Sample records for landsat overlay los

  1. SRTM Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay: Los Angeles to San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's topography poses challenges for road builders. Northwest of Los Angeles, deformation of Earth's crust along the Pacific-North American crustal plate boundary has made transportation difficult. Direct connection between metropolitan Los Angeles (image lower left) and California's Central Valley (image top center) through the rugged terrain seen on the left side of this image was long avoided in favor of longer but easier paths. However, over the last century, three generations of roads have traversed this terrain. The first was 'The Ridge Route', a two-lane road, built in 1915, which followed long winding ridge lines that included 697curves. The second, built in 1933, was to become four-lane U.S. Highway 99. It generally followed widened canyon bottoms. The third is the current eight lane Interstate 5 freeway, built in the 1960s, which is generally notched into hillsides, but also includes a stretch of several miles where the two directions of travel are widely separated and driving is 'on the left', a rarity in the United States. Such an unusual highway configuration was necessary in order to optimize the road grades for uphill and downhill traffic in this topographically challenging setting.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 141 by 107 kilometers (88 by 66 miles) Location: 34.5 deg. North lat., 118.7 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper right Image: Landsat bands 1,2,3 averaged (visible light as grey) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 (SRTM), November 11, 1986 (Landsat) Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  2. SRTM Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay: Los Angeles to San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    California's topography poses challenges for road builders. Northwest of Los Angeles, deformation of Earth's crust along the Pacific-North American crustal plate boundary has made transportation difficult. Direct connection between metropolitan Los Angeles (image lower left) and California's Central Valley (image top center) through the rugged terrain seen on the left side of this image was long avoided in favor of longer, but easier paths. However, over the last century, three generations of roads have traversed this terrain. The first was 'The Ridge Route', a two-lane road, built in 1915, which followed long winding ridge lines that included 697curves. The second, built in 1933, was to become four-lane U.S. Highway 99. It generally followed widened canyon bottoms. The third is the current eight lane Interstate 5 freeway, built in the 1960s, which is generally notched into hillsides, but also includes a stretch of several miles where the two directions of travel are widely separated and driving is 'on the left', a rarity in the United States. Such an unusual highway configuration was necessary in order to optimize the road grades for uphill and downhill traffic in this topographically challenging setting.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary SRTM elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair, and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 141 by 107 kilometers (88 by 66 miles) Location: 34.5 deg. North lat., 118.7 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper right Image: Landsat bands 1, 2&4, 3 as blue, green, and red, respectively Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 (SRTM), November 11, 1986 (Landsat) Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  3. Anaglyph, Landsat overlay Honolulu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area with limited space and water resources. This anaglyph, combining a Landsat image with SRTM topography, shows how the topography controls the urban growth pattern, causes cloud formation, and directs the rainfall runoff pattern. Red/blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. Features of interest in this scene include Diamond Head (an extinct volcano on the right side of the image), Waikiki Beach (just left of Diamond Head), the Punchbowl National Cemetary (another extinct volcano, left of center), downtown Honolulu and Honolulu harbor (lower left of center), and offshore reef patterns. The slopes of the Koolau mountain range are seen in the upper half of the image. Clouds commonly hang above ridges and peaks of the Hawaiian Islands, and in this rendition appear draped directly on the mountains. The clouds are actually about 1000 meters (3300 feet) above sea level. High resolution topographic and image data allow ecologists and planners to assess the effects of urban development on the sensitive ecosystems in tropical regions.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with a Landsat 7 satellite image collected coincident with the SRTM mission. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 18 by 28 kilometers (11 by 17 miles) Location: 21.3 deg. North lat., 157.9 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper left Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters (99 feet); Landsat, 15 meters (50 feet) Date Acquired: SRTM, February 18, 2000; Landsat February 12, 2000

  4. Anaglyph, Landsat Overlay: Wellington, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand, is located on the shores of Port Nicholson, a natural harbor at the south end of North Island. The city was founded in 1840 by British emigrants and now has a regional population of more than 400,000 residents. As seen here, the natural terrain imposes strong control over the urban growth pattern. Rugged hills generally rising to 300 meters (1,000 feet) help protect the city and harbor from strong winter winds.

    New Zealand is seismically active and faults are readily seen in the topography. The Wellington Fault forms the straight northwestern (upper left) shoreline of the harbor. Toward the southwest (lower left) the fault crosses through the city, then forms linear canyons in the hills before continuing offshore. Toward the northeast (upper right) the fault forms the sharp mountain front along the northern edge of the heavily populated Hutt Valley.

    This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then using the topographic data to create two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30 meter (99 foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and will provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: 31 by 23 kilometers (19 by 14 miles) Location: 41.3 deg. South lat., 174.9 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Combination of Landsat bands 1, 2, 3, and 8 Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet); Landsat 15 meters (50 feet) Date Acquired: February 20, 2000 (SRTM); September 29, 1999 (Landsat)

  5. Perspective view, Landsat overlay Oahu, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area with limited space and water resources. This perspective view, combining a Landsat image with SRTM topography, shows how the topography controls the urban growth pattern, causes cloud formation, and directs the rainfall runoff pattern. Features of interest in this scene include downtown Honolulu (right), Honolulu Harbor (right), Pearl Harbor (center), and offshore reef patterns (foreground). The Koolau mountain range runs through the center of the image. On the north shore of the island are the Mokapu Peninsula and Kaneohe Bay (upper right). Clouds commonly hang above ridges and peaks of the Hawaiian Islands, and in this rendition appear draped directly on the mountains. The clouds are actually about 1000 meters (3300 feet) above sea level. High resolution topographic and image data allow ecologists and planners to assess the effects of urban development on the sensitive ecosystems in tropical regions.

    This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat 7 satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated about six times vertically. The Landsat 7 image was acquired on February 12, 2000, and was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS)Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 28 by 56 kilometers (17 by 35 miles) Location: 21.4 deg. North lat., 157.8 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking North Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters (99 feet); Landsat, 15 meters (50 feet) Date Acquired: SRTM, February 18, 2000; Landsat February 12, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  6. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 37.1 kilometers (23.0 miles) by 20.3 kilometers (12.6 miles) Location: 3.2 degrees South latitude, 36.7 degrees East longitude Orientation: East at top Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 blended as gray. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arc-second (30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), February 21, 2000 (Landsat 7)

  7. Malaspina Glacier, Alaska, Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph view of Malaspina Glacier in southeastern Alaska was created from a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Malaspina Glacier is considered the classic example of a piedmont glacier. Piedmont glaciers occur where valley glaciers exit a mountain range onto broad lowlands, are no longer laterally confined, and spread to become wide lobes. Malaspina Glacier is actually a compound glacier, formed by the merger of several valley glaciers, the most prominent of which seen here are Agassiz Glacier (left) and Seward Glacier (right). In total, Malaspina Glacier is up to 65 kilometers (40 miles) wide and extends up to 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the mountain front nearly to the sea.

    Glaciers erode rocks, carry them down slope, and deposit them at the edge of the melting ice, typically in elongated piles called moraines. The moraine patterns at Malaspina Glacier are quite spectacular in that they have huge contortions that result from the glacier crinkling as it gets pushed from behind by the faster-moving valley glaciers.

    Numerous other features of the glaciers and the adjacent terrain are clearly seen when viewing this image at full resolution. The series of tonal arcs on Agassiz Glacier's extension onto the piedmont are called 'ogives.' These arcs are believed to be seasonal features created by deformation of the glacier as it passes over bedrock irregularities at differing speeds through the year. Assuming one light-and-dark ogive pair per year, the rate of motion of the glacial ice can be estimated (in this case, about 200 meters per year where the ogives are most prominent). Just to the west, moraine deposits abut the eroded bedrock terrain, forming a natural dam that has created a lake. Near the northwest corner of the scene, a recent landslide has deposited rock debris atop a small glacier. Sinkholes are common in many areas of the moraine deposits. The sinkholes form when blocks of ice are caught up in the deposits and then melt, locally collapsing the deposit. The combination of Landsat imagery and SRTM elevation data used in this stereoscopic display is very effective in visualizing these and other features of this terrain.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by registering a Landsat image to the SRTM elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 55 x 55 kilometers (34 x 34 miles) Location: 60 deg N latitude, 140 deg W longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: Landsat Thematic Mapper visible and infrared band mix Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 mete

  8. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 5.3 km (3.3 miles) x 6.0 km (3.7 miles) Location: 57 deg. North lat., 159 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at left Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet); Landsat 15 meters (45 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  9. Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat, Los Angeles, Calif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Los Angeles, Calif., is one of the world's largest metropolitan areas with a population of about 15 million people. The urban areas mostly cover the coastal plains and lie within the inland valleys. The intervening and adjacent mountains are generally too rugged for much urban development. This in large part because the mountains are 'young', meaning they are still building (and eroding) in this seismically active (earthquake prone) region.

    Earthquake faults commonly lie between the mountains and the lowlands. The San Andreas fault, the largest fault in California, likewise divides the very rugged San Gabriel Mountains from the low-relief Mojave Desert, thus forming a straight topographic boundary between the top center and lower right corner of the image. We present two versions of this perspective image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM): one with and one without a graphic overlay that maps faults that have been active in Late Quaternary times (white lines). The fault database was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    For the annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 2 mB jpeg)

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on May 4, 2001, about seven weeks before the summer solstice, so natural terrain shading is not particularly strong. It is also not especially apparent given a view direction (northwest) nearly parallel to the sun illumination (shadows generally fall on the backsides of mountains). Consequently, topographic shading derived from the SRTM elevation model was added to the Landsat image, with a false sun illumination from the left (southwest). This synthetic shading enhances the appearance of the topography.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive. This Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: View width 134 kilometers (83 miles); view distance 150 kilometers (93 miles) Location: 34.3 degrees North latitude, 118.4 degrees West longitude Orientation: View west-northwest, 1.8 X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2+4, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Landsat 30 meters (98 feet) Graphic Data: earthquake faults active in Late Quaternary times Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), May 4, 2001 (Landsat).

  10. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Mt. Pinos, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Prominently displayed in this image, Mt. Pinos, at 2,692 meters (8,831 feet) is the highest peak in the Los Padres National Forest. Named for the mantle of pine trees covering its slopes and summit, it offers one of the best stargazing sites in Southern California. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data were combined with Landsat data to generate this perspective view looking toward the northwest. Not only is the mountain popular with astronomers and astro-photographers, it is also popular for hiking trails and winter sports.

    The broad low relief area in the right foreground is Cuddy Valley. Cuddy Valley Road is the bright line on the right (north)side of the valley. Just to the left and paralleling the road is a scarp (cliff) formed by the San Andreas fault. The fault slices through the mountains here and then bends and continues onto the Carrizo Plain (right center horizon). This entire segment of the San Andreas fault broke in a major earthquake in 1857.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter(98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Distance to Horizon: 176 kilometers (109 miles) Location: 34.8 deg. North lat., 119.1 deg. West lon. View: Toward the Northwest Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

  11. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Fernando Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Fernando Valley (lower right of center) is part of Los Angeles and includes well over one million people. Two major disasters have occurred here in the last few decades: the 1971 Sylmar earthquake and the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Both quakes caused major damage to homes, freeways, and other structures and included major injuries and fatalities. The Northridge earthquake was the one of the costliest natural disasters in United States history. Understanding earthquake risks requires understanding a location's geophysical setting, and topographic data are of substantial benefit in that regard. Landforms are often characteristic of specific tectonic processes, such as ground movement along faults. Elevation models, such as those produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), are particularly useful in visualizing regional scale landforms that are too large to be seen directly on-site. They can also be used to model the propagation of damaging seismic waves, which helps in urban planning. In recent years, elevation models have also been a critical input to radar interferometric studies, which reveal detailed patterns of ground deformation from earthquakes that had never before been seen.

    This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from SRTM. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 33 kilometers (20 miles) view width, 88 kilometers (55 miles) view distance Location: 34.2 deg. North lat., 118.5 deg. West lon. Orientation: View toward the northeast, 3X vertical exaggeration Image: Landsat bands 1, 2&4, 3 as blue, green, and red, respectively Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 (SRTM), November 11, 1986 (Landsat)

  12. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Mount Shasta, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The volcanic nature of Mount Shasta is clearly evident in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the northwest. At over 4,300 meters (14,000 feet), Mount Shasta is California's tallest volcano and part of the Cascade chain of volcanoes extending south from Washington. The twin summits of Shasta and Shastina tower over a lava flow on the flank of the volcano. Cutting across the lava flow is the bright line of a railroad. The bright area at the right edge is the town of Weed.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an online mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 41.4 degrees North latitude, 122.3 degrees West longitude Orientation: looking southeast Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet) Thematic Mapper 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  13. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Bhuj, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the city of Bhuj, India, in the foreground (gray area). Bhuj and many other nearby towns and cities were almost completely destroyed by the shaking of an earthquake in western India on January 26, 2001. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the deadliest in the history of India with some 20,000 fatalities and over a million homes damaged or destroyed. The epicenter of the earthquake was in the area in the background of this view.

    Bhuj was the historical capital of the Kachchh region, and the Bhuj airport is the prominent dark line with light borders to the left of the center of the image. Highways and rivers appear as dark lines. Vegetation appears bright green in this false-color Landsat image. The Gulf of Kachchh (or Kutch) is the dark blue area in the upper right corner of the image. The hills reach up to 500 meters (1,500 feet) elevation. The light blue area in the background center of the image is low-lying salt flats called the Rann of Kachchh.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 5X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 23.4 deg. North lat., 69.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: looking northeast Image Data: Landsat Bands 5, 4, 3 as red, green, blue respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: four days in February, 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

  14. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Bhuj and Anjar, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the city of Bhuj, India, in the foreground near the right side (dark gray area). Bhuj and many other towns and cities nearby were almost completely destroyed by the January 26, 2001, earthquake in western India. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the deadliest in the history of India with some 20,000 fatalities and over a million homes damaged or destroyed. The epicenter of the earthquake was in the area in the upper left corner of this view.

    The city of Anjar is in the dark gray area near the top center of the image. Anjar was previously damaged by a magnitude 6.1 earthquake in 1956 that killed 152 people and suffered again in the larger 2001 earthquake. The red hills to the left of the center of the image are the Has and Karo Hills, which reach up to 300 meter (900 feet) elevation. These hills are formed by folded red sandstone layers. Geologists are studying these folded layers to determine if they are related to the fault that broke in the 2001 earthquake. The city of Bhuj was the historical capital of the Kachchh region. Highways and rivers appear as dark lines. Vegetation appears bright green in this false-color Landsat image. The Gulf of Kachchh (or Kutch) is the blue area in the upper right corner of the image, and the gray area on the left side of the image is called the Banni plains.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 5X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 23.4 deg. North lat., 69.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: looking East Image Data: Landsat Bands 5, 4, 3 as red, green, blue respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: four days in February, 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

  15. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Most of the population of Utah lives just west of the Wasatch Mountains in the north central part of the state. This broad east-northeastward view shows that region with the cities of Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo seen from left to right. The Great Salt Lake (left) and Utah Lake (right) are quite shallow and appear greenish in this enhanced natural color view. Thousands of years ago ancient Lake Bonneville covered all of the lowlands seen here. Its former shoreline is clearly seen as a wave-cut bench and/or light colored 'bathtub ring' at several places along the base of the mountain front - evidence seen from space of our ever-changing planet.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic, and a false sky. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: View width 147 kilometers (91 miles), View distance 38 kilometers (24 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 112.0 deg. West lon. Orientation: View 19.5 deg North of East, 20 degrees below horizontal Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 30 meters (98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), 1990s (Landsat 5 image mosaic)

  16. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Francisco Bay Area, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The cities of San Francisco and the East Bay are highlighted in this computer-generated perspective viewed from west of the Golden Gate. San Francisco occupies the peninsula jutting into the picture from the right. Golden Gate Park is the long rectangle near its left end and the Presidiois the green area at its tip, from which Golden Gate Bridge crosses to Marin. Treasure Island is the bright spot above San Francisco and Alcatraz Island is the small smudge below and to the left. Across the bay from San Francisco lie Berkeley (left) and Oakland (right). Mount Diablo, a landmark visible for many miles, rises in the distance at the upper right.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an on-line mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 37.5 deg. North lat., 122.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: looking west Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  17. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Palm Springs, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The city of Palm Springs nestles at the base of Mount San Jacinto in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the east. The many golf courses in the area show up as irregular green areas while the two prominent lines passing through the middle of the image are Interstate 10 and the adjacent railroad tracks. The San Andreas Fault passes through the middle of the sandy Indio Hills in the foreground.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 33.8 deg. North lat., 116.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: looking west Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  18. SRTM Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay: Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph satellite image shows Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands, located south of Newfoundland, Canada. These islands are a self-governing territory of France. A 'tombolo' (sand bar) unites Grande Miquelon to the north and Petite Miquelon to the south. Saint Pierre Island, located to the lower right, includes a harbor, an airport, and a small town. Glaciers once covered these islands and the direction of glacial flow is evident in the topography as striations and shoreline trends running from the upper right to the lower left. The darkest image features are freshwater lakes that fill glacially carved depressions and saltwater lagoons that are bordered by barrier beaches. The lakes and the lagoons are fairly calm waters and reflect less sunlight than do the wave covered and sediment laden nearshore ocean currents.

    The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over preliminary digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60-meters (about 200-feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington DC.

    Size: 48 by 38 kilometers (30 by 24 miles) Location: 47 deg. North lat., 56.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward the upper left Image Data: Landsat bands 2 and 4 averaged Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 (SRTM), September 1, 1999 (Landsat) Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  19. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Lakes Managua and Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows Lakes Managua and Nicaragua near the Pacific coast of Nicaragua. Lake Managua is the 65-kilometer (40-mile)-long fresh water lake in the foreground of this south-looking view, emptying via the Tipitapa River into the much larger Lake Nicaragua in the distance. The capital city of Managua, with a population of more than 500,000, is located along the southern shore of Lake Managua, the area with the highest population density in Nicaragua.

    The physical setting of Lake Managua is dominated by the numerous volcanic features aligned in a northwest-southeast axis. The cone-like feature in the foreground is Momotombo, a 1,280-meter (4,199-foot)-high stratovolcano located on the northwest end of the lake. Two water-filled volcanic craters (Apoyegue and Jiloa volcanoes) reside on the Chiltepe Peninsula protruding into the lake from the west. Two volcanoes can also be seen on the island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua: El Maderas rising to 1,394 meters (4,573 feet) and the active El Conception at 1,610 meters (5,282 feet).

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 12.1 degrees North latitude, 86.1degrees West longitude Orientation: looking South Image Data: Landsat bands 5, 4, 3 as red, green, blue respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

  20. Strait of Gibraltar, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This perspective view shows the Strait of Gibraltar, which is the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Europe (Spain) is on the left. Africa (Morocco) is on the right. The Rock of Gibraltar, administered by Great Britain, is the peninsula in the back left.

    The Strait of Gibraltar is the only natural gap in the topographic barriers that separate the Mediterranean Sea from the world's oceans. The Sea is about 3700 kilometers (2300 miles) long and covers about 2.5 million square kilometers (one million square miles), while the Strait is only about 13 kilometers (8 miles) wide. Sediment samples from the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea that include evaporite minerals, soils, and fossil plants show that about five million years ago the Strait was topographically blocked and the Sea had evaporated into a deep basin far lower in elevation than the oceans. Consequent changes in the world's hydrologic cycle, including effects upon ocean salinity, likely led to more ice formation in polar regions and more reflection of sunlight back to space, resulting in a cooler global climate at that time. Today, topography plays a key role in our regional climate patterns. But through Earth history, topographic change, even perhaps over areas as small as 13 kilometers across, has also affected the global climate.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view is eastward with a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene (green vegetation, blue water, brown soil, white beaches) are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (99-feet) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    View Size: 46 kilometers (28 miles) wide, 106 kilometers (66 miles) distance Location: 36 degrees North latitude, 5.5 degrees West longitude Orientation: Looking East, 15 degrees down from horizontal, 3X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2+4, 3 as blue, green, red respectively Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), July 6, 1987 (Landsat)

  1. Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles)west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 37.1 kilometers (23.0 miles) by 20.3 kilometers (12.6 miles) Location: 3.2 degrees South latitude, 36.7 degrees East longitude Orientation: East at top Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2+4, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arc-second (30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), February 21, 2000 (Landsat 7)

  2. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Rann of Kachchh, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The earthquake that struck western India on January 26,2001, was the country's strongest in the past 50 years. This perspective view shows the area of the earthquake's epicenter in the lower left corner. The southern Rann of Kachchh appears in the foreground. The Rann is an area of low-lying salt flats that shows up with various shades of white and blue in this false-color Landsat image. The gray area on the middle of the image is called the Banni plains.

    The darker blue spots and curving lines in the Rann and the Banni plains are features that appeared after the January earthquake. Their true colors are shades of white and gray, but the infrared data used in the image gives them a blue or turquoise color. These features are the effects of liquefaction of wet soil, sand and mud layers caused by the shaking of the earthquake. The liquefaction beneath the surface causes water to be squeezed out at the surface forming mud volcanoes, sand blows and temporary springs. Some of the residents of this dry area were hopeful that they could use the water, but they found that the water was too salty in almost every place where it came to the surface.

    The city of Bhuj, India, appears as a gray area in the upper right of the image. Bhuj and many other towns and cities nearby were almost completely destroyed by the January 2001 earthquake. This magnitude 7.7 earthquake was the deadliest in the history of India with some 20,000 fatalities and over a million homes damaged or destroyed. The city of Bhuj was the historical capital of the Kachchh region. Highways and rivers appear as dark lines. Vegetation appears bright green in this false-color Landsat image.

    The city of Anjar is in the dark gray area near the upper left of the image. Previously damaged by a magnitude 6.1 earthquake in 1956 that killed 152people, Anjar suffered again in the larger 2001 earthquake.

    The red hills in the center of the image are the Has and Karo Hills, which reach up to 300 m (900 feet) elevation. Geologists are studying the folded red sandstone layers that form these hills to determine if they are related to the fault that broke in the 2001 earthquake.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 5X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 23.5 deg. North lat., 69.9 deg. East lon. Orientation: looking Southwest Image Data: Landsat Bands 5, 4, 3 as red, gr

  3. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    San Joaquin, the name given to the southern portion of California's vast Central Valley, has been called the world's richest agricultural valley. In this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image, we are looking toward the southwest over a checkerboard pattern of agricultural fields. Mt. Pinos, a popular location for stargazing at 2,692 meters (8,831 feet) looms above the valley floor and is visible on the left side of the image. The productive southern San Joaquin is in reality a desert, averaging less than 12.7 cm (5 inches) of rain per year. Through canals and irrigation, the region nurtures some two hundred crops including grapes, figs, apricots, oranges, and more than 4,047 square-km (1,000,000 acres) of cotton. The California Aqueduct, transporting water from the Sacramento River Delta through the San Joaquin, runs along the base of the low-lying Wheeler Ridge on the left side of the image. The valley is not all agriculture though. Kern County, near the valley's southern end, is the United States' number one oil producing county, and actually produces more crude oil than Oklahoma. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Location: 35.08 deg. North lat., 119.00 deg. West lon. View: Toward the Southwest Scale: Scale Varies in this Perspective Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

  4. Budapest, Hungary, Perspective View, SRTM Elevation Model with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After draining the northern flank of the Alps Mountains in Germany and Austria, the Danube River flows east as it enters this west-looking scene (upper right) and forms the border between Slovakia and Hungary. The river then leaves the border as it enters Hungary and transects the Transdanubian Mountains, which trend southwest to northeast. Upon exiting the mountains, the river turns southward, flowing past Budapest (purplish blue area) and along the western margin of the Great Hungarian Plain.

    South and west of the Danube, the Transdanubian Mountains have at most only about 400 meters (about 1300 feet) of relief but they exhibit varied landforms, which include volcanic, tectonic, fluvial (river), and eolian (wind) features. A thick deposit of loess (dust deposits likely blown from ancient glacial outwash) covers much of this area, and winds from the northwest, funneled between the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are apparently responsible for a radial pattern of erosional streaks across the entire region.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The false colors of the scene result from displaying Landsat bands 1, 4, and 7 in blue, green, and red, respectively. Band 1 is visible blue light, but bands 4 and 7 are reflected infrared light. This band combination maximizes color contrasts between the major land cover types, namely vegetation (green), bare ground (red), and water (blue). Shading of the elevation model was used to further highlight the topographic features.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    View Size: 133 kilometers (82 miles) wide, 90 kilometers (56 miles) distance Location: 47.5 degrees North latitude, 19.0 degrees East longitude Orientation: Looking West, 15 degrees down from horizontal, 3X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 4, 7 as blue, green, red respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), October 11, 1990 (Landsat)

  5. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Manhattan Island, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this image of Manhattan, the city's skyscrapers appear as ghostly white spikes. The green patch in the middle of the image is Central park. The Hudson River is visible on the upper left-hand side and the east River on the upper right. Although not designed to measure the heights of buildings, the radar used by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was so sensitive that it easily detected the Manhattan skyscrapers but could not distinguish individual structures.

    The image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and enhanced true-color Landsat 5 satellite images. Topographic shading in the image was enhanced with false shading derived from the elevation model. Topographic expression is exaggerated 6X.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60-meters (about 200-feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective, Manhattan is about 3.5 km (2.2 miles) across. Location: 40.8 deg. North lat., 74 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 (SRTM)

  6. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.

    But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural process

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    View Size: 124 kilometers (77 miles) wide, 148 kilometers (92 miles) distance Location: 39.7 degrees North latitude, 44.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: Looking South, 2 degrees down from horizontal, 1.25X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2+4, 3 as blue, green, red respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), August 31, 1989 (Landsat)

  7. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 3-D Perspective with Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view, looking up the Tigil River, shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The image shows that the Tigil River has eroded down from a higher and differing landscape and now flows through, rather than around the large green-colored bedrock ridge in the foreground. The older surface was likely composed of volcanic ash and debris from eruptions of nearby volcanoes. The green tones indicate that denser vegetation grows on south facing sunlit slopes at the northern latitudes. High resolution SRTM elevation data will be used by geologists to study how rivers shape the landscape, and by ecologists to study the influence of topography on ecosystems.

    This image shows how data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) can be used to enhance other satellite images. Color and natural shading are provided by a Landsat 7 image acquired on January 31, 2000. Terrain perspective and shading were derived from SRTM elevation data acquired on February 12, 2000. Topography is exaggerated by about six times vertically. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 71 km (44 miles) x 20 km (12 miles) Location: 57 deg. North lat., 159 deg. East lon. Orientation: Looking to the east Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  8. Pasadena, California Perspective View with Aerial Photo and Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada-Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene.

    This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 5.8 km (3.6 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 34.16 deg. North lat., 118.16 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking North Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters; Landsat, 30 meters; Aerial Photo, 3 meters (no vertical exaggeration) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

  9. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Monica Bay to Mount Baden-Powell, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Los Angeles may be the world's entertainment capital, but it is a difficult place to locate television and radio antennas. The metropolitan area spreads from the Pacific Ocean to Southern California's upper and lower deserts, valleys, mountains, canyons and coastal plains. While this unique geography offers something for everyone in terms of urban, suburban, small-town, and even semi-rural living, reception of television and radio signals can be problematic where there is no line-of-sight to a transmitting antenna. Broadcasters must choose antenna sites carefully in order to reach the greatest number of customers. Most local television towers are located atop Mount Wilson (elevation 1740 m =5710 ft), which is located on the front range of the San Gabriel Mountains (indistinctly visible, just right of the image center). This site is preferable to the highest peak seen here (Mount Baden-Powell, 2865 m =9399 ft) because it's closer to the urban center and has fewer obstructing peaks. It is also situated at a protruding bend in the mountain front and has few obstructions to the left and right. Computer automated methods combined with elevation models produced by SRTM will quantitatively optimize such factors in the siting of future transmission antenna installations worldwide.

    This perspective view looks northeastward from the Santa Monica Bay. The San Fernando Valley is on the left, Pasadena is against the mountain front at right-center, and downtown Los Angeles is on the coastal plain directly in front of Mount Baden-Powell. This image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: 29 kilometers (18 miles) view width, 70 kilometers (43 miles) view distance Location: 34.2 deg. North lat., 118.2 deg. West lon. Orientation: View toward the northeast, 3X vertical exaggeration Image: Landsat bands 1, 2&4, 3 as blue, green, and red, respectively Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 (SRTM), November 11, 1986 (Landsat)

  10. Digital overlaying of the universal transverse Mercator grid with LANDSAT data derived products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    Picture elements of data from the LANDSAT multispectral scanner are correlated with the universal tranverse Mercator grid. In the procedure, a series of computer modules was used to make approximations of universal transverse Mercator grid locations for all picture elements from the grid locations of a limited number of known control points and to provide display and digital storage of the data. The software has been written in FORTRAN 4 language for a Varian 70-series computer.

  11. SRTM Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay: Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This stereoscopic satellite image shows Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands, located south of Newfoundland, Canada. These islands are a self-governing territory of France. A 'tombolo' (sand bar) unites Grande Miquelon to the north and Petite Miquelon to the south. Saint Pierre Island, located to the lower right, includes a harbor, an airport, and a small town. Glaciers once covered these islands and the direction of glacial flow is evident in the topography as striations and shoreline trends running from the upper right to the lower left. The darkest image features are freshwater lakes that fill glacially carved depressions and saltwater lagoons that are bordered by barrier beaches. The lakes and the lagoons are fairly calm waters and reflect less sunlight than do the wave covered and sediment laden nearshore ocean currents.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60-meters (about 200-feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington DC.

    Size: 48 by 38 kilometers (30 by 24 miles) Location: 47 deg. North lat., 56.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward the upper left Image Data: Landsat bands 1, 2+4, 3 in blue, green, red, respectively Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 (SRTM), September 1, 1999 (Landsat) Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  12. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This computer generated perspective image provides a northward looking 'view from space' that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling, and the nearby Snow Basin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City area ski resorts host the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter(approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: View width 48.8 kilometers (30.2 miles), View distance 177 kilometers (110 miles) Location: 41 deg. North lat., 112.0 deg. West lon. Orientation: View North, 20 degrees below horizontal Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 30 meters (98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), 1990s (Landsat 5 image mosaic)

  13. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Ventura, and Lake Casitas, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Ventura, California is one of this state's oldest cities. Officially known as San Buenaventura, it was established in 1782 with the founding of the Mission San Buenaventura, the ninth of the 21 Spanish missions founded in California. In this perspective view generated from SRTM elevation data, the city can be seen occupying the shore of the Pacific Ocean and the nearby foothills. Lake Casitas, a reservoir and popular recreation area, is the dark blue feature in the center of the image. Holding back the 313,000 megaliter (254,000 acre-feet) storage capacity of the reservoir and visible as a very bright feature foreground of the lake, is the Casitas Dam, a 102-meter(334-foot) Earth fill dam. The reservoir and dam were built between 1956 and 1959 for the Federal Bureau of Reclamation's Ventura River Project. In addition to recreational use, Lake Casitas provides irrigation, municipal and industrial water to urban and suburban areas in Ventura County. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Distance to Horizon: 54.5 kilometers (33.8 miles) Location: 34.38 deg. North lat., 119.3 deg. West lon. View: Toward the North Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

  14. Landsat 7

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Landsat 7, the latest satellite in a series of earth remote sensing satellites, was launched into orbit on April 15, 1999. Of great importance to science, Landsat 7 gathers remotely sensed images of the land surface (and surrounding coastal regions) across the entire globe; using these images, researchers monitor "important small-scale processes on a global scale, such as the inter- and intra-annual cycles of vegetation growth; deforestation; agricultural land use; erosion and other forms of land degradation; snow accumulation and melt and the associated fresh-water reservoir replenishment; and urbanization." The Landsat 7 site provides general information on the satellite, including how images are taken and examples of satellite images. Additionally, several sections describe data (including acquisition), products (with links to examples of recent satellite images), and other applications.

  15. Landsat Data Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    This site from NASA provides a number of resources for obtaining Landsat digital data. Included are links for ordering Landsat 7 data as well as sources of Landsat 4, 5 and other related and heritage land remote sensing data.

  16. Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The flight performance of Landsat 1 and Landsat 2 is analyzed. Flight operations of the satellites are briefly summarized. Other topics discussed include: orbital parameters; power subsystem; attitude control subsystem; command/clock subsystem; telemetry subsystem; orbit adjust subsystem; magnetic moment compensating assembly; unified s-band/premodulation processor; electrical interface subsystem; thermal subsystem; narrowband tape recorders; wideband telemetry subsystem; attitude measurement sensor; wideband video tape recorders; return beam vidicon; multispectral scanner subsystem; and data collection subsystem.

  17. Texas Orthorectified Landsat State Mosaic

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image was created using Tri-Decadal Global Landsat Orthorectified ETM+ Pan-Sharpened data, and draped with National Elevation Dataset (NED) data. Visit the Landsat Missions website to learn more about Landsat....

  18. Landsat surface reflectance data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2015-01-01

    Landsat satellite data have been produced, archived, and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1972. Users rely on these data for historical study of land surface change and require consistent radiometric data processed to the highest science standards. In support of the guidelines established through the Global Climate Observing System, the U.S. Geological Survey has embarked on production of higher-level Landsat data products to support land surface change studies. One such product is Landsat surface reflectance.

  19. A Landsat study of water quality in Lake Okeechobee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Marshall, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper uses multiple regression techniques to investigate the relationship between Landsat radiance values and water quality measurements. For a period of over one year, the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District sampled the water of Lake Okeechobee for chlorophyll, carotenoids, turbidity, and various nutrients at the time of Landsat overpasses. Using an overlay map of the sampling stations, Landsat radiance values were measured from computer compatible tapes using a GE image 100 and averaging over a 22-acre area at each station. These radiance values in four bands were used to form a number of functions (powers, logarithms, exponentials, and ratios), which were then compared with the ground measurements using multiple linear regression techniques. Several dates were used to provide generality and to study possible seasonal variations. Individual correlations were presented for the various water quality parameters and best fit equations were examined for chlorophyll and turbidity. The results and their relationship to past hydrological research were discussed.

  20. Cadmium ferrocyanide overlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.J.; Rubin, H.D.; Chen, Y.; Bocarsly, A.B. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that utilization of an n-CdSe photoanode in an electrolyte containing the ferro/ferricyanide redox couple (adjusted to pH = 13) gives rise to an overlayer on the electrode composed of [Cd(CN)Fe(CN)[sub 6

  1. Functional Overlay: An Illegitimate Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Functional overlay is not a recognized psychiatric diagnosis. Evaluating functional overlay and differentiating between this concept and organic conditions is important in medicolegal areas in which financial values are placed on pain and disability. Functional overlay is not malingering: the former is based on preconscious or unconscious mechanisms, the latter is consciously induced. In considering psychologic reactions to pain and disability, a gradient of simulation, malingering, symptom exaggeration, overvaluation, functional overlay and hysteria is useful. The dynamics of overlay are a combination of anxiety from body-image distortion and depression from decreased efficiency of the body, as well as the resulting psychosocial disruption in a patient's life. PMID:516698

  2. House adopts Landsat Bill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Landsat Policy Act (HR3614) was adopted by the House of Representatives on June 9. The bill, reported to the House by the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, was introduced by chair George E. Brown (D-Calif.) on October 23, 1991.HR3614 creates a new management structure for the Landsat program by establishing a Joint Program Office to manage the program instead of the Department of Commerce. Funding and management responsibilities would be shared equally between NASA and the Department of Defense, and with other agencies as determined by the president. The bill would also provide for the procurement of the next in a series of Landsat satellites. It pinpoints specific policy changes aimed at enhancing the program's value, particularly for global change and environmental research. Landsat data has been used for environmental management, oil and gas exploration, crop assessments, and deforestation monitoring.

  3. LANDSAT data preprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    The effect on LANDSAT data of a Sun angle correction, an intersatellite LANDSAT-2 and LANDSAT-3 data range adjustment, and the atmospheric correction algorithm was evaluated. Fourteen 1978 crop year LACIE sites were used as the site data set. The preprocessing techniques were applied to multispectral scanner channel data and transformed data were plotted and used to analyze the effectiveness of the preprocessing techniques. Ratio transformations effectively reduce the need for preprocessing techniques to be applied directly to the data. Subtractive transformations are more sensitive to Sun angle and atmospheric corrections than ratios. Preprocessing techniques, other than those applied at the Goddard Space Flight Center, should only be applied as an option of the user. While performed on LANDSAT data the study results are also applicable to meteorological satellite data.

  4. Mask registration and wafer overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulseung; Bang, Changjin; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kang, Hyosang; Lee, Dohwa; Jeong, Woonjae; Lim, Ok-Sung; Yoon, Seunghoon; Jung, Jaekang; Laske, Frank; Parisoli, Lidia; Roeth, Klaus-Dieter; Robinson, John C.; Jug, Sven; Izikson, Pavel; Dinu, Berta; Widmann, Amir; Choi, DongSub

    2010-03-01

    Overlay continues to be one of the key challenges for lithography in advanced semiconductor manufacturing. It becomes even more challenging due to the continued shrinking of the device node. Some low k1 techniques, such as Double Exposure and Double Patterning also add additional loss of the overlay margin due to the fact that the single layer pattern is created based on more than 1 exposure. Therefore, the overlay between 2 exposures requires very tight overlay specification. Mask registration is one of the major contributors to wafer overlay, especially field related overlay. We investigated mask registration and wafer overlay by co-analyzing the mask data and the wafer overlay data. To achieve the accurate cohesive results, we introduced the combined metrology mark which can be used for both mask registration measurement as well as for wafer overlay measurement. Coincidence of both metrology marks make it possible to subtract mask signature from wafer overlay without compromising the accuracy due to the physical distance between measurement marks, if we use 2 different marks for both metrologies. Therefore, it is possible to extract pure scanner related signatures, and to analyze the scanner related signatures in details to in order to enable root cause analysis and ultimately drive higher wafer yield. We determined the exact mask registration error in order to decompose wafer overlay into mask, scanner, process and metrology. We also studied the impact of pellicle mounting by comparison of mask registration measurement pre-pellicle mounting and post-pellicle mounting in this investigation.

  5. Overlay Networks with Linear Capacity Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Zhu; Baochun Li

    2005-01-01

    Overlay networks are virtual networks residing over the IP network, consequently, overlay links may share hidden lower-level bottlenecks. Previous work have assumed an inde- pendent overlay model: a graph with independent link capacities. We introduce a model of overlays which incorporates correlated link capacities and linear capacity constraints (LCC) to formulate hidden shared bottlenecks; we refer to these as LCC-overlays.

  6. Overlay Networks with Linear Capacity Constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Zhu; Baochun Li

    2008-01-01

    Overlay networks are virtual networks residing over the IP network; consequently, overlay links may share hidden lower level bottlenecks. Previous work has assumed an independent overlay model: a graph with independent link capacities. We introduce a model of overlays that incorporates correlated link capacities and linear capacity constraints (LCC) to formulate hidden shared bottlenecks; we refer to these as LCC-overlays.

  7. LANDSAT-D Investigations Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented which highlight LANDSAT-D project status and ground segment; early access TM processing; LANDSAT-D data acquisition and availability; LANDSAT-D performance characterization; MSS pre-NOAA characterization; MSS radiometric sensor performance (spectral information, absolute calibration, and ground processing); MSS geometric sensor performance; and MSS geometric processing and calibration.

