlay error though the new technique. In this paper, authors suggest an analytical algorithm for overlay accuracy. And a concept of non-destructive method is proposed in this paper. For on product layers, we discovered it has overlay inaccuracy. Also we use find out source of the overlay error though the new technique. Furthermore

  10. Fabrication of magnetic bubble memory overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Self-contained magnetic bubble memory overlay is fabricated by process that employs epitaxial deposition to form multi-layered complex of magnetically active components on single chip. Overlay fabrication comprises three metal deposition steps followed by subtractive etch.

  11. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Flight performances of LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 are evaluated. The in-flight systems discussed are: (1) power supplies, (2) attitude control, (3) command/clock, (4) telemetry, (5) orbit adjust, (6) electrical interface, (7) thermal, (8) tape recorders, (9) multispectral scanner, (10) data collection and (11) magnetic moment compensating assembly. Tables are presented for easy reference.

  12. Meeting overlay requirements for future technology nodes with in-die overlay metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Bernd; Seltmann, Rolf; Busch, Jens; Hempel, Fritjof; Cotte, Eric; Alles, Benjamin

    2007-03-01

    As a consequence of the shrinking sizes of the integrated circuit structures, the overlay budget shrinks as well. Overlay is traditionally measured with relatively large test structures which are located in the scribe line of the exposure field, in the four corners. Although the performance of the overlay metrology tools has improved significantly over time it is questionable if this traditional method of overlay control will be sufficient for future technology nodes. For advanced lithography techniques like double exposure or double patterning, in-die overlay is critical and it is important to know how much of the total overlay budget is consumed by in-die components. We reported earlier that small overlay targets were included directly inside die areas and good performance was achieved. This new methodology enables a wide range of investigations. This provides insight into processes which were less important in the past or not accessible for metrology. The present work provides actual data from productive designs, instead of estimates, illustrating the differences between the scribe line and in-die registration and overlay. The influence of the pellicle on pattern placement on mask and wafer overlay is studied. Furthermore the registration overlay error of the reticles is correlated to wafer overlay residuals. The influence of scanner-induced distortions (tool to tool differences) on in-die overlay is shown. Finally, the individual contributors to in-die-overlay are discussed in the context of other overlay contributors. It is proposed to use in-die overlay and registration results to derive guidelines for future overlay and registration specifications. It will be shown that new overlay correction schemes which take advantage of the additional in-die overlay information need to be considered for production.

  13. Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The flight performance of Landsat 1 and Landsat 2 is analyzed. Flight operations of the satellites are briefly summarized. Other topics discussed include: orbital parameters; power subsystem; attitude control subsystem; command/clock subsystem; telemetry subsystem; orbit adjust subsystem; magnetic moment compensating assembly; unified s-band/premodulation processor; electrical interface subsystem; thermal subsystem; narrowband tape recorders; wideband telemetry subsystem; attitude measurement sensor; wideband video tape recorders; return beam vidicon; multispectral scanner subsystem; and data collection subsystem.

  14. A Landsat study of water quality in Lake Okeechobee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Marshall, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper uses multiple regression techniques to investigate the relationship between Landsat radiance values and water quality measurements. For a period of over one year, the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District sampled the water of Lake Okeechobee for chlorophyll, carotenoids, turbidity, and various nutrients at the time of Landsat overpasses. Using an overlay map of the sampling stations, Landsat radiance values were measured from computer compatible tapes using a GE image 100 and averaging over a 22-acre area at each station. These radiance values in four bands were used to form a number of functions (powers, logarithms, exponentials, and ratios), which were then compared with the ground measurements using multiple linear regression techniques. Several dates were used to provide generality and to study possible seasonal variations. Individual correlations were presented for the various water quality parameters and best fit equations were examined for chlorophyll and turbidity. The results and their relationship to past hydrological research were discussed.

  15. TES overlayed on MOLA DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image is TES thermal data (Orbit 222) overlayed on the MOLA DEM. The color scale is TES T18-T25, which is a cold spot index. The grey scale is MOLA elevation in kilometers. Most cold spots can be attributed to surface spectral emissivity effects. Regions that are colored black-violet-blue have near unity emissivity and are coarse grained CO2. Regions that are yellow-red are fined grained CO2. The red-white spot located approximately 300W85N is our most likely candidate for a CO2 snow storm.

  16. Total overlay analysis for designing future aligner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magome, Nobutaka; Kawai, Hidemi

    1995-05-01

    We found total overlay with respect to optical lithography using an approach similar to quality control technique employed at a semiconductor factory. This approach involves an aligner performance, process quality, reticle error and overlay measurement. This paper further describes new ides for the number of machines to be used for matching and data collection period. Lastly, improvement on total overlay and a prospective view for a future aligner and its usage are also described.

  17. Overlays for classroom and optometric use.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, A

    1994-01-01

    Perceptual distortion of printed text can sometimes be reduced by placing upon the page a sheet of coloured plastic (overlay). The colour that best reduces the distortion differs from one individual to another and may need to be selected with precision. A set of overlays has been developed that samples the CIE UCS diagram systematically. The overlays are robust and have a matte finish. They can be combined in an intuitive way to provide a wide range of chromaticities. PMID:7512256

  18. Analysis Of Overlay Distortion Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, John D.; Kirk, Joseph P.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive geometrical approach is presented for the least-squares analysis of overlay distortion patterns into useful, physically meaningful systematic distortion subpatterns and an essentially non-systematic residue. A scheme of generally useful distortion sub-patterns is presented in graphic and algorithmic form; some of these sub-patterns are additions to those already in widespread use. A graphic and geometric approach is emphasized rather than an algebraic or statistical approach, and an example illustrates the value in utilizing the pattern-detecting ability of the eye-brain system. The conditions are described under which different distortion sub-patterns may interact, possibly leading to misleading or erroneous conclusions about the types and amounts of different distortions present. Examples of typical interaction situations are given, and recommendations are made for analytic procedures to avoid misinterpretation. It is noted that the lower-order distortion patterns preserve straight-line linearity, but that higher-order distortion may result in straight lines becoming curved. The principle of least-squares analysis is outlined and a simple polynomial data-fitting example is used to illustrate the method. Algorithms are presented for least-squares distortion analysis of overlay patterns, and an APL2 program is given to show how this may easily be implemented on a digital computer. The appendix extends the treatment to cases where small-angle approximation is not permissible.

  19. CFDP for Interplanetary Overlay Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol for Interplanetary Overlay Network (CFDP-ION) is an implementation of CFDP that uses IO' s DTN (delay tolerant networking) implementation as its UT (unit-data transfer) layer. Because the DTN protocols effect automatic, reliable transmission via multiple relays, CFDP-ION need only satisfy the requirements for Class 1 ("unacknowledged") CFDP. This keeps the implementation small, but without loss of capability. This innovation minimizes processing resources by using zero-copy objects for file data transmission. It runs without modification in VxWorks, Linux, Solaris, and OS/X. As such, this innovation can be used without modification in both flight and ground systems. Integration with DTN enables the CFDP implementation itself to be very simple; therefore, very small. Use of ION infrastructure minimizes consumption of storage and processing resources while maximizing safety.

  20. Device overlay method for high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Youngsik; Kim, Myoungsoo; Heo, Hoyoung; Jeon, Sanghuck; Choi, DongSub; Nabeth, Jeremy; Brinster, Irina; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.

    2016-03-01

    Advancing technology nodes with smaller process margins require improved photolithography overlay control. Overlay control at develop inspection (DI) based on optical metrology targets is well established in semiconductor manufacturing. Advances in target design and metrology technology have enabled significant improvements in overlay precision and accuracy. One approach to represent in-die on-device as-etched overlay is to measure at final inspection (FI) with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Disadvantages to this approach include inability to rework, limited layer coverage due to lack of transparency, and higher cost of ownership (CoO). A hybrid approach is investigated in this report whereby infrequent DI/FI bias is characterized and the results are used to compensate the frequent DI overlay results. The bias characterization is done on an infrequent basis, either based on time or triggered from change points. On a per-device and per-layer basis, the optical target overlay at DI is compared with SEM on-device overlay at FI. The bias characterization results are validated and tracked for use in compensating the DI APC controller. Results of the DI/FI bias characterization and sources of variation are presented, as well as the impact on the DI correctables feeding the APC system. Implementation details in a high volume manufacturing (HVM) wafer fab will be reviewed. Finally future directions of the investigation will be discussed.

  1. Landsat Earth Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggerty, James J.

    1979-01-01

    The uses of NASA's Landsat in the areas of cartography, flood control, agricultural inventory, land use mapping, water runoff, urban planning, erosion, geology, and water quality monitoring are illustrated. (BB)

  2. LANDSAT data preprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    The effect on LANDSAT data of a Sun angle correction, an intersatellite LANDSAT-2 and LANDSAT-3 data range adjustment, and the atmospheric correction algorithm was evaluated. Fourteen 1978 crop year LACIE sites were used as the site data set. The preprocessing techniques were applied to multispectral scanner channel data and transformed data were plotted and used to analyze the effectiveness of the preprocessing techniques. Ratio transformations effectively reduce the need for preprocessing techniques to be applied directly to the data. Subtractive transformations are more sensitive to Sun angle and atmospheric corrections than ratios. Preprocessing techniques, other than those applied at the Goddard Space Flight Center, should only be applied as an option of the user. While performed on LANDSAT data the study results are also applicable to meteorological satellite data.

  3. Landsat and water pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  4. Interacting epidemics on overlay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Sebastian; Jansen, Vincent A. A.

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between multiple pathogens spreading on networks connecting a given set of nodes presents an ongoing theoretical challenge. Here, we aim to understand such interactions by studying bond percolation of two different processes on overlay networks of arbitrary joint degree distribution. We find that an outbreak of a first pathogen providing immunity to another one spreading subsequently on a second network connecting the same set of nodes does so most effectively if the degrees on the two networks are positively correlated. In that case, the protection is stronger the more heterogeneous the degree distributions of the two networks are. If, on the other hand, the degrees are uncorrelated or negatively correlated, increasing heterogeneity reduces the potential of the first process to prevent the second one from reaching epidemic proportions. We generalize these results to cases where the edges of the two networks overlap to arbitrary amount, or where the immunity granted is only partial. If both processes grant immunity to each other, we find a wide range of possible situations of coexistence or mutual exclusion, depending on the joint degree distribution of the underlying networks and the amount of immunity granted mutually. These results generalize the concept of a coexistence threshold and illustrate the impact of large-scale network structure on the interaction between multiple spreading agents.

  5. A moving overlay shrinks the attentional blink.

    PubMed

    Chua, Fook K

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a study examining the effects of overlaying a veil of spots on the letters in a central rapid serial visual presentation stream. Observers identified two target letters (T1 and T2, respectively) embedded in a stream of distractor letters printed in a different color. In Experiment 1, the attentional blink (AB) diminished when a different overlay veiled each letter, such that the spots appeared to move as the letters changed. Experiment 2 concerned whether the performance enhancement occurred because the overlay hampered processing of the lag 1 distractor, thus weakening the distractor's interference with T1. Experiment 3 focused on how changing the overlay at or around T1 affected the AB. The attention disengagement hypothesis was proposed to explain the common theme in the results-that performance was only enhanced when different overlays were applied to the T1 and lag 1 frames. The claim is that the AB reflects a failure of prompt attentional disengagement from T1, which, in turn, delays reengagement when T2 appears shortly thereafter. When T1's disappearance is accompanied by an overlay change, the perceptual system gets an additional cue signaling that the visual scene has changed, thereby inducing attentional disengagement. Apart from facilitating prompt reengagement at the next target, earlier disengagement also improves target recovery by excluding features of the trailing item, likely to be a distractor, from working memory. PMID:25245077

  6. Computation with physical values from Landsat digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Landsat digital images are commonly analyzed by using the digital numbers for each pixel recorded on a computer-compatible magnetic tape. Although this procedure may be satisfactory when only a single, internally consistent image is used, the procedure may produce incorrect results if more than one image is used for analysis as in mosaics or temporal overlays. The digital numbers for each pixel should be converted to their dimensioned equivalents such as radiance, as measured at the satellite, in milliwatts per square centimetre per steradian, or reflectance.-from Author

  7. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that

  8. Polymer concrete overlay on SH-51, bridge deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, T. M.

    1982-06-01

    A thin resinous overlay was placed on a sound bridge deck in Oklahoma to evaluate its performance over one year using various physical tests. The evaluation shows how well the overlay protects the reinforcing steel from corrosion due to deicing salts. The steps leading to the construction of the overlay are detailed as well as the actual placing of the overlay. The results of various physical tests are reported for both before and after the overlay.

  9. Monitoring gypsy moth defoliation by applying change detection techniques to Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Stauffer, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objective of a research effort at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is to develop and evaluate digital image processing techniques that will facilitate the assessment of the intensity and spatial distribution of forest insect damage in Northeastern U.S. forests using remotely sensed data from Landsats 1, 2 and C. Automated change detection techniques are presently being investigated as a method of isolating the areas of change in the forest canopy resulting from pest outbreaks. In order to follow the change detection approach, Landsat scene correction and overlay capabilities are utilized to provide multispectral/multitemporal image files of 'defoliation' and 'nondefoliation' forest stand conditions.

  10. Epitaxial interactions between molecular overlayers and ordered substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, Andrew C.; Ward, Michael D.

    1996-11-01

    A framework for evaluating the epitaxy of crystalline organic overlayers of generic symmetry on ordered substrates is described, which combines a computationally efficient analytical method for explicit determination of the type of epitaxy (i.e., commensurism, coincidence, or incommensurism) and overlayer azimuthal orientation with an analysis of the elastic properties of the overlayer and the overlayer-substrate interface. The azimuthal orientations predicted by the analytical method agree with values predicted by semiempirical potential-energy calculations and observed experimentally for previously reported organic overlayers which are demonstrated here to be coincident. Calculations based on this analytical approach are much less computationally intensive than potential-energy calculations, as the number of computational operations is independent of the overlayer size chosen for analysis. This enables analyses to be performed for the large overlayer basis sets common for molecular overlayers. Furthermore, this facilitates the analysis of coincident overlayers, for which the overlayer size needs to be large enough to establish a phasing relationship between a substrate and a large nonprimitive overlayer supercell so that the global minimum with respect to azimuthal angle can be determined. The computational efficiency of this method also enables a convenient examination of numerous possible reconstructed overlayer configurations in which the lattice parameters are bracketed around those of the native overlayer, thereby allowing examination of possible epitaxy-driven overlayer reconstructions. When combined with calculated intralayer- and overlayer-substrate elastic constants, this method provides a strategy for the design of heteroepitaxial molecular films.

  11. Landsat Radiometry Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This final report summarizes three years of work characterizing the radiometry of the Landsat 4, 5 and 7 Thematic Mappers. It is divided into six sections that are representative of the major areas of effort: 1) Internal Calibrator Lamp Monitoring; 2) Vicarious Calibration; 3) Relative Gain Analysis; 4) Outgassing; 5) Landsat 4 Absolute Calibration; and 6) Landsat 5 Scene Invariant Analysis. Each section provides a summary overview of the work that has been performed at SDSU. Major results are highlighted. In several cases, references are given to publications that have developed from this work, Several team members contributed to this report: Tim Ruggles, Dave Aaron, Shriharsha Madhavan, Esad Micijevic, Cory Mettler, and Jim Dewald. At the end of the report is a summary section.

  12. LANDSAT instruments characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Work performed for the LANDSAT instrument characterization task in the areas of absolute radiometry, coherent noise analysis, and between-date smoothing is reported. Absolute radiometric calibration for LANDSAT-5 TM under ambient conditions was performed. The TM Radiometric Algorithms and Performance Program (TRAPP) was modified to create optional midscan data files and to match the TM Image Processing System (TIPS) algorithm for pulse determination. Several data reduction programs were developed, including a linear regression and its plotted result. A fast Fourier transformation study was conducted on the resequenced TM data. Subscenes of homogeneous water within scenes over Pensacola, Florida were used for testing the FFT on the resequenced data. Finally, a gain and pulse height stability study of LANDSAT 5 TM spectral bands was performed.

  13. Enhacement of intrafield overlay using a design based metrology system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Gyoyeon; Ji, Sunkeun; Kim, Shinyoung; Kang, Hyunwoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

    2016-03-01

    As the scales of the semiconductor devices continue to shrink, accurate measurement and control of the overlay have been emphasized for securing more overlay margin. Conventional overlay analysis methods are based on the optical measurement of the overlay mark. However, the overlay data obtained from these optical methods cannot represent the exact misregistration between two layers at the circuit level. The overlay mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the real pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by CMP or etching, could be a source of the overlay mismatch as well. Another issue is the overlay variation in the real circuit pattern which varies depending on its location. The optical overlay measurement methods, such as IBO and DBO that use overlay mark on the scribeline, are not capable of defining the exact overlay values of the real circuit. Therefore, the overlay values of the real circuit need to be extracted to integrate the semiconductor device properly. The circuit level overlay measurement using CDSEM is time-consuming in extracting enough data to indicate overall trend of the chip. However DBM tool is able to derive sufficient data to display overlay tendency of the real circuit region with high repeatability. An E-beam based DBM(Design Based Metrology) tool can be an alternative overlay measurement method. In this paper, we are going to certify that the overlay values extracted from optical measurement cannot represent the circuit level overlay values. We will also demonstrate the possibility to correct misregistration between two layers using the overlay data obtained from the DBM system.

  14. LANDSAT-D Investigations Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented which highlight LANDSAT-D project status and ground segment; early access TM processing; LANDSAT-D data acquisition and availability; LANDSAT-D performance characterization; MSS pre-NOAA characterization; MSS radiometric sensor performance (spectral information, absolute calibration, and ground processing); MSS geometric sensor performance; and MSS geometric processing and calibration.

  15. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB`s.

  16. Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay

    SciTech Connect

    DuPont, J.N.

    1996-11-01

    The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr-1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification at {approx}1,216 C by a {gamma}/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The Laves phase was highly enriched in Nb, Mo, and Si. The solidification reaction and microsegregation potential of major alloying elements in the overlay deposit are compared to other Nb-bearing Ni base alloys and found to be very similar to those for Alloy 718. Solidification cracks observed in the overlay were attributed to the wide solidification temperature range ({approx}170 C) and formation of interdendritic ({gamma} + Laves) constituent. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent ({gamma} + Laves) constituent with the Scheil equation by treating the overlay system as a simple {gamma}-Nb binary and using an experimentally determined k{sub Nb} value from electron microprobe data.

  17. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

  18. Weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-03-03

    A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

  19. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  20. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-04-18

    Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based on a literature review These alloys have been separated into three major groups: (1) Cobalt containing alloys, (2) Nickel-base alloys, (3) Iron base alloys. These alloys are being applied to carbon steel substrates and will undergo preliminary erosion testing to identify candidates weld overlay alloys for erosion control in CFB boilers. The candidate alloys selected from the preliminary erosion tests will then undergo more detailed evaluations in future research.

  1. LANDSAT instruments characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Several studies were performed using LANDSAT-4 and -5 simultaneous overpath data 40608-15472 and 50014-15465 over Pensacola, FL. The overlap region of these two scenes was determined visually on the IAT and then sampled into 32 x 32 segments. The mean and standard deviation (SD) for each segment were calculated. In general, the plots of the means of LANDSAT-4 versus LANDSAT-5 lie on the diagonal line. Some of the data lie out of the diagonal line, which indicates a possible bidirectional observation effect occurs. In addition to editing the five FCL files on CALDUMP tapes into seven 1000 minor frame (MF). CAL files, program LEE.FOR was modified to use information from start of shutter obscuration extracted from program START.FOR to create seven 200 MF.CAL files that can be run through the current TRAPP program for TM sensor characterization. The location of start of shutter obscuration was determined for both LANDSAT-4 and -5.

  2. LANDSAT Committee appointed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    At its June 7-8 meeting, the 15-member LANDSAT advisory committee passed a resolution that calls for testing the feasibility of transferring the land remote sensing satellite system to private ownership. The committee, appointed last month to advise Commerce Secretary Malcolm Baldrige on the management of Landsat, includes representatives of industry, the academic community, and state and local governments.The committee, chaired by Michel T. Halbouty, consulting geologist and petroleum engineer at the Houston-based Halbouty Center, reports to Baldrige through the administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NOAA will become responsible for LANDSAT operations in January 1983. The National Earth Satellite Service will manage these LANDSAT operations and will provide support services for the advisory committee's quarterly meetings. The resolution that the committee passed at its first meeting outlined a four-step process by which the Commerce Department can evaluate the feasibility of transferring the operational land remote sensing satellite system to private industry. The possible transfer is in keeping with the Reagan administration's policy to shift some government-supported activities to the private sector.

  3. LANDSAT information for state planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, N. L.; Spann, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The transfer of remote sensing technology for the digital processing of LANDSAT data to state and local agencies in Georgia and other southeastern states is discussed. The project consists of a series of workshops, seminars, and demonstration efforts, and transfer of NASA-developed hardware concepts and computer software to state agencies. Throughout the multi-year effort, digital processing techniques have been emphasized classification algorithms. Software for LANDSAT data rectification and processing have been developed and/or transferred. A hardware system is available at EES (engineering experiment station) to allow user interactive processing of LANDSAT data. Seminars and workshops emphasize the digital approach to LANDSAT data utilization and the system improvements scheduled for LANDSATs C and D. Results of the project indicate a substantially increased awareness of the utility of digital LANDSAT processing techniques among the agencies contracted throughout the southeast. In Georgia, several agencies have jointly funded a program to map the entire state using digitally processed LANDSAT data.

  4. Hybrid overlay metrology for high order correction by using CDSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Halder, Sandip; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    Overlay control has become one of the most critical issues for semiconductor manufacturing. Advanced lithographic scanners use high-order corrections or correction per exposure to reduce the residual overlay. It is not enough in traditional feedback of overlay measurement by using ADI wafer because overlay error depends on other process (etching process and film stress, etc.). It needs high accuracy overlay measurement by using AEI wafer. WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) is the main issue for optical overlay, IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). We design dedicated SEM overlay targets for dual damascene process of N10 by i-ArF multi-patterning. The pattern is same as device-pattern locally. Optical overlay tools select segmented pattern to reduce the WIS. However segmentation has limit, especially the via-pattern, for keeping the sensitivity and accuracy. We evaluate difference between the viapattern and relaxed pitch gratings which are similar to optical overlay target at AEI. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. We will compare full map of SEM overlay to full map of optical overlay for high order correction ( correctables and residual fingerprints).

  5. Differential signal scatterometry overlay metrology: an accuracy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Mike; Dinu, Berta; Golovanevsky, Boris; Izikson, Pavel; Levinski, Vladimir; Vakshtein, Irina; Leray, Philippe; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

    2007-06-01

    The overlay control budget for the 32nm technology node will be 5.7nm according to the ITRS. The overlay metrology budget is typically 1/10 of the overlay control budget resulting in overlay metrology total measurement uncertainty (TMU) requirements of 0.57nm for the most challenging use cases of the 32nm node. The current state of the art imaging overlay metrology technology does not meet this strict requirement, and further technology development is required to bring it to this level. In this work we present results of a study of an alternative technology for overlay metrology - Differential signal scatterometry overlay (SCOL). Theoretical considerations show that overlay technology based on differential signal scatterometry has inherent advantages, which will allow it to achieve the 32nm technology node requirements and go beyond it. We present results of simulations of the expected accuracy associated with a variety of scatterometry overlay target designs. We also present our first experimental results of scatterometry overlay measurements, comparing this technology with the standard imaging overlay metrology technology. In particular, we present performance results (precision and tool induced shift) and address the issue of accuracy of scatterometry overlay. We show that with the appropriate target design and algorithms scatterometry overlay achieves the accuracy required for future technology nodes.

  6. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525

  7. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B. F.; Dupont, J. N.; Marder, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

  8. Evaluation of multiband, multitemporal, and transformed LANDSAT MSS data for land cover area estimation. [North Central Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; May, G. A.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Sample segments of ground-verified land cover data collected in conjunction with the USDA/ESS June Enumerative Survey were merged with LANDSAT data and served as a focus for unsupervised spectral class development and accuracy assessment. Multitemporal data sets were created from single-date LANDSAT MSS acquisitions from a nominal scene covering an eleven-county area in north central Missouri. Classification accuracies for the four land cover types predominant in the test site showed significant improvement in going from unitemporal to multitemporal data sets. Transformed LANDSAT data sets did not significantly improve classification accuracies. Regression estimators yielded mixed results for different land covers. Misregistration of two LANDSAT data sets by as much and one half pixels did not significantly alter overall classification accuracies. Existing algorithms for scene-to scene overlay proved adequate for multitemporal data analysis as long as statistical class development and accuracy assessment were restricted to field interior pixels.

  9. Use of Seasat synthetic aperture radar and Landsat multispectral scanner subsystem data for Alaskan glaciology studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. K.; Ormsby, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Three Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and three Landsat multispectral scanner subsystem (MSS) scenes of three areas of Alaska were analyzed for hydrological information. The areas were: the Dease Inlet in northern Alaska and its oriented or thaw lakes, the Ruth and Tokositna valley glaciers in south central Alaska, and the Malaspina piedmont glacier on Alaska's southern coast. Results for the first area showed that the location and identification of some older remnant lake basins were more easily determined in the registered data using an MSS/SAR overlay than in either SAR or MSS data alone. Separately, both SAR and MSS data were useful for determination of surging glaciers based on their distinctive medial moraines, and Landsat data were useful for locating the glacier firn zone. For the Malaspina Glacier scenes, the SAR data were useful for locating heavily crevassed ice beneath glacial debris, and Landsat provided data concerning the extent of the debris overlying the glacier.

  10. Photointerpretation of LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Learning objectives include: (1) developing a facility for applying conventional techniques of photointerpretation to small scale (satellite) imager; (2) promoting the ability to locate, identify, and interpret small natural and man made surface features in a LANDSAT image; (3) using supporting imagery, such as aerial and space photography, to conduct specific applications analyses; (4) learning to apply change detection techniques to recognize and explain transient and temporal events in individual or seasonal imagery; (5) producing photointerpretation maps that define major surface units, themes, or classes; (6) classifying or analyzing a scene for specific discipline applications in geology, agriculture, forestry, hyrology, coastal wetlands, and environmental pollution; and (7) evaluating both advantages and shortcomings in relying on the photointerpretive approach (rather than computer based analytical approach) for extracting information from LANDSAT data.

  11. LANDSAT-4 hightlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D.

    1983-01-01

    The LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper sensor possesses approximately twice the spectral resolution, three times the spatial resolution, and four times the spectral sensitivity of the MSS sensor on earlier LANDSAT satellites. Spectral bands on the TM, particularly those at wavelengths of 1.6 and 2.2 micrometers are useful for: (1) distinguishing crops such as rice and soybeans; (2) surveying areas that are cultivated in strip crop fashion; (3) determining clay variations and abundances and rock classifications; and (4) differentiating nutrients and sediments found in coastal waters. The sensor can identify surface features 30 meters on a side, which roughly corresponds to a standard city block. Highway construction, land excavation, urban growth, and the health and extent of vegetation can be detected.

  12. Landsat US standard catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery of the continental U.S., Alaska and Hawaii acquired by Landsat 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  13. Finding international Landsat data online

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    The Global Land Information System (GLIS) lists Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) data available from the participating international ground stations shown below. These databases of the Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group (LGSOWG) can be searched, but not ordered, using GLIS. To order Landsat scenes identified on the GLIS data search, contact the international ground station where those scenes are available, indicated by the second character of the Entity ID.

  14. Evaluating LANDSAT wildland classification accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures to evaluate the accuracy of LANDSAT derived wildland cover classifications are described. The evaluation procedures include: (1) implementing a stratified random sample for obtaining unbiased verification data; (2) performing area by area comparisons between verification and LANDSAT data for both heterogeneous and homogeneous fields; (3) providing overall and individual classification accuracies with confidence limits; (4) displaying results within contingency tables for analysis of confusion between classes; and (5) quantifying the amount of information (bits/square kilometer) conveyed in the LANDSAT classification.

  15. Using overlays to improve network security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keromytis, Angelos D.; Misra, Vishal; Rubenstein, Daniel

    2002-07-01

    As we increase our dependency upon networked communication, the incentive to compromise and degrade network performance increases for those who wish to disrupt the flow of information. Attacks that lead to such compromise and degradation can come in a variety of forms, including distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, cutting wires, jamming transmissions, and monitoring/eavesdropping. Users can protect themselves from monitoring by applying cryptographic techniques, and the recent work has explored developing networks that react to DDoS attacks by locating the source(s) of the attack. However, there has been little work that addresses preventing the other kinds of attacks as opposed to reacting to them. Here, we discuss how network overlays can be used to complicate the job of an attacker that wishes to prevent communication. To amplify our point, we focus briefly on a study of preventing DDoS attacks by using overlays.

  16. Overlay Tolerances For VLSI Using Wafer Steppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.; Rice, Rory

    1988-01-01

    In order for VLSI circuits to function properly, the masking layers used in the fabrication of those devices must overlay each other to within the manufacturing tolerance incorporated in the circuit design. The capabilities of the alignment tools used in the masking process determine the overlay tolerances to which circuits can be designed. It is therefore of considerable importance that these capabilities be well characterized. Underestimation of the overlay accuracy results in unnecessarily large devices, resulting in poor utilization of wafer area and possible degradation of device performance. Overestimation will result in significant yield loss because of the failure to conform to the tolerances of the design rules. The proper methodology for determining the overlay capabilities of wafer steppers, the most commonly used alignment tool for the production of VLSI circuits, is the subject of this paper. Because cost-effective manufacturing process technology has been the driving force of VLSI, the impact on productivity is a primary consideration in all discussions. Manufacturers of alignment tools advertise the capabilities of their equipment. It is notable that no manufacturer currently characterizes his aligners in a manner consistent with the requirements of producing very large integrated circuits, as will be discussed. This has resulted in the situation in which the evaluation and comparison of the capabilities of alignment tools require the attention of a lithography specialist. Unfortunately, lithographic capabilities must be known by many other people, particularly the circuit designers and the managers responsible for the financial consequences of the high prices of modern alignment tools. All too frequently, the designer or manager is confronted with contradictory data, one set coming from his lithography specialist, and the other coming from a sales representative of an equipment manufacturer. Since the latter generally attempts to make his

  17. Media delivery and media service overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Susie

    2005-03-01

    Multimedia communication and streaming media services will become mainstream network infrastructure applications in the coming decade. However, there are many challenges that must be overcome. These challenges include the Internet"s limited ability to handle real-time, low-latency media streams, the need for media security, and an uncertainty of the killer app. The nature of these challenges lends itself to enabling technology innovations in the media delivery and media processing space. Specifically, we envision an overlay infrastructure that supports networked media services that couple media delivery with in-network media processing. The media overlay should be programmable to allow rapid deployment of new applications and services and manageable so as to support the evolving requirements of the resulting usage models. Furthermore, the media overlay should allow for the delivery of protected media content for applications that have security requirements. A properly architected infrastructure can enable real-time multimedia communication and streaming media services in light of the inherent challenges.

  18. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Irons, James; Dabney, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is currently under development and is on schedule to launch the 8th satellite in the Landsat series in December of 2012. LDCM is a joint project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). NASA is responsible for developing and launching the flight hardware and on-orbit commissioning and USGS is responsible for developing the ground system and operating the system onorbit after commissioning. Key components of the flight hardware are the Operational Land Imager (OLI), nearing completion by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp in Boulder, CO, the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), being built by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the spacecraft, undergoing integration at Orbital Sciences Corp in Gilbert, Arizona. The launch vehicle will be an Atlas-5 with launch services provided by NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Key ground systems elements are the Mission Operations Element, being developed by the Hammers Corporation, and the Collection Activity Planning Element, Ground Network Element, and Data Processing and Archive System, being developed internally by the USGS Earth Resources Observations and Science (EROS) Center. The primary measurement goal of LDCM is to continue the global coverage of moderate spatial resolution imagery providing continuity with the existing Landsat record. The science goal for this imagery is to monitor land use and land cover, particularly as it relates to global climate change. Together the OLI and TIRS instruments on LDCM replace the ETM+ instrument on Landsat-7 with significant enhancements. The OLI is a pushbroom design instrument where the scanning mechanism of the ETM+ is effectively replaced by a long line of detectors. The OLI has 9 spectral bands with similar spatial resolution to ETM+: 7 of them similar to the reflective spectral bands on ETM+ and two new bands. The two new bands cover (1) the shorter wavelength blue part

  19. Multispectral Landsat images of Antartica

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Bowell, J.A.; Edwards, K.L.; Eliason, E.M.; Fergurson, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a program to map Antarctica by using colored, digitally enhanced Landsat multispectral scanner images to increase existing map coverage and to improve upon previously published Landsat maps. This report is a compilation of images and image mosaic that covers four complete and two partial 1:250,000-scale quadrangles of the McMurdo Sound region.

  20. The Next Landsat Satellite: The Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rons, James R.; Dwyer, John L.; Barsi, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat program is one of the longest running satellite programs for Earth observations from space. The program was initiated by the launch of Landsat 1 in 1972. Since then a series of six more Landsat satellites were launched and at least one of those satellites has been in operations at all times to continuously collect images of the global land surface. The Department of Interior (DOI) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) preserves data collected by all of the Landsat satellites at their Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This 40-year data archive provides an unmatched record of the Earth's land surface that has undergone dramatic changes in recent decades due to the increasing pressure of a growing population and advancing technologies. EROS provides the ability for anyone to search the archive and order digital Landsat images over the internet for free. The Landsat data are a public resource for observing, characterizing, monitoring, trending, and predicting land use change over time providing an invaluable tool for those addressing the profound consequences of those changes to society. The most recent launch of a Landsat satellite occurred in 1999 when Landsat 7 was placed in orbit. While Landsat 7 remains in operation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the DOI/ USGS are building its successor satellite system currently called the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). NASA has the lead for building and launching the satellite that will carry two Earth-viewing instruments, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The OLI will take images that measure the amount of sunlight reflected by the land surface at nine wavelengths of light with three of those wavelengths beyond the range of human vision. T1RS will collect coincident images that measure light emitted by the land surface as a function of surface temperature at two longer wavelengths well beyond the

  1. Overlay improvement by ASML HOWA 5th alignment strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Raf; Chiang, CY; Hsu, Wilson; Yang, Richer; Shih, Todd; Chen, Jackie; Chiu, Jonathan; Lin, Wythe

    2009-12-01

    Overlay control is more challenging when DRAM volume production continues to shrink its critical dimention (CD) to 70nm and beyond. Effected by process, the overlay behavior at wafer edge is quite different from wafer center. The big contribution to worse overlay at wafer edge which causes yield loss is misalignment. The analysis in wafer edge suggests that high order uncorrectable overlay residuals are often observed by certain process impact. Therefore, the basic linear model used for alignment correction is not sufficient and it is necessary to introduce an advanced alignment correction model for wafer edge overlay improvement. In this study, we demonstrated the achievement of moderating the poor overlay at wafer edge area by using a high order wafer alignment strategy. The mechanism is to use non-linear correction methods of high order models ( up to 5th order), with support by the function High Order Wafer Alignment (known as HOWA) in scanner. Instead of linear model for the 6 overlay parameters which come from average result, HOWA alignment strategy can do high order fitting through the wafer to get more accurate overlay parameters which represent the local wafer grid distortion better. As a result, the overlay improvement for wafer edge is achieved. Since alignment is a wafer dependent correction, with HOWA the wafer to wafer overlay variation can be improved dynamically as well. In addition, the effects of different mark quantity and sampling distribution from HOWA are also introduced in this paper. The results of this study indicate that HOWA can reduce uncorrectable overlay residual by 30~40% and improve wafer-to-wafer overlay variation significantly. We conclude that HOWA is a noteworthy strategy for overlay improvement. Moreover, optimized alignment mark numbers and distribution layout are also key factors to make HOWA successful.

  2. Experimental AC (Asphalt Concrete) overlays of PCC pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. D.

    1983-11-01

    A series of experimental asphalt concrete (AC) overlays was constructed over an existing distressed portland cement concrete pavement on Interstate 80 near Boca, California. The experimental overlays included rubberized dense-graded AC, rubberized open-graded AC, a rubber flush coat interlayer, dense-graded AC with short polyester fibers and Bituthene interlayer strips. The report presents a description and discussion of AC mix batching, construction observations, laboratory testing, overlay covering, and initial performance evaluation.

