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1

Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Los Angeles Basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of Los Angeles is visible in this computer-generated north-northeast perspective viewed from above the Pacific Ocean. In the foreground the hilly Palos Verdes peninsula lies to the left of the harbor at Long Beach, and in the middle distance the various communities that comprise the greater Los Angeles area appear as shades of grey and white. In the distance the San Gabriel Mountains rise up to separate the basin from the Mojave Desert, which can be seen near the top of the image.

This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated one and one-half times.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: View width 70 kilometers (42 miles), View distance 160 kilometers(100 miles) Location: 34.0 deg. North lat., 118.2 deg. West lon. Orientation: View north-northeast Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

2002-01-01

2

Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Metro Los Angeles, Calif.: Malibu to Mount Baldy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mount San Antonio (more commonly known as Mount Baldy) crowns the San Gabriel Mountains northeast of Los Angeles in this computer-generated east-northeast perspective viewed from above the Malibu coastline. On the right, the Pacific Ocean and Santa Monica are in the foreground. Further away are downtown Los Angeles (appearing grey) and then the San Gabriel Valley, which lies adjacent to the mountain front. The San Fernando Valley appears in the left foreground, separated from the ocean by the Santa Monica Mountains. At 3,068 meters (10,064 feet) Mount Baldy rises above the tree line, exposing bright white rocks that are not snow capped in this early autumn scene.

This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), an enhanced color Landsat 7 satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is exaggerated one and one-half times.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: View width 26 kilometers (16 miles), View distance 85 kilometers (53 miles) Location: 34.2 deg. North lat., 118.2 deg. West lon. Orientation: View east-northeast, 3 degrees below horizontal Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2+4, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively, sharpened with Band 8 panchromatic detail Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 30 meters color plus 15 meters sharpening (98 and 49 feet, respectively) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM) 20 September 1999 (Landsat)

2002-01-01

3

Anaglyph, Landsat overlay Honolulu, Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area with limited space and water resources. This anaglyph, combining a Landsat image with SRTM topography, shows how the topography controls the urban growth pattern, causes cloud formation, and directs the rainfall runoff pattern. Red/blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. Features of interest in this scene include Diamond Head (an extinct volcano on the right side of the image), Waikiki Beach (just left of Diamond Head), the Punchbowl National Cemetary (another extinct volcano, left of center), downtown Honolulu and Honolulu harbor (lower left of center), and offshore reef patterns. The slopes of the Koolau mountain range are seen in the upper half of the image. Clouds commonly hang above ridges and peaks of the Hawaiian Islands, and in this rendition appear draped directly on the mountains. The clouds are actually about 1000 meters (3300 feet) above sea level. High resolution topographic and image data allow ecologists and planners to assess the effects of urban development on the sensitive ecosystems in tropical regions.

This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with a Landsat 7 satellite image collected coincident with the SRTM mission. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 18 by 28 kilometers (11 by 17 miles) Location: 21.3 deg. North lat., 157.9 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper left Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters (99 feet); Landsat, 15 meters (50 feet) Date Acquired: SRTM, February 18, 2000; Landsat February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

4

Perspective with Landsat Overlay: Antelope Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Antelope Valley is bounded by two of the most active faults in California: the Garlock fault, which fronts the distant mountains in this view, and the San Andreas fault, part of which is seen bounding the mountains in the left foreground. In this view, Antelope Valley is in the foreground, the Tehachapi Mountains form the left skyline, and ranges within the southernmost Sierra Nevada form the right skyline. Antelope Valley is directly north of Los Angeles and is the westernmost part of the Mojave Desert. It is a closed basin. Stream flow here ends at Rosamond and Rogers dry lakes, which appear bright white. Dry lakes like these are common where tectonic activity raises and lowers parts of the Earth's crust, and thus the topographic surface, faster than stream flow can fill depressions with water, and then overflow and cut escape channels to other basins and eventually to the sea. The Sierra Nevada, the Tehachapi, and other mountains generally to the west create a rain shadow desert here. Thus, the area definitely has the active tectonics and low rainfall combination that leads to closed basin topography.

This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Shading of the SRTM elevation model was added to enhance topographic appearance. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington DC.

Size: 92 kilometers (57 miles) view width, 87 kilometers (54 miles) view distance Location: 34.9 deg. North lat., 118.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: View toward the northwest, 3X vertical exaggeration Image: Landsat bands 1, 2+4, 3 in blue, green, red, respectively, plus DEM shading. Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 (SRTM), November 11, 1986 (Landsat) Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

5

Perspective view, Landsat overlay Oahu, Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Honolulu, on the island of Oahu, is a large and growing urban area with limited space and water resources. This perspective view, combining a Landsat image with SRTM topography, shows how the topography controls the urban growth pattern, causes cloud formation, and directs the rainfall runoff pattern. Features of interest in this scene include downtown Honolulu (right), Honolulu Harbor (right), Pearl Harbor (center), and offshore reef patterns (foreground). The Koolau mountain range runs through the center of the image. On the north shore of the island are the Mokapu Peninsula and Kaneohe Bay (upper right). Clouds commonly hang above ridges and peaks of the Hawaiian Islands, and in this rendition appear draped directly on the mountains. The clouds are actually about 1000 meters (3300 feet) above sea level. High resolution topographic and image data allow ecologists and planners to assess the effects of urban development on the sensitive ecosystems in tropical regions.

This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat 7 satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated about six times vertically. The Landsat 7 image was acquired on February 12, 2000, and was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS)Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 28 by 56 kilometers (17 by 35 miles) Location: 21.4 deg. North lat., 157.8 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking North Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters (99 feet); Landsat, 15 meters (50 feet) Date Acquired: SRTM, February 18, 2000; Landsat February 12, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

6

Perspective with Landsat Overlay, Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mount Kilimanjaro (Kilima Njaro or 'shining mountain' in Swahili), the highest point in Africa, reaches 5,895 meters (19,340 feet) above sea level, tall enough to maintain a permanent snow cap despite being just 330 kilometers (210 miles) south of the equator. It is the tallest free-standing mountain on the Earth's land surface world, rising about 4,600 meters (15,000 feet) above the surrounding plain. Kilimanjaro is a triple volcano (has three peaks) that last erupted perhaps more than 100,000 years ago but still exudes volcanic gases. It is accompanied by about 20 other nearby volcanoes, some of which are seen to the west (left) in this view, prominently including Mount Meru, which last erupted only about a century ago. The volcanic mountain slopes are commonly fertile and support thick forests, while the much drier grasslands of the plains are home to elephants, lions, and other savanna wildlife.

This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 7 satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: View width 124 kilometers (77 miles), View distance 166 kilometers (103 miles) Location: 3 degrees South latitude, 37 degrees East longitude Orientation: View North, 2 degrees below horizontal, 2 times vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2+4, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arc-second (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 30 meters (98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), A February 21, 2000 (Landsat 7)

2002-01-01

7

Malaspina Glacier, Alaska, Perspective with Landsat Overlay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Malaspina Glacier in southeastern Alaska is considered the classic example of a piedmont glacier. Piedmont glaciers occur where valley glaciers exit a mountain range onto broad lowlands, are no longer laterally confined, and spread to become wide lobes. Malaspina Glacier is actually a compound glacier, formed by the merger of several valley glaciers, the most prominent of which seen here are Agassiz Glacier (left) and Seward Glacier (right). In total, Malaspina Glacier is up to 65 kilometers (40 miles) wide and extends up to 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the mountain front nearly to the sea.

This perspective view was created from a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landsat views both visible and infrared light, which have been combined here into a color composite that generally shows glacial ice in light blue, snow in white, vegetation in green, bare rock in grays and tans, and the ocean (foreground) in dark blue. The back (northern) edge of the data set forms a false horizon that meets a false sky.

Glaciers erode rocks, carry them down slope, and deposit them at the edge of the melting ice, typically in elongated piles called moraines. The moraine patterns at Malaspina Glacier are quite spectacular in that they have huge contortions that result from the glacier crinkling as it gets pushed from behind by the faster-moving valley glaciers.

Glaciers are sensitive indicators of climatic change. They can grow and thicken with increasing snowfall and/or decreased melting. Conversely, they can retreat and thin if snowfall decreases and/or atmospheric temperatures rise and cause increased melting. Landsat imaging has been an excellent tool for mapping the changing geographic extent of glaciers since 1972. The elevation measurements taken by SRTM in February 2000 now provide a near-global baseline against which future non-polar region glacial thinning or thickening can be assessed.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 55 kilometers wide x 55 kilometers distance (34 x 34 miles) Location: 60 deg N latitude, 140 deg W longitude Orientation: View North, 2X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Thematic Mapper false-color image Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Landsat 30 meters (98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), 31 August 2000 (Landsat)

2003-01-01

8

Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles) west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: 37.1 kilometers (23.0 miles) by 20.3 kilometers (12.6 miles) Location: 3.2 degrees South latitude, 36.7 degrees East longitude Orientation: East at top Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 blended as gray. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arc-second (30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), February 21, 2000 (Landsat 7)

2002-01-01

9

Malaspina Glacier, Alaska, Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This anaglyph view of Malaspina Glacier in southeastern Alaska was created from a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Malaspina Glacier is considered the classic example of a piedmont glacier. Piedmont glaciers occur where valley glaciers exit a mountain range onto broad lowlands, are no longer laterally confined, and spread to become wide lobes. Malaspina Glacier is actually a compound glacier, formed by the merger of several valley glaciers, the most prominent of which seen here are Agassiz Glacier (left) and Seward Glacier (right). In total, Malaspina Glacier is up to 65 kilometers (40 miles) wide and extends up to 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the mountain front nearly to the sea.

Glaciers erode rocks, carry them down slope, and deposit them at the edge of the melting ice, typically in elongated piles called moraines. The moraine patterns at Malaspina Glacier are quite spectacular in that they have huge contortions that result from the glacier crinkling as it gets pushed from behind by the faster-moving valley glaciers.

Numerous other features of the glaciers and the adjacent terrain are clearly seen when viewing this image at full resolution. The series of tonal arcs on Agassiz Glacier's extension onto the piedmont are called 'ogives.' These arcs are believed to be seasonal features created by deformation of the glacier as it passes over bedrock irregularities at differing speeds through the year. Assuming one light-and-dark ogive pair per year, the rate of motion of the glacial ice can be estimated (in this case, about 200 meters per year where the ogives are most prominent). Just to the west, moraine deposits abut the eroded bedrock terrain, forming a natural dam that has created a lake. Near the northwest corner of the scene, a recent landslide has deposited rock debris atop a small glacier. Sinkholes are common in many areas of the moraine deposits. The sinkholes form when blocks of ice are caught up in the deposits and then melt, locally collapsing the deposit. The combination of Landsat imagery and SRTM elevation data used in this stereoscopic display is very effective in visualizing these and other features of this terrain.

The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by registering a Landsat image to the SRTM elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 55 x 55 kilometers (34 x 34 miles) Location: 60 deg N latitude, 140 deg W longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: Landsat Thematic Mapper visible and infrared band mix Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 mete

2003-01-01

10

Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 5.3 km (3.3 miles) x 6.0 km (3.7 miles) Location: 57 deg. North lat., 159 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at left Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet); Landsat 15 meters (45 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

11

Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat, Los Angeles, Calif  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Los Angeles, Calif., is one of the world's largest metropolitan areas with a population of about 15 million people. The urban areas mostly cover the coastal plains and lie within the inland valleys. The intervening and adjacent mountains are generally too rugged for much urban development. This in large part because the mountains are 'young', meaning they are still building (and eroding) in this seismically active (earthquake prone) region.

Earthquake faults commonly lie between the mountains and the lowlands. The San Andreas fault, the largest fault in California, likewise divides the very rugged San Gabriel Mountains from the low-relief Mojave Desert, thus forming a straight topographic boundary between the top center and lower right corner of the image. We present two versions of this perspective image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM): one with and one without a graphic overlay that maps faults that have been active in Late Quaternary times (white lines). The fault database was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey.

For the annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 2 mB jpeg)

The Landsat image used here was acquired on May 4, 2001, about seven weeks before the summer solstice, so natural terrain shading is not particularly strong. It is also not especially apparent given a view direction (northwest) nearly parallel to the sun illumination (shadows generally fall on the backsides of mountains). Consequently, topographic shading derived from the SRTM elevation model was added to the Landsat image, with a false sun illumination from the left (southwest). This synthetic shading enhances the appearance of the topography.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive. This Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: View width 134 kilometers (83 miles); view distance 150 kilometers (93 miles) Location: 34.3 degrees North latitude, 118.4 degrees West longitude Orientation: View west-northwest, 1.8 X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2+4, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Landsat 30 meters (98 feet) Graphic Data: earthquake faults active in Late Quaternary times Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), May 4, 2001 (Landsat).

2002-01-01

12

SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: San Fernando Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The San Fernando Valley (lower right of center) is part of Los Angeles and includes well over one million people. Two major disasters have occurred here in the last few decades: the 1971 Sylmar earthquake and the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Both quakes caused major damage to homes, freeways, and other structures and included major injuries and fatalities. The Northridge earthquake was the one of the costliest natural disasters in United States history. Understanding earthquake risks requires understanding a location's geophysical setting, and topographic data are of substantial benefit in that regard. Landforms are often characteristic of specific tectonic processes, such as ground movement along faults. Elevation models, such as those produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), are particularly useful in visualizing regional scale landforms that are too large to be seen directly on-site. They can also be used to model the propagation of damaging seismic waves, which helps in urban planning. In recent years, elevation models have also been a critical input to radar interferometric studies, which reveal detailed patterns of ground deformation from earthquakes that had never before been seen.

This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from SRTM. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 33 kilometers (20 miles) view width, 88 kilometers (55 miles) view distance Location: 34.2 deg. North lat., 118.5 deg. West lon. Orientation: View toward the northeast, 3X vertical exaggeration Image: Landsat bands 1, 2&4, 3 as blue, green, and red, respectively Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 (SRTM), November 11, 1986 (Landsat)

2000-01-01

13

Perspective view, Landsat overlay San Andreas Fault, Palmdale, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is the San Andreas Fault. This segment of the fault lies near the city of Palmdale, California (the flat area in the right half of the image) about 60 kilometers (37 miles) north of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. The Lake Palmdale Reservoir, approximately 1.5 kilometers (0.9 miles) across, sits in the topographic depression created by past movement along the fault. Highway 14 is the prominent linear feature starting at the lower left edge of the image and continuing along the far side of the reservoir. The patterns of residential and agricultural development around Palmdale are seen in the Landsat imagery in the right half of the image. SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics.

This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

Size: Varies in a perspective view Location: 34.58 deg. North lat., 118.13 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking Northwest Original Data Resolution: SRTM and Landsat: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

2000-01-01

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Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Mount Shasta, Calif.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volcanic nature of Mount Shasta is clearly evident in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the northwest. At over 4,300 meters (14,000 feet), Mount Shasta is California's tallest volcano and part of the Cascade chain of volcanoes extending south from Washington. The twin summits of Shasta and Shastina tower over a lava flow on the flank of the volcano. Cutting across the lava flow is the bright line of a railroad. The bright area at the right edge is the town of Weed.

This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 5 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 3, 2, and 1 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

The Landsat Thematic Mapper image used here came from an online mosaic of Landsat images for the continental United States (http://mapus.jpl.nasa.gov), a part of NASA's Digital Earth effort.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 41.4 degrees North latitude, 122.3 degrees West longitude Orientation: looking southeast Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet) Thematic Mapper 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

2002-01-01

15

Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the population of Utah lives just west of the Wasatch Mountains in the north central part of the state. This broad east-northeastward view shows that region with the cities of Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo seen from left to right. The Great Salt Lake (left) and Utah Lake (right) are quite shallow and appear greenish in this enhanced natural color view. Thousands of years ago ancient Lake Bonneville covered all of the lowlands seen here. Its former shoreline is clearly seen as a wave-cut bench and/or light colored 'bathtub ring' at several places along the base of the mountain front - evidence seen from space of our ever-changing planet.

This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic, and a false sky. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: View width 147 kilometers (91 miles), View distance 38 kilometers (24 miles) Location: 40.7 deg. North lat., 112.0 deg. West lon. Orientation: View 19.5 deg North of East, 20 degrees below horizontal Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 30 meters (98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), 1990s (Landsat 5 image mosaic)

2002-01-01

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SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Barbara Coastline, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of the Santa Barbara, California, region provides a beautiful snapshot of the area's rugged mountains and long and varied coastline. Generated using data acquired from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced Landsat image this is a perspective view toward the northeast, from the Goleta Valley in the foreground to a snow-capped Mount Abel (elevation 2,526 m or 8,286 feet) along the skyline at the left. On a clear day, a pilot might see a similar view shortly before touching down on the east-west runway of the Santa Barbara Airport, seen just to the left of the coastline near the center of image. This area is one of the few places along the U.S. West Coast where because of a south-facing beach, fall and winter sunrises occur over the ocean.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter(98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200-feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

Location: 34.5 deg. North lat., 119.75 deg. West lon. View: Northeast Scale: Scale Varies in this Perspective Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

2001-01-01

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SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Barbara, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Santa Barbara, California, is often called 'America's Riviera.' It enjoys a Mediterranean climate, a mountain backdrop, and a long and varied coastline. This perspective view of the Santa Barbara region was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced Landsat satellite image. The view is toward the northeast, from the Goleta Valley in the foreground to a snow-capped Mount Abel (elevation 2526 m or 8286 feet) along the skyline. The coast here generally faces south. Consequently, Fall and Winter sunrises occur over the ocean, which is unusual for the U.S. west coast. The Santa Barbara 'back country' is very rugged and largely remains as undeveloped wilderness and an important watershed for local communities. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface.

To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200-feet) long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

Location (Isla Vista): 34.41 deg. North lat., 119.85 deg. West lon. View: East Scale: Scale Varies in this Perspective Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

2001-01-01

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Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Francisco Bay Area, Calif.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The defining landmarks of San Francisco, its bay and the San Andreas Fault are clearly seen in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the south. Running from the bottom of the scene diagonally up to the left, the trough of the San Andreas Fault is occupied by Crystal Springs Reservoir and San Andreas Lake. Interstate 280 winds along the side of the fault. San Francisco International Airport is the angular feature projecting into the bay just below San Bruno Mountain, the elongated ridge cutting across the peninsula. The hills of San Francisco can be seen beyond San Bruno Mountain and beyond the city, the Golden Gate.

This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 37.5 deg. North lat., 122.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: looking north Image Data: Landsat Bands 3,2,1 as red, green, blue, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM)

2002-01-01

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Perspective View, Landsat Overlay, Salalah, Oman, Southern Arabian Peninsula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view includes the city of Salalah, the second largest city in Oman. The city is located on the broad, generally bright coastal plain and includes areas of green irrigated crops. This view was generated from a Landsat image draped over a preliminary elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The edges of the dataset are to the upper right, left, and lower left. The Arabian Sea (lower right) is represented by the blue false-colored area. Vertical exaggeration of topography is 3X.

This scene illustrates how topography determines local climate and, in turn, where people live. The Arabian Peninsula is very arid. However, the steep escarpment of the Qara Mountains wrings moisture from the summer monsoons allowing for growth of natural vegetation (green along the mountain fronts and in the canyons), and soil development (dark brown areas), as well as cultural development of the coastal plain. The monsoons also provide moisture for Frankincense trees growing on the desert (north) side of the mountains. In ancient times, incense derived from the sap of the Frankincense tree was the basis for an extremely lucrative trade.

Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot)spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 45 kilometers (28 miles) across x 178 kilometers (110 miles) distance Location: 17 deg. North lat., 54 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward upper left Image Data: Landsat bands 1, 2+4, 3 in blue, green, red Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 (SRTM), November 9, 1999 (Landsat) Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

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Strait of Gibraltar, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the Strait of Gibraltar, which is the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Europe (Spain) is on the left. Africa (Morocco) is on the right. The Rock of Gibraltar, administered by Great Britain, is the peninsula in the back left.

The Strait of Gibraltar is the only natural gap in the topographic barriers that separate the Mediterranean Sea from the world's oceans. The Sea is about 3700 kilometers (2300 miles) long and covers about 2.5 million square kilometers (one million square miles), while the Strait is only about 13 kilometers (8 miles) wide. Sediment samples from the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea that include evaporite minerals, soils, and fossil plants show that about five million years ago the Strait was topographically blocked and the Sea had evaporated into a deep basin far lower in elevation than the oceans. Consequent changes in the world's hydrologic cycle, including effects upon ocean salinity, likely led to more ice formation in polar regions and more reflection of sunlight back to space, resulting in a cooler global climate at that time. Today, topography plays a key role in our regional climate patterns. But through Earth history, topographic change, even perhaps over areas as small as 13 kilometers across, has also affected the global climate.

This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view is eastward with a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene (green vegetation, blue water, brown soil, white beaches) are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (99-feet) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large Landsat image archive.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

View Size: 46 kilometers (28 miles) wide, 106 kilometers (66 miles) distance Location: 36 degrees North latitude, 5.5 degrees West longitude Orientation: Looking East, 15 degrees down from horizontal, 3X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2+4, 3 as blue, green, red respectively Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), July 6, 1987 (Landsat)

2003-01-01

21

Perspective with Landsat Overlay: Mojave to Ventura, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Southern California's dramatic topography plays acritical role in its climate, hydrology, ecology, agriculture, and habitability. This image of Southern California, from the desert at Mojave to the ocean at Ventura, shows a variety of landscapes and environments. Winds usually bring moisture to this area from the west, moving from the ocean, across the coastal plains, to the mountains, and then to the deserts. Most rainfall occurs as the air masses rise over the mountains and cool with altitude. Continuing east, and now drained of their moisture, the air masses drop in altitude and warm as they spread across the desert. The mountain rainfall supports forest and chaparral vegetation, seen here, and also becomes ground water and stream flow that supports citrus, avocado, strawberry, other crops, and a large and growing population on the coastal plains.

This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. It shows the Tehachapi Mountains in the right foreground, the city of Ventura on the coast at the distant left, and the eastern most Santa Ynez Mountains forming the skyline at the distant right.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington DC.

Size: 43 kilometers (27 miles) view width, 166 kilometers (103 miles) view distance Location: 34.8 deg. North lat., 118.8 deg. West lon. Orientation: View toward the southwest, 3X vertical exaggeration Image: Landsat bands 1, 2&4, 3 as blue, green, and red, respectively Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 (SRTM), November 11, 1986 (Landsat) Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

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Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay, Mount Meru, Tanzania  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mount Meru is an active volcano located just 70 kilometers (44 miles)west of Mount Kilimanjaro. It reaches 4,566 meters (14,978 feet) in height but has lost much of its bulk due to an eastward volcanic blast sometime in its distant past, perhaps similar to the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980. Mount Meru most recently had a minor eruption about a century ago. The several small cones and craters seen in the vicinity probably reflect numerous episodes of volcanic activity. Mount Meru is the topographic centerpiece of Arusha National Park, but Ngurdoto Crater to the east (image top) is also prominent. The fertile slopes of both volcanoes rise above the surrounding savanna and support a forest that hosts diverse wildlife, including nearly 400 species of birds, and also monkeys and leopards, while the floor of Ngurdoto Crater hosts herds of elephants and buffaloes.

This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot)resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: 37.1 kilometers (23.0 miles) by 20.3 kilometers (12.6 miles) Location: 3.2 degrees South latitude, 36.7 degrees East longitude Orientation: East at top Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2+4, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arc-second (30 meters or 98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), February 21, 2000 (Landsat 7)

2002-01-01

23

Budapest, Hungary, Perspective View, SRTM Elevation Model with Landsat Overlay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After draining the northern flank of the Alps Mountains in Germany and Austria, the Danube River flows east as it enters this west-looking scene (upper right) and forms the border between Slovakia and Hungary. The river then leaves the border as it enters Hungary and transects the Transdanubian Mountains, which trend southwest to northeast. Upon exiting the mountains, the river turns southward, flowing past Budapest (purplish blue area) and along the western margin of the Great Hungarian Plain.

South and west of the Danube, the Transdanubian Mountains have at most only about 400 meters (about 1300 feet) of relief but they exhibit varied landforms, which include volcanic, tectonic, fluvial (river), and eolian (wind) features. A thick deposit of loess (dust deposits likely blown from ancient glacial outwash) covers much of this area, and winds from the northwest, funneled between the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains, are apparently responsible for a radial pattern of erosional streaks across the entire region.