  8. LANDSAT instruments characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. (principal investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Work performed for the LANDSAT instrument characterization task in the areas of absolute radiometry, coherent noise analysis, and between-date smoothing is reported. Absolute radiometric calibration for LANDSAT-5 TM under ambient conditions was performed. The TM Radiometric Algorithms and Performance Program (TRAPP) was modified to create optional midscan data files and to match the TM Image Processing System (TIPS) algorithm for pulse determination. Several data reduction programs were developed, including a linear regression and its plotted result. A fast Fourier transformation study was conducted on the resequenced TM data. Subscenes of homogeneous water within scenes over Pensacola, Florida were used for testing the FFT on the resequenced data. Finally, a gain and pulse height stability study of LANDSAT 5 TM spectral bands was performed.

  9. Landsat Radiometry Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This final report summarizes three years of work characterizing the radiometry of the Landsat 4, 5 and 7 Thematic Mappers. It is divided into six sections that are representative of the major areas of effort: 1) Internal Calibrator Lamp Monitoring; 2) Vicarious Calibration; 3) Relative Gain Analysis; 4) Outgassing; 5) Landsat 4 Absolute Calibration; and 6) Landsat 5 Scene Invariant Analysis. Each section provides a summary overview of the work that has been performed at SDSU. Major results are highlighted. In several cases, references are given to publications that have developed from this work, Several team members contributed to this report: Tim Ruggles, Dave Aaron, Shriharsha Madhavan, Esad Micijevic, Cory Mettler, and Jim Dewald. At the end of the report is a summary section.

  10. Monitoring gypsy moth defoliation by applying change detection techniques to Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Stauffer, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objective of a research effort at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is to develop and evaluate digital image processing techniques that will facilitate the assessment of the intensity and spatial distribution of forest insect damage in Northeastern U.S. forests using remotely sensed data from Landsats 1, 2 and C. Automated change detection techniques are presently being investigated as a method of isolating the areas of change in the forest canopy resulting from pest outbreaks. In order to follow the change detection approach, Landsat scene correction and overlay capabilities are utilized to provide multispectral/multitemporal image files of 'defoliation' and 'nondefoliation' forest stand conditions.

  11. LANDSAT information for state planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, N. L.; Spann, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    The transfer of remote sensing technology for the digital processing of LANDSAT data to state and local agencies in Georgia and other southeastern states is discussed. The project consists of a series of workshops, seminars, and demonstration efforts, and transfer of NASA-developed hardware concepts and computer software to state agencies. Throughout the multi-year effort, digital processing techniques have been emphasized classification algorithms. Software for LANDSAT data rectification and processing have been developed and/or transferred. A hardware system is available at EES (engineering experiment station) to allow user interactive processing of LANDSAT data. Seminars and workshops emphasize the digital approach to LANDSAT data utilization and the system improvements scheduled for LANDSATs C and D. Results of the project indicate a substantially increased awareness of the utility of digital LANDSAT processing techniques among the agencies contracted throughout the southeast. In Georgia, several agencies have jointly funded a program to map the entire state using digitally processed LANDSAT data.

  12. Landsat: Mt. Redoubt

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Landsat 5 image of the Mt. Redoubt area on March 26, 2009 at 1:07 PM AKDT. The false color image shows the large brown ash cloud extending over the Cook Inlet and the western Kenai peninsula (right sid of image). The image also shows a whiter steam and gas plume rising from the summit of Redoubt Vol...

  13. Defending against eclipse attacks on overlay networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul Singh; Miguel Castro; Peter Druschel; Antony I. T. Rowstron

    2004-01-01

    Overlay networks are widely used to deploy functionality at edge nodes without changing network routers. Each node in an overlay network maintains pointers to a set of neighbor nodes. These pointers are used both to maintain the overlay and to implement application functionality, for example, to locate content stored by overlay nodes. If an attacker controls a large fraction of

  14. Measurement Based Routing Strategies on Overlay Architectures

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    as the destination address · Overlay node strips the extra IP header and forwards the packet to the destinationMeasurement Based Routing Strategies on Overlay Architectures Student: Tuna G¨uven Faculty: Bobby network performance Some parts of network underutilized Application-Layer Overlay Network · Overlay nodes

  15. Photointerpretation of LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Learning objectives include: (1) developing a facility for applying conventional techniques of photointerpretation to small scale (satellite) imager; (2) promoting the ability to locate, identify, and interpret small natural and man made surface features in a LANDSAT image; (3) using supporting imagery, such as aerial and space photography, to conduct specific applications analyses; (4) learning to apply change detection techniques to recognize and explain transient and temporal events in individual or seasonal imagery; (5) producing photointerpretation maps that define major surface units, themes, or classes; (6) classifying or analyzing a scene for specific discipline applications in geology, agriculture, forestry, hyrology, coastal wetlands, and environmental pollution; and (7) evaluating both advantages and shortcomings in relying on the photointerpretive approach (rather than computer based analytical approach) for extracting information from LANDSAT data.

  16. Concerns about Landsat 5 failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    An electronic component on board the Landsat 5 Earth observation satellite has indicated signs of impending failure, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has stopped acquiring images from the satellite, the agency announced on 18 November. USGS engineers have suspended imaging activities for 90 days to explore options for restoring image transmissions from the satellite, which was launched in 1984 and has operated long beyond the 3 years it was designed to last. “This anticipated decline of Landsat 5 provides confirmation of the importance of the timely launch of the next Landsat mission and the need for an operational and reliable National Land Imaging System,” said Anne Castle, assistant secretary for water and science at the U.S. Department of the Interior. USGS is part of the Interior department. Landsat 7, launched in 1999 with a 5-year design life, remains in orbit. Landsat 8, the Landsat Data Continuity Mission, has a January 2013 scheduled launch.

  17. Overlay accuracy investigation for advanced memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Honggoo; Lee, Byongseog; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kwon, Wontaik; Park, Sungki; Choi, DongSub; Lee, Dohwa; Jeon, Sanghuck; Lee, Kangsan; Volkovich, Roie; Itzkovich, Tal; Herzel, Eitan; Wagner, Mark; Elkodadi, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Overlay in lithography becomes much more challenging due to the shrink of device node and multi-patterning approach. Consequently, the specification of overlay becomes tighter, and more complicated overlay control methods like high order or field-by-field control become mandatory. In addition, the tight overlay specification starts to raise another fundamental question: accuracy. Overlay inaccuracy is dominated by two main components: one is measurement quality and the other is representing device overlay. The latter is because overlay is being measured on overlay targets, not on the real device structures. We investigated the following for accurate overlay measurement: optimal target design by simulation; optimal recipe selection using the index of measurement quality; and, the correlation with device pattern's overlay. Simulation was done for an advanced memory stack for optimal overlay target design which provides robustness for the process variation and sufficient signal for the stack. Robustness factor and sufficient signal factor sometimes contradicting each other, therefore there is trade-off between these two factors. Simulation helped to find the design to meet the requirement of both factors. The investigation involves also recipe optimization which decides the measurement conditions like wavelength. KLA-Tencor also introduced a new index which help to find an accurate measurement condition. In this investigation, we used CD-SEM to measure the overlay of device pattern after etch or decap process to check the correlation between the overlay of overlay mark and the overlay of device pattern.

  18. Towards Social Profile Based Overlays

    E-print Network

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Online social networking has quickly become one of the most common activities of Internet users. As social networks evolve, they encourage users to share more information, requiring the users, in turn, to place more trust into social networks. Peer-to-peer (P2P) overlays provide an environment that can return ownership of information, trust, and control to the users, away from centralized third-party social networks. In this paper, we present a novel concept, social profile overlays, which enable users to share their profile only with trusted peers in a scalable, reliable, and private manner. Each user's profile consists of a unique private, secure overlay, where members of that overlay have a friendship with the overlay owner. Profile data is made available without regard to the online state of the profile owner through the use of the profile overlay's distributed data store. Privacy and security are enforced through the use of a public key infrastructure (PKI), where the role of certificate authority (CA) i...

  19. Multispectral Landsat images of Antartica

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Bowell, J.A.; Edwards, K.L.; Eliason, E.M.; Fergurson, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a program to map Antarctica by using colored, digitally enhanced Landsat multispectral scanner images to increase existing map coverage and to improve upon previously published Landsat maps. This report is a compilation of images and image mosaic that covers four complete and two partial 1:250,000-scale quadrangles of the McMurdo Sound region.

  20. The Next Landsat Satellite: The Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rons, James R.; Dwyer, John L.; Barsi, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat program is one of the longest running satellite programs for Earth observations from space. The program was initiated by the launch of Landsat 1 in 1972. Since then a series of six more Landsat satellites were launched and at least one of those satellites has been in operations at all times to continuously collect images of the global land surface. The Department of Interior (DOI) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) preserves data collected by all of the Landsat satellites at their Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This 40-year data archive provides an unmatched record of the Earth's land surface that has undergone dramatic changes in recent decades due to the increasing pressure of a growing population and advancing technologies. EROS provides the ability for anyone to search the archive and order digital Landsat images over the internet for free. The Landsat data are a public resource for observing, characterizing, monitoring, trending, and predicting land use change over time providing an invaluable tool for those addressing the profound consequences of those changes to society. The most recent launch of a Landsat satellite occurred in 1999 when Landsat 7 was placed in orbit. While Landsat 7 remains in operation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the DOI/ USGS are building its successor satellite system currently called the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). NASA has the lead for building and launching the satellite that will carry two Earth-viewing instruments, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The OLI will take images that measure the amount of sunlight reflected by the land surface at nine wavelengths of light with three of those wavelengths beyond the range of human vision. T1RS will collect coincident images that measure light emitted by the land surface as a function of surface temperature at two longer wavelengths well beyond the range of human vision. The DOI/USGS is developing the ground system that will command and control the LDCM satellite in orbit and manage the OLI and TIRS data transmitted by the satellite. DOI/USGS will thus operate the satellite and collect, archive, and distribute the image data as part of the EROS archive. DOI/USGS has committed to renaming LDCM as Landsat 8 following launch. By either name the satellite and its sensors will extend the 40-year archive with images sufficiently consistent with data from earlier Landsat satellites to allow multi-decadal, broad-area studies of our dynamic landscapes. The next Landsat satellite and ground system are on schedule for a January, 2013 launch.

  1. Status of worldwide Landsat archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warriner, Howard W.

    1987-01-01

    In cooperation with the International Landsat community, and through the Landsat Technical Working Group (LTWG), NOAA is assembling information about the status of the Worldwide Landsat Archive. During LTWG 9, member nations agreed to participate in a survey of International Landsat data holding and of their archive experiences with Landsat data. The goal of the effort was two-fold; one, to document the Landsat archive to date, and, two, to ensure that specific nations' experience with long-term Landsat archival problems were available to others. The survey requested details such as amount of data held, the format of the archive holdings by Spacecraft/Sensor, and acquisition years; the estimated costs to accumulated process, and replace the data (if necessary); the storage space required, and any member nation's plans that would establish the insurance of continuing quality. As a group, the LTWG nations are concerned about the characteristics and reliability of long-term magnetic media storage. Each nation's experience with older data retrieval is solicited in the survey. This information will allow nations to anticipate and plan for required changes to their archival holdings. Also solicited were reports of any upgrades to a nation's archival system that are currently planned and all results of attempts to reduce archive holdings including methodology, current status, and the planned access rates and product support that are anticipated for responding to future archival usage.

  2. Fabrication of magnetic bubble memory overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Self-contained magnetic bubble memory overlay is fabricated by process that employs epitaxial deposition to form multi-layered complex of magnetically active components on single chip. Overlay fabrication comprises three metal deposition steps followed by subtractive etch.

  3. Landsat features for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Lambeck, P. F.; Crist, E. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents relationships among Landsat MSS bands and selected transformations of them, with emphasis on the Tasseled-Cap Transformation and its Brightness, Greenness variables. It also discusses relationships between reflectance measurements made in the Landsat spectral bands and actual Landsat data. Agronomically oriented analyses of reflectance measurements of wheat throughout a growing season are presented, with a comparison of various green measures, correlation with crop development stage, and examination of the effects of moisture stress. The final example addresses the use of transformed variables in a newly developed approach to forestry change detection.

  4. Investigation of dielectric overlay microstrip circuits

    E-print Network

    Klein, James Louis

    1988-01-01

    : Dr. Kai Chang The dielectric overlay may be implemented to solve the problems of several microstrip circuit. s. By overlaying a ring resonator the coupling will be increased and the losses reduced. In a directional coupler the overlay will serve... Microstrip Line 20 20 21 23 27 IV DIELECTRIC OVERLAY DIRECTIONAL COUPLER A. Introduction B. Theoretical Method C. Theoretical Results D. Experimental Procedure E. Experimental Results F. Design Curves for Coupled Microstrip Lines 36 36 40 43...

  5. Landsat Maps in Student Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.; Goldberg, Jack

    1978-01-01

    Describes the use of Landsat maps in a study to determine the feasibility of supervising student teachers with group telephone conferencing. Project value was determined by cooperating teacher evaluations, student-teacher comments, and pupil achievement. (MA)

  6. NASA Scientific Visualization Studio: Landsat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of visualizations was made from Landsat imagery. Many of these visualizations are designed to show changes in our environment through time. Subjects include glacial retreat, urban growth, landforms and coastlines, floods, fires, deforestation, volcanism, and others.

  7. LANDSAT-D refurbishment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for refurbishing the LANDSAT-D spacecraft after its recovery from orbit at the end of a 3-year mission in order to reuse the spacecraft on a second 3-year mission were studied. A schedule of the time required for the refurbishment including the procurement cycle for long lead-time items is developed. The costs of refurbishing and of procuring an entirely new LANDSAT-D spacecraft are compared.

  8. Landsat Data as a Tool for the Geosciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Tina

    1990-01-01

    Applications of the Landsat Thematic Mapper in the fields of pedology, geology, and geomorphology are described. The history of the Landsat program and Landsat products are discussed. Illustrations of different Landsat views are presented. (CW)

  9. 20nm MOL overlay case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramany, Lokesh; Hsieh, Michael; Li, Chen; Koh, Hui Peng; Cho, David; Golotsvan, Anna; Ramanathan, Vidya; Karur Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Yap, Lipkong

    2014-04-01

    As the process nodes continue to shrink, overlay budgets are approaching theoretical performance of the tools. It becomes even more imperative to improve overlay performance in order to maintain the roadmap for advance integrated circuit manufacturing. One of the critical factors in 20nm manufacturing is the overlay performance between the Middle of Line (MOL) and the Poly layer. The margin between these two layers was a process limiter, it was essential that we maintain a very tight overlay control between these layers. Due to various process and metrology related effects, maintaining good overlay control became a challenge. In this paper we describe the various factors affecting overlay performance and the measures taken to mitigate or eliminate said factors to improve overlay performance.

  10. Detection of aspen/conifer forest mixes from multitemporal Landsat digital data. [Utah-Idaho Bear River Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.; Harniss, R. O.

    1984-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using Landsat multispectral scanner data. Digital classification and statistical analysis of Landsat data allowed the identification of six groups of signatures which reflect different types of aspen/conifer forest mixing. Photo interpretations of the print symbols suggest that such classes are indicative of mid to late seral aspen forests. Digital print map overlayes and acreage calculations were prepared for the study area quadrangles. Further field verification is needed to acquire additional information about the nature of the forests. Single data Landsat analysis should be a cost effective means to index aspen forests which are at least in the mid seral phase of conifer invasion. Since aspen canopies tend to obscure understory conifers for early seral forests, a second data analysis, using data taken when aspens are leafless, could provide information about early seral aspen forests.

  11. LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The integrated LANDSAT-D systems operation plan is presented and discussed with respect to functional elements, personnel, and procedures. Specifically, a review of the LANDSAT-D program, mission requirements and management, and flight operations is given.

  12. LANDSAT-2 and LANDSAT-3 Flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winchester, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Flight performance analysis of LANDSAT 2 and LANDSAT 3 are presented for the period July 1978 to October 1978. Spacecraft operations and orbital parameters are summarized for each spacecraft. Data are provided on the performance and operation of the following subsystems onboard the spacecraft: power; attitude control; command/clock; telemetry; orbit adjust; magnetic moment compensating assembly; unified S band/premodulation processor; electrical interface; thermal narrowband tape recorders; wideband telemetry; attitude measurement sensor; wideband video tape recorders; return beam vidicon; multispectral scanner subsystem; and data collections.

  13. Wheat yield forecasts using Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Rice, D. P.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Leaf area index and percentage of vegetative cover, two indices of crop yield developed from Landsat multispectral scanning data, are discussed. Studies demonstrate that the Landsat indicators may be as highly correlated with winter wheat yield as estimates based on traditional field sampling methods; in addition, the Landsat indicators may account for variations in individual field yield which are not explainable by meteorological data. A simple technique employing early-season Landsat data to make wheat yield predictions is also considered.

  14. Earth Now! Landsat Image Viewer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This viewer lets users see near real-time images from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). When a Landsat satellite passes within range of the ground station at the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), image data are downlinked and displayed in near-real time. When no satellites are within range, the most recent pass is displayed. By viewing the moving display, students can monitor changes in the Earth's surface. An index map and information display shows the path of the satellite, indicates which satellite is currently providing the imagery, and gives the acquisition date and time. A help page and frequently-asked-questions feature are provided to explain how to use the site.

  15. Next Generation Landsat Products Delivered Using Virtual Globes and OGC Standard Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiers, M.; Dwyer, J.; Neiers, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is the next in the series of Landsat satellite missions and is tasked with the objective of delivering data acquired by the Operational Land Imager (OLI). The OLI instrument will provide data continuity to over 30 years of global multispectral data collected by the Landsat series of satellites. The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS) Center has responsibility for the development and operation of the LDCM ground system. One of the mission objectives of the LDCM is to distribute OLI data products electronically over the Internet to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at no cost. To ensure the user community and general public can easily access LDCM data from multiple clients, the User Portal Element (UPE) of the LDCM ground system will use OGC standards and services such as Keyhole Markup Language (KML), Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Geographic encoding of Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) feeds for both access to and delivery of LDCM products. The USGS has developed and tested the capabilities of several successful UPE prototypes for delivery of Landsat metadata, full resolution browse, and orthorectified (L1T) products from clients such as Google Earth, Google Maps, ESRI ArcGIS Explorer, and Microsoft's Virtual Earth. Prototyping efforts included the following services: using virtual globes to search the historical Landsat archive by dynamic generation of KML; notification of and access to new Landsat acquisitions and L1T downloads from GeoRSS feeds; Google indexing of KML files containing links to full resolution browse and data downloads; WMS delivery of reduced resolution browse, full resolution browse, and cloud mask overlays; and custom data downloads using WCS clients. These various prototypes will be demonstrated and LDCM service implementation plans will be discussed during this session.

  16. An operational application of satellite snow cover observations, northwest United States. [using LANDSAT 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT-1 imagery showing extent of snow cover was collected and is examined for the 1973 and 1974 snowmelt seasons for three Columbia River Basins. Snowlines were mapped and the aerial snow cover was determined using satellite data. Satellite snow mapping products were compared products from conventional information sources (computer programming and aerial photography was used). Available satellite data were successfully analyzed by radiance thresholding to determine snowlines and the attendant snow-covered area. Basin outline masks, contour elevation masks, and grid overlays were utilized as satellite data interpretation aids. Verification of the LANDSAT-1 data was generally good although there were exceptions. A major problem was lack of adequate cloud-free satellite imagery of high resolution and determining snowlines in forested areas.

  17. A legislator's guide to LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The LANDSAT satellite is an effective tool in meeting the natural resources data requirements of state and federal legislation. The availability of data from the satellite is beginning to have an impact on state legislature activities. An overview of the history, operation, and data analysis techniques, is presented as well as a discussion of the advantages and limitations of this method of remote sensing. Applications are discussed in the areas of (1) land resource planning and management; (2) coastal zone management; (3) agriculture; (4) forestry; (5) routing and siting; (6) environmental monitoring; and (7) geological exploration. National and state sources from which information about LANDSAT technology is available are listed.

  18. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A flight performance analysis of the LANDSAT-1 spacecraft is presented, and some of the following were examined: (1) orbital parameters; (2) power subsystem; (3) attitude control subsystem; (4) command/clock subsystem; (5) narrowband tape recorders; and (6) magnetic moment compensating assembly.

  19. LANDSAT-4 Radiometric and Geometric Correction and Image Enhancement Results. [San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R.; Lotspiech, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques were developed or improved to calibrate, enhance, and geometrically correct LANDSAT-4 satellite data. Statistical techniques to correct data radiometry were evaluated and were found to minimize striping and banding. Conventional techniques cause striping even with perfect calibration parameters. Intensity enhancement techniques were improved to display image data with large variation in intensity or brightness. Data were geometrically corrected to conform to a 1:100,000 map reference and image products produced with the map overlay. It is shown that these products can serve as accurate map products. A personal computer was experimentally used for digital image processing.

  20. Landsat 7 Science Data Processing: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweiss, Robert J.; Daniel, Nathaniel E.; Derrick, Deborah K.

    2000-01-01

    The Landsat 7 Science Data Processing System, developed by NASA for the Landsat 7 Project, provides the science data handling infrastructure used at the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) Landsat Data Handling Facility (DHF) of the United States Department of Interior, United States Geological Survey (USGS) located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This paper presents an overview of the Landsat 7 Science Data Processing System and details of the design, architecture, concept of operation, and management aspects of systems used in the processing of the Landsat 7 Science Data.

  1. Landsat TM and ETM+ Thermal Band Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Hook, Simon J.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2006-01-01

    Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been imaging the Earth since March 1984 and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. The stability and calibration of the ETM+ has been monitored extensively since launch. Though not monitored for many years, TM now has a similar system in place to monitor stability and calibration. University teams have been evaluating the on-board calibration of the instruments through ground-based measurements since 1999. This paper considers the calibration efforts for the thermal band, Band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 instruments.

  2. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, J.C.; Masek, J.G.; Dwyer, J.; Roy, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record. ?? 2010.

  3. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper Calibration Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helder, Dennis; Malla. Rimy; Mettler, Cory; Markham, Brian; Micijevic, Esad

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5, which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the Thematic Mapper-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988 through 1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations, a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert PICS, were developed. Results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all the reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this work have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  4. Using population statistics for a first look at the utility of Landsat data for urban areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landini, A. J.; Mcleod, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the Image Based Information System (IBIS), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) which provided the city of Los Angeles with Landsat land use data in a format compatible with the city's land use and population files. Landsat data are compared to other land use files and the comparisons are discussed as an attempt to establish a level of validity. Relationships between population and Landsat data are investigated and reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the use of such data for urban areas. Finally, it is noted that the project verified the flexibility of IBIS for reducing and delivering Landsat data to users lacking the ability to process raw satellite data tapes and points to the system as a model for a potential national census of land use.

  5. Optimal Resource Allocation in Overlay Multicast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Cui; Yuan Xue; Klara Nahrstedt

    2003-01-01

    This paper targets the problem of optimal resource al- location in overlay multicast, which poses both theoreti- cal and practical challenges. Theoretically, resource al- location among overlay flows is not only subject to the network capacity constraint, but also the data constraint, mainly due to the dual role of end hosts as both receivers and senders. Practically, existing distributed resource

  6. Chapter VIII Automated Overlay of Infrared

    E-print Network

    Hopgood, Adrian

    166 Chapter VIII Automated Overlay of Infrared and Visual Medical Images G. Schaefer Aston written permission of IGI Global is prohibited. AbstrAct Medical infrared imaging captures the temperature a useful diagnostic visualisation for the clinician. #12;167 Automated Overlay of Infrared and Visual

  7. Overlay Multicast Trees of Minimal Delay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anton Riabov; Zhen Liu; Li Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Overlay multicast (or application-level multicast) has become an increasingly popular alternative to IP-supported multicast. End nodes participating in overlay multicast can form a directed tree rooted at the source using existing unicast links. For each receiving node there is always only one incoming link. Very often, nodes can support no more than a fixed number of outgoing links due to

  8. Summary of Concrete Overlays Existing concrete pavement

    E-print Network

    Summary of Concrete Overlays Existing concrete pavement with surface distresses Prepared surface Monolithic pavement with new concrete surface Existing asphalt pavement with surface distresses Milled and cleaned surface New 2­5 in. (5.1­12.7 cm) bonded concrete overlay with square panels Existing composite

  9. Characterizing Overlay Multicast Networks and their Costs

    E-print Network

    Fahmy, Sonia

    Characterizing Overlay Multicast Networks and their Costs Sonia Fahmy, Senior Member, IEEE penalty over router-level alternatives. While overlay ­ Sonia Fahmy is with the Department of Computer 0739, E-mail: fahmy@cs.purdue.edu. Minseok Kwon is with the Department of Computer Science, Rochester

  10. Overcast: Reliable Multicasting with an Overlay Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Jannotti; David K. Gifford; Kirk L. Johnson; M. Frans Kaashoek; James W. O'Toole Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Overcast is an application-level multicasting system that can be incrementally deployed using today's Internet infrastructure. These properties stem from Overcast's implementation as an overlay network. An overlay network consists of a collection of nodes placed at strategic locations in an existing network fabric. These nodes implement a network abstrac- tion on top of the network provided by the under- lying

  11. Thermal reflective cracking of asphalt concrete overlays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eshan V. Dave; William G. Buttlar

    2010-01-01

    Reflective cracking of asphalt concrete (AC) overlays is one of the most extensive pavement distress and damage mechanisms in composite pavement structures. Numerous studies have been performed to evaluate the reflective cracking potential of AC overlays under different loading scenarios. Most of these studies have focused on reflective cracking due to tyre loading. A very limited amount of work has

  12. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The LANDSAT-1 spacecraft was launched from the Western Test Range on 23 July 1972, at 18:08:06.508Z. The launch and orbital injection phase of the space flight was nominal and deployment of the spacecraft followed predictions. Orbital operations of the spacecraft and payload subsystems were satisfactory through Orbit 147, after which an internal short circuit disabled one of the Wideband Video Tape Recorders (WBVTR-2). Operations resumed until Orbit 196, when the Return Beam Vidicon failed to respond when commanded off. The RBV was commanded off via alternate commands. LANDSAT-1 continued to perform its imaging mission with the Multispectral Scanner and the remaining Wideband Video Tape Recorder providing image data.

  13. Overlay improvement roadmap: strategies for scanner control and product disposition for 5-nm overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Nelson M.; Gabor, Allen H.; Menon, Vinayan C.; Longo, Peter P.; Halle, Scott D.; Koay, Chiew-seng; Colburn, Matthew E.

    2011-03-01

    To keep pace with the overall dimensional shrink in the industry, overlay capability must also shrink proportionally. Unsurprisingly, overlay capability < 10 nm is already required for currently nodes in development, and the need for multi-patterned levels has accelerated the overlay roadmap requirements to the order of 5 nm. To achieve this, many improvements need to be implemented in all aspects of overlay measurement, control, and disposition. Given this difficult task, even improvements involving fractions of a nanometer need to be considered. These contributors can be divided into 5 categories: scanner, process, reticle, metrology, and APC. In terms of overlay metrology, the purpose is two-fold: To measure what the actual overlay error is on wafer, and to provide appropriate APC feedback to reduce overlay error for future incoming hardware. We show that with optimized field selection plan, as well as appropriate within-field sampling, both objectives can be met. For metrology field selection, an optimization algorithm has been employed to proportionately sample fields of different scan direction, as well as proportional spatial placement. In addition, intrafield sampling has been chosen to accurately represent overlay inside each field, rather than just at field corners. Regardless, the industry-wide use of multi-exposure patterning schemes has pushed scanner overlay capabilities to their limits. However, it is now clear that scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieving desired performance. In addition, process (non-scanner) contributions to on-product overlay error need to be aggressively tackled, though we show that there also opportunities available in active scanner alignment schemes, where appropriate scanner alignment metrology and correction can reduce residuals on product. In tandem, all these elements need to be in place to achieve the necessary overlay roadmap capability for current development efforts.

  14. CNPq/INPE-LANDSAT system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debarrosaguirre, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The current status of the Brazilian LANDSAT facilities operated by Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) and the results achieved during the period from October 1, 1984 to August 31, 1985 are presented. INPE's Receiving Station at Cuiaba, MT, operates normally the two tracking and receiving systems it has installed, the old one (1973) for Band S and the new one (February 1983) for dual S- and X-band. Both MSS and TM recording capabilities are functional. Support to the NASA Backup Plan for MSS data also remains active. Routine recordings are being made for LANDSAT-5 only, for both MSS and TM. Originally, MSS was recorded over the full acquisition range. However, since December, 1984, due to further reduction of operational expenses, both instruments are being recorded over Brazilian territory only.

  15. The Landsat sensor's spatial responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the geometrical characteristics of the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS), functions defining their spatial responses are derived, i.e., transfer functions (TF's) and line-spread functions (LSF's). These design LSF's and TF's are modified based on prelaunch component and system measurements to provide improved estimates. The two MSS instruments were comparable at their temperatures of best focus; separate calculations were performed for bands 1 and 3, band 2, and band 4. The presample nadir effective instantaneous fields of view, based on the 0.5 modulation transfer function (MTF) criteria, are 70-75 m in the track direction and 79-82 m in the scan direction. For the TM instruments, more extensive prelaunch measurements were available. LSF's derived from component measurements differed from the limited measured LSF data only in the ringing response/overshoot behavior.

  16. Automated registration and orthorectification package for Landsat and Landsat-like data processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Gao; Jeffrey G. Masek; Robert E. Wolfe

    2009-01-01

    Precise registration and orthorectification of remote sensing images are the basic processes for quantitative remote sensing applications, especially for multi-temporal image analysis. In this paper, we present an automated precise registration and orthorectification package (AROP) for Landsat and Landsat-like data processing. The Landsat and Landsat-like satellite images acquired from different sensors at different spatial resolutions and projections can be re-projected,

  17. Landsat analysis of lake quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Fisher, L. T.; Holmquist, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    The trophic status of a number of inland lakes in Wisconsin has been assessed. The feasibility of using both photographic and digital representations of Landsat imagery was investigated during the lake classification project. The result of the investigation has been a semi-automatic data acquisition and handling system which, in conjunction with an analytical categorization scheme, can be used to classify all the significant lakes in the state.

  18. Landsat real-time processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    A novel method for performing real-time acquisition and processing Landsat\\/EROS data covers all aspects including radiometric and geometric corrections of multispectral scanner or return-beam vidicon inputs, image enhancement, statistical analysis, feature extraction, and classification. Radiometric transformations include bias\\/gain adjustment, noise suppression, calibration, scan angle compensation, and illumination compensation, including topography and atmospheric effects. Correction or compensation for geometric distortion includes

  19. Comparing IKONOS and Landsat 7 Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir

    2002-01-01

    This work is a continuation of the simulations presented at the previous workshop.INformation is presented on the following: 20 IKONOS images compared with 10 Landsat 7 ETM+VNIR images acquired on the same days. Comparisons are based on simulations of the Landsat 7 images from the IKONOS data. IKONOS and Landsat 7 images used in simulations are on a similar processing level with radiometric correction, georeferenced with cubic-convolution resampling, and UTM projection with WGS-84 datum.

  20. Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2014-01-01

    Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Records (CDRs) are high level Landsat data products that support land surface change studies. Climate Data Records, as defined by the National Research Council, are a time series of measurements with sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to identify climate variability and change. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is using the valuable 40-year Landsat archive to create CDRs that can be used to document changes to Earth’s terrestrial environment.

  1. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (named Landsat 8 after on-orbit initialization and verifica-

    E-print Network

    (OLI), which was designed and built by the Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation. By collecting Landsat data, the OLI instrument advances future measurement capabili- ties while ensuring compatibility Sheet 2013­3060 August 2013 February 11, 2013. #12;Landsat 8 Spacecraft and Instruments The Landsat 8

  2. MOSAIC: unified declarative platform for dynamic overlay composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Mao; Boon Thau Loo; Zachary G. Ives; Jonathan M. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Overlaynetworkscreatenewnetworkingservicesacrossnodes that communicate using pre-existing networks. MOSAIC is a unified declarative platform for constructing new overlay networks from multiple existing overlays, each possessing a subset ofthe desirednew network's characteristics. MOSAIC overlays are specified using Mozlog, a new declarative lan- guage for expressing overlay properties independently from their particular implementation or underlying network. This paper focuses on the runtime aspects of

  3. Qmerit-calibrated overlay to improve overlay accuracy and device performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Md Zakir; Jazim, Mohamed Fazly Mohamed; Sim, Stella; Lim, Alan; Hiem, Biow; Chuen, Lieu Chia; Ang, Jesline; Lim, Ek Chow; Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Volkovitch, Roie; Tien, David; Choi, DongSub

    2015-03-01

    In advanced semiconductor industries, the overlay error budget is getting tighter due to shrinkage in technology. To fulfill the tighter overlay requirements, gaining every nanometer of improved overlay is very important in order to accelerate yield in high-volume manufacturing (HVM) fabs. To meet the stringent overlay requirements and to overcome other unforeseen situations, it is becoming critical to eliminate the smallest imperfections in the metrology targets used for overlay metrology. For standard cases, the overlay metrology recipe is selected based on total measurement uncertainty (TMU). However, under certain circumstances, inaccuracy due to target imperfections can become the dominant contributor to the metrology uncertainty and cannot be detected and quantified by the standard TMU. For optical-based overlay (OBO) metrology targets, mark asymmetry is a common issue which can cause measurement inaccuracy, and it is not captured by standard TMU. In this paper, a new calibration method, Archer Self-Calibration (ASC), has been established successfully in HVM fabs to improve overlay accuracy on image-based overlay (IBO) metrology targets. Additionally, a new color selection methodology has been developed for the overlay metrology recipe as part of this calibration method. In this study, Qmerit-calibrated data has been used for run-to-run control loop at multiple devices. This study shows that color filter can be chosen more precisely with the help of Qmerit data. Overlay stability improved by 10~20% with best color selection, without causing any negative impact to the products. Residual error, as well as overlay mean plus 3-sigma, showed an improvement of up to 20% when Qmerit-calibrated data was used. A 30% improvement was seen in certain electrical data associated with tested process layers.

  4. Rehabilitation of continuously reinforced concrete pavements using overlays 

    E-print Network

    Sriraman, Soumya

    1993-01-01

    overlay using CRC was laid on a 6 inch thick 28 jointed plain concrete pavement and which had previously been overlaid with 3. 5 inches of asphalt concrete. The primary purpose of the overlay was to strengthen the existing pavement and improve... in the design and performance of CRC overlays or overlays on CRC pavements. Climate and fatigue are other factors identified in literature as causative for the development of failures like rutting (predominant in AC overlays of CRC pavements), and reflective...

  5. LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 Multispectral Scanner Coherent Noise Characterization and Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Alford, William L.

    1988-01-01

    A technique is described for characterizing the coherent noise found in LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data and a companion technique for filtering out the coherent noise. The techniques are demonstrated on LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data sets, and explanations of the noise pattern are suggested in Appendix C. A cookbook procedure for characterizing and filtering the coherent noise using special NASA/Goddard IDIMS functions is included. Also presented are analysis results from the retrofitted LANDSAT-5 MSS sensor, which shows that the coherent noise has been substantially reduced.

  6. Characteristics of the Landsat Multispectral Data System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat satellites were launched into orbit in 1972 and 1975. Additional Landsat satellites are planned for launch in 1978 and 1981. The satellites orbit the Earth at an altitude of approximately 900 km and each can obtain repetitive coverage of cloud-free areas every 18 days. A sun-synchronous orbit is used to insure repeatable illumination conditions. Repetitive satellite coverage allows optimal cover conditions for geologic applications to be identified. Seasonal variations in solar illumination must be analyzed to select the best Landsat data for geologic applications. Landsat data may be viewed in stereo where there is sufficient sidelap and sufficient topographic relief. Landsat-1 ceased operation on January 10, 1978. Landsat-2 detects, only solar radiation that is reflected from the Earth's surface in visible and near-visible wavelengths. The third Landsat will also detect emitted thermal radiation. The multispectral scanner (MSS) was the only sensing instrument used on the first two satellites. The MSS on Landsats-1 and -2 detect radiation which is reflected from a 79 m by 79 m area, and the data are formatted as if the measurement was made from a 56 m by 79 m area. The MSS integrates spectral response from all cover types within the 79 m by 79 m area. The integrated spectral signature often does not resemble the spectral signature from individual cover types, and the integrated signature is also modified by the atmosphere. Landsat-1 and -2 data are converted to 70 mm film and computer compatible tapes (CCT's) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); these are shipped to the EROS Data Center (EDC) for duplication and distribution to users. Landsat-C data will be converted to 241 mm-wide film and CCT's at EDC. Landsat-D data will be relayed from the satellite directly to geosynchronous satellites and then to the United States from any location on Earth.

  7. Optimized Overlay Metrology Marks: Theory and Experiment

    E-print Network

    Markovitch, Shaul

    . This generally results in rework, that is the lot is returned to the previous lithography step after the resist circumstances the overlay measurements after development are not viable, and are done after etch. In this case

  8. Models and Languages for Overlay Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Behnel; Alejandro P. Buchmann

    2005-01-01

    Implementing overlay software is non-trivial. In current pro- jects, overlays or frameworks are built on top of low-level networking abstractions. This leaves the implementation of topologies, their mainte- nance and optimisation strategies, and the routing entirely to the devel- oper. Consequently, topology characteristics are woven deaply into the source code and the tight coupling with low-level frameworks prevents code reuse

  9. A system for processing Landsat and other georeferenced data for resource management applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Earth Resources Laboratory has developed a transferrable system for processing Landsat and disparate data with capabilities for digital data classification, georeferencing, overlaying, and data base management. This system is known as the Earth Resources Data Analysis System. The versatility of the system has been demonstrated with applications in several disciplines. A description is given of a low-cost data system concept that is suitable for transfer to one's available in-house minicomputer or to a low-cost computer purchased for this purpose. Software packages are described that process Landsat data to produce surface cover classifications and that geographically reference the data to the UTM projection. Programs are also described that incorporate several sets of Landsat derived information, topographic information, soils information, rainfall information, etc., into a data base. Selected application algorithms are discussed and sample products are presented. The types of computers on which the low-cost data system concept has been implemented are identified, typical implementation costs are given, and the source where the software may be obtained is identified.

  10. Landsat Map Teacher Training: A Supervisor's Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using Landsat imagery rather than traditional maps and the need for pre- and inservice teacher education on how to interpret information from remote sensing systems. Identifies sources of information and assistance for planning inservice programs and using Landsat imagery in the classroom. (DC)

  11. Landsat7 mission and early results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Barker; S. Kenneth Dolan; Phillip A. Sabelhaus; Darrel L. Williams; James R. Irons; Brian L. Markham; Joseph T. Bolek; Steven S. Scott; R. J. Thompson; Jeffery J. Rapp; Theresa J. Arvidson; James R. Kane; James C. Storey

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the current Landsat mission is to acquire annual data sets of optical band digital imagery of the landmass of the Earth. Ground spatial resolutions for the panchromatic, reflective and emissive bands are 15, 30 and 60 meters, respectively. The design life for the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imager on the Landsat-7 satellite is five years. The

  12. Landsat 7: Remote Sensing Environmental Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This educational brief presents a discussion of how the Landsat project has been able to provide data on environmental changes and potential problems. Topics include a short history of the project, an overview of the sorts of environmental issues Landsat satellites are able to "see" from space, and a brief description of ground truthing and how it supports remotely sensed data.