  3. Highly corrosion resistant weld overlay for oil patch applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hibner, E.L.; Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum equipment companies currently sell 4130 and 4140 steel pipe with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay for Oil Patch applications. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686), because of it`s superior corrosion resistance, is currently being evaluated as a replacement material for alloy 625. Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 weld overlay are discussed relative to the alloy 625 weld overlay.

  4. LANDSAT (MSS): Image demographic estimations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Foresti, C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two sets of urban test sites, one with 35 cities and one with 70 cities, were selected in the State, Sao Paulo. A high degree of colinearity (0.96) was found between urban and areal measurements taken from aerial photographs and LANDSAT MSS imagery. High coefficients were observed when census data were regressed against aerial information (0.95) and LANDSAT data (0.92). The validity of population estimations was tested by regressing three urban variables, against three classes of cities. Results supported the effectiveness of LANDSAT to estimate large city populations with diminishing effectiveness as urban areas decrease in size.

  5. Landsat features for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Lambeck, P. F.; Crist, E. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents relationships among Landsat MSS bands and selected transformations of them, with emphasis on the Tasseled-Cap Transformation and its Brightness, Greenness variables. It also discusses relationships between reflectance measurements made in the Landsat spectral bands and actual Landsat data. Agronomically oriented analyses of reflectance measurements of wheat throughout a growing season are presented, with a comparison of various green measures, correlation with crop development stage, and examination of the effects of moisture stress. The final example addresses the use of transformed variables in a newly developed approach to forestry change detection.

  6. Landsat electron beam recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, P. F.; Whitley, J. P.

    A minicomputer-controlled electron beam recorder (EBR) presently in use at the Brazilian Government's Institute De Pesquisas Espaclais (INPE) satellite ground station is described. This 5-in.-film-size EBR is used to record both Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery in South America. A brief electron beam recorder technology review is presented. The EBR is capable of recording both vector and text data from computer-aided design, publishing, and line art systems and raster data from image scanners, raster image processors (RIPS), halftone/screen generators, and remote image sensors. A variety of image formats may be recorded on numerous film sizes (16 mm, 35 mm, 70 mm, 105 mm, 5-in, 5.5-in., and 9.5-in.). These recordings are used directly or optically enlarged depending on the final product.

  7. Sampling for advanced overlay process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, DongSub; Izikson, Pavel; Sutherland, Doug; Sherman, Kara; Manka, Jim; Robinson, John C.

    2008-03-01

    Overlay metrology and control have been critical for successful advanced microlithography for many years, and are taking on an even more important role as time goes on. Due to throughput constraints it is necessary to sample only a small subset of overlay metrology marks, and typical sample plans are static over time. Standard production monitoring and control involves measuring sufficient samples to calculate up to 6 linear correctables. As design rules shrink and processing becomes more complex, however, it is necessary to consider higher order modeled terms for control, fault detection, and disposition. This in turn, requires a higher level of sampling. Due to throughput concerns, however, careful consideration is needed to establish a base-line sampling, and higher levels of sampling can be considered on an exception-basis based on automated trigger mechanisms. The goal is improved scanner control and lithographic cost of ownership. This study addresses tools for establishing baseline sampling as well as motivation and initial results for dynamic sampling for application to higher order modeling.

  8. Sampling for advanced overlay process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki; Izikson, Pavel; Robinson, John C.

    2009-03-01

    Overlay metrology and control have been critical for successful advanced microlithography for many years, and are taking on an even more important role as time goes on. Due to throughput constraints it is necessary to sample only a small subset of overlay metrology marks, and typical sample plans are static over time. Standard production monitoring and control involves measuring sufficient samples to calculate up to 6 linear correctables. As design rules shrink and processing becomes more complex, however, it is necessary to consider higher order models with additional degrees of freedom for control, fault detection, and disposition. This in turn, requires a higher level of sampling and a careful consideration of flyer removal. Due to throughput concerns, however, careful consideration is needed to establish a baseline sampling plan using rigorous statistical methods. This study focuses on establishing a 3x nm node immersion lithography production-worthy sampling plan for 3rd order modeling, verification of the accuracy, and proof of robustness of the sampling. In addition we discuss motivation for dynamic sampling for application to higher order modeling.

  9. Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-08-02

    Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

  10. 25 Years of Landsat 5

    NASA Video Gallery

    Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

  11. CNPQ/INPE LANDSAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. N.; Escada, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the Brazilian LANDSAT facilities is described and main accomplishments are outlined. Receiving, recording, and processing substations and data distribution centers are discussed. Examples of the preliminary TM product produced by the Brazilian station are given.

  12. LANDSAT-D refurbishment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for refurbishing the LANDSAT-D spacecraft after its recovery from orbit at the end of a 3-year mission in order to reuse the spacecraft on a second 3-year mission were studied. A schedule of the time required for the refurbishment including the procurement cycle for long lead-time items is developed. The costs of refurbishing and of procuring an entirely new LANDSAT-D spacecraft are compared.

  13. Real cell overlay measurement through design based metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

    2014-04-01

    Until recent device nodes, lithography has been struggling to improve its resolution limit. Even though next generation lithography technology is now facing various difficulties, several innovative resolution enhancement technologies, based on 193nm wavelength, were introduced and implemented to keep the trend of device scaling. Scanner makers keep developing state-of-the-art exposure system which guarantees higher productivity and meets a more aggressive overlay specification. "The scaling reduction of the overlay error has been a simple matter of the capability of exposure tools. However, it is clear that the scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieve the desired performance.(2)" In a manufacturing fab, the overlay error, determined by a conventional overlay measurement: by using an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO, often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area of a memory device. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by etching or CMP, also can be a source of the mismatch. Therefore, the requirement of a direct overlay measurement in the cell pattern gradually increases in the manufacturing field, and also in the development level. In order to overcome the mismatch between conventional overlay measurement and the real placement error of layer to layer in the cell area of a memory device, we suggest an alternative overlay measurement method utilizing by design, based metrology tool. A basic concept of this method is shown in figure1. A CD-SEM measurement of the overlay error between layer 1 and 2 could be the ideal method but it takes too long time to extract a lot of data from wafer level. An E-beam based DBM tool provides high speed to cover the whole wafer with high repeatability. It is enabled by using the design as a

  14. Detection of aspen-conifer forest mixes from LANDSAT digital data. [Utah-Idaho Bear River Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.; Merola, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using LANDSAT multispectral scanner data. Digital classification and statistical analysis of LANDSAT data allowed the identification of six groups of signatures which reflect different types of aspen/conifer forest mixing. Photo interpretations of the print symbols suggest that such classes are indicative of mid to late seral aspen forests. Digital print map overlays and acreage calculations were prepared for the study area quadrangles. Further field verification is needed to acquire additional information about the nature of the forests. Single date LANDSAT analysis should be a cost effective means to index aspen forests which are at least in the mid seral phase of conifer invasion. Since aspen canopies tend to obscure understory conifers for early seral forests, a second date analysis, using data taken when aspens are leafless, could provide information about early seral aspen forests.

  15. Detection of aspen/conifer forest mixes from multitemporal Landsat digital data. [Utah-Idaho Bear River Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.; Harniss, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using Landsat multispectral scanner data. Digital classification and statistical analysis of Landsat data allowed the identification of six groups of signatures which reflect different types of aspen/conifer forest mixing. Photo interpretations of the print symbols suggest that such classes are indicative of mid to late seral aspen forests. Digital print map overlayes and acreage calculations were prepared for the study area quadrangles. Further field verification is needed to acquire additional information about the nature of the forests. Single data Landsat analysis should be a cost effective means to index aspen forests which are at least in the mid seral phase of conifer invasion. Since aspen canopies tend to obscure understory conifers for early seral forests, a second data analysis, using data taken when aspens are leafless, could provide information about early seral aspen forests.

  16. A map overlay error model based on boundary geometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Symanzik, J.; Schmidt, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    An error model for quantifying the magnitudes and variability of errors generated in the areas of polygons during spatial overlay of vector geographic information system layers is presented. Numerical simulation of polygon boundary displacements was used to propagate coordinate errors to spatial overlays. The model departs from most previous error models in that it incorporates spatial dependence of coordinate errors at the scale of the boundary segment. It can be readily adapted to match the scale of error-boundary interactions responsible for error generation on a given overlay. The area of error generated by overlay depends on the sinuosity of polygon boundaries, as well as the magnitude of the coordinate errors on the input layers. Asymmetry in boundary shape has relatively little effect on error generation. Overlay errors are affected by real differences in boundary positions on the input layers, as well as errors in the boundary positions. Real differences between input layers tend to compensate for much of the error generated by coordinate errors. Thus, the area of change measured on an overlay layer produced by the XOR overlay operation will be more accurate if the area of real change depicted on the overlay is large. The model presented here considers these interactions, making it especially useful for estimating errors studies of landscape change over time. ?? 2005 The Ohio State University.

  17. Overlay measurement accuracy enhancement by design and algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Honggoo; Lee, Byongseog; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kwon, Wontaik; Park, Sungki; Choi, DongSub; Lee, Dohwa; Jeon, Sanghuck; Lee, Kangsan; Itzkovich, Tal; Amir, Nuriel; Volkovich, Roie; Herzel, Eitan; Wagner, Mark; El Kodadi, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Advanced design nodes require more complex lithography techniques, such as double patterning, as well as advanced materials like hard masks. This poses new challenge for overlay metrology and process control. In this publication several step are taken to face these challenges. Accurate overlay metrology solutions are demonstrated for advanced memory devices.

  18. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-08-01

    The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions have limited their use in applications where good weldability is required. Using hot crack testing techniques invented at ORNL, and experimental determinations of preheat and postweld heat treatment needed to avoid cold cracking, we have developed iron aluminide filler metal compositions which can be successfully used to weld overlay clad various substrate materials, including 9Cr-1Mo steel, 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel, and 300-series austenitic stainless steels. Dilution must be carefully controlled to avoid crack-sensitive deposit compositions. The technique used to produce the current filler metal compositions is aspiration-casting, i.e. drawing the liquid from the melt into glass rods. Future development efforts will involve fabrication of composite wires of similar compositions to permit mechanized gas tungsten arc (GTA) and/or gas metal arc (GMA) welding.

  19. Landsat Data as a Tool for the Geosciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Tina

    1990-01-01

    Applications of the Landsat Thematic Mapper in the fields of pedology, geology, and geomorphology are described. The history of the Landsat program and Landsat products are discussed. Illustrations of different Landsat views are presented. (CW)

  20. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  1. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1996-11-01

    The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions limited their use to applications where good weldability was not required. Considerable progress has been made toward improving this situation. Using hot crack testing techniques developed at ORNL and a systematic study of alloy compositional effects, we have established a range of compositions within which hot cracking resistance is very good, essentially equivalent to stainless steel. Cold cracking, however, remains an issue, and extensive efforts are continuing to optimize composition and welding parameters, especially preheat and postweld heat treatment, to minimize its occurrence. In terms of filler metal and process development, we have progressed from sheared strip through aspiration cast rod and shielded metal arc electrodes to the point where we can now produce composite wire with a steel sheath and aluminum core in coil form, which permits the use of both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes. This is a significant advancement in that the gas metal arc process lends itself well to automated welding, and is the process of choice for commercial weld overlay applications. Using the newly developed filler metals, we have prepared clad specimens for testing in a variety of environments both in-house and outside ORNL, including laboratory and commercial organizations. As a means of assessing the field performance of this new type of material, we have modified several non-pressure boundary boiler components, including fuel nozzles and port shrouds, by introducing areas of weld overlay in strategic locations, and have placed these components in service in operating boilers for a side-by-side comparison with conventional corrosion-resistant materials.

  2. LANDSAT-4 Radiometric and Geometric Correction and Image Enhancement Results. [San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R.; Lotspiech, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques were developed or improved to calibrate, enhance, and geometrically correct LANDSAT-4 satellite data. Statistical techniques to correct data radiometry were evaluated and were found to minimize striping and banding. Conventional techniques cause striping even with perfect calibration parameters. Intensity enhancement techniques were improved to display image data with large variation in intensity or brightness. Data were geometrically corrected to conform to a 1:100,000 map reference and image products produced with the map overlay. It is shown that these products can serve as accurate map products. A personal computer was experimentally used for digital image processing.

  3. Prolonged use of coloured overlays for classroom reading.

    PubMed

    Jeanes, R; Busby, A; Martin, J; Lewis, E; Stevenson, N; Pointon, D; Wilkins, A

    1997-11-01

    Ninety-three children in a primary school and 59 children in two first-year classes of a secondary school were asked individually to observe a paragraph of random letters arranged to resemble text, and to compare the perceptual effects on its clarity of coloured plastic sheets overlaid on the text. A total of 29 colours were compared using 10 coloured plastic sheets and 19 pairwise combinations of sheets, one superimposed on another. The resulting colours sampled CIE 1976 hue angle (huv) and saturation (suv) systematically and efficiently. All the children who reported beneficial perceptual effects (53 per cent) were given their preferred overlay or combination of overlays to use as and when they wished. When the children were examined three months later the children tended to choose a colour similar to one they had chosen previously. Ten months later, 22 per cent of those offered the overlaps were still using them of their own volition. These children, but not those who had ceased to use their overlay(s), read randomly ordered simple words more quickly with their overlay than without. In a second independent group of children referred to the Norfolk Sensory Support Service, who used overlays routinely, the reading speed was similar with a grey or clear overlay; and slower than with the chosen coloured overlay, suggesting that reduction of contrast was not the critical factor. In a third independent group of children in a primary school in Kent, the increase in reading speed with the chosen overlay predicted the children who continued to use their overlay during the ensuing eight weeks. PMID:9415962

  4. An operational application of satellite snow cover observations, northwest United States. [using LANDSAT 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT-1 imagery showing extent of snow cover was collected and is examined for the 1973 and 1974 snowmelt seasons for three Columbia River Basins. Snowlines were mapped and the aerial snow cover was determined using satellite data. Satellite snow mapping products were compared products from conventional information sources (computer programming and aerial photography was used). Available satellite data were successfully analyzed by radiance thresholding to determine snowlines and the attendant snow-covered area. Basin outline masks, contour elevation masks, and grid overlays were utilized as satellite data interpretation aids. Verification of the LANDSAT-1 data was generally good although there were exceptions. A major problem was lack of adequate cloud-free satellite imagery of high resolution and determining snowlines in forested areas.

  5. LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The integrated LANDSAT-D systems operation plan is presented and discussed with respect to functional elements, personnel, and procedures. Specifically, a review of the LANDSAT-D program, mission requirements and management, and flight operations is given.

  6. LANDSAT, a data supplement to forest survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiede, G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT in providing forest data on a county basis was investigated. Image interpretation and classification techniques and their accuracy are addressed. LANDSAT data was also used to detect and delineate defoliation caused by tent caterpillars.

  7. LANDSAT-2 and LANDSAT-3 Flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Flight performance analysis of LANDSAT 2 and LANDSAT 3 are presented for the period July 1978 to October 1978. Spacecraft operations and orbital parameters are summarized for each spacecraft. Data are provided on the performance and operation of the following subsystems onboard the spacecraft: power; attitude control; command/clock; telemetry; orbit adjust; magnetic moment compensating assembly; unified S band/premodulation processor; electrical interface; thermal narrowband tape recorders; wideband telemetry; attitude measurement sensor; wideband video tape recorders; return beam vidicon; multispectral scanner subsystem; and data collections.

  8. Envelopment technique and topographic overlays in bite mark analysis

    PubMed Central

    Djeapragassam, Parimala; Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramanian Vasudevan; Ramadoss, Koliyan; Jimsha, Vannathan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of our study were to compare four sequential overlays generated using the envelopment technique and to evaluate inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Materials and Methods: Dental stone models were prepared from impressions made from healthy individuals; photographs were taken and computer-assisted overlays were generated. The models were then enveloped in a different-color dental stone. After this, four sequential cuts were made at a thickness of 1mm each. Each sectional cut was photographed and overlays were generated. Thus, 125 overlays were generated and compared. Results: The scoring was done based on matching accuracy and the data were analyzed. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare four sequential overlays and Spearman's rank correlation tests were used to evaluate the inter- and intraoperator reliability of the overlays obtained by the envelopment technique. Conclusion: Through our study, we conclude that the third and fourth cuts were the best among the four cuts and inter- and intraoperator reliability were found to be statistically significant at 5% level that is 95% confidence interval (P < 0.05). PMID:26816458

  9. LANDSAT-5 orbit adjust maneuver report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassett, P. J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The orbit adjust maneuvers performed to raise the LANDSAT 5 spacecraft to mission altitude, synchronize it with the required groundtrack, and properly phase the spacecraft with LANDSAT-4 to provide an 8 day full Earth coverage cycle are described. Maneuver planning and evaluation procedures, data and analysis results for all maneuvers performed to date, the frozen orbit concept, and the phasing requirement between LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 are also examined.

  10. Landsat applied to landslide mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauchyn, D. J.; Trench, N. R.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of features characteristic of rotational landslides may be identified on Landsat imagery. These include tonal mottling, tonal banding, major and secondary scarps, and ponds. Pseudostereoscopic viewing of 9 by 9 in. transparencies was useful for the detailed identification of landslides, whereas 1:250,000 prints enlarged from 70 mm negatives were most suitable for regional analysis. Band 7 is the most useful band for landslide recognition, due to accentuation of ponds and shadows. Examination of both bands 7 and 5, including vegetation information, was found to be most suitable. Although, given optimum terrain conditions, some landslides in Colorado may be recognized, many smaller landslides are not identifiable. Consequently, Landsat is not recommended for detailed regional mapping, or for use in areas similar to Colorado, where alternative (aircraft) imagery is available. However, Landsat may prove useful for preliminary landslide mapping in relatively unknown areas.

  11. Map characteristics of Landsat mosaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Map characteristics of the Landsat mosaics developed at JPL are considered. Procedures for digital mosaicking of Landsat frames to standard map projections were used to mosaic at full resolution ten scenes over the California desert region and twenty-one scenes over Arizona. The procedures are analyzed for horizontal positioning error (global and local) and the potential for classification error associated with the adjustment of brightness of Z values between frames; the use of this technology for the mapping of extensive features is discussed. Mosaicking facilities, techniques, mapping accuracy, and thematic mapping characteristics are described. A comparative analysis of Landsat mosaicking technology developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, IBM Gaithersburg, and USGS Flagstaff is made, and suggestions are given for algorithm development to improve systems capacity and ability to handle a variety of cases.

  12. Landsat image data quality studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, C. F.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of the Landsat-4 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) program to characterize the data obtained using the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument on board the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 satellites are reported. TM design specifications were compared to the obtained data with respect to four criteria, including spatial resolution; geometric fidelity; information content; and image relativity to Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. The overall performance of the TM was rated excellent despite minor instabilities and radiometric anomalies in the data. Spatial performance of the TM exceeded design specifications in terms of both image sharpness and geometric accuracy, and the image utility of the TM data was at least twice as high as MSS data. The separability of alfalfa and sugar beet fields in a TM image is demonstrated.

  13. Developing consistent time series landsat data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Landsat series satellite has provided earth observation data record continuously since early 1970s. There are increasing demands on having a consistent time series of Landsat data products. In this presentation, I will summarize the work supported by the USGS Landsat Science Team project from 20...

  14. The Landsat-D Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracken, P. A.; Billingsley, J. B.; Lynch, T. J.; Quann, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The overall Landsat-D system is discussed with emphasis on the objectives, configuration, and capabilities of the Landsat-D Assessment System. This system is being developed to support investigations which demonstrate, evaluate, and assess the utility of Landsat-D data for a wide variety of earth observations applications.

  15. A legislator's guide to LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The LANDSAT satellite is an effective tool in meeting the natural resources data requirements of state and federal legislation. The availability of data from the satellite is beginning to have an impact on state legislature activities. An overview of the history, operation, and data analysis techniques, is presented as well as a discussion of the advantages and limitations of this method of remote sensing. Applications are discussed in the areas of (1) land resource planning and management; (2) coastal zone management; (3) agriculture; (4) forestry; (5) routing and siting; (6) environmental monitoring; and (7) geological exploration. National and state sources from which information about LANDSAT technology is available are listed.

  16. Vector statistics of LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.; Underwood, D.

    1977-01-01

    A digitized multispectral image, such as LANDSAT data, is composed of numerous four dimensional vectors, which quantitatively describe the ground scene from which the data are acquired. The statistics of unique vectors that occur in LANDSAT imagery are studied to determine if that information can provide some guidance on reducing image processing costs. A second purpose of this report is to investigate how the vector statistics are changed by various types of image processing techniques and determine if that information can be useful in choosing one processing approach over another.

  17. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A flight performance analysis of the LANDSAT-1 spacecraft is presented, and some of the following were examined: (1) orbital parameters; (2) power subsystem; (3) attitude control subsystem; (4) command/clock subsystem; (5) narrowband tape recorders; and (6) magnetic moment compensating assembly.

  18. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1997-12-01

    The author has established a range of compositions for these alloys within which hot cracking resistance is very good, and within which cold cracking can be avoided in many instances by careful control of welding conditions, particularly preheat and postweld heat treatment. For example, crack-free butt welds have been produced for the first time in 12-mm thick wrought Fe{sub 3}Al plate. Cold cracking, however, still remains an issue in many cases. The author has developed a commercial source for composite weld filler metals spanning a wide range of achievable aluminum levels, and are pursuing the application of these filler metals in a variety of industrial environments. Welding techniques have been developed for both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes, and preliminary work has been done to utilize the wire arc process for coating of boiler tubes. Clad specimens have been prepared for environmental testing in-house, and a number of components have been modified and placed in service in operating kraft recovery boilers. In collaboration with a commercial producer of spiral weld overlay tubing, the author is attempting to utilize the new filler metals for this novel application.

  19. The Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Clare, Loren P.

    2008-01-01

    A document describes the Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator (IONAC) an electronic apparatus, now under development, for relaying data at high rates in spacecraft and interplanetary radio-communication systems utilizing a delay-tolerant networking protocol. The protocol includes provisions for transmission and reception of data in bundles (essentially, messages), transfer of custody of a bundle to a recipient relay station at each step of a relay, and return receipts. Because of limitations on energy resources available for such relays, data rates attainable in a conventional software implementation of the protocol are lower than those needed, at any given reasonable energy-consumption rate. Therefore, a main goal in developing the IONAC is to reduce the energy consumption by an order of magnitude and the data-throughput capability by two orders of magnitude. The IONAC prototype is a field-programmable gate array that serves as a reconfigurable hybrid (hardware/ firmware) system for implementation of the protocol. The prototype can decode 108,000 bundles per second and encode 100,000 bundles per second. It includes a bundle-cache static randomaccess memory that enables maintenance of a throughput of 2.7Gb/s, and an Ethernet convergence layer that supports a duplex throughput of 1Gb/s.

  20. Lithography aware overlay metrology target design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myungjun; Smith, Mark D.; Lee, Joonseuk; Jung, Mirim; Lee, Honggoo; Kim, Youngsik; Han, Sangjun; Adel, Michael E.; Lee, Kangsan; Lee, Dohwa; Choi, Dongsub; Liu, Zephyr; Itzkovich, Tal; Levinski, Vladimir; Levy, Ady

    2016-03-01

    We present a metrology target design (MTD) framework based on co-optimizing lithography and metrology performance. The overlay metrology performance is strongly related to the target design and optimizing the target under different process variations in a high NA optical lithography tool and measurement conditions in a metrology tool becomes critical for sub-20nm nodes. The lithography performance can be quantified by device matching and printability metrics, while accuracy and precision metrics are used to quantify the metrology performance. Based on using these metrics, we demonstrate how the optimized target can improve target printability while maintaining the good metrology performance for rotated dipole illumination used for printing a sub-100nm diagonal feature in a memory active layer. The remaining challenges and the existing tradeoff between metrology and lithography performance are explored with the metrology target designer's perspective. The proposed target design framework is completely general and can be used to optimize targets for different lithography conditions. The results from our analysis are both physically sensible and in good agreement with experimental results.

  1. Nyiragongo Volcano, Congo, Map View with Lava, Landsat / ASTER / SRTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This Landsat satellite image shows the volcano (right of center), the city of Goma, and surrounding terrain. Image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite were used to supply a partial map of the recent lava flows (red overlay), including a complete mapping of their intrusion into Goma as of January 28, 2002. Lava is also apparent within the volcanic crater and at a few other locations. Thick (but broken) cloud cover during the ASTER image acquisition prevented a complete mapping of the lava distribution, but future image acquisitions should complete the mapping.

    Goma has a light pink speckled appearance along the shore of Lake Kivu. The city airport parallels, and is just right (east) of, the larger lava flow. Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but much broader Nyamuragira volcano appears in the upper left.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. Volcanic activity is common here, and older but geologically recent lava flows (magenta in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before the eruption, and shows an unusually cloud-free view of this tropical terrain. Minor clouds and their shadows were digitally removed to clarify the view and topographic shading derived from the SRTM

  2. Landsat TM and ETM+ Thermal Band Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Hook, Simon J.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2006-01-01

    Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been imaging the Earth since March 1984 and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. The stability and calibration of the ETM+ has been monitored extensively since launch. Though not monitored for many years, TM now has a similar system in place to monitor stability and calibration. University teams have been evaluating the on-board calibration of the instruments through ground-based measurements since 1999. This paper considers the calibration efforts for the thermal band, Band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 instruments.

  3. Landsat 7 Science Data Processing: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweiss, Robert J.; Daniel, Nathaniel E.; Derrick, Deborah K.

    2000-01-01

    The Landsat 7 Science Data Processing System, developed by NASA for the Landsat 7 Project, provides the science data handling infrastructure used at the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) Landsat Data Handling Facility (DHF) of the United States Department of Interior, United States Geological Survey (USGS) located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This paper presents an overview of the Landsat 7 Science Data Processing System and details of the design, architecture, concept of operation, and management aspects of systems used in the processing of the Landsat 7 Science Data.

  4. Diffraction based overlay metrology for α-carbon applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, Chandra Saru; Tan, Asher; Dasari, Prasad; Goelzer, Gary; Smith, Nigel; Woo, Seouk-Hoon; Shin, Jang Ho; Kang, Hyun Jae; Kim, Ho Chul

    2008-03-01

    Applications that require overlay measurement between layers separated by absorbing interlayer films (such as α- carbon) pose significant challenges for sub-50nm processes. In this paper scatterometry methods are investigated as an alternative to meet these stringent overlay metrology requirements. In this article, a spectroscopic Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) measurement technique is used where registration errors are extracted from specially designed diffraction targets. DBO measurements are performed on detailed set of wafers with varying α-carbon (ACL) thicknesses. The correlation in overlay values between wafers with varying ACL thicknesses will be discussed. The total measurement uncertainty (TMU) requirements for these layers are discussed and the DBO TMU results from sub-50nm samples are reviewed.

  5. Augmenting reality in Direct View Optical (DVO) overlay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Tim; Edwards, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The integration of overlay displays into rifle scopes can transform precision Direct View Optical (DVO) sights into intelligent interactive fire-control systems. Overlay displays can provide ballistic solutions within the sight for dramatically improved targeting, can fuse sensor video to extend targeting into nighttime or dirty battlefield conditions, and can overlay complex situational awareness information over the real-world scene. High brightness overlay solutions for dismounted soldier applications have previously been hindered by excessive power consumption, weight and bulk making them unsuitable for man-portable, battery powered applications. This paper describes the advancements and capabilities of a high brightness, ultra-low power text and graphics overlay display module developed specifically for integration into DVO weapon sight applications. Central to the overlay display module was the development of a new general purpose low power graphics controller and dual-path display driver electronics. The graphics controller interface is a simple 2-wire RS-232 serial interface compatible with existing weapon systems such as the IBEAM ballistic computer and the RULR and STORM laser rangefinders (LRF). The module features include multiple graphics layers, user configurable fonts and icons, and parameterized vector rendering, making it suitable for general purpose DVO overlay applications. The module is configured for graphics-only operation for daytime use and overlays graphics with video for nighttime applications. The miniature footprint and ultra-low power consumption of the module enables a new generation of intelligent DVO systems and has been implemented for resolutions from VGA to SXGA, in monochrome and color, and in graphics applications with and without sensor video.

  6. Coloured overlays and their effects on reading speed: a review.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Arnold

    2002-09-01

    Coloured overlays can reduce symptoms of visual stress and improve reading speed. These benefits are reliable and are not attributable simply to placebo effects. Five percent of children in mainstream education read at least 25% more quickly with an overlay, provided they have chosen the colour. The suboptimal design of children's text and the high level of classroom lighting may be partly responsible. PMID:12358317

  7. LANDSAT-1 flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Flight performance analysis for the tenth quarter of operation orbit 11467 to 12745 of LANDSAT 1 are presented. Payload subsystems discussed include: power subsystem; attitude control subsystem; telemetry subsystem; electrical interface subsystem; narrowband tape recorders; wideband telemetry subsystem; return beam vidicon subsystem; multispectral scanner subsystem; and data collection system.

  8. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Description Fact sheet introduces the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) with images from a section of the mosaic over McMurdo Station, descriptions of the four versions of LIMA, where to access and download LIMA, and a brief explanation of the Antarctic Web portal.

  9. Landsat and Thermal Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Terry; Barsi, Julia; Jhabvala, Murzy; Reuter, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce the new thermal sensor to be launched in 2013. The chapter describes the thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch calibration of the new thermal infrared sensor (TIRS).

  10. A Landsat Agricultural Monitoring Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aaronson, A. C.; Buchman, P. E.; Wescott, T.; Fries, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the Landsat Agricultural Monitoring Program which was developed to identify, observe, and evaluate alarm conditions influencing Iowa corn production in 1976. Used in conjunction with climatic and field reports, studies were made of crop development, crop alarms (such as heavy rainfall, hail, tornadoes, and drought) and estimated crop yield.

  11. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper calibration update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Mettler, Cory J.; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5 which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the TM-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988-1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations (a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert site) were developed. The results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime, with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this paper have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  12. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, J.G.; Dwyer, J.; Roy, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record. ?? 2010.

  13. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper Calibration Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helder, Dennis; Malla. Rimy; Mettler, Cory; Markham, Brian; Micijevic, Esad

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5, which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the Thematic Mapper-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988 through 1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations, a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert PICS, were developed. Results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all the reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this work have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  14. Overlay improvements using a real time machine learning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kubis, Michael; Henke, Wolfgang; Slotboom, Daan; Hoogenboom, Tom; Mulkens, Jan; Coogans, Martyn; ten Berge, Peter; Verkleij, Dick; van de Mast, Frank

    2014-04-01

    While semiconductor manufacturing is moving towards the 14nm node using immersion lithography, the overlay requirements are tightened to below 5nm. Next to improvements in the immersion scanner platform, enhancements in the overlay optimization and process control are needed to enable these low overlay numbers. Whereas conventional overlay control methods address wafer and lot variation autonomously with wafer pre exposure alignment metrology and post exposure overlay metrology, we see a need to reduce these variations by correlating more of the TWINSCAN system's sensor data directly to the post exposure YieldStar metrology in time. In this paper we will present the results of a study on applying a real time control algorithm based on machine learning technology. Machine learning methods use context and TWINSCAN system sensor data paired with post exposure YieldStar metrology to recognize generic behavior and train the control system to anticipate on this generic behavior. Specific for this study, the data concerns immersion scanner context, sensor data and on-wafer measured overlay data. By making the link between the scanner data and the wafer data we are able to establish a real time relationship. The result is an inline controller that accounts for small changes in scanner hardware performance in time while picking up subtle lot to lot and wafer to wafer deviations introduced by wafer processing.

  15. Residual stresses in weld overlay tubes: A finite element study

    SciTech Connect

    Taljat, B.; Zacharia, T.; Wang, X.L.; Keiser, J.R.; Feng, Z.; Jirinec, M.J.

    1997-01-03

    Residual stresses and strains in a tube with circumferential weld overlay were analyzed by the finite element (FE) method. The objective of this work was to develop and verify a FE model, to determine the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in the weld overlay tube, and to evaluate the significance of two contributing factors to residual stress: (1) difference in material properties between tube and weld material, and (2) thermal gradients in the weld. An axisymmetric FE model was developed to simulate the circumferential two-layer welding process of alloy 625 overlay on SA210 tube. The first layer was modeled as a gas metal arc welding process with filler metal, whereas the autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process was modeled for the second layer. Neutron diffraction technique was used to experimentally determine residual elastic strains in the weld overlay tube. Comparison with the FE results shows overall good agreement. Both the experimental and FE results show high compressive stresses at the inside tube surface and high tensile stresses in the weld overlay. This suggests that weld overlay may be used to relieve tensile or produce compressive stresses at the inside tube surface, which is significant for applications where crack initiation is found at the root pass of the joining weld.

  16. ``Electric growth`` of metal overlayers on semiconductor substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Cho, J.H. |; Niu, Q.; Shih, C.K.; Suo, Z.

    1998-02-01

    In this article, the authors present the main results from their recent studies of metal overlayer growth on semiconductor substrates. They show that a variety of novel phenomena can exist in such systems, resulting from several competing interactions. The confined motion of the conduction electrons within the metal overlayer can mediate a surprisingly long-range repulsive force between the metal-semiconductor interface and the growth front, acting to stabilize the overlayer. Electron transfer from the overlayer to the substrate leads to an attractive force between the two interfaces, acting to destabilize the overlayer. Interface-induced Friedel oscillations in electron density can further impose an oscillatory modulation onto the two previous interactions. These three competing factors, of all electronic nature, can make a flat metal overlayer critically, marginally, or magically stable, or totally unstable against roughening. The authors further show that, for many systems, these electronic effects can easily win over the effect of stress. First-principles studies of a few representative systems support the main features of the present electronic growth concept.

  17. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  18. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The LANDSAT-1 spacecraft was launched from the Western Test Range on 23 July 1972, at 18:08:06.508Z. The launch and orbital injection phase of the space flight was nominal and deployment of the spacecraft followed predictions. Orbital operations of the spacecraft and payload subsystems were satisfactory through Orbit 147, after which an internal short circuit disabled one of the Wideband Video Tape Recorders (WBVTR-2). Operations resumed until Orbit 196, when the Return Beam Vidicon failed to respond when commanded off. The RBV was commanded off via alternate commands. LANDSAT-1 continued to perform its imaging mission with the Multispectral Scanner and the remaining Wideband Video Tape Recorder providing image data.

  19. Overlay progress in EUV lithography towards adoption for manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, Jan V.; Laidler, David; Pigneret, Charles; van Dijk, Andre; Voznyi, Oleg; Dusa, Mircea; Hendrickx, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) lithography is a candidate for semiconductor manufacturing for the 16nm technology node and beyond. Due to the very short wavelength of 13.5nm, EUV lithography provides the capability to continue single exposure scaling with improved resolution and higher pattern fidelity compared to 193nm immersion lithography. However, reducing the wavelength brings new equipment and process challenges. To enable EUV photon transmission through the optical system, the entire optical path of an EUV exposure tool operates under vacuum, and in addition reticle and optics are reflective. To obtain the required CD and overlay performance, both wafer and reticle front surfaces need to have near-perfect flatness, as non-flatness directly contributes to focus and image placement errors, in the case of the reticle due to non-telecentricity. Traditional vacuum chucks, both for reticle and wafer, cannot be used and are replaced by electrostatic chucks. Any contribution of this new clamping method on CD and overlay control therefore needs to be investigated, including avoidance of particle contamination over time. This work was performed on ASML's EUV Alpha Demo Tool (ADT). We investigated the different, non-conventional contributions to overlay control on the ADT, with particular attention to the wafer clamping performance of the exposure chuck. We demonstrate that we were able to improve the overlay performance by compensating for the wafer clamping error during the wafer alignment sequence. The impact of different wafer types on overlay was also evaluated. In addition to clamping effects, thermal effects have also been shown to impact overlay and were evaluated by monitoring the thermal behavior of a wafer during exposure on the ADT and correlating to the resulting overlay.