This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The false colors of the scene result from displaying Landsat bands 1, 4, and 7 in blue, green, and red, respectively. Band 1 is visible blue light, but bands 4 and 7 are reflected infrared light. This band combination maximizes color contrasts between the major land cover types, namely vegetation (green), bare ground (red), and water (blue). Shading of the elevation model was used to further highlight the topographic features.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

View Size: 133 kilometers (82 miles) wide, 90 kilometers (56 miles) distance Location: 47.5 degrees North latitude, 19.0 degrees East longitude Orientation: Looking West, 15 degrees down from horizontal, 3X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 4, 7 as blue, green, red respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), October 11, 1990 (Landsat)

2004-01-01

24

SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Manhattan Island, New York  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this image of Manhattan, the city's skyscrapers appear as ghostly white spikes. The green patch in the middle of the image is Central park. The Hudson River is visible on the upper left-hand side and the east River on the upper right. Although not designed to measure the heights of buildings, the radar used by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was so sensitive that it easily detected the Manhattan skyscrapers but could not distinguish individual structures.

The image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and enhanced true-color Landsat 5 satellite images. Topographic shading in the image was enhanced with false shading derived from the elevation model. Topographic expression is exaggerated 6X.

The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60-meters (about 200-feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: scale varies in this perspective, Manhattan is about 3.5 km (2.2 miles) across. Location: 40.8 deg. North lat., 74 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 (SRTM)

2000-01-01

25

Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.

This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.

But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural process

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

View Size: 124 kilometers (77 miles) wide, 148 kilometers (92 miles) distance Location: 39.7 degrees North latitude, 44.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: Looking South, 2 degrees down from horizontal, 1.25X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2+4, 3 as blue, green, red respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), August 31, 1989 (Landsat)

2004-01-01

26

Pasadena, California Perspective View with Aerial Photo and Landsat Overlay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada-Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene.

This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons.

For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 5.8 km (3.6 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 34.16 deg. North lat., 118.16 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking North Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters; Landsat, 30 meters; Aerial Photo, 3 meters (no vertical exaggeration) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

2000-01-01

27

Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 3-D Perspective with Landsat Overlay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This three-dimensional perspective view, looking up the Tigil River, shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The image shows that the Tigil River has eroded down from a higher and differing landscape and now flows through, rather than around the large green-colored bedrock ridge in the foreground. The older surface was likely composed of volcanic ash and debris from eruptions of nearby volcanoes. The green tones indicate that denser vegetation grows on south facing sunlit slopes at the northern latitudes. High resolution SRTM elevation data will be used by geologists to study how rivers shape the landscape, and by ecologists to study the influence of topography on ecosystems.

This image shows how data collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) can be used to enhance other satellite images. Color and natural shading are provided by a Landsat 7 image acquired on January 31, 2000. Terrain perspective and shading were derived from SRTM elevation data acquired on February 12, 2000. Topography is exaggerated by about six times vertically. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 71 km (44 miles) x 20 km (12 miles) Location: 57 deg. North lat., 159 deg. East lon. Orientation: Looking to the east Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

28

SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Monica Bay to Mount Baden-Powell, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Los Angeles may be the world's entertainment capital, but it is a difficult place to locate television and radio antennas. The metropolitan area spreads from the Pacific Ocean to Southern California's upper and lower deserts, valleys, mountains, canyons and coastal plains. While this unique geography offers something for everyone in terms of urban, suburban, small-town, and even semi-rural living, reception of television and radio signals can be problematic where there is no line-of-sight to a transmitting antenna. Broadcasters must choose antenna sites carefully in order to reach the greatest number of customers. Most local television towers are located atop Mount Wilson (elevation 1740 m =5710 ft), which is located on the front range of the San Gabriel Mountains (indistinctly visible, just right of the image center). This site is preferable to the highest peak seen here (Mount Baden-Powell, 2865 m =9399 ft) because it's closer to the urban center and has fewer obstructing peaks. It is also situated at a protruding bend in the mountain front and has few obstructions to the left and right. Computer automated methods combined with elevation models produced by SRTM will quantitatively optimize such factors in the siting of future transmission antenna installations worldwide.

This perspective view looks northeastward from the Santa Monica Bay. The San Fernando Valley is on the left, Pasadena is against the mountain front at right-center, and downtown Los Angeles is on the coastal plain directly in front of Mount Baden-Powell. This image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

Size: 29 kilometers (18 miles) view width, 70 kilometers (43 miles) view distance Location: 34.2 deg. North lat., 118.2 deg. West lon. Orientation: View toward the northeast, 3X vertical exaggeration Image: Landsat bands 1, 2&4, 3 as blue, green, and red, respectively Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 (SRTM), November 11, 1986 (Landsat)

2000-01-01

29

Digital overlaying of the Universal Transverse Mercator Grid with LANDSAT-data derived products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software has been written in FORTRAN IV for a Varian 73 computer which reformats LANDSAT-data-derived surface classifications and pictorial representations into a digital array which corresponds to the Universal Transverse Mercator Grid.

Pendleton, T. W.

1976-01-01

30

Digital overlaying of the universal transverse Mercator grid with LANDSAT data derived products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Picture elements of data from the LANDSAT multispectral scanner are correlated with the universal tranverse Mercator grid. In the procedure, a series of computer modules was used to make approximations of universal transverse Mercator grid locations for all picture elements from the grid locations of a limited number of known control points and to provide display and digital storage of the data. The software has been written in FORTRAN 4 language for a Varian 70-series computer.

Graham, M. H.

1977-01-01

31

SRTM Stereo Pair with Landsat Overlay: Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This stereoscopic satellite image shows Miquelon and Saint Pierre Islands, located south of Newfoundland, Canada. These islands are a self-governing territory of France. A 'tombolo' (sand bar) unites Grande Miquelon to the north and Petite Miquelon to the south. Saint Pierre Island, located to the lower right, includes a harbor, an airport, and a small town. Glaciers once covered these islands and the direction of glacial flow is evident in the topography as striations and shoreline trends running from the upper right to the lower left. The darkest image features are freshwater lakes that fill glacially carved depressions and saltwater lagoons that are bordered by barrier beaches. The lakes and the lagoons are fairly calm waters and reflect less sunlight than do the wave covered and sediment laden nearshore ocean currents.

This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60-meters (about 200-feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington DC.

Size: 48 by 38 kilometers (30 by 24 miles) Location: 47 deg. North lat., 56.3 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward the upper left Image Data: Landsat bands 1, 2+4, 3 in blue, green, red, respectively Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 (SRTM), September 1, 1999 (Landsat) Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

32

Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This computer generated perspective image provides a northward looking 'view from space' that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling, and the nearby Snow Basin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City area ski resorts host the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter(approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: View width 48.8 kilometers (30.2 miles), View distance 177 kilometers (110 miles) Location: 41 deg. North lat., 112.0 deg. West lon. Orientation: View North, 20 degrees below horizontal Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Thematic Mapper 30 meters (98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), 1990s (Landsat 5 image mosaic)

2002-01-01

33

SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Caliente Range and Cuyama Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Before the arrival of Europeans, California's Cuyama Valley was inhabited by Native Americans who were culturally and politically tied to the Chumash tribes of coastal Santa Barbara County. Centuries later, the area remains the site of noted Native American rock art paintings. In the 1800s, when Europeans established large cattle and horse-breeding ranches in the valley, the early settlers reported the presence of small villages along the Cuyama River. This perspective view looks upstream toward the southeast through the Cuyama Valley. The Caliente Range, with maximum elevations of 1,550 meters (5,085 feet), borders the valley on the left. The Cuyama River, seen as a bright meandering line on the valley floor, enters the valley from headwaters more than 2,438 meters (8,000 feet) above sea level near Mount Abel and flows 154 kilometers (96 miles) before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river's course has been determined in large part by displacement along numerous faults.

Today, the Cuyama Valley is the home of large ranches and small farms. The area has a population of 1,120 and is more than an hour and a half drive from the nearest city in the county.

This image was generated by draping an enhanced Landsat satellite image over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

Location (Center): 34.97 deg. North lat., 119.70 deg. West lon. View: Southeast Scale: Scale Varies in this Perspective Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

2001-01-01

34

SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Paula, and Santa Clara River Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rectangular fields of the agriculturally rich Santa Clara River Valley are visible in this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image. The Santa Clara River, which lends its name to this valley, flows from headwaters near Acton, California, 160 km (100 miles) to the Pacific Ocean, and is one of only two natural river systems remaining in southern California. In the foreground of this image, the largely dry riverbed can be seen as a bright feature as it winds its way along the base of South Mountain. The bright region at the right end of this portion of the valley is the city of Santa Paula, California. Founded in 1902, this small, picturesque town at the geographic center of Ventura County is referred to as the 'Citrus Capital of the World.' The city is surrounded by orange, lemon, and avocado groves and is a major distribution point for citrus fruits in the United States. The bright, linear feature in the center of the valley is State Highway 126, the valley's 'main drag.' For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

Location: 34.42 deg. North lat., 119.17 deg. West lon. View: Toward the North Scale: Scale Varies in this Perspective Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

2000-01-01

35

SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Syracuse, Oneida Lake, Upstate New York  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the lower center of this perspective view of upstate New York, the city of Syracuse hugs the southeastern banks (top right side) of Lake Onondaga, the smaller of the two dark features that dominate the scene. The view is toward the east. The urban area appears bright in stark contrast to the dark waterways and the greens, browns and yellows of the vegetated areas. Both of the two black features are lakes. Oneida Lake , the larger of the two is to the left of the scene center. About 1/3 of the way between Lakes Onondaga and Oneida are the triangular shaped runways of the Syracuse Hancock International Airport. The Adirondack Mountains are to the upper left while the less rugged Catskills can be seen in the upper right. A faint outline of the Mohawk River can be seen as threads its way down from the Adirondacks toward the city of Rome, the bright area in the valley between the lake and the Adirondacks. The Erie Canal and the Oswego River are part of the network of waterways seen in the left image foreground.

Fall foliage in a variety of colors can be seen in the Landsat data used here. Redder vegetation generally occurs at higher elevations and toward the north (left), especially in the Adirondack Mountains. The back edge of the data set forms a false skyline. The image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and enhanced true-color Landsat 5 satellite images. Topographic shading in the image was enhanced with false shading derived from the elevation model. Topographic expression is exaggerated 6X. Syracuse lies at the geographic center of the state of New York and has been the site of its state fair for most of that event's 154 years. It is located in an agricultural and resort area. The yellowish rectangular features in the foreground of the image are farmlands. Parts of Skaneateles and Otisco Lakes, some of central New York's Finger Lakes, can be seen in the bottom right corner of the image.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian Space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 200 kilometers View Distance x 280 kilometers View Width (Background) (125 by 175 miles) Location: 43.1 deg. North Lat, 76.1.deg. West Lon. (Syracuse) Orientation: View is toward the east Date Acquired: SRTM, February 13, 2000; Landsat, various

2000-01-01

36

The use of radar and LANDSAT data for mineral and petroleum exploration in the Los Andes region, Venezuela  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geological study of a 27,500 sq km area in the Los Andes region of northwestern Venezuela was performed which employed both X-band radar mosaics and computer processed Landsat images. The 3.12 cm wavelength radar data were collected with horizontal-horizontal polarization and 10 meter spatial resolution by an Aeroservices SAR system at an altitude of 12,000 meters. The radar images increased the number of observable suspected fractures by 27 percent over what could be mapped by LANDSAT alone, owing mostly to the cloud cover penetration capabilities of radar. The approximate eight fold greater spatial resolution of the radar images made possible the identification of shorter, narrower fractures than could be detected with LANDSAT data alone, resulting in the discovery of a low relief anticline that could not be observed in LANDSAT data. Exploration targets for petroleum, copper, and uranium were identified for further geophysical work.

Vincent, R. K.

1980-01-01

37

Landsat 7  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat 7, the latest satellite in a series of earth remote sensing satellites, was launched into orbit on April 15, 1999. Of great importance to science, Landsat 7 gathers remotely sensed images of the land surface (and surrounding coastal regions) across the entire globe; using these images, researchers monitor "important small-scale processes on a global scale, such as the inter- and intra-annual cycles of vegetation growth; deforestation; agricultural land use; erosion and other forms of land degradation; snow accumulation and melt and the associated fresh-water reservoir replenishment; and urbanization." The Landsat 7 site provides general information on the satellite, including how images are taken and examples of satellite images. Additionally, several sections describe data (including acquisition), products (with links to examples of recent satellite images), and other applications.

38

Computer mapping of LANDSAT data for environmental applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Land cover overlays and maps produced from LANDSAT are providing information on existing land use and resources throughout the 208 study area. The overlays are being used to delineate drainage areas of a predominant land cover type. Information on cover type is also being combined with other pertinent data to develop estimates of sediment and nutrients flows from the drainage area. The LANDSAT inventory of present land cover together with population projects is providing a basis for developing maps of anticipated land use patterns required to evaluate impact on water quality which may result from these patterns. Overlays of forest types were useful for defining wildlife habitat and vegetational resources in the region. LANDSAT data and computer assisted interpretation was found to be a rapid cost effective procedure for inventorying land cover on a regional basis. The entire 208 inventory which include acquisition of ground truth, LANDSAT tapes, computer processing, and production of overlays and coded tapes was completed within a period of 2 months at a cost of about 0.6 cents per acre, a significant improvement in time and cost over conventional photointerpretation and mapping techniques.

Rogers, R. H. (principal investigator); Mckeon, J. B.; Reed, L. E.; Schmidt, N. F.; Schecter, R. N.

1975-01-01

39

Landsat Legacy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat resources survey system spawned a number of companies engaged in commercial applications of remote sensing, among them International Imaging Systems (I2S). With initial NASA assistance, I2S has provided remote sensing hardware and software to several foreign countries, developed meteorological analysis systems, medical diagnostic software and scanning equipment for government and commercial use. Latest product is an advanced image-based photogrammetric system employing digital technology - not optical or mechanical systems - to generate terrain elevation data and other processing functions. Called PRI2SM, it compensates automatically for topographic relief displacement, is cheaper, faster, and easier to use and maintain. Company product line includes four major areas: image processing equipment for Earth Resources Management; meteorological analysis systems; satellite ground processing systems; and digital photogrammetric mapping systems.

1991-01-01

40

LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight performances of LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 are evaluated. The in-flight systems discussed are: (1) power supplies, (2) attitude control, (3) command/clock, (4) telemetry, (5) orbit adjust, (6) electrical interface, (7) thermal, (8) tape recorders, (9) multispectral scanner, (10) data collection and (11) magnetic moment compensating assembly. Tables are presented for easy reference.

1976-01-01

41

Multi-level overlay techniques for improving DPL overlay control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay continues to be one of the key challenges for lithography in semiconductor manufacturing, especially in light of the accelerated pace of device node shrinks. This reality will be especially evident at 20nm node where DPL and multi-layer overlay will require 4nm or less in overlay control across many critical layers in order to meet device yield entitlements. The motivation for this paper is based on improving DPL overlay control in face of the high complexity involved with multi-layer overlay requirements. For example, the DPL-2nd-litho layer will need to achieve tight registration with the DPL-1st-litho layer, and at the same time, it will need to achieve tight overlay to the reference-litho layer, which in some cases can also be a DPL layer. Of course, multi-level overlay measurements are not new, but the combination of increased complexity of multi-DPL layers and extremely challenging overlay specifications for 20nm node together will necessitate a better understanding of multi-level overlay control, specifically in terms of root cause analysis of multi-layer related overlay errors and appropriate techniques for improvement In this paper, we start with the identification of specific overlay errors caused by multi-layer DPL processing on full film stack product wafers. After validation of these findings with inter-lot and intra-lot controlled experiments, we investigate different advanced control techniques to determine how to optimize overlay control and minimize both intra-lot and inter-lot sources of error. A new approach to overlay data analysis will also be introduced that combines empirical data with target image quality data to more accurately determine and better explain the root cause error mechanism as well as provide effective strategies for improved overlay control.

Chen, Charlie; Pai, Y. C.; Yu, Dennis; Pang, Peter; Yu, Chun Chi; Wu, Robert (Hsing-Chien); Huang, Eros (Chien Jen); Chen, Marson (Chiun-Chieh); Tien, David; Choi, Dongsub

2012-03-01

42

Texas Orthorectified Landsat State Mosaic  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image was created using Tri-Decadal Global Landsat Orthorectified ETM+ Pan-Sharpened data, and draped with National Elevation Dataset (NED) data. Visit the Landsat Missions website to learn more about Landsat....

43

Electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic protection for the highway industry. Laboratory studies indicate that electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays using conductive fillers, such as calcined coke breeze, in conjunction with polyester or vinyl ester resins have resistivities of 1 to 10 ohm-cm. Both multiple-layer and premixed mortar-type overlays were made. Shear bond strengths of the conductive overlays to concrete substrates vary from 600 to 1300 psi, with the premixed overlays having bond strengths 50 to 100% higher than the multiple-layer overlays.

Fontana, J. J.; Webster, R. P.

1984-08-01

44

Sociological investigation of infant overlaying death   

E-print Network

Overlaying was a common nineteenth century explanation of sudden infant death while bedsharing. This thesis shows that in many cases the term overlaying was a misnomer, and instead it identifies infant overlaying death ...

Sartain, Sheree

2012-11-28

45

Landsat and water pollution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

1979-01-01

46

BGP Path-State Overlays as an Alternative to BGPSEC  

E-print Network

Process BGP Process BGP Router Overlay Management Overlay Process BGP Router Standard BGP BGP Process Overlay Management Overlay Process BGP Standard BGP BGP Process BGP Process BGP Router Overlay Management

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

47

Landsat: building a strong future  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conceived in the 1960s, the Landsat program has experienced six successful missions that have contributed to an unprecedented 39-year record of Earth Observations that capture global land conditions and dynamics. Incremental improvements in imaging capabilities continue to improve the quality of Landsat science data, while ensuring continuity over the full instrument record. Landsats 5 and 7 are still collecting imagery. The planned launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission in December 2012 potentially extends the Landsat record to nearly 50 years. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat archive contains nearly three million Landsat images. All USGS Landsat data are available at no cost via the Internet. The USGS is committed to improving the content of the historical Landsat archive though the consolidation of Landsat data held in international archives. In addition, the USGS is working on a strategy to develop higher-level Landsat geo- and biophysical datasets. Finally, Federal efforts are underway to transition Landsat into a sustained operational program within the Department of the Interior and to authorize the development of the next two satellites — Landsats 9 and 10.

Loveland, Thomas R.; Dwyer, John L.

2012-01-01

48

Defending against eclipse attacks on overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks are widely used to deploy functionality at edge nodes without changing network routers. Each node in an overlay network maintains pointers to a set of neighbor nodes. These pointers are used both to maintain the overlay and to implement application functionality, for example, to locate content stored by overlay nodes. If an attacker controls a large fraction of

Atul Singh; Miguel Castro; Peter Druschel; Antony I. T. Rowstron

2004-01-01

49

Strategies of Conflict in Coexisting Streaming Overlays  

E-print Network

Strategies of Conflict in Coexisting Streaming Overlays Chuan Wu, Baochun Li Department-to-peer streaming overlays, corresponding to channels of programming. With coex- isting streaming overlays, one to satisfy the required streaming rate in each overlay, as well as to minimize streaming costs. In this paper

Li, Baochun

50

Overlay similarity: a new overlay index for metrology tool and scanner overlay fingerprint methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For different CD metrologies like average CD from CD SEM and optical CD (OCD) from scatterometry, CD point-to-point R2 has been well adopted as the CD correlation index. For different overlay metrologies like image-based box-in-box overlay and scatterometry-based overlay, we propose the cosine similarity as the correlation index of overlay. The cosine similarity is a measure of similarity between two vectors of n dimensions by finding the cosine of the angle between them, often used to compare documents in text mining. It has been widely used in web and document search engines and can be used as the similarity index of overlay tool-to-tool matching and scanner tool-to-tool or day-to-day fingerprint. In this paper, we demonstrate that the cosine similarity has a very high sensitivity to the overly tool performance. We compared the similarities of three generations (A1, A2, A3) of the overlay tools of venders A and B and found that after target re-training and TIS correction on each tool A1 similarity to A3 can be improved from 0.9837 to 0.9951. Overlay point-to-point matching with A3 vs. A1 can be reduced from 4.8 to 2.1 nm. The tool precision similarities, i.e. tool self best similarity, for A1, A2, A3 and B are 0.9986, 0.9990, 0.9995, and 0.9994 respectively. From this table, we demonstrate that we can use old-generation overlay tool with suitable hardware maintenance, to match to the latest-generation overlay tool.

Ke, Chih-Ming; Kao, Ching-Pin; Wang, Yu-Hsi; Hu, Jimmy; Chang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Jung; Yen, Anthony; Lin, Burn J.

2009-03-01

51

Landsat Radiometry Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report summarizes three years of work characterizing the radiometry of the Landsat 4, 5 and 7 Thematic Mappers. It is divided into six sections that are representative of the major areas of effort: 1) Internal Calibrator Lamp Monitoring; 2) Vicarious Calibration; 3) Relative Gain Analysis; 4) Outgassing; 5) Landsat 4 Absolute Calibration; and 6) Landsat 5 Scene Invariant Analysis. Each section provides a summary overview of the work that has been performed at SDSU. Major results are highlighted. In several cases, references are given to publications that have developed from this work, Several team members contributed to this report: Tim Ruggles, Dave Aaron, Shriharsha Madhavan, Esad Micijevic, Cory Mettler, and Jim Dewald. At the end of the report is a summary section.

2005-01-01

52

LANDSAT-D Investigations Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs are presented which highlight LANDSAT-D project status and ground segment; early access TM processing; LANDSAT-D data acquisition and availability; LANDSAT-D performance characterization; MSS pre-NOAA characterization; MSS radiometric sensor performance (spectral information, absolute calibration, and ground processing); MSS geometric sensor performance; and MSS geometric processing and calibration.

1982-01-01

53

LANDSAT information for state planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transfer of remote sensing technology for the digital processing of LANDSAT data to state and local agencies in Georgia and other southeastern states is discussed. The project consists of a series of workshops, seminars, and demonstration efforts, and transfer of NASA-developed hardware concepts and computer software to state agencies. Throughout the multi-year effort, digital processing techniques have been emphasized classification algorithms. Software for LANDSAT data rectification and processing have been developed and/or transferred. A hardware system is available at EES (engineering experiment station) to allow user interactive processing of LANDSAT data. Seminars and workshops emphasize the digital approach to LANDSAT data utilization and the system improvements scheduled for LANDSATs C and D. Results of the project indicate a substantially increased awareness of the utility of digital LANDSAT processing techniques among the agencies contracted throughout the southeast. In Georgia, several agencies have jointly funded a program to map the entire state using digitally processed LANDSAT data.

Faust, N. L.; Spann, G. W.

1977-01-01

54

LANDSAT Committee appointed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At its June 7-8 meeting, the 15-member LANDSAT advisory committee passed a resolution that calls for testing the feasibility of transferring the land remote sensing satellite system to private ownership. The committee, appointed last month to advise Commerce Secretary Malcolm Baldrige on the management of Landsat, includes representatives of industry, the academic community, and state and local governments.The committee, chaired by Michel T. Halbouty, consulting geologist and petroleum engineer at the Houston-based Halbouty Center, reports to Baldrige through the administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NOAA will become responsible for LANDSAT operations in January 1983. The National Earth Satellite Service will manage these LANDSAT operations and will provide support services for the advisory committee's quarterly meetings. The resolution that the committee passed at its first meeting outlined a four-step process by which the Commerce Department can evaluate the feasibility of transferring the operational land remote sensing satellite system to private industry. The possible transfer is in keeping with the Reagan administration's policy to shift some government-supported activities to the private sector.

Richman, Barbara T.

55

Landsat Ice Caps  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Landsat image of ice caps in northern Savernaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic Islands (80 degrees N.). The scene shows zones of melting on the ice caps. The largest ice cap is about 80 km across. Image courtesy of Julian Dowdeswell, Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, UK....

56

Landsat: Mt. Redoubt  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Landsat 5 image of the Mt. Redoubt area on March 26, 2009 at 1:07 PM AKDT. The false color image shows the large brown ash cloud extending over the Cook Inlet and the western Kenai peninsula (right sid of image). The image also shows a whiter steam and gas plume rising from the summit of Redoubt Vol...