  13. Land Measurement from Future Landsat Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, J. R.; Masek, J. G.; Ochs, W. R.; Gao, F.

    2005-12-01

    The current strategy for implementing a successor mission to Landsat 7 involves the integration of Landsat sensors onto satellites under development for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). Unlike the data from other sensors planned for NPOESS satellites, Landsat data are not yet incorporated into algorithms for the generation of environmental data records. Placing the Landsat program into the NPOESS system creates the opportunity for defining and implementing environmental data records which fuse high resolution Landsat data with coarser resolution observations from the other sensors to create a suite of useful land measurement products. For example, a prototype product has been developed merging Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) data with Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to create synthetic "daily" high resolution land reflectance images. This product is regarded as a preliminary step in creating annual, global land cover and land cover change maps meeting the needs of the Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) and other national and international environmental monitoring programs. The strategy for continuing the Landsat mission, the prototype land reflectance product, and the potential for using Landsat data to operationally produce a suite of land cover / land use change data records will be discussed.

  14. LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Portions of the LANDSAT-D systems operation plan are presented. An overview of the data processing operations, logistics and other operations support, prelaunch and post-launch activities, thematic mapper operations during the scrounge period, and LANDSAT-D performance evaluation is given.

  15. Landsat 7 Fly Over of Tampa, Florida

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stuart Snodgrass

    2000-01-01

    Viewing Earth from space, the Landsat 7 satellite takes images of the Earth, which allows us to look at land changes such as; urban growth, deforestation, and overall changes in the Earth itself. Here is a Landsat 7 image of Tampa, Florida

  16. LANDSAT D operations control center study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, L.; Brown, G.; Clemson, B.; Efner, J.; Engelberg, N.; Owen, J.; Winchester, T.

    1977-01-01

    Various aspects of the planned LANDSAT D system are discussed. LANDSAT D incorporates the Thematic Mapper (TM) as a sensor, it utilizes the Multi-mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS), it makes use of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and it employs a more advanced ground system. Each of these represent significant improvements in the state-of-the-art.

  17. Urban area delineation and detection of change along the urban-rural boundary as derived from LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, J. W.; Lachowski, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    LANDSAT digital multispectral scanner data, in conjunction with supporting ground truth, were investigated to determine their utility in delineation of urban-rural boundaries. The digital data for the metropolitan areas of Washington, D. C.; Austin, Texas; and Seattle, Washingtion; were processed using an interactive image processing system. Processing focused on identification of major land cover types typical of the zone of transition from urban to rural landscape, and definition of their spectral signatures. Census tract boundaries were input into the interactive image processing system along with the LANDSAT single and overlayed multiple date MSS data. Results of this investigation indicate that satellite collected information has a practical application to the problem of urban area delineation and to change detection.

  18. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that both imaging overlay technology and DBO-1 technology are fully successful and have a valid roadmap for the next few design nodes, with some use cases better suited for one or the other measurement technologies. Having both imaging and DBO technology options available in parallel, allows Overlay Engineers a mix and match overlay measurement strategy, providing back up when encountering difficulties with one of the technologies and benefiting from the best of both technologies for every use case.

  19. Solidification of an alloy 625 weld overlay

    SciTech Connect

    DuPont, J.N. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1996-11-01

    The solidification behavior (microsegregation, secondary phase formation, and solidification temperature range) of an Alloy 625 weld overlay deposited on 2.25Cr-1Mo steel by gas metal arc welding was investigated by light and electron optical microscopy, electron microprobe, and differential thermal analysis techniques. The overlay deposit was found to terminate solidification at {approx}1,216 C by a {gamma}/Laves eutectic-type reaction. The Laves phase was highly enriched in Nb, Mo, and Si. The solidification reaction and microsegregation potential of major alloying elements in the overlay deposit are compared to other Nb-bearing Ni base alloys and found to be very similar to those for Alloy 718. Solidification cracks observed in the overlay were attributed to the wide solidification temperature range ({approx}170 C) and formation of interdendritic ({gamma} + Laves) constituent. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent ({gamma} + Laves) constituent with the Scheil equation by treating the overlay system as a simple {gamma}-Nb binary and using an experimentally determined k{sub Nb} value from electron microprobe data.

  20. Stratification of Landsat data by clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Davis, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    Full realization of the potential advantages of the synoptic coverage provided by Landsat will require the development and use of data analysis techniques which take into account the large variation and diversity of patterns found over many Landsat scenes. Stratification of the scene into units which are internally homogeneous is recommended as a first step in the analysis of data for whole or multiple frames of Landsat data. The use of clustering as an objective and efficient method of dividing scenes into areas which are spectrally similar (strata) is discussed and initial results, including classification performances and comparisons of spectral strata with major physical factors, are presented.

  1. LANDSAT D user data processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The major expected users of the LANDSAT D system and a preliminary system design of their required facilities are investigated. This system design will then be costed in order to provide an estimate of the incremental user costs necessitated by LANDSAT D. One major use of these cost estimates is as part of an overall economic cost/benefit argument being developed for the LANDSAT D system. The implication of this motive is key; the system design (and corresponding cost estimates) must be a credible one, but not necessarily an optimum one.

  2. Landsat-4 orbit determination using TDRSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, D. H.; Niklewski, D. J.; Doll, C. E.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS)-user spacecraft, Landsat-4, obtained using a Prototype Filter Smoother (PFS), with the accuracy of an established batch-least-squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). The results of Landsat-4 orbit determination provide useful experience for the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of satellites. The filtered and smoothed PFS orbit solutions were compared with the definitive GTDS orbit solutions for Landsat-4; the root-mean-square (RMS) solution difference was 6.6 meters.

  3. LANDSAT: US standard catalog, 1-31 January 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for January 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Section 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

  4. Global Intrusion Detection in the DOMINO Overlay System Anonymous Submission

    E-print Network

    Jha, Somesh

    Global Intrusion Detection in the DOMINO Overlay System Anonymous Submission Abstract Sharing data between widely distributed intrusion detection systems offers the possibility of significant im (Distributed Overlay for Monitoring InterNet Outbreaks); an architecture for a distributed intrusion detection

  5. Path-aware Overlay Multicast Minseok Kwon and Sonia Fahmy

    E-print Network

    Fahmy, Sonia

    Path-aware Overlay Multicast Minseok Kwon and Sonia Fahmy Department of Computer Sciences, Purdue-0739 e-mail: {kwonm,fahmy}@cs.purdue.edu Abstract We investigate a heuristic application-level (overlay

  6. A location-aware peer-to-peer overlay network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-jen Wu; De-kai Liu; Ren-hung Hwang

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY This work describes a novel location-aware, self-organizing, fault-tolerant peer-to-peer (P2P) overlay network, referred to as Laptop. Network locality-aware considerations are a very important metric for designing a P2P overlay network. Several network proximity schemes have been proposed to enhance the routing efficiency of existing DHT-based overlay networks. However, these schemes have some drawbacks such as high overlay network and

  7. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  8. LANDSAT: A Tool for Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, William D.; McCormack, Richard E.

    1977-01-01

    Photographs of earth taken by two Landsat satellites can be used by elementary and secondary social studies and geography teachers. Classroom activities are suggested and materials and sources are listed. (Author/RM)

  9. Landsat Changes Over Time: Pearl River, China

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1999-04-09

    Landsat Thematic Mapper views the Pearl River in China in 1988, 1992, and 1995. The band combination used in these images is 542. To view related animations, please see animations 942, 1397, 1398, and 1399.

  10. Overlay Performance Of The Perkin-Elmer Model 500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausschnitt, C. P.; Brunner, T. A.; Cronin, D. J.

    1983-11-01

    We describe the procedures and results of overlay performance evaluation conducted on production Micralign Series Model 500s. Studies of machine-to-contact print and machine-to-machine overlay, stability, and automatic alignment are presented. Preliminary results on automatic alignment indicate that the 98% limit of total overlay error - alignment plus distortion - can be kept below 0.3 ?m.

  11. Efficient Data Relaying Mechanism for Overlay Multicast Streaming Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Min Lee; Juyoung Park; Shin-Gak Kang

    2007-01-01

    Overlay multicast delivery mechanism is a new approach in which multicast functionality is implemented over the application layer. However, existing overlay multicast protocols are not standardized and many restrictions occur when delivering high quality contents. In this paper, we propose efficient data relaying mechanism to support overlay multicast streaming services. The proposed algorithm utilizes windows sockets applications with nonblocking mode.

  12. A new approach for circuit extraction based on overlay graph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Song; Pushan Tang

    1988-01-01

    Presents an approach for circuit extraction that considers the physical significance of each overlay in multilayer IC masks. The overlay graph transformed from mask artwork data keeps the topological and geometric information of integrated circuits. The extraction based on the overlay graph implements a transformation from an IC chip layout to a circuit representation suitable for detailed circuit simulation. The

  13. Landsat4 orbit determination using TDRSS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Oza; D. J. Niklewski; C. E. Doll; G. D. Mistretta; R. C. Hart

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS)-user spacecraft, Landsat-4, obtained using a Prototype Filter Smoother (PFS), with the accuracy of an established batch-least-squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). The results of Landsat-4 orbit determination provide useful experience for the Earth Observing

  14. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Wukelic; D. E. Gibbons; L. M. Martucci; H. P. Foote

    1988-01-01

    Absolute calibration of satellite-acquired data is essential for quantification of scientific studies and a variety of image- processing applications. This paper describes a multiyear, on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). Primary emphasis was placed on TM band 6 (thermal) calibration, but selected reflectance-band calibration measurements were also made. Twenty-five Landsat TM coverages were acquired, and included day,

  15. Advanced infrastructure — based streaming media overlay networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bolic; Z. Begic; S. Zoric

    2009-01-01

    Technology advances are giving people increasingly immersive multimedia experiences in their home entertainment systems, on their portable media players, on their desktop and laptop computers, and even on their mobile phones. A media overlay can enable new media capabilities in the network, while improving the end-user media performance and the system-wide efficiency of the network for both its media and

  16. MOSAIC: Multiple Overlay Selection and Intelligent Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Mao; Boon Thau Loo; Zachary G Ives; Jonathan M Smith

    2007-01-01

    Today, the most effective mechanism for remedying shortcomings of the Internet, or augmenting it with new networking capabilities, is to develop and deploy a new overlay network. This leads to the problem of multi- ple networking infrastructures, each with independent advantages, and each developed in isolation. A greatly preferable solution is to have a single infrastructure un- der which new

  17. Development of asphalt overlay fabric from jute

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ghosh; P. K. Banerjee; G. V. Rao

    2010-01-01

    A jute woven fabric employing leno based construction was designed for developing an asphalt overlay fabric, suitable for low traffic roads. To assess the suitability of this product, pavement models embedded with this fabric were subjected to accelerated cyclic mechanical loading and also to extended hygral loading. For the purpose of comparison, similar tests were also conducted on pavement models

  18. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B. F.; Dupont, J. N.; Marder, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

  19. LANDSAT 2 cumulative US standard catalog. [LANDSAT imagery for January 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality, are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  20. Landsat and water: case studies of the uses and benefits of landsat imagery in water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serbina, Larisa O.; Miller, Holly M.

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat program has been collecting and archiving moderate resolution earth imagery since 1972. The number of Landsat users and uses has increased exponentially since the enactment of a free and open data policy in 2008, which made data available free of charge to all users. Benefits from the information Landsat data provides vary from improving environmental quality to protecting public health and safety and informing decision makers such as consumers and producers, government officials and the public at large. Although some studies have been conducted, little is known about the total benefit provided by open access Landsat imagery. This report contains a set of case studies focused on the uses and benefits of Landsat imagery. The purpose of these is to shed more light on the benefits accrued from Landsat imagery and to gain a better understanding of the program’s value. The case studies tell a story of how Landsat imagery is used and what its value is to different private and public entities. Most of the case studies focus on the use of Landsat in water resource management, although some other content areas are included.

  1. Nyiragongo Volcano, Congo, Map View with Lava, Landsat / ASTER / SRTM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This Landsat satellite image shows the volcano (right of center), the city of Goma, and surrounding terrain. Image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite were used to supply a partial map of the recent lava flows (red overlay), including a complete mapping of their intrusion into Goma as of January 28, 2002. Lava is also apparent within the volcanic crater and at a few other locations. Thick (but broken) cloud cover during the ASTER image acquisition prevented a complete mapping of the lava distribution, but future image acquisitions should complete the mapping.

    Goma has a light pink speckled appearance along the shore of Lake Kivu. The city airport parallels, and is just right (east) of, the larger lava flow. Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but much broader Nyamuragira volcano appears in the upper left.

    Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. Volcanic activity is common here, and older but geologically recent lava flows (magenta in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

    The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before the eruption, and shows an unusually cloud-free view of this tropical terrain. Minor clouds and their shadows were digitally removed to clarify the view and topographic shading derived from the SRTM elevation model was added to the Landsat image. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive. This Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image was provided to the SRTM and ASTER projects by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) will image Earth for several years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy,Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. ASTER is providing scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter(approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's

  2. Wafer to wafer overlay control algorithm implementation based on statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong Soo; Kang, Young Seog; Kong, Jeong Heung; Hwang, Hyun Woo; Song, Myeong Gyu

    2015-03-01

    For mass production of DRAM device, a stable and effective overlay control becomes more and more important as DRAM design rule shrinks. Existent technologies were already applied to overcome this situation. Nevertheless, we are still suffered from tight overlay margin and forced to move from lot-based to wafer-based overlay control. However, the wafer-based control method requires a huge amount of measurement resource. In this paper, we present the insight for the wafer-based overlay correction with optimal measurement resource which is suitable for mass production. The experiment which is the wafer-based overlay correction by several statistical analyses carried out for 2X nm node DRAM. Among them, linear regression is a strong candidate for wafer-based overlay control, which improved up to 0.8 nm of maximum overlay.

  3. Reconstructing Forty Years of Landsat Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. J.; Dwyer, J. L.; Steinwand, D.

    2013-12-01

    In July 1972, NASA launched the Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS), the first of what was to be the series of Earth-observing satellites we now know as the Landsat system. This system, originally conceived in the 1960's within the US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey (USGS), has continued with little interruption for over 40 years, creating the longest record of satellite-based global land observations. The current USGS archive of Landsat images exceeds 4 million scenes, and the recently launched Landsat 8 platform will extend that archive to nearly 50 years of observations. Clearly, these observations are critical to the study of Earth system processes, and the interaction between these processes and human activities. However, the seven successful Landsat missions represent more of an ad hoc program than a long-term record of consistent observations, due largely to changing Federal policies and challenges finding an operational home for the program. Technologically, these systems evolved from the original Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) through the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) systems, to the current Observational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) systems. Landsat data were collected globally by a network of international cooperators having diverse data management policies. Much of the oldest data were stored on archaic media that could not be retrieved using modern media readers. Collecting these data from various sensors and sources, and reconstructing them into coherent Earth observation records, posed numerous challenges. We present here a brief overview of work done to overcome these challenges and create a consistent, long-term Landsat observation record. Much of the current archive was 'repatriated' from international cooperators and often required the reconstruction of (sometimes absent) metadata for geo-location and radiometric calibration. The older MSS data, some of which had been successfully retrieved from outdated wide band video media, required similar metadata reconstruction. TM data from Landsats 4 and 5 relied on questionable on-board lamp data for calibration, thus the calibration history for these missions was reconstructed to account for sensor degradation over time. To improve continuity between platforms, Landsat 7 and 8 missions employed 'under-flight' maneuvers to reduce inter-calibration error. Data from the various sensors, platforms and sources were integrated into a common metadata standard, with quality assurance information, to ensure understandability of the data for long-term preservation. Because of these efforts, the current Landsat archive can now support the creation of the long-term climate data records and essential climate variables required to monitor changes on the Earth's surface quantitatively over decades of observations.

  4. LANDSAT 4 to ground station interface description, revision 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The radiometric requirements, internal calibration, sensor output format, geometric characteristics, and data processing constants for the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner and thematic mapper are described. In addition, telemetry format, onboard computer reports, and LANDSAT 4 communications are discussed.

  5. Visualizing the uncertainty of geo-information from Landsat ETM+ imagery by fuzzy reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Huang, Fang; Liu, Xiangnan

    2007-06-01

    Uncertainty is one important feature of spatial information quality and attracting much more attentions recently. The visualization is an effective way to express the magnitude, pattern and propagation of the uncertainty. In this paper, the visualization method of geospatial information uncertainty in Landsat ETM+ imagery is put forward and described. Firstly, an improved fuzzy reasoning classification method is proposed, and farmland and grassland information are extracted from the ETM+ imagery respectively based on the algorithm. Then the uncertainty of the classification is analyzed, measured and visualized supported by GIS. The uncertainty can be expressed and visualized by different spatial distribution range of cropland and grassland when adjusting their membership values setting. The uncertainty threshold supplies a visual cognition for data users to know the data quality better and make full use of the data more correctly. At the same time, aiming at the overlay areas with similar membership values, other ancillary information can help to improve the classification accuracy and conquer the difficulties in distinguishing cropland from grassland in Landsat ETM+.

  6. Synthetic aperture radar/LANDSAT MSS image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, H. E. (editor); Oberholtzer, J. D. (editor); Anuta, P. E. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    Algorithms and procedures necessary to merge aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery were determined. The design of a SAR/LANDSAT data merging system was developed. Aircraft SAR images were registered to the corresponding LANDSAT MSS scenes and were the subject of experimental investigations. Results indicate that the registration of SAR imagery with LANDSAT MSS imagery is feasible from a technical viewpoint, and useful from an information-content viewpoint.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey: Landsat Project Website

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The information provided here includes general and technical information, data products, and links for all Landsat satellites and instruments up to the latest, Landsat 7, launched in 1999. Topics include a project description with objectives, orbit information, investigations of technical problems, an image gallery, information on searching and ordering data products, and links to sites that feature Landsat data and /or related topics.

  8. Landsat Thematic Mapper image-derived MTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R. A.; Archwamety, C.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Landsat Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program conducted by NASA has the objective to quantify the performance of the Thematic Mapper (TM) on the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 spacecraft. The interest in the spatial resolution performance of the TM is partly related to the decrease of the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) from 80 m for the MSS to 30 m for the TM. Studies related to the preflight line spread function (LSF), square wave response (SWR), and theoretical component modeling of the TM system modulation transfer function (MTF) have been conducted. However, the need remains to estimate the MTF of the complete system. The present paper is concerned with investigations related to this task. Attention is given to three approaches for measuring the MTF of the TM system from imagery.

  9. Operational MTF for Landsat Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R.; Archwamety, C.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) represents significant improvements in spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution over the older Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). For the last three years, NASA has conducted the Landsat Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) program to quantify the performance of the TM on the Landsat-4 and 5 spacecraft. As part of this program, analysis of the TM imagery to extract the overall system modulation transfer function (MTF) has been performed. In this paper, the San Mateo Bridge in San Francisco is described as a target for calculation of the line spread function and MTF. The analysis of two TM scenes, one from 12/31/82 and one from 8/12/83, yielded effective-instantaneous-field-of-views (EIFOVs) of 40.8 meters and 48.6 meters, respectively. These values are compared with the 33.8 meter EIFOV predicted by component modelling of the TM sensor, and the differences discussed.

  10. Range queries on structured overlay networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Schütt; Florian Schintke; Alexander Reinefeld

    2008-01-01

    The efficient handling of range queries in peer-to-peer systems is still an open issue. Several approaches exist, but their lookup schemes are either too expensive (space-filling curves) or their queries lack expressiveness (topology-driven data distribution).We present two structured overlay networks that support arbitrary range queries. The first one, named Chord#, has been derived from Chord by substituting Chord’s hashing function

  11. Vertical Handoffs in Wireless Overlay Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Stemm; Randy H. Katz

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: We present extensions to a traditional cellular [Ses95] handoff system to handle the simultaneous operation of multiplewireless network interfaces. This new system allows mobile users to roam in a "Wireless Overlay Network"structure consisting of room-size, building-size, and wide-area data networks. In this structure, the user can connectto the wired network through multiple wireless subnets, and offers the best possible

  12. Investigation of dielectric overlay microstrip circuits 

    E-print Network

    Klein, James Louis

    1988-01-01

    of the microstrip has expanded to make it one of the most common means of microwave transmission. Its use has been expanded to encompass all aspects of the microwave area. With the use of microstrip the microwave monolithic integrated circuit, or MMIC, has become... OVERLAY DIRECTIONAL COUPLER A. Introduction The directional coupler is cotnmonly used in microwave integrated circuits such as balanced mixers, balanced anrplifiers, phase shifters, power splitters, power combiners, power monitors, and attenuators...

  13. The Case for Wireless Overlay Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy H. Katz; Eric A. Brewer

    Wireless data services, other than those for electronic mail or paging, have thus far been more of a promise than a success.\\u000a We believe that future mobile information systems must be built upon heterogeneous wireless overlay networks, extending traditional wired and internetworked processing “islands” to hosts on the move over coverage areas ranging from\\u000a in-room, in-building, campus, metropolitan, and wide-areas.

  14. A Security Framework for JXTA-Overlay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Arnedo-moreno; Keita Matsuo; Leonard Barolli; Fatos Xhafa

    2009-01-01

    At present time, the maturity of P2P research field has pushed through new problems such us those related with security. For that reason, security starts to become one of the key issues when evaluating a P2P system and it is important to provide security mechanisms to P2P systems. The JXTA-Overlay project is an effort to use JXTA technology to provide

  15. The LANDSAT/global positioning system project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Terri

    1988-01-01

    A GPSPAC/LANDSAT-D Interface (GLI) Ground Support System was built to validate the performance and to calibrate the accuracy of the experimental navigation package, GPSPAC, flown on the LANDSAT-4 and 5 spacecraft. Although the GLI system operated successfully to give the orbit information needed to validate the GPSPAC, it also detected two anomalies: one is characteristic of the GLI system and the other is characteristic of the pre-operational phase of GPS. Several methods were applied to resolve or reduce the anomalies. This paper presents a description of the problems, the methods applied to resolve or reduce them, and the results.

  16. Study of atmospheric diffusion using LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torsani, J. A.; Viswanadham, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The parameters of diffusion patterns of atmospheric pollutants under different conditions were investigated for use in the Gaussian model for calculation of pollution concentration. Value for the divergence pattern of concentration distribution along the Y axis were determined using LANDSAT images. Multispectral scanner images of a point source plume having known characteristics, wind and temperature data, and cloud cover and solar elevation data provided by LANDSAT, were analyzed using the 1-100 system for image analysis. These measured values are compared with pollution transport as predicted by the Pasquill-Gifford, Juelich, and Hoegstroem atmospheric models.

  17. Sesso Especial: Landsat-8: Planos e Perspectivas (Landsat-8: Plans and Perspectives) Coordenador: Michael A. Wulder (Canadian Forest Service, Canad)

    E-print Network

    : Michael A. Wulder (Canadian Forest Service, Canadá) In this focused Landsat Session, the presenters have, with successful monitoring and reporting projects, such as PRODES, utilizing Landsat imagery. The collection Enabled by the Landsat Open Access Data Policy Michael A. Wulder (Canadian Forest Service, Canadá) 12

  18. Optimizing Deadline-Driven Bulk Data Transfers in Overlay Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Agapi; Marcelo Pasin; Pascale Vicat-Blanc Primet; Thilo Kielmann

    2009-01-01

    Deadline-driven bulk data transfers frequently occur in overlay networks running data-intensive, distributed workflow applications, such as grid and cloud environments. What distinguishes such transfers from other Internet traffic is that overlay nodes should cooperate towards the common goal of delivering all inter-dependent data timely, rather than follow individual, selfish goals. For such scenarios, we propose scheduling transfers in overlays in

  19. Molecular Dynamics study of Pb overlayer on Cu(100)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimi, M.; Tibbits, P.; Ila, D.; Dalins, I.; Vidali, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal-isobaric Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of a submonolayer Pb film in c(2x2) ordered structure adsorbed on a Cu(100) substrate showed retention of order to high T. The Embedded Atom Method (EAM) calculated the energy of atoms of overlayer and substrate. The time-averaged squared modulus of the two dimensional structure factor for the Pb overlayer measured the order of the overlayer. The results are for increasing T only, and require verification by simulated cooling.

  20. Photoinduced plasmon excitations in alkali-metal overlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, S. R.; Horn, K.; Häberle, P.; Ishida, H.; Liebsch, A.

    1998-03-01

    Collective surface excitations in alkali-metal overlayers are observed using photoyield spectroscopy. Spectra for Na and K on Al(111) reveal a multipole surface plasmon and bulklike overlayer plasmon. In contrast, Li on Al exhibits only the multipole mode. In the submonolayer regime, all three alkali metals provide evidence for the threshold excitation. Time-dependent density-functional calculations for realistic alkali-metal overlayers agree well with these observations.

  1. Highly corrosion resistant weld overlay for oil patch applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hibner, E.L. [Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV (United States); Maligas, M.N.; Vicic, J.C. [FMC Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum equipment companies currently sell 4130 and 4140 steel pipe with alloy 625 (UNS N06625) weld overlay for Oil Patch applications. Alloy 686 (UNS N06686), because of it`s superior corrosion resistance, is currently being evaluated as a replacement material for alloy 625. Mechanical properties and Slow Strain Rate test results for the alloy 686 weld overlay are discussed relative to the alloy 625 weld overlay.

  2. 40 + Years of Earth Science: The Landsat Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    A variety of man-made objects have been sent into outer space for decades, and as a very large and distinguished group, they have sent back important data. NASA has been at the forefront of these efforts here in the United States, and the Landsat Program has certainly been quite successful since its inception in the early 1970s. This website provides a wealth of information on the Landsat Program, and visitors can learn about its work in remote sensing. Visitors can use the right-hand side of the page to learn about different Landsat missions ranging from the original Landsat all the way up to Landsat Seven, which was launched in 1999. Each section contains information on Landsat's orbit, its instruments, and its vital statistics. Finally, a "Did You Know" section provides some key facts about some of the accomplishments of the Landsat program.

  3. Water Quality Retrieval from Landsat TM Imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arun Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the utility of Landsat TM imagery for water quality studies in East Texas is investigated. Remote sensing has an important and effective role in water quality management. Remote sensing satellites measure the amount of solar radiation reflected by surface water and the reflectance of water depend upon the concentration and character of water quality parameters. Three water

  4. Landsat Maps in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a Canadian experimental project in which elementary school children (grades 3, 4 and 5) worked with Landsat maps to determine the feasibility of incorporating their use in the curriculum. Use of these maps was found to be successful in all three grades. (CS)

  5. LANDSAT-4 to ground station interface description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The LANDSAT 4 to ground station interface is described in detail. The radiometric specifications, internal calibration, sensor output format, and data processing constants for the multispectral scanner and the thematic mapper are discussed. The mission payload telemetry, onboard computer telemetry, and engineering telemetry formats are described. In addition, the telemetry time signals and the onboard clock resetting procedure are addressed.

  6. BOREAS Landsat MSS Imagery: Digital Counts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) Program launched the first of a series of satellites (ERTS-1) in 1972. Part of the NASA Earth Resources Survey Program, the ERTS Program and the ERTS satellites were later renamed Landsat to better represent the civil satellite program's prime emphasis on remote sensing of land resources. Landsat satellites 1 through 5 carry the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor. Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and BOREAS personnel gathered a set of MSS images of the BOREAS region from Landsat satellites 1, 2, 4, and 5 covering the dates of 21 Aug 1972 to 05 Sep 1988. The data are provided in binary image format files of various formats. The Landsat MSS imagery is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. LANDSAT D data processing facility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Mission planning of the LANDSAT D is discussed which will present several major advances in the spacecraft, sensor (Thematic Mapper), ground systems and overall system design. The system provides for two data links-direct satellite to ground, and via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite.

  8. Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data. [Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. (principal investigators); Rice, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An initial demonstration was made of the capability to make direct production forecasts for winter wheat using early season LANDSAT data. The approach offers the potential to make production forecasts quickly and simply, possibly avoiding some of the complexities of alternate procedures.

  9. A textural image of Algiers. [Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rimbert, S.; Serradj, A.

    1984-01-01

    A geometrical operator (ETOILE) for processing LANDSAT images is presented. The operator exploits the fact that in urban areas lines are much closer and more complex. To distinguish town from countryside, the operator is sensitive to a high frequency of change in lineaments. It is used in a classic multidimensional classification scheme. The operator was used to map urbanisation of the area around Algiers.

  10. Earth Observations Division Landsat Imagery Preprocessing System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Hinson; C. H. Jeffress

    1980-01-01

    The Earth Observations Division (EOD) at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has recently placed into operation a new system to receive and process the Landsat imagery output of the Master Data Processor (MDP) located at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The main purposes of the EOD System are to (1) extract areas of interest (AOI) from full

  11. Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Wynne; C. S. Potter; C. E. Blinn

    2008-01-01

    The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path\\/row

  12. Landsat Mosaic of the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Michelle A. Bouchard, John L. Dwyer and Brian Granneman. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009, abstract #GC51A-0708 Landsat data from the Global Land Survey (GLS) dataset for year 2000 was mosaicked to form a Yukon River Basin image map that is referenced to a geodetic base. It was produc...

  13. LANDSAT-D Mission System Industry Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Viewgraphs and photographs depict the scope and purpose of the LANDSAT 4 mission as well as all satellite systems. The components and major functions of the flight and ground segments, operational support, communication links, and the hardware and interfaces for processing MSS and TM images are covered.

  14. Sources of variation in Landsat autocorrelation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. G.; Labovitz, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of sixty-four scan lines representing diverse conditions across satellites, channels, scanners, locations and cloud cover confirms that Landsat data are autocorrelated and consistently follow an Arima (1,0,1) pattern. The AR parameter varies significantly with location and the MA coefficient with cloud cover. Maximum likelihood classification functions are considerably in error unless this autocorrelation is compensated for in sampling.

  15. Los Angeles Flyby

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1999-04-09

    These scenes show Los Angeles and Burbank as seen by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument. The shortwave infrared (TM band 5), infrared (TM band 4), and visible green (TM band 2) channels are displayed in the images as red, green, and blue respectively. In this combination, barren and-or recently cultivated land appears red to pink, vegetation appears green, water is dark blue, and artificial structures of concrete and asphalt appear dark grey or black.

  16. Hybrid overlay metrology with CDSEM in a BEOL patterning scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Jehoul, Christiane; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    Overlay metrology accuracy is a major concern for our industry. Advanced logic process require more tighter overlay control for multipatterning schemes. TIS (Tool Induced Shift) and WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) are the main issues for IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). Methods of compensation have been introduced, some are even very efficient to reduce these measured offsets. Another related question is about the overlay target designs. These targets are never fully representative of the design rules, strong efforts have been achieved, but the device cannot be completely duplicated. Ideally, we would like to measure in the device itself to verify the real overlay value. Top down CDSEM can measure critical dimensions of any structure, it is not dependent of specific target design. It can also measure the overlay errors but only in specific cases like LELE (Litho Etch Litho Etch) after final patterning. In this paper, we will revisit the capability of the CDSEM at final patterning by measuring overlay in dedicated targets as well as inside a logic and an SRAM design. In the dedicated overlay targets, we study the measurement differences between design rules gratings and relaxed pitch gratings. These relaxed pitch which are usually used in IBO or DBO targets. Beyond this "simple" LELE case, we will explore the capability of the CDSEM to measure overlay even if not at final patterning, at litho level. We will assess the hybridization of DBO and CDSEM for reference to optical tools after final patterning. We will show that these reference data can be used to validate the DBO overlay results (correctables and residual fingerprints).

  17. Multi layer overlay measurement recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Nuriel; Shuall, Nimrod; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Leray, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges related to the growing number of Litho layers and most specifically to Multi Patterning, is the ability to align to many layers at once. In the past things were simple, the alignment tree was set so that every layer aligns to one layer and at the most is measured versus two layers, such as contact to poly and Isolation. Today, even at the 20 nm node there are double and triple patterning for critical layers such as Isolation, poly, contact and Metal 1. This forces a much more complex alignment tree and Overlay (OVL) measurement. Layers are sometimes aligned to an average of previous layers, to different layers at different orientations and disposition is done based on several measurements. This growing challenge increases the number of Overlay measurements significantly, increases the target area and present the need to make many measurement from different layers consistent. Another challenge is the increased number of recipes and the need for flexible alignment tree scheme during development. These challenges are addressed by Multi layer targets such as Triple AIM, Multilayer AIMid and the Blossom and micro-Blossom targets where alignment marks from multiple patterning steps and layers were densely populated. A single OVL reading is calculated by the metrology tool on a selected pair or multiple pair average1. Here we propose the Multi-Layer measurement that provides an additional degree of metrology and solution to these challenges: in one measurement several overlay results are achieved, the results are always self-consistent. It allows at the same measurement grab to look back and disposition previous layers after their processing was completed. It allows a flexible alignment tree without the need to add or change targets, even during ramp and production. It reduces the number of recipes that need to be created and managed. And it also reduces significantly the area needed for the targets. In this paper we will show recent results from IMEC, on Back-End (BE) stack of four layers including one double patterning layer. We compared several target sizes, showing that such a target can fit within the Indie requirements of 10x10 ?m. Results show that there is not a lot of need to compromise on performance in order to get good Multi-Layer measurements. Eventually we will describe process compatible targets which are needed more in the Front End (FE) layers. Looking forward at the increased complexity needed for future nodes and multiple pitch splitting lithography, it is encouraging to see that for Overlay we can simplify metrology instead of making it follow the complexity trend.

  18. An efficient streaming method in overlay multicast networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suk Kim Chin

    2009-01-01

    The predominance of unicast connectivity in the current Internet infrastructure sabotages the widespread deployment of video applications. As such overlay multicast networking has been proposed to accelerate the ubiquity of video streaming in the Internet. Based on an existing overlay multicast network architecture, this paper proposes a method which aims at improving the efficiency of the streaming scheme that is

  19. Virtual TCP Offload: Optimizing Ethernet Overlay Performance on Advanced Interconnects

    E-print Network

    Dinda, Peter A.

    performance on high-speed Ethernet networks [6,17]. Providing the same Ethernet abstraction on high-end dataVirtual TCP Offload: Optimizing Ethernet Overlay Performance on Advanced Interconnects Zheng Cui@northwestern.edu ABSTRACT Ethernet overlay networks are a powerful tool for virtu- alizing networked applications

  20. Spectrum allocation with beamforming antenna in heterogeneous overlaying networks

    E-print Network

    Bahk, Saewoong

    1 Spectrum allocation with beamforming antenna in heterogeneous overlaying networks Sunheui Ryoo spectrum reuse. In this paper, we explore schemes to mitigate cross-tier interference with beamforming antennas for overlay networks. In our model, fem- tocells can operate with frequency spectrum

  1. Global Intrusion Detection in the DOMINO Overlay System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod Yegneswaran; Paul Barford; Somesh Jha

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Sharing data between widely distributed intrusion detec - tion systems offers the possibility of significant improve ments in speed and accuracy over isolated systems In this paper, we describe and evaluate DOMINO (Distributed Overlay for Monitoring InterNet Outbreaks); an architec - ture for a distributed intrusion detection system that fosters collaboration among heterogeneous nodes organized as an overlay network

  2. Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh1

    E-print Network

    Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh1 Miguel Castro2 Peter Druschel1, it can "eclipse" correct nodes and pre- vent correct overlay operation. This Eclipse attack is more general than the Sybil attack. Attackers can use a Sybil attack to launch an Eclipse attack by inventing

  3. Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Galen

    Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh½£ Miguel Castro¾ Peter Druschel, it can "eclipse" correct nodes and pre- vent correct overlay operation. This Eclipse attack is more general than the Sybil attack. Attackers can use a Sybil attack to launch an Eclipse attack by inventing

  4. Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul Singh; Tsuen-wan Ngan; Peter Druschel; Dan S. Wallach

    2006-01-01

    Overlay networks are widely used to deploy func- tionality at edge nodes without changing network routers. Each node in an overlay network maintains connections with a number of peers, forming a graph upon which a distributed application or service is implemented. In an \\

  5. Verme: Worm Containment in Overlay Networks Filipe Freitas1

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Paulo

    Verme: Worm Containment in Overlay Networks Filipe Freitas1 , Edgar Marques1 , Rodrigo Rodrigues2 Max Planck Institute for Software Systems (MPI-SWS) Abstract Topological worms, such as those random scanning worms be- cause they have knowledge of a subset of the overlay nodes, and choose

  6. Scalable Resilient Overlay Networks Using Destination-Guided Detouring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameer Qazi; Tim Moors

    2007-01-01

    Routing policies used in the Internet tend to be restrictive limiting communication between source-destination pairs to one route, when often better alternates exist. To avoid route flapping, recovery mechanisms may be dampened, making adaptation slow. Unstructured overlays have been widely used to mitigate the issues of path and performance failures in the Internet by routing through alternate paths via overlay

  7. Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers W. Randolph Franklin

    E-print Network

    Franklin, W. Randolph

    Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers W. Randolph Franklin ECSE Dept, 6026 JEC://wrfranklin.org/ Keywords: overlay, roundoff error, rational numbers, topology, intersection We present a solution as rational numbers, or vulgar fractions composed of a numerator divided by a denominator. Because the result

  8. Concrete Overlay Field Application ProgramPhase 2

    E-print Network

    Concrete Pavement Technology Center (CP Tech Center) at Iowa State University. #12;Contact If you would-house expertise on overlays through its choice of services, all provided through the National Concrete Pavement Technology Center: · Site visits and remote meetings. An expert team will visit potential overlay project

  9. Personal Communication Systems Using Multiple Hierarchical Cellular Overlays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long-rong Hu; Stephen S. Rappaport

    1995-01-01

    A personal communication system with multiple hierarchical cellular overlays is considered. The system can include a terrestrial segment and a space segment. The terrestrial trail segment, consisting of microcells and macrocells, provides high channel capacity by covering service areas with microcells. Overlaying macrocells cover spots that are difficult in radio propagation for microcells and provide overflow groups of channels for

  10. Topology-aware overlay networks for group communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minseok Kwon; Sonia Fahmy

    2002-01-01

    We propose an application level multicast approach, Topology Aware Grouping (TAG), which exploits underlying network topology information to build efficient overlay networks among multicast group members. TAG uses information about path overlap among members to construct a tree that reduces the overlay relative delay penalty, and reduces the number of duplicate copies of a packet on the same link. We

  11. Overlay mark optimization using the KTD signal simulation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Marchelli; Karsten Gutjahr; Michael Kubis; Christian Sparka; Mark Ghinovker; Alessandra Navarra; Amir Widmann

    2009-01-01

    As the overlay performance and accuracy requirements become tighter, the impact of process parameters on the target signal becomes more significant. Traditionally, in order to choose the optimum overlay target, several candidates are placed in the kerf area. The candidate targets are tested under different process conditions, before the target to be used in mass production is selected. The varieties

  12. Layout optimization for thick-film resist overlay metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang; Li, James; Zhou, Brian; Gu, Yili; Yang, Steve

    2008-03-01

    Design for Manufacturing (DFM) is being widely accepted as one of the keywords in cutting edge lithography and OPC technologies. DFM solutions impact the design-to-silicon flow at various stages, often during different time-point in the product life cycle, and often with both process equipments and metrology tools. As the design rule shrinks and mask field size increases, tighter specifications are applied on non-critical layers, including thick implant resist typically with thickness of 3.0um and above. Various functions, as Enhanced Global Alignment (EGA), Super Distortion Matching (SDM), and Grid Compensation for Matching (GCM), are widely used to achieve improved overlay accuracy. However, poor uniformity for CD and overlay was observed for thick resist implant layers. Systematic uncorrectable overlay residue was observed from the overlay map. Cross-section analysis shows asymmetric resist profile existed, causing inaccurate signal reading during the measurement. Although there are some recent researches focusing on CD-SEM metrology of overlay residue, overlay tools in current foundries are mainly optical-based ones, which are limited by the optical resolution. Instead of locally focusing on the manufacturing, an innovative methodology is proposed in this paper, by applying the newly designed overlay marks to solve this manufacturing problem. From the comparison of overlay performances between the proposed layout and the original design, it is shown that the taper asymmetry induced errors are significantly reduced.