  20. CNPq/INPE-LANDSAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debarrosaguirre, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The current status of the Brazilian LANDSAT facilities operated by Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) and the results achieved during the period from October 1, 1984 to August 31, 1985 are presented. INPE's Receiving Station at Cuiaba, MT, operates normally the two tracking and receiving systems it has installed, the old one (1973) for Band S and the new one (February 1983) for dual S- and X-band. Both MSS and TM recording capabilities are functional. Support to the NASA Backup Plan for MSS data also remains active. Routine recordings are being made for LANDSAT-5 only, for both MSS and TM. Originally, MSS was recorded over the full acquisition range. However, since December, 1984, due to further reduction of operational expenses, both instruments are being recorded over Brazilian territory only.

  1. Landsat, computers, and development projects.

    PubMed

    Adrien, P M; Baumgardner, M F

    1977-11-01

    Data provided by earth-orbiting satellites and analyzed through specific computer techniques are rapidly providing policy-makers around the world with new information on the location and extent of their countries' renewable and nonrenewable resources. Development projects utilizing remote sensing technology are being supported, for example, by the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and other international funding agencies. The Inter-American Development Bank is financing a natural resources inventory of five countries in Central America, and this will require the application of remote sensing in the analysis of 33 Landsat images covering the area. Although the Landsat program remains experimental in nature, studies pertaining to its follow-on aspects will ensure continuation of the program so that developed and developing countries will be able to maintain better control of the management of their natural resources. PMID:17842110

  2. Landsat analysis of lake quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Fisher, L. T.; Holmquist, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    The trophic status of a number of inland lakes in Wisconsin has been assessed. The feasibility of using both photographic and digital representations of Landsat imagery was investigated during the lake classification project. The result of the investigation has been a semi-automatic data acquisition and handling system which, in conjunction with an analytical categorization scheme, can be used to classify all the significant lakes in the state.

  3. Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

    The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

  4. Overlay metrology solutions in a triple patterning scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Mao, Ming; Baudemprez, Bart; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Overlay metrology tool suppliers are offering today several options to their customers: Different hardware (Image Based Overlay or Diffraction Based Overlay), different target designs (with or without segmentation) or different target sizes (from 5 um to 30 um). All these variations are proposed to resolve issues like robustness of the target towards process variations, be more representative of the design or increase the density of measurements. In the frame of the development of a triple patterning BEOL scheme of 10 nm node layer, we compare IBO targets (standard AIM, AIMid and multilayer AIMid). The metrology tools used for the study are KLA-Tencor's nextgeneration Archer 500 system (scatterometry- and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool). The overlay response and fingerprint of these targets will be compared using a very dense sampling (up to 51 pts per field). The benefit of indie measurements compared to the traditional scribes is discussed. The contribution of process effects to overlay values are compared to the contribution of the performance of the target. Different targets are combined in one measurement set to benefit from their different strengths (performance vs size). The results are summarized and possible strategies for a triple patterning schemes are proposed.

  5. Large dynamic range Atomic Force Microscope for overlay improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, Stefan; Fritz, Erik; Crowcombe, Will; Liebig, Thomas; Kramer, Geerten; Witvoet, Gert; Duivenvoorde, Tom; Overtoom, Ton; Rijnbeek, Ramon; van Zwet, Erwin; van Dijsseldonk, Anton; den Boef, Arie; Beems, Marcel; Levasier, Leon

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays most overlay metrology tools assess the overlay performance based on marker features which are deposited next to the functional device features within each layer of the semiconductor device. However, correct overlay of the relatively coarse marker features does not directly guarantee correct overlay of the much smaller device features. This paper presents the development of a tool that allows to measure the relative distance between the marker and device features within each layer of the semiconductor device, which can be used to improve the overlay at device feature level. In order to be effective, the marker to device feature distance should be measured with sub-nanometer measurement uncertainty over several millimeters range. Furthermore, the tool should be capable of profiling the marker features to allows prediction of the location interpretation of the optical diffraction based alignment sensors, which are sensitive for potential asymmetry of the marker features. To enable this, a highly stable Atomic Force Microscope system is being developed. The probe is positioned relative to the wafer with a 6DOF controlled hexapod stage, which has a relatively large positioning range of 8x8mm. The position and orientation of this stage is measured relative to the wafer using 6 interferometers via a highly stable metrology frame. A tilted probe concept is utilized to allow profiling of the high aspect ratio marker and device features. Current activities are aimed at demonstrating the measurement capabilities of the developed AFM system.

  6. Landsat-8 data processing evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfitt, Ron A.; Choate, Mike J.; Barsi, Julia A.

    2014-10-01

    Shortly after Landsat-8 launched in February 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center began creating radiometrically and geometrically corrected products. In order to provide these products as soon as possible, the Landsat Product Generation System (LPGS) was developed based on instrument designs and testing prior to launch. While every effort was made to ensure the LPGS produces highly accurate products, some aspects of the sensors are difficult to characterize during testing on the ground. Examples of these characteristics include differences between individual detectors that make up the focal plane array, and the way detectors view radiometric targets in preflight testing versus the way they view the Earth on orbit, and the accuracy of the measurements made on the ground. Once in orbit, more accurate measurements of these sensor characteristics were made that improved processing parameters, resulting in improved quality of the final imagery. This paper reviews the changes that have occurred to the processing of Landsat-8 data products which include parameter changes as well as some modifications to the processing system itself. These changes include: improved linearization of the data, both to parameters and the algorithm used for linearizing the data; improved radiance and reflectance conversion coefficients; individual detector coefficients to improve uniformity; and geometric alignment coefficients to improve the geometric accuracy. These improvements lead to a reprocessing campaign that occurred in early in 2014 that replaced all prior data with improved products.

  7. LANDSAT D: Applications development laboratory study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, L.; Dietrich, D.; Fries, R.; Kharkanis, V. J.; Portner, N.; Smith, D.

    1977-01-01

    As the Earth Resources Program has matured through the LANDSAT spacecraft it has begun the transition from an experimental research activity to a sound demonstration of proven utility. This important transition will be complete with the LANDSAT D system which incorporates several key improvements over the current system. These improvements, based on experience with the existing LANDSATs, will provide new capabilities in the spacecraft, the sensor, the ground system, and the overall system design.

  8. Comparing IKONOS and Landsat 7 Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir

    2002-01-01

    This work is a continuation of the simulations presented at the previous workshop.INformation is presented on the following: 20 IKONOS images compared with 10 Landsat 7 ETM+VNIR images acquired on the same days. Comparisons are based on simulations of the Landsat 7 images from the IKONOS data. IKONOS and Landsat 7 images used in simulations are on a similar processing level with radiometric correction, georeferenced with cubic-convolution resampling, and UTM projection with WGS-84 datum.

  9. A system for processing Landsat and other georeferenced data for resource management applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Earth Resources Laboratory has developed a transferrable system for processing Landsat and disparate data with capabilities for digital data classification, georeferencing, overlaying, and data base management. This system is known as the Earth Resources Data Analysis System. The versatility of the system has been demonstrated with applications in several disciplines. A description is given of a low-cost data system concept that is suitable for transfer to one's available in-house minicomputer or to a low-cost computer purchased for this purpose. Software packages are described that process Landsat data to produce surface cover classifications and that geographically reference the data to the UTM projection. Programs are also described that incorporate several sets of Landsat derived information, topographic information, soils information, rainfall information, etc., into a data base. Selected application algorithms are discussed and sample products are presented. The types of computers on which the low-cost data system concept has been implemented are identified, typical implementation costs are given, and the source where the software may be obtained is identified.

  10. Landsat: Making a Difference, One User at a Time

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission will continue and improve upon the 40-year-old Landsat program. This video examines two uses of Landsat data to monitor agriculture. Both wineries and timber com...

  11. Wheat yield forecasts using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Rice, D. P.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Several considerations of winter wheat yield prediction using LANDSAT data were discussed. In addition, a simple technique which permits direct early season forecasts of wheat production was described.

  12. Acquisition and preprocessing of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, T. N.; Brown, L. E.; Anonsen, W. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The original configuration of the GSFC data acquisition, preprocessing, and transmission subsystem, designed to provide LANDSAT data inputs to the LACIE system at JSC, is described. Enhancements made to support LANDSAT -2, and modifications for LANDSAT -3 are discussed. Registration performance throughout the 3 year period of LACIE operations satisfied the 1 pixel root-mean-square requirements established in 1974, with more than two of every three attempts at data registration proving successful, notwithstanding cosmetic faults or content inadequacies to which the process is inherently susceptible. The cloud/snow rejection rate experienced throughout the last 3 years has approached 50%, as expected in most LANDSAT data use situations.

  13. Classification and area estimation of land covers in Kansas using ground-gathered and LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, G. A.; Holko, M. L.; Anderson, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-gathered data and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) digital data from 1981 were analyzed to produce a classification of Kansas land areas into specific types called land covers. The land covers included rangeland, forest, residential, commercial/industrial, and various types of water. The analysis produced two outputs: acreage estimates with measures of precision, and map-type or photo products of the classification which can be overlaid on maps at specific scales. State-level acreage estimates were obtained and substate-level land cover classification overlays and estimates were generated for selected geographical areas. These products were found to be of potential use in managing land and water resources.

  14. Cooperative Resource Pricing in Service Overlay Networks for Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Okaie, Yutaka

    The success of peer-to-peer overlay networks depends on cooperation among participating peers. In this paper, we investigate the degree of cooperation among individual peers required to induce globally favorable properties in an overlay network. Specifically, we consider a resource pricing problem in a market-oriented overlay network where participating peers sell own resources (e.g., CPU cycles) to earn energy which represents some money or rewards in the network. In the resource pricing model presented in this paper, each peer sets the price for own resource based on the degree of cooperation; non-cooperative peers attempt to maximize their own energy gains, while cooperative peers maximize the sum of own and neighbors' energy gains. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the network topology is an important factor influencing the minimum degree of cooperation required to increase the network-wide global energy gain.

  15. Constructing Overlay Networks with Short Paths and Low Communication Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makikawa, Fuminori; Tsuchiya, Tatsuhiro; Kikuno, Tohru

    A Peer-To-Peer (P2P) application uses an overlay network which is a virtual network constructed over the physical network. Traditional overlay construction methods do not take physical location of nodes into consideration, resulting in a large amount of redundant traffic. Some proximity-aware construction methods have been proposed to address this problem. These methods typically connect nearby nodes in the physical network. However, as the number of nodes increases, the path length of a route between two distant nodes rapidly increases. To alleviate this problem, we propose a technique which can be incorporated in existing overlay construction methods. The idea behind this technique is to employ long links to directly connect distant nodes. Through simulation experiments, we show that using our proposed technique, networks can achieve small path length and low communication cost while maintaining high resiliency to failures.

  16. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  17. Tuning carrier density at complex oxide interface with metallic overlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Shi, Y. J.; Jiang, S. W.; Yue, F. J.; Wang, P.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D.

    2016-06-01

    We have systematically investigated the electronic transport properties of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces with several different metal capping layers. The sheet carrier density can be tuned in a wide range by the metallic overlayer without changing the carrier mobility. The sheet carrier density variation is found to be linearly dependent on the size of metal work function. This behavior is explained by the mechanism of the charge transfer between the oxide interface and the metal overlayer across the LaAlO3 layer. Our results confirm the existence of a built-in electric field in LaAlO3 film with an estimated value of 67.7 eV/Å. Since the metallic overlayer is essential for devices, the present phenomena must be considered for future applications.

  18. Using Mobile Agents and Overlay Networks to Secure Electrical Netoworks

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, Neal A.; Prosser, Bryan J.; Fulp, Errin W.; McKinnon, Archibald D.

    2013-04-01

    ABSTRACT The use of wandering, mobile agents can provide a robust approach for managing, monitoring, and securing electrical distribution networks. However, the topological structure of electrical networks can affect system performance. For example, if the multi-agent system relies on a regular inspection rate (on average, points of interest are inspected with equal frequency), then locations that are not well connected will on average be inspected less frequently. This paper discusses creation and use of overlay networks that create a virtual grid graph can provide faster coverage and a more uniform average agent sampling rate. Using overlays agents wander a virtual neighborhood consisting of only points of interest that are interconnected in a regular fashion (each point has the same number of neighbors). Experimental results will show that an overlay can often provide better network coverage and a more uniform inspection rate, which can improve cyber security by providing a faster detection of threats

  19. Urban area delineation and detection of change along the urban-rural boundary as derived from LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, J. W.; Lachowski, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    LANDSAT digital multispectral scanner data, in conjunction with supporting ground truth, were investigated to determine their utility in delineation of urban-rural boundaries. The digital data for the metropolitan areas of Washington, D. C.; Austin, Texas; and Seattle, Washingtion; were processed using an interactive image processing system. Processing focused on identification of major land cover types typical of the zone of transition from urban to rural landscape, and definition of their spectral signatures. Census tract boundaries were input into the interactive image processing system along with the LANDSAT single and overlayed multiple date MSS data. Results of this investigation indicate that satellite collected information has a practical application to the problem of urban area delineation and to change detection.

  20. Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Perspective View with Lava SRTM / ASTER / Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: View width 21 kilometers (13 miles), View distance 42 kilometers (26 miles) Location: 1.5 degrees South latitude, 29.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: View east-northeast, 5 degrees below horizontal Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively. ASTER Band 12 (thermal) shown as red overlay. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Landsat 30 meters (98 feet). ASTER (thermal) 90 meters (295 feet). Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), December 11, 2001 (Landsat), January 28, 2002 (ASTER)

  1. Measured residual stresses in overlay pipe weldments removed from service

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Surface and throughwall residual stresses were measured on an elbow-to-pipe weldment that had been removed from the Hatch-2 reactor about a year after the application of a weld overlay. The results were compared with experimental measurements on three mock-up weldments and with finite-element calculations. The comparison shows that there are significant differences in the form and magnitude of the residual stress distributions. However, even after more than a year of service, the residual stresses over most of the inner surface of the actual plant weldment with an overlay were strongly compressive. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Implementing a Trust Overlay Framework for Digital Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Paul; McGibney, Jimmy; Botvich, Dmitri; McLaughlin, Mark

    Digital Ecosystems, being decentralised in nature, are inherently untrustworthy environments. This is due to the fact that these environments lack a centralised gatekeeper and identity provider. In order for businesses to operate in these environments there is a need for security measures to support accountability and traceability. This paper describes a trust overlay network developed in the OPAALS project to allow entities participating in digital ecosystems to share experience through the exchange of trust values and to leverage on this network to determine reputation based trustworthiness of unknown and initially untrusted entities. An overlay network is described together with sample algorithms and a discussion on implementation.

  3. High-frequency nonreciprocal reflection from magnetic films with overlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Nie, Yan; Camley, R. E.

    2013-11-14

    We perform a theoretical study of the nonreciprocal reflection of high-frequency microwave radiation from ferromagnetic films with thin overlayers. Reflection from metallic ferromagnetic films is always near unity and shows no nonreciprocity. In contrast, reflection from a structure which has a dielectric overlayer on top of a film composed of insulated ferromagnetic nanoparticles or nanostructures can show significant nonreciprocity in the 75–80 GHz frequency range, a very high value. This can be important for devices such as isolators or circulators.

  4. Flexible TWDM PON with WDM overlay for converged services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ning

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews recent developments of flexible TWDM PON (time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network) with pluggable transceivers for pay-as-you-grow deployment, load balancing, channel protection and power saving. Different architectures for TWDM PON with WDM (wavelength division multiplexed) overlay for converged broadband services are discussed and experimental results are presented for WDM overlay using low-cost self-seeded RSOA (reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers). Challenging issues and possible solutions for future evolution toward software defined flexible PONs (FlexPONs) are also discussed with respect to dynamic lambda flow, elastic bandwidth and flexible reach.

  5. Characteristics of the Landsat Multispectral Data System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat satellites were launched into orbit in 1972 and 1975. Additional Landsat satellites are planned for launch in 1978 and 1981. The satellites orbit the Earth at an altitude of approximately 900 km and each can obtain repetitive coverage of cloud-free areas every 18 days. A sun-synchronous orbit is used to insure repeatable illumination conditions. Repetitive satellite coverage allows optimal cover conditions for geologic applications to be identified. Seasonal variations in solar illumination must be analyzed to select the best Landsat data for geologic applications. Landsat data may be viewed in stereo where there is sufficient sidelap and sufficient topographic relief. Landsat-1 ceased operation on January 10, 1978. Landsat-2 detects, only solar radiation that is reflected from the Earth's surface in visible and near-visible wavelengths. The third Landsat will also detect emitted thermal radiation. The multispectral scanner (MSS) was the only sensing instrument used on the first two satellites. The MSS on Landsats-1 and -2 detect radiation which is reflected from a 79 m by 79 m area, and the data are formatted as if the measurement was made from a 56 m by 79 m area. The MSS integrates spectral response from all cover types within the 79 m by 79 m area. The integrated spectral signature often does not resemble the spectral signature from individual cover types, and the integrated signature is also modified by the atmosphere. Landsat-1 and -2 data are converted to 70 mm film and computer compatible tapes (CCT's) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); these are shipped to the EROS Data Center (EDC) for duplication and distribution to users. Landsat-C data will be converted to 241 mm-wide film and CCT's at EDC. Landsat-D data will be relayed from the satellite directly to geosynchronous satellites and then to the United States from any location on Earth.

  6. LANDSAT non-US standard catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  7. Landsat sensor performance: history and current status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Storey, James C.; Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The current Thematic Mapper (TM) class of Landsat sensors began with Landsat-4, which was launched in 1982. This series continued with the nearly identical sensor on Landsat-5, launched in 1984. The final sensor in the series was the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), which was carried into orbit in 1999. Varying degrees of effort have been devoted to the characterization of these instruments and data over the past 22 years. Extensive short-lived efforts early in the history, very limited efforts in the middle years, and now a systematic program for continuing characterization of all three systems are apparent. Currently, both the Landsat-5 TM and the Landsat-7 ETM+ are operational and providing data. Despite 20+ years of operation, the TM on Landsat-5 is fully functional, although downlinks for the data are limited. Landsat-7 ETM+ experienced a failure of its Scan Line Corrector mechanism in May 2003. Although there are gaps in the data coverage, the data remain of equivalent quality to prefailure data. Data products have been developed to fill these gaps using other ETM+ scenes.

  8. LANDSAT 1 US cumulative catalog, 1975 - 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The LANDSAT 1 U.S. Cumulative Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced year. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  9. LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Portions of the LANDSAT-D systems operation plan are presented. An overview of the data processing operations, logistics and other operations support, prelaunch and post-launch activities, thematic mapper operations during the scrounge period, and LANDSAT-D performance evaluation is given.

  10. LANDSAT D operations control center study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, L.; Brown, G.; Clemson, B.; Efner, J.; Engelberg, N.; Owen, J.; Winchester, T.

    1977-01-01

    Various aspects of the planned LANDSAT D system are discussed. LANDSAT D incorporates the Thematic Mapper (TM) as a sensor, it utilizes the Multi-mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS), it makes use of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and it employs a more advanced ground system. Each of these represent significant improvements in the state-of-the-art.

  11. Investigations using data from LANDSAT-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. New lands for forestation were set aside in the coastal area of Bangladesh, based on LANDSAT mosaics (Chittagong - 195,000 acres, Noakhali - 450,000 acres, Barisal - 360,000 acres, and Patuakhali - 225,000 acres). LANDSAT imageries were used for identification of drainage patterns in both the old and and new Comilla district.

  12. Landsat bill passes in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    1984-04-01

    Commercialization of the land remote-sensing system is virtually guaranteed with the successful completion last week of an informal conference on the differences in the House of Representatives and Senate versions of the Land Remote Sensing Commercialization Act (H.R. 5155). Moreover, the House ratified the compromise version on June 28; the Senate was expected to ratify the bill before the July 4 recess. The bill will then be sent to President Ronald Reagan for his signature. Also on June 28, the Secretary of Commerce announced his selection for final contract negotiations of two of the seven bids received this spring for the operation of Landsat.

  13. Local governments LANDSAT applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The approach used to develop the internal capabilities of local governments to handle and evaluate LANDSAT data included remote sensing training, development of a low-cost digital image processing system, and technical assistance. Cost sharing, program management and coordination, and networking were also employed to address problems related to land use, water resources, environmental assessment, and air quality as experienced by urban planners. Local experiences gained in Atlanta, Georgia; Henrico County, Virginia; Oklahoma City; Oklahoma; and San Jose, California are described. Policy recommendations formulated for transferring remote sensing technologies to local governments are included.

  14. Landsat-4 data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 satellite Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been analyzed in order to ascertain data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations have tested band-to-band registration accuracy, and the TM's overall system resolution was evaluated for the case of image objects with high contrast, sharp edge responses. The information content evaluation employed clustering, principal components, and the transformed divergence separability measured on data from Iowa and Chicago, Illinois. The MSS classification analysis compared MSS and TM information contents for a large number of science classes.

  15. Landsat classification accuracy assessment procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mead, R. R.; Szajgin, John

    1982-01-01

    A working conference was held in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 12-14 November, 1980 dealing with Landsat classification Accuracy Assessment Procedures. Thirteen formal presentations were made on three general topics: (1) sampling procedures, (2) statistical analysis techniques, and (3) examples of projects which included accuracy assessment and the associated costs, logistical problems, and value of the accuracy data to the remote sensing specialist and the resource manager. Nearly twenty conference attendees participated in two discussion sessions addressing various issues associated with accuracy assessment. This paper presents an account of the accomplishments of the conference.

  16. Incidental Learning of Geospatial Concepts across Grade Levels: Map Overlay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as…

  17. 12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ON UPSTREAM EMBANKMENT OF DAM (FROM REPAIRS COMPLETED IN 1977) - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  18. Semantic overlay network for large-scale spatial information indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yue; Cao, Kai; Qu, Tianshan; Wang, Zhongmin

    2013-08-01

    The increased demand for online services of spatial information poses new challenges to the combined filed of Computer Science and Geographic Information Science. Amongst others, these include fast indexing of spatial data in distributed networks. In this paper we propose a novel semantic overlay network for large-scale multi-dimensional spatial information indexing, called SON_LSII, which has a hybrid structure integrating a semantic quad-tree and Chord ring. The SON_LSII is a small world overlay network that achieves a very competitive trade-off between indexing efficiency and maintenance overhead. To create SON_LSII, we use an effective semantic clustering strategy that considers two aspects, i.e., the semantic of spatial information that peer holds in overlay network and physical network performances. Based on SON_LSII, a mapping method is used to reduce the multi-dimensional features into a single dimension and an efficient indexing algorithm is presented to support complex range queries of the spatial information with a massive number of concurrent users. The results from extensive experiments demonstrate that SON_LSII is superior to existing overlay networks in various respects, including scalability, maintenance, rate of indexing hits, indexing logical hops, and adaptability. Thus, the proposed SON_LSII can be used for large-scale spatial information indexing.

  19. Factors affecting the erosion resistance of weld overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Research was conducted to study factors affecting the solid particle erosion resistance of weld overlay coatings. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400 C. Erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at 30 and 90{degree} impact angles. Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine the size of the plastically deformed zone and it was found that one group of coatings deformed plastically as a result of the particle impact while the others did not. No correlations were found between average microhardness at 400 C and volumetric erosion rates for plastically deformed weld overlays. For this group of overlays erosion resistance was correlated to the area under the curve of microhardness versus distance from the eroded surface. The physical significance of this parameter is discussed. For coatings that did not deform plastically, an increase in average microhardness at 400 C led to an increase in their volumetric erosion rates. The possible erosion mechanisms for these coating groups are discussed.

  20. Promoting Learning of Instructional Design via Overlay Design Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Andrew Jacob

    2012-01-01

    I begin by introducing Virtual Design Apprenticeship (VDA), a learning model--built on a solid foundation of education principles and theories--that promotes learning of design skills via overlay design tools. In VDA, when an individual needs to learn a new design skill or paradigm she is provided accessible, concrete examples that have been…

  1. BWR pipe crack and weld clad overlay studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.; Rybicki, E.F.

    1985-10-01

    This paper presents results on (a) the influence of simulated BWR environments and temperature on the intergranular-stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of sensitized stainless steels (SS), (b) the stress-corrosion susceptibility of alternative piping materials, (c) analysis of field components to assess the effectiveness of in-service inspection techniques and the in-reactor performance of weld overlay repairs, and (d) finite-element analyses and experimental measurement of residual stresses in weldments with weld overlays. Fracture-mechanics crack-growth data are presented to confirm correlations between the critical corrosion potentials required to inhibit IGSCC and the level of impurities in the environment. Slow-strain-rate tests show that very low levels of impurities (25 ppb of sulfate) can produce suseptibility to transgranular-stress-corrosion cracking (TGSCC) in Type 316NG SS and that nitrogen levels is SS above 0.1 wt. % appear to increase susceptibility to TGSCC. Preliminary results on a German Type 347NG SS suggest that it is at least as resistant to TGSCC in impurity environments as Type 316NG SS. Measurements on overlay weldments removed from the Hatch-2 reactor confirm that compressive residual stresses are produced on the inner surface of the weldments by the overlay.

  2. Crosslayer Survivability in Overlay-IP-WDM Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacharintanakul, Peera

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet moves towards a three-layer architecture consisting of overlay networks on top of the IP network layer on top of WDM-based physical networks, incorporating the interaction between and among network layers is crucial for efficient and effective implementation of survivability. This dissertation has four major foci as follows:…

  3. Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, John L.

    2001-01-01

    This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

  4. Landsat International Cooperators and Global Archive Consolidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2016-01-01

    Landsat missions have always been an important component of U.S. foreign policy, as well as science and technology policy. The program’s longstanding network of International Cooperators (ICs), which operate numerous International Ground Stations (IGS) around the world, embodies the United States’ policy of peaceful use of outer space and the worldwide dissemination of civil space technology for public benefit. Thus, the ICs provide an essential dimension to the Landsat mission.In 2010, the Landsat Global Archive Consolidation (LGAC) effort began, with a goal to consolidate the Landsat data archives of all international ground stations, make the data more accessible to the global Landsat community, and significantly increase the frequency of observations over a given area of interest to improve scientific uses such as change detection and analysis.

  5. Radiometric calibration status of Landsat-7 and Landsat-5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Markham, B.L.; Helder, D.L.; Chander, G.

    2007-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, Landsat-7 ETM+ continues to acquire data globally. The Scan Line Corrector in failure in 2003 has affected ground coverage and the recent switch to Bumper Mode operations in April 2007 has degraded the internal geometric accuracy of the data, but the radiometry has been unaffected. The best of the three on-board calibrators for the reflective bands, the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, has indicated slow changes in the ETM+, but this is believed to be due to contamination on the panel rather then instrument degradation. The Internal Calibrator lamp 2, though it has not been used regularly throughout the whole mission, indicates smaller changes than the FASC since 2003. The changes indicated by lamp 2 are only statistically significant in band 1, circa 0.3% per year, and may be lamp as opposed to instrument degradations. Regular observations of desert targets in the Saharan and Arabian deserts indicate the no change in the ETM+ reflective band response, though the uncertainty is larger and does not preclude the small changes indicated by lamp 2. The thermal band continues to be stable and well-calibrated since an offset error was corrected in late-2000. Launched in 1984, Landsat-5 TM also continues to acquire global data; though without the benefit of an on-board recorder, data can only be acquired where a ground station is within range. Historically, the calibration of the TM reflective bands has used an onboard calibration system with multiple lamps. The calibration procedure for the TM reflective bands was updated in 2003 based on the best estimate at the time, using only one of the three lamps and a cross-calibration with Landsat-7 ETM+. Since then, the Saharan desert sites have been used to validate this calibration model. Problems were found with the lamp based model of up to 13% in band 1. Using the Saharan data, a new model was developed and implemented in the US processing system in April 2007. The TM thermal band was found to have a

  6. Overview of the Landsat-7 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Darrel; Irons, James; Goward, Samuel N.; Masek, Jefery

    1999-01-01

    Landsat-7 is scheduled for launch on April 15 from the Western Test Range at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on a Delta-H expendable launch vehicle. The Landsat 7 satellite consists of a spacecraft bus being provided by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (Valley Forge, Pa.) and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus instrument built by Raytheon (formerly Hughes) Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (Santa Barbara, Calif.). The instrument on board Landsat 7 is the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). ETM+ improves upon the previous Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments on Landsat's 4 and 5 (Fig. la and lb). It includes the previous 7 spectral bands measuring reflected solar radiation and emitted thermal emissions but, in addition, includes a new 15 in panchromatic (visible-near infrared) band. The spatial resolution of the thermal infrared band has also been improved to 60 m. Both the radiometric precision and accuracy of the sensor are also improved from the previous TM sensors. After being launched into a sun-synchronous polar orbit, the satellite will use on-board propulsion to adjust its orbit to a circular altitude of 438 miles (705 kilometers) crossing the equator at approximately 10 a.m. on its southward track. This orbit will place Landsat 7 along the same ground track as previous Landsat satellites. The orbit will be maintained with periodic adjustments for the life of the mission. A three-axis attitude control subsystem will stabilize the satellite and keep the instrument pointed toward the Earth to within 0.05 degrees. Later this year, plans call for the NASA Earth Observation System (EOS) Terra (AM-1) observatory and the experimental EO-1 mission to closely follow Landsat-7's orbit to support synergistic research and applications from this new suite of terrestrial sensor systems. Landsat is the United States' oldest land-surface observation satellite system, with satellites continuously operating since 1972. Although the program has scored numerous successes in

  7. Throughput and Packet Delay Analysis of the Intermittent DCF for Overlay Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamis, Athanassios V.; Maliatsos, Konstantinos N.; Constantinou, Philip

    Overlay Access Technology can compensate for the spectrum underutilization problem by exploiting Cognitive Radios capabilities. MAC design is an important aspect of Overlay Access research. In this paper we present the overlay access environment and the challenges it poses to MAC design. Then, we propose the use of a modified Distributed Coordination Function as the MAC protocol for distributed Overlay Access networks. The resulted Intermittent DCF performs with robustness in the demanding overlay access environment, which is characterized by frequent spectrum scan procedure interruptions and low achievable transmission rates. The most recent DCF Markov Chain Model is extended in order to include the overlay operation modifications. Our extension concerns the slot duration expectations calculation which, in the overlay environment, have not constant values but depend on overlay operation parameters. Using the analytical model we evaluate the performance of the DCF under the effect of certain overlay access parameters. The new analytical model predictions are validated with simulations, and are found to accurately capture many interesting features of the overlay operation. Our model can be used in feasibility studies of realistic overlay scenarios and in admission control algorithms of QoS enabled distributed overlay access networks that engage the Intermittent DCF.

  8. Landsat 7 Science Data Processing: A System's Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweiss, Robert; Daniels, Nate; Derrick, Debora

    2000-01-01

    The Landsat Science Data Processing System, developed by NASA for the Landsat 7 Project provides science data handling infrastructure used at the EROS Data Center Landsat 7 Data Handling Facility of the USGS Department of Interior. This paper presents an overview the designs, architectures, and details of the various systems used in the processing of the Landsat 7 Science Data.

  9. Landsat - Current and future capabilities for agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    The potential of the Landsat spacecraft in applications related to agriculture is demonstrated by the examples of assessing the damage to the Brazilian coffee crop due to freezing temperatures on July 17-18, 1975; and damage assessment in the state of Iowa, following a tornado which struck a corn and soybean producing region on June 13, 1976. Some techniques which have been used to measure snow covers on the basis of Landsat data are also noted. The advantages that are expected to accrue from the installation of sophisticated equipment on the third and fourth Landsat spacecraft, scheduled to be launched in 1978 and 1981, respectively, are reviewed.

  10. LANDSAT D user data processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The major expected users of the LANDSAT D system and a preliminary system design of their required facilities are investigated. This system design will then be costed in order to provide an estimate of the incremental user costs necessitated by LANDSAT D. One major use of these cost estimates is as part of an overall economic cost/benefit argument being developed for the LANDSAT D system. The implication of this motive is key; the system design (and corresponding cost estimates) must be a credible one, but not necessarily an optimum one.

  11. Long-term Landsat 5 and 7 Reflectance Inconsistencies Caused by Landsat Satellite Orbit Drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Roy, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Keywords: Landsat, long term data record, orbit drift The Landsat satellite series provide the longest temporal record of space-based earth observations and, with their free data availability, the systematic generation of consistent Landsat time series products has been advocated. The Landsat 5 and 7 satellites were launched into nominally the same orbits but temporally sparse station keeping maneuvers meant that their orbits drifted over the satellite mission lives with local crossing times varying differently between sensors and by up to 0.92 hours (Landsat 5 1982 to 2012) and 0.21 hours (Landsat 7 1999 to 2012). Consequently, their images were acquired with temporally variable solar zenith angles. Long-term Landsat 5 and 7 reflectance inconsistencies may be introduced by orbit drift induced solar zenith variations combined with surface reflectance anisotropy. The majority of terrestrial surfaces reflect optical wavelength radiation anisotropically with a directional dependence that varies as a function of the sun-target-sensor geometry, commonly described by the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF). This study quantifies the overpass time and observed solar zenith angles for all the Landsat 5 and 7 images available in the Landsat archive along an approximately north-south Landsat path over the Conterminous United States. The impact of observed solar zenith angle variations on red and near-infrared nadir view reflectance and on the derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with respect to different Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF land cover types is modelled. Results show that the 31 year Landsat 5 solar zenith variations and the 14 year relative Landsat 5 and 7 solar zenith differences vary latitudinally (up to 10º and 4º respectively) and impose small but significant reflectance and NDVI variations that should be minimized before long-term time series application.

  12. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 April 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for April, 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

  13. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-31 December 1975. [LANDSAT imagery for December, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

  14. LANDSAT: US standard catalog, 1-31 January 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for January 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Section 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

  15. Chlorine adsorption on Au(111): chlorine overlayer or surface chloride?

    PubMed

    Gao, Weiwei; Baker, Thomas A; Zhou, Ling; Pinnaduwage, Dilini S; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Friend, Cynthia M

    2008-03-19

    We report the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) investigation, combined with density functional theory calculations, to resolve controversy regarding the bonding and structure of chlorine adsorbed on Au(111). STM experiments are carried out at 120 K to overcome instability caused by mobile species upon chlorine adsorption at room temperature. Chlorine adsorption initially lifts the herringbone reconstruction. At low coverages (<0.33 ML), chlorine binds to the top of Au(111)-(1 x 1) surface and leads to formation of an overlayer with (square root(3) x square root(3))R30 degree structure at 0.33 ML. At higher coverages, packing chlorine into an overlayer structure is no longer favored. Gold atoms incorporate into a complex superlattice of a Au-Cl surface compound. PMID:18290645

  16. Modeling the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marceau, Vincent; Noël, Pierre-André; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Dubé, Louis J.

    2011-08-01

    Epidemics seldom occur as isolated phenomena. Typically, two or more viral agents spread within the same host population and may interact dynamically with each other. We present a general model where two viral agents interact via an immunity mechanism as they propagate simultaneously on two networks connecting the same set of nodes. By exploiting a correspondence between the propagation dynamics and a dynamical process performing progressive network generation, we develop an analytical approach that accurately captures the dynamical interaction between epidemics on overlay networks. The formalism allows for overlay networks with arbitrary joint degree distribution and overlap. To illustrate the versatility of our approach, we consider a hypothetical delayed intervention scenario in which an immunizing agent is disseminated in a host population to hinder the propagation of an undesirable agent (e.g., the spread of preventive information in the context of an emerging infectious disease).

  17. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Guok, Chin; Jackson, Keith; Kissel, Ezra; Swany, D. Martin; Agarwal, Deborah

    2009-10-12

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

  18. Modeling of Co overlayers on Pd (111) from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uba, S.; Uba, L.; Antonov, V. N.

    2007-04-01

    The electronic, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of Co overlayers on Pd (1 1 1) substrate have been investigated by ab initio band structure calculations within the spin-polarized relativistic linear muffin-thin orbitals (LMTO) method and supercell approach. The role of the Co-Pd interface structure, the number of the Co atomic layers ( n Co ), as well as the spin-orbit interaction and induced Pd spin polarization, in formation of magneto-optical response of the structures for [ n CoCo/Pd (1 1 1)] system is shown. The sign reversal of the polar Kerr rotation obtained theoretically with decreasing thickness of Co overlayers agrees well with experiment. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of the extended numeric modeling of magneto-optical properties from first principles.