57

Investigation of Scanning Electron Microscope Overlay Metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with optics-based measurement, overlay measurement using scanning electron microscope (SEM) is more suitable for small overlay marks. Small overlay marks can be located freely in a chip. This method realizes highly accurate measurement. SEM overlay metrology has been studied in recent years. It has been reported that SEM-based overlay metrology is capable of making accurate measurements. Overlay marks of grooves were used in that case and signals were obtained easily from marks with topographic structure. We have investigated SEM overlay metrology using marks covered with flat oxide film and anti+reflection coating. Using voltage contrast images, we demonstrated that SEM is also capable of making accurate measurements in such a case. In this work, we examine the accuracy and precision of SEM-based overlay metrology using a mark covered with thick resist film. In addition, we investigated the effect of small overlay marks.

Koike, Toru; Ikeda, Takahiro; Abe, Hideaki; Komatsu, Fumio

1999-12-01

58

Fabrication of magnetic bubble memory overlay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-contained magnetic bubble memory overlay is fabricated by process that employs epitaxial deposition to form multi-layered complex of magnetically active components on single chip. Overlay fabrication comprises three metal deposition steps followed by subtractive etch.

1973-01-01

59

Landsat US standard catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery of the continental U.S., Alaska and Hawaii acquired by Landsat 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1975-01-01

60

Landsat 6 contract signed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

Maggs, William Ward

61

Evaluating LANDSAT wildland classification accuracies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures to evaluate the accuracy of LANDSAT derived wildland cover classifications are described. The evaluation procedures include: (1) implementing a stratified random sample for obtaining unbiased verification data; (2) performing area by area comparisons between verification and LANDSAT data for both heterogeneous and homogeneous fields; (3) providing overall and individual classification accuracies with confidence limits; (4) displaying results within contingency tables for analysis of confusion between classes; and (5) quantifying the amount of information (bits/square kilometer) conveyed in the LANDSAT classification.

Toll, D. L.

1980-01-01

62

Censorship resistant overlay publishing Technical Report  

E-print Network

Censorship resistant overlay publishing Technical Report Department of Computer Science-027 Censorship resistant overlay publishing Eugene Y. Vasserman, Victor Heorhiadi, Yongdae Kim, and Nicholas J. Hopper November 01, 2011 #12;#12;Censorship resistant overlay publishing Eugene Y. Vasserman Kansas State

Minnesota, University of

63

20nm MOL overlay case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the process nodes continue to shrink, overlay budgets are approaching theoretical performance of the tools. It becomes even more imperative to improve overlay performance in order to maintain the roadmap for advance integrated circuit manufacturing. One of the critical factors in 20nm manufacturing is the overlay performance between the Middle of Line (MOL) and the Poly layer. The margin between these two layers was a process limiter, it was essential that we maintain a very tight overlay control between these layers. Due to various process and metrology related effects, maintaining good overlay control became a challenge. In this paper we describe the various factors affecting overlay performance and the measures taken to mitigate or eliminate said factors to improve overlay performance.

Subramany, Lokesh; Hsieh, Michael; Li, Chen; Koh, Hui Peng; Cho, David; Golotsvan, Anna; Ramanathan, Vidya; Karur Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Yap, Lipkong

2014-04-01

64

The Next Landsat Satellite: The Landsat Data Continuity Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat program is one of the longest running satellite programs for Earth observations from space. The program was initiated by the launch of Landsat 1 in 1972. Since then a series of six more Landsat satellites were launched and at least one of those satellites has been in operations at all times to continuously collect images of the global land surface. The Department of Interior (DOI) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) preserves data collected by all of the Landsat satellites at their Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This 40-year data archive provides an unmatched record of the Earth's land surface that has undergone dramatic changes in recent decades due to the increasing pressure of a growing population and advancing technologies. EROS provides the ability for anyone to search the archive and order digital Landsat images over the internet for free. The Landsat data are a public resource for observing, characterizing, monitoring, trending, and predicting land use change over time providing an invaluable tool for those addressing the profound consequences of those changes to society. The most recent launch of a Landsat satellite occurred in 1999 when Landsat 7 was placed in orbit. While Landsat 7 remains in operation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the DOI/ USGS are building its successor satellite system currently called the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). NASA has the lead for building and launching the satellite that will carry two Earth-viewing instruments, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The OLI will take images that measure the amount of sunlight reflected by the land surface at nine wavelengths of light with three of those wavelengths beyond the range of human vision. T1RS will collect coincident images that measure light emitted by the land surface as a function of surface temperature at two longer wavelengths well beyond the range of human vision. The DOI/USGS is developing the ground system that will command and control the LDCM satellite in orbit and manage the OLI and TIRS data transmitted by the satellite. DOI/USGS will thus operate the satellite and collect, archive, and distribute the image data as part of the EROS archive. DOI/USGS has committed to renaming LDCM as Landsat 8 following launch. By either name the satellite and its sensors will extend the 40-year archive with images sufficiently consistent with data from earlier Landsat satellites to allow multi-decadal, broad-area studies of our dynamic landscapes. The next Landsat satellite and ground system are on schedule for a January, 2013 launch.

Rons, James R.; Dwyer, John L.; Barsi, Julia A.

2012-01-01

65

Membership-concealing overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the concept of membership-concealing overlay net- works (MCONs), which hide the real-world identities of partici- pants. We argue that while membership concealment is orthogo- nal to anonymity and censorship resistance, pseudonymous com- munication and censorship resistance become much easier if done over a membership-concealing network. We formalize the concept of membership concealment, discuss a number of attacks against

Eugene Y. Vasserman; Rob Jansen; James Tyra; Nicholas Hopper; Yongdae Kim

2009-01-01

66

LANDSAT (MSS): Image demographic estimations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Two sets of urban test sites, one with 35 cities and one with 70 cities, were selected in the State, Sao Paulo. A high degree of colinearity (0.96) was found between urban and areal measurements taken from aerial photographs and LANDSAT MSS imagery. High coefficients were observed when census data were regressed against aerial information (0.95) and LANDSAT data (0.92). The validity of population estimations was tested by regressing three urban variables, against three classes of cities. Results supported the effectiveness of LANDSAT to estimate large city populations with diminishing effectiveness as urban areas decrease in size.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Foresti, C.

1977-01-01

67

Landsat features for agricultural applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents relationships among Landsat MSS bands and selected transformations of them, with emphasis on the Tasseled-Cap Transformation and its Brightness, Greenness variables. It also discusses relationships between reflectance measurements made in the Landsat spectral bands and actual Landsat data. Agronomically oriented analyses of reflectance measurements of wheat throughout a growing season are presented, with a comparison of various green measures, correlation with crop development stage, and examination of the effects of moisture stress. The final example addresses the use of transformed variables in a newly developed approach to forestry change detection.

Malila, W. A.; Lambeck, P. F.; Crist, E. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.

1980-01-01

68

CNPQ/INPE LANDSAT system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of the Brazilian LANDSAT facilities is described and main accomplishments are outlined. Receiving, recording, and processing substations and data distribution centers are discussed. Examples of the preliminary TM product produced by the Brazilian station are given.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Barbosa, M. N.; Escada, J. B., Jr.

1983-01-01

69

NASA Scientific Visualization Studio: Landsat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of visualizations was made from Landsat imagery. Many of these visualizations are designed to show changes in our environment through time. Subjects include glacial retreat, urban growth, landforms and coastlines, floods, fires, deforestation, volcanism, and others.

70

LANDSAT-D refurbishment study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirements for refurbishing the LANDSAT-D spacecraft after its recovery from orbit at the end of a 3-year mission in order to reuse the spacecraft on a second 3-year mission were studied. A schedule of the time required for the refurbishment including the procurement cycle for long lead-time items is developed. The costs of refurbishing and of procuring an entirely new LANDSAT-D spacecraft are compared.

1980-01-01

71

Landsat Data as a Tool for the Geosciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applications of the Landsat Thematic Mapper in the fields of pedology, geology, and geomorphology are described. The history of the Landsat program and Landsat products are discussed. Illustrations of different Landsat views are presented. (CW)

Cary, Tina

1990-01-01

72

An update on the DPL overlay discontinuity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It could be argued that the biggest challenge of the 32 nm half pitch node is the production implementation of double patterning lithography. Within the framework of this broad domain, a specific challenge which has been highlighted is overlay control due to the sharing between two exposures the overlay control allocation of a single patterning step. The models used in

Mike Adel

2008-01-01

73

Opus: an overlay peer utility service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, an increasing number of important network services, such as content distribution, replicated services, and storage systems, are deploying overlays across multiple Internet sites to deliver better performance, reliability and adaptability. Currently however, such network services must individually reimplement substantially similar functionality. For example, applications must configure the overlay to meet their specific demands for scale, service quality and reliability.

Rebecca Braynard; Dejan Kostic; Adolfo Rodriguez; Jeff Chase; Amin Vahdat

2002-01-01

74

A concrete overlay on an asphalt road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placing a concrete overlay directly on top of an older asphalt pavement is a procedure that has been used sporadically by transportation agencies for the past quarter century. This practice is now receiving more attention because of initial cost savings and because this type of concrete overlay has shown better than average long-term performance as a resurfacing strategy.Nebraska Department of

Robert C. Rea; Wayne G. Jensen

2005-01-01

75

Overcast: Reliable Multicasting with an Overlay Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overcast is an application-level multicasting system that can be incrementally deployed using today's Internet infrastructure. These properties stem from Overcast's implementation as an overlay network. An overlay network consists of a collection of nodes placed at strategic locations in an existing network fabric. These nodes implement a network abstrac- tion on top of the network provided by the under- lying

John Jannotti; David K. Gifford; Kirk L. Johnson; M. Frans Kaashoek; James W. O'Toole Jr.

2000-01-01

76

Informed content delivery across adaptive overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks have emerged as a powerful and highly flexible method for delivering content. We study how to optimize throughput of large transfers across richly connected, adaptive overlay networks, focusing on the potential of collaborative transfers between peers to supplement ongoing downloads. First, we make the case for an erasure-resilient encoding of the content. Using the digital fountain encoding approach,

John W. Byers; Jeffrey Considine; Michael Mitzenmacher; Stanislav Rost

2004-01-01

77

Detection of aspen-conifer forest mixes from LANDSAT digital data. [Utah-Idaho Bear River Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using LANDSAT multispectral scanner data. Digital classification and statistical analysis of LANDSAT data allowed the identification of six groups of signatures which reflect different types of aspen/conifer forest mixing. Photo interpretations of the print symbols suggest that such classes are indicative of mid to late seral aspen forests. Digital print map overlays and acreage calculations were prepared for the study area quadrangles. Further field verification is needed to acquire additional information about the nature of the forests. Single date LANDSAT analysis should be a cost effective means to index aspen forests which are at least in the mid seral phase of conifer invasion. Since aspen canopies tend to obscure understory conifers for early seral forests, a second date analysis, using data taken when aspens are leafless, could provide information about early seral aspen forests.

Jaynes, R. A.; Merola, J. A.

1982-01-01

78

LANDSAT, a data supplement to forest survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of LANDSAT in providing forest data on a county basis was investigated. Image interpretation and classification techniques and their accuracy are addressed. LANDSAT data was also used to detect and delineate defoliation caused by tent caterpillars.

Thiede, G.

1981-01-01

79

LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The integrated LANDSAT-D systems operation plan is presented and discussed with respect to functional elements, personnel, and procedures. Specifically, a review of the LANDSAT-D program, mission requirements and management, and flight operations is given.

1982-01-01

80

LANDSAT-2 and LANDSAT-3 Flight evaluation report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight performance analysis of LANDSAT 2 and LANDSAT 3 are presented for the period July 1978 to October 1978. Spacecraft operations and orbital parameters are summarized for each spacecraft. Data are provided on the performance and operation of the following subsystems onboard the spacecraft: power; attitude control; command/clock; telemetry; orbit adjust; magnetic moment compensating assembly; unified S band/premodulation processor; electrical interface; thermal narrowband tape recorders; wideband telemetry; attitude measurement sensor; wideband video tape recorders; return beam vidicon; multispectral scanner subsystem; and data collections.

Winchester, T. W.

1978-01-01

81

CFDP for Interplanetary Overlay Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol for Interplanetary Overlay Network (CFDP-ION) is an implementation of CFDP that uses IO' s DTN (delay tolerant networking) implementation as its UT (unit-data transfer) layer. Because the DTN protocols effect automatic, reliable transmission via multiple relays, CFDP-ION need only satisfy the requirements for Class 1 ("unacknowledged") CFDP. This keeps the implementation small, but without loss of capability. This innovation minimizes processing resources by using zero-copy objects for file data transmission. It runs without modification in VxWorks, Linux, Solaris, and OS/X. As such, this innovation can be used without modification in both flight and ground systems. Integration with DTN enables the CFDP implementation itself to be very simple; therefore, very small. Use of ION infrastructure minimizes consumption of storage and processing resources while maximizing safety.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

82

Landsat image data quality studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of the Landsat-4 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) program to characterize the data obtained using the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument on board the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 satellites are reported. TM design specifications were compared to the obtained data with respect to four criteria, including spatial resolution; geometric fidelity; information content; and image relativity to Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. The overall performance of the TM was rated excellent despite minor instabilities and radiometric anomalies in the data. Spatial performance of the TM exceeded design specifications in terms of both image sharpness and geometric accuracy, and the image utility of the TM data was at least twice as high as MSS data. The separability of alfalfa and sugar beet fields in a TM image is demonstrated.

Schueler, C. F.; Salomonson, V. V.

1985-01-01

83

Map characteristics of Landsat mosaics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Map characteristics of the Landsat mosaics developed at JPL are considered. Procedures for digital mosaicking of Landsat frames to standard map projections were used to mosaic at full resolution ten scenes over the California desert region and twenty-one scenes over Arizona. The procedures are analyzed for horizontal positioning error (global and local) and the potential for classification error associated with the adjustment of brightness of Z values between frames; the use of this technology for the mapping of extensive features is discussed. Mosaicking facilities, techniques, mapping accuracy, and thematic mapping characteristics are described. A comparative analysis of Landsat mosaicking technology developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, IBM Gaithersburg, and USGS Flagstaff is made, and suggestions are given for algorithm development to improve systems capacity and ability to handle a variety of cases.

Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

1979-01-01

84

Earth Now! Landsat Image Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This viewer lets users see near real-time images from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). When a Landsat satellite passes within range of the ground station at the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), image data are downlinked and displayed in near-real time. When no satellites are within range, the most recent pass is displayed. By viewing the moving display, students can monitor changes in the Earth's surface. An index map and information display shows the path of the satellite, indicates which satellite is currently providing the imagery, and gives the acquisition date and time. A help page and frequently-asked-questions feature are provided to explain how to use the site.

85

Landsat applied to landslide mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of features characteristic of rotational landslides may be identified on Landsat imagery. These include tonal mottling, tonal banding, major and secondary scarps, and ponds. Pseudostereoscopic viewing of 9 by 9 in. transparencies was useful for the detailed identification of landslides, whereas 1:250,000 prints enlarged from 70 mm negatives were most suitable for regional analysis. Band 7 is the most useful band for landslide recognition, due to accentuation of ponds and shadows. Examination of both bands 7 and 5, including vegetation information, was found to be most suitable. Although, given optimum terrain conditions, some landslides in Colorado may be recognized, many smaller landslides are not identifiable. Consequently, Landsat is not recommended for detailed regional mapping, or for use in areas similar to Colorado, where alternative (aircraft) imagery is available. However, Landsat may prove useful for preliminary landslide mapping in relatively unknown areas.

Sauchyn, D. J.; Trench, N. R.

1978-01-01

86

The LANDSAT story: Module U-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the various LANDSAT program elements which are relevant to user participation is provided. Sources for additional information and assistance where potential users may acquire more details and further guidance in using LANDSAT data are identified. The multispectral imagery capability of the LANDSAT satellites is emphasized.

1980-01-01

87

A legislator's guide to LANDSAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT satellite is an effective tool in meeting the natural resources data requirements of state and federal legislation. The availability of data from the satellite is beginning to have an impact on state legislature activities. An overview of the history, operation, and data analysis techniques, is presented as well as a discussion of the advantages and limitations of this method of remote sensing. Applications are discussed in the areas of (1) land resource planning and management; (2) coastal zone management; (3) agriculture; (4) forestry; (5) routing and siting; (6) environmental monitoring; and (7) geological exploration. National and state sources from which information about LANDSAT technology is available are listed.

1982-01-01

88

Adaptive processing for LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical and test results on the use of adaptive processing on LANDSAT data are presented. The Kalman filter was used as a framework to contain different adapting techniques. When LANDSAT MSS data were used all of the modifications made to the Kalman filter performed the functions for which they were designed. It was found that adaptive processing could provide compensation for incorrect signature means, within limits. However, if the data were such that poor classification accuracy would be obtained when the correct means were used, then adaptive processing would not improve the accuracy and might well lower it even further.

Crane, R. B.; Reyer, J. F.

1975-01-01

89

LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight performance analysis of the LANDSAT-1 spacecraft is presented, and some of the following were examined: (1) orbital parameters; (2) power subsystem; (3) attitude control subsystem; (4) command/clock subsystem; (5) narrowband tape recorders; and (6) magnetic moment compensating assembly.

1977-01-01

90

Landsat 7 Science Data Processing: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat 7 Science Data Processing System, developed by NASA for the Landsat 7 Project, provides the science data handling infrastructure used at the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) Landsat Data Handling Facility (DHF) of the United States Department of Interior, United States Geological Survey (USGS) located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This paper presents an overview of the Landsat 7 Science Data Processing System and details of the design, architecture, concept of operation, and management aspects of systems used in the processing of the Landsat 7 Science Data.

Schweiss, Robert J.; Daniel, Nathaniel E.; Derrick, Deborah K.

2000-01-01

91

Using population statistics for a first look at the utility of Landsat data for urban areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reviews the Image Based Information System (IBIS), developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) which provided the city of Los Angeles with Landsat land use data in a format compatible with the city's land use and population files. Landsat data are compared to other land use files and the comparisons are discussed as an attempt to establish a level of validity. Relationships between population and Landsat data are investigated and reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the use of such data for urban areas. Finally, it is noted that the project verified the flexibility of IBIS for reducing and delivering Landsat data to users lacking the ability to process raw satellite data tapes and points to the system as a model for a potential national census of land use.

Landini, A. J.; Mcleod, R. G.

1979-01-01

92

An update on the DPL overlay discontinuity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It could be argued that the biggest challenge of the 32 nm half pitch node is the production implementation of double patterning lithography. Within the framework of this broad domain, a specific challenge which has been highlighted is overlay control due to the sharing between two exposures the overlay control allocation of a single patterning step. The models used in the literature to support this assertion are reviewed and compared with recent results. An analysis of the implications for overlay metrology performance and cost of ownership is presented and compared with actual capabilities currently available with both imaging and scatterometry sensor technology. Technology matching between imaging and scatterometry emerges as a requirement to enable combined imaging scatterometry overlay control use cases.

Adel, Mike

2008-11-01

93

Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper calibration update  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5 which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the TM-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988-1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations (a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert site) were developed. The results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime, with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this paper have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Mettler, Cory J.; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad

2012-01-01

94

Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record. ?? 2010.

Wulder, M.A.; White, J.C.; Masek, J.G.; Dwyer, J.; Roy, D.P.

2011-01-01

95

Analysis of Overlay Network Impact on Dependability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, peer-to-peer systems have become widely accepted and are probably the most recognizable examples of distributed applications. As they are maturing and their functionalities are becoming increasingly complex, the need for dependable solutions arises. In particular peer-to-peer systems' dependability is immensely influenced by their virtual overlay networks. The paper presents the results of analysis of diverse overlay networks with respect

Piotr Karwaczynski; Jan Kwiatkowski

2005-01-01

96

Investigation of dielectric overlay microstrip circuits  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATION OF DIELECTRIC OVERLAY MICROSTRIP CIRCUITS A Thesis by JAMES LOUIS KLEIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major... Subject: Electrical Engineering INVESTIGATION OF DIELECTRIC OVERLAY MICRO STRIP CIRCUITS A Thesis by JAMES LOUIS KLEIN Approved as to style and content by: Kai Chang Robert D. Nevels (Member) Krzysztof A. Michalski (Member) Mark H. Weichold...

Klein, James Louis

1988-01-01

97

Overcast: Reliable Multicasting with an Overlay Network  

E-print Network

Overcast is an application-level multicasting system that can be incrementally deployed using today's Internet infrastructure. These properties stem from Overcast's implementation as an overlay network. An overlay network consists of a collection of nodes placed at strategic locations in an existing network fabric. These nodes implement a network abstraction on top of the network provided by the underlying substrate network.

John Jannotti; David K. Gifford; Kirk L. Johnson; M. Frans Kaashoek; James W. O& apos; Toole, Jr.; M. Frans; Kaashoek James

2000-01-01

98

A Landsat Agricultural Monitoring Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the Landsat Agricultural Monitoring Program which was developed to identify, observe, and evaluate alarm conditions influencing Iowa corn production in 1976. Used in conjunction with climatic and field reports, studies were made of crop development, crop alarms (such as heavy rainfall, hail, tornadoes, and drought) and estimated crop yield.

Aaronson, A. C.; Buchman, P. E.; Wescott, T.; Fries, R. E.

1977-01-01

99

LANDSAT-D Investigations Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives and methods used to determine the performance of the LANDSAT-D thematic mapper radiometric and geometric sensors are depicted in graphs and charts. Other aspects illustrated include ground and flight segment TM geometric processing and early access TM processing.

1982-01-01

100

Landsat and Thermal Infrared Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce the new thermal sensor to be launched in 2013. The chapter describes the thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch calibration of the new thermal infrared sensor (TIRS).

Arvidson, Terry; Barsi, Julia; Jhabvala, Murzy; Reuter, Dennis

2012-01-01

101

LANDSAT-1 flight evaluation report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight performance analysis for the tenth quarter of operation orbit 11467 to 12745 of LANDSAT 1 are presented. Payload subsystems discussed include: power subsystem; attitude control subsystem; telemetry subsystem; electrical interface subsystem; narrowband tape recorders; wideband telemetry subsystem; return beam vidicon subsystem; multispectral scanner subsystem; and data collection system.

1975-01-01

102

A moving overlay shrinks the attentional blink.  

PubMed

This report describes a study examining the effects of overlaying a veil of spots on the letters in a central rapid serial visual presentation stream. Observers identified two target letters (T1 and T2, respectively) embedded in a stream of distractor letters printed in a different color. In Experiment 1, the attentional blink (AB) diminished when a different overlay veiled each letter, such that the spots appeared to move as the letters changed. Experiment 2 concerned whether the performance enhancement occurred because the overlay hampered processing of the lag 1 distractor, thus weakening the distractor's interference with T1. Experiment 3 focused on how changing the overlay at or around T1 affected the AB. The attention disengagement hypothesis was proposed to explain the common theme in the results-that performance was only enhanced when different overlays were applied to the T1 and lag 1 frames. The claim is that the AB reflects a failure of prompt attentional disengagement from T1, which, in turn, delays reengagement when T2 appears shortly thereafter. When T1's disappearance is accompanied by an overlay change, the perceptual system gets an additional cue signaling that the visual scene has changed, thereby inducing attentional disengagement. Apart from facilitating prompt reengagement at the next target, earlier disengagement also improves target recovery by excluding features of the trailing item, likely to be a distractor, from working memory. PMID:25245077

Chua, Fook K

2015-01-01

103

Interacting epidemics on overlay networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between multiple pathogens spreading on networks connecting a given set of nodes presents an ongoing theoretical challenge. Here, we aim to understand such interactions by studying bond percolation of two different processes on overlay networks of arbitrary joint degree distribution. We find that an outbreak of a first pathogen providing immunity to another one spreading subsequently on a second network connecting the same set of nodes does so most effectively if the degrees on the two networks are positively correlated. In that case, the protection is stronger the more heterogeneous the degree distributions of the two networks are. If, on the other hand, the degrees are uncorrelated or negatively correlated, increasing heterogeneity reduces the potential of the first process to prevent the second one from reaching epidemic proportions. We generalize these results to cases where the edges of the two networks overlap to arbitrary amount, or where the immunity granted is only partial. If both processes grant immunity to each other, we find a wide range of possible situations of coexistence or mutual exclusion, depending on the joint degree distribution of the underlying networks and the amount of immunity granted mutually. These results generalize the concept of a coexistence threshold and illustrate the impact of large-scale network structure on the interaction between multiple spreading agents.