  13. Repeated-Game Modeling of Multicast Overlays Mike Afergan

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    -term desire for quality and long-term desire for the network's continued existence. We simulate overlay tree video or stock tickers, require efficient distribution of real-time data. IP multicast is a router in network efficiency. Further, they are easier to deploy than IP multicast. Application overlays typically

  14. Etherlay: An Overlay Enhancement for Metro Ethernet Networks

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Etherlay: An Overlay Enhancement for Metro Ethernet Networks Minh Huynh and Prasant Mohapatra}@ucdavis.edu Abstract-- The ubiquitous Ethernet technology has propelled itself into a wide-scale adoption for Metro% of the total throughput. Keywords- Etherlay, Metro Ethernet Network, MSTP, Overlay, Resilience, RSTP. I

  15. An Efficient FPGA Overlay for Portable Custom Instruction Set Extensions

    E-print Network

    Lemieux, Guy

    An Efficient FPGA Overlay for Portable Custom Instruction Set Extensions Dirk Koch,, Christian this approach is commonly tailored to one specific FPGA system, we are presenting a fine-grained FPGA-like overlay architecture which can be implemented in the user logic of various FPGA families from different

  16. Cross-sensor comparisons between Landsat 5 TM and IRS-P6 AWiFS and disturbance detection using integrated Landsat and AWiFS time-series images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Chander, Gyanesh; Ji, Lei; Tolk, Brian; Huang, Chengquan; Rollins, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Routine acquisition of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was discontinued recently and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has an ongoing problem with the scan line corrector (SLC), thereby creating spatial gaps when covering images obtained during the process. Since temporal and spatial discontinuities of Landsat data are now imminent, it is therefore important to investigate other potential satellite data that can be used to replace Landsat data. We thus cross-compared two near-simultaneous images obtained from Landsat 5 TM and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS)-P6 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS), both captured on 29 May 2007 over Los Angeles, CA. TM and AWiFS reflectances were compared for the green, red, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, as well as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on manually selected polygons in homogeneous areas. All R2 values of linear regressions were found to be higher than 0.99. The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method was used to calculate the NDVI correlation between the TM and AWiFS images. The NDVI regression line derived from selected polygons passed through several invariant cluster centres of the TIC density maps and demonstrated that both the scene-dependent polygon regression method and TIC method can generate accurate radiometric normalization. A scene-independent normalization method was also used to normalize the AWiFS data. Image agreement assessment demonstrated that the scene-dependent normalization using homogeneous polygons provided slightly higher accuracy values than those obtained by the scene-independent method. Finally, the non-normalized and relatively normalized ‘Landsat-like’ AWiFS 2007 images were integrated into 1984 to 2010 Landsat time-series stacks (LTSS) for disturbance detection using the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) model. Both scene-dependent and scene-independent normalized AWiFS data sets could generate disturbance maps similar to what were generated using the LTSS data set, and their kappa coefficients were higher than 0.97. These results indicate that AWiFS can be used instead of Landsat data to detect multitemporal disturbance in the event of Landsat data discontinuity.

  17. Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-08-02

    Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

  18. Landsat 2 on-board computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesko, J. G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Landsat Spacecraft Project (formerly known as ERTS) was based essentially on the use of Nimbus spacecraft hardware. It was soon recognized that the availability of only 30 stored command locations (which were sufficient for the Nimbus mission) would limit the operation of the Landsat 1 mission with much higher power sensors, recorders, and wideband communications being cycled on and off throughout the orbit. The solution described is a simple memory with hard wired logic, of a design that can interface with the existing hardware, without modifications. The design was implemented using an existing APO (Advanced Onboard Processor) and a 4096 word X 18 bit plated wire memory. (The AOP has been subsequently designated the NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer.)

  19. Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. (principal investigators); Rice, D. P.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Objective measurements of percent green wheat cover on May 21 were significantly correlated with yield, as were measurements of green LAI and LANDSAT data. Three data sets from the Finney test site were analyzed from LANDSAT passes on 22 November 1974, 15 April 1975, and 21 May 1975. After mean signal values in each band were computed for each sufficiently large wheat field, the mean values were correlated with the farmer estimates of wheat grain yield in order to assess relative information content. It is clear that the single best spectral temporal band for predicting yield is the 15 April red band (0.6-0.7 microns, band 5), with the 15 April green band (0.5-0.6 microns, band 4) a close second.

  20. SAR/LANDSAT image registration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphrey, S. W. (principal investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Temporal registration of synthetic aperture radar data with LANDSAT-MSS data is both feasible (from a technical standpoint) and useful (from an information-content viewpoint). The greatest difficulty in registering aircraft SAR data to corrected LANDSAT-MSS data is control-point location. The differences in SAR and MSS data impact the selection of features that will serve as a good control points. The SAR and MSS data are unsuitable for automatic computer correlation of digital control-point data. The gray-level data can not be compared by the computer because of the different response characteristics of the MSS and SAR images.

  1. Earth as Art: A Landsat Perspective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For close to thirty years, a series of Landsat satellites have imaged the Earth's surface, returning images for use in a number of business, education, government, and science applications. Of course, many of these images have a great deal of aesthetic value, as those who look at them find themselves marveling at vast deltas, fjords, and land use patterns around the globe. This fine exhibit from the Library of Congress includes images transmitted from Landsat 7. These images are are also part of an exhibit in the Library's Geography & Map Reading Room that will be on display until December 31, 2003. Visitors to the online exhibit can look at high-resolution images of remote Akpatok Island in northern Quebec, Dasht-e Kevir (which translates as Great Salt Desert) in Iran, the West Fjords in northwestern Iceland, and about thirty-five other images in total.

  2. Advanced Ice Velocity Mapping Using Landsat 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, M. J.; Scambos, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Haran, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Improved image-to-image cross correlation software is applied to pairs of sequential Landsat 8 satellite imagery to accurately measure ice surface velocity over ice sheets and glaciers (±0.1 pixel displacement, 15 meter pixels). The high radiometric fidelity of Landsat 8's panchromatic band (12-bit), and exceptional geolocation accuracy (typically ±5 m) supports the generation of ice velocity fields over very short time intervals (e.g., 16-, 32-, or 48-day repeat images of the same scene location). The high radiometry supports velocity mapping in areas with very subtle topographic detail, including un-crevassed sastrugi regions on ice dome flanks or the ice sheet interior. New Python-based software presently under development (named PyCorr), takes two sequential Landsat 8 OLI scenes (or suitably processed ETM+ or TM scenes) and matches small sub-scenes ('chips') between the images based on similarity in their gray-scale value patterns, using an image correlation algorithm. Peak fitting in the region of maximum correlation for a chip pair yields sub-pixel fits to the feature offset vector. Vector editing after the image correlation runs seeks to eliminate spurious and cloud-impacted vectors, and correct residual geo-location error. This processing is based on plausible values of ice strain rates and known areas of near-zero ice flow (rock outcrops, ice dome areas, etc.). In preliminary processing, we have examined ~800 Landsat 8 image pairs having <20% cloud cover spanning the near-coastal Antarctic ice sheet during the 2013-14 summer season.

  3. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Morin, P.

    2008-12-01

    The first-ever true-color, high-resolution digital mosaic of Antarctica has been produced from nearly 1100 Landsat-7 ETM+ images collected between 1999 and 2003. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) project was an early benchmark data set of the International Polar Year and represents a close and successful collaboration between NASA, USGS, the British Antarctic Survey and the National Science Foundation. The mosaic was successfully merged with lower resolution MODIS data south of Landsat coverage to produce a complete true-color data set of the entire continent. LIMA is being used as a platform for a variety of education and outreach activities. Central to this effort is the NASA website 'Faces of Antarctica' that offers the web visitor the opportunity to explore the data set and to learn how these data are used to support scientific research. Content is delivered through a set of mysteries designed to pique the user's interest and to motivate them to delve deeper into the website where there are various videos and scientific articles for downloading. Detailed lesson plans written by teachers are provided for classroom use and Java applets let the user track the motion of ice in sequential Landsat images. Web links take the user to other sites where they can roam over the imagery using standard pan and zoom functions, or search for any named feature in the Antarctic Geographic Names data base that returns to the user a centered true-color view of any named feature. LIMA also has appeared is a host of external presentations from museum exhibits, to postcards and large posters. It has attracted various value-added providers that increase LIMA's accessibility by allowing users to specify subsets of the very large data set for individual downloads. The ultimate goal of LIMA in the public and educational sector is to enable everyone to become more familiar with Antarctica.

  4. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Calibration and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Storey, James C.; Morfitt, Ron; Knight, Ed; Kvaran, Geir; Lee, Kenton

    2008-01-01

    The primary payload for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is the Operational Land Imager (OLI), being built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies, under contract to NASA. The OLI has spectral bands similar to the Landsat-7 ETM+, minus the thermal band and with two new bands, a 443 nm band and 1375 nm cirrus detection band. On-board calibration systems include two solar diffusers (routine and pristine), a shutter and three sets of internal lamps (routine, backup and pristine). Being a pushbroom opposed to a whiskbroom design of ETM+, the system poses new challenges for characterization and calibration, chief among them being the large focal plane with 75000+ detectors. A comprehensive characterization and calibration plan is in place for the instrument and the data throughout the mission including Ball, NASA and the United States Geological Survey, which will take over operations of LDCM after on-orbit commissioning. Driving radiometric calibration requirements for OLI data include radiance calibration to 5% uncertainty (1 q); reflectance calibration to 3% uncertainty (1 q) and relative (detector-to-detector) calibration to 0.5% (J (r). Driving geometric calibration requirements for OLI include bandto- band registration of 4.5 meters (90% confidence), absolute geodetic accuracy of 65 meters (90% CE) and relative geodetic accuracy of 25 meters (90% CE). Key spectral, spatial and radiometric characterization of the OLI will occur in thermal vacuum at Ball Aerospace. During commissioning the OLI will be characterized and calibrated using celestial (sun, moon, stars) sources and terrestrial sources. The USGS EROS ground processing system will incorporate an image assessment system similar to Landsat-7 for characterization and calibration. This system will have the added benefit that characterization data will be extracted as part of the normal image data processing, so that the characterization data available will be significantly larger than for Landsat-7 ETM+.

  5. Evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (principal investigator); Murphy, J. M.; Grieve, G.; Simard, R.; Horler, D.; Ahern, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Interband line pixel misregistrations were determined for the four MSS bands of the Mistassini, Ontario scene and multitemporal registration of LANDSAT-4 products were tested for two different geocoded scenes. Line and pixel misregistrations are tabulated as determined by the manual ground control points and the digital band to band correlation techniques. A method was developed for determining the spectral information content of TM images for forestry applications.

  6. LANDSAT D position determination and correction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An assessment of accuracy of the knowledge of LANDSAT D spacecraft ephemeris data, an evaluation of the impact of expected attitude and alignment accuracies and analysis of the various options for the combining of precision ephemeris and attitude data with scene image data are provided. The potential geometric correction system in order to determine overall system costs and impact on other system elements is characterized.

  7. Landsat detection of oil from natural seeps.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, M.; Estes, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Oil on the ocean surface from the natural seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, could not be detected on frames of any of the four bands of standard Landsat positive or negative film transparencies, nor could the slicks be detected using digital scaling, density slicing, or ratioing techniques. Digital contrast-stretch enhancement, however, showed the distribution of oil on the surface. - from Authors

  8. State involvement in and use of LANDSAT technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessar, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The background of state involvement in LANDSAT systems planning and the status of state LANDSAT use are reviewed. Major recommendations on data continuity; frequency and pattern of observation; state representation in program management; pointable sensors for a fully operational system; data processing systems; data pricing; data copyright; data archival; and technology transfer are highlighted. Plans of the government regarding the LANDSAT system are reflected in the FY-1982 budget process are examined.

  9. Assembly and Analysis of SAR\\/LANDSAT Data Sets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Maurer; Paul Clemens

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of this study include the evaluation and, where necessary, the development of techniques to prepare synthetic aperature radar (SAR)\\/LANDSAT data sets for computer processing, and to provide the earth resources community with access to this technology; the assembly of well-calibrated SAR\\/LANDSAT data sets for demonstration purposes for several applications; and the analysis of SAR\\/LANDSAT data sets in order

  10. US Forest Disturbance Rates Observed from Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Goward, S. N.; Schleeweis, K.; Zhao, F.; Lindsey, M.; Masek, J.; Cohen, W. B.; Moisen, G. G.; Nemani, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    North American forests are thought to be a long-term sink for atmospheric carbon. However, great uncertainties exist in current understanding of the magnitude of this sink and its change in the foreseeable future, largely because forest disturbance and regrowth dynamics are not well characterized. A main goal of the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project is to quantify US forest disturbance and regrowth by integrating forest inventory data and historical Landsat observations. From a total of more than 100,000 Landsat images in the USGS Landsat archive, we have selected the best 20,000+ images to construct annual time series datasets for the entire the conterminous US (CONUS) for the years from 1984 to 2011. These images have been converted surface reflectance to produce spatially and temporally consistent radiometry, and are being analyzed using the vegetation change tracker (VCT) algorithm to produce annual forest disturbance products. These products will be validated using design-based accuracy assessment methods, and the causing factor of each mapped disturbance event will be identified. In this talk, we will first provide an overview of the key NAFD methods and then present the preliminary results derived through the NAFD disturbance mapping effort, including initial quality assessment of the derived disturbance products, as well as patterns and rates of forest disturbances at national and regional scales. Issues, lessons learned, and future NAFD work will be discussed at the end.

  11. Value of Landsat in urban water resources planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Ragan, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation had the objective to evaluate the utility of satellite multispectral remote sensing in urban water resources planning. The results are presented of a study which was conducted to determine the economic impact of Landsat data. The use of Landsat data to estimate hydrologic model parameters employed in urban water resources planning is discussed. A decision regarding an employment of the Landsat data has to consider the tradeoff between data accuracy and cost. Bayesian decision theory is used in this connection. It is concluded that computer-aided interpretation of Landsat data is a highly cost-effective method of estimating the percentage of impervious area.

  12. Effective bandwidths for Landsat-4 and Landsat-D' multispectral scanner and thematic mapper subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral bands of the Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper subsystems of Landsat-4 and Landsat-D' have been analyzed using a bandwidth normalization technique based on analysis of the moments of the spectral responsitivity curves. The results include the effective wavelength, the bandpass, the wavelength limits, and the normalized responsivity for each spectral channel. In addition, temperature coefficients for TM PF Channel 6 have been derived. The moments normalization method employed yields sensor parameters whose derivation is independent of source characteristics (i.e., incident solar spectral irradiance, atmospoheric transmittance, or ground reflectance). The errors expected using these parameters are lower than those expected using other normalization methods.

  13. LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog, 1-31 January 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

  14. SRTM Radar - Landsat Image Comparison, Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In addition to an elevation model of most of Earth'slandmass, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission will produce C-band radar imagery of the same area. This imagery is essentially a 10-day snapshot view of the Earth, as observed with 5.8 centimeter wavelength radar signals that were transmitted from the Shuttle, reflected by the Earth, and then recorded on the Shuttle. This six-image mosaic shows two examples of SRTM radar images (center) with comparisons to images acquired by the Landsat 7 satellite in the visible wavelengths (left) and an infrared wavelength (right). Both sets of images show lava flows in northern Patagonia, Argentina. In each case, the lava flows are relatively young compared to the surrounding rock formations.

    In visible light (left) image brightness corresponds to mineral chemistry and -- as expected -- both lava flows appear dark. Generally, the upper flow sits atop much lighter bedrock, providing good contrast and making the edges of the flow distinct. However, the lower flow borders some rocks that are similarly dark, and the flow boundaries are somewhat obscured. Meanwhile, in the radar images (center), image brightness corresponds to surface roughness (and topographic orientation) and substantial differences between the flows are visible. Much of the top flow appears dark, meaning it is fairly smooth. Consequently, it forms little or no contrast with the smooth and dark surrounding bedrock and thus virtually vanishes from view. However, the lower flow appears rough and bright and mostly forms good contrast with adjacent bedrock such that the flow is locally more distinct here than in the visible Landsat view. For further comparison, infrared Landsat images (right) again show image brightnesses related to mineral chemistry, but the lava flows appear lighter than in the visible wavelengths. Consequently, the lower lava flow becomes fairly obscure among the various surrounding rocks, just as the upper flow did in the radar image. The various differences among all of these images illustrate the importance of illumination wavelength in image interpretation.

    The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper images used here were provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    The radar images shown here were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size (top set): 21.3 kilometers (13.2 miles) x 25.0 kilometers (15.5 miles) Size (bottom set): 44.1 kilometers (27.3 miles) x 56.0 kilometers (34.7 miles) Location: 41.5 deg. South lat., 69 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper left (top set), North toward upper right (bottom set) Image Data: Landsat bands 1,2,3 (left); SRTM Radar (middle); Landsat band 7 (right) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 (SRTM), January 22, 2000 (Landsat)

  15. SRTM Perspective with Landsat Virgin Islands, Carribean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (front to back) of this east-looking view of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Elevation is shown with 1.5x scaled vertical exaggeration. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as very light shades of blue. Tropical vegetation appears green, and developed areas appear in shades of brown and white.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 94.7 kilometers (58.7 miles) view distance, 29.2 kilometers (18.1 miles) view width Location: 18.25 degrees North latitude, 64.75 degrees West longitude Orientation: Looking EasT Image Data: Landsat Bands 1,2+4, 3 as blue, green, red, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM and Landsat 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), January 21, 1985 (Landsat)

  16. Anaglyph with Landsat Virgin Islands, Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (lower left to upper right) of this map-view anaglyph of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as bright patterns in near-shore waters. Tropical vegetation appears fairly dark with smooth tones, as compared to the brighter speckled patterns of towns and other developments.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 79.9 by 48.6 kilometers (49.9 by 30.1 miles) Location: 18.25 degrees North latitude, 64.75 degrees West longitude Orientation: North-Northeast toward the top Image Data: Landsat Band 1 with SRTM shading Original Data Resolution: SRTM and Landsat 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), January 21, 1985 (Landsat)

  17. Weld overlay cladding with iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1996-11-01

    The hot and cold cracking tendencies of some early iron aluminide alloy compositions limited their use to applications where good weldability was not required. Considerable progress has been made toward improving this situation. Using hot crack testing techniques developed at ORNL and a systematic study of alloy compositional effects, we have established a range of compositions within which hot cracking resistance is very good, essentially equivalent to stainless steel. Cold cracking, however, remains an issue, and extensive efforts are continuing to optimize composition and welding parameters, especially preheat and postweld heat treatment, to minimize its occurrence. In terms of filler metal and process development, we have progressed from sheared strip through aspiration cast rod and shielded metal arc electrodes to the point where we can now produce composite wire with a steel sheath and aluminum core in coil form, which permits the use of both the gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes. This is a significant advancement in that the gas metal arc process lends itself well to automated welding, and is the process of choice for commercial weld overlay applications. Using the newly developed filler metals, we have prepared clad specimens for testing in a variety of environments both in-house and outside ORNL, including laboratory and commercial organizations. As a means of assessing the field performance of this new type of material, we have modified several non-pressure boundary boiler components, including fuel nozzles and port shrouds, by introducing areas of weld overlay in strategic locations, and have placed these components in service in operating boilers for a side-by-side comparison with conventional corrosion-resistant materials.

  18. Predicting the fatigue life of asphalt concrete overlay systems 

    E-print Network

    Germann, Frederick P

    1979-01-01

    shed in this report, for quantitative analysis of overlay methods designed to reduce reflection cracking. From this testing procedure the overlay scheme that shows the most resistance to fatigue crack1ng can be chosen. The procedure uses fatigue...'s resistance to cracking can be easily seen. One way to determine the fatigue 11fe is to perform fatigue tests on over- lay samples using the overlay tester. These tests can be time consuming and costly. Another method to find the fatigue life is to use a...

  19. LANDSAT-1 and Landsat-2 flight evaluation report, 23 October 1976 to 23 January 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Performance analyses for LANDSAT 1 and 2, launched respectively in 1972 and 1975, are reported. Operational controls are evaluated, as well as orbital parameters and various subsystems. Both satellites continue to perform their missions normally, in spite of past minor operational malfunctions.

  20. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report, 23 January - 23 April 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The LANDSAT operations from launch through orbital instrument observations are reviewed. Orbital parameters, power subsystem, attitude control subsystem, and command/clock subsystem are discussed. Other subsystems are also considered, such as telemetry, orbit adjust, electrical interface, thermal, wideband telemetry, multispectral scanner, and data collection.

  1. The next Landsat satellite: The Landsat Data Continuity Mission James R. Irons a,

    E-print Network

    Wallin, David O.

    over a 185 km swath. Both sensors offer tech- nical advancements over earlier Landsat instruments. OLI, the Operational Land Imager (OLI), will collect image data for nine shortwave spectral bands over a 185 km swath with a 30 m spatial resolution for all bands except a 15 m panchromatic band. The other instrument

  2. Accessing Landsat Data and Using it in ArcGIS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This post on the AmericaView Blog describes accessing Landsat data and using it in the ArcGIS program. The post includes a link to an instructional video which will show you how to access freely available Landsat satellite imagery and data and then work with it in ArcGIS. Running time for the video is 8:01.

  3. SLC-off Landsat7 ETM+ reflective band radiometric calibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Markham; Julia A. Barsi; Kurtis J. Thome; John L. Barker; Pat L. Scaramuzza; Dennis L. Helder

    2005-01-01

    Since May 31, 2003, when the scan line corrector (SLC) on the Landsat-7 ETM+ failed, the primary foci of Landsat-7 ETM+ analyses have been on understanding and attempting to fix the problem and later on developing composited products to mitigate the problem. In the meantime, the Image Assessment System personnel and vicarious calibration teams have continued to monitor the radiometric

  4. LANDSAT-4 World Reference System (WRS) users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A functional description of the new LANDSAT-4 World Reference System (WRS) with an overview of the main orbital parameters and instrument coverages is presented to provide the data user with the primary information required to understand LANDSAT-4 orbital characteristics, to effectively use the WRS indexing scheme, and to request specific geographic coverage on the desired observation dates.

  5. Snow Scene of the Lake Erie Area from Landsat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnapp, Vern

    1982-01-01

    A snow-covered landscape as viewed from Landsat offers some intriguing possibilities for interpretation of various earth features that are difficult to discern on imagery taken at other times of the year. This Landsat image can be analyzed and studied by college- level geography students. (AM)

  6. A Yukon River Basin Landsat Mosaic for Assessing Environmental Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Bouchard; J. L. Dwyer; B. Granneman

    2009-01-01

    Landsat data from the Global Land Survey (GLS) dataset for year 2000 was mosaicked to form a Yukon River Basin image map that is referenced to a geodetic base. It was produced from 66 Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images collected from 1999-2002. Two products were created: (1) a geographically referenced database containing all seven of the spectral bands

  7. Sharpening landsat 8 thermal imagery for field scale ET mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing provides valuable information for mapping land surface energy flux and evapotranspiration (ET). Landsat 8 carries a TIR instrument with two thermal bands that can provide a more accurate estimate of land surface temperature (LST) than prior landsat satellites. H...

  8. Improved forest change detection with terrain illumination corrected landsat images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An illumination correction algorithm has been developed to improve the accuracy of forest change detection from Landsat reflectance data. This algorithm is based on an empirical rotation model and was tested on the Landsat imagery pair over Cherokee National Forest, Tennessee, Uinta-Wasatch-Cache N...

  9. Excerpts from selected LANDSAT 1 final reports in geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.; Smith, A.; Baker, R.

    1976-01-01

    The standard formats for the summaries of selected LANDSAT geological data are presented as checklists. These include: (1) value of LANDSAT data to geology, (2) geologic benefits, (3) follow up studies, (4) cost benefits, (5) optimistic working scales, (6) statistical analysis, and (7) enhancement effects.

  10. An operational land imager for the landsat data continuity mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Irons; J. Murphy-Morris

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) released a request for proposals (RFP) on January 09, 2007 for an Operational Land Imager (OLI). The RFP specified the OLI as the principal sensor for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), the successor mission to Landsat 7. The RFP provides requirements for OLI performance, special calibration tests, and mission assurance without specifying

  11. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-31 May 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. standard catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  12. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-31 March 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  13. Historical Landsat data comparisons: illustrations of the Earth's changing surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) has managed the Landsat data archive for more than two decades. This archive provides a rich collection of information about the Earth's land surface. Major changes to the surface of the planet can be detected, measured, and analyzed using Landsat data. The effects of desertification, deforestation, pollution, cataclysmic volcanic activity, and other natural and anthropogenic events can be examined using data acquired from the Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites. The information obtainable from the historical and current Landsat data play a key role in studying surface changes through time. This document provides an overview of the Landsat program and illustrates the application of the data to monitor changes occurring on the surface of the Earth. To reveal changes that have taken place within the past 20 years, pairs and triplicates of images were constructed from the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) sensors. Landsat MSS data provide a historical record of the Earth's land surface from the early 1970's to the early 1990's. Landsat TM data provide land surface information from the early 1980's to the present.

  14. Historical Landsat data comparisons: illustrations of land surface change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Matthew D.

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC) has archived two decades of Landsat data, providing a rich collection of information about the dynamics of the Earth's land surface. Major changes to the surface features of the planet can be detected, measured, and studied using Landsat data. The effects of desertification, deforestation, pollution, cataclysmic volcanic activity, and other natural and anthropogenic events can be examined by resource scientists using data acquired from the Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites. The availability of a nearly uninterrupted flow of information from the Landsats, in a consistent data format, gives researchers an important tool for studying surface changes over time. This booklet provides an overview of the Landsat program and shows the application of the data to monitor changes occurring on the surface of the Earth. To show changes that have taken place within the last 20 years or less, image pairs were constructed from the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) sensors. Landsat MSS data provide a historical global record of the land surface from the early 1970's to present. Landsat TM data provide land surface information from the early 1980's to present.

  15. Overlay metrology: the systematic, the random and the ugly

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Neal; Shin, Jennifer [Advanced Process Tool Development Group, Digital Semiconductor, Hudson, Massachusetts 01749 (United States)

    1998-11-24

    Typical advanced lithographic processes require an overlay tolerance that is approximately 30% of the minimum feature size. To achieve this metrology must be limited to an error budget of 3-5% of the minimum feature size. A discussion of the general use of overlay data for assessment of stepper performance is followed by an overview of key overlay metrology equipment performance parameters (Tool Induced Shift-TIS) and the interaction with the process (Wafer Induced Shift-WIS). The interactions between the target, the process and the equipment will also be reviewed. Finally, use of this information in a case study of overlay target design for Tungsten Chemical Mechanical Planarization (W CMP) will be presented. Relevant process data will demonstrate how such targets can be used to effectively monitor both stepper (systematic error) and metrology tool (random error) performance.

  16. Landsat observations of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, C. G.; Bly, B. G.

    1981-01-01

    The eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980, and subsequent destruction of approximately 593 square kilometers (229 square miles) of vegetation, clearly provided a unique opportunity for earth-oriented satellite remote sensing systems. Landsat, a relatively high resolution Multispectral Scanner (MSS) system, imaged Mount St. Helens both before and after its major eruption. Digital data have been used to create a damage assessment map and a change detection image. Several classes of timber damage and land cover modification have been developed. Acreages for each class have been tabulated.

  17. Multidate Landsat lake quality monitoring program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, L. T.; Scarpace, F. L.; Thomsen, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    A unified package of files and programs has been developed to automate the multidate Landsat-derived analyses of water quality for about 3000 inland lakes throughout Wisconsin. A master lakes file which stores geographic information on the lakes, a file giving the latitudes and longitudes of control points for scene navigation, and a program to estimate control point locations and produce microfiche character maps for scene navigation are among the files and programs of the system. The use of ground coordinate systems to isolate irregular shaped areas which can be accessed at will appears to provide an economical means of restricting the size of the data set.

  18. Ground data handling for LANDSAT-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The present plans for the LANDSAT D ground data handling are described in relationship to the mission objectives and the planned spacecraft system. The end to end data system is presented with particular emphasis on the data handling plans for the new instrument, the Thematic Mapper. This instrument generates ten times the amount of data per scene as the present Multispectral Scanner, and this resulting data rate and volume are discussed as well as possible new data techniques to handle them such as image compression.

  19. Landsat 7 Solar Array Testing Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfrich, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    This paper covers the extensive Landsat 7 solar array flight qualification testing effort. Details of the mechanical design of the solar array and its retention/release system are presented. A testing chronology is provided beginning with the onset of problems encountered at the subsystem level and carrying through the third and final powered-spacecraft ground deployment test. Design fixes and other changes are explained in the same order as they became necessary to flight-qualify the array. Some interesting lessons learned are included along with key references.

  20. Operational alternatives for LANDSAT in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, P.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Data integration is defined and examined as the means of promoting data sharing among the various governmental and private geobased information systems in California. Elements of vertical integration considered included technical factors (such as resolution and classification) and institutional factors (such as organizational control, and legal and political barriers). Attempts are made to fit the theoretical elements of vertical integration into a meaningful structure for looking at the problem from a statewide focus. Both manual (mapped) and machine readable data systems are included. Special attention is given to LANDSAT imagery because of its strong potential for integrated use and its primary in the California Integrated Remote Sensing System program.

  1. Applications of modeling to analysis and processing of Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Gleason, J. M.; Sadowski, F. G.; Cicone, R. C.; Crist, E. P.

    1978-01-01

    The Suits bidirectional reflectance model (1972) for vegetation canopies was used to calculate reflectance values for the four Landsat spectral bands under a variety of canopy and observation conditions. Relationships between characteristics of developing wheat fields and associated reflectances were studied. Coincident measurements of crop reflectance and Landsat signals were compared using regression analysis techniques. The model was also applied to forest situations both to help establish the extent to which Landsat may provide direct information about conditions occurring beneath forest overstories and to help develop methods for reducing the effects of terrain slope and aspect in the processing of Landsat data. Finally, a relationship based on model calculations was used to adjust Landsat signal values and was found to reduce topography-related variability and improve subsequent classification performance.

  2. An overlay network providing application-aware multimedia services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten Wijnants; Bart Cornelissen; Wim Lamotte; Bart De Vleeschauwer

    2006-01-01

    Real-time streaming of multimedia content is increasingly becoming a crucial part of networked applications. A logical consequence of this evolution is a growing demand for services that can be applied on these multimedia streams. In this paper, we present our overlay network which provides such multimedia services. Although these services are application-aware and can thus exploit application-specific knowledge, the overlay

  3. Augmenting reality in Direct View Optical (DVO) overlay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Tim; Edwards, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The integration of overlay displays into rifle scopes can transform precision Direct View Optical (DVO) sights into intelligent interactive fire-control systems. Overlay displays can provide ballistic solutions within the sight for dramatically improved targeting, can fuse sensor video to extend targeting into nighttime or dirty battlefield conditions, and can overlay complex situational awareness information over the real-world scene. High brightness overlay solutions for dismounted soldier applications have previously been hindered by excessive power consumption, weight and bulk making them unsuitable for man-portable, battery powered applications. This paper describes the advancements and capabilities of a high brightness, ultra-low power text and graphics overlay display module developed specifically for integration into DVO weapon sight applications. Central to the overlay display module was the development of a new general purpose low power graphics controller and dual-path display driver electronics. The graphics controller interface is a simple 2-wire RS-232 serial interface compatible with existing weapon systems such as the IBEAM ballistic computer and the RULR and STORM laser rangefinders (LRF). The module features include multiple graphics layers, user configurable fonts and icons, and parameterized vector rendering, making it suitable for general purpose DVO overlay applications. The module is configured for graphics-only operation for daytime use and overlays graphics with video for nighttime applications. The miniature footprint and ultra-low power consumption of the module enables a new generation of intelligent DVO systems and has been implemented for resolutions from VGA to SXGA, in monochrome and color, and in graphics applications with and without sensor video.

  4. Maxmin overlay multicast: rate allocation and tree construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Cui; Yuan Xue; Klara Nahrstedt

    2004-01-01

    Although initially proposed as the deployable al- ternative to IP multicast, overlay multicast actually offers us great flexibilities on QoS-aware resource allocation for network applications. For example, in overlay multicast streaming, (1) the streaming rate of each client can be diversified to better accommodate network heterogeneity, through various end-to- end streaming adaptation techniques; and (2) one can freely organize the

  5. Loss characteristics in urban environment with different buildings' overlay profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Blaunstein; D. Katz; D. Censor

    2001-01-01

    In this work we continue the analysis of a probabilistic approach and the corresponding stochastic multiparametric model of wave propagation in built-up areas with randomly distributed buildings. We concentrate on the influence of buildings' overlay profile on signal decay within the UHF\\/X-band urban propagation channels. Using different buildings' overlay profiles, the field loss characteristics are examined taking into account single

  6. ``Electric growth`` of metal overlayers on semiconductor substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Cho, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Niu, Q.; Shih, C.K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Suo, Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1998-02-01

    In this article, the authors present the main results from their recent studies of metal overlayer growth on semiconductor substrates. They show that a variety of novel phenomena can exist in such systems, resulting from several competing interactions. The confined motion of the conduction electrons within the metal overlayer can mediate a surprisingly long-range repulsive force between the metal-semiconductor interface and the growth front, acting to stabilize the overlayer. Electron transfer from the overlayer to the substrate leads to an attractive force between the two interfaces, acting to destabilize the overlayer. Interface-induced Friedel oscillations in electron density can further impose an oscillatory modulation onto the two previous interactions. These three competing factors, of all electronic nature, can make a flat metal overlayer critically, marginally, or magically stable, or totally unstable against roughening. The authors further show that, for many systems, these electronic effects can easily win over the effect of stress. First-principles studies of a few representative systems support the main features of the present electronic growth concept.

  7. LANDSAT: US standard catalog, 1 February 1977 - 28 February 1977. [LANDSAT imagery for the month of February 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  8. LANDSAT non-U.S. standard catalog, 1 January 1977 through 31 January 1977. [LANDSAT imagery January 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which was processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover, and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  9. Progress Towards a 2012 Landsat Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, Jim; Sabelhaus, Phil; Masek, Jeff; Cook, Bruce; Dabney, Phil; Loveland, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is on schedule for a December 2012 launch date. The mission is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). NASA leads the development and launch of the satellite observatory while leads ground system development. USGS will assume responsibility for operating the satellite and for collecting, archiving, and distributing the LDCM data following launch. When launched the satellite will carry two sensors into orbit. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will coincidently collect data for two thermal infrared bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it?s manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The ground data processing system is in development at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite system, provide the status of system development, and present prelaunch performance data for OLI and TIRS. The USGS has committed to renaming the satellite as Landsat 8 following launch.

  10. Landsat image registration for agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Juday, R. D.; Wacker, A. G.; Kaneko, T.

    1982-01-01

    An image registration system has been developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to spatially align multi-temporal Landsat acquisitions for use in agriculture and forestry research. Working in conjunction with the Master Data Processor (MDP) at the Goddard Space Flight Center, it functionally replaces the long-standing LACIE Registration Processor as JSC's data supplier. The system represents an expansion of the techniques developed for the MDP and LACIE Registration Processor, and it utilizes the experience gained in an IBM/JSC effort evaluating the performance of the latter. These techniques are discussed in detail. Several tests were developed to evaluate the registration performance of the system. The results indicate that 1/15-pixel accuracy (about 4m for Landsat MSS) is achievable in ideal circumstances, sub-pixel accuracy (often to 0.2 pixel or better) was attained on a representative set of U.S. acquisitions, and a success rate commensurate with the LACIE Registration Processor was realized. The system has been employed in a production mode on U.S. and foreign data, and a performance similar to the earlier tests has been noted.

  11. Stochastic nature of Landsat MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Masuoka, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    A multiple series generalization of the ARIMA models is used to model Landsat MSS scan lines as sequences of vectors, each vector having four elements (bands). The purpose of this work is to investigate if Landsat scan lines can be described by a general multiple series linear stochastic model and if the coefficients of such a model vary as a function of satellite system and target attributes. To accomplish this objective, an exploratory experimental design was set up incorporating six factors, four representing target attributes - location, cloud cover, row (within location), and column (within location) - and two factors representing system attributes - satellite number and detector bank. Each factor was included in the design at two levels and, with two replicates per treatment, 128 scan lines were analyzed. The results of the analysis suggests that a multiple AR(4) model is an adequate representation across all scan lines. Furthermore, the coefficients of the AR(4) model vary with location, particularly changes in physiography (slope regimes), and with percent cloud cover, but are insensitive to changes in system attributes.

  12. Intra-field overlay correction for illumination based distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike, Michael; Brunner, Timothy; Morgenfeld, Bradley; Jing, Nan; Wiltshire, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    The use of extreme freeform illumination conditions and multi patterning processes used to generate sub 40nm images can result in significant intra-field overlay errors. When levels with differing illumination conditions are aligned to each other, these intra-field distortions can result in overlay errors which are uncorrectable using normal linear feedback corrections. We use a double exposure method, previously described by Minghetti [1] et al. to isolate and measure intra-field overlay distortions caused by tool lens signatures and different illumination conditions. A full field test reticle is used to create a dual level expose pattern. The same pattern is exposed twice, but with two different illumination conditions. The first exposure is done with a standard reference illumination. The second exposure is the target illumination condition. The test reticle has overlay target pairs that are measurable when the 2nd exposure is offset in the Y direction by the designed amount. This allows for a high density, 13x13, intra-field overlay measurement to be collected and modeled to determine 2nd and 3rd order intra-field terms. Since the resulting illumination and scanner lens specific intra field corrections are independent of field size, the sub-recipes can be applied to any product exposure independent of field size, which use the same illumination conditions as the test exposures. When the method is applied to all exposure levels in a product build cycle, the overlay errors contributed by the reference illumination condition cancel out. The remaining errors are due exclusively to the impact of the illumination condition on that scanner lens. Actual results correlated well with the model with more than 80% of the predicted overlay improvement being achieved.