  19. Flutter Analysis of the Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Waters, William A.; Chen, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle tile overlay repair concept, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed for on-orbit installation over an area of damaged tile to permit safe re-entry. The thin flexible plate is placed over the damaged area and secured to tile at discreet points around its perimeter. A series of flutter analyses were performed to determine if the onset of flutter met the required safety margins. Normal vibration modes of the panel, obtained from a simplified structural analysis of the installed concept, were combined with a series of aerodynamic analyses of increasing levels of fidelity in terms of modeling the flow physics to determine the onset of flutter. Results from these analyses indicate that it is unlikely that the overlay installed at body point 1800 will flutter during re-entry.

  20. Improved overlay metrology device correlation on 90-nm logic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Atsushi; Tsujita, Kouichirou; Kurita, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Yasuhisa; Ghinovker, Mark; Poplawski, Jorge M.; Kassel, Elyakim; Adel, Mike E.

    2004-05-01

    Isolated and dense patterns were formed at process layers from gate through to back-end on wafers using a 90 nm logic device process utilizing ArF lithography under various lithography conditions. Pattern placement errors (PPE) between AIM grating and BiB marks were characterized for line widths varying from 1000nm to 140nm. As pattern size was reduced, overlay discrepancies became larger, a tendency which was confirmed by optical simulation with simple coma aberration. Furthermore, incorporating such small patterns into conventional marks resulted in significant degradation in metrology performance while performance on small pattern segmented grating marks was excellent. Finally, the data also show good correlation between the grating mark and specialized design rule feature SEM marks, with poorer correlation between conventional mark and SEM mark confirming that new grating mark significantly improves overlay metrology correlation with device patterns.

  1. CLIO — A Cross-Layer Information Service for Overlay Network Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haage, Dirk; Holz, Ralph; Niedermayer, Heiko; Laskov, Pavel

    New overlay-based services aim to provide properties like resilience, availability or QoS. To achieve this, automatic organization and optimization is required, which again demands accurate information on the network. Collecting and exchanging this data has a significant impact on the network, especially if several overlays are used on the same host. In this paper, we provide a survey of the current state of the art and identify challenges which must be addressed in order for new overlay-based services to be successful. We present our own solution CLIO, a cross-layer information service for overlays. CLIO provides information for the automatic creation and optimization of overlays. The service supports multiple overlays on the same node, the provided information is overlay-independent, and collected information is reused.

  2. Prepenetrant Etchant For Incology(R) 903 Weld Overlays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Tousa, Joseph E.; Thomas, Clark S.; Foster, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Etching solution developed for use prior to type-IVc penetrant inspection of Incology(R) 903 weld overlays. Formulated as follows: 80 g ferric chloride hexahydrate, 300 mL reagent-grade hydrochloric acid, 25 mL food- or reagent-grade phosphoric acid, and 100 mL ethylene glycol. Gives more reasonable range of etching time and reduces probability of overetching and resulting damage. Stored indefinitely.

  3. An Overlapping Structured P2P for REIK Overlay Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjun; Song, Jingjing; Yu, Jiguo

    REIK is based on a ring which embedded an inverse Kautz digraph, to enable multi-path P2P routing. It has the constant degree and the logarithmic diameter DHT scheme with constant congestion and Byzantine fault tolerance. However, REIK did not consider the interconnection of many independent smaller networks. In this paper, we propose a new approach to build overlay network, OLS-REIK which is an overlapping structured P2P for REIK overlay network. It is a more flexible interconnecting different REIK network. Peers can belong to several rings, allowing this interconnection. By connecting smaller structured overlay networks in an unstructured way, it provides a cost effective alternative to hierarchical structured P2P systems requiring costly merging. Routing of lookup messages is performed as in REIK within one ring, but a peer belonging to several rings forwards the request to the different rings it belongs to. Furthermore a small number of across point is enough to ensure a high exhaustiveness level.

  4. Diffusion Barriers to Increase the Oxidative Life of Overlay Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Lei, Jih-Fen

    1999-01-01

    Currently, most blades and vanes in the hottest section of aero gas turbine engines require some type of coating for oxidation protection. Newly developed single crystal superalloys have the mechanical potential to operate at increasingly higher component temperatures. However, at these elevated temperatures, coating/substrate interdiffusion can shorten the protective life of the coating. Diffusion barriers between overlay coatings and substrates are being examined to extend the protective life of the coating. A previously- developed finite-difference diffusion model has been modified to predict the oxidative life enhancement due to use of a diffusion barrier. The original diffusion model, designated COSIM, simulates Al diffusion in the coating to the growing oxide scale as well as Al diffusion into the substrate. The COSIM model incorporates an oxide growth and spalling model to provide the rate of Al consumption during cyclic oxidation. Coating failure is predicted when the Al concentration at the coating surface drops to a defined critical level. The modified COSIM model predicts the oxidative life of an overlay coating when a diffusion barrier is present eliminating diffusion of Al from the coating into the substrate. Both the original and the modified diffusion models have been used to predict the effectiveness of a diffusion barrier in extending the protective life of a NiCrAl overlay coating undergoing cyclic oxidation at 1100 C.

  5. Overlay mark optimization using the KTD signal simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchelli, Anat; Gutjahr, Karsten; Kubis, Michael; Sparka, Christian; Ghinovker, Mark; Navarra, Alessandra; Widmann, Amir

    2009-03-01

    As the overlay performance and accuracy requirements become tighter, the impact of process parameters on the target signal becomes more significant. Traditionally, in order to choose the optimum overlay target, several candidates are placed in the kerf area. The candidate targets are tested under different process conditions, before the target to be used in mass production is selected. The varieties of targets are left on the mass production mask and although they will not be used for overlay measurements they still consume kerf real estate. To improve the efficiency of the process we are proposing the KTD (KLA-Tencor Target Designer). It is an easy to use system that enables the user to select the optimum target based on advanced signal simulation. Implementing the KTD in production is expected to save 30% of kerf real estate due to more efficient target design process as well as reduced engineering time. In this work we demonstrate the capability of the KTD to simulate the Archer signal in the context of advanced DRAM processes. For several stacks we are comparing simulated target signals with the Archer100 signals. We demonstrate the robustness feature in the KTD application that enables the user to test the target sensitivity to process changes. The results indicate the benefit of using KTD in the target optimization process.

  6. Multicast Routing in Structured Overlays and Hybrid Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wählisch, Matthias; Schmidt, Thomas C.

    Key-based routing has enabled efficient group communication on the application or service middleware layer, stimulated by the need of applications to access multicast. These developments follow a continuous debate about network layer multicast that had lasted for about 30 years history of the Internet. The IP host group model today still faces a strongly divergent state of deployment. In this chapter, we first review the key concepts of multicast and broadcast data distribution on structured overlays. Second, we perform a comprehensive theoretical analysis examining the different distribution trees constructed on top of a key-based routing layer. Characteristic performance measures of the multicast approaches are compared in detail and major structural differences are identified. Overlay multicast overcomes deployment problems on the price of a performance penalty. Hybrid approaches, which dynamically combine multicast in overlay and underlay, adaptively optimize group communication. We discuss current schemes along with its integration in common multicast routing protocols in the third part of this chapter. Finally, we reconsider and enhance approaches to a common API for group communication, which serves the requirements of data distribution and maintenance for multicast and broadcast on a middleware abstraction layer, and in particular facilitates hybrid multicast schemes.

  7. LANDSAT-4 Scientific Characterization: Early Results Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiometric calibration, geometric accuracy, spatial and spectral resolution, and image quality are examined for the thematic mapper and the multispectral band scanner on LANDSAT 4. Sensor performance is evaluated.

  8. Landsat: A Space Age Water Gauge

    NASA Video Gallery

    Water specialists Rick Allen, Bill Kramber and Tony Morse use Landsat thermal band data to measure the amount of water evaporating from the soil and transpiring from plants’ leaves – a process call...

  9. Quantitative water quality with LANDSAT and Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Correlation studies were completed between LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) band ratios derived from computer compatible tape (CCT) and 170 water samples taken from three large Kansas reservoirs, coincident with 16 different LANDSAT passes over a 13 month period. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) LANDSAT MSS reflectance levels are useful for quantitative measurement of suspended solids up to at least 900 ppm, (2) MSS band ratios derived from CCT can measure suspended solids with 67% confidence level accuracy of 12 ppm over the range 0-80 ppm and 35 ppm over the range 0900 ppm, (3) suspended solids contour maps can be easily constructed from CCT for water bodies larger than approximately 100 acres, (4) rationing suppresses MSS reflectance level dependence on seasonal sun angle variation and permits measurement of suspended load the year round in the middle latitudes. SKYLAB imagery from a single pass over three reservoirs compares favorably to LANDSAT results up to 100 ppm.

  10. NASA/USGS US Digital Landsat Moasaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Satellite Corporation (EarthSat) has been providing orthorectified Landsat data to NASA.Also included are 5 degree by 6 degree mosaics for most of the planet. The Earth Science Applications Directorate developed a specialized viewer application to view and navigate these individual tiles. It is the intent of NASA to make this publicly available and useable through the distribution of the U.S. Digital Landsat Mosaic Product.

  11. The ORSER LANDSAT Data Base of Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, B. J.; Williams, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    A mosaicked LANDSAT data base for Pennsylvania, installed at the computation center of the Pennsylvania State University is described. Initially constructed by Penn State's Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (ORSER) for the purpose of assisting in state-wide mapping of gypsy moth defoliation, the data base will be available to a variety of potential users. It will provide geometrically correct LANDSAT data accessible by political, jurisdictional, or arbitrary boundaries.

  12. Landsat radiometric continuity using airborne imaging spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCorkel, J.; Angal, A.; Thome, K.; Cook, B.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Goddard's Lidar, Hyperspectral and Thermal Imager (G-LiHT) includes a scanning lidar, an imaging spectrometer and a thermal camera. The Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) Imaging Spectrometer acquires high resolution spectral measurements (1.5 nm resolution) from 0.4 to 1.0 µm. The SIRCUS-based calibration facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center was used to measure the absolute spectral response (ASR) of the G-LiHT's imaging spectrometer. Continuously tunable lasers coupled to an integrating sphere facilitated a radiance-based calibration for the detectors in the reflective solar bands. The transfer of the SIRCUS-based laboratory calibration of G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer to the Landsat sensors (Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI) is demonstrated using simultaneous overpasses over the Red Lake Playa and McClaw's Playa sites during the commissioning phase of Landsat 8 in March 2013. Solar Lunar Absolute Imaging Spectrometer (SOLARIS) is the calibration demonstration system for the reflected solar instrument of CLARREO. A portable version of SOLARIS, known as Suitcase SOLARIS, also calibrated using a SIRCUS-based setup, was deployed for ground measurements as a part of both the field campaigns. Simultaneous measurements of SOLARIS allow cross-comparison with G-LiHT and Landsat sensors. The transfer of the lab-based calibration of G-LiHT to Landsat sensors show that the sensors agree within 5% with a 1-3% calibration uncertainty of G-LiHT's Imaging Spectrometer.

  13. LANDSAT 2 cumulative US standard catalog. [LANDSAT imagery for January 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality, are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  14. LANDSAT: US Standard Catalog, 1-31 December 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for December 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

  15. Landsat and water: case studies of the uses and benefits of landsat imagery in water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serbina, Larisa O.; Miller, Holly M.

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat program has been collecting and archiving moderate resolution earth imagery since 1972. The number of Landsat users and uses has increased exponentially since the enactment of a free and open data policy in 2008, which made data available free of charge to all users. Benefits from the information Landsat data provides vary from improving environmental quality to protecting public health and safety and informing decision makers such as consumers and producers, government officials and the public at large. Although some studies have been conducted, little is known about the total benefit provided by open access Landsat imagery. This report contains a set of case studies focused on the uses and benefits of Landsat imagery. The purpose of these is to shed more light on the benefits accrued from Landsat imagery and to gain a better understanding of the program’s value. The case studies tell a story of how Landsat imagery is used and what its value is to different private and public entities. Most of the case studies focus on the use of Landsat in water resource management, although some other content areas are included.

  16. LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog 1-31 December 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for December 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date required, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

  17. LANDSAT 1 non US cumulative catalog, 1976/1977. [LANDSAT imagery for 1976/1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The LANDSAT 1 non-U. S. Cumulative Catalog lists non-U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced year. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  18. Study of correlation between overlay and displacement measured by Coherent Gradient Sensing (CGS) interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileham, Jeffrey; Tanaka, Yasushi; Anberg, Doug; Owen, David M.; Lee, Byoung-Ho; Bouche, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Within the semiconductor lithographic process, alignment control is one of the most critical considerations. In order to realize high device performance, semiconductor technology is approaching the 10 nm design rule, which requires progressively smaller overlay budgets. Simultaneously, structures are expanding in the 3rd dimension, thereby increasing the potential for inter-layer distortion. For these reasons, device patterning is becoming increasingly difficult as the portion of the overlay budget attributed to process-induced variation increases. After lithography, overlay gives valuable feedback to the lithography tool; however overlay measurements typically have limited density, especially at the wafer edge, due to throughput considerations. Moreover, since overlay is measured after lithography, it can only react to, but not predict the process-induced overlay. This study is a joint investigation in a high-volume manufacturing environment of the portion of overlay associated with displacement induced by a single process across many chambers. Displacement measurements are measured by Coherent Gradient Sensing (CGS) interferometry, which generates high-density displacement maps (>3 million points on a 300 mm wafer) such that the stresses induced die-by-die and process-by-process can be tracked in detail. The results indicate the relationship between displacement and overlay shows the ability to forecast overlay values before the lithographic process. Details of the correlation including overlay/displacement range, and lot-to-lot displacement variability are considered.

  19. Glacier Mapping With Landsat Tm: Improvements and Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, F.; Huggel, C.; Kaeaeb, A.; Maisch, M.

    The new Swiss Glacier Inventory for the year 2000 (SGI 2000) is presently derived from Landsat TM data. Glacier areas were obtained by segmentation of a ratio image from TM band 4 and 5. This method has proven to be very simple and highly accurate - an essential requirement for world-wide application within the project GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space). Mis-classification using TM4 / TM 5 results for lakes, forests and areas with vegetation in cloud shadows. Digital image processing techniques are used to classify these regions separately and eliminate them from the glacier map. Automatic mapping of debris-covered glacier ice is difficult due to the spectral similarity with the surrounding terrain. For the SGI 2000, an attempt has been made to obtain the debris-covered area on glaciers by a combination of pixel- based image classification, digital terrain modelling, an object-oriented procedure and change detection analysis. First results of these improvements are presented. The accuracy of the TM derived glacier outlines is assessed by a comparison with manually derived outlines of higher resolution data sets (pan bands from SPOT, IRS- 1C and Ikonos). The overlay of outlines show very good correspondence (within the georeferencing accuracy) and the comparison of glacier areas reveals differences smaller than 5% for debris-free ice. Since acquisition of IRS-1C and Ikonos imagery is one year before and after the TM scene, respectively, small differences are also a result of glacier retreat. The automatically mapped debris-covered glacier areas are compared to the areas assigned manually on the TM image by visual interpretation. For most glaciers only a few pixels have to be corrected, for some others larger modi- fications are required.

  20. Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Kieffer, H. H.; Borgeson, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    The geometric accuracy (GA) and errors in imagery by Landsat-4 and -5 were examined using data from regions with a minimal topography. A least-squares comparison was made between ground truth digitized photographs and TM data for prominent features displayed on a 1:24,000 map. The algorithms used for the transformation of the Landsat data to a Cartesian system are provided. Landsat-5 images had a calculated error of 11.2 m (0.4 pixel) and could not be improved with skew and affine-distortion corrections. However, the digitized images, including road tracks, were considered detailed enough for standard 1:50,000 maps. Landsat-5 imagery, when fully corrected, was consistently superior to Landsat-4 data.

  1. Landsat swath imaging spectrometer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Van Gorp, Byron; Moore, Lori B.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Bender, Holly A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a high-throughput and high-uniformity pushbroom imaging spectrometer and telescope system that is capable of Landsat swath and resolution while providing better than 10 nm per pixel spectral resolution over the full visible to short-wave infrared band. The design is based on a 3200×480 element×18 μm pixel size focal plane array, two of which are utilized to cover the full swath. At an optical speed of F/1.8, the system is the fastest proposed to date to our knowledge. The utilization of only two Dyson-type spectrometer modules fed from the same telescope reduces system complexity while providing a solution within achievable detector technology. Two telescope designs are shown to achieve the required swath and resolution from different altitudes. Predictions of complete system response are shown. Also, it is shown that detailed ghost analysis is a requirement for this type of spectrometer and forms an essential part of a complete design.

  2. LANDSAT 7: Early on-Orbit Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Barker, J. L.; Markham, B. L.; Pedelty, J, A.

    1999-01-01

    As this article was being submitted in mid-March, 1999, Landsat 7 had been cleared for an official launch date of April, 15, 1999, approximately 4 - 5 weeks prior to the Portland ASPRS conference. Although it is hoped that the presentation in Portland will be the first public status report on the in-orbit performance of the Landsat 7 spacecraft and the ETM+ instrument, it is impossible to discuss "early on-orbit performance" prior to launch. Therefore, we have chosen to summarize the overarching salient features of the Landsat 7 program, and we will point to some web sites where additional information about the program can be found (e.g., http://geo.arc.nasa.gov/sge/landsat/landsat. html). At this time, the Landsat Project Science Office is pleased to report that the performance of the ETM+ instrument appears to be very good. In addition to excellent instrument performance, a robust data acquisition plan has been developed with the goal of acquiring a seasonally-refreshed archive of global land observations at the EROS Data Center annually. A ground processing system is being implemented at EROS that will be capable of capturing, processing and archiving 250 Landsat scenes per day, and delivering 100 scene products to users each day. The cost of a systematically-processed Level 1 product will be less than $600, and there will be no copyright protection on the data. The net result is that the use of remote sensing data in our daily lives is expected to grow dramatically. This growth is expected to benefit all facets of the land remote sensing community.

  3. Validation of the 2008 Landsat Burned Area Ecv Product for North America Using Stratified Random Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, N. M.; Mladinich, C. S.; Caldwell, M. K.; Beal, Y. J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) products, as defined by the Global Climate Observing System, from the Landsat data archive. Validation protocols for these products are being established, incorporating the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Land Product Validation Subgroup's best practice guidelines and validation hierarchy stages. The sampling design and accuracy measures follow the methodology developed by the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Fire Disturbance (fire_cci) project (Padilla and others, 2014). A rigorous validation was performed on the 2008 Burned Area ECV (BAECV) prototype product, using a stratified random sample of 48 Thiessen scene areas overlaying Landsat path/rows distributed across several terrestrial biomes throughout North America. The validation reference data consisted of fourteen sample sites acquired from the fire_cci project and the remaining new samples sites generated from a densification of the stratified sampling for North America. The reference burned area polygons were generated using the ABAMS (Automatic Burned Area Mapping) software (Bastarrika and others, 2011; Izagirre, 2014). Accuracy results will be presented indicating strengths and weaknesses of the BAECV algorithm.Bastarrika, A., Chuvieco, E., and Martín, M.P., 2011, Mapping burned areas from Landsat TM/ETM+ data with a two-phase algorithm: Balancing omission and commission errors: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 115, no. 4, p. 1003-1012.Izagirre, A.B., 2014, Automatic Burned Area Mapping Software (ABAMS), Preliminary Documentation, Version 10 v4,: Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, University of Basque Country, p. 27.Padilla, M., Chuvieco, E., Hantson, S., Theis, R., and Sandow, C., 2014, D2.1 - Product Validation Plan: UAH - University of Alcalá de Henares (Spain), 37 p.

  4. Combined overlay, focus and CD metrology for leading edge lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Martin; Cramer, Hugo; Tel, Wim; Kubis, Michael; Megens, Henry

    2011-04-01

    As leading edge lithography moves to 22-nm design rules, low k1 technologies like double patterning are the new resolution enablers, and system control and setup are the new drivers to meet remarkably tight process requirements. The way of thinking and executing setup and control of lithography scanners is changing in four ways. First, unusually tight process tolerances call for very dense sampling [1], which in effect means measurements at high throughput combined with high order modeling and corrections to compensate for wafer spatial fingerprint. Second, complex interactions between scanner and process no longer allow separation of error sources through traditional metrology approaches, which are based on using one set of metrology tools and methods for setup and another for scanner performance control. Moreover, setup and control of overlay is done independently from CD uniformity, which in effect leads to independent and conflicting adjustments for the scanner. Third, traditional CD setup and control is based on the focus and dose calculated from their CD response and not from measurement of their effect on pattern profile, which allows a clean and orthogonal de-convolution of focus and dose variations across the wafer. Fourth, scanner setup and control has to take into consideration the final goal of lithography, which is the accurate printing of a complex pattern describing a real device layout. To this end we introduce a new setup and control metrology step: measuring-to-match scanner 1D and 2D proximity. In this paper we will describe the strategy for setup and control of overlay, focus, CD and proximity based on the YieldStarTM metrology tool and present the resulting performance. YieldStar-200 is a new, high throughput metrology tool based on a high numerical aperture scatterometer concept. The tool can be used stand-alone as well as integrated in a processing track. It is suitable for determining process offsets in X,Y and Z directions through Overlay

  5. A basic guide to overlay design using nondestructive testing equipment data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Vernon R.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a basic and concise guide to designing asphalt concrete (AC) overlays over existing AC pavements. The basis for these designs is deflection data obtained from nondestructive testing (NDT) equipment. This data is used in design procedures which produce required overlay thickness or an estimate of remaining pavement life. This guide enables one to design overlays or better monitor the designs being performed by others. This paper will discuss three types of NDT equipment, the Asphalt Institute Overlay Designs by Deflection Analysis and by the effective thickness method as well as a method of estimating remaining pavement life, correlations between NDT equipment and recent correlations in Washington State. Asphalt overlays provide one of the most cost effective methods of improving existing pavements. Asphalt overlays can be used to strengthen existing pavements, to reduce maintenance costs, to increase pavement life, to provide a smoother ride, and to improve skid resistance.

  6. Evaluation of Free-Riding Traffic Problem in Overlay Routing and Its Mitigation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Go; Hiraoka, Yuichiro; Murata, Masayuki

    Recent research on overlay networks has revealed that user-perceived network performance could be improved by an overlay routing mechanism. The effectiveness of overlay routing is mainly a result of the policy mismatch between the overlay routing and the underlay IP routing operated by ISPs. However, this policy mismatch causes a “free-riding” traffic problem, which may become harmful to the cost structure of Internet Service Providers. In the present paper, we define the free-riding problem in the overlay routing and evaluate the degree of free-riding traffic to reveal the effect of the problem on ISPs. We introduce a numerical metric to evaluate the degree of the free-riding problem and confirm that most multihop overlay paths that have better performance than the direct path brings the free-riding problem. We also discuss the guidelines for selecting paths that are more effective than the direct path and that mitigate the free-riding problem.

  7. Effect of Perovskite Overlayers on TiO2 Electrodes in Perovskite-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Hwa; Hwang, Dae-Kue

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have studied the effect of the thickness of a CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite overlayer on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes in perovskite solar cells. The overlayers were prepared by spin coating PbI2 films on the electrodes, which were subsequently exposed to a CH3NH3I/2-propanol solution. We controlled the thickness of the perovskite overlayer by changing the PbI2 solution concentration. The thicknesses of the overlayers spin-coated from 0.5, 0.75, 0.9, and 1 M PbI2 solutions were approximately 179, 262, 316, and 341 nm, respectively. Perovskite solar cells with an approximately 316-nm-thick overlayer showed the highest efficiency of 9.11%. We conclude that optimization of the perovskite overlayer thickness in the solar cell structure is necessary to improve the cell efficiency. PMID:27483921

  8. Ductile film delamination from compliant substrates using hard overlayers

    PubMed Central

    Cordill, M.J.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible electronic devices call for copper and gold metal films to adhere well to polymer substrates. Measuring the interfacial adhesion of these material systems is often challenging, requiring the formulation of different techniques and models. Presented here is a strategy to induce well defined areas of delamination to measure the adhesion of copper films on polyimide substrates. The technique utilizes a stressed overlayer and tensile straining to cause buckle formation. The described method allows one to examine the effects of thin adhesion layers used to improve the adhesion of flexible systems. PMID:25641995

  9. Bandwidth auction for SVC streaming in dynamic multi-overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yanting; Zou, Junni; Xiong, Hongkai

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we study the optimal bandwidth allocation for scalable video coding (SVC) streaming in multiple overlays. We model the whole bandwidth request and distribution process as a set of decentralized auction games between the competing peers. For the upstream peer, a bandwidth allocation mechanism is introduced to maximize the aggregate revenue. For the downstream peer, a dynamic bidding strategy is proposed. It achieves maximum utility and efficient resource usage by collaborating with a content-aware layer dropping/adding strategy. Also, the convergence of the proposed auction games is theoretically proved. Experimental results show that the auction strategies can adapt to dynamic join of competing peers and video layers.

  10. Reconstructing Forty Years of Landsat Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. J.; Dwyer, J. L.; Steinwand, D.

    2013-12-01

    In July 1972, NASA launched the Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS), the first of what was to be the series of Earth-observing satellites we now know as the Landsat system. This system, originally conceived in the 1960's within the US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey (USGS), has continued with little interruption for over 40 years, creating the longest record of satellite-based global land observations. The current USGS archive of Landsat images exceeds 4 million scenes, and the recently launched Landsat 8 platform will extend that archive to nearly 50 years of observations. Clearly, these observations are critical to the study of Earth system processes, and the interaction between these processes and human activities. However, the seven successful Landsat missions represent more of an ad hoc program than a long-term record of consistent observations, due largely to changing Federal policies and challenges finding an operational home for the program. Technologically, these systems evolved from the original Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) through the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) systems, to the current Observational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) systems. Landsat data were collected globally by a network of international cooperators having diverse data management policies. Much of the oldest data were stored on archaic media that could not be retrieved using modern media readers. Collecting these data from various sensors and sources, and reconstructing them into coherent Earth observation records, posed numerous challenges. We present here a brief overview of work done to overcome these challenges and create a consistent, long-term Landsat observation record. Much of the current archive was 'repatriated' from international cooperators and often required the reconstruction of (sometimes absent) metadata for geo-location and radiometric calibration. The older MSS data, some of which had

  11. Landsat-7 Mission and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, S. Kenneth; Sabelhaus, Phillip A.; Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, James R.; Barker, John L.; Markham, Brian L.; Bolek, Joseph T.; Scott, Steven S.; Thompson, R. J.; Rapp, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    The Landsat-7 mission has the goal of acquiring annual data sets of reflective band digital imagery of the landmass of the Earth at a spatial resolution of 30 meters for a period of five years using the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imager on the Landsat-7 satellite. The satellite was launched on April 15, 1999. The mission builds on the 27-year continuous archive of thematic images of the Earth from previous Landsat satellites. This paper will describe the ETM+ instrument, the spacecraft, and the ground processing system in place to accomplish the mission. Results from the first few months in orbit will be given, with emphasis on performance parameters that affect image quality, quantity, and availability. There will also be a discussion of the Landsat Data Policy and the user interface designed to make contents of the archive readily available, expedite ordering, and distribute the data quickly. Landsat-7, established by a Presidential Directive and a Public Law, is a joint program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Enterprise and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observing System (EROS) Data Center.

  12. Effect of a Dielectric Overlay on a Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna Excited by a Coplanar Waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.; Perl, Thomas D.; Silvestro, John

    1993-01-01

    The effect of a dielectric overlay on a linearly tapered slot antenna (LTSA) is studied. The LTSA under study has very wide bandwidth and excellent radiation patterns. A dielectric overlay improves the patterns and directivity of the antenna by increasing the electrical length and effective aperture of the antenna. A dielectric overlay can also be used to reduce the physical length of the antenna without compromising the pattern quality.

  13. LANDSAT 4 to ground station interface description, revision 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The radiometric requirements, internal calibration, sensor output format, geometric characteristics, and data processing constants for the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner and thematic mapper are described. In addition, telemetry format, onboard computer reports, and LANDSAT 4 communications are discussed.

  14. CNPq/INPE-LANDSAT system report of activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. N.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the Brazilian LANDSAT facilities and the results achieved are presented. In addition, a LANDSAT product sales/distribution analysis is provided. Data recording and processing capabilities and planned products are addressed.

  15. Landsat's Decades-Long Look at El Paso, Texas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Landsat satellites have captured hundreds of images of the regionsurrounding El Paso, Texas since the program started in 1972. On May30, 2013, Landsat 8 began adding to the program’s extensive ...

  16. Examination of overlay pipe weldments removed from the Hatch-2 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.Y.; Kupperman, D.S.; Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Laboratory ultrasonic examination (UT), dye penetrant examination (PT), metallography, and sensitization measurements were performed on Type 304 stainless steel overlay pipe weldments from the Hatch-2 BWR to determine the effectiveness of UT through overlays and the effects of the overlays on crack propagation in the weldments. Little correlation was observed between the results of earlier in-service ultrasonic inspection and the results of PT and destructive examination. Considerable difficulty was encountered in correctly detecting the presence of cracks by UT in the laboratory. Blunting of the crack tip by the weld overlay was observed, but there was no evidence of tearing or throughwall extension of the crack beyond the blunted region.

  17. Synthetic aperture radar/LANDSAT MSS image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, H. E. (Editor); Oberholtzer, J. D. (Editor); Anuta, P. E. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms and procedures necessary to merge aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery were determined. The design of a SAR/LANDSAT data merging system was developed. Aircraft SAR images were registered to the corresponding LANDSAT MSS scenes and were the subject of experimental investigations. Results indicate that the registration of SAR imagery with LANDSAT MSS imagery is feasible from a technical viewpoint, and useful from an information-content viewpoint.

  18. Some observations about LANDSAT digital analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Several hypotheses concerning LANDSAT data are analyzed. These hypotheses are: (1) LANDSAT does not discriminate vegetation types, but mostly sees chlorophyl and canopy cover. (2) A majority of the features in the ground scene possess linearly proportional amounts of color from each spectral band. (3) The data are continuous and as a result there is no true separability of ground scene features in the data, but some features possess an excess of color in a particular band pair. (4) There are relatively few features present in the spectral data, and these do not correspond to the conventional definitions that are used. (5) Aside from seasonal effects, in a distributional sense all LANDSAT data are essentially the same. The only difference is the way the data are spatially arranged in the image.

  19. Landsat D to yield more precise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covault, C.

    1982-07-01

    The Landsat D spacecraft to be launched in mid 1982 will offer new multispectral and thermal imaging capabilities. The satellite is designed to improve the monitoring of renewable resources and to provide rock discrimination data for mineral and pertroleum geologists. The expanded features of the new satellite include a seven-band thematic mapper with spectral ranges from 0.45-0.52 microns to 2.08-2.35 microns and a multispectral scanner capable of higher resolution and spectral fidelity than used in previous Landsats. The development of the Landsat D has been complicated by project changes both in the Space Shuttle and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite Program, which resulted in an increase in weight (now 4400 lb.), an additional hydrazine tank and narrow band tape recorders. Other details on the spacecraft include total array output power of 2200 W, operational altitude of 705 km and launching on a Delta 3920.

  20. Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) project is creating a record of forest disturbance and regrowth for North America from the Landsat satellite record, in support of the carbon modeling activities. LEDAPS relies on the decadal Landsat GeoCover data set supplemented by dense image time series for selected locations. Imagery is first atmospherically corrected to surface reflectance, and then change detection algorithms are used to extract disturbance area, type, and frequency. Reuse of the MODIS Land processing system (MODAPS) architecture allows rapid throughput of over 2200 MSS, TM, and ETM+ scenes. Initial ("Beta") surface reflectance products are currently available for testing, and initial continental disturbance products will be available by the middle of 2006.

  1. Lightweight storage and overlay networks for fault tolerance.

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, Ron A.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of capability-class, massively parallel processing (MPP) systems is expected to have hundreds of thousands to millions of processors, In such environments, it is critical to have fault-tolerance mechanisms, including checkpoint/restart, that scale with the size of applications and the percentage of the system on which the applications execute. For application-driven, periodic checkpoint operations, the state-of-the-art does not provide a scalable solution. For example, on today's massive-scale systems that execute applications which consume most of the memory of the employed compute nodes, checkpoint operations generate I/O that consumes nearly 80% of the total I/O usage. Motivated by this observation, this project aims to improve I/O performance for application-directed checkpoints through the use of lightweight storage architectures and overlay networks. Lightweight storage provide direct access to underlying storage devices. Overlay networks provide caching and processing capabilities in the compute-node fabric. The combination has potential to signifcantly reduce I/O overhead for large-scale applications. This report describes our combined efforts to model and understand overheads for application-directed checkpoints, as well as implementation and performance analysis of a checkpoint service that uses available compute nodes as a network cache for checkpoint operations.

  2. Dynamic bi-overlay rotation for streaming with heterogeneous devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongyu; Chen, Songqing; Shen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Recently Internet P2P/overlay streaming has gained increasing popularity. While plenty of research has focused on streaming performance study, it is not quite known yet on how to efficiently serve heterogeneous devices that have different limitations on display size, color depth, bandwidth capacities, CPU and battery power, than desktop computers. Although previous work1 proposes to reuse intermediate information (metadata) produced during transcoding to facilitate runtime content adaption to serve heterogeneous clients by reducing total computing load, unbalanced resource contribution may pre-maturely exhaust the limited power of mobile devices, and adversely affect the performance of participating nodes and subsequently threaten the robustness of the whole system. In this work, we propose a Dynamic Bi-Overlay Rotation (DOOR) scheme, in which, we further consider resource consumption of participating nodes to design a dynamic rotation scheme that reacts to dynamic situations and balances across multiple types of resources on individual nodes. Based on the computing load and transcoding quality parameters obtained through real transcoding sessions, we drive large scale simulations to evaluate DOOR. The results show clear improvement of DOOR over earlier work.

  3. Blot overlays with 32P-labeled fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Lim, L; Manser, E

    2001-07-01

    Proteins labeled with 32P can be used as sensitive "prime" in blot overlays to detect binding proteins or domains. Small G-protein Ras can bind GTP with extremely high affinity (Kd approximately 10(-11)-10(-12) M) in the presence of Mg2+. We have taken advantage of this property of Ras to develop a vector that expresses proteins of interest such as glutathione S-transferase (GST)/Ras fusion proteins for noncovalent labeling with [gamma-32P]GTP. The labeling efficiency of this method is >60% and involves a single short incubation step. We have previously identified several binding proteins for the second SH3 domain of the adaptor Nck using this method. Here we illustrate the overlay method using the GST/Ras system and compare results with the SH3 domain labeled by phosphorylation with [gamma-32P]ATP. Both methods are similarly specific and sensitive; however, we show that signals are dependent primarily on GST-mediated probe dimerization. These dimeric probes allow a more stable probe-target complex similar to immunoglobulin interactions, thus significantly improving the sensitivity of the technique. PMID:11403569

  4. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 5: (Payload)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrew, H.

    1981-01-01

    The LANDSAT-D flight segment payload is the thematic mapper and the multispectral scanner. Narrative and visual descriptions of the LANDSAT-D payload data handling hardware and data flow paths from the sensing instruments through to the GSFC LANDSAT-D data management system are provided. Key subsystems are examined.

  5. Status of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, James R.; Ochs, William R.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to begin implementing a successor mission to Landsat 7, called the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), suffered a set back in 2003. NASA and the Department of Interior (DOI)/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) currently manage the Landsat Program as an interagency partnership. The two agencies had planned to purchase data meeting LDCM specifications from a privately owned and commercially operated satellite system beginning in March, 2007. This approach represented a departure from the traditional procurement of a government owned and operated satellite system. NASA, however, cancelled a Request-for-Proposals (RFP) for providing the required data after an evaluation of proposals received from private industry. NASA concluded that the proposals failed to meet a key objective and expectation of the RFP, namely, to form a fair and equitable partnership between the Government and private industry. Alternative strategies for implementing an LDCM are now under consideration. The Executive Office of the President formed an interagency working group on the LDCM following the RFP cancellation. The working group is considering other options for implementing a successor system to Landsat 7 consistent with the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-555). This Act lists four management options for consideration: 1) private sector funding and management; 2) an international consortium; 3) funding and management by the U.S. Government; and 4) a cooperative effort between the US. Government and the private sector. The working group is currently attempting to minimize the risk of a Landsat data gap through development of a strategy that leads to a Landsat 7 successor mission. The selected strategy and the status of the mission will be presented at the Symposium.