Funk, Sebastian; Jansen, Vincent A. A.

2010-03-01

104

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Los Angeles  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Los Angeles Application of Knowledge-Based Classification Techniques of California, Los Angeles 2005 #12;iii Table of Contents Signature Page ii Table of Contents iii List.2.2 Soil 9 2.2.3 Water 11 2.3 Sensor and Platform Characteristics 12 2.4 The Landsat Program 15 2

Stenstrom, Michael K.

105

LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT-1 spacecraft was launched from the Western Test Range on 23 July 1972, at 18:08:06.508Z. The launch and orbital injection phase of the space flight was nominal and deployment of the spacecraft followed predictions. Orbital operations of the spacecraft and payload subsystems were satisfactory through Orbit 147, after which an internal short circuit disabled one of the Wideband Video Tape Recorders (WBVTR-2). Operations resumed until Orbit 196, when the Return Beam Vidicon failed to respond when commanded off. The RBV was commanded off via alternate commands. LANDSAT-1 continued to perform its imaging mission with the Multispectral Scanner and the remaining Wideband Video Tape Recorder providing image data.

1976-01-01

106

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

107

Landsat analysis of lake quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The trophic status of a number of inland lakes in Wisconsin has been assessed. The feasibility of using both photographic and digital representations of Landsat imagery was investigated during the lake classification project. The result of the investigation has been a semi-automatic data acquisition and handling system which, in conjunction with an analytical categorization scheme, can be used to classify all the significant lakes in the state.

Scarpace, F. L.; Fisher, L. T.; Holmquist, K. W.

1979-01-01

108

Stereocorrelation of Landsat TM images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A digital elevation model (DEM) developed from Landsat TM images of a rugged terrain area in north Georgia by automated stereocorrelation techniques yielded an rms error (z), RMSE(z), value of + or - 42 m. Based on the B/H ratio of 0.18 for the Landsat data, this Z-error corresponds to a planimetric correlation accuracy of about + or - 0.3 pixels, confirming that precise correlation can be achieved with operational satellite data. Contours at a 100-m interval interpolated from the DEM show a deviation of + or - 33 m from reference contours obtained from existing 1:24,000-scale maps. The 28.5-m pixel resolution and the weak B/H ratio impose limitations on the accuracy that can be achieved with Landsat TM data. However, it is anticipated that RMSE(z) values of + or - 10 m or less can be achieved with SPOT-1 panchromatic stereo images of 10-m resolution recorded at B/H ratios of 0.5 to 1.0. DEMs generated by stereocorrelation techniques can be used to create orthoimages, perspective views, and topographic map products.

Ehlers, Manfred; Welch, R.

1987-01-01

109

Design-overlay interactions in metal double patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In double patterning lithography (DPL), overlay error between two patterning steps at the same layer translates into CD variability. Since CD uniformity budget is very tight, overlay control becomes a tough challenge for DPL. In this paper, we electrically evaluate overlay error for BEOL DPL with the goal of studying relative effects of different overlay sources and interactions of overlay control with design parameters. Experimental results show the following: (a) overlay electrical impact is not significant in case of positive-tone DPL (< 3.4% average capacitance variation) and should be the base for determining overlay budget requirement; (b) when considering congestion, overlay electrical impact reduces in positivetone DPL; (c) Design For Manufacturability (DFM) techniques like wire spreading can have a large effect on overlay electrical impact (20% increase of spacing can reduce capacitance variation by 22%); (d) translation overlay has the largest electrical impact compared to other overlay sources; and (e) overlay in y direction (x for horizontal metalization) has negligible electrical impact and, therefore, preferred routing direction should be taken into account for overlay sampling and alignment strategies.

Ghaida, Rani S.; Gupta, Puneet

2009-03-01

110

Usage of overlay metrology simulator in design of overlay metrology tools for the 65-nm node and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirement for state-of-the-art performance by overlay metrology at the 65nm technology node drives the development and design of new optical metrology solutions. The use of measurement modeling is increasing, affecting the tool concepts, tolerances, and calibrations, as well as the overlay target design. In this article, we present our overlay metrology simulation platform, developed in-house, and its central role in optical performance modeling. The simulation validation tests are presented using standard overlay test wafers. The impact of residual optical aberrations with different overlay targets is simulated, emphasizing the degree of control needed to support overlay measurement methodology.

Simovitch, Yariv; Gov, Shahar

2004-05-01

111

Acquisition and preprocessing of LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original configuration of the GSFC data acquisition, preprocessing, and transmission subsystem, designed to provide LANDSAT data inputs to the LACIE system at JSC, is described. Enhancements made to support LANDSAT -2, and modifications for LANDSAT -3 are discussed. Registration performance throughout the 3 year period of LACIE operations satisfied the 1 pixel root-mean-square requirements established in 1974, with more than two of every three attempts at data registration proving successful, notwithstanding cosmetic faults or content inadequacies to which the process is inherently susceptible. The cloud/snow rejection rate experienced throughout the last 3 years has approached 50%, as expected in most LANDSAT data use situations.

Horn, T. N.; Brown, L. E.; Anonsen, W. H. (principal investigators)

1979-01-01

112

Weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

SciTech Connect

A literature review was made. In spite of similarities between abrasive wear and solid particle erosion, weld overlay hardfacing alloys that exhibit high abrasion resistance may not necessarily have good erosion resistance. The performance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys in erosive environments has not been studied in detail. It is believed that primary-solidified hard phases such as carbides and intermetallic compounds have a strong influence on erosion resistance of weld overlay hardfacing alloys. However, relationships between size, shape, and volume fraction of hard phases in a hardfacing alloys and erosion resistance were not established. Almost all hardfacing alloys can be separated into two major groups based upon chemical compositions of the primary solidified hard phases: (a) carbide hardening alloys (Co-base/carbide, WC-Co and some Fe base superalloys); and (b) intermetallic hardening alloys (Ni-base alloys, austenitic steels, iron-aluminides).

Levin, B.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

1993-03-03

113

DCM: device correlated metrology for overlay measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main issues with overlay error metrology accuracy is the bias between results based on overlay (OVL) targets and actual device overlay error. In this study, we introduce the concept of Device Correlated Metrology (DCM), which is a systematic approach to quantifying and overcoming the bias between target-based overlay results and device overlay issues. For systematically quantifying the bias components between target and device, we introduce a new hybrid target integrating an optical OVL target with a device mimicking CD-SEM (Critical Dimension - Scanning Electron Microscope) target. The hybrid OVL target is designed to accurately represent the process influence found on the real device. In the general case, the CD-SEM can measure the bias between target and device on the same layer at AEI (After Etch Inspection) for all layers, the OVL between layers at AEI for most cases and at ADI (After Develop Inspection) for limited cases such as DPL (Double Patterning Lithography). The results shown demonstrate that for the new process compatible hybrid targets the bias between target and device is small, of the order of CD-SEM measurement uncertainty. Direct OVL measurements by CD-SEM show excellent correlation with optical OVL measurements in certain conditions. This correlation helps verify the accuracy of the optical measurement results and is applicable for imaging based OVL metrology methods using AIM or AIMid OVL targets, and scatterometry-based overlay methods such as SCOL (Scatterometry OVL). Future plans include broadening the hybrid target design to better mimic each layer's process conditions such as pattern density. We are also designing hybrid targets for memory devices.

Chen, Charlie; Huang, George K. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Wu, Jimmy C. H.; Cheng, Yu Wei; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Yu, Chun Chi; Amir, Nuriel; Choi, Dongsub; Itzkovich, Tal; Tarshish-Shapir, Inna; Tien, David C.; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Kato, Takeshi; Inoue, Osamu; Kawada, Hiroki; Okagawa, Yutaka; Huang, Luis; Hsu, Matthew; Su, Amei

2013-04-01

114

Global Intrusion Detection in the DOMINO Overlay System Anonymous Submission  

E-print Network

Global Intrusion Detection in the DOMINO Overlay System Anonymous Submission Abstract Sharing data between widely distributed intrusion detection systems offers the possibility of significant im (Distributed Overlay for Monitoring InterNet Outbreaks); an architecture for a distributed intrusion detection

Jha, Somesh

115

KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

Plesea, Lucian

2007-01-01

116

LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 Multispectral Scanner Coherent Noise Characterization and Removal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is described for characterizing the coherent noise found in LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data and a companion technique for filtering out the coherent noise. The techniques are demonstrated on LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data sets, and explanations of the noise pattern are suggested in Appendix C. A cookbook procedure for characterizing and filtering the coherent noise using special NASA/Goddard IDIMS functions is included. Also presented are analysis results from the retrofitted LANDSAT-5 MSS sensor, which shows that the coherent noise has been substantially reduced.

Tilton, James C.; Alford, William L.

1988-01-01

117

Characteristics of the Landsat Multispectral Data System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat satellites were launched into orbit in 1972 and 1975. Additional Landsat satellites are planned for launch in 1978 and 1981. The satellites orbit the Earth at an altitude of approximately 900 km and each can obtain repetitive coverage of cloud-free areas every 18 days. A sun-synchronous orbit is used to insure repeatable illumination conditions. Repetitive satellite coverage allows optimal cover conditions for geologic applications to be identified. Seasonal variations in solar illumination must be analyzed to select the best Landsat data for geologic applications. Landsat data may be viewed in stereo where there is sufficient sidelap and sufficient topographic relief. Landsat-1 ceased operation on January 10, 1978. Landsat-2 detects, only solar radiation that is reflected from the Earth's surface in visible and near-visible wavelengths. The third Landsat will also detect emitted thermal radiation. The multispectral scanner (MSS) was the only sensing instrument used on the first two satellites. The MSS on Landsats-1 and -2 detect radiation which is reflected from a 79 m by 79 m area, and the data are formatted as if the measurement was made from a 56 m by 79 m area. The MSS integrates spectral response from all cover types within the 79 m by 79 m area. The integrated spectral signature often does not resemble the spectral signature from individual cover types, and the integrated signature is also modified by the atmosphere. Landsat-1 and -2 data are converted to 70 mm film and computer compatible tapes (CCT's) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); these are shipped to the EROS Data Center (EDC) for duplication and distribution to users. Landsat-C data will be converted to 241 mm-wide film and CCT's at EDC. Landsat-D data will be relayed from the satellite directly to geosynchronous satellites and then to the United States from any location on Earth.

Taranik, James V.

1978-01-01

118

A system for processing Landsat and other georeferenced data for resource management applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Earth Resources Laboratory has developed a transferrable system for processing Landsat and disparate data with capabilities for digital data classification, georeferencing, overlaying, and data base management. This system is known as the Earth Resources Data Analysis System. The versatility of the system has been demonstrated with applications in several disciplines. A description is given of a low-cost data system concept that is suitable for transfer to one's available in-house minicomputer or to a low-cost computer purchased for this purpose. Software packages are described that process Landsat data to produce surface cover classifications and that geographically reference the data to the UTM projection. Programs are also described that incorporate several sets of Landsat derived information, topographic information, soils information, rainfall information, etc., into a data base. Selected application algorithms are discussed and sample products are presented. The types of computers on which the low-cost data system concept has been implemented are identified, typical implementation costs are given, and the source where the software may be obtained is identified.

Whitley, S. L.

1979-01-01

119

OVERLAY PUBLICATIONS: A FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tackles the issues of overlay publications (journals, but also edited monographs and books in general). Its two parts are aimed at providing theoreti- cal understanding of what an overlay publication is and at examining a concrete example of a print on demand overlay book, published after the free digital ver- sion was released. The first part takes into

Nicola Cavalli

120

QRON: QoS-aware routing in overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, many overlay applications have emerged in the Internet. Currently, each of these applications requires their proprietary functionality support. A general unified framework may be a desirable alternative to application-specific overlays. We introduce the concept of overlay brokers (OBs). We assume that each autonomous system in the Internet has one or more OBs. These OBs cooperate with each other to

Zhi Li; Prasant Mohapatra

2004-01-01

121

Investigations using data from LANDSAT-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. New lands for forestation were set aside in the coastal area of Bangladesh, based on LANDSAT mosaics (Chittagong - 195,000 acres, Noakhali - 450,000 acres, Barisal - 360,000 acres, and Patuakhali - 225,000 acres). LANDSAT imageries were used for identification of drainage patterns in both the old and and new Comilla district.

Hossain, A. (principal investigator)

1977-01-01

122

LANDSAT D operations control center study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various aspects of the planned LANDSAT D system are discussed. LANDSAT D incorporates the Thematic Mapper (TM) as a sensor, it utilizes the Multi-mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS), it makes use of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and it employs a more advanced ground system. Each of these represent significant improvements in the state-of-the-art.

Alexander, L.; Brown, G.; Clemson, B.; Efner, J.; Engelberg, N.; Owen, J.; Winchester, T.

1977-01-01

123

LANDSAT-D Mission Operations Review (MOR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portions of the LANDSAT-D systems operation plan are presented. An overview of the data processing operations, logistics and other operations support, prelaunch and post-launch activities, thematic mapper operations during the scrounge period, and LANDSAT-D performance evaluation is given.

1982-01-01

124

Landsat 7 Fly Over of Tampa, Florida  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Viewing Earth from space, the Landsat 7 satellite takes images of the Earth, which allows us to look at land changes such as; urban growth, deforestation, and overall changes in the Earth itself. Here is a Landsat 7 image of Tampa, Florida

Stuart Snodgrass

2000-01-01

125

Landsat 7: Remote Sensing Environmental Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational brief presents a discussion of how the Landsat project has been able to provide data on environmental changes and potential problems. Topics include a short history of the project, an overview of the sorts of environmental issues Landsat satellites are able to "see" from space, and a brief description of ground truthing and how it supports remotely sensed data.

126

LANDSAT non-US standard catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1976-01-01

127

Secure Aggregation in Large Scale Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks have been very useful in solving large scale data dissemination problems. In this paper, we consider the case of data gathering which is the inverse of dissemination problem. In particular, we focus on a scenario where an organization or a constellation of organizations is interested in gathering data from large number of nodes spread across the administrative boundaries.

Waseem Ahmad; Ashfaq A. Khokhar

2006-01-01

128

Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research is being conducted to develop criteria for selecting weld overlay coatings for erosion mitigation in circulated fluidized beds. Twelve weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using plasma arc welding. Ten samples from each coating were prepared for erosion testing. All selected coatings were erosion tested at 400C and their erosion resistance and microstructure evaluated. Steady state erosion rates were similar for several weld overlay coatings (Ultimet, Inconel-625, Iron-Aluminide, 316L SS, and High Chromium Cast Iron) and were considerably lower than the remaining coating evaluated. These coatings had different base (Co, Fe, Ni-base). No correlations were found between room temperature microhardness of the weld overlay coatings and their erosion resistance at elevated temperature, although this criteria is often thought to be an indicator of erosion resistance. It was suggested that the coatings that showed similar erosion rates may have similar mechanical properties such as fracture strength, toughness and work hardening rates at this temperature. During the past quarter, Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were selected for more detailed investigations based upon the preliminary erosion test results. Microhardness tests were performed on eroded samples to determine the size of the work hardened zone and change in coatings hardness due to erosion. The work hardened zone was correlated with erosion resistance of the coatings. Additional Iron-Aluminide, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings were deposited on 1018 steel substrates.

Levin, B. F.; Dupont, J. N.; Marder, A. R.

1994-01-01

129

Landsat bill passes in Congress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercialization of the land remote-sensing system is virtually guaranteed with the successful completion last week of an informal conference on the differences in the House of Representatives and Senate versions of the Land Remote Sensing Commercialization Act (H.R. 5155). Moreover, the House ratified the compromise version on June 28; the Senate was expected to ratify the bill before the July 4 recess. The bill will then be sent to President Ronald Reagan for his signature. Also on June 28, the Secretary of Commerce announced his selection for final contract negotiations of two of the seven bids received this spring for the operation of Landsat.

Richman, Barbara T.

1984-04-01

130

Local governments LANDSAT applications program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The approach used to develop the internal capabilities of local governments to handle and evaluate LANDSAT data included remote sensing training, development of a low-cost digital image processing system, and technical assistance. Cost sharing, program management and coordination, and networking were also employed to address problems related to land use, water resources, environmental assessment, and air quality as experienced by urban planners. Local experiences gained in Atlanta, Georgia; Henrico County, Virginia; Oklahoma City; Oklahoma; and San Jose, California are described. Policy recommendations formulated for transferring remote sensing technologies to local governments are included.

1983-01-01

131

Overview of the Landsat-7 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat-7 is scheduled for launch on April 15 from the Western Test Range at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., on a Delta-H expendable launch vehicle. The Landsat 7 satellite consists of a spacecraft bus being provided by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (Valley Forge, Pa.) and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus instrument built by Raytheon (formerly Hughes) Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (Santa Barbara, Calif.). The instrument on board Landsat 7 is the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). ETM+ improves upon the previous Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments on Landsat's 4 and 5 (Fig. la and lb). It includes the previous 7 spectral bands measuring reflected solar radiation and emitted thermal emissions but, in addition, includes a new 15 in panchromatic (visible-near infrared) band. The spatial resolution of the thermal infrared band has also been improved to 60 m. Both the radiometric precision and accuracy of the sensor are also improved from the previous TM sensors. After being launched into a sun-synchronous polar orbit, the satellite will use on-board propulsion to adjust its orbit to a circular altitude of 438 miles (705 kilometers) crossing the equator at approximately 10 a.m. on its southward track. This orbit will place Landsat 7 along the same ground track as previous Landsat satellites. The orbit will be maintained with periodic adjustments for the life of the mission. A three-axis attitude control subsystem will stabilize the satellite and keep the instrument pointed toward the Earth to within 0.05 degrees. Later this year, plans call for the NASA Earth Observation System (EOS) Terra (AM-1) observatory and the experimental EO-1 mission to closely follow Landsat-7's orbit to support synergistic research and applications from this new suite of terrestrial sensor systems. Landsat is the United States' oldest land-surface observation satellite system, with satellites continuously operating since 1972. Although the program has scored numerous successes in scientific and resource-management applications, Landsat has had a tumultuous history of management and funding changes over its nearly 27-year history. Landsat-7 marks a new direction in the program to reduce the cost of data and increase systematic global coverage for use in global change research as well as commercial and regional applications. With the passage of the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act in 1992, oversight of the Landsat program began to shift from the commercial sector to the federal government. NASA integrated Landsat-7 into its EOS science program in 1994. Landsat-7 is managed and operated jointly by NASA and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). As a result, the costs of acquiring observations from

Williams, Darrel; Irons, James; Goward, Samuel N.; Masek, Jefery

1999-01-01

132

Combined synthetic aperture radar/Landsat imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of investigations into merging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images using optical and digital merging techniques. The unique characteristics of airborne and orbital SAR and Landsat MSS imagery are discussed. The case for merging the imagery is presented and tradeoffs between optical and digital merging techniques explored. Examples of Landsat and airborne SAR imagery are used to illustrate optical and digital merging. Analysis of the merged digital imagery illustrates the improved interpretability resulting from combining the outputs from the two sensor systems.

Marque, R. E.; Maurer, H. E.

1978-01-01

133

Landsat - Current and future capabilities for agriculture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of the Landsat spacecraft in applications related to agriculture is demonstrated by the examples of assessing the damage to the Brazilian coffee crop due to freezing temperatures on July 17-18, 1975; and damage assessment in the state of Iowa, following a tornado which struck a corn and soybean producing region on June 13, 1976. Some techniques which have been used to measure snow covers on the basis of Landsat data are also noted. The advantages that are expected to accrue from the installation of sophisticated equipment on the third and fourth Landsat spacecraft, scheduled to be launched in 1978 and 1981, respectively, are reviewed.

Walter, L. S.

1977-01-01

134

Los Angeles Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These scenes show Los Angeles and Burbank as seen by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument. The shortwave infrared (TM band 5), infrared (TM band 4), and visible green (TM band 2) channels are displayed in the images as red, green, and blue respectively. In this combination, barren and-or recently cultivated land appears red to pink, vegetation appears green, water is dark blue, and artificial structures of concrete and asphalt appear dark grey or black.

Jesse Allen

1999-04-09

135

Overlay leaves litho: impact of non-litho processes on overlay and compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the ITRS roadmap [1], the overlay requirement for the 28nm node is 8nm. If we compare this number with the performance given by tool vendors for their most advanced immersion systems (which is < 3nm), there seems to remain a large margin. Does that mean that today's leading edge Fab has an easy life? Unfortunately not, as other contributors affecting overlay are emerging. Mask contributions and so-called non-linear wafer distortions are known effects that can impact overlay quite significantly. Furthermore, it is often forgotten that downstream (post-litho) processes can impact the overlay as well. Thus, it can be required to compensate for the effects of subsequent processes already at the lithography operation. Within our paper, we will briefly touch on the wafer distortion topic and discuss the limitations of lithography compensation techniques such as higher order corrections versus solving the root cause of the distortions. The primary focus will be on the impact of the etch processes on the pattern placement error. We will show how individual layers can get affected differently by showing typical wafer signatures. However, in contrast to the above-mentioned wafer distortion topic, lithographic compensation techniques can be highly effective to reduce the placement error significantly towards acceptable levels (see Figure 1). Finally we will discuss the overall overlay budget for a 28nm contact to gate case by taking the impact of the individual process contributors into account.

Ruhm, Matthias; Schulz, Bernd; Cotte, Eric; Seltmann, Rolf; Hertzsch, Tino

2014-10-01

136

Overlay Tolerances For VLSI Using Wafer Steppers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for VLSI circuits to function properly, the masking layers used in the fabrication of those devices must overlay each other to within the manufacturing tolerance incorporated in the circuit design. The capabilities of the alignment tools used in the masking process determine the overlay tolerances to which circuits can be designed. It is therefore of considerable importance that these capabilities be well characterized. Underestimation of the overlay accuracy results in unnecessarily large devices, resulting in poor utilization of wafer area and possible degradation of device performance. Overestimation will result in significant yield loss because of the failure to conform to the tolerances of the design rules. The proper methodology for determining the overlay capabilities of wafer steppers, the most commonly used alignment tool for the production of VLSI circuits, is the subject of this paper. Because cost-effective manufacturing process technology has been the driving force of VLSI, the impact on productivity is a primary consideration in all discussions. Manufacturers of alignment tools advertise the capabilities of their equipment. It is notable that no manufacturer currently characterizes his aligners in a manner consistent with the requirements of producing very large integrated circuits, as will be discussed. This has resulted in the situation in which the evaluation and comparison of the capabilities of alignment tools require the attention of a lithography specialist. Unfortunately, lithographic capabilities must be known by many other people, particularly the circuit designers and the managers responsible for the financial consequences of the high prices of modern alignment tools. All too frequently, the designer or manager is confronted with contradictory data, one set coming from his lithography specialist, and the other coming from a sales representative of an equipment manufacturer. Since the latter generally attempts to make his merchandise appear as attractive as possible, the lithographer is frequently placed in the position of having to explain subtle issues in order to justify his decisions. It is the purpose of this paper to provide that explanation.

Levinson, Harry J.; Rice, Rory

1988-01-01

137

Identity theft protection in structured overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured peer-to-peer (P2P) overlays rely on consistent and robust key-based routing to support large-scale network applications such as multicast and global-scale storage. We identify the main attack in these networks as a form of P2P identity theft, where a malicious node in the path of a message claims it is the desired destination node. Attackers can hijack route and lookup

Lakshmi Ganesh; Ben Y. Zhao

2005-01-01

138

Vertical Handoffs in Wireless Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We present extensions to a traditional cellular [Ses95] handoff system to handle the simultaneous operation of multiplewireless network interfaces. This new system allows mobile users to roam in a "Wireless Overlay Network"structure consisting of room-size, building-size, and wide-area data networks. In this structure, the user can connectto the wired network through multiple wireless subnets, and offers the best possible

Mark Stemm; Randy H. Katz

1998-01-01

139

LANDSAT: US standard catalog, 1-31 January 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for January 1976  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Section 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

1976-01-01

140

LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 April 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for April, 1976  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

1976-01-01

141

LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-31 December 1975. [LANDSAT imagery for December, 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

1975-01-01

142

LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog, 1-29 February 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for February, 1976  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

1976-01-01

143

LANDSAT-4 Scientific Characterization: Early Results Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric calibration, geometric accuracy, spatial and spectral resolution, and image quality are examined for the thematic mapper and the multispectral band scanner on LANDSAT 4. Sensor performance is evaluated.