  13. Further beyond: registration and overlay control enhancements for optical masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorhad, Kujan; Cohen, Avi; Avizemer, Dan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Beyer, Dirk; Degel, Wolfgang; Kirsch, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Mask registration control is one of the key performance specifications during the mask qualification process. It is becoming an important factor for yield improvement with the continuously tightening registration specs driven by tight wafer overlay specs. Understanding the impact of miss classified masks on the final wafer yield is gaining more and more attention, especially with the appearance of Multiple Patterning Technologies, where mask to mask overlay effect on wafer is heavily influenced by mask registration. ZEISS has established a promising closed loop solution implemented in the mask house, where the PROVE® system - a highly accurate mask registration and overlay metrology measurement tool, is being used to feed the RegC® - a registration and mask to mask overlay correction tool that can also accurately predict the correction potential in advance. The well-established RegC® process typically reaches 40-70% improvement of the mask registration/overlay error standard deviation. The PROVE® - RegC® closed loop solution has several advantages over alternative registration control methods apart of the mask re-write saving. Among the advantages is the capability to correct for pellicle mounting registration effects without the need to remove the pellicle. This paper will demonstrate improved method for enhanced mask to mask overlay control based on a new scheme of data acquisition and performance validation by the PROVE®. The mask registration data as well as additional mask information will be used to feed the RegC® correction process. Significantly improved mask to mask overlay correction results will be discussed and presented in details.

  14. Mapping Antarctica using Landsat-8 - the preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X.; Hui, F.; Qi, X.

    2014-12-01

    The first Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) was released in 2009, which was created by USGS, BAS, and NASA from more than 1,000 Landsat ETM+ scenes. As the first major scientific outcome of the IPY, LIMA supports current scientific polar research, encourages new projects, and helps the general public visualize Antarctica and changes happening to this southernmost environment. As the latest satellite of Landsat mission, the Landsat-8 images the entire Earth every 16 days in an 8-day offset from Landsat-7. Data collected by the instruments onboard the satellite are available to download at no charge within 24 hours of reception. The standard Landsat 8 products provided by the USGS EROS Center consist of quantized and calibrated scaled Digital Numbers (DN) in 16-bit unsigned integer format and can be rescaled to the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and/or radiance. With the support of USGS portal, we searched and downloaded more than 1600 scenes of Level 1 T- Terrain Corrected Landsat 8 image products covering Antarctica from late 2013 to early 2014. These data were converted to planetary radiance for further processing. Since the distribution of clouds in these images are random and much complicated, statistics on the distribution of clouds were performed and then help to decide masking those thicker cloud to keep more useful information left and avoid observation holes. A preliminary result of the Landsat-8 mosaic of Antarctica under the joint efforts of Beijing Normal University, NSIDC and University of Maryland will be released on this AGU fall meeting. Comparison between Landsat 7 and 8 mosaic products will also be done to find the difference or advantage of the two products.

  15. Calibration of the Thermal Infrared Sensor on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Thome; D. Reuter; A. Lunsford; M. Montanaro; R. Smith; Z. Tesfaye; B. Wenny

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat series of satellites provides the longest running continuous data set of moderate-spatial-resolution imagery beginning with the launch of Landsat 1 in 1972 and continuing with the1999 launch of Landsat 7 and current operation of Landsats 5 and 7[1]. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) will continue this program into a fourth decade providing data that are keys to

  16. Landsat for practical forest type mapping - A test case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E.; Dodge, A. G., Jr.; Warren, S. D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer classified Landsat maps are compared with a recent conventional inventory of forest lands in northern Maine. Over the 196,000 hectare area mapped, estimates of the areas of softwood, mixed wood and hardwood forest obtained by a supervised classification of the Landsat data and a standard inventory based on aerial photointerpretation, probability proportional to prediction, field sampling and a standard forest measurement program are found to agree to within 5%. The cost of the Landsat maps is estimated to be $0.065/hectare. It is concluded that satellite techniques are worth developing for forest inventories, although they are not yet refined enough to be incorporated into current practical inventories.

  17. Quality Assessment of Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Using MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat images for the 2000 epoch. As surface reflectance likely will be a standard product for future Landsat missions, the approach developed in this study can be adapted as an operational quality assessment system for those missions.

  18. Enumeration of prairie wetlands with Landsat and aircraft data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Work, E.A., Jr.; Colwell, J.E.; Rebel, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for making an estimate of wetland numbers in the glaciated prairie region. A double-phase sampling approach is used which consists of first making a total census of wetlands using Landsat data, and then adjusting the Landsat results on the basis of samples derived from high resolution aircraft data. The method is relatively simple to use and has general applicability for estimating habitat features not consistently detectable or resolvable on Landsat imagery because their size range includes features less than the resolution capability of the satellite's sensor.

  19. Landsat ecosystem disturbance adaptive processing system (LEDAPS) algorithm description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Gail; Jenkerson, Calli; Masek, Jeffrey; Vermote, Eric; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) software was originally developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration–Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland to produce top-of-atmosphere reflectance from LandsatThematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Level 1 digital numbers and to apply atmospheric corrections to generate a surface-reflectance product.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the LEDAPS algorithm for producing the Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record.This report discusses the LEDAPS algorithm, which was implemented by the USGS.

  20. Overlay metrology solutions in a triple patterning scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Philippe; Mao, Ming; Baudemprez, Bart; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Overlay metrology tool suppliers are offering today several options to their customers: Different hardware (Image Based Overlay or Diffraction Based Overlay), different target designs (with or without segmentation) or different target sizes (from 5 um to 30 um). All these variations are proposed to resolve issues like robustness of the target towards process variations, be more representative of the design or increase the density of measurements. In the frame of the development of a triple patterning BEOL scheme of 10 nm node layer, we compare IBO targets (standard AIM, AIMid and multilayer AIMid). The metrology tools used for the study are KLA-Tencor's nextgeneration Archer 500 system (scatterometry- and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool). The overlay response and fingerprint of these targets will be compared using a very dense sampling (up to 51 pts per field). The benefit of indie measurements compared to the traditional scribes is discussed. The contribution of process effects to overlay values are compared to the contribution of the performance of the target. Different targets are combined in one measurement set to benefit from their different strengths (performance vs size). The results are summarized and possible strategies for a triple patterning schemes are proposed.

  1. Earth As Art 3: A Landsat Perspective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Circling high above the Earth, Landsat satellites have collected digital image photographs of the planet's continents and coastal areas. The Library of Congress has collected a number of these remarkable images (with the assistance of the United States Geological Survey) and visitors to this site can use the interactive features to zoom in and out on each image. The images have interesting titles, like "Empty Quarter", "Algerian Abstract", and "Ghostly Grease Ice". Each image can be sent as a postcard, and a brief paragraph or two describes the scene far below on the Earth's surface. Finally, visitor can also click on the "Learn More" tab to learn about additional web-based and print materials.

  2. An industrial perspective of the LANDSAT opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. F.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of enhancing LANDSAT products to provide the greatest usability low cost data possible can be determined through government sponsorship and finance of one or more task forces composed of a critical number of experts in multiple disciplines from many industries and academia. The synergism of multiple minds addressing singular problems without the creation of permanent or perpetual structures must yield output in the form of implementable specifications, even if presented as alternatives. Changes are needed within the spacecraft in order to account for Sun angle changes. The use of pointing accuracy to make geometric corrections (and possible radiometric corrections, is needed more than onboard data reduction and information extraction, which assume a proper knowledge of application and reduce potential utilization. Multilinear arrays need to be investigated and methods for sensor calibration and for determining the effects of atmospheric inversion, as well as the best way to back out the modulation transfer function must be determined.

  3. Landsat-4 horizon scanner flight performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanow, S.; Chen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the flight data from a new design of horizon scanner flown on Landsat-4. The salient features in the data are described and demonstrated by data plots. High frequency noise must be filtered out to achieve good accuracy, but this is effectively done by 128-point averaging. Sun and moon interference effects are identified. The effects of earth oblateness and spacecraft altitude variations are modeled, and the residual systematic errors are analyzed. Most of the residual errors are apparently explained by the effects of earth radiance variation, with the winter polar regions showing the highest variability in the attitude measurements due to winter stratosphere temperature variations. In general, this sensor provides improved accuracy over those flown on previous missions.

  4. MTF Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R.

    1984-01-01

    A research program to measure the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) modulation transfer function (MTF) is described. Measurement of a satellite sensor's MTF requires the use of a calibrated ground target, i.e., the spatial radiance distribution of the target must be known to a resolution at least four to five times greater than that of the system under test. A small reflective mirror or a dark light linear pattern such as line or edge, and relatively high resolution underflight imagery are used to calibrate the target. A technique that utilizes an analytical model for the scene spatial frequency power spectrum will be investigated as an alternative to calibration of the scene. The test sites and analysis techniques are also described.

  5. Scalable Middleware and Tools Treebased Overlay Networks

    E-print Network

    Maccabe, Barney

    filters, multiple concurrent data streams and scalable, responsive failure recovery mechanisms. MRNet, including the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Jülich executed on the data streams; and 4) to use performance models to evaluate algorithm performance

  6. Water quality mapping using Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Alias, A. N.; Wong, C. J.; Mustapha-Rosli, M. R.; Mohd Saleh, N.

    2009-05-01

    Environmental monitoring through the method of traditional ship sampling is time consuming and requires a high survey cost. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of Landsat TM imagery for total suspended solids (TSS) mapping using a newly developed algorithm over Penang Island. The study area is the seawater region around Penang Island, Malaysia. Water samples were collected during a 3-hour period simultaneously with the satellite image acquisition and later analyzed in the laboratory above the study area. The samples locations were determined using a handheld GPS. The satellite image was geometrically corrected using the second order polynomial transformation. The satellite image also was atmospheric corrected by using ATCOR2 image processing software. The digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into reflectance values for calibration of the water quality algorithm. The proposed algorithm is based on the reflectance model that is a function of the inherent optical properties of water, which can be related to its constituent's concentrations. The generated algorithm was developed for three visible wavelenghts, red, green and blue for this study. Results indicate that the proposed developed algorithm was superior based on the correlation coefficient (R) and root-mean-square deviation (RMS) values. Finally the proposed algorithm was used for TSS mapping at Penang Island, Malaysia. The generated TSS map was colour-coded for visual interpretation and image smoothing was performed on the map to remove random noise. This preliminary study has produced a promising result. This study indicates that the empirical algorithm is suitable for TSS mapping around Penang Island by using satellite Landsat TM data.

  7. Tracking Landsat-5 by a differential GPS technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, T. P.; Bertiger, W. I.; Lichten, S. M.; Wu, S. C.

    1986-01-01

    As part of an international campaign to develop precise geodetic applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of differential GPS tracking using Landsat-5. Two strategies have been investigated: one in which only the Landsat-5 orbit is estimated, and one in which both the Landsat-5 and GPS orbits are estimated together. Error studies show that under the limited conditions of the experiment, three-dimensional Landsat-5 position accuracies of about 5 m with the first strategy and 2 m with the second strategy can be achieved over a 20-min period of good observing geometry. Orbit determination results using a version of the first strategy appear to achieve the 5 m goal. This is supported by various formal error measures and independent comparisons. The more powerful strategy has yet to be carried out.

  8. LANDSAT ESTUARINE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SILVICULTURE AND DREDGING ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of Landsat multispectral scanning to estuarine water quality, with specific reference to dredging and silviculture practices. Water quality data collected biweekly since 1972 in the Apalachicola, Bay, Florida, by Florida State University, and...

  9. CCRS proposal for evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (principal investigators); Guindon, B.; Murphy, J.; Butlin, J. M.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.; Grieve, G.

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of registration errors in LANDSAT MSS data is discussed as well as the development of a revised algorithm for the radiometric calibration of TM data and the production of a geocoded TM image.

  10. Comparing EO-1-Hyperions spectral resolution to Landsat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tom Bridgman

    2001-04-09

    The Landsat system covers 7 spectral bands (of which six are shown here) while the Hyperion instrument records data in 220 bands from 353 nanometers to 2577 nanometers. This animation shows how they stack up.

  11. First Images from Landsat 7: Sailing Down the Missouri River

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stuart Snodgrass

    1999-04-22

    First Images from Landsat 7, South Dakota and the Missouri River. In this animation the viewer is flown down the Missouri river and delivered to Yankton, South Dakota, from an image taken April 22, 1998.

  12. 25 Years of Landsat 5 - Duration: 3 minutes, 34 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

  13. Test of Landsat-based urban hydrologic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Ragan, R. M.; Fitch, W. N.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of the Fourmile Run Study which has been conducted to evaluate Landsat remote sensing as a method of defining input parameters required by urban hydrologic planning models. The evaluation was a part of water resource planning investigations concerning the Fourmile Run Watershed. The investigations involved an examination of the relationship between urban development and flooding for the Fourmile Run Basin. The study indicates that Landsat data provide a suitable source of land cover data for investigations conducted at the planning level. An estimation of the percentage of impervious area on the basis of Landsat data is less expensive than a use of aerial photos in planning studies. Only limited success could be achieved when Landsat data were used for smaller areal units.

  14. Case study in the practical use of LANDSAT data

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, S.

    1982-01-01

    The use of computer aided classification of LANDSAT data in developing water quality plans for New Jersey watersheds is used to exemplify how a state natural resource management program benefits from satellite imagery. The transition of a research and development system into an operational remote sensing system to help decision makers is demonstrated. Nontechnial issues that can assist (or hinder) an agency in adopting a new technology are examined. The progress of LANDSAT use by state government from the earliest stage of curiosity through to incorporation in actual state planning methods is charted. Potential applications of LANDSAT data to real information needs and solutions to management problems are examined. The problems and mistakes that occurred in using LANDSAT data in the past are discussed as well as the ways by which these problems were overcome.

  15. LANDSAT data for state planning. [of transportation for Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, N. L.; Spann, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an effort to generate and apply automated classification of LANDSAT digital data to state of Georgia problems are presented. This phase centers on an analysis of the usefulness of LANDSAT digital data to provide land-use data for transportation planning. Hall County, Georgia was chosen as a test site because it is part of a seventeen county area for which the Georgia Department of Transportation is currently designing a Transportation Planning Land-Use Simulation Model. The land-cover information derived from this study was compared to several other existing sources of land-use data for Hall County and input into this simulation. The results indicate that there is difficulty comparing LANDSAT derived land-cover information with previous land-use information since the LANDSAT data are acquired on an acre by acre grid basis while all previous land-use surveys for Hall County used land-use data on a parcel basis.

  16. Anonymity and Censorship Resistance in Unstructured Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Michael; Hamerlik, Marek; Linari, Alessandro; Maffei, Matteo; Tryfonopoulos, Christos; Weikum, Gerhard

    This paper presents Clouds, a peer-to-peer protocol that guarantees both anonymity and censorship resistance in semantic overlay networks. The design of such a protocol needs to meet a number of challenging goals: enabling the exchange of encrypted messages without assuming previously shared secrets, avoiding centralised infrastructures, like trusted servers or gateways, and guaranteeing efficiency without establishing direct connections between peers. Anonymity is achieved by cloaking the identity of protocol participants behind groups of semantically close peers. Censorship resistance is guaranteed by a cryptographic protocol securing the anonymous communication between the querying peer and the resource provider. Although we instantiate our technique on semantic overlay networks to exploit their retrieval capabilities, our framework is general and can be applied to any unstructured overlay network. Experimental results demonstrate the security properties of Clouds under different attacks and show the message overhead and retrieval effectiveness of the protocol.

  17. Cooperative Resource Pricing in Service Overlay Networks for Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Okaie, Yutaka

    The success of peer-to-peer overlay networks depends on cooperation among participating peers. In this paper, we investigate the degree of cooperation among individual peers required to induce globally favorable properties in an overlay network. Specifically, we consider a resource pricing problem in a market-oriented overlay network where participating peers sell own resources (e.g., CPU cycles) to earn energy which represents some money or rewards in the network. In the resource pricing model presented in this paper, each peer sets the price for own resource based on the degree of cooperation; non-cooperative peers attempt to maximize their own energy gains, while cooperative peers maximize the sum of own and neighbors' energy gains. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the network topology is an important factor influencing the minimum degree of cooperation required to increase the network-wide global energy gain.

  18. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  19. Cooperative caching for multimedia streaming in overlay Won J. Jeon and Klara Nahrstedt

    E-print Network

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    Cooperative caching for multimedia streaming in overlay networks Won J. Jeon and Klara Nahrstedt@cs.uiuc.edu, Telephone: 1 217 333 1515 Klara Nahrstedt: E­mail: klara@cs.uiuc.edu #12; 2. COOPERATIVE OVERLAY CACHING

  20. Wide-area Overlay Networking to Manage Science DMZ Accelerated Flows

    E-print Network

    Calyam, Prasad

    /access - accelerated flows are starting to be setup from Science DMZs over wide- area overlay networks, by-passing Proxy Middleware Extended VLAN Overlay Science Application Science Application Software-Defined Network

  1. History of Remote Sensing: Landsat's Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper is a multispectral imaging sensor added to Landsats 4 and later. This site uses text, photographs, tables, and diagrams to explain how the Thematic Mapper works and the advantages of sensing radiation in wavelengths other than those normally visible to the human eye. It is part of NASA's Remote Sensing Tutorial and links to the rest of the tutorial are provided.

  2. Landsat and Earth Systems Science: Development of Terrestrial Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel N. Goward; Darrel L. Williams

    1997-01-01

    One of the major catalysts leading to the development of the global-scale Earth Systems Science concept, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, and the U.S. Global Change Research Program were the unique views of Earth provided by Landsat sensors over the past 25 years. This paper ad- dresses Landsat's contributions in the Earth Systems Science arena. Early successes in observing the Earth's

  3. Analysis of Landsat for monitoring vegetables in New York mucklands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, M. H.; Yan, S. Y.; Philipson, W. R.; Yen, C. C.; Philpot, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the feasibility of relying on Landsat multispectral scanner data for inventorying vegetables grown in mucklands,in variably shaped, variably sized fields. Classification of muckland vegetables using a Euclidean distance classifier and a parallelepiped classifier was performed with reasonable accuracy (generally over 60 percent) based on only one date of Landsat data. Prior canonical and principal component analyses did not improve the classification accuracy but did reduce the dimensionality of the data.

  4. Analysis of the private market for LANDSAT products and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The private sector was examined and evaluated to develop base line strategies and mechanisms for its increased utilization of LANDSAT (and future satellite) technologies as both consumer and producer of products and services. Methodologies used to assess the digital analysis service and national mapping industries are described. Private sector users in business and industry are identified and the potential U.S. industry role in the foreign LANDSAT market is considered.

  5. Demonstrating Landsat's new potential to monitor coastal and inland waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Gerace

    2010-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a new Landsat sensor being developed by the joint USGS-NASA Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) that exhibits the potential to be a state-of-the-art instrument for studying inland and coastal waters. With upgrades such as a new Coastal Aerosol band, 12 bit quantization, and improved signal-to-noise, OLI will be spectrally and radiometrically superior to its

  6. Hydrography synthesis using LANDSAT remote sensing and the SCS models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, R. M.; Jackson, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The land cover requirements of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Model used for hydrograph synthesis in urban areas were modified to be LANDSAT compatible. The Curve Numbers obtained with these alternate land cover categories compare well with those obtained in published example problems using the conventional categories. Emergency spillway hydrographs and synthetic flood frequency flows computed for a 21.1 sq. mi. test area showed excellent agreement between the conventional aerial photo-based and the Landsat-based SCS approaches.

  7. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper Thermal Band

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Wukelic; D. E. Gibbons; L. M. Martucci; H. P. Foote

    1989-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of satellite-acquired data is essential for quantitative scientific studies, as well as for a variety of image-processing applications. This paper describes a multiyear, on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Band 6 conducted at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Numerous Landsat TM scenes acquired and analyzed included day and night coverages at several geographical locations over several

  8. Optical fibre long period gratings with a photochromic overlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantaki, Maria; Pissadakis, Stavros

    2010-11-01

    Results are presented on the all-optical tuning of the attenuation bands of an optical fiber long period grating utilizing a photochromic outcladding overlayer. The outcladding overlayer consists of PMMA polymer doped with the photochromic molecule of spiropyran. The spectral transmission characteristics of the long period grating are reversibly altered using sequential exposures of 355 nm and 532 nm, Nd:YAG laser radiation. The spectra recorded refer to long period grating notch shifts and extinction ratio modification of 1.2 nm and 0.5 dB, respectively.

  9. High-frequency nonreciprocal reflection from magnetic films with overlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Nie, Yan; Camley, R. E. [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

    2013-11-14

    We perform a theoretical study of the nonreciprocal reflection of high-frequency microwave radiation from ferromagnetic films with thin overlayers. Reflection from metallic ferromagnetic films is always near unity and shows no nonreciprocity. In contrast, reflection from a structure which has a dielectric overlayer on top of a film composed of insulated ferromagnetic nanoparticles or nanostructures can show significant nonreciprocity in the 75–80?GHz frequency range, a very high value. This can be important for devices such as isolators or circulators.

  10. Shapefile Overlay Using a Doubly-Connected Edge List Phil Katz and Stephen St.Vincent

    E-print Network

    Danner, Andrew

    Shapefile Overlay Using a Doubly-Connected Edge List Phil Katz and Stephen St.Vincent Swarthmore easily perform shapefile overlay operations: in- tersection, difference, and union. Our algorithm runs) Figure 1: Examples of shapefile overlays. (a) The original polygons in set S. Here, we have two over

  11. oStream: asynchronous streaming multicast in application-layer overlay networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Cui; Baochun Li; Klara Nahrstedt

    2004-01-01

    Although initially proposed as the deployable alternative to IP multicast, application-layer overlay network actually revolutionizes the way network applications can be built, since each overlay node is an end host, which is able to carry out more functionalities than simply forwarding packets. This paper addresses the on-demand media distribution problem in the context of overlay network. We take advantage of

  12. The Case for Wireless Overlay Networks Randy H. Katz and Eric A. Brewer

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , we are creating a wireless overlay network testbed, spanning from in­building to direct broadcast­area Overlay Networks In­Building Campus­Area Packet Relay Metropolitan­Area Regional­Area Figure 1 WirelessKatz 1 The Case for Wireless Overlay Networks Randy H. Katz and Eric A. Brewer Electrical

  13. Effects of Interface Conditions on Reflective Cracking Development in Hot-Mix Asphalt Overlays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jongeun Baek; Hasan Ozer; Hao Wang; Imad L. Al-Qadi

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the fracture behavior of a hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlay on a jointed concrete pavement (JCP). Moving vehicular loads were applied to the HMA overlay on top of a joint to develop reflective cracking. A bilinear cohesive zone model (CZM) was inserted in the HMA overlay right over the joint. An interface

  14. Advanced modeling strategies to improve overlay control for 32-nm lithography processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Minvielle; Lovejeet Singh; Jeffrey Schefske; Joerg Reiss; Eric Kent; Terry Manchester; Brad Eichelberger; Kelly O'Brien; Jim Manka; John C. Robinson; David Tien

    2009-01-01

    Overlay control is gaining more attention in recent years as technology moves into the 32nm era. Strict overlay requirements are being driven not only by the process node but also the process techniques required to meet the design requirements. Double patterning lithography and spacer pitch splitting techniques are driving innovative thinking with respect to overlay control. As lithographers push the

  15. Cross-calibration of Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI with Aqua MODIS using PICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Mishra, Nischal; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Helder, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) onboard the Landsat 5 (L5) has provided an unprecedented amount of earth observations for more than 25 years since its launch on March 1, 1984. The MODIS sensor onboard the Aqua satellite is a part of the afternoon constellation of spacecraft and has been successfully providing near-continuous observations of the earth's surface and atmosphere since July 2002. A synergistic use of TM and MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) measurements is immensely beneficial to the broad user community for different land cover change and global climate studies. A consistent radiometric calibration between the sensors is a prerequisite for creating high quality science products. Various pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) identified by CEOS have been widely used to monitor the on-orbit calibration consistency for a number of sensors. Near-simultaneous observations of the Saharan PICS by L5 TM and Aqua MODIS are used in this study. The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance from the spectrally matching RSB are corrected for test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), relative spectral response (RSR) mismatch, and impacts for atmospheric water-vapor, and used to estimate the long-term calibration differences between the two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard the Landsat 8 (L8) launched in February, 2013, is a follow-on mission to maintain the continuity of Landsat acquisitions. A similar cross-calibration methodology was extended to compare the spectrally matching bands of Aqua MODIS with OLI. A long-term drift is observed in bands 1 (3.7%) and 3 (1.86%) of L5 TM, which is expected to be mitigated in the next calibration coefficient update. With the exception of the SWIR-2 band (L5 TM band 7), the agreement with Aqua MODIS is seen to be within 4%. The L8 OLI and Aqua MODIS agreement is seen within 4% across all wavelengths.

  16. Constructing Overlay Networks with Low Link Costs and Short Paths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuminori Makikawa; Takafumi Matsuo; Tatsuhiro Tsuchiya; Tohru Kikuno

    2007-01-01

    In overlay networks, which are virtual networks for P2P applications, topology mismatching is known as a serious problem to be solved. So far several distributed algorithms have been proposed to reduce link cost caused by this problem. However, they often create long routes with a large number of hops, especially for long distance communications. In this paper, we propose a

  17. Investigations of Magnetic Overlayers at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S; Butterfield, M T

    2009-06-26

    Magnetic overlayers of Fe and Co have been investigated with X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism in X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XMCD-ABS) and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES), including Spin-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SRPES), at Beamline 4 at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Particular emphasis was placed upon the interrogation of the 2p levels of the Fe.

  18. Spectrum Overlay through Aggregation of Heterogeneous Dispersed Bands

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    and possible technical solutions envisioned in the SOLDER project. Index Terms--Spectrum Aggregation; LTESpectrum Overlay through Aggregation of Heterogeneous Dispersed Bands Florian Kaltenberger1 , Fotis) and fragmented spectrum. Aggregation is happening at the MAC layer and each carrier is using the same PHY layer

  19. Hydrogen embrittlement of stainless steel overlay materials for hydrogenators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hardie; J. Xu; E. A. Charles; Y. Wei

    2004-01-01

    An investigation was carried out of the effect of hydrogen absorption on the tensile ductility of composite specimens representing stainless steel weld overlays on low alloy steel substrates as used in the fabrication of hydrogenators. Specimens of the two stainless steels (AISI 309 and 347) involved in hydrogen cracking were also fractured in tension at strain rates between 5.9×10?6 and

  20. A Case for Associative Peer to Peer Overlays Edith Cohen

    E-print Network

    Shamir, Ron

    . Peer­to­peer networks came to fame with the advent of Napster [23], a centralized architecture, where peers. Existing decentralized architectures can be coarsely par­ titioned into two groups [27A Case for Associative Peer to Peer Overlays Edith Cohen AT&T Labs--Research 180 Park Avenue

  1. Virtual haptic overlays enhance performance in telepresence tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    1995-12-01

    An empirical study was performed in which human subjects were asked to execute a peg- insertion task through a telepresence link with force-feedback. Subjects controlled a remote manipulator through natural hand motions by using an anthropomorphic upper body exoskeleton. The force-reflecting exoskeleton could present haptic sensations in six degrees of freedom. Subjects viewed the remote site through a high fidelity stereo vision system. Subjects performed the peg-insertion task under three different conditions: (1) in-person (direct manipulation), (2) through the telepresence link (telemanipulation), and (3) through the telepresence link while using abstract virtual haptic overlays known as `virtual fixtures' (telemanipulation with virtual fixturing). Five different haptic overlays were tested which included virtual surfaces, virtual damping fields, virtual snap-to-planes, and virtual snap-to- lines. Results of subject testing confirmed that human performance was significantly degraded when comparing telepresence manipulation to direct in-person manipulation. Results also confirmed that by introducing abstract haptic overlays into telepresence link, operator performance could be restored closer to natural in-person capacity. The use of 3D haptic overlays were found to as much as double manual performance in the standard peg-insertion task.

  2. Prediction of Reflection Cracking in Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays 

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Fang-Ling

    2011-02-22

    Reflection cracking is one of the main distresses in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays. It has been a serious concern since early in the 20th century. Since then, several models have been developed to predict the extent and severity of reflection...

  3. Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses

    E-print Network

    Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

    Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses Atul Singh, Tsuen-Wan "Johnny" Ngan of peers, forming a graph upon which a distributed application or service is implemented. In an "Eclipse of malicious nodes can eclipse a large number of correct victim nodes. This paper studies the impact of Eclipse

  4. 12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL INDICATING TRANSITION FROM ORIGINAL SURFACE TO GUNITE OVERLAY ON UPSTREAM EMBANKMENT OF DAM (FROM REPAIRS COMPLETED IN 1977) - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  5. Implementation of Distributed Floor Control Protocols on Overlay Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shankar M. Banik; Sridhar Radhakrishnan; Venkatesh Sarangan; Chandra N. Sekharan

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative multimedia applications (CMAs) on overlay networks are gaining popularity among users who are geographically dispersed. Examples of these kinds of applications include networked games and collaborative design and simulation. An important challenge in realizing CMAs is obtaining floor control, a problem in which the end-users compete among themselves to gain exclusive access to a shared resource. In this paper,

  6. Improving the Fault Resilience of Overlay Multicast for Media Streaming

    E-print Network

    Jarvis, Stephen

    Improving the Fault Resilience of Overlay Multicast for Media Streaming Guang Tan, Student Member is that the highly dynamic multicast members can make data delivery unreliable. In this paper, we address this issue in the context of live media streaming by exploring 1) how to construct a stable multicast tree that minimizes

  7. Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, John L.

    2001-01-01

    This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

  8. Low Latency High Bandwidth Anonymous Overlay Network with Anonymous Routing

    E-print Network

    Low Latency High Bandwidth Anonymous Overlay Network with Anonymous Routing Roman Schlegel anonymous networks focus on providing strong anonymity for the price of having lower bandwidth, higher anonymize only a few specific applications. In this paper, we propose a new approach of constructing

  9. A Design of Overlay Anonymous Multicast Protocol , Xiaomei Liu1

    E-print Network

    A Design of Overlay Anonymous Multicast Protocol Li Xiao1 , Xiaomei Liu1 , Wenjun Gu2 , Dong Xuan2 Multicast services are demanded by a variety of appli- cations. Many applications require anonymity during their communication. However, there has been very little work on anonymous multicasting and such services

  10. Landsat Science: 40 Years of Innovation and Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Bruce D.; Irons, James R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Landsat satellites have provided unparalleled Earth-observing data for nearly 40 years, allowing scientists to describe, monitor and model the global environment during a period of time that has seen dramatic changes in population growth, land use, and climate. The success of the Landsat program can be attributed to well-designed instrument specifications, astute engineering, comprehensive global acquisition and calibration strategies, and innovative scientists who have developed analytical techniques and applications to address a wide range of needs at local to global scales (e.g., crop production, water resource management, human health and environmental quality, urbanization, deforestation and biodiversity). Early Landsat contributions included inventories of natural resources and land cover classification maps, which were initially prepared by a visual interpretation of Landsat imagery. Over time, advances in computer technology facilitated the development of sophisticated image processing algorithms and complex ecosystem modeling, enabling scientists to create accurate, reproducible, and more realistic simulations of biogeochemical processes (e.g., plant production and ecosystem dynamics). Today, the Landsat data archive is freely available for download through the USGS, creating new opportunities for scientists to generate global image datasets, develop new change detection algorithms, and provide products in support of operational programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD). In particular, the use of dense (approximately annual) time series to characterize both rapid and progressive landscape change has yielded new insights into how the land environment is responding to anthropogenic and natural pressures. The launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) satellite in 2012 will continue to propel innovative Landsat science.

  11. Landsat-7 Simulation and Testing Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, E.; Ha, K.; Hawkins, K.; Lombardo, J.; Ram, M.; Sabelhaus, P.; Scott, S.; Phillips, R.

    1999-01-01

    A spacecraft Attitude Control and Determination Subsystem (ACDS) is heavily dependent upon simulation throughout its entire development, implementation and ground test cycle. Engineering simulation tools are typically developed to design and analyze control systems to validate the design and software simulation tools are required to qualify the flight software. However, the need for simulation does not end here. Operating the ACDS of a spacecraft on the ground requires the simulation of spacecraft dynamics, disturbance modeling and celestial body motion. Sensor data must also be simulated and substituted for actual sensor data on the ground so that the spacecraft will respond by sending commands to the actuators as they will on orbit. And finally, the simulators is the primary training tool and test-bed for the Flight Operations Team. In this paper various ACDS simulation, developed for or used by the Landsat 7 project will be described. The paper will include a description of each tool, its unique attributes, and its role in the overall development and testing of the ACDS. Finally, a section is included which discusses how the coordinated use of these simulation tools can maximize the probability of uncovering software, hardware and operations errors during the ground test process.

  12. Science Writer's Guide to Landsat 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), the centerpiece of NASA's Earth science program, is a suite of spacecraft and interdisciplinary science investigations dedicated to advancing our understanding of global change. The flagship EOS satellite, Terra (formerly EOS AM-1), scheduled for launch in July 1999, will provide key measurements of the physical and radiative properties of clouds; air-land and air-sea exchanges of energy, carbon, and water; trace gases; and volcanoes. Flying in formation with Terra, Landsat 7 will make global high spatial resolution measurements of land surface and surrounding coastal regions. Other upcoming EOS missions and instruments include QuikSCAT, to collect sea surface wind data; the Stratospheric Gas and Aerosol Experiment (SAGE III), to create global profiles of key atmospheric gases; and the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitors (ACRIM) to measure the energy output of the Sun. The second of the major, multi-instrument EOS platforms, PM-1, is scheduled for launch in 2000. Interdisciplinary research projects sponsored by EOS use specific Earth science data sets for a broader investigation into the function of Earth systems. Current EOS research spans a wide range of sciences, including atmospheric chemistry, hydrology, land use, and marine ecosystems. The EOS program has been managed since 1990 by the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., for NASA's Office of Earth Science in Washington, D. C. Additional information on the program can be found on the EOS Project Science Office Web site (http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  13. Snow reflectance from Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1984-01-01

    In California 75 percent of the agricultural water supply comes from the melting Sierra Nevada snowpack. Basin-wide spectral albedo measurements from the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) could be used to better forecast the timing of the spring runoff, because these data can be combined with solar radiation calculations to estimate the net radiation balance. The TM is better-suited for this purpose than the Multispectral Scanner because of its larger dynamic range. Saturation still occurs in bands 1-4, but is severe only in TM1 (0.45-0.52 micron). Snow reflectance in TM2 (0.43-0.61 micron) is typical of the visible wavelength region, where reflectance is almost insensitive to crystal size but sensitive to contamination. TM4 (0.78-0.90 micron) allows estimation of effective optical grain size and thereby spectral extension throughout the near-infrared. TM5 (1.57-1.78 microns) can discriminate clouds from snow.

  14. Landsat Data Continuity Mission - Launch Fever

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, James R.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Markham, Brian L.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cook, Bruce; Dwyer, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The year 2013 will be an exciting period for those that study the Earth land surface from space, particularly those that observe and characterize land cover, land use, and the change of cover and use over time. Two new satellite observatories will be launched next year that will enhance capabilities for observing the global land surface. The United States plans to launch the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in January. That event will be followed later in the year by the European Space Agency (ESA) launch of the first Sentinel 2 satellite. Considered together, the two satellites will increase the frequency of opportunities for viewing the land surface at a scale where human impact and influence can be differentiated from natural change. Data from the two satellites will provide images for similar spectral bands and for comparable spatial resolutions with rigorous attention to calibration that will facilitate cross comparisons. This presentation will provide an overview of the LDCM satellite system and report its readiness for the January launch.

  15. The Landsat thematic mapper World Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, R. W.; Masuoka, P. M.; Stuart, L.

    1985-01-01

    A World Data Base of potential thematic mapper (TM) scenes was developed to aid in acquisition planning. The World Data Base contains geopolitical, geographic and economic regions along with a format that enables users to find the satellite day, sun angle and cloud cover probability for any month of the year. Scenes that have been acquired by TM and have an average cloud cover of 30 percent of less from July 1982 when TM was launched until the Landsat system was taken over by NOAA in September 1984 are also in the World Data Base. Processed data are referenced in maps and data bases at EROS Data Center; however, a large number of acquistions have never been processed and therefore are not accessible. The World Data Base enables the rapid location of scenes and areas with the least effort making it invaluable in TM scheduling. Users of TM data can use the World Data Base to determine if scenes of interest have been acquired, the acquisition date, and if scenes have been processed to computer-compatible tape (CCT). These uses of the World Data Base make it a valuable tool in the acquisition and location of TM scenes.

  16. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E. (principal investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Work done on evaluating the geometric and radiometric quality of early LANDSAT-4 sensor data is described. Band to band and channel to channel registration evaluations were carried out using a line correlator. Visual blink comparisons were run on an image display to observe band to band registration over 512 x 512 pixel blocks. The results indicate a .5 pixel line misregistration between the 1.55 to 1.75, 2.08 to 2.35 micrometer bands and the first four bands. Also a four 30M line and column misregistration of the thermal IR band was observed. Radiometric evaluation included mean and variance analysis of individual detectors and principal components analysis. Results indicate that detector bias for all bands is very close or within tolerance. Bright spots were observed in the thermal IR band on an 18 line by 128 pixel grid. No explanation for this was pursued. The general overall quality of the TM was judged to be very high.

  17. Landsat classification of Argentina summer crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Gargantini, C. E.; Redondo, F. V.

    1987-01-01

    A Landsat MSS and TM classification approach based on three features derived from the greenness profile has proved very effective in separating and identifying corn, soybeans, and other ground cover classes in the U.S. The objective of this study is to investigate the separation of summer crops in Argentina, one of the most important commodity exporters, using the same greenness profile features that have proved effective in the U.S. Corn Belt. The area chosen for study is a more complex cropping practice area located in the north-west corner of Buenos Aires province in Pampa Humeda, where corn, soybean, sorghum, sunflower, and pastures are cultivated. It is shown that the profile features can provide very effective separation, except in the case of corn from sorghum. Separation between corn and soybeans was found to be greater than in the U.S. This study suggests that the automatic, unsupervised classification approach developed in the U.S., with relatively minor modification, can be used for summer crop area estimation in Argentina.

  18. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Expected Instrument Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.; Markham, Brian L.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Storey, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is scheduled for a December 2012 launch date. LDCM is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In order to provide the necessary spectral coverage of the visible through shortwave-infrared (SWIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR), the satellite will carry two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine visible to shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will collect coincident image data for two TIR bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it's manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space F!ight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite instrument systems, present pre-launch performance data for OLI and TIRS, and present simulated images to highlight notable features and expected imaging performance.

  19. Lithologic mapping using Landsat thematic mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Salisbury, J.W.; Jones, O.D.; Mimms, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM), with its new near infrared bands centered at 1.65 ?m and 2.20 ?m and spatial resolution of 30 m has been used to distinguish rocks containing minerals having ferric-iron absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared and Al-O- and CO3 absorption bands in the 2.1-2.4 ?m regions. On the basis of characteristic absorption bands, digitally processed TM data were used to differentiate vegetated from non-vegetated areas, limonitic from nonlimonitic rocks, rocks containing minerals having absorption bands in the near-infrared region from rocks lacking infrared absorption bands. Specific minerals were detected in both the humid eastern and semi-arid western United States. The absorption bands in the near-infrared region were used to detect kaolinite in open-pit exposures of a kaolin mining district near Macon, Georgia; calcium carbonate in the back sands along the east coast of Floridia; and kaolinite, alunite, jarosite, sericite and gypsum in natural exposures near Boulder City, Nevada. These results show that the additional spectral bands in the near-infrared region and increased spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper provide a valuable tool for distinguishing several significant geologic materials not distinguishable from space using previous imaging systems. They also show that TM data can be successfully used in a variety of geologic environments.