  6. Urban area update procedures using Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.; Royal, J. A.; Davis, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Landsat digital enhancements and classification maps are shown to be useful for updating the urban expansion of standard metropolitan statistical areas on a macro scale. Automated procedures for detecting nonurban to urban land coverage change using multitemporal Landsat data are investigated for five metropolitan areas, showing an overall delineation similar to that obtained from large scale aerial photography. The evaluated change detection procedures include image differencing, principal component transformation prior to differencing, and post classification comparison. Results show that image differencing techniques in MSS band 5 provide the most accurate land cover change detections.

  7. Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. E. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.; Bresnahan, P. A.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Large area LANDSAT yield estimates were generated. These results were compared with estimates computed using a meteorological yield model (CCEA). Both of these estimates were compared with Kansas Crop and Livestock Reporting Service (KCLRS) estimates of yield, in an attempt to assess the relative and absolute accuracy of the LANDSAT and CCEA estimates. Results were inconclusive. A large area direct wheat prediction procedure was implemented. Initial results have produced a wheat production estimate comparable with the KCLRS estimate.

  8. Study of atmospheric diffusion using LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torsani, J. A.; Viswanadham, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The parameters of diffusion patterns of atmospheric pollutants under different conditions were investigated for use in the Gaussian model for calculation of pollution concentration. Value for the divergence pattern of concentration distribution along the Y axis were determined using LANDSAT images. Multispectral scanner images of a point source plume having known characteristics, wind and temperature data, and cloud cover and solar elevation data provided by LANDSAT, were analyzed using the 1-100 system for image analysis. These measured values are compared with pollution transport as predicted by the Pasquill-Gifford, Juelich, and Hoegstroem atmospheric models.

  9. Virtual overlay metrology for fault detection supported with integrated metrology and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong-Goo; Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kim, Min-Suk; Han, Sang-Jun; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kwon, Won-Taik; Park, Sung-Ki; Ryan, Kevin; Theeuwes, Thomas; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Lim, Young-Wan; Slotboom, Daan; Kubis, Michael; Staecker, Jens

    2015-03-01

    While semiconductor manufacturing moves toward the 7nm node for logic and 15nm node for memory, an increased emphasis has been placed on reducing the influence known contributors have toward the on product overlay budget. With a machine learning technique known as function approximation, we use a neural network to gain insight to how known contributors, such as those collected with scanner metrology, influence the on product overlay budget. The result is a sufficiently trained function that can approximate overlay for all wafers exposed with the lithography system. As a real world application, inline metrology can be used to measure overlay for a few wafers while using the trained function to approximate overlay vector maps for the entire lot of wafers. With the approximated overlay vector maps for all wafers coming off the track, a process engineer can redirect wafers or lots with overlay signatures outside the standard population to offline metrology for excursion validation. With this added flexibility, engineers will be given more opportunities to catch wafers that need to be reworked, resulting in improved yield. The quality of the derived corrections from measured overlay metrology feedback can be improved using the approximated overlay to trigger, which wafers should or shouldn't be, measured inline. As a development or integration engineer the approximated overlay can be used to gain insight into lots and wafers used for design of experiments (DOE) troubleshooting. In this paper we will present the results of a case study that follows the machine learning function approximation approach to data analysis, with production overlay measured on an inline metrology system at SK hynix.

  10. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report, 23 April - 23 July 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    LANDSAT 1 and 2 operations were described, giving detailed charts and tables of their performances since 1972. Orbital parameters, attitude control subsystem, telemetry subsystem, orbit adjust subsystem, and magnetic moment compensating assembly were some of the main parameters discussed.

  11. Toward 7nm target on product overlay for C028 FDSOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatefait, Maxime; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Goirand, Pierre Jerome; Lam, Auguste; Van Haren, Richard; Pastol, Anne; Doytcheva, Maya; Liu, Xing Lan; Beltman, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The continuous need for lithography overlay performance improvement is a key point for advanced integrated circuit manufacturing. Overlay control is more and more challenging in the 2x nm process nodes regarding functionality margin of the chip and tool capability. Transistor architecture rules which are set, confirm poly to contact space as the most critical one for 28nm technology node. Critical Dimension variability of these layers, even with best in class process stability, in addition to design constraint lead to on product overlay specifications of around 7nm. In order to ensure that the target is met in production environment and to identify potential ways for improvement, identification of the contributors to overlay errors is essential. We have introduced a novel budget breakdown methodology using both bottom-up and top-down overlay data. For the bottom up part, we have performed extensive testing with very high sampling scheme so as to quantify the main effects. In-line overlay metrology data has been used for top down approach to verify the overall performance in production. In this paper we focused on the 28nm contact to gate overlay in a FDSOI process. The initial inconsistency between bottom up and top down results led us to further exploration of the root cause of these inconsistencies. We have been able to highlight key figures to focus on, like reticle heating, wafer table contamination and etch processing effects. Finally, we conclude on 7nm overlay target achievement feasibility in high volume manufacturing environment.

  12. Questioning the Benefits That Coloured Overlays Can Have for Reading in Students with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa M.; Tsogka, Natassa; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Visual stress (the experience of visual distortions and discomfort during prolonged reading) is frequently identified and alleviated with coloured overlays or lenses. Previous studies have associated visual stress with dyslexia and as a consequence, coloured overlays are widely distributed to children and adults with reading difficulty. However,…

  13. Mission to Earth: Landsat Views the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Nicholas M.; And Others

    Presented is a compendium of the outstanding Landsat scenes of the Earth's surface. It is directed to college and high school teachers, resource specialists, researchers, outdoorsmen, travelers, the general public, and serious students of geology or geography. The images are presented in color and at a scale and resolution that specify many…

  14. LANDSAT D data processing facility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Mission planning of the LANDSAT D is discussed which will present several major advances in the spacecraft, sensor (Thematic Mapper), ground systems and overall system design. The system provides for two data links-direct satellite to ground, and via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite.

  15. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  16. Sources of variation in Landsat autocorrelation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. G.; Labovitz, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of sixty-four scan lines representing diverse conditions across satellites, channels, scanners, locations and cloud cover confirms that Landsat data are autocorrelated and consistently follow an Arima (1,0,1) pattern. The AR parameter varies significantly with location and the MA coefficient with cloud cover. Maximum likelihood classification functions are considerably in error unless this autocorrelation is compensated for in sampling.

  17. Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Jack; Farve, Catherine L.; Harvey, Craig

    2002-01-01

    A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of 5 in latitude by approximately equal to 6 degrees in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bit-map file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

  18. Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of approx. 5 in latitude by approx. 6 deg in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bit-map file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

  19. Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data. [Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An initial demonstration was made of the capability to make direct production forecasts for winter wheat using early season LANDSAT data. The approach offers the potential to make production forecasts quickly and simply, possibly avoiding some of the complexities of alternate procedures.

  20. Landsat-D thematic mapper simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, G. F.; Tilton, E. L., III

    1982-01-01

    The design and testing program for the airborne Landsat-D thematic-mapper simulator (TMS) is summarized. The TMS is intended to provide data similar enough to those expected from Landsat-D to facilitate the development of data-processing software. The design process comprised mainly modifications on the existing MSS-simulator fiber optics, dichroics, and detectors to provide 7-channel coverage of the 0.45-12.3-micron range at 60-deg angle of view, corresponding to a 418-element, 13.8-km-wide ground swath. The TMS is carried on a Lear 23 aircraft operating at 750 km/h and 12-m altitude and equipped with a 15.2-cm aerial mapping camera and a ground-updated inertial navigational system. Agricultural, forestry, and geological trial applications are reviewed, and some sample results are given. The significant improvements predicted for the Landsat-D thematic mapper (relative to the Landsat MSS) are seen as confirmed, with the possible exception of the 120-m-resolution version of channel 7.

  1. LANDSAT data and interactive computer mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The integration of image processing capabilities with interactive computer mapping systems is discussed. It is noted that the accomplishment of this integration will result in powerful geographic information systems which will enhance the applicatons of LANDSAT and other types of remotely sensed data in solving problems in the resource planning and management domain.

  2. Landsat non-US standard catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by Landsat 1 and 2 which was processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

  3. LANDSAT activities in the Republic of Zaire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilunga, S.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the LANDSAT data utilization program of the Republic of Zaire is presented. The program emphasizes topics of economic significance to the national development program of Zaire: (1) agricultural land use capability analysis, including evaluation of the effects of large-scale burnings; (2) mineral resources evaluation; and (3) production of mapping materials for poorly covered regions.

  4. BOREAS Landsat MSS Imagery: Digital Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) Program launched the first of a series of satellites (ERTS-1) in 1972. Part of the NASA Earth Resources Survey Program, the ERTS Program and the ERTS satellites were later renamed Landsat to better represent the civil satellite program's prime emphasis on remote sensing of land resources. Landsat satellites 1 through 5 carry the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor. Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and BOREAS personnel gathered a set of MSS images of the BOREAS region from Landsat satellites 1, 2, 4, and 5 covering the dates of 21 Aug 1972 to 05 Sep 1988. The data are provided in binary image format files of various formats. The Landsat MSS imagery is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  5. Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Zack; Farve, Catharine L.; Harvey, Craig

    2003-01-01

    A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of .5 in latitude by .6 in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bitmap file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

  6. Utilization of LANDSAT images in cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Alburquerque, P. C. G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of multispectral imagery obtained from LANDSAT for mapping purposes is discussed with emphasis on geometric rectification, image resolution, and systematic topographic mapping. A method is given for constructing 1:250,000 scale maps. The limitations for satellite cartography are examined.

  7. LANDSAT-4 to ground station interface description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The LANDSAT 4 to ground station interface is described in detail. The radiometric specifications, internal calibration, sensor output format, and data processing constants for the multispectral scanner and the thematic mapper are discussed. The mission payload telemetry, onboard computer telemetry, and engineering telemetry formats are described. In addition, the telemetry time signals and the onboard clock resetting procedure are addressed.

  8. Overlay improvement by exposure map based mask registration optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Irene; Guo, Eric; Chen, Ming; Lu, Max; Li, Gordon; Li, Rivan; Tian, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Along with the increased miniaturization of semiconductor electronic devices, the design rules of advanced semiconductor devices shrink dramatically. [1] One of the main challenges of lithography step is the layer-to-layer overlay control. Furthermore, DPT (Double Patterning Technology) has been adapted for the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, corresponding overlay budget becomes even tighter. [2][3] After the in-die mask registration (pattern placement) measurement is introduced, with the model analysis of a KLA SOV (sources of variation) tool, it's observed that registration difference between masks is a significant error source of wafer layer-to-layer overlay at 28nm process. [4][5] Mask registration optimization would highly improve wafer overlay performance accordingly. It was reported that a laser based registration control (RegC) process could be applied after the pattern generation or after pellicle mounting and allowed fine tuning of the mask registration. [6] In this paper we propose a novel method of mask registration correction, which can be applied before mask writing based on mask exposure map, considering the factors of mask chip layout, writing sequence, and pattern density distribution. Our experiment data show if pattern density on the mask keeps at a low level, in-die mask registration residue error in 3sigma could be always under 5nm whatever blank type and related writer POSCOR (position correction) file was applied; it proves random error induced by material or equipment would occupy relatively fixed error budget as an error source of mask registration. On the real production, comparing the mask registration difference through critical production layers, it could be revealed that registration residue error of line space layers with higher pattern density is always much larger than the one of contact hole layers with lower pattern density. Additionally, the mask registration difference between layers with similar pattern density

  9. Extremely fast hydrogen absorption/desorption through platinum overlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Połczyński, Piotr; Jurczakowski, Rafał

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen electrosorption in thin palladium films (50-1000 nm) was investigated at palladium electrodes covered with platinum overlayers. The results for this model system show that the rates of the hydrogen sorption/desorption are orders of magnitude higher for platinized samples with respect to pure palladium. The highest absorption kinetics have been observed for Pd electrodes fully covered with 1-3 platinum monolayers. By means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) we have shown that the process is diffusion limited at platinized Pd layers. Diffusion coefficient, DH, determined in EIS, is two orders of magnitude higher than that previously reported for thin palladium films and approaches DH for bulk palladium. The system stability after hydrogen absorption was assessed and the sorption mechanism was discussed. Surprisingly high durability of the platinized palladium enables its use in a variety of applications where fast and selective response in the presence of hydrogen is required.

  10. Decentralized Service Allocation in a Broker Overlay Based Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azab, Abdulrahman; Meling, Hein

    Grid computing is based on coordinated resource sharing in a dynamic environment of multi-institutional virtual organizations. Data exchanges, and service allocation, are challenging problems in the field of Grid computing. This is due to the decentralization of Grid systems. Building decentralized Grid systems with efficient resource management and software component mechanisms is a need for achieving the required efficiency and usability of Grid systems. In this work, a decentralized Grid system model is presented in which, the system is divided into virtual organizations each controlled by a broker. An overlay network of brokers is responsible for global resource management and managing allocation of services. Experimental results show that, the system achieves dependable performance with various loads of services, and broker failures.

  11. Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Anaglyph, SRTM / Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This stereoscopic (anaglyph) visualization combines a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to provide a view of the volcano, the city of Goma, and surrounding terrain.

    Nyiragongo is the steep volcano to the lower right of center, Lake Kivu is at the bottom, and the city of Goma is located along the northeast shore (bottom center). Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but broader Nyamuragira volcano appears to the upper left of Nyiragongo.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. The cliff at the top center of the image is the western edge of the rift. Volcanic activity is common in the rift, and older but geologically recent lava flows (dark in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading an elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and blending it with a single band of a Landsat scene. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before

  12. Integrated production overlay field-by-field control for leading edge technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Woong Jae; Tristan, John; Gutjahr, Karsten; Subramany, Lokesh; Li, Chen; Sun, Yulei; Yelverton, Mark; Kim, Young Ki; Kim, Jeong Soo; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Pierson, William; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Riggs, Brent; Jug, Sven; Robinson, John C.; Yap, Lipkong; Ramanathan, Vidya

    2014-04-01

    As photolithography will continue with 193nm immersion multiple patterning technologies for the leading edge HVM process node, the production overlay requirement for critical layers in logic devices has almost reached the scanner hardware performance limit. To meet the extreme overlay requirements in HVM production environment, this study investigates a new integrated overlay control concept for leading edge technology nodes that combines the run-to-run (R2R) linear or high order control loop, the periodic field-by-field or correction per exposure (CPE) wafer process signature control loop, and the scanner baseline control loop into a single integrated overlay control path through the fab host APC system. The goal is to meet the fab requirements for overlay performance, lower the cost of ownership, and provide freedom of control methodology. In this paper, a detailed implementation of this concept will be discussed, along with some preliminary results.

  13. Exact and reliable overlay metrology in nanoscale semiconductor devices using an image processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jinkook; Shin, ChaeHo; Kim, Minkook; Kim, Junghwan; Park, JeongKyun; Kim, JungSoo; Jun, ChungSam; Yim, Yeny; Lee, Janghee

    2014-10-01

    As semiconductor processing becomes more complicated and pattern sizes shrink, the overlay metrology has become one of the most important issues in the semiconductor industry. Therefore, in order to obtain correct, reliable overlay values in semiconductor fabrication facilities (fab), quantization methods for the efficient management and implementation of a measurement algorithm are required, as well as an understanding of the target structures in the semiconductor device. We implemented correct, reliable overlay values in the pattern using the image processing method. The quantization method, through correlation analysis and a new algorithm for target structures, were able to improve the sensitivity to misalignment in the pattern and enable more stable and credible in-line measurement by decreasing the distribution of the residuals in overlay values. Since overlay values of the pattern in the fab were measured and managed more reliably and quickly, it is expected that our study will be able to contribute to the yield enhancement of semiconductor companies.

  14. Fundamentals of overlay measurement and inspection using scanning electron-microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.; Okagawa, Y.; Inoue, O.; Arai, K.; Yamaguchi, S.

    2013-04-01

    Scanning electron-microscope (SEM) has been successfully applied to CD measurement as promising tools for qualifying and controlling quality of semiconductor devices in in-line manufacturing process since 1985. Furthermore SEM is proposed to be applied to in-die overlay monitor in the local area which is too small to be measured by optical overlay measurement tools any more, when the overlay control limit is going to be stringent and have un-ignorable dependence on device pattern layout, in-die location, and singular locations in wafer edge, etc. In this paper, we proposed new overlay measurement and inspection system to make an effective use of in-line SEM image, in consideration of trade-off between measurement uncertainty and measurement pattern density in each SEM conditions. In parallel, we make it clear that the best hybrid overlay metrology is in considering each tool's technology portfolio.

  15. Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

  16. Cross-sensor comparisons between Landsat 5 TM and IRS-P6 AWiFS and disturbance detection using integrated Landsat and AWiFS time-series images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Chander, Gyanesh; Ji, Lei; Tolk, Brian; Huang, Chengquan; Rollins, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Routine acquisition of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was discontinued recently and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has an ongoing problem with the scan line corrector (SLC), thereby creating spatial gaps when covering images obtained during the process. Since temporal and spatial discontinuities of Landsat data are now imminent, it is therefore important to investigate other potential satellite data that can be used to replace Landsat data. We thus cross-compared two near-simultaneous images obtained from Landsat 5 TM and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS)-P6 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS), both captured on 29 May 2007 over Los Angeles, CA. TM and AWiFS reflectances were compared for the green, red, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, as well as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on manually selected polygons in homogeneous areas. All R2 values of linear regressions were found to be higher than 0.99. The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method was used to calculate the NDVI correlation between the TM and AWiFS images. The NDVI regression line derived from selected polygons passed through several invariant cluster centres of the TIC density maps and demonstrated that both the scene-dependent polygon regression method and TIC method can generate accurate radiometric normalization. A scene-independent normalization method was also used to normalize the AWiFS data. Image agreement assessment demonstrated that the scene-dependent normalization using homogeneous polygons provided slightly higher accuracy values than those obtained by the scene-independent method. Finally, the non-normalized and relatively normalized ‘Landsat-like’ AWiFS 2007 images were integrated into 1984 to 2010 Landsat time-series stacks (LTSS) for disturbance detection using the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) model. Both scene-dependent and scene-independent normalized AWiFS data sets could generate disturbance maps similar to

  17. Diffraction based overlay metrology: accuracy and performance on front end stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Michael; Marchelli, Anat; Vakshtein, Irina; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

    2008-03-01

    The overlay metrology budget is typically 1/10 of the overlay control budget resulting in overlay metrology total measurement uncertainty requirements of 0.57 nm for the most challenging use cases of the 32nm technology generation. Theoretical considerations show that overlay technology based on differential signal scatterometry (SCOL TM) has inherent advantages, which will allow it to achieve the 32nm technology generation requirements and go beyond it. In this work we present results of an experimental and theoretical study of SCOL. We present experimental results, comparing this technology with the standard imaging overlay metrology. In particular, we present performance results, such as precision and tool induced shift, for different target designs. The response to a large range of induced misalignment is also shown. SCOL performance on these targets for a real stack is reported. We also show results of simulations of the expected accuracy and performance associated with a variety of scatterometry overlay target designs. The simulations were carried out on several stacks including FEOL and BEOL materials. The inherent limitations and possible improvements of the SCOL technology are discussed. We show that with the appropriate target design and algorithms, scatterometry overlay achieves the accuracy required for future technology generations.

  18. Landsat Data Continuity Mission, now Landsat-8: six months on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Storey, James C.; Irons, James R.

    2013-09-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) with two pushbroom Earth-imaging sensors, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS), was launched on February 11, 2013. Its on-orbit check out period or commissioning phase lasted about 90 days. During this phase the spacecraft and its instruments were activated, operationally tested and their performance verified. In addition, during this period, the spacecraft was temporarily placed in an intermediary orbit where it drifted relative to the Landsat-7 spacecraft, providing near simultaneous imaging for about 3 days, allowing data comparison and cross calibration. After this tandem-imaging period, LDCM was raised to its final altitude and placed in the position formerly occupied by Landsat-5, i.e., 8 days out of phase with Landsat-7, with about a 10:10 AM equatorial crossing time. At the end of commissioning, the satellite was transferred to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), officially renamed Landsat-8 and declared operational. Data were made available to the public beginning May 31, 2013. The performance of the satellite and two instruments has generally been excellent as evidenced in the quality of the distributed data products.

  19. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    For most of us, Antarctica was at best a distant acquaintance. Now, with the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA), we are on intimate terms. In stunning, up-close and personal detail, LIMA brings Antarctica to life. Explore this virtually cloudless, seamless, most geometrically accurate, and highest resolution satellite mosaic of Antarctica. A team of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the British Antarctic Survey, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with funding from the National Science Foundation, created LIMA in support of the International Polar Year (IPY; 2007?08). As the first major scientific outcome of the IPY, LIMA truly fulfills the IPY goals. LIMA is an international effort, supports current scientific polar research, encourages new projects, and helps the general public visualize Antarctica and changes happening in this southernmost environment. Researchers and the general public can download LIMA and all component Landsat scenes at no charge.

  20. Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Objective measurements of percent green wheat cover on May 21 were significantly correlated with yield, as were measurements of green LAI and LANDSAT data. Three data sets from the Finney test site were analyzed from LANDSAT passes on 22 November 1974, 15 April 1975, and 21 May 1975. After mean signal values in each band were computed for each sufficiently large wheat field, the mean values were correlated with the farmer estimates of wheat grain yield in order to assess relative information content. It is clear that the single best spectral temporal band for predicting yield is the 15 April red band (0.6-0.7 microns, band 5), with the 15 April green band (0.5-0.6 microns, band 4) a close second.

  1. Operational LANDSAT remote sensing system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of $121.6 million dollars from NOAA's LANDSAT development program for FY 1982, and the shortened time period for transferring remote sensing technology to the private sector resulted in changes in the Agency's plans for managing the operational system. Proposed legislation for congressional consideration or enactment to establish conditions under which this private sector transfer will occur, and the expected gradual rise in the price of data products are discussed. No money exists for capital investment and none is projected for investing in an operational data handling system for the LANDSAT D satellite. Candidates knowledgeable of various aspects of the needs and uses of remote sensing are urged to consider participation in NOAA's advisory committee.

  2. SAR/LANDSAT image registration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphrey, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Temporal registration of synthetic aperture radar data with LANDSAT-MSS data is both feasible (from a technical standpoint) and useful (from an information-content viewpoint). The greatest difficulty in registering aircraft SAR data to corrected LANDSAT-MSS data is control-point location. The differences in SAR and MSS data impact the selection of features that will serve as a good control points. The SAR and MSS data are unsuitable for automatic computer correlation of digital control-point data. The gray-level data can not be compared by the computer because of the different response characteristics of the MSS and SAR images.

  3. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Morin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The first-ever true-color, high-resolution digital mosaic of Antarctica has been produced from nearly 1100 Landsat-7 ETM+ images collected between 1999 and 2003. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) project was an early benchmark data set of the International Polar Year and represents a close and successful collaboration between NASA, USGS, the British Antarctic Survey and the National Science Foundation. The mosaic was successfully merged with lower resolution MODIS data south of Landsat coverage to produce a complete true-color data set of the entire continent. LIMA is being used as a platform for a variety of education and outreach activities. Central to this effort is the NASA website 'Faces of Antarctica' that offers the web visitor the opportunity to explore the data set and to learn how these data are used to support scientific research. Content is delivered through a set of mysteries designed to pique the user's interest and to motivate them to delve deeper into the website where there are various videos and scientific articles for downloading. Detailed lesson plans written by teachers are provided for classroom use and Java applets let the user track the motion of ice in sequential Landsat images. Web links take the user to other sites where they can roam over the imagery using standard pan and zoom functions, or search for any named feature in the Antarctic Geographic Names data base that returns to the user a centered true-color view of any named feature. LIMA also has appeared is a host of external presentations from museum exhibits, to postcards and large posters. It has attracted various value-added providers that increase LIMA's accessibility by allowing users to specify subsets of the very large data set for individual downloads. The ultimate goal of LIMA in the public and educational sector is to enable everyone to become more familiar with Antarctica.

  4. Advanced Ice Velocity Mapping Using Landsat 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, M. J.; Scambos, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Haran, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Improved image-to-image cross correlation software is applied to pairs of sequential Landsat 8 satellite imagery to accurately measure ice surface velocity over ice sheets and glaciers (±0.1 pixel displacement, 15 meter pixels). The high radiometric fidelity of Landsat 8's panchromatic band (12-bit), and exceptional geolocation accuracy (typically ±5 m) supports the generation of ice velocity fields over very short time intervals (e.g., 16-, 32-, or 48-day repeat images of the same scene location). The high radiometry supports velocity mapping in areas with very subtle topographic detail, including un-crevassed sastrugi regions on ice dome flanks or the ice sheet interior. New Python-based software presently under development (named PyCorr), takes two sequential Landsat 8 OLI scenes (or suitably processed ETM+ or TM scenes) and matches small sub-scenes ('chips') between the images based on similarity in their gray-scale value patterns, using an image correlation algorithm. Peak fitting in the region of maximum correlation for a chip pair yields sub-pixel fits to the feature offset vector. Vector editing after the image correlation runs seeks to eliminate spurious and cloud-impacted vectors, and correct residual geo-location error. This processing is based on plausible values of ice strain rates and known areas of near-zero ice flow (rock outcrops, ice dome areas, etc.). In preliminary processing, we have examined ~800 Landsat 8 image pairs having <20% cloud cover spanning the near-coastal Antarctic ice sheet during the 2013-14 summer season.

  5. Investigations using data from LANDSAT-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A land use map was prepared of Dacca-Narayanganj-Demra area on a scale of 1:50,000. LANDSAT imageries of Dinajpur and Rangpur districts were studied. The difference between the exposed Pleistocene red clay, this clay under alluvial cover, and recent alluvium were noted. Different types of soils, crops, etc. were delineated on the ERTS imagery.

  6. Evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Murphy, J. M.; Grieve, G.; Simard, R.; Horler, D.; Ahern, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Interband line pixel misregistrations were determined for the four MSS bands of the Mistassini, Ontario scene and multitemporal registration of LANDSAT-4 products were tested for two different geocoded scenes. Line and pixel misregistrations are tabulated as determined by the manual ground control points and the digital band to band correlation techniques. A method was developed for determining the spectral information content of TM images for forestry applications.

  7. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Calibration and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Storey, James C.; Morfitt, Ron; Knight, Ed; Kvaran, Geir; Lee, Kenton

    2008-01-01

    The primary payload for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is the Operational Land Imager (OLI), being built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies, under contract to NASA. The OLI has spectral bands similar to the Landsat-7 ETM+, minus the thermal band and with two new bands, a 443 nm band and 1375 nm cirrus detection band. On-board calibration systems include two solar diffusers (routine and pristine), a shutter and three sets of internal lamps (routine, backup and pristine). Being a pushbroom opposed to a whiskbroom design of ETM+, the system poses new challenges for characterization and calibration, chief among them being the large focal plane with 75000+ detectors. A comprehensive characterization and calibration plan is in place for the instrument and the data throughout the mission including Ball, NASA and the United States Geological Survey, which will take over operations of LDCM after on-orbit commissioning. Driving radiometric calibration requirements for OLI data include radiance calibration to 5% uncertainty (1 q); reflectance calibration to 3% uncertainty (1 q) and relative (detector-to-detector) calibration to 0.5% (J (r). Driving geometric calibration requirements for OLI include bandto- band registration of 4.5 meters (90% confidence), absolute geodetic accuracy of 65 meters (90% CE) and relative geodetic accuracy of 25 meters (90% CE). Key spectral, spatial and radiometric characterization of the OLI will occur in thermal vacuum at Ball Aerospace. During commissioning the OLI will be characterized and calibrated using celestial (sun, moon, stars) sources and terrestrial sources. The USGS EROS ground processing system will incorporate an image assessment system similar to Landsat-7 for characterization and calibration. This system will have the added benefit that characterization data will be extracted as part of the normal image data processing, so that the characterization data available will be significantly larger than for Landsat-7 ETM+.

  8. Using airborne radiometry to determine atmospheric effects in Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dana, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    An empirical method was developed to measure how solar and atmospheric conditions affect Landsat images by comparing Landsat MSS data with terrain reflectance. Terrain reflectance was measured with a four-channel radiometer designed to measure radiance in wavelength bands matched to the Landsat MSS data. Other instrumentation included a digital data logger, an irradiance meter, and a video camera with recorder. Reflectance of many terrain elements which could be registered to the Landsat digital data were measured from a low-flying aircraft. Correlations of reflectance with Landsat radiance verified a linear atmospheric model with an additive (path radiance) term and a multiplicative (transmittance) term. Coefficients from this model permit the extension of spectral signatures in computer-aided classification of Landsat images.

  9. Contingency plans set for Landsat 5 and 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    With the Landsat 5 Earth observation satellite failing due to a rapidly degrading electronic component, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is exploring ways to alleviate a data gap if both Landsat 5 and 7 fail prior to the planned launch of Landsat 8—known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission—in 2013. USGS director Marcia McNutt told Eos that although the satellite's engineering team has "brought Landsat 5 back from death's doorstep several times over the last 27 years" during its mission—which has extended far beyond its design life—"another miracle recovery is becoming less likely." She added that the survey is looking forward to a successful launch of Landsat 8 "and to establishing a more consistent land imaging program."

  10. LANDSAT Scene-to-scene Registration Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Initial results obtained from the registration of LANDSAT-4 data to LANDSAT-2 MSS data are documented and compared with results obtained from a LANDSAT-2 MSS-to-LANDSAT-2 scene-to-scene registration (using the same LANDSAT-2 MSS data as the base data set in both procedures). RMS errors calculated on the control points used in the establishment of scene-to-scene mapping equations are compared to error computed from independently chosen verification points. Models developed to estimate actual scene-to-scene registration accuracy based on the use of electrostatic plots are also presented. Analysis of results indicates a statistically significant difference in the RMS errors for the element contribution. Scan line errors were not significantly different. It appears that a modification to the LANDSAT-4 MSS scan mirror coefficients is required to correct the situation.

  11. US Forest Disturbance Rates Observed from Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Goward, S. N.; Schleeweis, K.; Zhao, F.; Lindsey, M.; Masek, J.; Cohen, W. B.; Moisen, G. G.; Nemani, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    North American forests are thought to be a long-term sink for atmospheric carbon. However, great uncertainties exist in current understanding of the magnitude of this sink and its change in the foreseeable future, largely because forest disturbance and regrowth dynamics are not well characterized. A main goal of the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project is to quantify US forest disturbance and regrowth by integrating forest inventory data and historical Landsat observations. From a total of more than 100,000 Landsat images in the USGS Landsat archive, we have selected the best 20,000+ images to construct annual time series datasets for the entire the conterminous US (CONUS) for the years from 1984 to 2011. These images have been converted surface reflectance to produce spatially and temporally consistent radiometry, and are being analyzed using the vegetation change tracker (VCT) algorithm to produce annual forest disturbance products. These products will be validated using design-based accuracy assessment methods, and the causing factor of each mapped disturbance event will be identified. In this talk, we will first provide an overview of the key NAFD methods and then present the preliminary results derived through the NAFD disturbance mapping effort, including initial quality assessment of the derived disturbance products, as well as patterns and rates of forest disturbances at national and regional scales. Issues, lessons learned, and future NAFD work will be discussed at the end.

  12. LANDSAT imagery of the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komer, C. A.; Morgan, P.

    1986-01-01

    The central Andes of South America extend from approximately 14 deg. S to 28 deg. S as an unbroken chain of mountains and volcanoes over 2000 km long. It is here that the Nazca plate dives under the South American plate at angles varying from 10 deg to 30 deg. Very little is known about the volcanoes comprising this classic, subduction-type plate margin. A catalogue of the volcanoes in the central Andes is being prepared by Dr. P.W. Francis and Dr. C.A. Wood at the NASA Lunar and Planetary Institute. At present, more than 800 volcanoes of Cenozoic age have been recognized in the chain, with an estimated 75-80 major, active Quarternary volcanoes. Approximately one hundred 1536 x 1536 pixel color composite Optronics positives were produced from six full LANDSAT Thermatic Mapper scenes and three partial TM scenes. These positives cover a large portion of the central Andes. The positives were produced from LANDSAT data using the VAX imaging package, LIPS. The scenes were first transferred from magnetic tape to disk. The LIPS package was then used to select volcanically interesting areas which were then electronically enhanced. Finally, the selected areas were transferred back to tape and printed on the Optronics equipment. The pictures are color composites using LANDSAT TM bands 7,4, and 2 in the red, green, and blue filters, respectively.

  13. Rice yield estimation using Landsat ETM+ Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siyal, Altaf Ali; Dempewolf, Jan; Becker-Reshef, Inbal

    2015-01-01

    Paddy rice areas in Larkana district in Sindh province, Pakistan, were mapped over eight years. Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite imagery was classified for rice areas using training data collected through visual interpretation and using a bagged decision tree approach. Within the rice areas, we estimated yield for the 2013 season using regression models based on Landsat-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and ratio vegetation index (RVI) values against historic, reported yield values. The annual cropped rice area estimated from satellite imagery was between 19% and 24% lower than the area reported by the Crop Reporting Service, Sindh. A positive and strong relationship with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.94 was observed between the reported rice crop yield and NDVI at the peak of the growing season for the years 2006 to 2013. A fair relation (R2=0.875) between rice crop yield and RVI was observed for the same years. A strong relationship between observed and predicted rice production with model efficiency=0.925, mean bias error=-85,016 t, and RMSE=80,726 t was obtained. Thus, Landsat ETM+ has a high potential for estimating rice yield and production at the district level in Pakistan and elsewhere.

  14. Use of LANDSAT data to assess waterfowl habitat quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Gilmer, D. S. (Principal Investigator); Work, E. A., Jr.; Rebel, D. L.; Roller, N. E. G.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The capability of mapping ponds over a very large area was demonstrated, with multidate, multiframe LANDSAT imagery. A small double sample of aircraft data made it possible to adjust a LANDSAT large area census. Terrain classification was improved by using multitemporal LANDSAT data. Waterfowl production was estimated, using remotely determined pond data, in conjunction with FWS estimates of breeding population. Relative waterfowl habitat quality was characterized on a section by section basis.

  15. State involvement in and use of LANDSAT technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessar, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The background of state involvement in LANDSAT systems planning and the status of state LANDSAT use are reviewed. Major recommendations on data continuity; frequency and pattern of observation; state representation in program management; pointable sensors for a fully operational system; data processing systems; data pricing; data copyright; data archival; and technology transfer are highlighted. Plans of the government regarding the LANDSAT system are reflected in the FY-1982 budget process are examined.

  16. Midseason mapping of sunflowers using Landsat digital data.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, W.H.; Ohlen, D.O.; Fairaizl, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    The mapping results suggest that for the midsummer Landsat data used, there was not a sufficiently reliable relationship between Landsat-derived spectral clusters and sunflowers to allow 'automated' production of useful sunflower location maps. The occurrence of sunflower pixels in all cluster classes was a consequence of the diversity in sunflower appearance at the point in the growing season when the Landsat image used for digital processing was acquired. -Authors

  17. Augmented Endoscopic Images Overlaying Shape Changes in Bone Cutting Procedures.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Megumi; Endo, Shota; Nakao, Shinichi; Yoshida, Munehito; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    In microendoscopic discectomy for spinal disorders, bone cutting procedures are performed in tight spaces while observing a small portion of the target structures. Although optical tracking systems are able to measure the tip of the surgical tool during surgery, the poor shape information available during surgery makes accurate cutting difficult, even if preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are used for reference. Shape estimation and visualization of the target structures are essential for accurate cutting. However, time-varying shape changes during cutting procedures are still challenging issues for intraoperative navigation. This paper introduces a concept of endoscopic image augmentation that overlays shape changes to support bone cutting procedures. This framework handles the history of the location of the measured drill tip as a volume label and visualizes the remains to be cut overlaid on the endoscopic image in real time. A cutting experiment was performed with volunteers, and the feasibility of this concept was examined using a clinical navigation system. The efficacy of the cutting aid was evaluated with respect to the shape similarity, total moved distance of a cutting tool, and required cutting time. The results of the experiments showed that cutting performance was significantly improved by the proposed framework. PMID:27584732

  18. Deployable Overlay Network for Defense against Distributed SYN Flood Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsita, Yuichi; Ata, Shingo; Murata, Masayuki

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers have recently become more serious. Most of them are SYN flood attacks, since the malicious attackers can easily exploit the TCP specification to generate traffic making public servers unavailable. We need a defense method which can protect legitimate traffic so that end users can connect the target servers during such attacks. In this paper, we propose a new framework, in which all of the TCP connections to the victim servers from a domain are maintained at the gateways of the domain (i. e., near the clients). We call the nodes maintaining the TCP connection defense nodes. The defense nodes check whether arriving packets are legitimate or not by maintaining the TCP connection. That is, the defense nodes delegate reply packets to the received connection request packets and identify the legitimate packets by checking whether the clients reply to the reply packets. Then, only identified traffic are relayed via overlay networks. As a result, by deploying the defense nodes at the gateways of a domain, the legitimate packets from the domain are relayed apart from other packets including attack packets and protected. Our simulation results show that our method can protect legitimate traffic from the domain deploying our method. We also describe the deployment scenario of our defense mechanism.