1983-01-01

144

CYCLON: Inexpensive Membership Management for Unstructured P2P Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unstructured overlays form an important class of peer-to-peer networks, notably when content-based searching is at stake. The construction of these overlays, which is es- sentially a membership management issue, is crucial. Ideally, the resulting overlays should have low diameter and be resilient to massive node failures, which are both characteristic properties of random graphs. In addition, they should be able

Spyros Voulgaris; Daniela Gavidia; Maarten Van Steen

2005-01-01

145

Adaptive lookup for unstructured peer-to-peer overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalability and efficient global search in unstructured peer-to-peer overlays have been extensively studied in the literature. The global search comes at the expense of local interactions between peers. Most of the unstructured peer-to-peer overlays do not provide any performance guarantee. In this work we propose a novel Quality of Service enabled lookup for unstructured peer-to-peer overlays that will allow the

K. Haribabu; Dayakar Reddy; Chittaranjan Hota; Antti Ylä-jääski; Sasu Tarkoma

2008-01-01

146

Scanner grid recipe creation improvement for tighter overlay specifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay specifications are tightening with each lithography technology node. As a result, there is a need to improve overlay control methodologies to make them more robust and less time- or effort-consuming, but without any compromise in quality. Two concepts aimed at improving the creation of scanner grid recipes in order to meet evertightening overlay specifications are proposed in this article. Simulations will prove that these concepts can achieve both goals, namely improving overlay control performance and reducing the time and effort required to do so. While more studies are needed to fine-tune the parameters to employ, the trends presented in this paper clearly show the benefits.

Cotte, Eric; Kathiresan, Hariharasudhan; Ruhm, Matthias; Schulz, Bernd; Schulze, Uwe

2013-10-01

147

Forest Stand Delineation from Unsupervised Classification of Optimal Landsat Spectral, Landsat Texture and Topographic Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat data, in conjunction with collateral data sources such as synthesized texture channels and digital terrain models, can be used to delineate forest stands and other ecological land units found in the coniferous North American forest environment. Incorporation of texture and terrain channels enhances site-specific stratification of Landsat data, promoting delineation of forest stand units of a size and homogeneity

Thomas L. Logan; Alan H. Strahler

1980-01-01

148

LANDSAT 1 non US cumulative catalog, 1976/1977. [LANDSAT imagery for 1976/1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT 1 non-U. S. Cumulative Catalog lists non-U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced year. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1977-01-01

149

LANDSAT: US Standard Catalog, 1-31 December 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for December 1976  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

1976-01-01

150

LANDSAT 2 cumulative US standard catalog. [LANDSAT imagery for January 1976  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality, are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1977-01-01

151

Nyiragongo Volcano, Congo, Map View with Lava, Landsat / ASTER / SRTM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This Landsat satellite image shows the volcano (right of center), the city of Goma, and surrounding terrain. Image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite were used to supply a partial map of the recent lava flows (red overlay), including a complete mapping of their intrusion into Goma as of January 28, 2002. Lava is also apparent within the volcanic crater and at a few other locations. Thick (but broken) cloud cover during the ASTER image acquisition prevented a complete mapping of the lava distribution, but future image acquisitions should complete the mapping.

Goma has a light pink speckled appearance along the shore of Lake Kivu. The city airport parallels, and is just right (east) of, the larger lava flow. Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but much broader Nyamuragira volcano appears in the upper left.

Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. Volcanic activity is common here, and older but geologically recent lava flows (magenta in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before the eruption, and shows an unusually cloud-free view of this tropical terrain. Minor clouds and their shadows were digitally removed to clarify the view and topographic shading derived from the SRTM elevation model was added to the Landsat image. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive. This Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image was provided to the SRTM and ASTER projects by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) will image Earth for several years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy,Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. ASTER is providing scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter(approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's

2002-01-01

152

Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometric accuracy (GA) and errors in imagery by Landsat-4 and -5 were examined using data from regions with a minimal topography. A least-squares comparison was made between ground truth digitized photographs and TM data for prominent features displayed on a 1:24,000 map. The algorithms used for the transformation of the Landsat data to a Cartesian system are provided. Landsat-5 images had a calculated error of 11.2 m (0.4 pixel) and could not be improved with skew and affine-distortion corrections. However, the digitized images, including road tracks, were considered detailed enough for standard 1:50,000 maps. Landsat-5 imagery, when fully corrected, was consistently superior to Landsat-4 data.

Batson, R. M.; Kieffer, H. H.; Borgeson, W. T.

1985-01-01

153

Real cell overlay measurement through design based metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recent device nodes, lithography has been struggling to improve its resolution limit. Even though next generation lithography technology is now facing various difficulties, several innovative resolution enhancement technologies, based on 193nm wavelength, were introduced and implemented to keep the trend of device scaling. Scanner makers keep developing state-of-the-art exposure system which guarantees higher productivity and meets a more aggressive overlay specification. "The scaling reduction of the overlay error has been a simple matter of the capability of exposure tools. However, it is clear that the scanner contributions may no longer be the majority component in total overlay performance. The ability to control correctable overlay components is paramount to achieve the desired performance.(2)" In a manufacturing fab, the overlay error, determined by a conventional overlay measurement: by using an overlay mark based on IBO and DBO, often does not represent the physical placement error in the cell area of a memory device. The mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the cell pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by etching or CMP, also can be a source of the mismatch. Therefore, the requirement of a direct overlay measurement in the cell pattern gradually increases in the manufacturing field, and also in the development level. In order to overcome the mismatch between conventional overlay measurement and the real placement error of layer to layer in the cell area of a memory device, we suggest an alternative overlay measurement method utilizing by design, based metrology tool. A basic concept of this method is shown in figure1. A CD-SEM measurement of the overlay error between layer 1 and 2 could be the ideal method but it takes too long time to extract a lot of data from wafer level. An E-beam based DBM tool provides high speed to cover the whole wafer with high repeatability. It is enabled by using the design as a reference for overlay measurement and a high speed scan system. In this paper, we have demonstrated that direct overlay measurement in the cell area can distinguish the mismatch exactly, instead of using overlay mark. This experiment was carried out for several critical layer in DRAM and Flash memory, using DBM(Design Based Metrology) tool, NGR2170™.

Yoo, Gyun; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Lee, Taehyeong; Ji, Sunkeun; Jo, Gyoyeon; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

2014-04-01

154

Interfield sampling method dependency of overlay and global alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the classical calculation of overlay margin as 1/4 design rule, the overlay control requirement for sub-0.15 micrometer design rule device is nominally below 40 nm. To meet this demand, it is necessary that one should analyze every part in global alignment and overlay measurement procedure, then factor out the parameter that is known to affect overlay control, and correct it as much as possible. One of the major causes degrading overlay budget seems to be the nonoptimized wafer sampling method. Compensated but undercorrected overlay errors usually fitted as linear terms can be amplified due to improper sampling method e.g. asymmetric one. In this paper, we have investigated the possible causes that yield global alignment noise and the sampling method dependency of global alignment repeatability and overlay model calculations. The achievement of better alignment repeatability is critical for improving not only in- wafer overlay but wafer-to-wafer overlay control. It is thus evident that overlay control can be improved by reducing alignment noises or by optimizing sampling method. Global alignment repeatability and its results are significantly affected by which chips in a wafer map are selected as global alignment purpose. This result can be understood as noise margin is different for each sampling plan and there exists an optimal sampling method. We tested several sampling methods that belong to symmetric group (translation, inversion, rotation symmetric), which are known to show better noise margin. The criteria to select the best sampling method were residual and linear term reproducibility which are significantly affected by raw data noise. The raw data variations include stage position errors and process induced alignment signal abnormality. We found among the candidates the optimal sampling method which leaves the least residual and shows as good repeatability as full chip measurement. Similar results could be obtained for overlay sampling method.

Hong, Jin; Lee, Junghyun; Cho, Hanku; Moon, Joo-Tae; Lee, Sang-In

2000-06-01

155

Reconstructing Forty Years of Landsat Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July 1972, NASA launched the Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS), the first of what was to be the series of Earth-observing satellites we now know as the Landsat system. This system, originally conceived in the 1960's within the US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey (USGS), has continued with little interruption for over 40 years, creating the longest record of satellite-based global land observations. The current USGS archive of Landsat images exceeds 4 million scenes, and the recently launched Landsat 8 platform will extend that archive to nearly 50 years of observations. Clearly, these observations are critical to the study of Earth system processes, and the interaction between these processes and human activities. However, the seven successful Landsat missions represent more of an ad hoc program than a long-term record of consistent observations, due largely to changing Federal policies and challenges finding an operational home for the program. Technologically, these systems evolved from the original Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) through the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) systems, to the current Observational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) systems. Landsat data were collected globally by a network of international cooperators having diverse data management policies. Much of the oldest data were stored on archaic media that could not be retrieved using modern media readers. Collecting these data from various sensors and sources, and reconstructing them into coherent Earth observation records, posed numerous challenges. We present here a brief overview of work done to overcome these challenges and create a consistent, long-term Landsat observation record. Much of the current archive was 'repatriated' from international cooperators and often required the reconstruction of (sometimes absent) metadata for geo-location and radiometric calibration. The older MSS data, some of which had been successfully retrieved from outdated wide band video media, required similar metadata reconstruction. TM data from Landsats 4 and 5 relied on questionable on-board lamp data for calibration, thus the calibration history for these missions was reconstructed to account for sensor degradation over time. To improve continuity between platforms, Landsat 7 and 8 missions employed 'under-flight' maneuvers to reduce inter-calibration error. Data from the various sensors, platforms and sources were integrated into a common metadata standard, with quality assurance information, to ensure understandability of the data for long-term preservation. Because of these efforts, the current Landsat archive can now support the creation of the long-term climate data records and essential climate variables required to monitor changes on the Earth's surface quantitatively over decades of observations.

Meyer, D. J.; Dwyer, J. L.; Steinwand, D.

2013-12-01

156

Scalable Consistency Management in Dynamic Content Distribution Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content distribution overlays improves end-user performance by replicating Web contents on a group of geographically distributed sites interconnected over the Internet. However, with the development whereby overlay systems can manage dynamically (Ganguly et al., 2005) changing files, an important issue to be resolved is consistency management, which means the cached replicas on different sites must be updated if the originals

Zhou Su; Jiro Katto; Y. Yasuhiko

2005-01-01

157

Spectrum allocation with beamforming antenna in heterogeneous overlaying networks  

E-print Network

1 Spectrum allocation with beamforming antenna in heterogeneous overlaying networks Sunheui Ryoo spectrum reuse. In this paper, we explore schemes to mitigate cross-tier interference with beamforming antennas for overlay networks. In our model, fem- tocells can operate with frequency spectrum

Bahk, Saewoong

158

On Churn and Communication Delays in Social Overlays  

E-print Network

-based system in use, Freenet [2], is commonly ascribed to the class of P2P systems. Social overlays haveOn Churn and Communication Delays in Social Overlays Giuliano Mega, Alberto Montresor, and Gian network that mirrors the social relationships among the nodes' owners are increasingly attracting interest

Montresor, Alberto

159

An Efficient FPGA Overlay for Portable Custom Instruction Set Extensions  

E-print Network

An Efficient FPGA Overlay for Portable Custom Instruction Set Extensions Dirk Koch,, Christian this approach is commonly tailored to one specific FPGA system, we are presenting a fine-grained FPGA-like overlay architecture which can be implemented in the user logic of various FPGA families from different

Lemieux, Guy

160

Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay networks are widely used to deploy func- tionality at edge nodes without changing network routers. Each node in an overlay network maintains connections with a number of peers, forming a graph upon which a distributed application or service is implemented. In an \\

Atul Singh; Tsuen-wan Ngan; Peter Druschel; Dan S. Wallach

2006-01-01

161

Residual stress measurement in 304 stainless steel weld overlay pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welding overlay repair (WOR) is commonly employed to rebuild piping systems suffering from intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). To understand the effects of this repair, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of residual stresses in the welding pipe. The overlay welding technique must induce compressive residual stress at the inner surface of the welded pipe to prevent IGSCC. To

Hung-Ju Yen; Mark Ching-Cheng Lin; Lih-Jin Chen

1996-01-01

162

Anonymity and Censorship Resistance in Unstructured Overlay Networks  

E-print Network

Anonymity and Censorship Resistance in Unstructured Overlay Networks Michael Backes4, Marek anonymity and censorship resistance in semantic overlay networks. The de- sign of such a protocol needs by cloaking the identity of protocol participants behind groups of semantically close peers. Censorship

Tryfonopoulos, Christos

163

Building and Maintaining Overlay Networks for Bandwidth-Demanding Applications  

E-print Network

bandwidth as tree edges. In my thesis, I present an overlay multicast protocol that builds a tree in whichBuilding and Maintaining Overlay Networks for Bandwidth-Demanding Applications Min Sik Kim Advisor of the algorithm. The scalability of the shared congestion detection technique is improved using an indexed

Kim, Min Sik

164

A map overlay error model based on boundary geometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An error model for quantifying the magnitudes and variability of errors generated in the areas of polygons during spatial overlay of vector geographic information system layers is presented. Numerical simulation of polygon boundary displacements was used to propagate coordinate errors to spatial overlays. The model departs from most previous error models in that it incorporates spatial dependence of coordinate errors at the scale of the boundary segment. It can be readily adapted to match the scale of error-boundary interactions responsible for error generation on a given overlay. The area of error generated by overlay depends on the sinuosity of polygon boundaries, as well as the magnitude of the coordinate errors on the input layers. Asymmetry in boundary shape has relatively little effect on error generation. Overlay errors are affected by real differences in boundary positions on the input layers, as well as errors in the boundary positions. Real differences between input layers tend to compensate for much of the error generated by coordinate errors. Thus, the area of change measured on an overlay layer produced by the XOR overlay operation will be more accurate if the area of real change depicted on the overlay is large. The model presented here considers these interactions, making it especially useful for estimating errors studies of landscape change over time. ?? 2005 The Ohio State University.

Gaeuman, D.; Symanzik, J.; Schmidt, J.C.

2005-01-01

165

Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh1  

E-print Network

Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh1 Miguel Castro2 Peter Druschel1, it can "eclipse" correct nodes and pre- vent correct overlay operation. This Eclipse attack is more general than the Sybil attack. Attackers can use a Sybil attack to launch an Eclipse attack by inventing

166

Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh  

E-print Network

Defending against Eclipse attacks on overlay networks Atul Singh½£ Miguel Castro¾ Peter Druschel, it can "eclipse" correct nodes and pre- vent correct overlay operation. This Eclipse attack is more general than the Sybil attack. Attackers can use a Sybil attack to launch an Eclipse attack by inventing

Hunt, Galen

167

Path Optimization in Stream-Based Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of sensor networks and distributed applications that gen- erate data streams has created a need for Internet overlays designed for streaming data. Such stream-based overlay network (SBONs) consist of a set of Internet hosts that collect, process, and deliver stream-based data to multiple applications. A key challenge in the design and im- plementation of SBONs is efficient path

Peter Pietzuch; Jeffrey Shneidman; Matt Welsh; Margo Seltzer; Mema Roussopoulos

2004-01-01

168

Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers W. Randolph Franklin  

E-print Network

Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers W. Randolph Franklin ECSE Dept, 6026 JEC://wrfranklin.org/ Keywords: overlay, roundoff error, rational numbers, topology, intersection We present a solution as rational numbers, or vulgar fractions composed of a numerator divided by a denominator. Because the result

Franklin, W. Randolph

169

Towards Robust Internet Applications: Self-Organizing Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-organizing overlays based on distributed hash tables (DHTs) are set to make Internet applications more robust. They can improve system dependability, evolve smoothly from small configurations, and scale to massive configurations. Application case studies are presented to illustrate weaknesses of current architectures and to show how overlays can improve robustness-cost tradeoffs. The case studies include email, next generation voice and

John Risson; Tim Moors

2005-01-01

170

Carbonaceous Overlayer Thickness Determination Using XPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To account for the presence of the adventitious carbon layer in XPS analysis, its thickness must be known. A fast method for determining this thickness from existing data would be highly desirable. As first proposed by Ebel, et. al, the C1s and CKVV emission peaks from the carbonaceous overlayer can be used for this purpose because of the large difference in their inelastic mean free paths in carbon. We have previously evaluated this method using thiol-based self-assembled monolayers on gold substrates. C1s/CKVV ratios were measured as a function of overlayer thickness and were found to consistently underestimate the ratio determined from the Ebel model. Our hypothesis was that these discrepancies were due to a "substrate effect", where photoelectrons from the underlying gold substrate caused additional core-level ionizations in the carbon layer. In this paper, we present a modification of the Ebel model which accounts for the substrate effect. We find that the predictions of this model agree favorably with our experimental data for carbonaceous films on various substrate materials. This work was funded by the NSWCCD ILIR Program.

Brizzolara, Robert; Beard, Bruce

1998-03-01

171

LANDSAT 4 to ground station interface description, revision 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric requirements, internal calibration, sensor output format, geometric characteristics, and data processing constants for the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner and thematic mapper are described. In addition, telemetry format, onboard computer reports, and LANDSAT 4 communications are discussed.

1982-01-01

172

Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 thematic mapper band 6 historical performance and calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, the Landsat-4 and -5 Thematic Mappers (TM) are the backbone of an extensive archive of moderate resolution Earth imagery. However, these sensors and their data products were not subjected to the type of intensive monitoring that has been part of the Landsat-7 system since its launch in 1999. With Landsat-4's 11 year and Landsat-5's 20+ year data record, there is a need to understand the historical behavior of the instruments in order to verify the scientific integrity of the archive and processed products. Performance indicators of the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands have recently been extracted from a processing system database allowing for a more complete study of thermal band characteristics and calibration than was previously possible. The database records responses to the internal calibration system, instrument temperatures and applied gains and offsets for each band for every scene processed through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS). Analysis of this database has allowed for greater understanding of the calibration and improvement in the processing system. This paper will cover the trends in the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands, the effect of the changes seen in the trends, and how these trends affect the use of the thermal data.

Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Higgs, N.

2005-01-01

173

Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) project is creating a record of forest disturbance and regrowth for North America from the Landsat satellite record, in support of the carbon modeling activities. LEDAPS relies on the decadal Landsat GeoCover data set supplemented by dense image time series for selected locations. Imagery is first atmospherically corrected to surface reflectance, and then change detection algorithms are used to extract disturbance area, type, and frequency. Reuse of the MODIS Land processing system (MODAPS) architecture allows rapid throughput of over 2200 MSS, TM, and ETM+ scenes. Initial ("Beta") surface reflectance products are currently available for testing, and initial continental disturbance products will be available by the middle of 2006.

Masek, Jeffrey G.

2006-01-01

174

LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 5: (Payload)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT-D flight segment payload is the thematic mapper and the multispectral scanner. Narrative and visual descriptions of the LANDSAT-D payload data handling hardware and data flow paths from the sensing instruments through to the GSFC LANDSAT-D data management system are provided. Key subsystems are examined.

Andrew, H.

1981-01-01

175

Radiometric cross-calibration of the Landsat7 ETM+ and Landsat5 TM sensors based on tandem data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early in its mission, the Landsat-7 spacecraft was temporarily placed in a “tandem” orbit very close to that of the Landsat-5 spacecraft in order to facilitate the establishment of sensor calibration continuity between the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors. The key period for the tandem configuration was June 1–4, 1999, during which hundreds

P. m. Teillet; J. l. Barker; B. l. Markham; R. R Irish; G. Fedosejevs; J. c. Storey

2001-01-01

176

Landsat-D - A systems overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat D, scheduled for launch in 1981, is designed to be a complete end-to-end highly automated data gathering and processing system providing a major step forward in global remote sensing for earth resources applications. This paper discusses the major components of the flight segment (the Multimission Modular Spacecraft, the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner Subsystem) and of the ground segment (the Data Management System and the Landsat-D Assessment System). Descriptions and diagrams illustrating various aspects of flight and ground segments are provided.

Salomonson, V. V.

1978-01-01

177

Study of atmospheric diffusion using LANDSAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The parameters of diffusion patterns of atmospheric pollutants under different conditions were investigated for use in the Gaussian model for calculation of pollution concentration. Value for the divergence pattern of concentration distribution along the Y axis were determined using LANDSAT images. Multispectral scanner images of a point source plume having known characteristics, wind and temperature data, and cloud cover and solar elevation data provided by LANDSAT, were analyzed using the 1-100 system for image analysis. These measured values are compared with pollution transport as predicted by the Pasquill-Gifford, Juelich, and Hoegstroem atmospheric models.

Torsani, J. A.; Viswanadham, Y.

1982-01-01

178

LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report, 23 April - 23 July 1976  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT 1 and 2 operations were described, giving detailed charts and tables of their performances since 1972. Orbital parameters, attitude control subsystem, telemetry subsystem, orbit adjust subsystem, and magnetic moment compensating assembly were some of the main parameters discussed.

1976-01-01

179

40 + Years of Earth Science: The Landsat Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A variety of man-made objects have been sent into outer space for decades, and as a very large and distinguished group, they have sent back important data. NASA has been at the forefront of these efforts here in the United States, and the Landsat Program has certainly been quite successful since its inception in the early 1970s. This website provides a wealth of information on the Landsat Program, and visitors can learn about its work in remote sensing. Visitors can use the right-hand side of the page to learn about different Landsat missions ranging from the original Landsat all the way up to Landsat Seven, which was launched in 1999. Each section contains information on Landsat's orbit, its instruments, and its vital statistics. Finally, a "Did You Know" section provides some key facts about some of the accomplishments of the Landsat program.

2005-01-01

180

BOREAS Landsat MSS Imagery: Digital Counts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Satellite Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) Program launched the first of a series of satellites (ERTS-1) in 1972. Part of the NASA Earth Resources Survey Program, the ERTS Program and the ERTS satellites were later renamed Landsat to better represent the civil satellite program's prime emphasis on remote sensing of land resources. Landsat satellites 1 through 5 carry the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor. Canada for Remote Sensing (CCRS) and BOREAS personnel gathered a set of MSS images of the BOREAS region from Landsat satellites 1, 2, 4, and 5 covering the dates of 21 Aug 1972 to 05 Sep 1988. The data are provided in binary image format files of various formats. The Landsat MSS imagery is available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

2000-01-01

181

Landsat Mosaic of the Yukon River Basin  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Michelle A. Bouchard, John L. Dwyer and Brian Granneman. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009, abstract #GC51A-0708 Landsat data from the Global Land Survey (GLS) dataset for year 2000 was mosaicked to form a Yukon River Basin image map that is referenced to a geodetic base. It was produc...

182

Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of 5 in latitude by approximately equal to 6 degrees in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bit-map file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

Watts, Jack; Farve, Catherine L.; Harvey, Craig

2002-01-01

183

Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of approx. 5 in latitude by approx. 6 deg in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bit-map file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

2002-01-01

184

Software for Viewing Landsat Mosaic Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Windows-based computer program has been written to enable novice users (especially educators and students) to view images of large areas of the Earth (e.g., the continental United States) generated from image data acquired in the Landsat observations performed circa the year 1990. The large-area images are constructed as mosaics from the original Landsat images, which were acquired in several wavelength bands and each of which spans an area (in effect, one tile of a mosaic) of .5 in latitude by .6 in longitude. Whereas the original Landsat data are registered on a universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, the program converts the UTM coordinates of a mouse pointer in the image to latitude and longitude, which are continuously updated and displayed as the pointer is moved. The mosaic image currently on display can be exported as a Windows bitmap file. Other images (e.g., of state boundaries or interstate highways) can be overlaid on Landsat mosaics. The program interacts with the user via standard toolbar, keyboard, and mouse user interfaces. The program is supplied on a compact disk along with tutorial and educational information.

Watts, Zack; Farve, Catharine L.; Harvey, Craig

2003-01-01

185

LANDSAT D data processing facility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission planning of the LANDSAT D is discussed which will present several major advances in the spacecraft, sensor (Thematic Mapper), ground systems and overall system design. The system provides for two data links-direct satellite to ground, and via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite.