  20. LITHOLOGIC MAPPING USING LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Salisbury, J.W.; Jones, O.D.; Mimms, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The paper is in abstract form. It discusses the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM), with its new near infrared bands centered at 1. 65 mu m and 2. 20 mu m and spatial resolution of 30 m, which has been used to distinguish rocks containing minerals having ferric-iron absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared and Al-O and CO//3 absorption bands in the 2. 1-2. 4 mu m regions. On the basis of characteristic absorption bands, digitally processed TM data were used to differentiate vegetated from non-vegetated areas, limonitic from nonlimonitic rocks, rocks containing minerals having absorption bands in the near-infrared region from rocks lacking the infrared absorption bands. Specific minerals were detected in both the humid eastern and semi-arid western United States. The absorption bands in the near-infrared region were used to detect kaolinite in open-pit exposures of a kaolin mining district near Macon, Georgia; calcium carbonate in the beach sands along the east coast of Florida; and kaolinite, alunite, jarosite, sericite and gypsum in natural exposures near Boulder City, Nevada.

  1. Rice crop monitoring with multitemporal MODIS-Landsat data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh

    2014-05-01

    Rice is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and is the major crop in Taiwan. However, it is a challenge because rice fields are generally small and fragmental, while crop mapping requires information of crop phenology associating with the high spatiotemporal resolution of remote-sensing data. This problem can be partially overcome by a spatiotemporal fusion to create a new dataset that has a better spatiotemporal resolution. In this study, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat imageries were used because MODIS data, which a spatial resolution of land bands of 500 m and temporal resolution of 1-2 days, were able to achieve the phenological information of rice crops at a large region; while Landsat data demonstrate the effectiveness to collectively map small patches of crop fields at the subnational level due to its spatial resolution of 30 m. However, the temporal resolution of Landsat data is lower (16 days), making it difficult to investigate temporal responses of crop phenology from rice fields. The main objective of this study was to take into account of advantages of MODIS and Landsat imageries to generate a synthetic dataset at Landsat spatial resolution and MODIS temporal resolution for rice crop mapping in Taiwan. The methodology comprised five steps: (1) satellite data for 2011 were pre-processed to account for geometric and radiometric correction of MODIS and Landsat data, (2) MODIS-Landsat data fusion using the Spatial Temporal Adaptive Fusion Model (STARFM), (3) construct the smooth time-series Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data using wavelet transform, (4) rice crop classification using phenological information of crop phenology, and (5) accuracy assessment. The data fusion results for day of year (DOY) 153 were compared with the reference Landsat data (DOY 153) indicated a close correlation (R2 = 0.81). The phenology-based classification results compared with the ground reference data revealed close agreement between these two datasets. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 82% and 0.75, respectively. The relationship between the MODIS-derived rice areas and those from the government's rice area statistics at the district level was examined, reaffirming a strong correlation between the two datasets with R2 > 0.9. This study demonstrates advantages of MODIS-Landsat data fusion for rice crop mapping in Taiwan. Such an approach used in this study could be applied for other regions to map small patches of crops at a subnational scale.

  2. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an effort to better understand these challenges, we dissect the anatomy of some of Landsat's social benefit success stories and draw on the advice of Landsat experts to outline some of the important steps needed to facilitate the recognition of usable environmental science.

  3. On-Orbit ACDS Performance of the Landsat 7 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phillip; Bolek, Joseph; Scott, Steve; Holmes, Eric; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Storey, James

    2001-01-01

    Landsat 7 is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The ESE is committed to developing an understanding of the total Earth system, the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment, and how natural processes affect humans and how humans affect them. The Landsat 7 satellite consists of the spacecraft bus which was provided under a NASA contract with Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space in Philadelphia, PA, and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) instrument, procured under a NASA contract with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, in Santa Barbara, CA. The Landsat 7 Attitude Control and Determination System (ACDS) provides many essential functions for the operation of the spacecraft bus and for ETM+. The ACDS maintains the required attitude and orbit at the degree of accuracy necessary for power generation, command and telemetry, thermal balance, image acquisition, Gimbaled X-Band Antenna (GXA) pointing and data for image post-processing. Descriptions of the Landsat 7 mission and the ACDS modes and requirements are presented. A brief summary of significant events of the on-orbit initialization and validation period are provided. Finally, the Landsat 7 product generation system is described and the impact that the ACDS performance has on the ground based image processing system is explored.

  4. Subsetting and Formatting Landsat-7 LOR ETM+ and Data Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Michael R.

    2000-01-01

    The Landsat-7 Processing System (LPS) processes Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) instrument data into large, contiguous segments called "subintervals" and stores them in Level OR (LOR) data files. The LPS processed subinterval products must be subsetted and reformatted before the Level I processing systems can ingest them. The initial full subintervals produced by the LPS are stored mainly in HDF Earth Observing System (HDF-EOS) format which is an extension to the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). The final LOR products are stored in native HDF format. Primarily the EOS Core System (ECS) and alternately the DAAC Emergency System (DES) subset the subinterval data for the operational Landsat-7 data processing systems. The HDF and HDF-EOS application programming interfaces (APIs) can be used for extensive data subsetting and data reorganization. A stand-alone subsetter tool has been developed which is based on some of the DES code. This tool makes use of the HDF and HDFEOS APIs to perform Landsat-7 LOR product subsetting and demonstrates how HDF and HDFEOS can be used for creating various configurations of full LOR products. How these APIs can be used to efficiently subset, format, and organize Landsat-7 LOR data as demonstrated by the subsetter tool and the DES is discussed.

  5. QWIP-based thermal infrared sensor for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jhabvala; D. Reuter; K. Choi; C. Jhabvala; M. Sundaram

    2009-01-01

    The thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) is a QWIP based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) [See Landsat project description at: http:\\/\\/landsathandbook.gsfc.nasa.gov\\/handbook\\/handbook_htmls\\/chapter1\\/chapter1.html, [1]. The LDCM is planned to be launched in late 2012 and will continue the 35year legacy of the Landsat program as Landsat 7 degrades. The LDCM is a

  6. Landsat Witnesses the Destruction of Mesopotamian Ecosystem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lori Perkins

    2001-08-02

    In one of the greatest ecological disasters of our time, the ancient marshlands of Mesopotamia are systematically being converted to dry salt flats as a result of human mismanagement of the regions water resources.Landsat satellite imagery reveals that in the last 10 years, wetlands that once covered as much as 20,000 square km in parts of Iraq and Iran have been reduced to a small fraction of their original size. The authors of a new report released by the United Nations Environment Programmes (UNEP) at the 11th Stockholm Water Symposium on August 13, 2001, warn that the marshlands could completely disappear within the next 3-5 years unless dramatic steps are taken immediately to reverse the damage being done. The UNEP Executive Director described the wetlands condition as a major environmental catastrophe that will be remembered as one of humanitys worst engineered disasters. He noted that the tragic loss of this rare wetland has occurred in approximately the same period since world leaders pledged to safeguard the environment at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the Earth Summit) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Regarded by historians as one of the cradles of civilization, the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent has supported Marsh Arab society for millennia. But through the damming and siphoning off of waters from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, the countries of Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Syria have decimated the ecosystem and, with it, a culture rooted in the dawn of human history (dating back to ancient Sumeria about 5,000 years ago).

  7. Deforestation planning for cattle grazing in Amazon Basin using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Dossantos, A. P.; Demoraisnovo, E. M. L.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This research did not show the total potential of the LANDSAT system, but tried to open up new research aspects for the utilization of LANDSAT data in natural resource control. Results obtained through this research showed that LANDSAT data can be used to develop monitoring programs in the tropical forest areas of Brazil.

  8. Use of the LANDSAT MSS for forest inventory and regional management: The european experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sipi Jaakkola

    1986-01-01

    Use of the LANDSAT MSS for forest inventory and regional management in Europe is reviewed on the basis of literature and the author's own experience. In Europe, the regional forestry application programs using LANDSAT MSS data have been characterized by a low degree of governmental support and a lack of coordination. The responsibility of introducing the LANDSAT technology to forestry

  9. Data-driven simulations of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Gerace; Mike Gartley; John Schott; Nina Raqueño; Rolando Raqueño

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) are two new sensors being developed by the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) that will extend over 35 years of archived Landsat data. In a departure from the whiskbroom design used by all previous generations of Landsat, the LDCM system will employ a pushbroom technology. Although the newly adopted modular

  10. Effect of Scaling Transfer between Evapotranspiration Maps Derived from LandSat 7 and MODIS Images

    E-print Network

    Borchers, Brian

    Effect of Scaling Transfer between Evapotranspiration Maps Derived from LandSat 7 and MODIS Images derived from LandSat 7 and MODIS images. The results of this study demonstrate: (1) good agreement of SEBAL evapotranspiration estimates between LandSat 7 and MODIS images; (2) up- and down

  11. Achromatic Holographic Stereogram Of Landsat Multispectral Scanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, S. A.; Duston-Roberge, D. A.; Simard, R.

    1985-04-01

    A new technique for presenting satellite Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) three-dimensional image data has been developed under a collaboration between the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and the Polaroid Corporation. It consists of the production of white-light viewable holographic stereograms obtained by digital and optical processing of Landsat MSS stereo pairs. The digital processing extracts elevation information from suitable Landsat image pairs and synthesizes a sequence of fictitious perspective views. Laser optical processing is then used to merge these images into a white-light viewable holographic stereogram producing a black-and-white three-dimensional image of the earth's surface. The high quality of the relief image demonstrates the potential of computer/holographic hybrid techniques as tools for further analyses of remotely sensed data.

  12. LANDSAT application of remote sensing to shoreline-form analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, R.; Hayden, B.; Heywood, J. (principal investigators); Hewitt, C.; Michel, J.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT imagery of the southern end of Assateague Island, Virginia, was enlarged to 1:80,000 and compared with high altitude (1:130,000) and low altitude (1:24,000) aerial photography in an attempt to quantify change in land area over a nine month period. Change in area and configuration was found with LANDSAT and low altitude photography. Change in configuration, but no change in area was found with high altitude photography. Due to tidal differences at time of image obtention and lack of baseline data, the accuracy of the LANDSAT measurements could not be determined. They were consistent with the measurements from the low altitude photography.

  13. Investigation of mesoscale cloud features viewed by LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherr, P. E. (principal investigator); Feteris, P. J.; Lisa, A. S.; Bowley, C. J.; Fowler, M. G.; Barnes, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Some 50 LANDSAT images displaying mesoscale cloud features were analyzed. This analysis was based on the Rayleigh-Kuettner model describing the formation of that type of mesoscale cloud feature. This model lends itself to computation of the average wind speed in northerly flow from the dimensions of the cloud band configurations measured from a LANDSAT image. In nearly every case, necessary conditions of a curved wind profile and orientation of the cloud streets within 20 degrees of the direction of the mean wind in the convective layer were met. Verification of the results by direct observation was hampered, however, by the incompatibility of the resolution of conventional rawinsonde observations with the scale of the banded cloud patterns measured from LANDSAT data. Comparison seems to be somewhat better in northerly flows than in southerly flows, with the largest discrepancies in wind speed being within 8m/sec, or a factor of two.

  14. Spatial and spectral simulation of LANDSAT images of agricultural areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pont, W. F., Jr. (principal investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A LANDSAT scene simulation capability was developed to study the effects of small fields and misregistration on LANDSAT-based crop proportion estimation procedures. The simulation employs a pattern of ground polygons each with a crop ID, planting date, and scale factor. Historical greenness/brightness crop development profiles generate the mean signal values for each polygon. Historical within-field covariances add texture to pixels in each polygon. The planting dates and scale factors create between-field/within-crop variation. Between field and crop variation is achieved by the above and crop profile differences. The LANDSAT point spread function is used to add correlation between nearby pixels. The next effect of the point spread function is to blur the image. Mixed pixels and misregistration are also simulated.

  15. Assessment of LANDSAT for rangeland mapping, Rush Valley, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridd, M. K.; Price, K. P.; Douglass, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT MSS (multispectral scanner) data to identify and map cover types for rangeland, and to determine comparative condition of the ecotypes was assessed. A supporting objective is to assess the utility of various forms of aerial photography in the process. If rangelands can be efficiently mapped with Landsat data, as supported by appropriate aerial photography and field data, then uniform standards of cover classification and condition may be applied across the rangelands of the state. Further, a foundation may be established for long-term monitoring of range trend, using the same satellite system over time.

  16. An Illumination Correction ALgorithm on Landsat-TM Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Bin; Wolfe, Robert; Masek, Jeffrey; Gao, Feng; Vermote, Eric F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new illumination correction model, the rotation model, is introduced. The model is based on the empirical correlation between reflectance and the illumination condition (IL). The model eliminates the dependency of reflectance on IL through rotating the data in IL-reflectance space. This model is compared with widely used cosine model and C model over a sample forest region. We found that the newly developed rotation model consistently performs best on both atmospheric uncorrected and corrected Landsat images. Index Terms Landsat, illumination correction, change detection, LEDAPS

  17. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 2: Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talipsky, R.

    1982-01-01

    The formats used for the transmission of LANDSAT-D and LANDSAT-D Prime spacecraft telemetry data through either the TDRS/GSTDN via the NASCOM Network to the CSF are described as well as the telemetry flow from the command and data handling subsystem, a telemetry list and telemetry matrix assignment for the mission and engineering formats. The on-board computer (OBC) controlled format and the dwell format are also discussed. The OBCs contribution to telemetry, and the format of the reports, are covered. The high rate data channel includes the payload correction data format, the narrowband tape recorder and the OBC dump formats.

  18. LANDSAT-D program. Volume 2: Ground segment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Raw digital data, as received from the LANDSAT spacecraft, cannot generate images that meet specifications. Radiometric corrections must be made to compensate for aging and for differences in sensitivity among the instrument sensors. Geometric corrections must be made to compensate for off-nadir look angle, and to calculate spacecraft drift from its prescribed path. Corrections must also be made for look-angle jitter caused by vibrations induced by spacecraft equipment. The major components of the LANDSAT ground segment and their functions are discussed.

  19. Linear dimensionality of Landsat agricultural data with implications for classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, S. G.; Misra, P. N.; Holmes, Q. A.

    1976-01-01

    A model for the Landsat multispectral scanner data, representing a generalization of the commonly used Gaussian model, has been formulated and analyzed. The model hypothesizes that the data for different crop types essentially lie on distinct hyperplanes in the feature space. Tests of this model reveal that: (1) the agricultural data from any single acquisition (i.e., four-channel) of Landsat are essentially two dimensional, regardless of the crop type; and (2) the data from different sites and different stages of crop development all lie on planes which are parallel. These findings have significant implications for data display, classification, feature extraction, and signature extension.

  20. Landsat Imagery Enables Global Studies of Surface Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Landsat 8 is the latest in the NASA-developed series of satellites that have provided a continuous picture of Earth for more than 40 years. Mountain View, California-based Google has incorporated Landsat data into several products, most recently generating a cloud-free view of Earth. Google has also teamed up with researchers at the University of Maryland and Goddard Space Flight Center to create a global survey showing changes in forest cover over many years-the first of its kind.

  1. Comparison of outgassing models for the Landsat thematic mapper sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esad Micijevic; Gyanesh Chander

    2007-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) is a multi-spectral electro-optical sensor featured onboard both the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) satellites. TM sensors have seven spectral bands with center wavelengths of approximately 0.49, 0.56, 0.66, 0.83, 1.65, 11.5 and 2.21 mum, respectively. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) bands are located on the primary focal plane (PFP), and two short-wave infrared (SWIR)

  2. LANDSAT-D ground segment operations plan, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, B.

    1982-01-01

    The basic concept for the utilization of LANDSAT ground processing resources is described. Only the steady state activities that support normal ground processing are addressed. This ground segment operations plan covers all processing of the multispectral scanner and the processing of thematic mapper through data acquisition and payload correction data generation for the LANDSAT 4 mission. The capabilities embedded in the hardware and software elements are presented from an operations viewpoint. The personnel assignments associated with each functional process and the mechanisms available for controlling the overall data flow are identified.

  3. A radiometric interpretive legend for Landsat digital thematic maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    A legend is suggested for use with computer-generated thematic maps made from Landsat digital data that designates some of the radiometric characteristics of each thematic map unit as well as the described terrain attributes of each map unit. The relationship between spectral band and radiance for each map unit is shown by a two-dimensional polygon with the four Landsat multispectral scanner bands plotted on the ordinate and radiance levels on the abscissa. The resulting shape is colored to correspond with the map unit color, thus facilitating the recognition and understanding of the computer-generated map units.

  4. Mapping of Landsat satellite and gravity lineaments in west Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argialas, Demetre P.; Stearns, Richard G.; Shahrokhi, Firouz

    1988-01-01

    The analysis of earthquake fault lineament patterns within the alluvial valley of west Tennessee, which is often made difficult by the presence of unconsolidated sediments, is presently undertaken through a synergistic use of Landsat satellite images in conjunction with gravity anomaly data, which were quantitatively analyzed and compared by means of two-dimensional histograms and rose diagrams. The northeastern trend revealed for the lineaments corresponds to faults and is in keeping with reactivation of the Reelfoot rift near the Mississippi River; this suggests that deeper features, perhaps at earthquake focal depth, may extend to the land surface as Landsat-detectable lineaments.

  5. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Guok, Chin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jackson, Keith [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kissel, Ezra [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Swany, D. Martin [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-12

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

  6. HVM capabilities of CPE run-to-run overlay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramany, Lokesh; Chung, Woong Jae; Gutjahr, Karsten; Garcia-Medina, Miguel; Sparka, Christian; Yap, Lipkong; Demirer, Onur; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Riggs, Brent; Ramanathan, Vidya; Robinson, John C.; Pierson, Bill

    2015-03-01

    With the introduction of N2x and N1x process nodes, leading-edge factories are facing challenging demands of shrinking design margins. Previously un-corrected high-order signatures, and un-compensated temporal changes of high-order signatures, carry an important potential for improvement of on-product overlay (OPO). Until recently, static corrections per exposure (CPE), applied separately from the main APC correction, have been the industry's standard for critical layers [1], [2]. This static correction is setup once per device and layer and then updated periodically or when a machine change point generates a new overlay signature. This is a non-ideal setup for two reasons. First, any drift or sudden shift in tool signature between two CPE update periods can cause worse OPO and a higher rework rate, or, even worse, lead to yield loss at end of line. Second, these corrections are made from full map measurements that can be in excess of 1,000 measurements per wafer [3]. Advanced overlay control algorithms utilizing Run-to-Run (R2R) CPE can be used to reduce the overlay signatures on product in High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) environments. In this paper, we demonstrate the results of a R2R CPE control scheme in HVM. The authors show an improvement up to 20% OPO Mean+3Sigma values on several critical immersion layers at the 28nm and 14 nm technology nodes, and a reduction of out-of-spec residual points per wafer (validated on full map). These results are attained by closely tracking process tool signature changes by means of APC, and with an affordable metrology load which is significantly smaller than full wafer measurements.

  7. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lavanya Ramakrishnan; Chin Guok; Keith R. Jackson; Ezra Kissel; D. Martin Swany; Deborah Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable high-throughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our

  8. Surgical Navigation by Autostereoscopic Image Overlay of Integral Videography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongen Liao; Nobuhiko Hata; Susumu Nakajima; Makoto Iwahara; Ichiro Sakuma; Takeyoshi Dohi

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an autostereoscopic image overlay technique that is integrated into a surgical navigation system to superimpose a real three-dimensional (3-D) image onto the patient via a half-silvered mirror. The images are created by employing a modified version of integral videography (IV), which is an animated extension of integral photography. IV records and reproduces 3-D images using a microconvex

  9. The Trellis Security Infrastructure: A Layered Approach to Overlay Metacomputers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morgan Kan; Danny Ngo; Mark Lee; Paul Lu; Nolan Bard; Michael Closson; Meng Ding; Mark Goldberg; Nicholas Lamb; Yang Wang; Ron Senda; Edmund Sumbar

    2004-01-01

    Researchers often have access to a variety of dif- ferent high-performance computer (HPC) systems in different administrative domains, possibly across a wide-area network. Consequently, the security infrastructure becomes an important component of an overlay metacomputer: a user-level aggregation of HPC systems. The Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI) uses a sophisticated approach based on proxies and certification authorities. However, GSI requires a

  10. Shielding turbine blades from cvitation: Experiments with polymer overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, T.B. (Army Corps of Engineers, The Dalles, OR (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Cavitation damage to hydroelectric machinery produces one of the most prevalent maintenance problems at any hydro plant. Damage to the turbine runner blades, draft tube liner and discharge ring, and sometimes even the runner hub can require extensive welding repair. Typically, each unit develops its own cavitation characteristics that continue throughout the life of the machine. The traditional cavitation repair method is to gouge out the damaged material, then refill the void with a stainless steel. This method is costly and time-consuming, may cause blade distortion, and may result in galvanic corrosion when the stainless steel is applied to carbon steel base materials. What's more, this gouging and filling at temperatures between 2,200 and 2.300[degrees]F within a tenth of a square inch may cause residual stresses in the parent material. One strategy for limiting cavitation effects on turbine components is to overlay the original material with a protective layer. This protective coating will absorb the cavitation load, or at least a portion of it, thus limiting further damage to repaired areas. Typically, an overlay consists of a 1/32-inch or 1/16-inch layer of polymer material (either epoxies or ceramics) and a thin adhesive that bonds the polymer to the turbine steel. A cavitation-induced shock (energy) wave propagates through the polymer material and either reflects or transmits into the steel. (The relative acoustic impedances of the two materials determine whether the shock wave travels into the turbine steel or reflects back through the polymer.) For the overlay to be effective, the shock wave must be reflected, attenuated, or dispersed. typical overlay materials do not reflect, attenuate, or disperse the cavitation shock wave. Polycarbonates, with their unique energy dissipation capabilities, are a good candidate for a protective turbine blade coating.

  11. Topologically-Aware Overlay Construction and Server Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Ratnasamy; Mark Handley; Richard M. Karp; Scott Shenker

    2002-01-01

    A number of large-scale distributed Internet applications could potentially benefit from some level of knowledge about the relative proximity between its participating host nodes. For example, the perfor- mance of large overlay networks could be improved if the application-level connectivity between the nodes in these networks is congruent with the un- derlying IP-level topology. Similarly, in the case of replicated

  12. Indexing data-oriented overlay networks using belief propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANNY BICKSON; DANNY DOLEV; YAIR WEISS; KARL ABERER; MANFRED HAUSWIRTH

    In this paper we discuss the problem of data-oriented parti- tioning in large-scale overlay networks, as required by peer-to- peer databases or by peer-to-peer information retrieval. The goal is to partition a large set of nodes into k partitions with the ad- ditional requirement of meeting certain load-balancing constraints without global knowledge of the network's parameters, i.e., the de- sired

  13. Scalable supernode selection in peer-to-peer overlay networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia Lo; Dayi Zhou; Yuhong Liu; Chris GauthierDickey; Jun Li

    2005-01-01

    We define a problem called the supernode selection problem which has emerged across a variety of peer-to-peer applications. Supernode selection involves selection of a subset of the peers to serve a special role. The supernodes must be well-dispersed throughout the peer-to-peer overlay network, and must fulfil additional requirements such as load balance, resource needs, adaptability to churn, and heterogeneity. While

  14. Diffusion Barriers to Increase the Oxidative Life of Overlay Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Lei, Jih-Fen

    1999-01-01

    Currently, most blades and vanes in the hottest section of aero gas turbine engines require some type of coating for oxidation protection. Newly developed single crystal superalloys have the mechanical potential to operate at increasingly higher component temperatures. However, at these elevated temperatures, coating/substrate interdiffusion can shorten the protective life of the coating. Diffusion barriers between overlay coatings and substrates are being examined to extend the protective life of the coating. A previously- developed finite-difference diffusion model has been modified to predict the oxidative life enhancement due to use of a diffusion barrier. The original diffusion model, designated COSIM, simulates Al diffusion in the coating to the growing oxide scale as well as Al diffusion into the substrate. The COSIM model incorporates an oxide growth and spalling model to provide the rate of Al consumption during cyclic oxidation. Coating failure is predicted when the Al concentration at the coating surface drops to a defined critical level. The modified COSIM model predicts the oxidative life of an overlay coating when a diffusion barrier is present eliminating diffusion of Al from the coating into the substrate. Both the original and the modified diffusion models have been used to predict the effectiveness of a diffusion barrier in extending the protective life of a NiCrAl overlay coating undergoing cyclic oxidation at 1100 C.

  15. Hg binding on Pd binary alloys and overlays

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmaz, E.; Aboud, S.; Wilcox, J. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). School of Earth Science

    2009-05-15

    The vast majority of the mercury released from coal combustion is elemental mercury. Noble metals such as Pd, Au, Ag, and Cu have been proposed to capture elemental mercury. Density functional theory calculations are carried out to investigate mercury interactions with Pd binary alloys and overlays in addition to pure Pd, Au, Ag, and Cu surfaces using a projected augmented wave method with the Perdew-Wang generalized 0 gradient approximation. It has been determined that Pd has the highest mercury binding energy in comparison to other noble metals. In addition, Pd is found to be the primary surface atom responsible for improving the interaction of mercury with the surface atoms in both Pd binary alloys and overlays. Deposition of Pd overlays on Au and Ag enhance the reactivity of the surface by shifting the d-states of surface atoms up in energy. Strong mercury binding causes a significant overlap between the s- and p-states of Pd and the d-state of Mercury.

  16. Innovative fast technique for overlay accuracy estimation using archer self calibration (ASC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Pai, Yuan Chi; Amit, Eran; Yap, Lipkong; Itzkovich, Tal; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2014-04-01

    As overlay margins shrink for advanced process nodes, a key overlay metrology challenge is finding the measurement conditions which optimize the yield for every device and layer. Ideally, this setup should be found in-line during the lithography measurements step. Moreover, the overlay measurement must have excellent correlation to the device electrical behavior. This requirement makes the measurement conditions selection even more challenging since it requires information about the response of both the metrology target and device to different process variations. In this work a comprehensive solution for overlay metrology accuracy, used by UMC, is described. This solution ranks the different measurement setups by their accuracy, using Qmerit, as reported by the Archer 500. This ranking was verified to match device overlay using electrical tests. Moreover, the use of Archer Self Calibration (ASC) allows further improvement of overlay measurement accuracy.

  17. LANDSAT-D flight segment operations manual, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varhola, J.

    1981-01-01

    Functions, performance capabilities, modes of operation, constraints, redundancy, commands, and telemetry are described for the thematic mapper; the global positioning system; the direct access S-band; the multispectral scanner; the payload correction; the thermal control subsystem; the solar array retention, deployment, and jettison assembly; and the boom antenna retention, deployment, and jettison assembly for LANDSAT 4.

  18. Quantifying Changes in the Land Over Time with Landsat

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students analyze land cover change in order to help them grasp the extent, significance, and consequences of land cover change; and to introduce them to the perspective of space-based Earth observations. Students learn to identify kinds of land cover (such as roads, fields, urban areas, and lakes) in Landsat satellite images. They decide which land cover types allow the passage of water into the soil (pervious) and which types do not allow it (impervious). They consider some effects of increasing impervious surface area on ecosystem health. Students then make land cover maps using two Landsat satellite images taken about a decade apart, and quantify the change of land cover from pervious to impervious surface. They also make predictive maps of what they think the nature and extent of land cover change in the area will be in the year 2025, and speculate about the consequences for the availability of water for people and ecosystems. Students justify in writing their predictive maps and their thoughts about the consequences of change. This activity uses Landsat images of Phoenix, Arizona; links are also provided for finding Landsat images of other cities.

  19. Geostatistical interpolation of SLC-off Landsat ETM+ images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Pringle; M. Schmidt; J. S. Muir

    2009-01-01

    The scan-line corrector (SLC) for the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor, on board the Landsat 7 satellite, failed permanently in 2003. The consequence of the SLC failure (or SLC-off) is that about 20% of the pixels in an ETM+ image are not scanned. We aim to develop a geostatistical method that estimates the missing values. Our rationale is to

  20. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sesoeren

    1986-01-01

    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required

  1. Educator's Guide for Mission to Earth: LANDSAT Views the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tindal, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    This teacher's guide is specifically designed to provide information and suggestions for using LANDSAT imagery to teach basic concepts in several content areas. Content areas include: (1) Earth science and geology; (2) environmental studies; (3) geography; and (4) social and urban studies.

  2. Validation of Landsat 7 ETM+ band 6 radiometric performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, Frank; Hook, Simon; Abtahi, Ali; Alley, Ron

    2005-01-01

    Since shortly after launch the radiometric performance of band 6 of the ETM+ instrument on Landsat 7 has been evaluated using vicarious calbiration techniques for both land and water targets. This evaluation indicates the radiometric performance of band 6 has been both highly stable and accurate.

  3. Geopositional Accuracy Validation of Orthorectified Landsat ETM+ Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles M.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides the results of two independent evaluations, an absolute and a relative assessment, of the geopositional accuracy of the Earth Satellite (EarthSat) Corporation's GeoCover orthorectified Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery. This imagery was purchased through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program.

  4. Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico - Landsat 7

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion at an oil well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a major oil spill. Since then, emergency response efforts have been underway to contain the growing oil slick before it reaches the southern coast of the United States. Landsat imagery, acquired by the U.S. Geological ...

  5. LANDSAT language at our reach. First Swedish satellite. Civilization detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayne, D. L.; Bravo, V.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the use of LANDSAT data by Argentina is presented. Details on a Swedish satellite to be completed in 1984 and to be called VIKING are reported. Attempts to contact other civilizations in space by the use of radiotelescopes are discussed.

  6. Prospecting in glaciated terrain-integrating airborne and Landsat MSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, J. R.; Rencz, A. N.

    The effects of a glacially enriched zone of trace elements on soils and vegetation in the Thetford Mines area of Quebec were investigated using ground information plus digital Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data from airborne and Landsat sensors. The enriched zone was developed during the last glaciation when a southeastward flowing glacier eroded and dispersed an ultrabasic outcrop that had anomalous levels of Ni, Cu, Co, Cr, Mg and Fe. The dispersal train of enriched trace elements was detectable over an area at least 70 × 15 km `down-ice' from the outcrop. In this zone total Ni concentrations in the soil ranged from background levels of 10 ppm to levels in excess of 1800 ppm. The dominant tree species, Abies balsamea (balsam fir) and Picea glauca (white spruce) reflect the soil anomaly with higher concentrations of trace elements in their tissue and lower concentrations of chlorophyll. An unsupervised enhancement of Landsat imagery showed that a tonal discontinuity was caused by a vegetation segregation related to the heavy metal enrichment soils. A detailed study based on Landsat MSS data was able to establish regional patterns of chlorophyll production by certain plant species closely related to the ultrabasic dispersal train. Multi-channel airborne MSS data confirmed the Landsat soil-plant patterns.

  7. Classification of forested wetlands using ordination of multitemporal Landsat reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keim, R. F.; Zoller, J. A.; Braud, D. H.

    2007-12-01

    There are important limitations in interpreting satellite imagery in dynamic environments. In forested wetlands, where flooding and aquatic vegetation vary temporally, a multitemporal approach is needed for extracting stable patterns. We used field measurements of forest composition and structure and seven cloud-free Landsat images from a time span of six years to classify forest vigor in 95,000 ha of cypress-tupelo forested wetlands surrounding Lake Verret in southern Louisiana. A principal component (PCA) ordination of the reflectance in Landsat bands 3/4/5 for each image was the basis of the classification. No single Landsat band or image dominated the first few PCs, so that the multitemporal and multispectral aspect of the data were fully expressed in the ordination. Each Landsat pixel was classified as to forest vigor according to its scores in the first two PCs by comparing pixel scores to those associated with field plots. The reflectance PCA, and thus the classification, was directly interpretable in terms of ecosystem structure because the scored in the first two PCs in field-plot pixels were correlated to field measurements of forest structure, such as leaf area index, stand density, and understory composition, and because the field plots occupied interpretable regions of ordination space.

  8. Accuracy of geologic maps produced from Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1985-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are now being applied to space-acquired data for use in preparing geologic maps, at least at the reconnaissance level, when maps produced from Landsat multispectral scanner data are compared with those made by conventional ground/aerial techniques, accuracies of the Landsat maps fall in the 40-60 percent range relative to their conventional counterparts. A study of map accuracy achieved with Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data indicates a 10-15 percent improvement in this range. Results from TM scenes for Death Valley, California and the Waterpocket Fold, Utah are evaluated in this paper. While accuracy values should improve even more when corrections for topographic effects are made, there appears to be an upper limit to accuracy (not yet determined), owing to a fundamental difference between geologic maps (which show stratigraphic unit distribution below the regolith) and Landsat-derived rock units maps (which identify rock and regolith types at the surface). However, preliminary results from the Utah study indicate a marked improvement and accuracy to better than 80 percent when high spatial resolution TM-equivalent data from an aircraft mission are used.

  9. Using Quickbird and Landsat imagery to analyze temporal

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    and LiDAR) to calibrate concurrent moderate-resolution imagery (Landsat). We then use historical moderate undeveloped areas, and downstream and riparian systems. The conversion of naturally vegetated land and abundance.2­4 Roads also affect physical processes. Roads have been shown to increase drainage density

  10. The Delaware River Basin Landsat-Data Collection System Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W. (principal investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This experiment successfully demonstrated that standard U.S. Geological Survey field instrumentation could be easily interfaced with the LANDSAT-DCS and the data made to flow smoothly to water resources management agencies. The experiment was conducted in the Delaware River basin. A truly operational system could not be deployed.

  11. Orbit\\/attitude estimation with LANDSAT Landmark data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Hall; S. Waligora

    1979-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT landmark data for orbit\\/attitude and camera bias estimation was studied. The preliminary results of these investigations are presented. The Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) error analysis capability was used to perform error analysis studies. A number of questions were addressed including parameter observability and sensitivity, effects on the solve-for parameter errors of data span, density, and

  12. A technique for mapping environmental change using digital Landsat data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard S. Mussakowski

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for detecting and mapping changes in vegetation cover using LANDSAT digital analysis techniques, and demonstrates how the procedure can be used as an aid to environmental monitoring. Digital image analysis is used to perform a historical comparison, and a computerized colour plotter is used to map the changes in vegetation.

  13. Geometric Accuracy of LANDSAT-4 MSS Image Data. [Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.; Usery, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Analyses of the LANDSAT-4 MSS image data of North Georgia provided by the EDC in CTT-p formats reveal that errors of approximately + or - 30 m in the raw data can be reduced to about + or - 55 m based on rectification procedures involving the use of 20 to 30 well-distributed GCPs and 2nd or 3rd degree polynomial equations. Higher order polynomials do not appear to improve the rectification accuracy. A subscene area of 256 by 256 pixels was rectified with a 1st degree polynomial to yield an RMSE sub xy value of + or - 40 m, indicating that USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangle-sized areas of LANDSAT-4 data can be fitted to a map base with relatively few control points and simple equations. The errors in the rectification process are caused by the spatial resolution of the MSS data, by errors in the maps and GCP digitizing process, and by displacements caused by terrain relief. Overall, due to the improved pointing and attitude control of the spacecraft, the geometric quality of the LANDSAT-4 MSS data appears much improved over that of LANDSAT-1, -2 AND -3.

  14. Geometric accuracy of LANDSAT-4 MSS image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.; Usery, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of the LANDSAT-4 MSS image data of North Georgia provided by the EDC in CCT-p formats reveal that errors of approximately + or - 30 m in the raw data can be reduced to about + or - 55 m based on rectification procedures involving the use of 20 to 30 well-distributed GCPs and 2nd or 3rd degree polynomial equations. Higher order polynomials do not appear to improve the rectification accuracy. A subscene area of 256 x 256 pixels was rectified with a 1st degree polynomial to yield an RMSE sub xy value of + or - 40 m, indicating that USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangle-sized areas of LANDSAT-4 data can be fitted to a map base with relatively few control points and simple equations. The errors in the rectification process are caused by the spatial resolution of the MSS data, by errors in the maps and GCP digitizing process, and by displacements caused by terrain relief. Overall, due to the improved pointing and attitude control of the spacecraft, the geometric quality of the LANDSAT-4 MSS data appears much improved over that of LANDSATS -1, -2 and -3.

  15. The Present and Future of the Landsat Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Irons

    The Landsat 7 satellite system was designed to operate in a manner that will substantially advance the application of remote land observations to global change research. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper- Plus (ETM+) sensor aboard the spacecraft currently acquires multispectral digital image data of the EarthÕs land surfaces on a routine basis. The quality of the ETM+ data is excellent, meeting

  16. Landsat Changes Over Time: Pearl River, China (False Color)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1999-04-09

    Landsat Thematic Mapper views the Pearl River in China in 1988, 1992, and 1995. The band combination used in these images is 432. They are false color and include the infrared band. To view related animations, please see animations 942, 1396, 1398, and 1399.

  17. Design study for LANDSAT D attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwens, R. P.; Bernier, G. E.; Hofstadter, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    A design and performance evaluation is presented for the LANDSAT D attitude control system (ACS). Control and configuration of the gimballed Ku-band antenna system for communication with the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS). Control of the solar array drive considered part of the ACS is also addressed.

  18. Computer classified Landsat data used as a forest stratifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, L., III; Mayer, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results of two forest stratification projects are presented to show that Landsat data, when combined with guided clustering techniques, can provide detailed stratification of forest environment. It is shown that conifer species groupings, vegetative cover classes, and three size classes can be discriminated with accuracies ranging from 83 to 91%.

  19. Forestry applications of LANDSAT data in New Hampshire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, E.; Sutherland, K.

    1981-01-01

    The applications of forest clearcut maps derived from LANDSAT data are dicussed. Such maps provide harvest location information useful in general management and indicate the stage of regrowth which helps determine timber stand improvement practices. The clearcut maps are also used in fire control planning and in determining wildlife habitats.

  20. Some aspects of geological information contained in LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Liu, C. C.; Vitorello, I.; Meneses, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of MSS images and methods of interpretation are analyzed from a geological point of view. The supportive role of LANDSAT data are illustrated in several examples of surface expressions of geological features, such as synclines and anticlines, spectral characteristics of lithologic units, and circular impact structures.

  1. The Thermal Infrared Sensor on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Reuter; Cathy Richardson; James Irons; Rick Allen; Martha Anderson; Jason Budinoff; Gordon Casto; Craig Coltharp; Paul Finneran; Betsy Forsbacka; Taylor Hale; Tom Jennings; Murzy Jhabvala; Allen Lunsford; Greg Magnuson; Rick Mills; Tony Morse; Veronica Otero; Scott Rohrbach; Ramsey Smith; Terry Sullivan; Zelalem Tesfaye; Kurtis J. Thome; Glenn Unger; Paul Whitehouse

    2010-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a joint NASA and USGS mission, is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC) under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper outlines

  2. Absolute calibration of Landsat instruments using the moon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Wildey, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A lunar observation by Landsat could provide improved radiometric and geometric calibration of both the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner in terms of absolute radiometry, determination of the modulation transfer function, and sensitivity to scattered light. A pitch of the spacecraft would be required. -Authors

  3. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. (principal investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Leming, T.; Holley, H.; Faller, K. H.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievements thus far include the successful charting of high probability fishing areas from LANDSAT MSS data and the successful simulation of an operational satellite system to provide tactical information for the commercial harvest of menhaden.