  19. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-06-30

    Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

  20. Quality metric for accurate overlay control in <20nm nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Cohen, Guy; Amir, Nuriel; Har-Zvi, Michael; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Pierson, Bill; Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is moving toward 20nm nodes and below. As the Overlay (OVL) budget is getting tighter at these advanced nodes, the importance in the accuracy in each nanometer of OVL error is critical. When process owners select OVL targets and methods for their process, they must do it wisely; otherwise the reported OVL could be inaccurate, resulting in yield loss. The same problem can occur when the target sampling map is chosen incorrectly, consisting of asymmetric targets that will cause biased correctable terms and a corrupted wafer. Total measurement uncertainty (TMU) is the main parameter that process owners use when choosing an OVL target per layer. Going towards the 20nm nodes and below, TMU will not be enough for accurate OVL control. KLA-Tencor has introduced a quality score named `Qmerit' for its imaging based OVL (IBO) targets, which is obtained on the-fly for each OVL measurement point in X & Y. This Qmerit score will enable the process owners to select compatible targets which provide accurate OVL values for their process and thereby improve their yield. Together with K-T Analyzer's ability to detect the symmetric targets across the wafer and within the field, the Archer tools will continue to provide an independent, reliable measurement of OVL error into the next advanced nodes, enabling fabs to manufacture devices that meet their tight OVL error budgets.

  1. Value of Landsat in urban water resources planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Ragan, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation had the objective to evaluate the utility of satellite multispectral remote sensing in urban water resources planning. The results are presented of a study which was conducted to determine the economic impact of Landsat data. The use of Landsat data to estimate hydrologic model parameters employed in urban water resources planning is discussed. A decision regarding an employment of the Landsat data has to consider the tradeoff between data accuracy and cost. Bayesian decision theory is used in this connection. It is concluded that computer-aided interpretation of Landsat data is a highly cost-effective method of estimating the percentage of impervious area.

  2. Landsat 8 vs. Landsat 5: A comparison based on urban and peri-urban land cover mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poursanidis, Dimitris; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Mitraka, Zina

    2015-03-01

    An image dataset from the Landsat OLI spaceborne sensor is compared with the Landsat TM in order to evaluate the excellence of the new imagery in urban landcover classification. Widely known pixel-based and object-based image analysis methods have been implemented in this work like Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbor, Feature Analyst and Sub-pixel. Classification results from Landsat OLI provide more accurate results comparing to the Landsat TM. Object-based classifications produced a more uniform result, but suffer from the absorption of small rare classes into large homogenous areas, as a consequence of the segmentation, merging and the spatial parameters in the spatial resolution (30 m) of Landsat images. Based exclusively on the overall accuracy reports, the SVM pixel-based classification from Landsat 8 proved to be the most accurate for the purpose of mapping urban land cover, using medium spatial resolution imagery.

  3. LANDSAT non-US standard catalog no. N-35. [LANDSAT imagery July, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  4. Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 evaluation report, 23 January 1975 to 23 April 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A description of the work accomplished with the Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 satellites during the period 23 Jan. - 23 Apr. 1975 was presented. The following information was given for each satellite: operational summary, orbital parameters, power subsystem, attitude control subsystem, command/clock subsystem, telemetry subsystem, orbit adjust subsystem, magnetic moment compensating assembly, unified S-band/premodulation processor, electrical interface subsystem, thermal subsystem, narrowband tape recorders, wideband telemetry subsystem, attitude measurement sensor, wideband video tape recorders, return beam vidicon, multispectral scanner subsystem, and data collection subsystem.

  5. LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog no. N-30. [LANDSAT imagery for February, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  6. LANDSAT: US standard catalog no. U-34. [LANDSAT imagery for June 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  7. LANDSAT: US standard catalog no. U-35. [LANDSAT imagery for July, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility in published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  8. LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog, 1-31 January 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  9. LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog no. N-36. [LANDSAT imagery for August, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  10. 64nm pitch metal1 double patterning metrology: CD and OVL control by SEMCD, image based overlay and diffraction based overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducoté, Julien; Dettoni, Florent; Bouyssou, Régis; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Carau, Damien; Dezauzier, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    Patterning process control of advanced nodes has required major changes over the last few years. Process control needs of critical patterning levels since 28nm technology node is extremely aggressive showing that metrology accuracy/sensitivity must be finely tuned. The introduction of pitch splitting (Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch) at 14FDSOInm node requires the development of specific metrologies to adopt advanced process control (for CD, overlay and focus corrections). The pitch splitting process leads to final line CD uniformities that are a combination of the CD uniformities of the two exposures, while the space CD uniformities are depending on both CD and OVL variability. In this paper, investigations of CD and OVL process control of 64nm minimum pitch at Metal1 level of 14FDSOI technology, within the double patterning process flow (Litho, hard mask etch, line etch) are presented. Various measurements with SEMCD tools (Hitachi), and overlay tools (KT for Image Based Overlay - IBO, and ASML for Diffraction Based Overlay - DBO) are compared. Metrology targets are embedded within a block instanced several times within the field to perform intra-field process variations characterizations. Specific SEMCD targets were designed for independent measurement of both line CD (A and B) and space CD (A to B and B to A) for each exposure within a single measurement during the DP flow. Based on those measurements correlation between overlay determined with SEMCD and with standard overlay tools can be evaluated. Such correlation at different steps through the DP flow is investigated regarding the metrology type. Process correction models are evaluated with respect to the measurement type and the intra-field sampling.

  11. SRTM Radar - Landsat Image Comparison, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In addition to an elevation model of most of Earth'slandmass, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission will produce C-band radar imagery of the same area. This imagery is essentially a 10-day snapshot view of the Earth, as observed with 5.8 centimeter wavelength radar signals that were transmitted from the Shuttle, reflected by the Earth, and then recorded on the Shuttle. This six-image mosaic shows two examples of SRTM radar images (center) with comparisons to images acquired by the Landsat 7 satellite in the visible wavelengths (left) and an infrared wavelength (right). Both sets of images show lava flows in northern Patagonia, Argentina. In each case, the lava flows are relatively young compared to the surrounding rock formations.

    In visible light (left) image brightness corresponds to mineral chemistry and -- as expected -- both lava flows appear dark. Generally, the upper flow sits atop much lighter bedrock, providing good contrast and making the edges of the flow distinct. However, the lower flow borders some rocks that are similarly dark, and the flow boundaries are somewhat obscured. Meanwhile, in the radar images (center), image brightness corresponds to surface roughness (and topographic orientation) and substantial differences between the flows are visible. Much of the top flow appears dark, meaning it is fairly smooth. Consequently, it forms little or no contrast with the smooth and dark surrounding bedrock and thus virtually vanishes from view. However, the lower flow appears rough and bright and mostly forms good contrast with adjacent bedrock such that the flow is locally more distinct here than in the visible Landsat view. For further comparison, infrared Landsat images (right) again show image brightnesses related to mineral chemistry, but the lava flows appear lighter than in the visible wavelengths. Consequently, the lower lava flow becomes fairly obscure among the various surrounding rocks, just as the upper flow did in the radar image. The

  12. SRTM Perspective with Landsat Virgin Islands, Carribean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (front to back) of this east-looking view of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Elevation is shown with 1.5x scaled vertical exaggeration. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as very light shades of blue. Tropical vegetation appears green, and developed areas appear in shades of brown and white.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994

  13. Anaglyph with Landsat Virgin Islands, Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (lower left to upper right) of this map-view anaglyph of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as bright patterns in near-shore waters. Tropical vegetation appears fairly dark with smooth tones, as compared to the brighter speckled patterns of towns and other developments.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle

  14. Interim report on Landsat national archive activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, John E.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) has the responsibility to preserve and to distribute most Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data that have been acquired by the five Landsat satellites operational since July 1972. Data that are still covered by exclusive marketing rights, which were granted by the U.S. Government to the commercial Landsat operator, cannot be distributed by the DOI. As the designated national archive for Landsat data, the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) has initiated two new programs to protect and make available any of the 625,000 MSS scenes currently archived and the 200,000 TM scenes to be archived at EDC by 1995. A specially configured system has begun converting Landsat MSS data from obsolete high density tapes (HDT's) to more dense digital cassette tapes. After transcription, continuous satellite swaths are (1) divided into standard scenes defined by a world reference system, (2) geographically located by latitude and longitude, and (3) assessed for overall quality. Digital browse images are created by subsampling the full-resolution swaths. Conversion of the TM HDT's will begin in the fourth quarter of 1992 and will be conducted concurrently with MSS conversion. Although the TM archive is three times larger than the entire MSS archive, conversion of data from both sensor systems and consolidation of the entire Landsat archive at EDC will be completed by the end of 1994. Some MSS HDT's have deteriorated, primarily as a result of hydrolysis of the pigment binder. Based on a small sample of the 11 terabytes of post-1978 MSS data and the 41 terabytes of TM data to be converted, it appears that to date, less than 2 percent of the data have been lost. The data loss occurs within small portions of some scenes; few scenes are lost entirely. Approximately 10,000 pre-1979 MSS HDT's have deteriorated to such an extent, as a result of hydrolysis, that the data cannot be recovered without special treatment of

  15. Characterisation of hydrocarbonaceous overlayers important in metal-catalysed selective hydrogenation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, David; Warringham, Robbie; Guidi, Tatiana; Parker, Stewart F.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrogenation of alkynes to alkenes over supported metal catalysts is an important industrial process and it has been shown that hydrocarbonaceous overlayers are important in controlling selectivity profiles of metal-catalysed hydrogenation reactions. As a model system, we have selected propyne hydrogenation over a commercial Pd(5%)/Al2O3 catalyst. Inelastic neutron scattering studies show that the C-H stretching mode ranges from 2850 to 3063 cm-1, indicating the mostly aliphatic nature of the overlayer and this is supported by the quantification of the carbon and hydrogen on the surface. There is also a population of strongly hydrogen-bonded hydroxyls, their presence would indicate that the overlayer probably contains some oxygen functionality. There is little evidence for any olefinic or aromatic species. This is distinctly different from the hydrogen-poor overlayers that are deposited on Ni/Al2O3 catalysts during methane reforming.

  16. The Effect of Colored Overlays on Reading Fluency in Individuals with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Denton, Tiffany Freeze; Meindl, James N

    2016-09-01

    Colored overlays, one type of tinted filter, are plastic reading sheets tinted with color and placed over text to eliminate or alleviate a wide range of reading difficulties such as low reading rate, accuracy, and comprehension. The effects of colored overlays on reading problems associated with dyslexia were investigated in this study via a multielement design. Reading fluency was assessed when participants read with and without colored overlays. Undifferentiated responding, or decreased accuracy, resulted across three participants, suggesting that colored overlays were ineffective and potentially detrimental to participants' reading abilities. As a result, empirically validated reading techniques were implemented across individuals. These findings are discussed and recommendations are made in regards to the use of research-based reading interventions. PMID:27622123

  17. Computerized polar plots by a cathode ray tube/grid overlay method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. M.; Shoup, E. L.

    1970-01-01

    Overlay is aligned with four calibration dots so it is not affected by CRT drift or changes in vertical or horizontal gain when producing Nyquist /frequency-response phase/amplitude/ plots. Method produces over 50 plots per hour.

  18. Application of overlay modeling and control with Zernike polynomials in an HVM environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, JaeWuk; Kim, MinGyu; Lee, JuHan; Nabeth, Jeremy; Jeon, Sanghuck; Heo, Hoyoung; Robinson, John C.; Pierson, Bill

    2016-03-01

    Shrinking technology nodes and smaller process margins require improved photolithography overlay control. Generally, overlay measurement results are modeled with Cartesian polynomial functions for both intra-field and inter-field models and the model coefficients are sent to an advanced process control (APC) system operating in an XY Cartesian basis. Dampened overlay corrections, typically via exponentially or linearly weighted moving average in time, are then retrieved from the APC system to apply on the scanner in XY Cartesian form for subsequent lot exposure. The goal of the above method is to process lots with corrections that target the least possible overlay misregistration in steady state as well as in change point situations. In this study, we model overlay errors on product using Zernike polynomials with same fitting capability as the process of reference (POR) to represent the wafer-level terms, and use the standard Cartesian polynomials to represent the field-level terms. APC calculations for wafer-level correction are performed in Zernike basis while field-level calculations use standard XY Cartesian basis. Finally, weighted wafer-level correction terms are converted to XY Cartesian space in order to be applied on the scanner, along with field-level corrections, for future wafer exposures. Since Zernike polynomials have the property of being orthogonal in the unit disk we are able to reduce the amount of collinearity between terms and improve overlay stability. Our real time Zernike modeling and feedback evaluation was performed on a 20-lot dataset in a high volume manufacturing (HVM) environment. The measured on-product results were compared to POR and showed a 7% reduction in overlay variation including a 22% terms variation. This led to an on-product raw overlay Mean + 3Sigma X&Y improvement of 5% and resulted in 0.1% yield improvement.

  19. Live 3D image overlay for arterial duct closure with Amplatzer Duct Occluder II additional size.

    PubMed

    Goreczny, Sebstian; Morgan, Gareth J; Dryzek, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Despite several reports describing echocardiography for the guidance of ductal closure, two-dimensional angiography remains the mainstay imaging tool; three-dimensional rotational angiography has the potential to overcome some of the drawbacks of standard angiography, and reconstructed image overlay provides reliable guidance for device placement. We describe arterial duct closure solely from venous approach guided by live three-dimensional image overlay. PMID:26358032

  20. Assessment and prediction of drying shrinkage cracking in bonded mortar overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Beushausen, Hans Chilwesa, Masuzyo

    2013-11-15

    Restrained drying shrinkage cracking was investigated on composite beams consisting of substrate concrete and bonded mortar overlays, and compared to the performance of the same mortars when subjected to the ring test. Stress development and cracking in the composite specimens were analytically modeled and predicted based on the measurement of relevant time-dependent material properties such as drying shrinkage, elastic modulus, tensile relaxation and tensile strength. Overlay cracking in the composite beams could be very well predicted with the analytical model. The ring test provided a useful qualitative comparison of the cracking performance of the mortars. The duration of curing was found to only have a minor influence on crack development. This was ascribed to the fact that prolonged curing has a beneficial effect on tensile strength at the onset of stress development, but is in the same time not beneficial to the values of tensile relaxation and elastic modulus. -- Highlights: •Parameter study on material characteristics influencing overlay cracking. •Analytical model gives good quantitative indication of overlay cracking. •Ring test presents good qualitative indication of overlay cracking. •Curing duration has little effect on overlay cracking.

  1. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member’s departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution. PMID:26562152

  2. Mix-and-match overlay performance of the NSR-S622D immersion scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Katsushi; Kikuchi, Takahisa; Sasamoto, Satoru; Hongki, Park; Mori, Akiko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Wakamoto, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    Current technology nodes, as well as subsequent generations necessitate ongoing improvements to the mix-and-match overlay (MMO) capabilities of lithography scanners. This work will introduce newly developed scanner solutions to address this requirement, and performance data from the latest generation immersion scanner, the NSR-S622D, will be introduced. Enhanced MMO accuracy is imperative for the 22 nm half-pitch and future technology nodes. In order for the matched overlay accuracy to approach single machine overlay (SMO) capabilities, MMO errors must be reduced further. The dominant MMO error sources can be divided into three main areas: SMO, lens distortion matching and wafer grid matching. Nikon continues to decrease these matching error contributors over time, and the latest generation NSRS622D immersion scanner provides a number of innovative solutions to satisfy the most demanding overlay matching requirements ; as a result MMO performance within 3nm is achieved on S622D. Moreover, overlay master system is developed for further product overlay accuracy and stability improvement.

  3. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution. PMID:26562152

  4. Application Oriented Flow Routing Algorithm for VoIP Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wipusitwarakun, Komwut; Chimmanee, Sanon

    Overlay networks which are dynamically created over underlying IP networks are becoming widely used for delivering multimedia contents since they can provide several additional user-definable services. Multiple overlay paths between a source-destination overlay node pair are designed to improve service robustness against failures and bandwidth fluctuation of the underlying networks. Multimedia traffic can be distributed over those multiple paths in order to maximize paths' utilization and to increase application throughputs. Most of flow-based routing algorithms consider only common metrics such as paths' bandwidth or delay, which may be effective for data applications but not for real-time applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP), in which different levels of such performance metrics may give the same level of the performance experienced by end users. This paper focuses on such VoIP overlay networks and proposes a novel alternative path based flow routing algorithm using an application-specific traffic metric, i.e. “VoIP Path Capacity (VPCap), ” to calculate the maximum number of QoS satisfied VoIP flows which may be distributed over each available overlay path at a moment. The simulation results proved that more QoS-satisfied VoIP sessions can be established over the same multiple overlay paths, comparing to traditional approaches.

  5. Geospatial Method for Computing Supplemental Multi-Decadal U.S. Coastal Land-Use and Land-Cover Classification Products, Using Landsat Data and C-CAP Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, J. P.; Smoot, James; Ellis, Jean; Hilbert, Kent; Swann, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and implementation of a geospatial data processing method and multi-decadal Landsat time series for computing general coastal U.S. land-use and land-cover (LULC) classifications and change products consisting of seven classes (water, barren, upland herbaceous, non-woody wetland, woody upland, woody wetland, and urban). Use of this approach extends the observational period of the NOAA-generated Coastal Change and Analysis Program (C-CAP) products by almost two decades, assuming the availability of one cloud free Landsat scene from any season for each targeted year. The Mobile Bay region in Alabama was used as a study area to develop, demonstrate, and validate the method that was applied to derive LULC products for nine dates at approximate five year intervals across a 34-year time span, using single dates of data for each classification in which forests were either leaf-on, leaf-off, or mixed senescent conditions. Classifications were computed and refined using decision rules in conjunction with unsupervised classification of Landsat data and C-CAP value-added products. Each classification's overall accuracy was assessed by comparing stratified random locations to available reference data, including higher spatial resolution satellite and aerial imagery, field survey data, and raw Landsat RGBs. Overall classification accuracies ranged from 83 to 91% with overall Kappa statistics ranging from 0.78 to 0.89. The accuracies are comparable to those from similar, generalized LULC products derived from C-CAP data. The Landsat MSS-based LULC product accuracies are similar to those from Landsat TM or ETM+ data. Accurate classifications were computed for all nine dates, yielding effective results regardless of season. This classification method yielded products that were used to compute LULC change products via additive GIS overlay techniques.

  6. Improving overlay control through proper use of multilevel query APC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Timothy H.; Carlson, Alan; Crow, David A.

    2003-06-01

    Many state-of-the-art fabs are operating with increasingly diversified product mixes. For example, at Cypress Semiconductor, it is not unusual to be concurrently running multiple technologies and many devices within each technology. This diverse product mix significantly increases the difficulty of manually controlling overlay process corrections. As a result, automated run-to-run feedforward-feedback control has become a necessary and vital component of manufacturing. However, traditional run-to-run controllers rely on highly correlated historical events to forecast process corrections. For example, the historical process events typically are constrained to match the current event for exposure tool, device, process level and reticle ID. This narrowly defined process stream can result in insufficient data when applied to lowvolume or new-release devices. The run-to-run controller implemented at Cypress utilizes a multi-level query (Level-N) correlation algorithm, where each subsequent level widens the search criteria for available historical data. The paper discusses how best to widen the search criteria and how to determine and apply a known bias to account for tool-to-tool and device-to-device differences. Specific applications include offloading lots from one tool to another when the first tool is down for preventive maintenance, utilizing related devices to determine a default feedback vector for new-release devices, and applying bias values to account for known reticle-to-reticle differences. In this study, we will show how historical data can be leveraged from related devices or tools to overcome the limitations of narrow process streams. In particular, this paper discusses how effectively handling narrow process streams allows Cypress to offload lots from a baseline tool to an alternate tool.

  7. LANDSAT-1 and Landsat-2 flight evaluation report, 23 October 1976 to 23 January 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Performance analyses for LANDSAT 1 and 2, launched respectively in 1972 and 1975, are reported. Operational controls are evaluated, as well as orbital parameters and various subsystems. Both satellites continue to perform their missions normally, in spite of past minor operational malfunctions.

  8. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report, 23 July - 23 October 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The LANDSAT-1 spacecraft was launched from the Western Test Range on 23 July 1972, at 18:08:06.508Z. The launch and orbital injection phase of the space flight was nominal, and deployment of the spacecraft followed predictions. Performance evaluation of the spacecraft is presented.

  9. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1 October - 31 October 1977. [LANDSAT imagery for Oktober 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U. S. standard catalog lists U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  10. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report, 23 January - 23 April 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The LANDSAT operations from launch through orbital instrument observations are reviewed. Orbital parameters, power subsystem, attitude control subsystem, and command/clock subsystem are discussed. Other subsystems are also considered, such as telemetry, orbit adjust, electrical interface, thermal, wideband telemetry, multispectral scanner, and data collection.

  11. LANDSAT Non-US standard catalog, 1-31 December 1975. [LANDSAT imagery for December 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  12. LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog. [LANDSAT imagery for August 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The non-U. S. Standard Catalog lists non-U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  13. Toward multidisciplinary use of LANDSAT: Interfacing computerized LANDSAT analysis systems with geographic information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The LANDSAT-geographic information system (GIS) interface must summarize the results of the LANDSAT classification over the same cells that serve as geographic referencing units for the GIS, and output these summaries on a cell-by-cell basis in a form that is readable by the input routines of the GIS. The ZONAL interface for cell-oriented systems consists of two primary programs. The PIXCEL program scans the grid of cells and outputs a channel of pixels. Each pixel contains not the reflectance values but the identifier of the cell in which the center of the pixel is located. This file of pixelized cells along with the results of a pixel-by-pixel classification of the scene produced by the LANDSAT analysis system are input to the CELSUM program which then outputs a cell-by-cell summary formatted according to the requirements of the host GIS. Cross-correlation of the LANDSAT layer with the other layers in the data base is accomplished with the analysis and display facilities of the GIS.

  14. Generating Daily Synthetic Landsat Imagery by Combining Landsat and MODIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingquan; Huang, Wenjiang; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Changyao

    2015-01-01

    Owing to low temporal resolution and cloud interference, there is a shortage of high spatial resolution remote sensing data. To address this problem, this study introduces a modified spatial and temporal data fusion approach (MSTDFA) to generate daily synthetic Landsat imagery. This algorithm was designed to avoid the limitations of the conditional spatial temporal data fusion approach (STDFA) including the constant window for disaggregation and the sensor difference. An adaptive window size selection method is proposed in this study to select the best window size and moving steps for the disaggregation of coarse pixels. The linear regression method is used to remove the influence of differences in sensor systems using disaggregated mean coarse reflectance by testing and validation in two study areas located in Xinjiang Province, China. The results show that the MSTDFA algorithm can generate daily synthetic Landsat imagery with a high correlation coefficient (R) ranged from 0.646 to 0.986 between synthetic images and the actual observations. We further show that MSTDFA can be applied to 250 m 16-day MODIS MOD13Q1 products and the Landsat Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI) data by generating a synthetic NDVI image highly similar to actual Landsat NDVI observation with a high R of 0.97. PMID:26393607

  15. Generating Daily Synthetic Landsat Imagery by Combining Landsat and MODIS Data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingquan; Huang, Wenjiang; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Changyao

    2015-01-01

    Owing to low temporal resolution and cloud interference, there is a shortage of high spatial resolution remote sensing data. To address this problem, this study introduces a modified spatial and temporal data fusion approach (MSTDFA) to generate daily synthetic Landsat imagery. This algorithm was designed to avoid the limitations of the conditional spatial temporal data fusion approach (STDFA) including the constant window for disaggregation and the sensor difference. An adaptive window size selection method is proposed in this study to select the best window size and moving steps for the disaggregation of coarse pixels. The linear regression method is used to remove the influence of differences in sensor systems using disaggregated mean coarse reflectance by testing and validation in two study areas located in Xinjiang Province, China. The results show that the MSTDFA algorithm can generate daily synthetic Landsat imagery with a high correlation coefficient (R) ranged from 0.646 to 0.986 between synthetic images and the actual observations. We further show that MSTDFA can be applied to 250 m 16-day MODIS MOD13Q1 products and the Landsat Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI) data by generating a synthetic NDVI image highly similar to actual Landsat NDVI observation with a high R of 0.97. PMID:26393607

  16. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 September 1977. [LANDSAT imagery for September, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U. S. Standard Catalog lists U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover, and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  17. Landsat: The Backbone for Mapping and Monitoring Global Ecological Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveland, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Long-term ecological monitoring requires consistent observation of key variables, long-term measurement continuity, and open and affordable access to measurements. The Landsat series of Earth observation missions uniquely meet those criteria, and Landsat's 30m-observation scale permits the detection and differentiation of natural versus human-caused land change. Landsat is the longest and most comprehensive record of the state of the global land surface in existence. No other high-resolution satellite program is either capable or committed to the systematic monitoring of global scale human and natural land change. Beginning with Landsat 1 in 1972, six Landsat missions have continuously recorded images of the Earth. As we near the fortieth anniversary of Landsat, we now have an archive of millions of repetitive images of the Earth with multispectral properties suited to assessing both biotic and abiotic conditions and at a scale appropriate for resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Landsat archive contains nearly three million scenes and all are available to users at no cost. Furthermore, the entire Landsat record, Landsats 1-7, is now calibrated to a common radiometric standard and the majority of the data are orthorectified - enabling immediate assessment of long-term ecological conditions and land change. Landsats 5 and 7 continue to collect imagery and together they provide the potential to cover a significant portion of the Earth's land surfaces every eight days. Both of these missions now use a long-term acquisition plan designed to improve the collection of seasonal global coverage. Furthermore, recent agreements with international Landsat receiving stations are bringing previously inaccessible contemporary Landsat 5 data into the EROS archive. The amount of global coverage being acquired annually is the highest level in the history of the Landsat program. The EROS global historical archive is

  18. A definitive calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper anchored to the Landsat-7 radiometric scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; Ruggles, T.A.; Landry, R.; Ahern, F.J.; Higgs, N.J.; Barsi, J.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Thome, K.J.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, Frank Don

    2004-01-01

    A coordinated effort on the part of several agencies has led to the specification of a definitive radiometric calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) for its lifetime since launch in 1984. The time-dependent calibration record for Landsat-5 TM has been placed on the same radiometric scale as the Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+). It has been implemented in the National Landsat Archive Production Systems (NLAPS) in use in North America. This paper documents the results of this collaborative effort and the specifications for the related calibration processing algorithms. The specifications include (i) anchoring of the Landsat-5 TM calibration record to the Landsat-7 ETM+ absolute radiometric calibration, (ii) new time-dependent calibration processing equations and procedures applicable to raw Landsat-5 TM data, and (iii) algorithms for recalibration computations applicable to some of the existing processed datasets in the North American context. The cross-calibration between Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ was achieved using image pairs from the tandem-orbit configuration period that was programmed early in the Laridsat-7 mission. The time-dependent calibration for Landsat-5 TM is based on a detailed trend analysis of data from the on-board internal calibrator. The new lifetime radiometric calibration record for Landsat-5 will overcome problems with earlier product generation owing to inadequate maintenance and documentation of the calibration over time and will facilitate the quantitative examination of a continuous, near-global dataset at 30-m scale that spans almost two decades.

  19. Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, R. H.; Potter, C. S.; Blinn, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path/row 14/35, 21/37, and 16/34 are being used. Within each frame, all available cloud-free scenes within a two- to three-year period have been obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center processed to L1T, and subsequently converted to top-of-atmosphere reflectance using standard methods and the latest calibration parameter files. Atmospheric amelioration started with dark object subtraction (band minimum) and only proceeded to more complex techniques as necessary. Subsequent to preprocessing, the reduced simple ratio (RSR; using global min/max) was calculated for all images for each WRS path/row. Pure pine pixels in each frame were identified using unsupervised classification of the most recent leaf-off scene. We developed four age classes using two decades of Landsat data over each WRS path/row. CASA runs, which require soil parameters, and gridded climate/solar radiation in addition to satellite-derived vegetation indices, are now complete. Soil respiration and productivity estimates are being evaluated using a regionwide network of validation sites spanning the range of loblolly pine (Texas to Virginia). Preliminary results indicate that Landsat-based process modeling (1) is necessary for the scale at which land is actually managed and (2) produces estimates with an accuracy and precision affording improved understanding and management of forest ecosystems.

  20. LANDSAT-4 World Reference System (WRS) users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A functional description of the new LANDSAT-4 World Reference System (WRS) with an overview of the main orbital parameters and instrument coverages is presented to provide the data user with the primary information required to understand LANDSAT-4 orbital characteristics, to effectively use the WRS indexing scheme, and to request specific geographic coverage on the desired observation dates.

  1. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 November 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which las been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  2. Analyzing remote sensing data in R: the landsat package

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research and development on atmospheric and topographic correction methods for multispectral satellite data such as Landsat images has far outpaced the availability of those methods in Geographic Information Systems software. As Landsat and other data become more widely available, demand for these i...

  3. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-31 May 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. standard catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  4. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-31 March 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  5. LANDSAT 1 cumulative US standard catalog, 1976/1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The LANDSAT 1 U.S. Cumulative Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced year. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

  6. LANDSAT: US standard catalog, 1-29 February 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  7. LANDSAT 2 cumulative non-US standard catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referred month. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  8. Excerpts from selected LANDSAT 1 final reports in geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.; Smith, A.; Baker, R.

    1976-01-01

    The standard formats for the summaries of selected LANDSAT geological data are presented as checklists. These include: (1) value of LANDSAT data to geology, (2) geologic benefits, (3) follow up studies, (4) cost benefits, (5) optimistic working scales, (6) statistical analysis, and (7) enhancement effects.

  9. Sharpening landsat 8 thermal imagery for field scale ET mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing provides valuable information for mapping land surface energy flux and evapotranspiration (ET). Landsat 8 carries a TIR instrument with two thermal bands that can provide a more accurate estimate of land surface temperature (LST) than prior landsat satellites. H...

  10. Improved forest change detection with terrain illumination corrected landsat images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An illumination correction algorithm has been developed to improve the accuracy of forest change detection from Landsat reflectance data. This algorithm is based on an empirical rotation model and was tested on the Landsat imagery pair over Cherokee National Forest, Tennessee, Uinta-Wasatch-Cache N...

  11. Pollution solution. From the Landsat -- a satellite for all seasons

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The video shows how Landsat`s remote sensing capabilities can aid in resolving environmental quality problems. The satellite can locate and monitor strip mining operations to facilitate land reclamation programs. The satellite helps solve some meteorological mysteries by taking the path of airborne pollution. It can also monitor the course of industrial wastes and garbage dumped into lakes, rivers, and coastal areas.

  12. California coastal processes study, LANDSAT 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The authors have identified the following significant results. By using suspended sediments as tracers, objectives were met by qualitative definition of the nearshore circulation along the entire coast of California with special study sites at Humboldt Bay, the mouth of the Russian River, San Francisco Bay, Monterey Bay, and the Santa Barbara Channel. Although LANDSAT primarily imaged fines and silts in the surface waters, the distribution of sediments allowed an examination of upwelling, convergences and coastal erosion and deposition. In Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, these coastal phenomena were used to trace seasonal trends in surface currents.

  13. Investigations using data from LANDSAT-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT imageries of Mirpur area of Dacca district were used in connection with surveys for black plastic clay. The imageries showed the broad pattern of small valleys cutting into Madhupur clay. Land use maps of Haor areas of Sylhet and Mymensingh districts were prepared. As a test case, two thana areas, namely Nickley and Astogram, were classified in different categories such as crop, settlement, and water. It does not show much agreement with the Agriculture Dept.'s statistics.

  14. Lake water quality mapping from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The lakes in three LANDSAT scenes were mapped by the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. Field checking the maps by three separate individuals revealed approximately 90-95% correct classification for the lake categories selected. Variations between observers was about 5%. From the MDAS color coded maps the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. This lake was closely checked and a pollution source of 100 cows was found in the springs which fed this lake. The theory, lab work and field work which made it possible for this demonstration project to be a practical lake classification procedure are presented.

  15. Ground data handling for LANDSAT-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The present plans for the LANDSAT D ground data handling are described in relationship to the mission objectives and the planned spacecraft system. The end to end data system is presented with particular emphasis on the data handling plans for the new instrument, the Thematic Mapper. This instrument generates ten times the amount of data per scene as the present Multispectral Scanner, and this resulting data rate and volume are discussed as well as possible new data techniques to handle them such as image compression.

  16. State recommendations on approaches to LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bay, S. M.; Wubker, P.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of continuing the LANDSAT program is contingent upon the success of the technology transfer process to state and local governments. The focus of these concerns can be generally expressed in terms of these issue areas: (1) user needs, in terms of awareness, technical capabilities, and training; (2) product availability and pricing; and (3) roles and communication links, in terms of federal and state governments, the private sector, and the universities. The perspective of the states on these issues are classified. Where possible, alternative strategies for accomplishing the satellite technology transfer for effective state implementation are suggested. Those suggestions are based on the recommendations offered by the state and local user community.

  17. Plume dispersion investigated by landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desiato, F.; Ciminelli, M. G.

    Suspended particulate in the atmosphere may be detected by satellite sensors due to scattered radiation. A number of LANDSAT TM images presenting the evidence of the pollutant plumes emitted at the stack of the electric power plants located at two Italian coastal sites, dispersing mainly over the sea surface, have been selected. The satellite data of Band 1 of the visible channel have been elaborated to estimate the lateral dispersion as a function of the travel time. The results show the presence of an accelerated diffusion regime at a rate slower than the one predicted by the relative diffusion theory.

  18. Landsat - What is operational in water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Munday, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of Landsat data in hydrology and water quality measurement were examined to determine which applications are operational. In hydrology, the principal applications have been surface water inventory, and land cover analysis for (1) runoff modeling and (2) abatement planning for non-point pollution and erosion. In water quality measurement, the principal applications have been: (1) trophic state assessment, and (2) measurement of turbidity and suspended sediment. The following applications were found to be operational: mapping of surface water, snow cover, and land cover (USGS Level 1) for watershed applications; measurement of turbidity, Secchi disk depth, suspended sediment concentration, and water depth.

  19. Operational alternatives for LANDSAT in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, P.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Data integration is defined and examined as the means of promoting data sharing among the various governmental and private geobased information systems in California. Elements of vertical integration considered included technical factors (such as resolution and classification) and institutional factors (such as organizational control, and legal and political barriers). Attempts are made to fit the theoretical elements of vertical integration into a meaningful structure for looking at the problem from a statewide focus. Both manual (mapped) and machine readable data systems are included. Special attention is given to LANDSAT imagery because of its strong potential for integrated use and its primary in the California Integrated Remote Sensing System program.

  20. Multidate Landsat lake quality monitoring program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, L. T.; Scarpace, F. L.; Thomsen, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    A unified package of files and programs has been developed to automate the multidate Landsat-derived analyses of water quality for about 3000 inland lakes throughout Wisconsin. A master lakes file which stores geographic information on the lakes, a file giving the latitudes and longitudes of control points for scene navigation, and a program to estimate control point locations and produce microfiche character maps for scene navigation are among the files and programs of the system. The use of ground coordinate systems to isolate irregular shaped areas which can be accessed at will appears to provide an economical means of restricting the size of the data set.