1976-01-01

186

LANDSAT-4 to ground station interface description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT 4 to ground station interface is described in detail. The radiometric specifications, internal calibration, sensor output format, and data processing constants for the multispectral scanner and the thematic mapper are discussed. The mission payload telemetry, onboard computer telemetry, and engineering telemetry formats are described. In addition, the telemetry time signals and the onboard clock resetting procedure are addressed.

1983-01-01

187

Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data. [Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. An initial demonstration was made of the capability to make direct production forecasts for winter wheat using early season LANDSAT data. The approach offers the potential to make production forecasts quickly and simply, possibly avoiding some of the complexities of alternate procedures.

Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. (principal investigators); Rice, D. P.

1977-01-01

188

Landsat non-US standard catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by Landsat 1 and 2 which was processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

1975-01-01

189

The Landsat Data Purchase and ESAD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Science Applications Directorate (ESAD) purchases satellite imagery for The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) Project. SDP allows a variety of customers in turn to purchase Landsat, IKONOS, and other data. The SDP customer base includes includes private companies, universities, and government agencies. SDP customers are required to register and receive clearance.

Policelli, Fritz; Fletcher, Rose

2001-01-01

190

LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods were developed for estimating point spread functions from image data. Roads and bridges in dark backgrounds are being examined as well as other smoothing methods for reducing noise in the estimated point spread function. Tomographic techniques were used to estimate two dimensional point spread functions. Reformatting software changes were implemented to handle formats for LANDSAT-5 data.

Anuta, P. E.

1984-01-01

191

LANDSAT activities in the Republic of Zaire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the LANDSAT data utilization program of the Republic of Zaire is presented. The program emphasizes topics of economic significance to the national development program of Zaire: (1) agricultural land use capability analysis, including evaluation of the effects of large-scale burnings; (2) mineral resources evaluation; and (3) production of mapping materials for poorly covered regions.

Ilunga, S.

1975-01-01

192

Utilization of LANDSAT images in cartography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of multispectral imagery obtained from LANDSAT for mapping purposes is discussed with emphasis on geometric rectification, image resolution, and systematic topographic mapping. A method is given for constructing 1:250,000 scale maps. The limitations for satellite cartography are examined.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Alburquerque, P. C. G.

1981-01-01

193

Operational Atmospheric Correction of Landsat TM Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent algorithms developed for biophysical variables assessment require accurate surface reflectance measurements. This article describes algorithms used for atmospheric correction of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Atmospheric corrections include Rayleigh scattering, gaseous absorption, and aerosol scattering in three visible channels (480 nm, 560 nm, and 660 nm), and the near-infrared channel (830 nm). Atmospheric constituents such as water vapor

Hassan Ouaidrari; Eric F. Vermote

1999-01-01

194

Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Anaglyph, SRTM / Landsat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12,000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This stereoscopic (anaglyph) visualization combines a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to provide a view of the volcano, the city of Goma, and surrounding terrain.

Nyiragongo is the steep volcano to the lower right of center, Lake Kivu is at the bottom, and the city of Goma is located along the northeast shore (bottom center). Nyiragongo peaks at about 3,470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2,000 meters (6,560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but broader Nyamuragira volcano appears to the upper left of Nyiragongo.

Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. The cliff at the top center of the image is the western edge of the rift. Volcanic activity is common in the rift, and older but geologically recent lava flows (dark in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

This anaglyph was produced by first shading an elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and blending it with a single band of a Landsat scene. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.

The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before the eruption, and shows an unusually cloud-free view of this tropical terrain. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive. This Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) DataCenter, Sioux Falls, S.D.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

Size: 43 by 62 kilometers (27 by 39 miles) Location: 1.5 degrees South latitude, 29.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: East-northeast at top Image Data: Landsat Band 4 (near infrared) combined with SRTM shaded relief Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Landsat 30 meters (98 feet). Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), December 11, 2001 (Landsat)

2002-01-01

195

Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

2010-01-01

196

Distributed Dynamic Capacity Contracting: An overlay congestion pricing framework  

E-print Network

1 Distributed Dynamic Capacity Contracting: An overlay congestion pricing framework Murat Yuksel. We propose a new congestion-sensitive pricing framework Distributed Dynamic Capacity Contracting to control congestion: Pricing for Congestion Control (PFCC) and Pricing over Congestion Control (POCC). PFCC

Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

197

Mixing materials within zone boundaries using shape overlays  

SciTech Connect

Shape overlays provide a means of statically imposing a physical region containing specified material properties onto a zoned mesh. In the most general case, material interface boundaries are unrelated to mesh zone boundaries, causing zones to contain a mixture of materials, and the mesh itself is not uniform in physical space. We develop and apply an algorithm for shape overlays on nonorthogonal, nonuniform meshes in two dimensions. Examples of shape generation in a multiblock uid dynamics code are shown.

Grandy, J.

1997-04-22

198

Rehabilitation of continuously reinforced concrete pavements using overlays  

E-print Network

was actually experienced. Any rehabilitation alternative being considered must, hence be able to meet the design requirements and not fail during its design life. Rigid overlays provide a feasible option in terms of strength and longevity. For a nation... whose network of pavements is now in need of rehabilitation, CRC pavements present themselves as a very feasible and lucrative option, if life-cycle costs were the basis of design. If designed and constructed properly, CRC overlays can serve...

Sriraman, Soumya

1993-01-01

199

Augmenting reality in Direct View Optical (DVO) overlay applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of overlay displays into rifle scopes can transform precision Direct View Optical (DVO) sights into intelligent interactive fire-control systems. Overlay displays can provide ballistic solutions within the sight for dramatically improved targeting, can fuse sensor video to extend targeting into nighttime or dirty battlefield conditions, and can overlay complex situational awareness information over the real-world scene. High brightness overlay solutions for dismounted soldier applications have previously been hindered by excessive power consumption, weight and bulk making them unsuitable for man-portable, battery powered applications. This paper describes the advancements and capabilities of a high brightness, ultra-low power text and graphics overlay display module developed specifically for integration into DVO weapon sight applications. Central to the overlay display module was the development of a new general purpose low power graphics controller and dual-path display driver electronics. The graphics controller interface is a simple 2-wire RS-232 serial interface compatible with existing weapon systems such as the IBEAM ballistic computer and the RULR and STORM laser rangefinders (LRF). The module features include multiple graphics layers, user configurable fonts and icons, and parameterized vector rendering, making it suitable for general purpose DVO overlay applications. The module is configured for graphics-only operation for daytime use and overlays graphics with video for nighttime applications. The miniature footprint and ultra-low power consumption of the module enables a new generation of intelligent DVO systems and has been implemented for resolutions from VGA to SXGA, in monochrome and color, and in graphics applications with and without sensor video.

Hogan, Tim; Edwards, Tim

2014-06-01

200

Cross-sensor comparisons between Landsat 5 TM and IRS-P6 AWiFS and disturbance detection using integrated Landsat and AWiFS time-series images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Routine acquisition of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was discontinued recently and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has an ongoing problem with the scan line corrector (SLC), thereby creating spatial gaps when covering images obtained during the process. Since temporal and spatial discontinuities of Landsat data are now imminent, it is therefore important to investigate other potential satellite data that can be used to replace Landsat data. We thus cross-compared two near-simultaneous images obtained from Landsat 5 TM and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS)-P6 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS), both captured on 29 May 2007 over Los Angeles, CA. TM and AWiFS reflectances were compared for the green, red, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, as well as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on manually selected polygons in homogeneous areas. All R2 values of linear regressions were found to be higher than 0.99. The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method was used to calculate the NDVI correlation between the TM and AWiFS images. The NDVI regression line derived from selected polygons passed through several invariant cluster centres of the TIC density maps and demonstrated that both the scene-dependent polygon regression method and TIC method can generate accurate radiometric normalization. A scene-independent normalization method was also used to normalize the AWiFS data. Image agreement assessment demonstrated that the scene-dependent normalization using homogeneous polygons provided slightly higher accuracy values than those obtained by the scene-independent method. Finally, the non-normalized and relatively normalized ‘Landsat-like’ AWiFS 2007 images were integrated into 1984 to 2010 Landsat time-series stacks (LTSS) for disturbance detection using the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) model. Both scene-dependent and scene-independent normalized AWiFS data sets could generate disturbance maps similar to what were generated using the LTSS data set, and their kappa coefficients were higher than 0.97. These results indicate that AWiFS can be used instead of Landsat data to detect multitemporal disturbance in the event of Landsat data discontinuity.

Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Chander, Gyanesh; Ji, Lei; Tolk, Brian; Huang, Chengquan; Rollins, Matthew

2013-01-01

201

Residual stresses in weld overlay tubes: A finite element study  

SciTech Connect

Residual stresses and strains in a tube with circumferential weld overlay were analyzed by the finite element (FE) method. The objective of this work was to develop and verify a FE model, to determine the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in the weld overlay tube, and to evaluate the significance of two contributing factors to residual stress: (1) difference in material properties between tube and weld material, and (2) thermal gradients in the weld. An axisymmetric FE model was developed to simulate the circumferential two-layer welding process of alloy 625 overlay on SA210 tube. The first layer was modeled as a gas metal arc welding process with filler metal, whereas the autogenous gas tungsten arc welding process was modeled for the second layer. Neutron diffraction technique was used to experimentally determine residual elastic strains in the weld overlay tube. Comparison with the FE results shows overall good agreement. Both the experimental and FE results show high compressive stresses at the inside tube surface and high tensile stresses in the weld overlay. This suggests that weld overlay may be used to relieve tensile or produce compressive stresses at the inside tube surface, which is significant for applications where crack initiation is found at the root pass of the joining weld.

Taljat, B.; Zacharia, T.; Wang, X.L.; Keiser, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Feng, Z. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Jirinec, M.J. [Welding Services, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

1997-01-03

202

The Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document describes the Interplanetary Overlay Networking Protocol Accelerator (IONAC) an electronic apparatus, now under development, for relaying data at high rates in spacecraft and interplanetary radio-communication systems utilizing a delay-tolerant networking protocol. The protocol includes provisions for transmission and reception of data in bundles (essentially, messages), transfer of custody of a bundle to a recipient relay station at each step of a relay, and return receipts. Because of limitations on energy resources available for such relays, data rates attainable in a conventional software implementation of the protocol are lower than those needed, at any given reasonable energy-consumption rate. Therefore, a main goal in developing the IONAC is to reduce the energy consumption by an order of magnitude and the data-throughput capability by two orders of magnitude. The IONAC prototype is a field-programmable gate array that serves as a reconfigurable hybrid (hardware/ firmware) system for implementation of the protocol. The prototype can decode 108,000 bundles per second and encode 100,000 bundles per second. It includes a bundle-cache static randomaccess memory that enables maintenance of a throughput of 2.7Gb/s, and an Ethernet convergence layer that supports a duplex throughput of 1Gb/s.

Pang, Jackson; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Clare, Loren P.

2008-01-01

203

Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

2013-03-01

204

Earth as Art: A Landsat Perspective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For close to thirty years, a series of Landsat satellites have imaged the Earth's surface, returning images for use in a number of business, education, government, and science applications. Of course, many of these images have a great deal of aesthetic value, as those who look at them find themselves marveling at vast deltas, fjords, and land use patterns around the globe. This fine exhibit from the Library of Congress includes images transmitted from Landsat 7. These images are are also part of an exhibit in the Library's Geography & Map Reading Room that will be on display until December 31, 2003. Visitors to the online exhibit can look at high-resolution images of remote Akpatok Island in northern Quebec, Dasht-e Kevir (which translates as Great Salt Desert) in Iran, the West Fjords in northwestern Iceland, and about thirty-five other images in total.

205

Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Objective measurements of percent green wheat cover on May 21 were significantly correlated with yield, as were measurements of green LAI and LANDSAT data. Three data sets from the Finney test site were analyzed from LANDSAT passes on 22 November 1974, 15 April 1975, and 21 May 1975. After mean signal values in each band were computed for each sufficiently large wheat field, the mean values were correlated with the farmer estimates of wheat grain yield in order to assess relative information content. It is clear that the single best spectral temporal band for predicting yield is the 15 April red band (0.6-0.7 microns, band 5), with the 15 April green band (0.5-0.6 microns, band 4) a close second.

Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. (principal investigators); Rice, D. P.

1976-01-01

206

SAR/LANDSAT image registration study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Temporal registration of synthetic aperture radar data with LANDSAT-MSS data is both feasible (from a technical standpoint) and useful (from an information-content viewpoint). The greatest difficulty in registering aircraft SAR data to corrected LANDSAT-MSS data is control-point location. The differences in SAR and MSS data impact the selection of features that will serve as a good control points. The SAR and MSS data are unsuitable for automatic computer correlation of digital control-point data. The gray-level data can not be compared by the computer because of the different response characteristics of the MSS and SAR images.

Murphrey, S. W. (principal investigator)

1978-01-01

207

Landsat detection of oil from natural seeps.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oil on the ocean surface from the natural seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, could not be detected on frames of any of the four bands of standard Landsat positive or negative film transparencies, nor could the slicks be detected using digital scaling, density slicing, or ratioing techniques. Digital contrast-stretch enhancement, however, showed the distribution of oil on the surface. - from Authors

Deutsch, M.; Estes, J.E.

1980-01-01

208

The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first-ever true-color, high-resolution digital mosaic of Antarctica has been produced from nearly 1100 Landsat-7 ETM+ images collected between 1999 and 2003. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) project was an early benchmark data set of the International Polar Year and represents a close and successful collaboration between NASA, USGS, the British Antarctic Survey and the National Science Foundation. The mosaic was successfully merged with lower resolution MODIS data south of Landsat coverage to produce a complete true-color data set of the entire continent. LIMA is being used as a platform for a variety of education and outreach activities. Central to this effort is the NASA website 'Faces of Antarctica' that offers the web visitor the opportunity to explore the data set and to learn how these data are used to support scientific research. Content is delivered through a set of mysteries designed to pique the user's interest and to motivate them to delve deeper into the website where there are various videos and scientific articles for downloading. Detailed lesson plans written by teachers are provided for classroom use and Java applets let the user track the motion of ice in sequential Landsat images. Web links take the user to other sites where they can roam over the imagery using standard pan and zoom functions, or search for any named feature in the Antarctic Geographic Names data base that returns to the user a centered true-color view of any named feature. LIMA also has appeared is a host of external presentations from museum exhibits, to postcards and large posters. It has attracted various value-added providers that increase LIMA's accessibility by allowing users to specify subsets of the very large data set for individual downloads. The ultimate goal of LIMA in the public and educational sector is to enable everyone to become more familiar with Antarctica.

Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Morin, P.

2008-12-01

209

Landsat Data Continuity Mission Calibration and Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary payload for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is the Operational Land Imager (OLI), being built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies, under contract to NASA. The OLI has spectral bands similar to the Landsat-7 ETM+, minus the thermal band and with two new bands, a 443 nm band and 1375 nm cirrus detection band. On-board calibration systems include two solar diffusers (routine and pristine), a shutter and three sets of internal lamps (routine, backup and pristine). Being a pushbroom opposed to a whiskbroom design of ETM+, the system poses new challenges for characterization and calibration, chief among them being the large focal plane with 75000+ detectors. A comprehensive characterization and calibration plan is in place for the instrument and the data throughout the mission including Ball, NASA and the United States Geological Survey, which will take over operations of LDCM after on-orbit commissioning. Driving radiometric calibration requirements for OLI data include radiance calibration to 5% uncertainty (1 q); reflectance calibration to 3% uncertainty (1 q) and relative (detector-to-detector) calibration to 0.5% (J (r). Driving geometric calibration requirements for OLI include bandto- band registration of 4.5 meters (90% confidence), absolute geodetic accuracy of 65 meters (90% CE) and relative geodetic accuracy of 25 meters (90% CE). Key spectral, spatial and radiometric characterization of the OLI will occur in thermal vacuum at Ball Aerospace. During commissioning the OLI will be characterized and calibrated using celestial (sun, moon, stars) sources and terrestrial sources. The USGS EROS ground processing system will incorporate an image assessment system similar to Landsat-7 for characterization and calibration. This system will have the added benefit that characterization data will be extracted as part of the normal image data processing, so that the characterization data available will be significantly larger than for Landsat-7 ETM+.

Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Storey, James C.; Morfitt, Ron; Knight, Ed; Kvaran, Geir; Lee, Kenton

2008-01-01

210

Evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interband line pixel misregistrations were determined for the four MSS bands of the Mistassini, Ontario scene and multitemporal registration of LANDSAT-4 products were tested for two different geocoded scenes. Line and pixel misregistrations are tabulated as determined by the manual ground control points and the digital band to band correlation techniques. A method was developed for determining the spectral information content of TM images for forestry applications.

Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (principal investigator); Murphy, J. M.; Grieve, G.; Simard, R.; Horler, D.; Ahern, F. J.

1984-01-01

211

US Forest Disturbance Rates Observed from Landsat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

North American forests are thought to be a long-term sink for atmospheric carbon. However, great uncertainties exist in current understanding of the magnitude of this sink and its change in the foreseeable future, largely because forest disturbance and regrowth dynamics are not well characterized. A main goal of the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project is to quantify US forest disturbance and regrowth by integrating forest inventory data and historical Landsat observations. From a total of more than 100,000 Landsat images in the USGS Landsat archive, we have selected the best 20,000+ images to construct annual time series datasets for the entire the conterminous US (CONUS) for the years from 1984 to 2011. These images have been converted surface reflectance to produce spatially and temporally consistent radiometry, and are being analyzed using the vegetation change tracker (VCT) algorithm to produce annual forest disturbance products. These products will be validated using design-based accuracy assessment methods, and the causing factor of each mapped disturbance event will be identified. In this talk, we will first provide an overview of the key NAFD methods and then present the preliminary results derived through the NAFD disturbance mapping effort, including initial quality assessment of the derived disturbance products, as well as patterns and rates of forest disturbances at national and regional scales. Issues, lessons learned, and future NAFD work will be discussed at the end.

Huang, C.; Goward, S. N.; Schleeweis, K.; Zhao, F.; Lindsey, M.; Masek, J.; Cohen, W. B.; Moisen, G. G.; Nemani, R. R.

2013-12-01

212

Use of LANDSAT data to assess waterfowl habitat quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The capability of mapping ponds over a very large area was demonstrated, with multidate, multiframe LANDSAT imagery. A small double sample of aircraft data made it possible to adjust a LANDSAT large area census. Terrain classification was improved by using multitemporal LANDSAT data. Waterfowl production was estimated, using remotely determined pond data, in conjunction with FWS estimates of breeding population. Relative waterfowl habitat quality was characterized on a section by section basis.

Colwell, J. E.; Gilmer, D. S. (principal investigators); Work, E. A., Jr.; Rebel, D. L.; Roller, N. E. G.

1978-01-01

213

Integrated use of Landsat data for state resource management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study deals with the integration of a practical information resource - data from the earth orbiting satellite Landsat - with alternate forms of data to structure a state resource data base. State use of Landsat data within a comprehensive resource management scheme is examined. The efforts of NASA in the transfer of this space technology to state resource management applications are outlined. The role two nongovernmental sectors, universities and private industry, play in assisting states to develop Landsat data analysis capability is described.

Schneider, W. G., Jr.

1979-01-01

214

Landsat: Making a Difference, One User at a Time - Duration: 3 minutes, 45 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission will continue and improve upon the 40-year-old Landsat program. This video examines two uses of Landsat data to monitor agriculture. Both wineries and timber com...

215

Further beyond: registration and overlay control enhancements for optical masks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mask registration control is one of the key performance specifications during the mask qualification process. It is becoming an important factor for yield improvement with the continuously tightening registration specs driven by tight wafer overlay specs. Understanding the impact of miss classified masks on the final wafer yield is gaining more and more attention, especially with the appearance of Multiple Patterning Technologies, where mask to mask overlay effect on wafer is heavily influenced by mask registration. ZEISS has established a promising closed loop solution implemented in the mask house, where the PROVE® system - a highly accurate mask registration and overlay metrology measurement tool, is being used to feed the RegC® - a registration and mask to mask overlay correction tool that can also accurately predict the correction potential in advance. The well-established RegC® process typically reaches 40-70% improvement of the mask registration/overlay error standard deviation. The PROVE® - RegC® closed loop solution has several advantages over alternative registration control methods apart of the mask re-write saving. Among the advantages is the capability to correct for pellicle mounting registration effects without the need to remove the pellicle. This paper will demonstrate improved method for enhanced mask to mask overlay control based on a new scheme of data acquisition and performance validation by the PROVE®. The mask registration data as well as additional mask information will be used to feed the RegC® correction process. Significantly improved mask to mask overlay correction results will be discussed and presented in details.

Gorhad, Kujan; Cohen, Avi; Avizemer, Dan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Beyer, Dirk; Degel, Wolfgang; Kirsch, Markus

2014-10-01

216

Landsat 8 vs. Landsat 5: A comparison based on urban and peri-urban land cover mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An image dataset from the Landsat OLI spaceborne sensor is compared with the Landsat TM in order to evaluate the excellence of the new imagery in urban landcover classification. Widely known pixel-based and object-based image analysis methods have been implemented in this work like Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbor, Feature Analyst and Sub-pixel. Classification results from Landsat OLI provide more accurate results comparing to the Landsat TM. Object-based classifications produced a more uniform result, but suffer from the absorption of small rare classes into large homogenous areas, as a consequence of the segmentation, merging and the spatial parameters in the spatial resolution (30 m) of Landsat images. Based exclusively on the overall accuracy reports, the SVM pixel-based classification from Landsat 8 proved to be the most accurate for the purpose of mapping urban land cover, using medium spatial resolution imagery.

Poursanidis, Dimitris; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Mitraka, Zina

2015-03-01

217

Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

218

LANDSAT non-US standard catalog no. N-35. [LANDSAT imagery July, 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

1975-01-01

219

LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog, 1-31 January 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

1976-01-01

220

LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog no. N-30. [LANDSAT imagery for February, 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

1975-01-01

221

LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog no. N-36. [LANDSAT imagery for August, 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

1975-01-01

222

Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 evaluation report, 23 January 1975 to 23 April 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the work accomplished with the Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 satellites during the period 23 Jan. - 23 Apr. 1975 was presented. The following information was given for each satellite: operational summary, orbital parameters, power subsystem, attitude control subsystem, command/clock subsystem, telemetry subsystem, orbit adjust subsystem, magnetic moment compensating assembly, unified S-band/premodulation processor, electrical interface subsystem, thermal subsystem, narrowband tape recorders, wideband telemetry subsystem, attitude measurement sensor, wideband video tape recorders, return beam vidicon, multispectral scanner subsystem, and data collection subsystem.

1975-01-01

223

LANDSAT: US standard catalog no. U-35. [LANDSAT imagery for July, 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility in published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

1975-01-01

224

LANDSAT: US standard catalog no. U-34. [LANDSAT imagery for June 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles.

1975-01-01

225

SRTM Perspective with Landsat Virgin Islands, Carribean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (front to back) of this east-looking view of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Elevation is shown with 1.5x scaled vertical exaggeration. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as very light shades of blue. Tropical vegetation appears green, and developed areas appear in shades of brown and white.

As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: 94.7 kilometers (58.7 miles) view distance, 29.2 kilometers (18.1 miles) view width Location: 18.25 degrees North latitude, 64.75 degrees West longitude Orientation: Looking EasT Image Data: Landsat Bands 1,2+4, 3 as blue, green, red, respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM and Landsat 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), January 21, 1985 (Landsat)

2003-01-01

226

SRTM Radar - Landsat Image Comparison, Patagonia, Argentina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to an elevation model of most of Earth'slandmass, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission will produce C-band radar imagery of the same area. This imagery is essentially a 10-day snapshot view of the Earth, as observed with 5.8 centimeter wavelength radar signals that were transmitted from the Shuttle, reflected by the Earth, and then recorded on the Shuttle. This six-image mosaic shows two examples of SRTM radar images (center) with comparisons to images acquired by the Landsat 7 satellite in the visible wavelengths (left) and an infrared wavelength (right). Both sets of images show lava flows in northern Patagonia, Argentina. In each case, the lava flows are relatively young compared to the surrounding rock formations.