  4. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savastano, K. (principal investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Leming, T.; Holley, H.; Faller, K. H.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievement thus far includes the successful charting of high probability fishing areas from LANDSAT MSS data and the successful simulation of an operational satellite system to provide tactical information for the commercial harvest of menhaden.

  5. Calibration of the thermal band of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Lansing Jr.; R. J. Thompson

    1978-01-01

    Landsat-3 carries the first Multispectral Scanner (MSS) to include sensing of a fifth spectral band for the thermal emission of the earth scene in addition to the first four bands, which sense reflected solar irradiance. Unique design features of this band are described: a thermal reference level provided by the detector viewing its cold surroundings in a mirror, and an

  6. Simulation of meteorological satellite (METSAT) data using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.; Ryland, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    The information content which can be expected from the advanced very high resolution radiometer system, AVHRR, on the NOAA-6 satellite was assessed, and systematic techniques of data interpretation for use with meteorological satellite data were defined. In-house data from LANDSAT 2 and 3 were used to simulate the spatial, spectral, and sampling methods of the NOAA-6 satellite data.

  7. Landsat5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyanesh Chander; Dennis L. Helder; Brian L. Markham; James D. Dewald; E. Kaita; Kurtis J. Thome; Esad Micijevic; Timothy A. Ruggles

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed

  8. Synergistic use of MOMS-01 and LANDSAT TM data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID A. ROTHERY; PETER W. FRANCIS

    1987-01-01

    Imagery covering the Socompa volcano and debris avalanche deposit in northern Chile was acquired by MOMS-01 when the Sun was low in the western sky. Illumination from the west shows many important topographic features to advantage. These are inconspicuous or indistinguishable on LANDSAT TM images acquired at higher solar elevation. The effective spatial resolution of MOMS-01 is similar to that

  9. A technique for mapping environmental change using digital Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussakowski, Richard S.

    This paper describes a procedure for detecting and mapping changes in vegetation cover using LANDSAT digital analysis techniques, and demonstrates how the procedure can be used as an aid to environmental monitoring. Digital image analysis is used to perform a historical comparison, and a computerized colour plotter is used to map the changes in vegetation.

  10. The Evolution of Landsat Data Systems and Science Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    The series of Landsat satellite missions have collected observations of the Earth's surface since 1972, resulting in the richest archive of remotely sensed data covering the global land masses at scales from which natural and human-induced changes can be distinguished. This observational record will continue to be extended with the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission, or Landsat 8, in December of 2012 carrying the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) instruments. The data streams from these instruments will be significantly enhanced yet compatible with data acquired by heritage Landsat instruments. The radiometry and geometry of the OLI and TIRS data will be calibrated and combined into single, multi-band Level-1 terrain-corrected image products. Coefficients will be included in the product metadata to convert OLI to at-sensor radiance or reflectance and to convert TIRS data to at-aperture radiances. A quality assurance band will contain pixel-based information regarding the presences or clouds, shadows, and terrain occlusion. The raw data as well as the Level-1 products will be stored online and made freely accessible through web coverage services. Rescaled Level-1 OLI and TIRS images will be made available via web mapping services to enable inventory searches and for ready use in geospatial applications. The architecture of the Landsat science data processing systems is scalable to accommodate additional processing and storage nodes in response to archive growth and increased demands on processing and distribution. The data collected by the various Landsat instruments have been inter-calibrated to enable the generation of higher level science data products that are of consistent quality through time and from which geophysical and biophysical parameters of the land surface can be derived for use in process models and decision support systems. Data access and delivery services have evolved in response to increasing demand for Landsat data in a broad range of applications, and the demand for additional processing capabilities and services is expected to grow in the future to meet the needs for climate data records and essential climate variables.

  11. Self-Configuring Information Management for Large-Scale Service Overlays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Liang; Xiaohui Gu; Klara Nahrstedt

    2007-01-01

    Service overlay networks (SON) provide important infrastructure support for many emerging distributed applica- tions such as web service composition, distributed stream pro- cessing, and workflow management. Quality-sensitive distributed applications such as multimedia services and on-line data analysis often desire the SON to provide up-to-date dynamic information about different overlay nodes and overlay links. However, it is a challenging task to

  12. Content-Based Peer-to-Peer Network Overlay for Full-Text Federated Search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Lu; Jamie Callan

    2007-01-01

    Peer-to-peer network overlays have mostly been designed to support search over document names, identifiers, or keywords from a small or controlled vocabulary. In this paper we propose a content-based P2P network overlay for full-text federated search over heterogeneous, open-domain contents. Local algorithms are developed to dynamically construct a network overlay with content-based locality and content-based small-world properties. Experimental results using

  13. MONITORING LARGE AREAS FOR FOREST CHANGE USING LANDSAT: GENERALIZATION ACROSS SPACE, TIME AND LANDSAT SENSORS. (R828309)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landsat 7 ETM+ provides an opportunity to extend the area and frequency with which we are able to monitor the Earth's surface with fine spatial resolution data. To take advantage of this opportunity it is necessary to move beyond the traditional image-by-image approac...

  14. Virtual overlay metrology for fault detection supported with integrated metrology and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong-Goo; Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kim, Min-Suk; Han, Sang-Jun; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kwon, Won-Taik; Park, Sung-Ki; Ryan, Kevin; Theeuwes, Thomas; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Lim, Young-Wan; Slotboom, Daan; Kubis, Michael; Staecker, Jens

    2015-03-01

    While semiconductor manufacturing moves toward the 7nm node for logic and 15nm node for memory, an increased emphasis has been placed on reducing the influence known contributors have toward the on product overlay budget. With a machine learning technique known as function approximation, we use a neural network to gain insight to how known contributors, such as those collected with scanner metrology, influence the on product overlay budget. The result is a sufficiently trained function that can approximate overlay for all wafers exposed with the lithography system. As a real world application, inline metrology can be used to measure overlay for a few wafers while using the trained function to approximate overlay vector maps for the entire lot of wafers. With the approximated overlay vector maps for all wafers coming off the track, a process engineer can redirect wafers or lots with overlay signatures outside the standard population to offline metrology for excursion validation. With this added flexibility, engineers will be given more opportunities to catch wafers that need to be reworked, resulting in improved yield. The quality of the derived corrections from measured overlay metrology feedback can be improved using the approximated overlay to trigger, which wafers should or shouldn't be, measured inline. As a development or integration engineer the approximated overlay can be used to gain insight into lots and wafers used for design of experiments (DOE) troubleshooting. In this paper we will present the results of a case study that follows the machine learning function approximation approach to data analysis, with production overlay measured on an inline metrology system at SK hynix.

  15. Cloud characterization and clear-sky correction from Landsat-7

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahalan, R. F.; Oreopoulos, L.; Wen, G.; Marshak, S.; Tsay, S. -C.; DeFelice, T.

    2001-01-01

    Landsat, with its wide swath and high resolution, fills an important mesoscale gap between atmospheric variations seen on a few kilometer scale by local surface instrumentation and the global view of coarser resolution satellites such as MODIS. In this important scale range, Landsat reveals radiative effects on the few hundred-meter scale of common photon mean-free-paths, typical of scattering in clouds at conservative (visible) wavelengths, and even shorter mean-free-paths of absorptive (near-infrared) wavelengths. Landsat also reveals shadowing effects caused by both cloud and vegetation that impact both cloudy and clear-sky radiances. As a result, Landsat has been useful in development of new cloud retrieval methods and new aerosol and surface retrievals that account for photon diffusion and shadowing effects. This paper discusses two new cloud retrieval methods: the nonlocal independent pixel approximation (NIPA) and the normalized difference nadir radiance method (NDNR). We illustrate the improvements in cloud property retrieval enabled by the new low gain settings of Landsat-7 and difficulties found at high gains. Then, we review the recently developed “path radiance” method of aerosol retrieval and clear-sky correction using data from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Oklahoma. Nearby clouds change the solar radiation incident on the surface and atmosphere due to indirect illumination from cloud sides. As a result, if clouds are nearby, this extra side-illumination causes clear pixels to appear brighter, which can be mistaken for extra aerosol or higher surface albedo. Thus, cloud properties must be known in order to derive accurate aerosol and surface properties. A three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo (MC) radiative transfer simulation illustrates this point and suggests a method to subtract the cloud effect from aerosol and surface retrievals. The main conclusion is that cloud, aerosol, and surface retrievals are linked and must be treated as a combined system. Landsat provides the range of scales necessary to observe the 3D cloud radiative effects that influence joint surface-atmospheric retrievals.

  16. Methodology for predicting asphalt concrete overlay life against reflection cracking 

    E-print Network

    Jayawickrama, Priyantha Warnasuriya

    1985-01-01

    . Experimental investigations carried out at Ohio State University ( 1, 2, 3) and Texas A8M University ( 4, 5, 6 ) have verified the applicability of fracture mechanics principles in predicting fatigue life of asphalt TIP OF THE CRACX /~ // N/i OVERLAY OLD... of Beam on Elastic Foundation Theor (a) Analysis for Maximum Bending Moment Figure 2 shows an overlaid pavement subjected to a uniformly 21 0 C rtS Cl 5- 8 M Qi rd i Ql (U H 4 0 Q) C C 0 rd ~ 0 rtj IV 0 H 4 Ql Q Cl 44 Ct CI 0 Ql 0 d5...

  17. Application Layer Multicast with Proactive Route Maintenance over Redundant Overlay Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yohei Kunichika; Jiro Katto; Sakae Okubo

    2004-01-01

    Application layer multicast (ALM) or overlay multicast emerges as an alternative to the IP multicasting which has not yet widely spread. It enables packet multicasting delivery in an application layer without changing any network infrastructure of the current Internet. However, previous ALMs had an unavoidable disadvantage that end hosts have to reconstruct the overlay network after a node leaves the

  18. Scalable Stealth Mode P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree

    E-print Network

    Jelasity, Márk

    Scalable Stealth Mode P2P Overlays of Very Small Constant Degree Márk Jelasity University of Szeged and robust. An important implication is that stealth mode P2P malware that is very difficult to discover that support the scalability of stealth mode overlays, and we present realistic event based simulations

  19. Dynamic Multipath Onion Routing in Anonymous Peer-To-Peer Overlay Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Landsiedel; Lexi Pimenidis; Klaus Wehrle; Heiko Niedermayer; Georg Carle

    2007-01-01

    Although recent years provided many protocols for anonymous routing in overlay networks, they commonly rely on the same communication paradigm: Onion Routing. In Onion Routing a static tunnel through an overlay network is build via layered encryption. All traffic exchanged by its end points is relayed through this tunnel. In contrast, this paper introduces dynamic multipath Onion Routing to extend

  20. Exit Policy Violations in Multi-Hop Overlay Routes: Analysis and Mitigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasan Seetharaman; Mostafa H. Ammar

    2007-01-01

    The traffic exchanged between two overlay nodes in different autonomous systems (AS) is always subjected to a series of inter-domain policies. However, overlay routing often manages to get around these policy restrictions by relaying traffic through multiple legitimate segments, in order to achieve its selfish goals (e.g., better latency paths between end- systems). We focus on the violation of a

  1. Viral Concentration Determination Through Plaque Assays: Using Traditional and Novel Overlay Systems

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2015-01-01

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses. PMID:25407402

  2. Viral concentration determination through plaque assays: using traditional and novel overlay systems.

    PubMed

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-01-01

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses. PMID:25407402

  3. Mapping the PPLive Network: Studying the Impacts of Media Streaming on P2P Overlays

    E-print Network

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    to understand IPTV overlays like PPLive in order to enable the building of larger-scale media streaming overlays well-known instance of an IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) application. IPTV applications have seen development of IPTV technologies including tree-based mul- ticasts [8][9][10], receiver-driven p2p streaming

  4. Analytical Study of Adversarial Strategies in Cluster-based Overlays E. Anceaume

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Brasiliero Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, LSD Laboratory, Brazil Abstract Scheideler has shown of making these overlays resilient not only to benign crashes, but also to more malicious failure models several ways to make overlay networks provably robust against different forms of malicious attacks

  5. Analytical Study of Adversarial Strategies in Cluster-based Overlays E. Anceaume

    E-print Network

    Recanati, Catherine

    . Brasiliero Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, LSD Laboratory, Brazil Abstract Scheideler has shown of making these overlays resilient not only to benign crashes, but also to more malicious failure models several ways to make overlay networks provably robust against di#11;erent forms of malicious attacks

  6. Questioning the Benefits That Coloured Overlays Can Have for Reading in Students with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Lisa M.; Tsogka, Natassa; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Visual stress (the experience of visual distortions and discomfort during prolonged reading) is frequently identified and alleviated with coloured overlays or lenses. Previous studies have associated visual stress with dyslexia and as a consequence, coloured overlays are widely distributed to children and adults with reading difficulty. However,…

  7. One Hop Lookups for Peer-to-Peer Overlays Anjali Gupta Barbara Liskov Rodrigo Rodrigues

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    One Hop Lookups for Peer-to-Peer Overlays Anjali Gupta Barbara Liskov Rodrigo Rodrigues MIT route lookup queries in just one hop, thus enabling applications that cannot tolerate the delay of multi-hop applications to locate objects stored in the system in a limited number of overlay hops. Peer-to-peer lookup

  8. Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers Salles V. G. Maghales and W Randolph Franklin

    E-print Network

    Franklin, W. Randolph

    Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers Salles V. G. Maghalães and W Randolph by representing coordinates as rational numbers. Now, intersections have no roundoff errors. Rational numbers for different kinds of soil. This paper presents Rat-overlay, an algorithm that uses rational numbers to perform

  9. Illinois DOT Responses to State Report Questions 1. Has your state built concrete overlays? Yes.

    E-print Network

    been your experience with overruns in concrete mix quantities? This can happen, but is not addressed Procedure Memorandum" and click "64-08 Portland Cement Concrete Inlay and Overlay". For design program clickIllinois DOT ­ Responses to State Report Questions 1. Has your state built concrete overlays? Yes

  10. Simplified Solution for Periodic Thermal Discontinuities in Asphalt Overlays Bonded to Rigid Pavements

    E-print Network

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    discontinuities distributed in a hot mix asphalt overlay bonded to a rigid pavement, where the length; Cracking. Introduction A concrete pavement which has been rehabilitated with an asphalt overlay can al. 2001 , and occasion- ally with very devastating effects Figs. 1 a and b . Advances in design

  11. [ ]May 2014 Portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays have been used with great success in many locations

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    accelerated pavement testing and document the experience of mix design and construction practice of PCC in standardizing the concrete overlay design process. In addition, typical section design thicknesses for various[ ]May 2014 PROBLEM Portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays have been used with great success

  12. Cracking resistance of thin-bonded overlays using fracture test, numerical simulations and early field performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarfraz Ahmed; Eshan V. Dave; William G. Buttlar; Marvin K. Exline

    2012-01-01

    Thin-bonded bituminous overlays are becoming an increasingly popular pavement maintenance treatment, which can be used to restore smoothness, seal and renew the pavement surface and increase skid resistance. Thin-bonded overlays (TBOs) are constructed using a specialised type of paving equipment called a ‘spray paver’. A spray paver combines the operation of applying a tack coat and laying down asphalt concrete

  13. Effect of PCC Joint Skew on Reflective Cracking in HMA Overlays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziad G. Ghauch

    2011-01-01

    Reflective cracking is a relatively premature distress that occurs in HMA materials overlaying cracked and jointed underlying pavements. The high concentration of stresses and strains in the vicinity of the discontinuity of the old pavement causes the cracks to reflect into the newly placed HMA overlay. While it is a common practice to use skewed transverse joints in rigid pavements

  14. WEB SERVICES MANAGEMENT NETWORK An Overlay Network for Federated Service Management

    E-print Network

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    service' interchangeably, but prefer the term `service,' since it stresses that we discuss the managementWEB SERVICES MANAGEMENT NETWORK An Overlay Network for Federated Service Management Vijay Machiraju, and protocols of a management overlay for federated service management, called Web Services Management Network

  15. Anonymous Routing in Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays Nikita Borisov

    E-print Network

    Borisov, Nikita

    Anonymous Routing in Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays by Nikita Borisov B.Math (University is approved: Chair Date Date Date University of California, Berkeley Spring 2005 #12;Anonymous Routing in Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays Copyright 2005 by Nikita Borisov #12;1 Abstract Anonymous Routing

  16. AOS: an anonymous overlay system for mobile ad hoc networks Rui Zhang Yanchao Zhang Yuguang Fang

    E-print Network

    Latchman, Haniph A.

    AOS: an anonymous overlay system for mobile ad hoc networks Rui Zhang · Yanchao Zhang · Yuguang anonymous communications in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is an effective coun- termeasure against malicious traffic analysis. This paper presents AOS, an Anonymous Overlay System for MA- NETs, which

  17. Title: Experimental Fracture Mechanics for the Bond between Composite Overlays and Concrete Substrate

    E-print Network

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    should have high resistance to crack propagation, i.e. high fracture toughness. Crack initiation1 Title: Experimental Fracture Mechanics for the Bond between Composite Overlays and Concrete strength of composite overlays to concrete utilizing a fracture toughness test.. Specimen preparation, test

  18. A Landsat-based inventory procedure for agriculture in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. L.; Thomas, R. W.; Brown, C. E.; Bauer, E. H.

    1982-01-01

    Agriculture, which occupies a vital position in the economy of the State of California, depends crucially on the available water. The California Department of Water Resources (DWR) is, therefore, greatly concerned with the total water requirements for agricultural applications. In view of the limitations of an area-limited, single-date survey system, the DWR has been cooperating with NASA and the University of California in a study of the applicability of Landsat imagery and digital data as an aid in making decisions concerning the management of water resources. Attention is given to a statewide inventory of irrigated land, computer-assisted estimation and mapping of irrigated land, and a crop type analysis using Landsat digital data.

  19. Monitoring water quality from LANDSAT. [satellite observation of Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Water quality monitoring possibilities from LANDSAT were demonstrated both for direct readings of reflectances from the water and indirect monitoring of changes in use of land surrounding Swift Creek Reservoir in a joint project with the Virginia State Water Control Board and NASA. Film products were shown to have insufficient resolution and all work was done by digitally processing computer compatible tapes. Land cover maps of the 18,000 hectare Swift Creek Reservoir watershed, prepared for two dates in 1974, are shown. A significant decrease in the pine cover was observed in a 740 hectare construction site within the watershed. A measure of the accuracy of classification was obtained by comparing the LANDSAT results with visual classification at five sites on a U-2 photograph. Such changes in land cover can alert personnel to watch for potential changes in water quality.

  20. Landsat analysis for uranium exploration in Northeast Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Keenan

    1983-01-01

    No uranium deposits are known in the Trabzon, Turkey region, and consequently, exploration criteria have not been defined. Nonetheless, by analogy with uranium deposits studied elsewhere, exploration guides are suggested to include dense concentrations of linear features, lineaments -- especially with northwest trend, acidic plutonic rocks, and alteration indicated by limonite. A suite of digitally processed images of a single Landsat scene served as the image base for mapping 3,376 linear features. Analysis of the linear feature data yielded two statistically significant trends, which in turn defined two sets of strong lineaments. Color composite images were used to map acidic plutonic rocks and areas of surficial limonitic materials. The Landsat interpretation yielded a map of these exploration guides that may be used to evaluate relative uranium potential. One area in particular shows a high coincidence of favorable indicators.

  1. Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) Standard Product Generation and Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micijevic, E.; Hayes, R.

    2012-12-01

    The LDCM's Landsat 8 (L8), planned for launch in February 2013, is the latest satellite in the 40 year history of the Landsat program. The satellite will have two imagers: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The data from both sensors will be processed and combined into the final Level 1 Terrain (L1T) standard product by the Landsat Product Generation System (LPGS) at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS). Landsat 8 products will nominally have 11 image bands; however, products will still be created if OLI only, or TIRS only collections are acquired. The LPGS is designed to create L1T products from Level 0 data by merging OLI and TIRS outputs and performing systematic radiometric and geometric corrections, followed by precision and terrain corrections that include Ground Control Points (GCP), and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for topographic accuracy. Scenes that have a quality score of 9 or greater and a percent cloud cover less than 40 will be automatically processed. In addition, any archived scene, regardless of cloud cover, can be requested for processing through USGS EROS clients, GloVis or Earth Explorer. While most data will be processed as Level L1T, some scenes will not have ground control or elevation data necessary for precision or terrain correction, respectively. In these cases, the best level of correction will be applied (Level 1G-systematic or Level 1Gt-systematic terrain). The standard Level 1T products will contain scaled Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance data, only for OLI. The conversion between radiance and reflectance within radiometric processing (L1R) will be performed using the band specific coefficients that are proportional to the respective exoatmospheric solar irradiances and the Earth-Sun distance for the scene's acquisition day. The TIRS data will contain scaled at-sensor radiances and no at-sensor brightness temperature or emissivity conversions are planned. For users that prefer uncorrected data a Level 0 Reformatted Product (L0Rp) product will be available. The standard L1T product for L8 will be a 16-bit, north up Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection, Cubic Convolution (CC) resampled, GeoTIFF file. The delivered tar file contains eight 30-meter OlI multispectral bands, one 15-meter OLI Panchromatic band, two TIRS thermal bands, a Quality Band (QB), a metadata file, and an Angle Band. The QB is a file that contains quality statistics from the image data and cloud mask for the scene. The metadata file contains information about the product ordered and is essential for the end user to know how that product was processed. The Angle Band is a binary image file that contains the solar angle information for the scene data collected. The L1T reflectance product bands will be generated with no sun angle correction applied. The angle band will enable an optional TOA reflectance calculation using the sun angles specific to each image pixel. This method was chosen to maintain continuity with Landsat products while allowing the users that require a per pixel sun angle correction to have that capability. An example of a L8 product can be downloaded from the Landsat website located at: http://landsat.usgs.gov/LDCM_DataProduct.php. The sample L8 product was created using Landsat 7 data projected onto a L8 grid and processed to LDCM data product specifications.

  2. Pattern recognition of Landsat data based upon temporal trend analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engvall, J. L.; Tubbs, J. D.; Holmes, Q. A.

    1977-01-01

    The Delta Classifier defined as an agricultural crop classification scheme employing a temporal trend procedure is applied to more than 100 different Landsat data sets collected during the 1974-1975 growing season throughout the major wheat-producing regions of the United States. The classification approach stresses examination of temporal trends of the Landsat mean vectors of crops in the absence of corresponding ground truth information. It is shown that the resulting classifications compare favorably to ground truth estimates for wheat proportion in those cases where ground truth is available, and that the temporal trend procedure yields estimates of the wheat proportion that are comparable to the best results from maximum likelihood classification with photointerpreter-defined training fields.

  3. LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation. [Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerer, A. J. (principal investigator); Brucks, J. T.; Butler, J. A.; Faller, K. H.; Holley, H. J.; Leming, T. D.; Savastano, K. J.; Vanselous, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The relationship between the distribution of menhaden and selected oceanographic parameters (water color, turbidity, and possibly chlorophyll concentrations) was established. Similar relationships for thread herring were not established nor were relationships relating to the abundance of either species. Use of aircraft and LANDSAT remote sensing instruments to measure or infer a set of basic oceanographic parameters was evaluated. Parameters which could be accurately inferred included surface water temperature, salinity, and color. Water turbidity (Secchi disk) was evaluated as marginally inferrable from the LANDSAT MSS data and chlorophyll-a concentrations as less than marginal. These evaluations considered the parameters only as experienced in the two test areas using available sensors and statistical techniques.

  4. BOREAS RSS-8 Snow Maps Derived from Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Foster, James L.; Chien, Janeet Y. L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-8 team utilized Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images to perform mapping of snow extent over the Southern Study Area (SSA). This data set consists of two Landsat TM images that were used to determine the snow-covered pixels over the BOREAS SSA on 18 Jan 1993 and on 06 Feb 1994. The data are stored in binary image format files. The RSS-08 snow map data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  5. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geri; Lee, Kenton; Barsi, Julia A.; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is being developed by NASA and USGS and is currently planned for launch in January 2013 [1]. Once on-orbit and checked out, it will be operated by USGS and officially named Landsat-8. Two sensors will be on LDCM: the Operational Land Imager (OLI), which has been built and delivered by Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp (BATC) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS)[2], currently being built and tested at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with a planned delivery of Winter 2012. The OLI covers the Visible, Near-IR (NIR) and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) parts of the spectrum; TIRS covers the Thermal Infrared (TIR). This paper discusses only the OLI instrument and its pre-launch characterization; a companion paper covers TIRS.

  6. Spatial signature in local overlay measurements: what CD-SEM can tell us and optical measurements can not

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Halle; Daniel Moore; Chas Archie; Shoji Hotta; Takumichi Sutani; Akiyuki Sugiyama; Masahiko Ikeno; Atsuko Yamaguchi; Kazuyoshi Torii

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the applications of CD-SEM overlay metrology for double patterned one-dimensional (1D) pitch split features as well as double patterned ensembles of two-dimensional (2D) complex shapes. Overlay model analysis of both optical overlay and CD-SEM is compared and found to give nearly equivalent results. Spatial correlation of the overlay vectors is examined over a large range of spatial

  7. On Determining Unharvested Winter Wheat Acreage from Landsat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Harlan; W. D. Rosenthal

    1977-01-01

    Nine Landsat passes for one locality and one crop year were examined to determine methods of discriminating harvested from unharvested winter wheat. The nine passes included all growth stages of importance to the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) including pre-planting and post-harvesting.\\u000aTwo approaches were utilized in the study. One was based on the examination of the temporal-spectral characteristics

  8. Lithology Discrimination in Foreland Basin with Landsat TM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Gül; Kemal Gürbüz; Özgür Kalelio?lu

    The Kahramanmara? Foreland Basin (KFB) margins are formed by Paleozoic-Mesozoic limestone, metamorphic and ophiolite. This\\u000a basin contains sandstone and claystone alternations with lesser amounts of reefal limestone, channelized conglomerates, debrites\\u000a and slump deposits. An irregular topography and absence of path obscured the accurate and complete mapping of the basin. Thus,\\u000a Landsat TM images were used. The RGB 751 false colour

  9. Trophic state determination for shallow coastal lakes from Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W.; Witherspoon, A. M.; Holman, R. E., III

    1981-01-01

    A study has been carried out to develop a photo-optical technique by which Landsat imagery can be used to monitor trophic states of lakes. The proposed technique uses a single number to characterize the trophic state, and a feature within the satellite scene is used as an internal standard for comparison of the lakes in time. By use of the technique it is possible to assess in retrospect the trophic state of each individual lake.

  10. The operational use of Landsat for lake quality assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Fisher, L. T.

    1980-01-01

    A cooperative program between the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the University of Wisconsin for the assessment, with Landsat data, of the trophic status of all the significant inland lakes in Wisconsin is described. The analysis technique is a semiautomatic data acquisition and handling system which, in conjunction with an analytical categorization scheme, can be used for classifying inland lakes into one of seven categories of eutrophication and one of four problem types.

  11. Research and development of LANDSAT-based crop inventory techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R.; Cicone, R. C.; Malila, W. A. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    A wide spectrum of technology pertaining to the inventory of crops using LANDSAT without in situ training data is addressed. Methods considered include Bayesian based through-the-season methods, estimation technology based on analytical profile fitting methods, and expert-based computer aided methods. Although the research was conducted using U.S. data, the adaptation of the technology to the Southern Hemisphere, especially Argentina was considered.

  12. The Thermal Infrared Sensor on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis; Richardson, Cathy; Irons, James; Allen, Rick; Anderson, Martha; Budinoff, Jason; Casto, Gordon; Coltharp, Craig; Finneran, Paul; Forsbacka, Betsy; Hale, Taylor; Jennings, Tom; Jhabvala, Murzy; Lunsford, Allen; Magnuson, Greg; Mills, Rick; Morse, Tony; Otero, Veronica; Rohrbach, Scott; Smith, Ramsey; Sullivan, Terry; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Thome, Kurtis; Unger, Glenn; Whitehouse, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a joint NASA and USGS mission, is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC} under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper outlines the design of the TIRS instrument and gives an example of its application to monitoring water consumption by measuring evapotranspiration.

  13. Demonstrating Landsat's new potential to monitor coastal and inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerace, Aaron

    The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a new Landsat sensor being developed by the joint USGS-NASA Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) that exhibits the potential to be a state-of-the-art instrument for studying inland and coastal waters. With upgrades such as a new Coastal Aerosol band, 12 bit quantization, and improved signal-to-noise, OLI will be spectrally and radiometrically superior to its predecessors. When considering Landsat's already high 30 meter spatial resolution, coupled with the fact that its data is free to the community, the OLI sensor may prove to be more valuable than any other environmental imaging satellite to date. The first part of this research investigates the potential for the next Landsat instrument to be used to determine the major constituents contained in water. An OLI sensor model is designed and its ability to retrieve water constituents from space is compared to existing technologies. To support this effort, two over-water atmospheric compensation methods are developed which will enable OLI data to be used in this constituent retrieval process. The ability to characterize material transport in coastal regions is an ongoing effort in the remote sensing community and is essential to determining the environmental processes taking place in, and ultimately the health of, the water. When moderate resolution thermal data is used in conjunction with high resolution reflective data, such as the 30 meter resolution data from OLI, a three dimensional characterization of the water can be developed. In the second part of this work, a model of the Genesee River plume in Rochester, NY is simulated and the ability to calibrate the model with remotely sensed thermal data is demonstrated.

  14. Calculation of lava effusion rates from Landsat TM data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. L. Harris; Luke P. Flynn; Laszlo Keszthelyi; Peter J. Mouginis-Mark; Scott K. Rowland; Joseph A. Resing

    1998-01-01

    We present a thermal model to calculate the total thermal flux for lava flowing in tubes, on the surface, or under shallow\\u000a water. Once defined, we use the total thermal flux to estimate effusion rates for active flows at Kilauea, Hawaii, on two\\u000a dates. Input parameters were derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), field and laboratory measurements. Using these parameters

  15. LANDSAT-D flight segment operations manual, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varhola, J.

    1982-01-01

    Hardware, systems, and subsystems for the multimission modular spacecraft used for LANDSAT 4 are described and depicted in block diagrams and schematics. Components discussed include the modular attitude control system; the communication and data handling subsystem; the narrowband tape recorder; the on-board computer; the propulsion module subsystem; the signal conditioning and control unit; the modular power subsystem; the solar array drive and power transmission assembly; the power distribution unit; the digital processing unit; and the wideband communication subsystem.

  16. Hydrographic Charting from LANDSAT Satellite: A Comparison with Aircraft Imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Middleton; J. Barker

    1976-01-01

    The relative capabilities of two remote-sensing systems in measuring depth and, consequently, bottom contours in sandy-bottomed and sediment-laden coastal waters were determined quantitatively. The Multispectral Scanner-(MSS), orbited on the Landsat-2 Satellite, and the Ocean Color Scanner (OCS), flown on U-2 aircraft, were used for this evaluation. Analysis of imagery taken simultaneously indicates a potential for hydrographic charting of marine coastal

  17. Integrated production overlay field-by-field control for leading edge technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Woong Jae; Tristan, John; Gutjahr, Karsten; Subramany, Lokesh; Li, Chen; Sun, Yulei; Yelverton, Mark; Kim, Young Ki; Kim, Jeong Soo; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Pierson, William; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Riggs, Brent; Jug, Sven; Robinson, John C.; Yap, Lipkong; Ramanathan, Vidya

    2014-04-01

    As photolithography will continue with 193nm immersion multiple patterning technologies for the leading edge HVM process node, the production overlay requirement for critical layers in logic devices has almost reached the scanner hardware performance limit. To meet the extreme overlay requirements in HVM production environment, this study investigates a new integrated overlay control concept for leading edge technology nodes that combines the run-to-run (R2R) linear or high order control loop, the periodic field-by-field or correction per exposure (CPE) wafer process signature control loop, and the scanner baseline control loop into a single integrated overlay control path through the fab host APC system. The goal is to meet the fab requirements for overlay performance, lower the cost of ownership, and provide freedom of control methodology. In this paper, a detailed implementation of this concept will be discussed, along with some preliminary results.

  18. Using perspective guidance overlay to improve UAV manual control performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadema, Jochum; Theunissen, Erik; Koeners, Joris

    2007-04-01

    The guidance information that is available to the UAV operator typically suffers from limitations of data update rate and system latency. Even when using a flight director command display, the manual control task is considerably more difficult compared to piloting a manned aircraft. Results from earlier research into perspective guidance displays show that these displays provide performance benefits and suggest a reduction of the negative effects of system latency. The current study has shown that in case of limitations of data update rate and system latency the use of a conformal sensor overlay showing a perspective presentation of the trajectory constraints is consistently superior to the flight director command display. The superiority becomes more pronounced with an increase in data latency and a decrease in update rate. The fact that the perspective pathway overlay as used in this study can be implemented on any graphics system that is capable of rendering a set of 2-D vectors makes it a viable candidate for upgrades to current systems.

  19. Tabular data base construction and analysis from thematic classified Landsat imagery of Portland, Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; George, A. J., Jr.; Hegdahl, R.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic verification of Landsat data classifications of the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area has been undertaken on the basis of census tract data. The degree of systematic misclassification due to the Bayesian classifier used to process the Landsat data was noted for the various suburban, industrialized and central business districts of the metropolitan area. The Landsat determinations of residential land use were employed to estimate the number of automobile trips generated in the region and to model air pollution hazards.

  20. An evaluation of Global Positioning System data for Landsat4 orbit determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. T. Fang; E. Seifert

    1985-01-01

    The Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation data obtained from an experimental GPS receiver\\/processor package (GPSPAC) onboard the Landsat-4 spacecraft are evaluated for their accuracy and reliability for use in Landsat-4 orbit determination. Different orbit determination scenarios and methods are considered. The parameters estimated include a subset of three Landsat-4 clock parameters and an atmospheric drag coefficient, in addition to

  1. Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) panchromatic two-camera subsystem for LANDSAT-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A two-inch Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) panchromatic two camera Subsystem, together with spare components was designed and fabricated for the LANDSAT-C Satellite; the basis for the design was the Landsat 1&2 RBV Camera System. The purpose of the RBV Subsystem is to acquire high resolution pictures of the Earth for a mapping application. Where possible, residual LANDSAT 1 and 2 equipment was utilized.

  2. On-board data compression for advanced Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, C.; de Boer, C.; Marks, B.; Stegall, M.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced Landsat Sensor (ALS) technology has produced requirements for increasing data rates that may exceed space to ground data link capacity, so that identification of appropriate data compression techniques is of interest. Unlike many other applications, Landsat requires information lossless compression. DPCM, Interpolated DPCM, and error-correcting successive-difference PCM (ESPCM) are compared, leading to the conclusion that ESPCM is a practical, real-time (on-board) compression algorithm. ESPCM offers compression ratios approaching DPCM with no information loss and little or no increase in complexity. Moreover, adaptive ESPCM (AESPCM) yields an average compression efficiency of 84 percent relative to successive difference entropy, and 97 percent relative to scene entropy. Compression ratios vary from a low of 1.18 for a high entropy (6.64 bits/pixel) mountain scene to a high of 2.38 for low entropy (2.54 bits/pixel) ocean data. The weighted average lossless compression ratio to be expected, using a representative selection of Landsat Thematic Mapper eight-bit data as a basis, appears to be approximately 2.1, for an average compressed data rate of about 3.7 bits/pixel.

  3. Twenty-Five Years of Landsat Thermal Band Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Schoff, John R.; Hook, Simon J.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2010-01-01

    Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+), launched in April 1999, and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), launched in 1984, both have a single thermal band. Both instruments thermal band calibrations have been updated previously: ETM+ in 2001 for a pre-launch calibration error and TM in 2007 for data acquired since the current era of vicarious calibration has been in place (1999). Vicarious calibration teams at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) and NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have been working to validate the instrument calibration since 1999. Recent developments in their techniques and sites have expanded the temperature and temporal range of the validation. The new data indicate that the calibration of both instruments had errors: the ETM+ calibration contained a gain error of 5.8% since launch; the TM calibration contained a gain error of 5% and an additional offset error between 1997 and 1999. Both instruments required adjustments in their thermal calibration coefficients in order to correct for the errors. The new coefficients were calculated and added to the Landsat operational processing system in early 2010. With the corrections, both instruments are calibrated to within +/-0.7K.

  4. An automated approach to mapping corn from Landsat imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Nuckols, J.R.; Ward, M.H.; Hoffer, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Most land cover maps generated from Landsat imagery involve classification of a wide variety of land cover types, whereas some studies may only need spatial information on a single cover type. For example, we required a map of corn in order to estimate exposure to agricultural chemicals for an environmental epidemiology study. Traditional classification techniques, which require the collection and processing of costly ground reference data, were not feasible for our application because of the large number of images to be analyzed. We present a new method that has the potential to automate the classification of corn from Landsat satellite imagery, resulting in a more timely product for applications covering large geographical regions. Our approach uses readily available agricultural areal estimates to enable automation of the classification process resulting in a map identifying land cover as 'highly likely corn,' 'likely corn' or 'unlikely corn.' To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, we produced a map consisting of the three corn likelihood classes using a Landsat image in south central Nebraska. Overall classification accuracy of the map was 92.2% when compared to ground reference data. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Landsat Record of North American Forest Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, J.; Hall, F. G.; Huang, C.; Wolfe, R.

    2005-12-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) is generating a decadal, wall-to-wall analysis of forest disturbance and recovery from Landsat satellite imagery for the period 1975-2000. The intent is to provide an accurate, high-resolution view of forest disturbance to support biogeochemical modeling and carbon accounting for the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Through the NASA Science Data Purchase program, substantially cloud-free Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM+ data were selected from the global archive and orthorectified to a UTM map base. The LEDAPS project has calibrated and atmospherically corrected these data (~2100 TM and ETM+ scenes to date) using the MODIS/6S radiative transfer approach. Forest disturbance and recovery is then calculated from the surface reflectance images using change detection techniques. An empirical spectral index (the `Disturbance Index') is used to classify pixels into classes exhibiting high rates of biomass loss over ten years (disturbance) or high rates of biomass gain (recovery). Initial results from North America show good correlation with areas of known harvest activity (Southeastern US, Maine, Pacific Northwest) and fire activity (Boreal forests). Additional work is concentrating on the use of canopy reflectance models to quantify changes in canopy properties in order to identify more subtle changes due to partial harvest and thinning. Initial versions of the surface reflectance and Disturbance Index products were released during 2005 (http://ledaps.nascom.nasa.gov/ledaps/ledaps_NorthAmerica.html).

  6. Assessing mesquite-grass vegetation condition from Landsat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniel, Kirk C.; Haas, Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) band values, band ratios, and vegetation index models were compared with selected rangeland vegetation parameters collected at six test sites within the honey mesquitellotebushlmixed grass association in north-central Texas. The comparisons at four dates showed that two vegetation index models, TV16 and GVI, are highly correlated (P = 0.01) with green yield, green cover, and plant moisture content. The green vegetation index (GVZ) developed by Kauth and Thomas (1976), was highly correlated and superior to other models in relationship to wet green yield, dry green yield, and cured vegetation cover. TV16, developed by Rouse et al. (1974), was more highly correlated with green vegetation cover and vegetation moisture content. Both TV16 and GVI are superior to other models in their relationship with green cover. None of the Landsat MSS parameters tested was significantly correlated with dry total yield, percent bare ground, or moisture of the soil measured at the surface or at a 20 cm depth. I t is concluded that Landsat MSS data are sensitive to seasonal changes in vegetation growth conditions and inherent ecological differences within a relatively unqorm vegetationlsoil system.