  1. LANDSAT-4 band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The radiometric integrity of the LANDSAT-D thematic mapper (TM) thermal infrared channel (band 6) data was evaluated to develop improved radiometric preprocessing calibration techniques for removal of atmospheric effects. Primary data analysis was spent in evaluating the line to line and detector to detector variation in the thermal infrared data. The data studied was in the core area of Lake Ontario where very stable temperatures were expected. The detectors and the scan direction were taken as separate parameters and an analysis of variance was conducted. The data indicate that significant variability exists both between detectors and between scan directions.

  2. Monitoring wetlands change using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    A wetlands monitoring study was initiated as part of Delaware's LANDSAT applications demonstration project. Classifications of digital data are conducted in an effort to determine the location and acreage of wetlands loss or gain, species conversion, and application for the inventory and typing of freshwater wetlands. A multi-seasonal approach is employed to compare data from two different years. Unsupervised classifications were conducted for two of the four dates examined. Initial results indicate the multi-seasonal approach allows much better separation of wetland types for both tidal and non-tidal wetlands than either season alone. Change detection is possible but generally misses the small acreages now impacted by man.

  3. Landsat 7 Solar Array Testing Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfrich, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This paper covers the extensive Landsat 7 solar array flight qualification testing effort. Details of the mechanical design of the solar array and its retention/release system are presented. A testing chronology is provided beginning with the onset of problems encountered at the subsystem level and carrying through the third and final powered-spacecraft ground deployment test. Design fixes and other changes are explained in the same order as they became necessary to flight-qualify the array. Some interesting lessons learned are included along with key references.

  4. Monitoring surface albedo change with Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.

    1977-01-01

    A pronounced decrease of the surface albedo (reflectivity) has been observed in an area in the Northern Sinai, fenced-in in the summer of 1974. Analysis of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner System digital data from an April 1977 pass indicates a reduction in the albedo in the exclosure by 13%, as compared to the outside, which continues to be subjected to overgrazing and anthropogenic pressures. The reduction of reflectivity is approximately the same in all the spectral bands, and is therefore attributable to accumulation of dead plants and plant debris, and not directly to live vegetation.

  5. Barrier Island Shorelines Extracted from Landsat Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-01-01

    The shoreline is a common variable used as a metric for coastal erosion or change (Himmelstoss and others, 2010). Although shorelines are often extracted from topographic data (for example, ground-based surveys and light detection and ranging [lidar]), image-based shorelines, corrected for their inherent uncertainties (Moore and others, 2006), have provided much of our understanding of long-term shoreline change because they pre-date routine lidar elevation survey methods. Image-based shorelines continue to be valuable because of their higher temporal resolution compared to costly airborne lidar surveys. A method for extracting sandy shorelines from 30-meter (m) resolution Landsat imagery is presented here.

  6. Landsat observations of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, C. G.; Bly, B. G.

    1981-01-01

    The eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, and subsequent destruction of approximately 593 square kilometers (229 square miles) of vegetation, clearly provided a unique opportunity for earth-oriented satellite remote sensing systems. Landsat, a relatively high resolution Multispectral Scanner (MSS) system, imaged Mount St. Helens both before and after its major eruption. Digital data have been used to create a damage assessment map and a change detection image. Several classes of timber damage and land cover modification have been developed. Acreages for each class have been tabulated.

  7. Lake water quality mapping from Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In the project described remote sensing was used to check the quality of lake waters. The lakes of three Landsat scenes were mapped with the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. From the MDAS color coded maps, the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. The lake was closely checked, and the presence of 100 cows in the springs which fed the lake could be identified as the pollution source. The laboratory and field work involved in the lake classification project is described.

  8. Landsat-based estimation of California's irrigated land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. L.; Brown, C. E.; Thomas, R. W.; Erikkson, M.

    1981-01-01

    The procedure developed uses two-phase sampling, stratification and multidate Landsat imagery to produce the estimate. Maximizing the advantages of both spectral data and field patterns available from Landsat, three dates of Landsat imagery are interpreted to provide county-wide estimates of the proportion of land irrigated. Ground data, collected on a subset of the area interpreted on Landsat, are used to calibrate the satellite estimate. The satellite and ground measurements are reduced to proportion data and linked using a regression estimator to produce the estimate of irrigated land. It is estimated that 3.99 million hectares were irrigated with a relative standard error of + or - 1.18% at the 99% confidence level. Acreage tabulations provided by the Department of Water Resources show that the Landsat-based estimate differed by less than 0.4% at the state level.

  9. Spectral characterization of the Landsat-4 MSS sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Two multispectral scanner subsystems (MSS) have been fabricated and tested by an American aerospace company for the NASA Landsat program. One MSS, designated the protoflight (PF) model, was integrated into the Landsat-4 spacecraft, which was launched on July 16, 1982. The second, designated the flight (F) model, has been integrated into the Landsat-4 backup satellite, which is scheduled for possible launch in 1985. Each MSS has four bands in the reflective portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The engineering test data which were collected included channel-by-channel spectral response curves. A description of the test procedure is included in Appendix A. This document is to make available to the Landsat user community data on the spectral characteristics of the two sensors. The Landsat-4 PF and F scanners were found to be essentially identical in mean spectral response.

  10. Manual versus digital Landsat analysis for delineating river flooding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipson, W. R.; Hafker, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that flood boundary information derived from Landsat images, acquired at different flood stages, could be used to develop an empirical model for estimating the extent of flooding on the basis of in situ measurements of river discharge. An investigation was undertaken to determine whether improved results might have been obtained through digital image analysis or by including other Landsat spectral bands. The study area encompasses a highly flood-prone reach of the Black River in Lewis County, NY. It was found that visual analysis of aerial photographs and a Landsat band 7 image gave similar results. Visual and digital analysis of Landsat band 7 data gave similar results, and digital analysis of Landsat band 7 data gave results which were at least as good as digital analysis of combinations of spectral bands.

  11. Improved LANDSAT to give better view of earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The launch data of LANDSAT 3 is announced. The improved capability of the spacecrafts' remote sensors (the return beam vidicon and the multispectral scanner) and application of LANDSAT data to the study of energy supplies, food production, and global large-scale environmental monitoring are discussed along with the piggyback amateur radio communication satellite-OSCAR-D, the plasma Interaction Experiment, and the data collection system onboard LANDSAT 3. An assessment of the utility of LANDSAT multispectral data is given based on the research results to data from studies of LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. Areas studied include agriculture, rangelands, forestry, water resources, environmental and marine resources, environmental and marine resources, cartography, land use, demography, and geological surveys and mineral/petroleum exploration.

  12. Landsat continuity: Issues and opportunities for land cover monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Goward, S.N.; Masek, J.G.; Irons, J.R.; Herold, M.; Cohen, W.B.; Loveland, T.R.; Woodcock, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Initiated in 1972, the Landsat program has provided a continuous record of earth observation for 35??years. The assemblage of Landsat spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, over a reasonably sized image extent, results in imagery that can be processed to represent land cover over large areas with an amount of spatial detail that is absolutely unique and indispensable for monitoring, management, and scientific activities. Recent technical problems with the two existing Landsat satellites, and delays in the development and launch of a successor, increase the likelihood that a gap in Landsat continuity may occur. In this communication, we identify the key features of the Landsat program that have resulted in the extensive use of Landsat data for large area land cover mapping and monitoring. We then augment this list of key features by examining the data needs of existing large area land cover monitoring programs. Subsequently, we use this list as a basis for reviewing the current constellation of earth observation satellites to identify potential alternative data sources for large area land cover applications. Notions of a virtual constellation of satellites to meet large area land cover mapping and monitoring needs are also presented. Finally, research priorities that would facilitate the integration of these alternative data sources into existing large area land cover monitoring programs are identified. Continuity of the Landsat program and the measurements provided are critical for scientific, environmental, economic, and social purposes. It is difficult to overstate the importance of Landsat; there are no other systems in orbit, or planned for launch in the short-term, that can duplicate or approach replication, of the measurements and information conferred by Landsat. While technical and political options are being pursued, there is no satellite image data stream poised to enter the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive should system failures

  13. LANDSAT: US standard catalog, 1 February 1977 - 28 February 1977. [LANDSAT imagery for the month of February 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  14. LANDSAT non-U.S. standard catalog, 1 January 1977 through 31 January 1977. [LANDSAT imagery January 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which was processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover, and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  15. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1994-10-26

    Research is presently being conducted to develop a criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in Circulated Fluidized Beds. Initially, eleven weld overlay alloys were selected for erosion testing based upon a literature review. All eleven coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400 C and their erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. In addition, the microstructure of each coating was characterized before and after the erosion tests. No correlations were found between room temperature hardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature. It was suggested that weld overlays mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates may contributed to their erosion resistance. During the previous two quarters the microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples in order to determine the size of the work hardened zone and the change in the coatings hardness due to erosion. As a result of these measurements it was established that one group of coatings deformed plastically, while another did not. In addition, the measurements of the weld overlays microhardness at 400 C were made. The coatings microhardness at 400 C was plotted versus their volume erosion rates. During the last quarter, erosion tests were performed for Inconel-625, 316L SS, and Iron-Aluminide wrought alloys in order to compare their erosion behavior with similar weld overlays. The results of microhardness profile measurements for all weld overlay coatings were analyzed. The factors that contribute to the erosion resistance of the coatings that deformed plastically are discussed in this progress report.

  16. Evaluation of Tizian overlays by means of a swept source optical coherence tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Stoica, Eniko Tunde; Topala, Florin; Duma, Virgil Florin; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    The teeth affected by pathologic attrition can be restored by a minimally invasive approach, using Tizian overlays. In this study we prove the advantages of a fast swept source (SS) OCT system in the evaluation of Tizian overlays placed in an environment characterized by high occlusal forces. 12 maxillary first premolars were extracted and prepared for overlays. The Tizian overlays were subjected to 3000 alternating cycles of thermo-cycling (from -10°C to +50°C) and to mechanical occlusal overloads (at 800 N). A fast SS OCT system was used to evaluate the Tizian overlays before and after the mechanical and thermal straining. The SS (Axsun Technologies, Billerica, MA) has a central wavelength of 1060 nm, sweeping range of 106 nm (quoted at 10 dB) and a 100 kHz line rate. The depth resolution of the system, measured experimentally in air was 10 μm. The imaging system used for this study offers high spatial resolutions in both directions, transversal and longitudinal of around 10 μm, a high sensitivity, and it is also able to acquire entire tridimensional (3D)/volume reconstructions as fast as 2.5 s. Once the full dataset was acquired, rendered high resolutions en-face projections could be produced. Using them, the overlay (i.e., cement) abutment tooth interfaces were remarked both on B-scans/two-dimensional (2D) sections and in the 3D reconstructions. Using the system several open interfaces were possible to detect. The fast SS OCT system thus proves useful in the evaluation of zirconia reinforced composite overlays, placed in an environment characterized by high occlusal forces.

  17. Progress Towards a 2012 Landsat Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, Jim; Sabelhaus, Phil; Masek, Jeff; Cook, Bruce; Dabney, Phil; Loveland, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is on schedule for a December 2012 launch date. The mission is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). NASA leads the development and launch of the satellite observatory while leads ground system development. USGS will assume responsibility for operating the satellite and for collecting, archiving, and distributing the LDCM data following launch. When launched the satellite will carry two sensors into orbit. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will coincidently collect data for two thermal infrared bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it?s manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The ground data processing system is in development at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite system, provide the status of system development, and present prelaunch performance data for OLI and TIRS. The USGS has committed to renaming the satellite as Landsat 8 following launch.

  18. Landsat-5 bumper-mode geometric correction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, J.C.; Choate, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scan mirror was switched from its primary operating mode to a backup mode in early 2002 in order to overcome internal synchronization problems arising from long-term wear of the scan mirror mechanism. The backup bumper mode of operation removes the constraints on scan start and stop angles enforced in the primary scan angle monitor operating mode, requiring additional geometric calibration effort to monitor the active scan angles. It also eliminates scan timing telemetry used to correct the TM scan geometry. These differences require changes to the geometric correction algorithms used to process TM data. A mathematical model of the scan mirror's behavior when operating in bumper mode was developed. This model includes a set of key timing parameters that characterize the time-varying behavior of the scan mirror bumpers. To simplify the implementation of the bumper-mode model, the bumper timing parameters were recast in terms of the calibration and telemetry data items used to process normal TM imagery. The resulting geometric performance, evaluated over 18 months of bumper-mode operations, though slightly reduced from that achievable in the primary operating mode, is still within the Landsat specifications when the data are processed with the most up-to-date calibration parameters.

  19. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  20. Stochastic nature of Landsat MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Masuoka, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    A multiple series generalization of the ARIMA models is used to model Landsat MSS scan lines as sequences of vectors, each vector having four elements (bands). The purpose of this work is to investigate if Landsat scan lines can be described by a general multiple series linear stochastic model and if the coefficients of such a model vary as a function of satellite system and target attributes. To accomplish this objective, an exploratory experimental design was set up incorporating six factors, four representing target attributes - location, cloud cover, row (within location), and column (within location) - and two factors representing system attributes - satellite number and detector bank. Each factor was included in the design at two levels and, with two replicates per treatment, 128 scan lines were analyzed. The results of the analysis suggests that a multiple AR(4) model is an adequate representation across all scan lines. Furthermore, the coefficients of the AR(4) model vary with location, particularly changes in physiography (slope regimes), and with percent cloud cover, but are insensitive to changes in system attributes.

  1. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Mullins, J.; Binnie, D.; Paulsen, S.J.; Granneman, B.; Gorodetzky, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) is the first true-color, high-spatial-resolution image of the seventh continent. It is constructed from nearly 1100 individually selected Landsat-7 ETM+ scenes. Each image was orthorectified and adjusted for geometric, sensor and illumination variations to a standardized, almost seamless surface reflectance product. Mosaicing to avoid clouds produced a high quality, nearly cloud-free benchmark data set of Antarctica for the International Polar Year from images collected primarily during 1999-2003. Multiple color composites and enhancements were generated to illustrate additional characteristics of the multispectral data including: the true appearance of the surface; discrimination between snow and bare ice; reflectance variations within bright snow; recovered reflectance values in regions of sensor saturation; and subtle topographic variations associated with ice flow. LIMA is viewable and individual scenes or user defined portions of the mosaic are downloadable at http://lima.usgs.gov. Educational materials associated with LIMA are available at http://lima.nasa.gov.

  2. Soil Salinity Mapping Using Multitemporal Landsat Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azabdaftari, A.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most important problems affecting many areas of the world. Saline soils present in agricultural areas reduce the annual yields of most crops. This research deals with the soil salinity mapping of Seyhan plate of Adana district in Turkey from the years 2009 to 2010, using remote sensing technology. In the analysis, multitemporal data acquired from LANDSAT 7-ETM+ satellite in four different dates (19 April 2009, 12 October 2009, 21 March 2010, 31 October 2010) are used. As a first step, preprocessing of Landsat images is applied. Several salinity indices such as NDSI (Normalized Difference Salinity Index), BI (Brightness Index) and SI (Salinity Index) are used besides some vegetation indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index), SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhamced Vegetation Index) for the soil salinity mapping of the study area. The field's electrical conductivity (EC) measurements done in 2009 and 2010, are used as a ground truth data for the correlation analysis with the original band values and different index image bands values. In the correlation analysis, two regression models, the simple linear regression (SLR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) are considered. According to the highest correlation obtained, the 21st March, 2010 dataset is chosen for production of the soil salinity map in the area. Finally, the efficiency of the remote sensing technology in the soil salinity mapping is outlined.

  3. LANDSAT-D investigations in snow hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J. (Principal Investigator); Davis, R. E.; Dubayah, R. O.; Frew, J. E.; Li, S.; Marks, D.; Milliff, R. F.; Rousseau, D. D.; Wan, Z. M.

    1985-01-01

    Work undertaken during the contract and its results are described. Many of the results from this investigation are available in journal or conference proceedings literature - published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. For these the reference and the abstract are given. Those results that have not yet been submitted separately for publication are described in detail. Accomplishments during the contract period are summarized as follows: (1) analysis of the snow reflectance characteristics of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper, including spectral suitability, dynamic range, and spectral resolution; (2) development of a variety of atmospheric models for use with LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data. These include a simple but fast two-stream approximation for inhomogeneous atmospheres over irregular surfaces, and a doubling model for calculation of the angular distribution of spectral radiance at any level in an plane-parallel atmosphere; (3) incorporation of digital elevation data into the atmospheric models and into the analysis of the satellite data; and (4) textural analysis of the spatial distribution of snow cover.

  4. Digital techniques for processing Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the basic techniques used to process Landsat images with a digital computer, and the VICAR image processing software developed at JPL and available to users through the NASA sponsored COSMIC computer program distribution center is presented. Examples of subjective processing performed to improve the information display for the human observer, such as contrast enhancement, pseudocolor display and band rationing, and of quantitative processing using mathematical models, such as classification based on multispectral signatures of different areas within a given scene and geometric transformation of imagery into standard mapping projections are given. Examples are illustrated by Landsat scenes of the Andes mountains and Altyn-Tagh fault zone in China before and after contrast enhancement and classification of land use in Portland, Oregon. The VICAR image processing software system which consists of a language translator that simplifies execution of image processing programs and provides a general purpose format so that imagery from a variety of sources can be processed by the same basic set of general applications programs is described.

  5. Landsat image registration for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Juday, R. D.; Wacker, A. G.; Kaneko, T.

    1982-01-01

    An image registration system has been developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to spatially align multi-temporal Landsat acquisitions for use in agriculture and forestry research. Working in conjunction with the Master Data Processor (MDP) at the Goddard Space Flight Center, it functionally replaces the long-standing LACIE Registration Processor as JSC's data supplier. The system represents an expansion of the techniques developed for the MDP and LACIE Registration Processor, and it utilizes the experience gained in an IBM/JSC effort evaluating the performance of the latter. These techniques are discussed in detail. Several tests were developed to evaluate the registration performance of the system. The results indicate that 1/15-pixel accuracy (about 4m for Landsat MSS) is achievable in ideal circumstances, sub-pixel accuracy (often to 0.2 pixel or better) was attained on a representative set of U.S. acquisitions, and a success rate commensurate with the LACIE Registration Processor was realized. The system has been employed in a production mode on U.S. and foreign data, and a performance similar to the earlier tests has been noted.

  6. Asphalt overlay design methods for rigid pavements considering rutting, reflection cracking, and fatigue cracking. Research report September 1996--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.H.; Liu, C.; Dossey, T.; McCullough, B.F.

    1998-10-01

    An asphalt concrete pavement (ACP) overlay over a rigid pavement represents a viable rehabilitation strategy. It can provide good serviceability at an initial construction cost that is substantially less than that of a rigid overlay rehabilitation. In addition, ACP overlays require less construction time, which can reduce user costs during construction. However, it may not be the most economical solution for long-term rehabilitation. Because of their relatively short service life, ACP overlays may require maintenance sooner than rigid overlays. And one of the more critical distresses that effectively determine the life span of the structure is reflection cracking. This report investigates alternative strategies that seek to prevent reflection cracking on ACP overlays.

  7. Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for overlay metrology on 3D-interconnect bonded wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Overlay metrology for stacked layers will be playing a key role in bringing 3D IC devices into manufacturing. However, such bonded wafer pairs present a metrology challenge for optical microscopy tools by the opaque nature of silicon. Using infrared microscopy, silicon wafers become transparent to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, enabling metrology at the interface of bonded wafer pairs. Wafers can be bonded face to face (F2F) or face to back (F2B) which the stacking direction is dictated by how the stacks are carried in the process and functionality required. For example, Memory stacks tend to use F2B stacking enables a better managed design. Current commercial tools use single image technique for F2F bonding overlay measurement because depth of focus is sufficient to include both surfaces; and use multiple image techniques for F2B overlay measurement application for the depth of focus is no longer sufficient to include both stacked wafer surfaces. There is a need to specify the Z coordinate or stacking wafer number through the silicon when visiting measurement wafer sites. Two shown images are of the same (X, Y) but separate Z location acquired at focus position of each wafer surface containing overlay marks. Usually the top surface image is bright and clear; however, the bottom surface image is somewhat darker and noisier as an adhesive layer is used in between to bond the silicon wafers. Thus the top and bottom surface images are further processed to achieve similar brightness and noise level before merged for overlay measurement. This paper presents a special overlay measurement technique, using the infrared differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy technique to measure the F2B wafer bonding overlay by a single shot image. A pair of thinned wafers at 50 and 150 μm thickness is bonded on top of a carrier wafer to evaluate the bonding overlay. It works on the principle of interferometry to gain information about the

  8. Compensation of overlay errors due to mask bending and non-flatness for EUV masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandhok, Manish; Goyal, Sanjay; Carson, Steven; Park, Seh-Jin; Zhang, Guojing; Myers, Alan M.; Leeson, Michael L.; Kamna, Marilyn; Martinez, Fabian C.; Stivers, Alan R.; Lorusso, Gian F.; Hermans, Jan; Hendrickx, Eric; Govindjee, Sanjay; Brandstetter, Gerd; Laursen, Tod

    2009-03-01

    EUV blank non-flatness results in both out of plane distortion (OPD) and in-plane distortion (IPD) [3-5]. Even for extremely flat masks (~50 nm peak to valley (PV)), the overlay error is estimated to be greater than the allocation in the overlay budget. In addition, due to multilayer and other thin film induced stresses, EUV masks have severe bow (~1 um PV). Since there is no electrostatic chuck to flatten the mask during the e-beam write step, EUV masks are written in a bent state that can result in ~15 nm of overlay error. In this article we present the use of physically-based models of mask bending and non-flatness induced overlay errors, to compensate for pattern placement of EUV masks during the e-beam write step in a process we refer to as E-beam Writer based Overlay error Correction (EWOC). This work could result in less restrictive tolerances for the mask blank non-flatness specs which in turn would result in less blank defects.

  9. Image-based overlay (IBO) target segment design on self-aligned patterning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lei; Hu, Huayong; He, Weiming

    2016-03-01

    Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) is widely applied in advanced sub-4X patterning technology, especially for the 1D resolution shrinkage of memory technology. As the application of SADP makes lithography minimum pitch down to half of design pitch with the remaining spacer aside core, its alignment mark and overlay (OVL) mark have to be well-segmented to ensure enough mark contrast. In this paper, we designed two types of image-based overlay (IBO) bar in bar (BIB) OVL target: bar-segmentation and background-segmentation with different duty ratio. Based on these two designed types of marks, we focus on the OVL of 2nd photo layer to 1st SADP layer with the core removed (which means spacer grating structure remained). We studied the effect of the overlay target segmentation on the precision and robustness of wafer-level overlay performance. Different lithography processes were also studied, including single layer lithography and tri-layer lithography with planarized spacer grating structures. We found there are strong correlations between overlay measurement accuracy and background segmentation rules. The results of our study will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  10. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1994--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1994-04-21

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterwalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds.

  11. Implementation and benefits of advanced process control for lithography CD and overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalova, Lena; Fu, Chong-Cheng; Seligman, Gary S.; Tapp, Perry A.; Pol, Victor

    2003-05-01

    Due to the rapidly reduced imaging process windows and increasingly stingent device overlay requirements, sub-130 nm lithography processes are more severely impacted than ever by systamic fault. Limits on critical dimensions (CD) and overlay capability further challenge the operational effectiveness of a mix-and-match environment using multiple lithography tools, as such mode additionally consumes the available error budgets. Therefore, a focus on advanced process control (APC) methodologies is key to gaining control in the lithographic modules for critical device levels, which in turn translates to accelerated yield learning, achieving time-to-market lead, and ultimately a higher return on investment. This paper describes the implementation and unique challenges of a closed-loop CD and overlay control solution in high voume manufacturing of leading edge devices. A particular emphasis has been placed on developing a flexible APC application capable of managing a wide range of control aspects such as process and tool drifts, single and multiple lot excursions, referential overlay control, 'special lot' handling, advanced model hierarchy, and automatic model seeding. Specific integration cases, including the multiple-reticle complementary phase shift lithography process, are discussed. A continuous improvement in the overlay and CD Cpk performance as well as the rework rate has been observed through the implementation of this system, and the results are studied.

  12. In die mask overlay control for 14nm double-patterning lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, William; Cheng, James; Tseng, Alex C. P.; Wu, J. K.; Chang, Chin Kuei; Cheng, Jeffrey; Lee, Adder; Huang, Chain Ting; Peng, N. T.; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Lu, Colbert; Yu, Julia; Craig, Peter; Pollock, Chuck; Ham, Young; McMurran, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    According to the ITRS roadmap, semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like Double Pattern Technology (DPT), Source Mask Optimization (SMO) and Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT). In terms of considering the photomask metrology, full in-die measurement capability is required for registration and overlay control with challenging specifications for repeatability and accuracy. Double patterning using 193nm immersion lithography has been adapted as the solution to enable 14nm technology nodes. The overlay control is one of the key figures for the successful realization of this technology. In addition to the various error contributions from the wafer scanner, the reticles play an important role in terms of considering lithographic process contributed errors. Accurate pattern placement of the features on reticles with a registration error below 4nm is mandatory to keep overall photomask contributions to overlay of sub 20nm logic within the allowed error budget. In this paper, we show in-die registration errors using 14nm DPT product masks, by measuring in-die overlay patterns comparing with regular registration patterns. The mask measurements are used to obtain an accurate model to predict mask contribution on wafer overlay of double patterning technology.

  13. Design and development of a mobile image overlay system for needle interventions.

    PubMed

    Anand, M; King, F; Ungi, T; Lasso, A; Rudan, J; Jayender, J; Fritz, J; Carrino, J A; Jolesz, F A; Fichtinger, G

    2014-01-01

    Previously, a static and adjustable image overlay systems were proposed for aiding needle interventions. The system was either fixed to a scanner or mounted over a large articulated counterbalanced arm. Certain drawbacks associated with these systems limited the clinical translation. In order to minimize these limitations, we present the mobile image overlay system with the objective of reduced system weight, smaller dimension, and increased tracking accuracy. The design study includes optimal workspace definition, selection of display device, mirror, and laser source. The laser plane alignment, phantom design, image overlay plane calibration, and system accuracy validation methods are discussed. The virtual image is generated by a tablet device and projected into the patient by using a beamsplitter mirror. The viewbox weight (1.0 kg) was reduced by 8.2 times and image overlay plane tracking precision (0.21 mm, STD = 0.05) was improved by 5 times compared to previous system. The automatic self-calibration of the image overlay plane was achieved in two simple steps and can be done away from patient table. The fiducial registration error of the physical phantom to scanned image volume registration was 1.35 mm (STD = 0.11). The reduced system weight and increased accuracy of optical tracking should enable the system to be hand held by the physician and explore the image volume over the patient for needle interventions. PMID:25571403

  14. Diffraction-based overlay measurement on dedicated mark using rigorous modeling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hailiang; Wang, Fan; Zhang, Qingyun; Chen, Yonghui; Zhou, Chang

    2012-03-01

    Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) is widely evaluated by numerous authors, results show DBO can provide better performance than Imaging Based Overlay (IBO). However, DBO has its own problems. As well known, Modeling based DBO (mDBO) faces challenges of low measurement sensitivity and crosstalk between various structure parameters, which may result in poor accuracy and precision. Meanwhile, main obstacle encountered by empirical DBO (eDBO) is that a few pads must be employed to gain sufficient information on overlay-induced diffraction signature variations, which consumes more wafer space and costs more measuring time. Also, eDBO may suffer from mark profile asymmetry caused by processes. In this paper, we propose an alternative DBO technology that employs a dedicated overlay mark and takes a rigorous modeling approach. This technology needs only two or three pads for each direction, which is economic and time saving. While overlay measurement error induced by mark profile asymmetry being reduced, this technology is expected to be as accurate and precise as scatterometry technologies.

  15. Landsat-D TM application to porphyry copper exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.; Brown, D.; Sadowski, R.; Lepley, L.

    1982-01-01

    For a number of years Landsat data have been used to locate areas of iron oxide occurrences which might be associated with hydrothermal alteration zones. However, the usefulness of the Landsat data was restricted because of certain limitations of the spectral information provided by Landsat. A new generation multispectral scanner will, therefore, be carried by the fourth Landsat, which is to be launched in July, 1982. This instrument, called the Thematic Mapper (TM), will have seven channels and provide data with 30 m spatial resolution. Two of the spectral channels (1.6 micron and 2.2 micron) should allow detection of hydrous minerals. Possible applications of Landsat-D TM data for copper exploration were studied on the basis of a comparison of Landsat data with simulated TM data acquired using an aircraft scanner instrument. Three porphyr copper deposits in Arizona were selected for the study. It is concluded that the new Landsat-D TM scanner will provide Exploration geologists with a new improved tool for surveying mineral resources on a global basis.

  16. Investigation of radiometric properties of the LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiometric data quality of the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) was examined using several LANDSAT 4 frames. It was found that LANDSAT 4 MSS produces high-quality data of the caliber experienced with previous LANDSATS. For example, the detector equalization procedure worked well, leaving a residual banding effect of about 0.3 digital counts RMS, close to the theoretical minimum value of quantization error. Nevertheless, artifacts of the data were found, two of which were not experienced in previous MSS data. A low-level coherent noise effect was observed in all bands, with a magnitude of about 0.5 digital counts and a frequency of approximately 28 KHz (representing a wavelength of about 3.6 pixels); a substantial increase in processing complexity would be required to reduce this artifact in the data. Also, a substantial scan-length variation (of up to six pixels) was noted in MSS data when the TM sensor was operating; the LANDSAT 4 correction algorithms being applied routinely by the EROS Data Center to produce a p-type data should remove most of this variation. Between-satellite calibrations were examined in paired LANDSAT 3 and LANDSAT 4 MSS data sets, which were closely matched in acquisition time and place. Radiometric comparisons showed that all bands were highly linear in digital counts, and a well-determined linear transformation between the MSS's was established.

  17. Mapping Antarctica using Landsat-8 - the preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X.; Hui, F.; Qi, X.

    2014-12-01

    The first Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) was released in 2009, which was created by USGS, BAS, and NASA from more than 1,000 Landsat ETM+ scenes. As the first major scientific outcome of the IPY, LIMA supports current scientific polar research, encourages new projects, and helps the general public visualize Antarctica and changes happening to this southernmost environment. As the latest satellite of Landsat mission, the Landsat-8 images the entire Earth every 16 days in an 8-day offset from Landsat-7. Data collected by the instruments onboard the satellite are available to download at no charge within 24 hours of reception. The standard Landsat 8 products provided by the USGS EROS Center consist of quantized and calibrated scaled Digital Numbers (DN) in 16-bit unsigned integer format and can be rescaled to the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and/or radiance. With the support of USGS portal, we searched and downloaded more than 1600 scenes of Level 1 T- Terrain Corrected Landsat 8 image products covering Antarctica from late 2013 to early 2014. These data were converted to planetary radiance for further processing. Since the distribution of clouds in these images are random and much complicated, statistics on the distribution of clouds were performed and then help to decide masking those thicker cloud to keep more useful information left and avoid observation holes. A preliminary result of the Landsat-8 mosaic of Antarctica under the joint efforts of Beijing Normal University, NSIDC and University of Maryland will be released on this AGU fall meeting. Comparison between Landsat 7 and 8 mosaic products will also be done to find the difference or advantage of the two products.

  18. Interaction of nanostructured metal overlayers with oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Wagner, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Interactions between metals and oxides are key factors to determine the performance of metal/oxide heterojunctions, particularly in nanotechnology, where the miniaturization of devices down to the nanoregime leads to an enormous increase in the density of interfaces. One central issue of concern in engineering metal/oxide interfaces is to understand and control the interactions which consist of two fundamental aspects: (i) interfacial charge redistribution — electronic interaction, and (ii) interfacial atom transport — chemical interaction. The present paper focuses on recent advances in both electronic and atomic level understanding of the metal-oxide interactions at temperatures below 1000 ∘C, with special emphasis on model systems like ultrathin metal overlayers or metal nanoclusters supported on well-defined oxide surfaces. The important factors determining the metal-oxide interactions are provided. Guidelines are given in order to predict the interactions in such systems, and methods to desirably tune them are suggested. The review starts with a brief summary of the physics and chemistry of heterophase interface contacts. Basic concepts for quantifying the electronic interaction at metal/oxide interfaces are compared to well-developed contact theories and calculation methods. The chemical interaction between metals and oxides, i.e., the interface chemical reaction, is described in terms of its thermodynamics and kinetics. We review the different chemical driving forces and the influence of kinetics on interface reactions, proposing a strong interplay between the chemical interaction and electronic interaction, which is decisive for the final interfacial reactivity. In addition, a brief review of solid-gas interface reactions (oxidation of metal surfaces and etching of semiconductor surfaces) is given, in addition to a comparison of a similar mechanism dominating in solid-solid and solid-gas interface reactions. The main body of the paper reviews

  19. Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borgeson, W.T.; Batson, R.M.; Kieffer, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The geometric accuracy of the Landsat Thematic Mappers was assessed by a linear least-square comparison of the positions of conspicuous ground features in digital images with their geographic locations as determined from 1:24 000-scale maps. For a Landsat-5 image, the single-dimension standard deviations of the standard digital product, and of this image with additional linear corrections, are 11.2 and 10.3 m, respectively (0.4 pixel). An F-test showed that skew and affine distortion corrections are not significant. At this level of accuracy, the granularity of the digital image and the probable inaccuracy of the 1:24 000 maps began to affect the precision of the comparison. The tested image, even with a moderate accuracy loss in the digital-to-graphic conversion, meets National Horizontal Map Accuracy standards for scales of 1:100 000 and smaller. Two Landsat-4 images, obtained with the Multispectral Scanner on and off, and processed by an interim software system, contain significant skew and affine distortions. -Authors

  20. Quality assessment of Landsat surface reflectance products using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric F.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat

  1. Landsat for practical forest type mapping - A test case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E.; Dodge, A. G., Jr.; Warren, S. D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer classified Landsat maps are compared with a recent conventional inventory of forest lands in northern Maine. Over the 196,000 hectare area mapped, estimates of the areas of softwood, mixed wood and hardwood forest obtained by a supervised classification of the Landsat data and a standard inventory based on aerial photointerpretation, probability proportional to prediction, field sampling and a standard forest measurement program are found to agree to within 5%. The cost of the Landsat maps is estimated to be $0.065/hectare. It is concluded that satellite techniques are worth developing for forest inventories, although they are not yet refined enough to be incorporated into current practical inventories.

  2. Water-management model in Florida from LANDSAT-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higer, A. L.; Cordes, E. H.; Coker, A. E.; Rogers, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A prototype data acquisition and dissemination network and its effectiveness in improving and/or solving hydrologic problems in southern Florida are evaluated. The network utilized LANDSAT MSS imagery and in situ monitoring by LANDSAT-DCS. Results show water level and rain fall measurements were collected and disseminated in less than two hours, a significant improvement over conventional methods which took up to two months. Improved network performance has also aided the development of water budgets and water distribution to the people, funa, and flora in the area. Imagery from LANDSAT was also found to enhance the utility of ground measurements.

  3. Quality Assessment of Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Using MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat

  4. LANDSAT-D thermal analysis and design support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Detailed thermal models of the LANDSAT-D Earth Sensor Assembly Module (ESAM), the Dummy Thematic Mapper (DTM), and a small thermal model of the LANDSAT-D spacecraft for a heater analysis were developed. These models were used to develop and verify the thermal design of the ESAM and DTM, to evaluate the aeroheating effects on ESAM during launch and to evaluate the thermal response of the LANDSAT-D assuming the hard-line heaters failed on with the spacecraft in the Space Transportation System (STS) orbiter bay. Results of model applications are summarized.

  5. Monitoring vegetation conditions from LANDSAT for use in range management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, R. H.; Deering, D. W.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Schell, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the LANDSAT Great Plains Corridor projects and the principal results are presented. Emphasis is given to the use of satellite acquired phenological data for range management and agri-business activities. A convenient method of reducing LANDSAT MSS data to provide quantitative estimates of green biomass on rangelands in the Great Plains is explained. Suggestions for the use of this approach for evaluating range feed conditions are presented. A LANDSAT Follow-on project has been initiated which will employ the green biomass estimation method in a quasi-operational monitoring of range readiness and range feed conditions on a regional scale.