In visible light (left) image brightness corresponds to mineral chemistry and -- as expected -- both lava flows appear dark. Generally, the upper flow sits atop much lighter bedrock, providing good contrast and making the edges of the flow distinct. However, the lower flow borders some rocks that are similarly dark, and the flow boundaries are somewhat obscured. Meanwhile, in the radar images (center), image brightness corresponds to surface roughness (and topographic orientation) and substantial differences between the flows are visible. Much of the top flow appears dark, meaning it is fairly smooth. Consequently, it forms little or no contrast with the smooth and dark surrounding bedrock and thus virtually vanishes from view. However, the lower flow appears rough and bright and mostly forms good contrast with adjacent bedrock such that the flow is locally more distinct here than in the visible Landsat view. For further comparison, infrared Landsat images (right) again show image brightnesses related to mineral chemistry, but the lava flows appear lighter than in the visible wavelengths. Consequently, the lower lava flow becomes fairly obscure among the various surrounding rocks, just as the upper flow did in the radar image. The various differences among all of these images illustrate the importance of illumination wavelength in image interpretation.

The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper images used here were provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

The radar images shown here were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

Size (top set): 21.3 kilometers (13.2 miles) x 25.0 kilometers (15.5 miles) Size (bottom set): 44.1 kilometers (27.3 miles) x 56.0 kilometers (34.7 miles) Location: 41.5 deg. South lat., 69 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper left (top set), North toward upper right (bottom set) Image Data: Landsat bands 1,2,3 (left); SRTM Radar (middle); Landsat band 7 (right) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 (SRTM), January 22, 2000 (Landsat)

2000-01-01

227

Instructional geographic information science Map overlay and spatial abilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental goal of this study is to determine if the complex spatial concept of map overlay can be effectively learned by young adolescents through the utilization of an instructional technique based within the foundations of Instructional Geographic Information Science (InGIScience). Percent correct and reaction times were the measures used to analyze the ability of young adolescents to learn the intersect, erase, and union functions of map overlay. The ability to solve for missing inputs, output, or function was also analyzed. Young adolescents of the test group scored higher percent correct and recorded faster reaction times than those of the control group or adults of the expert group by the end of the experiment. The intersect function of map overlay was more difficult in terms of percent correct and reaction time than the erase or union functions. Solving for the first or second input consistently resulted in lower percent correct and higher reaction times throughout the experiment. No overall performance differences were shown to exist between males and females. Results of a subjective "real-world" test also indicated learning by young adolescents. This study has shown that the practice of repetitive instruction and testing has proven effective for enhancing spatial abilities with regard to the map overlay concept. This study found that with practice, young adolescents can learn the map overlay concept and perform at levels equal to or greater than adults. This study has helped to answer the question of whether this development of spatial abilities is possible.

Tricot, Thomas Alexander, II

228

Diffraction-based overlay for spacer patterning and double patterning technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay performance will be increasingly important for Spacer Patterning Technology (SPT) and Double Patterning Technology (DPT) as various Resolution Enhancement Techniques are employed to extend the resolution limits of lithography. Continuous shrinkage of devices makes overlay accuracy one of the most critical issues while overlay performance is completely dependent on exposure tool. Image Based Overlay (IBO) has been used as the mainstream metrology for overlay by the main memory IC companies, but IBO is not suitable for some critical layers due to the poor Tool Induced Shift (TIS) values. Hence new overlay metrology is required to improve the overlay measurement accuracy. Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) is regarded to be an alternative metrology to IBO for more accurate measurements and reduction of reading errors. Good overlay performances of DBO have been reported in many articles. However applying DBO for SPT and DPT layers poses extra challenges for target design. New vernier designs are considered for different DPT and SPT schemes to meet overlay target in DBO system. In this paper, we optimize the design of the DBO target and the performance of DBO to meet the overlay specification of sub-3x nm devices which are using SPT and DPT processes. We show that the appropriate vernier design yields excellent overlay performance in residual and TIS. The paper also demonstrated the effects of vernier structure on overlay accuracy from SEM analysis.

Lee, Byoung Hoon; Park, JeongSu; Lee, Jongsu; Park, Sarohan; Lim, ChangMoon; Yim, Dong-Gyu; Park, Sungki; Ryu, Chan-Ho; Morgan, Stephen; van de Schaar, Maurits; Fuchs, Andreas; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve

2011-03-01

229

Landsat: The Backbone for Mapping and Monitoring Global Ecological Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term ecological monitoring requires consistent observation of key variables, long-term measurement continuity, and open and affordable access to measurements. The Landsat series of Earth observation missions uniquely meet those criteria, and Landsat's 30m-observation scale permits the detection and differentiation of natural versus human-caused land change. Landsat is the longest and most comprehensive record of the state of the global land surface in existence. No other high-resolution satellite program is either capable or committed to the systematic monitoring of global scale human and natural land change. Beginning with Landsat 1 in 1972, six Landsat missions have continuously recorded images of the Earth. As we near the fortieth anniversary of Landsat, we now have an archive of millions of repetitive images of the Earth with multispectral properties suited to assessing both biotic and abiotic conditions and at a scale appropriate for resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Landsat archive contains nearly three million scenes and all are available to users at no cost. Furthermore, the entire Landsat record, Landsats 1-7, is now calibrated to a common radiometric standard and the majority of the data are orthorectified - enabling immediate assessment of long-term ecological conditions and land change. Landsats 5 and 7 continue to collect imagery and together they provide the potential to cover a significant portion of the Earth's land surfaces every eight days. Both of these missions now use a long-term acquisition plan designed to improve the collection of seasonal global coverage. Furthermore, recent agreements with international Landsat receiving stations are bringing previously inaccessible contemporary Landsat 5 data into the EROS archive. The amount of global coverage being acquired annually is the highest level in the history of the Landsat program. The EROS global historical archive is rapidly expanding because of the addition of 1972-present Landsat holdings from ground stations worldwide. More than three million Landsat scenes not currently found in the EROS archive exist in archives around the world and many of these data are at risk due to aging storage media and inadequate preservation practices. The repatriation of these data into the EROS archive will potentially double the number of no-cost Landsat scenes available to users. The uncertainty of future Landsat missions has challenged operational monitoring of ecological systems. However, that may be changing. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) being developed by NASA and the USGS is slated for a December 2012 launch. LDCM (which will be renamed Landsat 8 following launch) will use new imaging technology to provide improved multispectral measurements, and offers additional spectral bands and increased daily imaging capacity. While missions beyond LDCM are uncertain, the President's Fiscal Year 2012 budget requests funds for the planning and development of Landsats 9 and 10, and includes language that will make Landsat an operational program - ending the decades of uncertainty.

Loveland, T. R.

2011-12-01

230

LANDSAT-1 and Landsat-2 flight evaluation report, 23 October 1976 to 23 January 1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance analyses for LANDSAT 1 and 2, launched respectively in 1972 and 1975, are reported. Operational controls are evaluated, as well as orbital parameters and various subsystems. Both satellites continue to perform their missions normally, in spite of past minor operational malfunctions.

1977-01-01

231

LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report, 23 July - 23 October 1976  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT-1 spacecraft was launched from the Western Test Range on 23 July 1972, at 18:08:06.508Z. The launch and orbital injection phase of the space flight was nominal, and deployment of the spacecraft followed predictions. Performance evaluation of the spacecraft is presented.

1976-01-01

232

LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation report, 23 January - 23 April 1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT operations from launch through orbital instrument observations are reviewed. Orbital parameters, power subsystem, attitude control subsystem, and command/clock subsystem are discussed. Other subsystems are also considered, such as telemetry, orbit adjust, electrical interface, thermal, wideband telemetry, multispectral scanner, and data collection.

1977-01-01

233

LANDSAT: Non-US standard catalog. [LANDSAT imagery for August 1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The non-U. S. Standard Catalog lists non-U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1977-01-01

234

LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 September 1977. [LANDSAT imagery for September, 1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U. S. Standard Catalog lists U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover, and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1977-01-01

235

LANDSAT Non-US standard catalog, 1-31 December 1975. [LANDSAT imagery for December 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1975-01-01

236

A definitive calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper anchored to the Landsat-7 radiometric scale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A coordinated effort on the part of several agencies has led to the specification of a definitive radiometric calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) for its lifetime since launch in 1984. The time-dependent calibration record for Landsat-5 TM has been placed on the same radiometric scale as the Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+). It has been implemented in the National Landsat Archive Production Systems (NLAPS) in use in North America. This paper documents the results of this collaborative effort and the specifications for the related calibration processing algorithms. The specifications include (i) anchoring of the Landsat-5 TM calibration record to the Landsat-7 ETM+ absolute radiometric calibration, (ii) new time-dependent calibration processing equations and procedures applicable to raw Landsat-5 TM data, and (iii) algorithms for recalibration computations applicable to some of the existing processed datasets in the North American context. The cross-calibration between Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ was achieved using image pairs from the tandem-orbit configuration period that was programmed early in the Laridsat-7 mission. The time-dependent calibration for Landsat-5 TM is based on a detailed trend analysis of data from the on-board internal calibrator. The new lifetime radiometric calibration record for Landsat-5 will overcome problems with earlier product generation owing to inadequate maintenance and documentation of the calibration over time and will facilitate the quantitative examination of a continuous, near-global dataset at 30-m scale that spans almost two decades.

Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; Ruggles, T.A.; Landry, R.; Ahern, F.J.; Higgs, N.J.; Barsi, J.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Thome, K.J.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, F.D.

2004-01-01

237

Integration of Landsat, Seasat, and other geo-data sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses integration of Landsat, Seasat, and other geographic information sources. Mosaicking of radar data and registration of radar to Landsat digital imagery are described, and six types of geophysical data, including gravity and magnetic measurements, are integrated and analyzed using image processing techniques.

Zobrist, A. L.; Blackwell, R. J.; Stromberg, W. D.

1979-01-01

238

Excerpts from selected LANDSAT 1 final reports in geology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The standard formats for the summaries of selected LANDSAT geological data are presented as checklists. These include: (1) value of LANDSAT data to geology, (2) geologic benefits, (3) follow up studies, (4) cost benefits, (5) optimistic working scales, (6) statistical analysis, and (7) enhancement effects.

Short, N. M.; Smith, A.; Baker, R.

1976-01-01

239

LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-31 March 1976  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1976-01-01

240

LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-31 May 1976  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. standard catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1976-01-01

241

LANDSAT 1 cumulative US standard catalog, 1976/1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT 1 U.S. Cumulative Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced year. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found are also given.

1977-01-01

242

Improved forest change detection with terrain illumination corrected landsat images  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An illumination correction algorithm has been developed to improve the accuracy of forest change detection from Landsat reflectance data. This algorithm is based on an empirical rotation model and was tested on the Landsat imagery pair over Cherokee National Forest, Tennessee, Uinta-Wasatch-Cache N...

243

Accessing Landsat Data and Using it in ArcGIS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This post on the AmericaView Blog describes accessing Landsat data and using it in the ArcGIS program. The post includes a link to an instructional video which will show you how to access freely available Landsat satellite imagery and data and then work with it in ArcGIS. Running time for the video is 8:01.

244

LANDSAT 1 non-US cumulative catalog, 1975 - 1976  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT 1 non-U.S. Cumulative Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced year. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1976-01-01

245

LANDSAT 2 cumulative non-US standard catalog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referred month. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1977-01-01

246

Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path/row 14/35, 21/37, and 16/34 are being used. Within each frame, all available cloud-free scenes within a two- to three-year period have been obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center processed to L1T, and subsequently converted to top-of-atmosphere reflectance using standard methods and the latest calibration parameter files. Atmospheric amelioration started with dark object subtraction (band minimum) and only proceeded to more complex techniques as necessary. Subsequent to preprocessing, the reduced simple ratio (RSR; using global min/max) was calculated for all images for each WRS path/row. Pure pine pixels in each frame were identified using unsupervised classification of the most recent leaf-off scene. We developed four age classes using two decades of Landsat data over each WRS path/row. CASA runs, which require soil parameters, and gridded climate/solar radiation in addition to satellite-derived vegetation indices, are now complete. Soil respiration and productivity estimates are being evaluated using a regionwide network of validation sites spanning the range of loblolly pine (Texas to Virginia). Preliminary results indicate that Landsat-based process modeling (1) is necessary for the scale at which land is actually managed and (2) produces estimates with an accuracy and precision affording improved understanding and management of forest ecosystems.

Wynne, R. H.; Potter, C. S.; Blinn, C. E.

2008-12-01

247

Analytical Study of Adversarial Strategies in Cluster-based Overlays E. Anceaume  

E-print Network

demonstrates first that an adversary can very quickly subvert DHT-based overlays by simply never triggering-to-peer overlay networks as a building block for architecting Internet scale systems has raised the attention

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

Analytical Study of Adversarial Strategies in Cluster-based Overlays E. Anceaume  

E-print Network

demonstrates #12;rst that an adversary can very quickly subvert DHT-based overlays by simply never triggering-to-peer overlay networks as a building block for architecting Internet scale systems has raised the attention

Recanati, Catherine

249

High-frequency nonreciprocal reflection from magnetic films with overlayers  

SciTech Connect

We perform a theoretical study of the nonreciprocal reflection of high-frequency microwave radiation from ferromagnetic films with thin overlayers. Reflection from metallic ferromagnetic films is always near unity and shows no nonreciprocity. In contrast, reflection from a structure which has a dielectric overlayer on top of a film composed of insulated ferromagnetic nanoparticles or nanostructures can show significant nonreciprocity in the 75–80?GHz frequency range, a very high value. This can be important for devices such as isolators or circulators.

Wang, Ying; Nie, Yan; Camley, R. E. [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

2013-11-14

250

Investigations using data from LANDSAT-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT imageries of Mirpur area of Dacca district were used in connection with surveys for black plastic clay. The imageries showed the broad pattern of small valleys cutting into Madhupur clay. Land use maps of Haor areas of Sylhet and Mymensingh districts were prepared. As a test case, two thana areas, namely Nickley and Astogram, were classified in different categories such as crop, settlement, and water. It does not show much agreement with the Agriculture Dept.'s statistics.

Hossain, A. (principal investigator)

1977-01-01

251

Landsat 7 Solar Array Testing Experiences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper covers the extensive Landsat 7 solar array flight qualification testing effort. Details of the mechanical design of the solar array and its retention/release system are presented. A testing chronology is provided beginning with the onset of problems encountered at the subsystem level and carrying through the third and final powered-spacecraft ground deployment test. Design fixes and other changes are explained in the same order as they became necessary to flight-qualify the array. Some interesting lessons learned are included along with key references.

Helfrich, Daniel

2000-01-01

252

Operational alternatives for LANDSAT in California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data integration is defined and examined as the means of promoting data sharing among the various governmental and private geobased information systems in California. Elements of vertical integration considered included technical factors (such as resolution and classification) and institutional factors (such as organizational control, and legal and political barriers). Attempts are made to fit the theoretical elements of vertical integration into a meaningful structure for looking at the problem from a statewide focus. Both manual (mapped) and machine readable data systems are included. Special attention is given to LANDSAT imagery because of its strong potential for integrated use and its primary in the California Integrated Remote Sensing System program.

Wilson, P.; Gialdini, M. J.

1981-01-01

253

Multidate Landsat lake quality monitoring program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified package of files and programs has been developed to automate the multidate Landsat-derived analyses of water quality for about 3000 inland lakes throughout Wisconsin. A master lakes file which stores geographic information on the lakes, a file giving the latitudes and longitudes of control points for scene navigation, and a program to estimate control point locations and produce microfiche character maps for scene navigation are among the files and programs of the system. The use of ground coordinate systems to isolate irregular shaped areas which can be accessed at will appears to provide an economical means of restricting the size of the data set.

Fisher, L. T.; Scarpace, F. L.; Thomsen, R. G.

1979-01-01

254

Lake water quality mapping from Landsat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the project described remote sensing was used to check the quality of lake waters. The lakes of three Landsat scenes were mapped with the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. From the MDAS color coded maps, the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. The lake was closely checked, and the presence of 100 cows in the springs which fed the lake could be identified as the pollution source. The laboratory and field work involved in the lake classification project is described.

Scherz, J. P.

1977-01-01

255

Landsat - What is operational in water resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applications of Landsat data in hydrology and water quality measurement were examined to determine which applications are operational. In hydrology, the principal applications have been surface water inventory, and land cover analysis for (1) runoff modeling and (2) abatement planning for non-point pollution and erosion. In water quality measurement, the principal applications have been: (1) trophic state assessment, and (2) measurement of turbidity and suspended sediment. The following applications were found to be operational: mapping of surface water, snow cover, and land cover (USGS Level 1) for watershed applications; measurement of turbidity, Secchi disk depth, suspended sediment concentration, and water depth.

Middleton, E. M.; Munday, J. C., Jr.

1981-01-01

256

California coastal processes study, LANDSAT 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors have identified the following significant results. By using suspended sediments as tracers, objectives were met by qualitative definition of the nearshore circulation along the entire coast of California with special study sites at Humboldt Bay, the mouth of the Russian River, San Francisco Bay, Monterey Bay, and the Santa Barbara Channel. Although LANDSAT primarily imaged fines and silts in the surface waters, the distribution of sediments allowed an examination of upwelling, convergences and coastal erosion and deposition. In Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, these coastal phenomena were used to trace seasonal trends in surface currents.

Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (principal investigators)

1977-01-01

257

Improved LANDSAT to give better view of earth resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launch data of LANDSAT 3 is announced. The improved capability of the spacecrafts' remote sensors (the return beam vidicon and the multispectral scanner) and application of LANDSAT data to the study of energy supplies, food production, and global large-scale environmental monitoring are discussed along with the piggyback amateur radio communication satellite-OSCAR-D, the plasma Interaction Experiment, and the data collection system onboard LANDSAT 3. An assessment of the utility of LANDSAT multispectral data is given based on the research results to data from studies of LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. Areas studied include agriculture, rangelands, forestry, water resources, environmental and marine resources, environmental and marine resources, cartography, land use, demography, and geological surveys and mineral/petroleum exploration.

1978-01-01

258

Applications of modeling to analysis and processing of Landsat data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Suits bidirectional reflectance model (1972) for vegetation canopies was used to calculate reflectance values for the four Landsat spectral bands under a variety of canopy and observation conditions. Relationships between characteristics of developing wheat fields and associated reflectances were studied. Coincident measurements of crop reflectance and Landsat signals were compared using regression analysis techniques. The model was also applied to forest situations both to help establish the extent to which Landsat may provide direct information about conditions occurring beneath forest overstories and to help develop methods for reducing the effects of terrain slope and aspect in the processing of Landsat data. Finally, a relationship based on model calculations was used to adjust Landsat signal values and was found to reduce topography-related variability and improve subsequent classification performance.

Malila, W. A.; Gleason, J. M.; Sadowski, F. G.; Cicone, R. C.; Crist, E. P.

1978-01-01

259

Performance Evaluation and Comparison of Tree and Ring Application-Layer Multicast Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application-layer multicast (ALM) protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Therefore, comparing the performance of ALM overlay networks is an important step to- wards assessing the inherent advantages and\\/or limitations of each overlay network topology. In particular, ring-based ALM overlay networks have the advantages of (a) providing a con-

Ahmed Sobeih; Jun Wang; William Yurcik

260

Sesso Especial: Landsat-8: Planos e Perspectivas (Landsat-8: Plans and Perspectives) Coordenador: Michael A. Wulder (Canadian Forest Service, Canad)  

E-print Network

, and the creation and sharing of imagery and related products. Landsat is important internationally, and to Brazil, with successful monitoring and reporting projects, such as PRODES, utilizing Landsat imagery. The collection of global imagery since the inception of the program in 1972 has resulted in a unique record documenting

261

LANDSAT: US standard catalog, 1 February 1977 - 28 February 1977. [LANDSAT imagery for the month of February 1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as data acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1977-01-01

262

LANDSAT non-U.S. standard catalog, 1 January 1977 through 31 January 1977. [LANDSAT imagery January 1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog lists Non-U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which was processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover, and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

1977-01-01

263

Improvement of Panorama-Based Annotation Overlay Using Omnidirectional Vision and Inertial Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annotation overlay on live videoframes is an essentialfeature of augmentedreality (AR), and is awell-suited application for wearable computers. A novelmethod of annotation overlay and its real-time implementationis presented. This method uses a set ofpanoramic images capturedbyomnidirectional visionat various points of environment and annotations attachedon the images. The method overlays the annotationsaccording to the image alignment between theinput frames and the

Masakatsu Kourogi; Takeshi Kurata; Katsuhiko Sakaue; Yoichi Muraoka

2000-01-01

264

Distributed QoS Routing for Backbone Overlay , Swapna S. Gokhale2  

E-print Network

Distributed QoS Routing for Backbone Overlay Networks Li Lao1 , Swapna S. Gokhale2 , and Jun-added services. Due to the difficulty of supporting end-to-end QoS purely in end-user overlays, backbone over- lays for QoS support have been proposed. In this paper, we describe a backbone QoS overlay network

Cui, Jun-Hong

265

Scalable deterministic end-to-end probing and analytical method for overlay network monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overlay network monitoring is one of the most important issues in the design and operation of overlay networks. It faced with increasing demand for better throughput and response time performance. Given an overlay network with n end hosts, existing systems either require O (n2) measurements, and thus lack scalability, or can only estimate the latency but not failures or congestion.

Yanjie Ren; Yan Qiao; Xue-song Qiu; Shun-an Wu

2011-01-01

266

Construction of an Efficient Overlay Multicast Infrastructure for Real-time Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider an overlay architecture where service providers deploy a set of service nodes (called MSNs) in the network to efficiently implement media-streaming applications. These MSNs are organized into an overlay and act as application- layer multicast forwarding entities for a set of clients. We present a decentralized scheme that organizes the MSNs into an appropriate overlay structure that is

Suman Banerjee; Christopher Kommareddy; Koushik Kar; Samrat Bhattacharjee; Samir Khuller

2003-01-01

267

LANDSAT-D investigations in snow hydrology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work undertaken during the contract and its results are described. Many of the results from this investigation are available in journal or conference proceedings literature - published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. For these the reference and the abstract are given. Those results that have not yet been submitted separately for publication are described in detail. Accomplishments during the contract period are summarized as follows: (1) analysis of the snow reflectance characteristics of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper, including spectral suitability, dynamic range, and spectral resolution; (2) development of a variety of atmospheric models for use with LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data. These include a simple but fast two-stream approximation for inhomogeneous atmospheres over irregular surfaces, and a doubling model for calculation of the angular distribution of spectral radiance at any level in an plane-parallel atmosphere; (3) incorporation of digital elevation data into the atmospheric models and into the analysis of the satellite data; and (4) textural analysis of the spatial distribution of snow cover.

Dozier, J. (principal investigator); Davis, R. E.; Dubayah, R. O.; Frew, J. E.; Li, S.; Marks, D.; Milliff, R. F.; Rousseau, D. D.; Wan, Z. M.

1985-01-01

268

Digital techniques for processing Landsat imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the basic techniques used to process Landsat images with a digital computer, and the VICAR image processing software developed at JPL and available to users through the NASA sponsored COSMIC computer program distribution center is presented. Examples of subjective processing performed to improve the information display for the human observer, such as contrast enhancement, pseudocolor display and band rationing, and of quantitative processing using mathematical models, such as classification based on multispectral signatures of different areas within a given scene and geometric transformation of imagery into standard mapping projections are given. Examples are illustrated by Landsat scenes of the Andes mountains and Altyn-Tagh fault zone in China before and after contrast enhancement and classification of land use in Portland, Oregon. The VICAR image processing software system which consists of a language translator that simplifies execution of image processing programs and provides a general purpose format so that imagery from a variety of sources can be processed by the same basic set of general applications programs is described.

Green, W. B.

1978-01-01

269

Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

2007-01-01

270

Stochastic nature of Landsat MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiple series generalization of the ARIMA models is used to model Landsat MSS scan lines as sequences of vectors, each vector having four elements (bands). The purpose of this work is to investigate if Landsat scan lines can be described by a general multiple series linear stochastic model and if the coefficients of such a model vary as a function of satellite system and target attributes. To accomplish this objective, an exploratory experimental design was set up incorporating six factors, four representing target attributes - location, cloud cover, row (within location), and column (within location) - and two factors representing system attributes - satellite number and detector bank. Each factor was included in the design at two levels and, with two replicates per treatment, 128 scan lines were analyzed. The results of the analysis suggests that a multiple AR(4) model is an adequate representation across all scan lines. Furthermore, the coefficients of the AR(4) model vary with location, particularly changes in physiography (slope regimes), and with percent cloud cover, but are insensitive to changes in system attributes.

Labovitz, M. L.; Masuoka, E. J.