  7. Arbitrary precision value overlay and alignment system by double positioning of mask and wafer and electronic datum and nano sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wynn L. Bear; Xiang-Wen Xiong

    2009-01-01

    We provided a full-automatic alignment and overlay control systems and ultra stage based on electronic datum & micro Staggered nano-array sensor, which is focusing on the overlay need for double pattern and EUV Lithography of 32, 22nm node and less. Two of the noticeable effects of overlay & alignment control for IC manufacturing are offered in this paper. 1) About

  8. 1Ioanna Papafili Incentive-based Caching Mechanisms for Overlay Traffic Management Incentive-based Caching Mechanisms for

    E-print Network

    Chatziantoniou, Damianos

    1Ioanna Papafili Incentive-based Caching Mechanisms for Overlay Traffic Management Incentive, Athens, June 18, 2013 #12;2Ioanna Papafili Incentive-based Caching Mechanisms for Overlay Traffic #12;4Ioanna Papafili Incentive-based Caching Mechanisms for Overlay Traffic Management Context

  9. The first year: Development of a LANDSAT capability at Sam Houston State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounds, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Problems encountered in initiating a LANDSAT data processing capability at Sam Houston State University are discussed. Computer requirements, financing, and academic and administrative support are addressed.

  10. An evaluation of Global Positioning System data for Landsat-4 orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, B. T.; Seifert, E.

    1985-01-01

    The Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation data obtained from an experimental GPS receiver/processor package (GPSPAC) onboard the Landsat-4 spacecraft are evaluated for their accuracy and reliability for use in Landsat-4 orbit determination. Different orbit determination scenarios and methods are considered. The parameters estimated include a subset of three Landsat-4 clock parameters and an atmospheric drag coefficient, in addition to the orbital elements. It is found that Landsat-4 orbit solutions based on delta pseudorange data generally agree with the definitive solutions to the 50-meter level.

  11. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager: Pre-Launch Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Knight, Edward J.; Canova, Brent; Donley, Eric; Kvaran, Geir; Lee, Kenton

    2011-01-01

    The Operational Land Imager(OLI) will be the main instrument on Landsat-8 when it launches in 2012. OLI represents a generational change from heritage Landsat instruments in its design but must maintain data continuity with the 30+ year Landsat data archive. As a result, OLI has undergone a stringent calibration and characterization campaign to ensure its characteristics are understood and consistent with past instruments. This paper presents an overview of the OLI design, its major differences from previous Landsat instruments, and a summary of its expected performance.

  12. Integrated terrain mapping with digital Landsat images in Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Mapping with Landsat images usually is done by selecting single types of features, such as soils, vegetation, or rocks, and creating visually interpreted or digitally classified maps of each feature. Individual maps can then be overlaid on or combined with other maps to characterize the terrain. Integrated terrain mapping combines several terrain features into each map unit which, in many cases, is more directly related to uses of the land and to methods of land management than the single features alone. Terrain brightness, as measured by the multispectral scanners in Landsat 1 and 2, represents an integration of reflectance from the terrain features within the scanner's instantaneous field of view and is therefore more correlatable with integrated terrain units than with differentiated ones, such as rocks, soils, and vegetation. A test of the feasibilty of the technique of mapping integrated terrain units was conducted in a part of southwestern Queensland, Australia, in cooperation with scientists of the Queensland Department of Primary Industries. The primary purpose was to test the use of digital classification techniques to create a 'land systems map' usable for grazing land management. A recently published map of 'land systems' in the area (made by aerial photograph interpretation and ground surveys), which are integrated terrain units composed of vegetation, soil, topography, and geomorphic features, was used as a basis for comparison with digitally classified Landsat multispectral images. The land systems, in turn, each have a specific grazing capacity for cattle (expressed in beasts per km 2 ) which is estimated following analysis of both research results and property carrying capacities. Landsat images, in computer-compatible tape form, were first contrast-stretched to increase their visual interpretability, and digitally classified by the parallelepiped method into distinct spectral classes to determine their correspondence to the land systems classes and to areally smaller, but readily recognizable, 'land units.' Many land systems appeared as distinct spectral classes or as acceptably homogeneous combinations of several spectral classes. The digitally classified map corresponded to the general geographic patterns of many of the land systems. Statistical correlation of the digitally classified map and the published map was not possible because the published map showed only land systems whereas the digitally classified map showed some land units as well as systems. The general correspondence of spectral classes to the integrated terrain units means that the digital mapping of the units may precede fieldwork and act as a guide to field sampling and detailed terrain unit description as well as measuring of the location, area, and extent of each unit. Extension of the Landsat mapping and classification technique to other arid and semi-arid regions of the world may be feasible.

  13. EROS Data Center Landsat digital enhancement techniques and imagery availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohde, Wayne G.; Lo, Jinn Kai; Pohl, Russell A.

    1978-01-01

    The US Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) is experimenting with the production of digitally enhanced Landsat imagery. Advanced digital image processing techniques are used to perform geometric and radiometric corrections and to perform contrast and edge enhancements. The enhanced image product is produced from digitally preprocessed Landsat computer compatible tapes (CCTs) on a laser beam film recording system. Landsat CCT data have several geometric distortions which are corrected when NASA produces the standard film products. When producing film images from CCT's, geometric correction of the data is required. The EDC Digital Image Enhancement System (EDIES) compensates for geometric distortions introduced by Earth's rotation, variable line length, non-uniform mirror scan velocity, and detector misregistration. Radiometric anomalies such as bad data lines and striping are common to many Landsat film products and are also in the CCT data. Bad data lines or line segments with more than 150 contiguous bad pixels are corrected by inserting data from the previous line in place of the bad data. Striping, caused by variations in detector gain and offset, is removed with a destriping algorithm applied after digitally enhancing the data. Image enhancement is performed by applying a linear contrast stretch and an edge enhancement algorithm. The linear contrast enhancement algorithm is designed to expand digitally the full range of useful data recorded on the CCT over the range of 256 digital counts. This minimizes the effect of atmospheric scattering and saturates the relative brightness of highly reflecting features such as clouds or snow. It is the intent that no meaningful terrain data are eliminated by the digital processing. The edge enhancement algorithm is designed to enhance boundaries between terrain features that exhibit subtle differences in brightness values along edges of features. After the digital data have been processed, data for each Landsat band are recorded on black-and-white film with a laser beam film recorder (LBR). The LBR corrects for aspect ratio distortions as the digital data are recorded on the recording film over a preselected density range. Positive transparencies of MSS bands 4, 5, and 7 produced by the LBR are used to make color composite transparencies. Color film positives are made photographically from first generation black-and-white products generated on the LBR.

  14. Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Shott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.; Markham, Brian L.; Radocinski, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Launched in February 2013, the Landsat-8 carries on-board the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a two-band thermal pushbroom imager, to maintain the thermal imaging capability of the Landsat program. The TIRS bands are centered at roughly 10.9 and 12 micrometers (Bands 10 and 11 respectively). They have 100 m spatial resolution and image coincidently with the Operational Land Imager (OLI), also on-board Landsat-8. The TIRS instrument has an internal calibration system consisting of a variable temperature blackbody and a special viewport with which it can see deep space; a two point calibration can be performed twice an orbit. Immediately after launch, a rigorous vicarious calibration program was started to validate the absolute calibration of the system. The two vicarious calibration teams, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), both make use of buoys deployed on large water bodies as the primary monitoring technique. RIT took advantage of cross-calibration opportunity soon after launch when Landsat-8 and Landsat-7 were imaging the same targets within a few minutes of each other to perform a validation of the absolute calibration. Terra MODIS is also being used for regular monitoring of the TIRS absolute calibration. The buoy initial results showed a large error in both bands, 0.29 and 0.51 W/sq m·sr·micrometers or -2.1 K and -4.4 K at 300 K in Band 10 and 11 respectively, where TIRS data was too hot. A calibration update was recommended for both bands to correct for a bias error and was implemented on 3 February 2014 in the USGS/EROS processing system, but the residual variability is still larger than desired for both bands (0.12 and 0.2 W/sq m·sr·micrometers or 0.87 and 1.67 K at 300 K). Additional work has uncovered the source of the calibration error: out-of-field stray light. While analysis continues to characterize the stray light contribution, the vicarious calibration work proceeds. The additional data have not changed the statistical assessment but indicate that the correction (particularly in band 11) is probably only valid for a subset of data. While the stray light effect is small enough in Band 10 to make the data useful across a wide array of applications, the effect in Band 11 is larger and the vicarious results suggest that Band 11 data should not be used where absolute calibration is required.

  15. CNPq/INPE LANDSAT system: Report of activities from October 1, 1983 to September 30, 1984. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debarrosaguirre, J. L. (principal investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The status of Brazilian facilities for receiving, recording, processing, and distributing LANDSAT-generated products is presented. Price lists and the revised LANDSAT-4 and -5 coverage map are included.

  16. Radiometric calibration and geocoded precision processing of LANDSAT-4 Multispectral Scanner products by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J.; Bennett, D.; Guertin, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    The methodology used to perform radiometric calibration and precision geometric correction of standard LANDSAT 4 MSS products is described. It is shown how the same algorithms are used to radiometrically correct and to place on a calibrated radiance scale the data from all four LANDSAT satellites. To assess the reliability of absolute calibration, the minor variations observed in the LANDSAT 4 calibration data are discussed. Comparison of overlapping LANDSAT 3 and LANDSAT 4 scenes acquired at the same time is proposed. The concept of geocoded products is reviewed. It is shown that the geometric correction model developed to precision-process the MSS data from the earlier LANDSAT satellites can generate LANDSAT 4 MSS geocoded products with comparable geodetic accuracy. The results are seen as preliminary and are expected to be refined and augmented as more LANDSAT 4 data are acquired and processed.

  17. Spatial signature in local overlay measurements: what CD-SEM can tell us and optical measurements can not

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halle, Scott; Moore, Daniel; Archie, Chas; Hotta, Shoji; Sutani, Takumichi; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Ikeno, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Torii, Kazuyoshi

    2010-03-01

    This work explores the applications of CD-SEM overlay metrology for double patterned one-dimensional (1D) pitch split features as well as double patterned ensembles of two-dimensional (2D) complex shapes. Overlay model analysis of both optical overlay and CD-SEM is compared and found to give nearly equivalent results. Spatial correlation of the overlay vectors is examined over a large range of spatial distances. The smallest spatial distances are shown to have the highest degree of correlation. Correlation studies of local overlay in a globally uniform environment, suggest that the smallest sampling of overlay vectors need to be ~10-15?m, within the spatial sampling of this experiment. The smallest spatial distances are also found to have to tightest mean distributions. The distribution width of the CD-SEM overlay is found to scale linearly with log of the spatial distances over 4-5 orders of magnitude of spatial length. Methodologies are introduced to examine both the overlay of double pattern contacts at the edge of an array and lithographic process-induced overlay shift of contacts. Finally, a hybrid optical- CD-SEM overlay metrology is introduced in order to capture a high order, device weighted overlay response.

  18. STM study of the structure of sulfur (2 radical 3 times 2 radical 3)R30 degree overlayer on rhenium (0001)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Ogletree; C. Ocal; B. Marchon; G. A. Somorjai; M. Salmeron; T. Beebe; W. Siekhaus

    1988-01-01

    The structure of the sulfur overlayer chemisorbed on rhenium(0001) has been studied with scanning tunneling microscopy. The ordered sulfur overlayer was prepared in UHV and then transferred through air to an STM operating at a vacuum of 10⁻⁷ Torr. The sulfur overlayer passivates the rhenium substrate in air. STM images show the atomic structure of the overlayer unit cell to

  19. Monitoring process-induced overlay errors through high-resolution wafer geometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, K. T.; Vukkadala, P.; Veeraraghavan, S.; Sinha, J. K.

    2014-04-01

    Controlling overlay errors resulting from wafer processing, such as film deposition, is essential for meeting overlay budgets in future generations of devices. Out-of-plane distortions induced on the wafer due to processing are often monitored through high-resolution wafer geometry measurements. While such wafer geometry measurements provide information about the wafer distortion, mechanics models are required to connect such measurements to overlay errors, which result from in-plane distortions. The aim of this paper is to establish fundamental connections between the out-ofplane distortions that are characterized in wafer geometry measurements and the in-plane distortions on the wafer surface that lead to overlay errors. First, an analytical mechanics model is presented to provide insight into the connection between changes in wafer geometry and overlay. The analytical model demonstrates that the local slope of the change in wafer shape induced by the deposition of a residually stressed film is related to the induced overlay for simple geometries. Finite element modeling is then used to consider realistic wafer geometries and assess correlations between the local slope of the wafer shape change induced by the deposition of a stressed film and overlay. As established previously, overlay errors only result when the stresses in the film are non-uniform, thus the finite element study considers wafers with several different nonuniform residual stress distributions. Correlation between overlay and a metric based on a corrected wafer slope map is examined. The results of the modeling and simulations are discussed and compared to recently published experimental results.

  20. Skewness and Kurtosis Risks of Quality Control in Overlay Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takashi; Ikeda, Takahiro; Kasa, Kentaro; Asano, Masafumi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2010-06-01

    The population of overlay errors in layer-to-layer structures in semiconductor manufacturing often obeys non-normal distribution functions such as elliptic, rectangular, and skewed distributions. Thus, there can be many wrong diagnoses of quality control that can lead to consumer's risk and producer's risk. In a lot acceptance test, a product should be judged by variables rather than by attributes because of the small sample size. A new acceptance test by variables was introduced for a non-normal population. It included sample skewness and kurtosis as well as mean and standard deviations. Using operating characteristic (OC) curves, it was shown that sampling inspection by variables can be applied safely to a strong non-normal population with new variables.

  1. Skewness and Kurtosis Risks of Quality Control in Overlay Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashi Sato,; Takahiro Ikeda,; Kentaro Kasa,; Masafumi Asano,; Yasuharu Sato,

    2010-06-01

    The population of overlay errors in layer-to-layer structures in semiconductor manufacturing often obeys non-normal distribution functions such as elliptic, rectangular, and skewed distributions. Thus, there can be many wrong diagnoses of quality control that can lead to consumer’s risk and producer’s risk. In a lot acceptance test, a product should be judged by variables rather than by attributes because of the small sample size. A new acceptance test by variables was introduced for a non-normal population. It included sample skewness and kurtosis as well as mean and standard deviations. Using operating characteristic (OC) curves, it was shown that sampling inspection by variables can be applied safely to a strong non-normal population with new variables.

  2. Overlay improvement by exposure map based mask registration optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Irene; Guo, Eric; Chen, Ming; Lu, Max; Li, Gordon; Li, Rivan; Tian, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Along with the increased miniaturization of semiconductor electronic devices, the design rules of advanced semiconductor devices shrink dramatically. [1] One of the main challenges of lithography step is the layer-to-layer overlay control. Furthermore, DPT (Double Patterning Technology) has been adapted for the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, corresponding overlay budget becomes even tighter. [2][3] After the in-die mask registration (pattern placement) measurement is introduced, with the model analysis of a KLA SOV (sources of variation) tool, it's observed that registration difference between masks is a significant error source of wafer layer-to-layer overlay at 28nm process. [4][5] Mask registration optimization would highly improve wafer overlay performance accordingly. It was reported that a laser based registration control (RegC) process could be applied after the pattern generation or after pellicle mounting and allowed fine tuning of the mask registration. [6] In this paper we propose a novel method of mask registration correction, which can be applied before mask writing based on mask exposure map, considering the factors of mask chip layout, writing sequence, and pattern density distribution. Our experiment data show if pattern density on the mask keeps at a low level, in-die mask registration residue error in 3sigma could be always under 5nm whatever blank type and related writer POSCOR (position correction) file was applied; it proves random error induced by material or equipment would occupy relatively fixed error budget as an error source of mask registration. On the real production, comparing the mask registration difference through critical production layers, it could be revealed that registration residue error of line space layers with higher pattern density is always much larger than the one of contact hole layers with lower pattern density. Additionally, the mask registration difference between layers with similar pattern density could also achieve under 5nm performance. We assume mask registration excluding random error is mostly induced by charge accumulation during mask writing, which may be calculated from surrounding exposed pattern density. Multi-loading test mask registration result shows that with x direction writing sequence, mask registration behavior in x direction is mainly related to sequence direction, but mask registration in y direction would be highly impacted by pattern density distribution map. It proves part of mask registration error is due to charge issue from nearby environment. If exposure sequence is chip by chip for normal multi chip layout case, mask registration of both x and y direction would be impacted analogously, which has also been proved by real data. Therefore, we try to set up a simple model to predict the mask registration error based on mask exposure map, and correct it with the given POSCOR (position correction) file for advanced mask writing if needed.

  3. BWR pipe crack and weld clad overlay studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    Leaks and cracks in the heat-affected zones of weldments in austenitic stainless steel piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs) due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) have been observed since the mid-1960s. Since that time, cracking has continued to occur, and indication have been found in all parts of the recirculation system, including the largest diameter lines. Proposed solutions for the problem include procedures that produce a more favorable residual stress state on the inner surface, materials that are more resistant to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and changes in the reactor environment that decrease the susceptibility to cracking. In addition to the evaluation of these remedies, it is also important to gain a better understanding of the weld overlay procedure, which is the most widely used short-term repair for flawed piping.

  4. Laboratory evaluation of selected fabrics for reinforcement of asphaltic concrete overlays 

    E-print Network

    Pickett, David L

    1981-01-01

    and extend 1ts useful life. However, these overlays are susceptible to premature deterioration as a result of transverse re- flect1ve cracking, whereby a cracking pattern exist1ng in the original pavement 1s extended 1nto and through the new overlay.... Reflection cracking occurs in new overlays due to their inability to withstand tensile stresses created by movements of the underlying pavement. These damaging movements may be caused by traffic loading, thermally induced volume changes of the pav1ng...

  5. Overlay target selection for 20-nm process on A500 LCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Vidya; Subramany, Lokesh; Itzkovich, Tal; Gutjhar, Karsten; Snow, Patrick; Cho, Chanseob; Yap, Lipkong

    2015-03-01

    Persistently shrinking design rules and increasing process complexity require tight overlay control thereby making it imperative to choose the most suitable overlay measurement technique and complementary target design. In this paper we describe an assessment of various target designs from FEOL to BEOL on 20-nm process. Both scatterometry and imaging based methodology were reviewed for several key layers on A500LCM tool, which enables the use of both technologies. Different sets of targets were carefully designed and printed, taking into consideration the process and optical properties of each layer. The optimal overlay target for a given layer was chosen based on its measurement performance.

  6. Web Serving Landsat 7 Satellite Imagery for the Preservation of Wisconsin's Lakes IGARSS'02

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin L. Mattocks; Timothy Olsen

    Through the application of carefully developed algorithms, Landsat 7 imagery is being developed as a reference tool capable of lake monitoring. The imagery acquired by Landsat 7 can be used to analyze, manage, and enhance water quality and characteristics in the lakes. Given the interest of other scientists, government agencies, non- profit organizations, and growing demand from the public who

  7. Operational data fusion framework for building frequent Landsat-like imagery in a cloudy region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An operational data fusion framework is built to generate dense time-series Landsat-like images for a cloudy region by fusing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data products and Landsat imagery. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) is integrated in ...

  8. LANDSAT: US standard catalog, 1 January 1977 through 31 January 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  9. Application of LANDSAT data to delimitation of avalanche hazards in Montane, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H. (principal investigator); Summer, R.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. With rare exceptions, avalanche areas cannot be identified on LANDSAT imagery. Avalanche hazard mapping on a regional scale is best conducted using LANDSAT imagery in conjunction with complementary data sources. Level of detail of such maps will be limited by the amount and completeness of the complementary information used.

  10. Multitemporal Snow Cover Mapping in Mountainous Terrain for Landsat Climate Data Record Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Christopher J.; Manson, Steven M.; Bauer, Marvin E.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2013-01-01

    A multitemporal method to map snow cover in mountainous terrain is proposed to guide Landsat climate data record (CDR) development. The Landsat image archive including MSS, TM, and ETM+ imagery was used to construct a prototype Landsat snow cover CDR for the interior northwestern United States. Landsat snow cover CDRs are designed to capture snow-covered area (SCA) variability at discrete bi-monthly intervals that correspond to ground-based snow telemetry (SNOTEL) snow-water-equivalent (SWE) measurements. The June 1 bi-monthly interval was selected for initial CDR development, and was based on peak snowmelt timing for this mountainous region. Fifty-four Landsat images from 1975 to 2011 were preprocessed that included image registration, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance conversion, cloud and shadow masking, and topographic normalization. Snow covered pixels were retrieved using the normalized difference snow index (NDSI) and unsupervised classification, and pixels having greater (less) than 50% snow cover were classified presence (absence). A normalized SCA equation was derived to independently estimate SCA given missing image coverage and cloud-shadow contamination. Relative frequency maps of missing pixels were assembled to assess whether systematic biases were embedded within this Landsat CDR. Our results suggest that it is possible to confidently estimate historical bi-monthly SCA from partially cloudy Landsat images. This multitemporal method is intended to guide Landsat CDR development for freshwaterscarce regions of the western US to monitor climate-driven changes in mountain snowpack extent.

  11. Applications notice for participation in the LANDSAT-D image data quality analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The applications notice for the LANDSAT 4 image data quality analysis program is presented. The objectives of the program are to qualify LANDSAT 4 sensor and systems performance from a user applications point of view, and to identify any malfunctions that may impact data applications. Guidelines for preparing proposals and background information are provided.

  12. Relations between reflectance in Landsat MSS wavebands and floristic composition of Australian chenopod rangelands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pando; R. T. Lange; A. D. Sparrow

    1992-01-01

    Data from two long traverses in the chenopod rangelands of arid South Australia were analysed by the moving block association analysis technique to reveal the different plant communities. Discriminant analysis showed that the communities along each traverse had distinctive Landsat MSS reflectivity spectra. A method of constructing a quantitative key to identify community types by their Landsat reflectivities is described.

  13. The Use of Landsat Data in an Operational Forest Resource Information System (FRIS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Goodrick

    1981-01-01

    The recent implementation of the Forest Resource Information System has provided the capability of combining classifications of Landsat data with graphical and tabular data in an operational data base system for use in forest management. Landsat data is in gridded format and is not compatible with map or graphical information which is in polygon and line format. In this system,

  14. The use of LANDSAT DCS and imagery in reservoir management and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, S.; Bock, P.; Horowitz, J.; Foran, D.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments by the New England Division (NED), Corps of Engineers with LANDSAT-1 data collection and imaging systems are reported. Data cover the future usefulness of data products received from satellites such as LANDSAT in the day to day operation of NED water resources systems used to control floods.

  15. FUZZY CLUSTERING ALGORITHMS ON LANDSAT IMAGES FOR DETECTION OF WASTE AREAS: A COMPARISON

    E-print Network

    Masulli, Francesco

    -map. Keywords: Fuzzy clustering algorithms, Landsat images segmentation, detection of waste. 1 IntroductionFUZZY CLUSTERING ALGORITHMS ON LANDSAT IMAGES FOR DETECTION OF WASTE AREAS: A COMPARISON A. In this paper we will present a comparison of fuzzy clustering algorithms for the segmentation of multi

  16. Updated Radiometric Calibration for the Landsat5 Thematic Mapper Reflective Bands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis L. Helder; Brian L. Markham; Kurtis J. Thome; Julia A. Barsi; Gyanesh Chander; Rimy Malla

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been the workhorse of the Landsat system. Launched in 1984, it continues collecting data through the time frame of this paper. Thus, it provides an invaluable link to the past history of the land features of the Earth's surface, and it becomes imperative to provide an accurate radiometric calibration of the reflective bands to

  17. Use of an Apple Computer to Identify Vegetation and Assess the Coverage within Single Landsat Pixels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haven C. Sweet

    1981-01-01

    Conventional image analyzing techniques are inaccurate when applied to Landsat data obtained from highly heterogeneous regions. In much of Florida, plant communities occupy small areas with erratic boundaries, meaning that most Landsat pixels represent a mixture of several different plant formations. This is especially true when studying an alien tree such as Melaleuca which is expanding its range by infiltrating

  18. Summary of the operational land imager focal plane array for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk A. Lindahl; William Burmester; Kevin Malone; Ronald J. Schrein; Ronda Irwin; Eric Donley; Sandra R. Collins

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat missions are the longest continuous record of changes in the Earth's surface as seen from space. The next follow-on activity is the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The LDCM objective is to extend the ability to detect and quantitatively characterize changes on the global land surface at a scale where natural and man-made causes of change can be

  19. A Procedure for Radiometric Recalibration of Landsat 5 TM Reflective-Band Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyanesh Chander; Esad Micijevic; Julia A. Barsi

    2010-01-01

    From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to

  20. Landsat7 ETM+ on-orbit reflective-band radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Markham; Kurtis J. Thome; Julia A. Barsi; Ed Kaita; Dennis L. Helder; John L. Barker; Pat L. Scaramuzza

    2004-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument is in its sixth year of operation. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments. To date, the best onboard calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, a solar-diffuser-based system, which has indicated changes of between

  1. Improvements in land surface temperature retrieval from the Landsat series thermal band using water vapor and air temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cristóbal; J. C. Jiménez-Muñoz; J. A. Sobrino; M. Ninyerola; X. Pons

    2009-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is involved in many land surface processes such as evapotranspiration, net radiation, or air temperature modeling. In this paper we present an improved methodology to retrieve LST from Landsat 4 TM, Landsat 5 TM, and Landsat 7 ETM+ using four atmospheric databases covering different water vapor ranges (from 0 to 8 g cm?2) to build the

  2. Improvements in land surface temperature retrieval from the Landsat series thermal band using water vapor and air temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cristóbal; J. C. Jiménez-Muñoz; J. A. Sobrino; M. Ninyerola; X. Pons

    2009-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is involved in many land surface processes such as evapotranspiration, net radiation, or air temperature modeling. In this paper we present an improved methodology to retrieve LST from Landsat 4 TM, Landsat 5 TM, and Landsat 7 ETM+ using four atmospheric databases covering different water vapor ranges (from 0 to 8 g cm-2) to build the

  3. From need to product: a methodology for completing a land cover map of Canada with Landsat data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cihlar; B. Guindon; J. Beaubien; R. Latifovic; D. Peddle; M. Wulder; R. Fernandes; J. Kerr

    2003-01-01

    Despite its very large territory and the best Landsat archive in the world, Canada has made very limited use of Landsat data for land cover mapping. The primary difficulty has been the prohibitive cost of information extraction and the earlier (and now overcome for Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus data) high cost of data purchase. The solution to this remaining

  4. Continuous fields of land cover for the conterminous United States using Landsat data: First results from the Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, M.C.; Egorov, A.; Roy, D.P.; Potapov, P.; Ju, J.; Turubanova, S.; Kommareddy, I.; Loveland, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF) layers of 30 m percent tree cover, bare ground, other vegetation and probability of water were derived for the conterminous United States (CONUS) using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data sets from theWeb-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project. Turnkey approaches to land cover characterization were enabled due to the systematic WELD Landsat processing, including conversion of digital numbers to calibrated top of atmosphere reflectance and brightness temperature, cloud masking, reprojection into a continental map projection and temporal compositing. Annual, seasonal and monthly WELD composites for 2008 were used as spectral inputs to a bagged regression and classification tree procedure using a large training data set derived from very high spatial resolution imagery and available ancillary data. The results illustrate the ability to performLandsat land cover characterizations at continental scales that ar einternally consistent while retaining local spatial and thematic detail. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  5. Dixie Valley, Nevada playa bathymetry constructed from Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneveld, David P.; Barz, David D.

    2014-05-01

    A bathymetry model was developed from a series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images to assist discrimination of hydrologic processes on a low-relief, stable saline playa in Dixie Valley, Nevada, USA. The slope of the playa surface, established by field survey on a reference transect, enabled calculation of relative elevation of the edges of pooled brine mapped from Landsat TM5 band 5 reflectance (TMB5) in the 1.55-1.75 ?m shortwave infrared region (SWIR) of the spectrum. A 0.02 TMB5 reflectance threshold accurately differentiated the shallow (1-2 mm depth) edges of pools. Isocontours of equal elevations of pool margins were mapped with the TMB5 threshold, forming concentric rings that were assigned relative elevations according to the position that the pool edges intersected the reference transect. These data were used to fit a digital elevation model and a curve for estimating pooled volume given the distance from the playa edge to the intersection of the pool edge with the reference transect. To project pooled volume using the bathymetric model for any TM snapshot, within a geographic information system, the 0.02 TMB5 threshold is first used to define the edge of the exposed brine. The distance of this edge from the playa edge along the reference transect is then measured and input to the bathymetric equation to yield pooled volume. Other satellite platforms with appropriate SWIR bands require calibration to Landsat TMB5. The method has applicability for filling reservoirs, bodies of water that fluctuate and especially bodies of water inaccessible to acoustic or sounding methods.

  6. Measuring Streamwood Accumulations In A Reservoir Using Landsat Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, R. L.; Senter, A. E.; Pasternack, G. B.; Ustin, S.

    2011-12-01

    Streamwood (woody materials greater than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length) is important to river networks, providing structure, hydraulic variability, and organic carbon to river ecosystems. In reservoirs where recreational activities take place, streamwood is moved into holding areas to minimize human health hazards. A common disposal method in California is to burn the wood soon after the first rains; streamwood is often insufficiently quantified by managers before disposal. As a result of active management and the loss of longitudinal connectivity caused by dams, streamwood's potential as a geomorphic agent and its biological constituents are lost to downstream ecosystems. To measure how much streamwood can accumulate in a mountain reservoir, Landsat 5 multispectral 30-m resolution imagery was used to aerially quantify streamwood floating on the surface of New Bullard's Bar Reservoir on the North Yuba River, Sierra Nevada, California, in a time-series from 1984 to present. The scientific questions answered by this study were: 1) how much streamwood was transported into the reservoir on a yearly basis? And, 2) what discharge-area relationships exist between gaged discharge and streamwood measures? Landsat images representative of the highest water surface elevation of each year were acquired from the publically available USGS online database, then atmospherically corrected, empirical-line calibrated, and georeferenced using ENVI software. ROIs and spectral library files were developed for four endmembers: forest, water, streamwood, and shoreline, and used in supervised maximum likelihood classifications. An unsupervised isodata classification was also performed, and results were linked to understand areas of confusion and to create a more robust streamwood identification model. A 1-m USGS DOQ image from 1998 and field surveys in 2006 and 2010 were used to ground-truth Landsat results.

  7. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  8. Ground data handling for Landsat-D. [for thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    The present plans for the Landsat-D ground data handling are described in relationship to the mission objectives and the planned spacecraft system. The end-to-end data system is presented with particular emphasis on the data handling plans for the new instrument, the Thematic Mapper. This instrument generates ten times the amount of data per scene as the present Multispectral Scanner and this resulting data rate and volume are discussed as well as possible new data techniques to handle them - such as image compression.

  9. Study of atmospheric diffusion from the LANDSAT imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanadham, Y.; Torsani, J.A.

    1982-11-20

    Detailed analyses of the LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data of the smoke plumes that originated in eastern Cabo Frio (22/sup 0/ 59'S; 42/sup 0/ 02'W) and crossed over into the Atlantic ocean are presented to illustrate how high-resolution LANDSAT imagery can aid meteorologists in evaluating specific air pollution events. The eleven LANDSAT images selected are for different months and years. Conventional interpretation techniques are applied to analyze the images with a view to arrive at certain plume characteristics. The analysis of the visible smoke plumes revealed that the plume was 130 km long and attained a maximum width of 937 m, 10 km away from the chimney emitting the effluent. The results show that diffusion is governed primarily by water and air temperature differences. With colder water, low-level air is very stable and the vertical diffusion is minimal; but water warmer than the air induces vigorous diffusion. The applicability of two empirical methods for determining the horizontal eddy diffusivity coefficient (K/sub y/) in the Gaussian plume formula was evaluated with the estimated standard deviation of the crosswind distribution of material in the plume (sigma/sub y/) from the LANDSAT imagery. Most consistent estimates for K/sub y/ are obtained from the formula based on Taylor's theory of 'diffusion by continuous moment.' K/sub y/ values of about 158 m/sup 2/ ..sigma..)/sup 1/ in quasi-neutral conditions and 49 m/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ in stable conditions are obtained from a plot of sigma/sup 2//sub y/ as a function of distance from the source. The rate of kinetic energy dissipation (epsilon) is evaluated from the diffusion parameters sigma/sub y/ and K/sub y/. The epsilon value ranges from 0.1 x 10/sup -5/ m/sup 2/ s/sup -3/ to 80.2 x 10/sup -5/ m/sup 2/ s/sup -3/ in quasi-neutral and stable stratifications.

  10. Landsat analysis of tropical forest succession employing a terrain model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, T. H.; Robinson, V. B.; Coiner, J. C.; Bruce, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data have yielded a dual classification of rain forest and shadow in an analysis of a semi-deciduous forest on Mindonoro Island, Philippines. Both a spatial terrain model, using a fifth side polynomial trend surface analysis for quantitatively estimating the general spatial variation in the data set, and a spectral terrain model, based on the MSS data, have been set up. A discriminant analysis, using both sets of data, has suggested that shadowing effects may be due primarily to local variations in the spectral regions and can therefore be compensated for through the decomposition of the spatial variation in both elevation and MSS data.

  11. A translational registration system for LANDSAT image segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Erthal, G. J.; Velasco, F. R. D.; Mascarenhas, N. D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of satellite images obtained from various dates is essential for crop forecast systems. In order to make possible a multitemporal analysis, it is necessary that images belonging to each acquisition have pixel-wise correspondence. A system developed to obtain, register and record image segments from LANDSAT images in computer compatible tapes is described. The translational registration of the segments is performed by correlating image edges in different acquisitions. The system was constructed for the Burroughs B6800 computer in ALGOL language.

  12. Vegetation survey in Amazonia using LANDSAT data. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.; Deaquino, L. C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Automatic Image-100 analysis of LANDSAT data was performed using the MAXVER classification algorithm. In the pilot area, four vegetation units were mapped automatically in addition to the areas occupied for agricultural activities. The Image-100 classified results together with a soil map and information from RADAR images, permitted the establishment of the final legend with six classes: semi-deciduous tropical forest; low land evergreen tropical forest; secondary vegetation; tropical forest of humid areas, predominant pastureland and flood plains. Two water types were identified based on their sediments indicating different geological and geomorphological aspects.

  13. Use of LANDSAT data to monitor pasture project in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Dossantos, A. P.; Novo, E. M. L. D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. No differences were found between acreage evaluation by visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT images. It was necessary to interpret both channels 5 and 7 to exactly outline the deforested areas. Channel 7 was necessary for the identification of deforested areas in the presence of recently grown natural vegetation, and channel 5 was necessary to identify the deforested areas in the cerrado regions. Automatic interpretation permitted the discrimination between areas with predominant grass coverage and recently grown natural vegetation.

  14. Using Landsat data to estimate evapotranspiration of winter wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; Heilman, J. L.; Bagley, J. O.; Powers, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Results obtained from an evapotranspiration model as applied to Kansas winter wheatfields were compared with results determined by a weighing lysimeter, and the standard deviation was found to be less than 0.5 mm/day (however, the 95% confidence interval was between plus and minus 0.2 mm/day). Model inputs are solar radiation, temperature, precipitation, and leaf area index; an equation was developed to estimate the leaf area index from Landsat data. The model provides estimates of transpiration, evaporation, and soil moisture.

  15. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, R.G., JR. (Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions. 17 refs.

  16. Implications of information from LANDSAT-4 for private industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D. (principal investigators)

    1983-01-01

    The broader spectral coverage and higher resolution of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data open the door for identification from space of spectral phenomena associated with mineralization and microseepage of hydrocarbon. Digitally enhanced image products generated from TM data allow the mapping of many major and minor structural features that mark or influence emplacement of mineralization and accumulation of hydrocarbons. These improvements in capabilities over multispectral scanner data should accelerate the acceptance and integration of satellite data as a routinely used exploration tool that allows rapid examination of large areas in considerable detail. Imagery of Southern Ontario, Canada as well as of Cement, Oklahoma and Death Valley, California is discussed.

  17. Calibration of the Thermal Infrared Sensor on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, K; Reuter, D.; Lunsford, D.; Montanaro, M.; Smith, J.; Tesfaye, Z.; Wenny, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat series of satellites provides the longest running continuous data set of moderate-spatial-resolution imagery beginning with the launch of Landsat 1 in 1972 and continuing with the 1999 launch of Landsat 7 and current operation of Landsats 5 and 7. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) will continue this program into a fourth decade providing data that are keys to understanding changes in land-use changes and resource management. LDCM consists of a two-sensor platform comprised of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensors (TIRS). A description of the applications and design of the TIRS instrument is given as well as the plans for calibration and characterization. Included are early results from preflight calibration and a description of the inflight validation.

  18. Using Landsat satellite data to support pesticide exposure assessment in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, Susan K.; Airola, Matthew; Nuckols, John R.

    2010-01-01

    We found the combination of Landsat 5 and 7 image data would clearly benefit pesticide exposure assessment in this region by 1) providing information on crop field conditions at or near the time when pesticides are applied, and 2) providing information for validating the CDWR map. The Landsat image time-series was useful for identifying idle, single-, and multi-cropped fields. Landsat data will be limited during the winter months due to cloud cover, and for years prior to the Landsat 7 launch (1999) when only one satellite was operational at any given time. We suggest additional research to determine the feasibility of integrating CDWR land use maps and Landsat data to derive crop maps in locations and time periods where maps are not available, which will allow for substantial improvements to chemical exposure estimation.

  19. Improved solution accuracy for Landsat-4 (TDRSS-user) orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, D. H.; Niklewski, D. J.; Doll, C. E.; Mistretta, G. D.; Hart, R. C.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a study to compare the orbit determination accuracy for a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) user spacecraft, Landsat-4, obtained using a Prototype Filter Smoother (PFS), with the accuracy of an established batch-least-squares system, the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). The results of Landsat-4 orbit determination will provide useful experience for the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of satellites. The Landsat-4 ephemerides were estimated for the January 17-23, 1991, timeframe, during which intensive TDRSS tracking data for Landsat-4 were available. Independent assessments were made of the consistencies (overlap comparisons for the batch case and convariances for the sequential case) of solutions produced by the batch and sequential methods. The filtered and smoothed PFS orbit solutions were compared with the definitive GTDS orbit solutions for Landsat-4; the solution differences were generally less than 15 meters.

  20. Landsat5 TM and Landsat7 ETM+ based accuracy assessment of leaf area index products for Canada derived from SPOT4 VEGETATION data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Fernandes; Chris Butson; Sylvain Leblanc; Rasim Latifovic

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a fundamental land surface parameter. Recently, several agencies have produced 1 km gridded LAI estimates over Canada. These products are difficult to validate because of their coarse-resolution mapping units and large spatial extent. A Canada-wide sampling of Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) and Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) images was used to produce fine-resolution (30