  6. Refining Landsat classification results using digital terrain data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Wayne A.; Shasby, Mark

    1982-01-01

     Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation systems (EROS) Data Center have recently completed two land-cover mapping projects in which digital terrain data were used to refine Landsat classification results. Digital ter rain data were incorporated into the Landsat classification process using two different procedures that required developing decision criteria either subjectively or quantitatively. The subjective procedure was used in a vegetation mapping project in Arizona, and the quantitative procedure was used in a forest-fuels mapping project in Montana. By incorporating digital terrain data into the Landsat classification process, more spatially accurate landcover maps were produced for both projects.

  7. Enumeration of prairie wetlands with Landsat and aircraft data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Work, E.A., Jr.; Colwell, J.E.; Rebel, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for making an estimate of wetland numbers in the glaciated prairie region. A double-phase sampling approach is used which consists of first making a total census of wetlands using Landsat data, and then adjusting the Landsat results on the basis of samples derived from high resolution aircraft data. The method is relatively simple to use and has general applicability for estimating habitat features not consistently detectable or resolvable on Landsat imagery because their size range includes features less than the resolution capability of the satellite's sensor.

  8. Landsat ecosystem disturbance adaptive processing system (LEDAPS) algorithm description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Gail; Jenkerson, Calli; Masek, Jeffrey; Vermote, Eric; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) software was originally developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration–Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland to produce top-of-atmosphere reflectance from LandsatThematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Level 1 digital numbers and to apply atmospheric corrections to generate a surface-reflectance product.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the LEDAPS algorithm for producing the Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record.This report discusses the LEDAPS algorithm, which was implemented by the USGS.

  9. Effects of indium and tin overlayers on the photoluminescence spectrum of mercuric iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, R. B.; Bao, X. J.; Schlesinger, T. E.; Ortale, C.; Cheng, A. Y.

    1990-03-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI2 ) crystals with semitransparent metal overlayers of indium and tin were characterized using low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL spectra were found to differ for points beneath the thin metal overlayers and points that were masked off during each deposition. The photoluminescence data were compared with PL measurements taken on HgI2 photodetectors with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) entrance electrodes. The similarities of the spectra for the HgI2 samples with In, Sn, and ITO conducting overlayers indicate that the regions in the ITO-contacted photodetectors with relatively poor photoresponses are associated with the interaction of indium or tin with the mercuric iodide substrate.

  10. Characterizing the Global Impact of P2P Overlays on the AS-Level Underlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasti, Amir Hassan; Rejaie, Reza; Willinger, Walter

    This paper examines the problem of characterizing and assessing the global impact of the load imposed by a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay on the AS-level underlay. In particular, we capture Gnutella snapshots for four consecutive years, obtain the corresponding AS-level topology snapshots of the Internet and infer the AS-paths associated with each overlay connection. Assuming a simple model of overlay traffic, we analyze the observed load imposed by these Gnutella snapshots on the AS-level underlay using metrics that characterize the load seen on individual AS-paths and by the transit ASes, illustrate the churn among the top transit ASes during this 4-year period, and describe the propagation of traffic within the AS-level hierarchy.

  11. 40-Gb/s FSK modulated WDM-PON with variable-rate multicast overlay.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Yu, Jianjun

    2011-06-20

    This paper proposes a novel conjugate-driven frequency shift keying (FSK) modulated wavelength division multiplexing passive network (WDM-PON) with variable-rate multicast services. Optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is adopted for multicast overlay services with different rate requirements. A differential detection is used for the demodulation of FSK signal, which can eliminate the crosstalk from the OFDM signal. A total 40-Gb/s FSK point to point (P2P) signal and 6.3-Gb/s OFDM overlay with three kinds of variable-rate multicast services are experimentally demonstrated. A physical-layer adaptive identification is proposed for the variable-rate multicast services. After 25 km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission, the power penalties of FSK P2P signal and OFDM multicast overlay are 1.3 dB and 1.7 dB respectively. PMID:21716492

  12. High strength and corrosion resistant alloys weld overlays for oil patch applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hibner, E.L.; Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs) are specified for oilfield applications where severe environments cause general corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, chloride stress corrosion cracking and more importantly sulfide stress cracking. Historically, alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay has successfully been used in severely corrosive environments. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686) and alloy 725 (UNS N07725) have recently been evaluated as replacement materials for alloy 625. Alloy 686, because of it`s high alloying content, exhibits superior corrosion resistance to alloy 625. And, alloy 725 is a highly corrosion resistant alloy capable of being age hardened to 0.2% yield strengths of above 827 MPa (120 ksi) Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 and alloy 725 weld overlays are discussed relative to alloy 625, alloy C-22 (UNS N06622) and alloy 59 (UNS N06059) weld overlays.

  13. Threshold analysis of the susceptible-infected-susceptible model on overlay networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Zhang, Haifeng; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on overlay networks in which n multiple sets of links interconnect among the same nodes. By using the microscopic Markov-chain approximation (MMA) approach, we establish the conditions of epidemic outbreak for two kinds of spreading mechanisms in such an overlay network: the concatenation case and the switching case. When a uniform infection rate is set in all the subnetworks, we find the epidemic threshold for the switching case is just n times as large as that of concatenation case. We also find that the overlay network with a uniform infection rate can be considered as an equivalent (in the sense of epidemic dynamics and epidemic threshold) weighted network. To be specific, the concatenation case corresponds to the integer weighted network, while the switching case corresponds to the fractional weighted network. Interestingly, the time-varying unweighted network can be mapped into the static weighted network. Our analytic results exhibit good agreement with numerical simulations.

  14. Weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Task A: Literature review, progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-03-03

    A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

  15. A study of swing-curve physics in diffraction-based overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; den Boef, Arie; Storms, Greet; van Heijst, Joost; Noot, Marc; An, Kevin; Park, Noh-Kyoung; Jeon, Se-Ra; Oh, Nang-Lyeom; McNamara, Elliott; van de Mast, Frank; Oh, SeungHwa; Lee, Seung Yoon; Hwang, Chan; Lee, Kuntack

    2016-03-01

    With the increase of process complexity in advanced nodes, the requirements of process robustness in overlay metrology continues to tighten. Especially with the introduction of newer materials in the film-stack along with typical stack variations (thickness, optical properties, profile asymmetry etc.), the signal formation physics in diffraction-based overlay (DBO) becomes an important aspect to apply in overlay metrology target and recipe selection. In order to address the signal formation physics, an effort is made towards studying the swing-curve phenomena through wavelength and polarizations on production stacks using simulations as well as experimental technique using DBO. The results provide a wealth of information on target and recipe selection for robustness. Details from simulation and measurements will be reported in this technical publication.

  16. Full chip two-layer CD and overlay process window analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rachit; Shang, Shumay; Sturtevant, John

    2015-03-01

    In-line CD and overlay metrology specifications are typically established by starting with design rules and making certain assumptions about error distributions which might be encountered in manufacturing. Lot disposition criteria in photo metrology (rework or pass to etch) are set assuming worst case assumptions for CD and overlay respectively. For example poly to active overlay specs start with poly endcap design rules and make assumptions about active and poly lot average and across lot CDs, and incorporate general knowledge about poly line end rounding to ensure that leakage current is maintained within specification. There is an opportunity to go beyond generalized guard band design rules to full-chip, design-specific, model-based exploration of worst case layout locations. Such an approach can leverage not only the above mentioned coupling of CD and overlay errors, but can interrogate all layout configurations for both layers to help determine lot-specific, design-specific CD and overlay dispositioning criteria for the fab. Such an approach can elucidate whether for a specific design layout there exist asymmetries in the response to misalignment which might be exploited in manufacturing. This paper will investigate an example of two-layer model-based analysis of CD and overlay errors. It is shown, somewhat non-intuitively, that there can be small preferred misalignment asymmetries which should be respected to protect yield. We will show this relationship for via-metal overlap. We additionally present a new method of displaying edge placement process window variability, akin to traditional CD process window analysis.

  17. Information expectations from Landsat-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Williams, D. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The first satellite of the Landsat-D Project is to be launched in the third quarter of 1982 with a second satellite to be prepared for launch 12 to 15 months later. Both spacecraft are to include the familiar Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and the advanced multispectral scanner called the Thematic Mapper (TM). The ground data processing system for the MSS data is to be ready to produce 200 scenes a day in 1982. The data processing systems for the TM are to be fully operational at the 50 to 100 scenes a day level in early 1985. The fabrication of the system components has proceeded well in recent months, and integration of the total system is under way. The procedures for processing the data and meeting specifications are nearly completed for the MSS and are outlined in detail for the TM. An outline of an investigation program stressing systems performance has been developed for the period 1982 to 1985.

  18. Monitoring tropical vegetation succession with LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, V. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The shadowing problem, which is endemic to the use of LANDSAT in tropical areas, and the ability to model changes over space and through time are problems to be addressed when monitoring tropical vegetation succession. Application of a trend surface analysis model to major land cover classes in a mountainous region of the Phillipines shows that the spatial modeling of radiance values can provide a useful approach to tropical rain forest succession monitoring. Results indicate shadowing effects may be due primarily to local variations in the spectral responses. These variations can be compensated for through the decomposition of the spatial variation in both elevation and MSS data. Using the model to estimate both elevation and spectral terrain surface as a posteriori inputs in the classification process leads to improved classification accuracy for vegetation of cover of this type. Spatial patterns depicted by the MSS data reflect the measurement of responses to spatial processes acting at several scales.

  19. Mesoscale cloud phenomena observed by LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsby, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Examples of certain mesoscale cloud features - jet cirrus, eddies/vortices, cloud banding, and wave clouds - were collected from LANDSAT imagery and placed into Mason's four groups of causes of cloud formation based on the mechanism of vertical motion which produces condensation. These groups are as follows: (1) layer clouds formed by widespread regular ascent; (2) layer clouds caused by irregular stirring motions; (3) convective clouds; and (4) clouds formed by orographic disturbances. These mechanisms explain general cloud formation. Once formed, other forces may play a role in the deformation of a cloud or cloud mass into unusual and unique meso- and microscale patterns. Each example presented is followed by a brief discussion describing the synoptic situation, and some inference into the formation and occurrence of the more salient features. No major attempt was made to discuss in detail the meteorological and topographic interplay producing these mesoscale features.

  20. MTF Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R.

    1984-01-01

    A research program to measure the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) modulation transfer function (MTF) is described. Measurement of a satellite sensor's MTF requires the use of a calibrated ground target, i.e., the spatial radiance distribution of the target must be known to a resolution at least four to five times greater than that of the system under test. A small reflective mirror or a dark light linear pattern such as line or edge, and relatively high resolution underflight imagery are used to calibrate the target. A technique that utilizes an analytical model for the scene spatial frequency power spectrum will be investigated as an alternative to calibration of the scene. The test sites and analysis techniques are also described.

  1. Landsat-4 horizon scanner flight performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanow, S.; Chen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the flight data from a new design of horizon scanner flown on Landsat-4. The salient features in the data are described and demonstrated by data plots. High frequency noise must be filtered out to achieve good accuracy, but this is effectively done by 128-point averaging. Sun and moon interference effects are identified. The effects of earth oblateness and spacecraft altitude variations are modeled, and the residual systematic errors are analyzed. Most of the residual errors are apparently explained by the effects of earth radiance variation, with the winter polar regions showing the highest variability in the attitude measurements due to winter stratosphere temperature variations. In general, this sensor provides improved accuracy over those flown on previous missions.

  2. Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper outgassing effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.L.; Micijevic, E.

    2004-01-01

    A periodic 3% to 5% variation in detector response affecting both image and internal calibrator (IC) data has been observed in bands 5 and 7 of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper. The source for this variation is thought to be an interference effect due to buildup of an ice-like contaminant film on a ZnSe window, covered with an antireflective coating (ARC), of the cooled dewar containing these detectors. Periodic warming of the dewar is required in order to remove the contaminant and restore detector response to an uncontaminated level. These effects in the IC data have been characterized over four individual outgassing cycles using thin-film models to estimate transmittance of the window/ARC and ARC/contaminant film stack throughout the instrument lifetime. Based on the results obtained from this modeling, a lookup table procedure has been implemented that provides correction factors to improve the calibration accuracy of bands 5 and 7 by approximately 5%.

  3. Evaluation of reforested areas using LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT imagery was used to classify the general Pinus and Eucalyptus according to their age and species. A methodology was derived, based on training areas, to define the legend and spectral characteristics of the analyzed classes. Imager analysis of the training areas show that Pinus taeda is separable from the other Pinus species based on JM distance measurement. No difference of JM measurements was observed among Eucalyptus species. Two classes of Eucalyptus were separated according to their ages: those under and those over two years of age. Channel 6 and 7 were suitable for the discrimination of the reforested classes. Channel 5 was efficient to separated reforested areas from nonforested targets in the region. The automatic analysis shows the highest classification precision was obtained for Eucalyptus over two years of age (95.12 percent).

  4. LANDSAT-D band 6 data evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A filter, fabricated to match the spectral response of the LANDSAT band 6 sensors, was received and the combined system response function computed. The half power points for the aircraft system are 10.5 micrometer and 11.55 micrometer compared to the 10.4 and 11.6 micrometer values for the satellite. These discrepancies are considered acceptable; their effect on the apparent temperature observed at the satellite is being evaluated. The filter was installed in the infrared line scanner and the line scanner was installed in the aircraft and field checked. A daytime underflight of the satellite is scheduled for the next clear overpass and the feasibility of a nightime overpass is being discussed with NASA. The LOWTRAN 5 computer code was obtained from the Air Force Geophysical Laboratory and is being implemented for use on this effort.

  5. An industrial perspective of the LANDSAT opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. F.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of enhancing LANDSAT products to provide the greatest usability low cost data possible can be determined through government sponsorship and finance of one or more task forces composed of a critical number of experts in multiple disciplines from many industries and academia. The synergism of multiple minds addressing singular problems without the creation of permanent or perpetual structures must yield output in the form of implementable specifications, even if presented as alternatives. Changes are needed within the spacecraft in order to account for Sun angle changes. The use of pointing accuracy to make geometric corrections (and possible radiometric corrections, is needed more than onboard data reduction and information extraction, which assume a proper knowledge of application and reduce potential utilization. Multilinear arrays need to be investigated and methods for sensor calibration and for determining the effects of atmospheric inversion, as well as the best way to back out the modulation transfer function must be determined.

  6. Monitoring Playa Hydrology using LANDSAT Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. B.; Pradhananga, A.

    2004-12-01

    Playa lakes are wetland basins found across the Great Plains. These ephemeral lakes serve as habitat for migrating waterfowl and act as concentrated recharge points for groundwater aquifers. Playas are generally small but number in the tens of thousands, making them a significant component of the ecology and hydrology of the Great Plains. The shear number of playas makes this system difficult to study. Satellite remote sensing, however, can be used to monitor playa hydrology over broad space and time scales. This study demonstrates the use of a four-image LANDSAT sequence to study a cluster of playas in Beaver County, Oklahoma. A simple water budget model is developed to predict aggregate playa water surface area for the study area.

  7. A LANDSAT digital image rectification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwie, P.; Stein, M.

    1976-01-01

    DIRS is a digital image rectification system for the geometric correction of LANDSAT multispectral scanner digital image data. DIRS removes spatial distortions from the data and brings it into conformance with the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) map projection. Scene data in the form of landmarks are used to drive the geometric correction algorithms. Two dimensional least squares polynominal and spacecraft attitude modeling techniques for geometric mapping are provided. Entire scenes or selected quadrilaterals may be rectified. Resampling through nearest neighbor or cubic convolution at user designated intervals is available. The output products are in the form of digital tape in band interleaved, single band or CCT format in a rotated UTM projection. The system was designed and implemented on large scale IBM 360 computers.

  8. LANDSAT-D investigations in snow hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The sample LANDSAT-4 TM tape (7 bands) of NE Arkansas/Tennessee area was received and displayed. Snow reflectance in all 6 TM reflective bands, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 was simulated, using Wiscombe and Warren's (1980) delta-Eddington model. Snow reflectance in bands 4, 5, and 7 appear sensitive to grain size. One of the objectives is to interpret surface optical grain size of snow, for spectral extension of albedo. While TM data of the study area are not received, simulation results are encouraging. It also appears that the TM filters resemble a "square-wave" closely enough to permit assuming a square-wave in calculations. Integrated band reflectance over the actual response functions was simulated, using sensor data supplied by Santa Barbara Research Center. Differences between integrating over the actual response functions and the equivalent square wave were negligible.

  9. LANDSAT D local user terminal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, L.; Louie, M.; Spencer, R.; Stow, W. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the changes incorporated in the LANDSAT D system on the ability of a local user terminal to receive, record and process data in real time was studied. Alternate solutions to the problems raised by these changes were evaluated. A loading analysis was performed in order to determine the quantities of data that a local user terminal (LUT) would be interested in receiving and processing. The number of bits in an MSS and a TM scene were calculated along with the number of scenes per day that an LUT might require for processing. These then combined to a total number of processed bits/day for an LUT as a function of sensor and coverage circle radius.

  10. Landsat analysis of east-central Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, B.; Kent, R.; Noel, J.A.; Sers, S.

    1986-05-01

    Regional Landsat analysis was completed in an area of east-central Tennessee, about 65 mi southeast of Nashville. The study area encompassed the eastern edge of the Great Basin, the Highland Rim, and the western edge of the Cumberland Plateau. The area is roughly bounded on the north by Interstate 40 and on the south by US Highway 41. The study was undertaken to learn the relationships between the fracture production of gas from the McMinnville field and the surface areal extent and orientation of the fractures, if any. Production from the McMinnville gas field is primarily from fractures in the Trenton limestone. Density logs show that formations penetrated have very low interstitial porosity. The eastern edge of the Great Basin is underlain by sediments of lower paleozoic age, which are successively overlain by limestone and shale of Mississippian age in the Highland Rim. Sandstone, shale, and coal of Pennsylvanian age top the Cumberland Plateau and its erosional outliers on the eastern edge of the Highland Rim. Three sets of lineaments were evident on the enhanced Landsat imagery. The dominant set trends northeast-southwest, and parallels the thrust faults of the Sequatchie Valley and the Valley and Ridge province to the east. The second set trends at right angles to the first, and the third set trends at some angle to the other two. On the west side of the study area is a broad arcuate anomaly that is not expressed on topographic maps nor in the outcrop patterns of geologic maps, but may be a feature of the rim of the Great Basin. Subsurface mapping of the McMinnville field, which is still proprietary, indicates that the field is a small dome of low closure with several normal faults located parallel to the lineament systems.

  11. A safety evaluation for overlay disbonding of high-temperature and pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Ryuichi; Nakajima; Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kazunori; Murakami, Shunzo; Fujii, Tadaomi

    1995-11-01

    Hydrogen induced disbonding test (autoclave test) of stainless weld-overlaid 2-1/4Cr-1Mo and 2-1/4Cr-1Mo-1/4V steel, and the calculations of residual hydrogen contents at the fusion boundary in the specimens and actual vessels, were performed. The effects of microstructure of weld overlay near the fusion boundary and postweld heat treatment on disbonding resistance were clarified, and critical hydrogen content values in weld overlay to prevent disbonding were obtained. A simple evaluation method for disbonding in actual vessels using Tempering Parameter was established.

  12. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1993--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-04-18

    Twelve weld overlay hardfacing alloys have been selected for preliminary erosion testing based on a literature review These alloys have been separated into three major groups: (1) Cobalt containing alloys, (2) Nickel-base alloys, (3) Iron base alloys. These alloys are being applied to carbon steel substrates and will undergo preliminary erosion testing to identify candidates weld overlay alloys for erosion control in CFB boilers. The candidate alloys selected from the preliminary erosion tests will then undergo more detailed evaluations in future research.

  13. A Spatial Overlay Ranking Method for a Geospatial Search of Text Objects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanfear, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    Earth-science researchers need the capability to find relevant information by location and topic. Conventional geographic techniques that simply check whether polygons intersect can efficiently achieve a high recall on location, but can not achieve precision for ranking results in likely order of importance to the reader. A spatial overlay ranking based upon how well an object's footprint matches the search area provides a more effective way to spatially search a collection of reports, and avoids many of the problems associated with an 'in/out' (True/False) boolean search. Moreover, spatial overlay ranking appears to work well even when spatial extent is defined only by a simple bounding box.

  14. Scalable Tool Infrastructure for the Cray XT Using Tree-Based Overlay Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Philip C; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    Performance, debugging, and administration tools are critical for the effective use of parallel computing platforms, but traditional tools have failed to overcome several problems that limit their scalability, such as communication between a large number of tool processes and the management and processing of the volume of data generated on a large number of compute nodes. A tree-based overlay network has proven effective for overcoming these challenges. In this paper, we present our experiences in bringing our MRNet tree-based overlay network infrastructure to the Cray XT platform, including a description of proof-of-concept tools that use MRNet on the Cray XT.

  15. LANDSAT ESTUARINE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SILVICULTURE AND DREDGING ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of Landsat multispectral scanning to estuarine water quality, with specific reference to dredging and silviculture practices. Water quality data collected biweekly since 1972 in the Apalachicola, Bay, Florida, by Florida State University, and...

  16. Biomass measurement from LANDSAT: Drought and energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory supporting the use of vegetation indices derived from LANDSAT data for the direct measurement of biomass is reviewed. The use of multispectral data to measure biomass is a natural and viable application since the photosynthetic production of biomass gives vegetation its unique spectral properties. Vegetation indices also perform a normalization function which tends to make them insensitive to atmospheric and soil color variations. Optical and digital LANDSAT products are discussed relative to the use of vegetation indices to monitor drought impact. Based on results obtained in Colorado, operational use of LANDSAT to monitor drought is cost effective, practical and ready for implementation today. The direct measurement of biomass energy resources may also benefit from LANDSAT technology. Measurement of total biomass and annual primary production may be feasible. Identification of that component of biomass resources available for energy use will require other sources of information, however.

  17. LANDSAT data for state planning. [of transportation for Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, N. L.; Spann, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an effort to generate and apply automated classification of LANDSAT digital data to state of Georgia problems are presented. This phase centers on an analysis of the usefulness of LANDSAT digital data to provide land-use data for transportation planning. Hall County, Georgia was chosen as a test site because it is part of a seventeen county area for which the Georgia Department of Transportation is currently designing a Transportation Planning Land-Use Simulation Model. The land-cover information derived from this study was compared to several other existing sources of land-use data for Hall County and input into this simulation. The results indicate that there is difficulty comparing LANDSAT derived land-cover information with previous land-use information since the LANDSAT data are acquired on an acre by acre grid basis while all previous land-use surveys for Hall County used land-use data on a parcel basis.

  18. Landsat: 25 Years in the Pacific Northwest Forest

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows a sequence of Landsat-based data in the Pacific Northwest. There is one data set for each year representing an aggregate of the approximate peak of the growing season (arou...

  19. Area estimation of crops by digital analysis of Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Hixson, M. M.; Davis, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    The study for which the results are presented had these objectives: (1) to use Landsat data and computer-implemented pattern recognition to classify the major crops from regions encompassing different climates, soils, and crops; (2) to estimate crop areas for counties and states by using crop identification data obtained from the Landsat identifications; and (3) to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and timeliness of crop area estimates obtained from Landsat data. The paper describes the method of developing the training statistics and evaluating the classification accuracy. Landsat MSS data were adequate to accurately identify wheat in Kansas; corn and soybean estimates for Indiana were less accurate. Systematic sampling of entire counties made possible by computer classification methods resulted in very precise area estimates at county, district, and state levels.

  20. LANDSAT-1 data, its use in a soil survey program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.; Frazee, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The following applications of LANDSAT imagery were investigated: assistance in recognizing soil survey boundaries, low intensity soil surveys, and preparation of a base map for publishing thematic soils maps. The following characteristics of LANDSAT imagery were tested as they apply to the recognition of soil boundaries in South Dakota and western Minnesota: synoptic views due to the large areas covered, near-orthography and lack of distortion, flexibility of selecting the proper season, data recording in four parts of the spectrum, and the use of computer compatible tapes. A low intensity soil survey of Pennington County, South Dakota was completed in 1974. Low intensity inexpensive soil surveys can provide the data needed to evaluate agricultural land for the remaining counties until detailed soil surveys are completed. In using LANDSAT imagery as a base map for publishing thematic soil maps, the first step was to prepare a mosaic with 20 LANDSAT scenes from several late spring passes in 1973.

  1. Applications of Landsat imagery to a coastal inlet stability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.-H.

    1981-01-01

    Polcyn and Lyzenga (1975) and Middleton and Barber (1976) have demonstrated that it is possible to correlate the radiance values of a multispectral imagery, such as Landsat imagery, with the depth related information. The present study is one more example of such an effort. Two sets of Landsat magnetic tape were obtained and displayed on the screen of an Image-100 computer. Spectral analysis was performed to produce various signatures, their extent, and location. Subsequent ground truth observations and measurements were gathered by means of hydrographic surveys and low altitude aerial photographs for interpretation and calibration of the Landsat data. Finally, a coastal engineering assessment based on the Landsat data was made. Recommendations regarding the navigational canal alignment and dredging practice are presented in the light of inlet stability.

  2. Test of Landsat-based urban hydrologic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Ragan, R. M.; Fitch, W. N.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of the Fourmile Run Study which has been conducted to evaluate Landsat remote sensing as a method of defining input parameters required by urban hydrologic planning models. The evaluation was a part of water resource planning investigations concerning the Fourmile Run Watershed. The investigations involved an examination of the relationship between urban development and flooding for the Fourmile Run Basin. The study indicates that Landsat data provide a suitable source of land cover data for investigations conducted at the planning level. An estimation of the percentage of impervious area on the basis of Landsat data is less expensive than a use of aerial photos in planning studies. Only limited success could be achieved when Landsat data were used for smaller areal units.

  3. The global Landsat archive: Status, consolidation, and direction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Loveland, Thomas; Woodcock, Curtis; Belward, Alan; Cohen, Warren B.; Fosnight, Eugene A.; Shaw, Jerad; Masek, Jeffery G.; Roy, David P.

    2016-01-01

    New and previously unimaginable Landsat applications have been fostered by a policy change in 2008 that made analysis-ready Landsat data free and open access. Since 1972, Landsat has been collecting images of the Earth, with the early years of the program constrained by onboard satellite and ground systems, as well as limitations across the range of required computing, networking, and storage capabilities. Rather than robust on-satellite storage for transmission via high bandwidth downlink to a centralized storage and distribution facility as with Landsat-8, a network of receiving stations, one operated by the U.S. government, the other operated by a community of International Cooperators (ICs), were utilized. ICs paid a fee for the right to receive and distribute Landsat data and over time, more Landsat data was held outside the archive of the United State Geological Survey (USGS) than was held inside, much of it unique. Recognizing the critical value of these data, the USGS began a Landsat Global Archive Consolidation (LGAC) initiative in 2010 to bring these data into a single, universally accessible, centralized global archive, housed at the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. The primary LGAC goals are to inventory the data held by ICs, acquire the data, and ingest and apply standard ground station processing to generate an L1T analysis-ready product. As of January 1, 2015 there were 5,532,454 images in the USGS archive. LGAC has contributed approximately 3.2 million of those images, more than doubling the original USGS archive holdings. Moreover, an additional 2.3 million images have been identified to date through the LGAC initiative and are in the process of being added to the archive. The impact of LGAC is significant and, in terms of images in the collection, analogous to that of having had twoadditional Landsat-5 missions. As a result of LGAC, there are regions of the globe that now have markedly improved

  4. Digital classification of Landsat data for vegetation and land-cover mapping in the Blackfoot River watershed, southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettinger, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper documents the procedures, results, and final products of a digital analysis of Landsat data used to produce a vegetation and landcover map of the Blackfoot River watershed in southeastern Idaho. Resource classes were identified at two levels of detail: generalized Level I classes (for example, forest land and wetland) and detailed Levels II and III classes (for example, conifer forest, aspen, wet meadow, and riparian hardwoods). Training set statistics were derived using a modified clustering approach. Environmental stratification that separated uplands from lowlands improved discrimination between resource classes having similar spectral signatures. Digital classification was performed using a maximum likelihood algorithm. Classification accuracy was determined on a single-pixel basis from a random sample of 25-pixel blocks. These blocks were transferred to small-scale color-infrared aerial photographs, and the image area corresponding to each pixel was interpreted. Classification accuracy, expressed as percent agreement of digital classification and photo-interpretation results, was 83.0:t 2.1 percent (0.95 probability level) for generalized (Level I) classes and 52.2:t 2.8 percent (0.95 probability level) for detailed (Levels II and III) classes. After the classified images were geometrically corrected, two types of maps were produced of Level I and Levels II and III resource classes: color-coded maps at a 1:250,000 scale, and flatbed-plotter overlays at a 1:24,000 scale. The overlays are more useful because of their larger scale, familiar format to users, and compatibility with other types of topographic and thematic maps of the same scale.

  5. Analysis of the private market for LANDSAT products and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The private sector was examined and evaluated to develop base line strategies and mechanisms for its increased utilization of LANDSAT (and future satellite) technologies as both consumer and producer of products and services. Methodologies used to assess the digital analysis service and national mapping industries are described. Private sector users in business and industry are identified and the potential U.S. industry role in the foreign LANDSAT market is considered.

  6. Remote sensing: Physical principles, sensors and products, and the LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Steffen, C. A.; Lorenzzetti, J. A.; Stech, J. L.; Desouza, R. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques of data acquisition by remote sensing are introduced in this teaching aid. The properties of the elements involved (radiant energy, topograph, atmospheric attenuation, surfaces, and sensors) are covered. Radiometers, photography, scanners, and radar are described as well as their products. Aspects of the LANDSAT system examined include the characteristics of the satellite and its orbit, the multispectral band scanner, and the return beam vidicon. Pixels (picture elements), pattern registration, and the characteristics, reception, and processing of LANDSAT imagery are also considered.

  7. LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. (Editor); Barker, J. (Editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

    1983-01-01

    The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

  8. Active fire detection using Landsat 8 reflective bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyachandran, S. K.; Roy, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation fires can alter landscapes and are a significant source of atmospheric emissions, particulates and greenhouse gases. Currently, only coarse spatial resolution sensors with high temporal coverage, such as MODIS or VIIRS, are used for routine global active fire mapping. Higher spatial resolution satellites have not been used due to their low temporal coverage and so are less useful for monitoring fires at the time of satellite overpass. However, looking forward, combination of the recently launched Landsat-8 (2013), Sentinel-2A (2015) and upcoming Sentinel-2B (2016) sensor data will provide 10-30m global coverage multi-spectral reflective wavelength observations approximately every three days. Therefore the development of reflective wavelength active fire detections to take advantage of these new data is highly attractive. Conventional detection algorithms use the elevated thermal emission of fire to detect the location of fires burning at the time of satellite overpass and apply contextual checks to remove commission errors by examination of neighboring pixels. A Landsat 8 active fire detection algorithm that takes advantage of the improved 12-bit radiometric resolution and high reflectance saturation of the Landsat 8 OLI detectors is presented. The algorithm uses the 1.6 μm and 2.2 μm bands without the need for a contextual implementation, or thermal bands, and was parameterized using six months of Landsat 8 data over the conterminous United States. Active fire detection results for Landsat 8 scenes acquired over a range of fire sizes and temperatures in Canada, Brazil and Southern Africa are presented and compared to detections found using an existing Landsat 7 contextual algorithm adapted to the Landsat 8 bands. Results show that the Landsat 8 algorithm has potential for global application, with relatively low omission and commission errors, and is suitable for application to the corresponding Sentinel 2 reflectance wavelength bands.

  9. LANDSAT D to test thematic mapper, inaugurate operational system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    NASA will launch the Landsat D spacecraft on July 9, 1982 aboard a new, up-rated Delta 3920 expendable launch vehicle. LANDSAT D will incorporate two highly sophisticated sensors; the flight proven multispectral scanner; and a new instrument expected to advance considerably the remote sensing capabilities of Earth resources satellites. The new sensor, the thematic mapper, provides data in seven spectral (light) bands with greatly improved spectral, spatial and radiometric resolution.

  10. Full scale LANDSAT-D antenna pattern measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design verification of the LANDSAT-D antenna subsystem is addressed. In particular, the analysis of the antenna radiation patterns utilizing a full scale mockup of the LANDSAT-D satellite is discussed. Test antennas included two S-Band shaped beam antennas, two S-Band omni unit radiators (to operate in array), a GPS antenna, an X-Band shaped beam antenna, and one S-Band high-gain parabolic antenna.

  11. Hydrography synthesis using LANDSAT remote sensing and the SCS models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, R. M.; Jackson, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The land cover requirements of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Model used for hydrograph synthesis in urban areas were modified to be LANDSAT compatible. The Curve Numbers obtained with these alternate land cover categories compare well with those obtained in published example problems using the conventional categories. Emergency spillway hydrographs and synthetic flood frequency flows computed for a 21.1 sq. mi. test area showed excellent agreement between the conventional aerial photo-based and the Landsat-based SCS approaches.

  12. Agricultural inventory capabilities of machine processed LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrick, D. L.; Fries, R. E.; Egbert, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    Agricultural crop identification and acreage determination analysis of LANDSAT digital data was performed for two study areas. A multispectral image processing and analysis system was utilized to perform the manmachine interactive analysis. The developed techniques yielded crop acreage estimate results with accuracy greater than 90% and as high as 99%. These results are encouraging evidence of agricultural inventory capabilities of machine processed LANDSAT digital data.

  13. Application of LANDSAT images in the Minas Gerais tectonic division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacunha, R. P.; Demattos, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    The interpretation of LANDSAT data for a regional geological investigation of Brazil is provided. Radar imagery, aerial photographs and aeromagnetic maps were also used. Automatic interpretation, using LANDSAT OCT's was carried out by the 1-100 equipment. As a primary result a tectonic map was obtained, at 1:1,000,000 scale, of an area of about 143,000 square kilometers, in the central portion of Minas Gerais and Eastern Goias States, known as regions potentially rich in mineral resources.

  14. Evaluation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays for Erosion-Corrosion Resistant Boiler Tube Coatings in Low NOx Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Regina, J.R.; Lim, M.; Barbosa, N., DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    2000-04-28

    Iron aluminide weld overlays containing ternary additions and thermal spray coatings are being investigated for corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NO{sub x} burners. The primary objective of the research is to identify overlay and thermal spray compositions that provide corrosion protection of waterwall boiler tubes.

  15. Requirement sensitivity studies for a future Landsat sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhaoyu; Montanaro, Matthew; Gerace, Aaron; Schott, John R.; Markham, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The Landsat program has collected imagery of the Earth for the past 40 years. Although both Landsat 7 and 8 are currently operating on-orbit, the next generation Landsat mission is already being planned. Concept studies for this mission include reproducing the Landsat 8 design (mainly push-broom imaging architecture). The definition of science requirements is an important step towards the development of instrument specifications. At this early stage, a re-evaluation of the Landsat requirements is beneficial since they might be flexible enough to relax in some areas to possibly save on manufacturing costs or may need to be tightened in other areas to produce better science products. The investigations presented here focused on spatial aliasing and spectral banding effects. The specifications of these two key performance requirements were taken from the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor as a starting point for the analyses. They were then adjusted to determine their effects on the final image products through the use of standard radiometry equations and synthetic Earth scene data. The results of the modeling efforts for these two requirements concepts are presented here and could be used as a template for future instrument studies.

  16. An Overview of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, James R.; Dwyer, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The advent of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), currently with a launch readiness date of December, 2012, will see evolutionary changes in the Landsat data products available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The USGS initiated a revolution in 2009 when EROS began distributing Landsat data products at no cost to requestors in contrast to the past practice of charging the cost of fulfilling a request; that is, charging $600 per Landsat scene. To implement this drastic change, EROS terminated data processing options for requestors and began to produce all data products using a consistent processing recipe. EROS plans to continue this practice for the LDCM and will required new algorithms to process data from the LDCM sensors. All previous Landsat satellites flew multispectral scanners to collect image data of the global land surface. Additionally, Landsats 4, 5, and 7 flew sensors that acquired imagery for both reflective spectral bands and a single thermal band. In contrast, the LDCM will carry two pushbroom sensors; the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for reflective spectral bands and the Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) for two thermal bands. EROS is developing the ground data processing system that will both calibrate and correct the data from the thousands of detectors employed by the pushbroom sensors and that will also combine the data from the two sensors to create a single data product with registered data for all of the OLI and TIRS bands.

  17. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 11, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-7 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  18. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 24, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-7 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  19. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 28, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-7 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  20. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 10, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-7 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.