1987-01-01

271

Progress Towards a 2012 Landsat Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is on schedule for a December 2012 launch date. The mission is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). NASA leads the development and launch of the satellite observatory while leads ground system development. USGS will assume responsibility for operating the satellite and for collecting, archiving, and distributing the LDCM data following launch. When launched the satellite will carry two sensors into orbit. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will coincidently collect data for two thermal infrared bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it?s manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The ground data processing system is in development at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite system, provide the status of system development, and present prelaunch performance data for OLI and TIRS. The USGS has committed to renaming the satellite as Landsat 8 following launch.

Irons, Jim; Sabelhaus, Phil; Masek, Jeff; Cook, Bruce; Dabney, Phil; Loveland, Tom

2012-01-01

272

PAVEMENT OVERLAY THICKNESS EVALUATION USING GROUND PENTRATING RADAR (GPR)  

E-print Network

PAVEMENT OVERLAY THICKNESS EVALUATION USING GROUND PENTRATING RADAR (GPR) Dwayne Harris, M.Sc., PG deflectometer (FWD), and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Core drilling provides very accurate pin point pavement and affected by the limitations and assumptions the method used to estimate thickness. GPR provides pavement

Shan, Jie

273

Improved overlay control through automated high order compensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Moore's Law drives CD smaller and smaller, overlay budget is shrinking rapidly. Furthermore, the cost of advanced lithography tools prohibits usage of latest and greatest scanners on non-critical layers, resulting in different layers being exposed with different tools; a practice commonly known as 'mix and match.' Since each tool has its unique signature, mix and match becomes the source of high order overlay errors. Scanner alignment performance can be degraded by a factor of 2 in mix and match, compared to single tool overlay operation. In a production environment where scanners from different vendors are mixed, errors will be even more significant. Mix and match may also be applied to a single scanner when multiple illumination modes are used to expose critical levels. This is because different illuminations will have different impact to scanner aberration fingerprint. The semiconductor technology roadmap has reached a point where such errors are no longer negligible. Mix and match overlay errors consist of scanner stage grid component, scanner field distortion component, and process induced wafer distortion. Scanner components are somewhat systematic, so they can be characterized on non product wafers using a dedicated reticle. Since these components are known to drift over time it becomes necessary to monitor them periodically, per scanner, per illumination. In this paper, we outline a methodology for automating characterization of mix and match errors, and a control system for real-time correction.

Wakamoto, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yasukawa, K.; Sukegawa, A.; Maejima, S.; Kato, A.; Robinson, J. C.; Eichelberger, B. J.; Izikson, P.; Adel, M.

2007-03-01

274

Refined Overlay Power Management in the Home Environment  

E-print Network

power consumption makes up a large part of global energy consumption. These home appliances are not only efficient power management. Index Terms--Home network, Energy saving, Green network- ing, Overlay control communication [1]. Energy saving is recognized as a key issue in global warming and climate change. According

Boyer, Edmond

275

Concrete Overlay as a Rehabilitation Option for Distressed Asphalt Pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-thin Whitetopping (UTW) involves placing a very thin concrete overlay 50 mm to 100 mm thick (2”-4”) on the milled surface of a distressed asphalt pavement. To investigate the performance of UTW placed over a flexible pavement subjected to slow and heavy moving wheel loads, whitetopping mixes were placed over a milled pavement surface in the Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT)

Sudarshan Rajan; J. Olek

2002-01-01

276

A Generic Scheme for Building Overlay Networks in Adversarial Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generic scheme for a central, yet un- tackled issue in overlay dynamic networks: maintaining stability over long life and against malicious adversaries. The generic scheme maintains desirable properties of the underlying structure including low diameter, and efficient routing mechanism, as well as balanced node dispersal. These desired properties are maintained in a decentral- ized manner without

Ittai Abraham; Baruch Awerbuch; Yossi Azar; Yair Bartal; Dahlia Malkhi; Elan Pavlov

2003-01-01

277

T-Man: Gossip-based Overlay Topology Mark Jelasity  

E-print Network

T-Man: Gossip-based Overlay Topology Management M´ark Jelasity and Ozalp Babaoglu University of nodes can also be interpreted as a topology. In this paper we propose a generic protocol, T-Man, intuitive and flexible manner. At the same time, the T-Man protocol involves only local communication

Jelasity, Márk

278

Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses  

E-print Network

Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses Atul Singh, Tsuen-Wan "Johnny" Ngan of peers, forming a graph upon which a distributed application or service is implemented. In an "Eclipse of malicious nodes can eclipse a large number of correct victim nodes. This paper studies the impact of Eclipse

Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

279

Incidental Learning of Geospatial Concepts across Grade Levels: Map Overlay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the authors evaluate map overlay, a concept central to geospatial thinking, to determine how it is naively and technically understood, as well as to identify when it is leaner innately. The evaluation is supported by results from studies at three grade levels to show the progression of incidentally learned geospatial knowledge as…

Battersby, Sarah E.; Golledge, Reginald G.; Marsh, Meredith J.

2006-01-01

280

Efficient Routing for Peer-to-Peer Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current peer-to-peer lookup schemes keep a small amount of routing state per node, typically logarithmic in the number of overlay nodes. This de- sign assumes that routing information at each mem- ber node must be kept small, so that the book- keeping required to respond to system membership changes is also small, given that aggressive mem- bership dynamics are

Anjali Gupta; Barbara Liskov; Rodrigo Rodrigues

2004-01-01

281

APPLICATION OF NELSON'S SORPTION ISOTHERM TO WOOD COMPOSITES AND OVERLAYS'  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF NELSON'S SORPTION ISOTHERM TO WOOD COMPOSITES AND OVERLAYS' Qinglin Wu Assistant in both adsorption and desorption at 2 9 2 . The EMC- RH data were fit to Nelson's sorption isotherm. It was found that Nelson's model can be used to describe the experimental data from different composite

282

Content Delivery in Overlay Networks: a Stochastic Graph Processes Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, We consider the problem of distributing a content of nite size to a group of users connected through an overlay network that is built by a peer-to-peer application. The goal is the fastest possible diffusion of the content until it reaches all the

Damiano Carra; Renato Lo Cigno; Ernst W. Biersack

2006-01-01

283

Prediction of Reflection Cracking in Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays  

E-print Network

Reflection cracking is one of the main distresses in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays. It has been a serious concern since early in the 20th century. Since then, several models have been developed to predict the extent and severity of reflection...

Tsai, Fang-Ling

2011-02-22

284

Promoting Learning of Instructional Design via Overlay Design Tools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I begin by introducing Virtual Design Apprenticeship (VDA), a learning model--built on a solid foundation of education principles and theories--that promotes learning of design skills via overlay design tools. In VDA, when an individual needs to learn a new design skill or paradigm she is provided accessible, concrete examples that have been…

Carle, Andrew Jacob

2012-01-01

285

Factors affecting the erosion resistance of weld overlays  

SciTech Connect

Research was conducted to study factors affecting the solid particle erosion resistance of weld overlay coatings. Eleven weld overlay alloys were deposited on 1018 steel substrates using the plasma arc welding process and erosion tested at 400 C. Erosion resistance was evaluated by determining the steady state erosion rate. Ultimet, Inconel-625, and 316L SS coatings showed the best erosion resistance at 30 and 90{degree} impact angles. Microhardness tests were performed on the eroded samples below the erosion surface to determine the size of the plastically deformed zone and it was found that one group of coatings deformed plastically as a result of the particle impact while the others did not. No correlations were found between average microhardness at 400 C and volumetric erosion rates for plastically deformed weld overlays. For this group of overlays erosion resistance was correlated to the area under the curve of microhardness versus distance from the eroded surface. The physical significance of this parameter is discussed. For coatings that did not deform plastically, an increase in average microhardness at 400 C led to an increase in their volumetric erosion rates. The possible erosion mechanisms for these coating groups are discussed.

Levin, B.F.; Dupont, J.N.; Marder, A.R. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

286

Active membrane masks for improved overlay performance in proximity lithography  

E-print Network

. With the continuous drive to the printing of ever-finer features in microelectronics, the reduction of mask-wafer overlay positioning errors by passive rigid body positioning and passive stress control in the mask perimeter. The thermoelectric elements cause controlled thermoelastic deformations in the supporting wafer

Huston, Dryver R.

287

An Overlay Architecture for High Quality VoIP Streams  

E-print Network

An Overlay Architecture for High Quality VoIP Streams Yair Amir, Member, IEEE, ACM, Claudiu Danilov features associated with Voice over IP (VoIP) are driving its adoption by service providers. Unfortunately and jitter is the key requirement for supporting high quality interactive conversations, VoIP applications

Amir, Yair

288

An Overlay Architecture for High Quality VoIP Streams  

E-print Network

An Overlay Architecture for High Quality VoIP Streams Yair Amir, Claudiu Danilov, Stuart Goose://www.cnds.jhu.edu Abstract-- The cost savings and novel features associated with Voice over IP (VoIP) are driving its requirement for supporting high quality interactive conversations, VoIP applications use UDP to transfer data

Amir, Yair

289

Virtual haptic overlays enhance performance in telepresence tasks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An empirical study was performed in which human subjects were asked to execute a peg- insertion task through a telepresence link with force-feedback. Subjects controlled a remote manipulator through natural hand motions by using an anthropomorphic upper body exoskeleton. The force-reflecting exoskeleton could present haptic sensations in six degrees of freedom. Subjects viewed the remote site through a high fidelity stereo vision system. Subjects performed the peg-insertion task under three different conditions: (1) in-person (direct manipulation), (2) through the telepresence link (telemanipulation), and (3) through the telepresence link while using abstract virtual haptic overlays known as `virtual fixtures' (telemanipulation with virtual fixturing). Five different haptic overlays were tested which included virtual surfaces, virtual damping fields, virtual snap-to-planes, and virtual snap-to- lines. Results of subject testing confirmed that human performance was significantly degraded when comparing telepresence manipulation to direct in-person manipulation. Results also confirmed that by introducing abstract haptic overlays into telepresence link, operator performance could be restored closer to natural in-person capacity. The use of 3D haptic overlays were found to as much as double manual performance in the standard peg-insertion task.

Rosenberg, Louis B.

1995-12-01

290

Recovery of Sublethally Injured Bacteria Using Selective Agar Overlays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment subjects bacteria in a food sample and an environmental sample to conditions of sublethal stress in order to assess the effectiveness of the agar overlay method to recover sublethally injured cells compared to direct plating onto the appropriate selective medium. (SAH)

McKillip, John L.

2001-01-01

291

Investigation of radiometric properties of the LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric data quality of the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) was examined using several LANDSAT 4 frames. It was found that LANDSAT 4 MSS produces high-quality data of the caliber experienced with previous LANDSATS. For example, the detector equalization procedure worked well, leaving a residual banding effect of about 0.3 digital counts RMS, close to the theoretical minimum value of quantization error. Nevertheless, artifacts of the data were found, two of which were not experienced in previous MSS data. A low-level coherent noise effect was observed in all bands, with a magnitude of about 0.5 digital counts and a frequency of approximately 28 KHz (representing a wavelength of about 3.6 pixels); a substantial increase in processing complexity would be required to reduce this artifact in the data. Also, a substantial scan-length variation (of up to six pixels) was noted in MSS data when the TM sensor was operating; the LANDSAT 4 correction algorithms being applied routinely by the EROS Data Center to produce a p-type data should remove most of this variation. Between-satellite calibrations were examined in paired LANDSAT 3 and LANDSAT 4 MSS data sets, which were closely matched in acquisition time and place. Radiometric comparisons showed that all bands were highly linear in digital counts, and a well-determined linear transformation between the MSS's was established.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Rice, D. P.

1983-01-01

292

Landsat-D TM application to porphyry copper exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For a number of years Landsat data have been used to locate areas of iron oxide occurrences which might be associated with hydrothermal alteration zones. However, the usefulness of the Landsat data was restricted because of certain limitations of the spectral information provided by Landsat. A new generation multispectral scanner will, therefore, be carried by the fourth Landsat, which is to be launched in July, 1982. This instrument, called the Thematic Mapper (TM), will have seven channels and provide data with 30 m spatial resolution. Two of the spectral channels (1.6 micron and 2.2 micron) should allow detection of hydrous minerals. Possible applications of Landsat-D TM data for copper exploration were studied on the basis of a comparison of Landsat data with simulated TM data acquired using an aircraft scanner instrument. Three porphyr copper deposits in Arizona were selected for the study. It is concluded that the new Landsat-D TM scanner will provide Exploration geologists with a new improved tool for surveying mineral resources on a global basis.

Abrams, M.; Brown, D.; Sadowski, R.; Lepley, L.

1982-01-01

293

Quality Assessment of Landsat Surface Reflectance Products Using MODIS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface reflectance adjusted for atmospheric effects is a primary input for land cover change detection and for developing many higher level surface geophysical parameters. With the development of automated atmospheric correction algorithms, it is now feasible to produce large quantities of surface reflectance products using Landsat images. Validation of these products requires in situ measurements, which either do not exist or are difficult to obtain for most Landsat images. The surface reflectance products derived using data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however, have been validated more comprehensively. Because the MODIS on the Terra platform and the Landsat 7 are only half an hour apart following the same orbit, and each of the 6 Landsat spectral bands overlaps with a MODIS band, good agreements between MODIS and Landsat surface reflectance values can be considered indicators of the reliability of the Landsat products, while disagreements may suggest potential quality problems that need to be further investigated. Here we develop a system called Landsat-MODIS Consistency Checking System (LMCCS). This system automatically matches Landsat data with MODIS observations acquired on the same date over the same locations and uses them to calculate a set of agreement metrics. To maximize its portability, Java and open-source libraries were used in developing this system, and object-oriented programming (OOP) principles were followed to make it more flexible for future expansion. As a highly automated system designed to run as a stand-alone package or as a component of other Landsat data processing systems, this system can be used to assess the quality of essentially every Landsat surface reflectance image where spatially and temporally matching MODIS data are available. The effectiveness of this system was demonstrated using it to assess preliminary surface reflectance products derived using the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat images for the 2000 epoch. As surface reflectance likely will be a standard product for future Landsat missions, the approach developed in this study can be adapted as an operational quality assessment system for those missions.

Feng, Min; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Vermote, Eric; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Townshend, John R.

2012-01-01

294

Principal component greenness transformation in multitemporal agricultural Landsat data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data compression technique for multitemporal Landsat imagery which extracts phenological growth pattern information for agricultural crops is described. The principal component greenness transformation was applied to multitemporal agricultural Landsat data for information retrieval. The transformation was favorable for applications in agricultural Landsat data analysis because of its physical interpretability and its relation to the phenological growth of crops. It was also found that the first and second greenness eigenvector components define a temporal small-grain trajectory and nonsmall-grain trajectory, respectively.

Abotteen, R. A.

1978-01-01

295

Data screening and preprocessing for Landsat MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two computer algorithms are presented. The first, called SCREEN, is used to automatically identify pixels representing clouds, cloud shadows, snow, water, or anomalous signals in Landsat-2 data. The second, called XSTAR, compensates Landsat-2 data for the effects of atmospheric haze, without requiring ground measurements or ground references. The presentation of these algorithms includes their theoretical background, algebraic details, and performance characteristics. Verification of the algorithms has for the present been limited to Landsat agricultural data. Plans for further development of the XSTAR technique are also presented.

Lambeck, P. F.; Kauth, R.; Thomas, G. S.

1978-01-01

296

LANDSAT-D thermal analysis and design support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed thermal models of the LANDSAT-D Earth Sensor Assembly Module (ESAM), the Dummy Thematic Mapper (DTM), and a small thermal model of the LANDSAT-D spacecraft for a heater analysis were developed. These models were used to develop and verify the thermal design of the ESAM and DTM, to evaluate the aeroheating effects on ESAM during launch and to evaluate the thermal response of the LANDSAT-D assuming the hard-line heaters failed on with the spacecraft in the Space Transportation System (STS) orbiter bay. Results of model applications are summarized.

1982-01-01

297

Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geometric accuracy of the Landsat Thematic Mappers was assessed by a linear least-square comparison of the positions of conspicuous ground features in digital images with their geographic locations as determined from 1:24 000-scale maps. For a Landsat-5 image, the single-dimension standard deviations of the standard digital product, and of this image with additional linear corrections, are 11.2 and 10.3 m, respectively (0.4 pixel). An F-test showed that skew and affine distortion corrections are not significant. At this level of accuracy, the granularity of the digital image and the probable inaccuracy of the 1:24 000 maps began to affect the precision of the comparison. The tested image, even with a moderate accuracy loss in the digital-to-graphic conversion, meets National Horizontal Map Accuracy standards for scales of 1:100 000 and smaller. Two Landsat-4 images, obtained with the Multispectral Scanner on and off, and processed by an interim software system, contain significant skew and affine distortions. -Authors

Borgeson, W.T.; Batson, R.M.; Kieffer, H.H.

1985-01-01

298

Distributed QoS Routing for Backbone Overlay Jun-Hong Cui, Swapna S. Gokhale, Li Lao and Jijun Lu  

E-print Network

1 Distributed QoS Routing for Backbone Overlay Networks Jun-Hong Cui, Swapna S. Gokhale, Li Lao, but due to the difficulty of supporting end-to-end QoS purely in end-user overlays, backbone overlays for QoS support have been proposed. In this paper, we describe a backbone QoS overlay network

Cui, Jun-Hong

299

An industrial perspective of the LANDSAT opportunity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of enhancing LANDSAT products to provide the greatest usability low cost data possible can be determined through government sponsorship and finance of one or more task forces composed of a critical number of experts in multiple disciplines from many industries and academia. The synergism of multiple minds addressing singular problems without the creation of permanent or perpetual structures must yield output in the form of implementable specifications, even if presented as alternatives. Changes are needed within the spacecraft in order to account for Sun angle changes. The use of pointing accuracy to make geometric corrections (and possible radiometric corrections, is needed more than onboard data reduction and information extraction, which assume a proper knowledge of application and reduce potential utilization. Multilinear arrays need to be investigated and methods for sensor calibration and for determining the effects of atmospheric inversion, as well as the best way to back out the modulation transfer function must be determined.

Williams, B. F.

1981-01-01

300

LANDSAT D local user terminal study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of the changes incorporated in the LANDSAT D system on the ability of a local user terminal to receive, record and process data in real time was studied. Alternate solutions to the problems raised by these changes were evaluated. A loading analysis was performed in order to determine the quantities of data that a local user terminal (LUT) would be interested in receiving and processing. The number of bits in an MSS and a TM scene were calculated along with the number of scenes per day that an LUT might require for processing. These then combined to a total number of processed bits/day for an LUT as a function of sensor and coverage circle radius.

Alexander, L.; Louie, M.; Spencer, R.; Stow, W. K.

1976-01-01

301

Mesoscale cloud phenomena observed by LANDSAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examples of certain mesoscale cloud features - jet cirrus, eddies/vortices, cloud banding, and wave clouds - were collected from LANDSAT imagery and placed into Mason's four groups of causes of cloud formation based on the mechanism of vertical motion which produces condensation. These groups are as follows: (1) layer clouds formed by widespread regular ascent; (2) layer clouds caused by irregular stirring motions; (3) convective clouds; and (4) clouds formed by orographic disturbances. These mechanisms explain general cloud formation. Once formed, other forces may play a role in the deformation of a cloud or cloud mass into unusual and unique meso- and microscale patterns. Each example presented is followed by a brief discussion describing the synoptic situation, and some inference into the formation and occurrence of the more salient features. No major attempt was made to discuss in detail the meteorological and topographic interplay producing these mesoscale features.

Ormsby, J. P.

1977-01-01

302

Monitoring tropical vegetation succession with LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shadowing problem, which is endemic to the use of LANDSAT in tropical areas, and the ability to model changes over space and through time are problems to be addressed when monitoring tropical vegetation succession. Application of a trend surface analysis model to major land cover classes in a mountainous region of the Phillipines shows that the spatial modeling of radiance values can provide a useful approach to tropical rain forest succession monitoring. Results indicate shadowing effects may be due primarily to local variations in the spectral responses. These variations can be compensated for through the decomposition of the spatial variation in both elevation and MSS data. Using the model to estimate both elevation and spectral terrain surface as a posteriori inputs in the classification process leads to improved classification accuracy for vegetation of cover of this type. Spatial patterns depicted by the MSS data reflect the measurement of responses to spatial processes acting at several scales.

Robinson, V. B. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

303

Evaluation of reforested areas using LANDSAT imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Visual and automatic interpretation of LANDSAT imagery was used to classify the general Pinus and Eucalyptus according to their age and species. A methodology was derived, based on training areas, to define the legend and spectral characteristics of the analyzed classes. Imager analysis of the training areas show that Pinus taeda is separable from the other Pinus species based on JM distance measurement. No difference of JM measurements was observed among Eucalyptus species. Two classes of Eucalyptus were separated according to their ages: those under and those over two years of age. Channel 6 and 7 were suitable for the discrimination of the reforested classes. Channel 5 was efficient to separated reforested areas from nonforested targets in the region. The automatic analysis shows the highest classification precision was obtained for Eucalyptus over two years of age (95.12 percent).

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

1978-01-01

304

Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper outgassing effects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A periodic 3% to 5% variation in detector response affecting both image and internal calibrator (IC) data has been observed in bands 5 and 7 of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper. The source for this variation is thought to be an interference effect due to buildup of an ice-like contaminant film on a ZnSe window, covered with an antireflective coating (ARC), of the cooled dewar containing these detectors. Periodic warming of the dewar is required in order to remove the contaminant and restore detector response to an uncontaminated level. These effects in the IC data have been characterized over four individual outgassing cycles using thin-film models to estimate transmittance of the window/ARC and ARC/contaminant film stack throughout the instrument lifetime. Based on the results obtained from this modeling, a lookup table procedure has been implemented that provides correction factors to improve the calibration accuracy of bands 5 and 7 by approximately 5%.

Helder, D.L.; Micijevic, E.

2004-01-01

305

Monitoring Playa Hydrology using LANDSAT Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Playa lakes are wetland basins found across the Great Plains. These ephemeral lakes serve as habitat for migrating waterfowl and act as concentrated recharge points for groundwater aquifers. Playas are generally small but number in the tens of thousands, making them a significant component of the ecology and hydrology of the Great Plains. The shear number of playas makes this system difficult to study. Satellite remote sensing, however, can be used to monitor playa hydrology over broad space and time scales. This study demonstrates the use of a four-image LANDSAT sequence to study a cluster of playas in Beaver County, Oklahoma. A simple water budget model is developed to predict aggregate playa water surface area for the study area.

Young, C. B.; Pradhananga, A.

2004-12-01

306

25 Years of Landsat 5 - Duration: 3:34.  

NASA Video Gallery

Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

307

Biomass measurement from LANDSAT: Drought and energy applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory supporting the use of vegetation indices derived from LANDSAT data for the direct measurement of biomass is reviewed. The use of multispectral data to measure biomass is a natural and viable application since the photosynthetic production of biomass gives vegetation its unique spectral properties. Vegetation indices also perform a normalization function which tends to make them insensitive to atmospheric and soil color variations. Optical and digital LANDSAT products are discussed relative to the use of vegetation indices to monitor drought impact. Based on results obtained in Colorado, operational use of LANDSAT to monitor drought is cost effective, practical and ready for implementation today. The direct measurement of biomass energy resources may also benefit from LANDSAT technology. Measurement of total biomass and annual primary production may be feasible. Identification of that component of biomass resources available for energy use will require other sources of information, however.

Maxwell, E. L.

1981-01-01

308

LANDSAT ESTUARINE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SILVICULTURE AND DREDGING ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the application of Landsat multispectral scanning to estuarine water quality, with specific reference to dredging and silviculture practices. Water quality data collected biweekly since 1972 in the Apalachicola, Bay, Florida, by Florida State University, and...

309

Comparing EO-1-Hyperions spectral resolution to Landsat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Landsat system covers 7 spectral bands (of which six are shown here) while the Hyperion instrument records data in 220 bands from 353 nanometers to 2577 nanometers. This animation shows how they stack up.

Tom Bridgman

2001-04-09

310

Landsat: A Space Age Water Gauge - Duration: 4:52.  

NASA Video Gallery

Water specialists Rick Allen, Bill Kramber and Tony Morse use Landsat thermal band data to measure the amount of water evaporating from the soil and transpiring from plants? leaves ? a process call...

311

Applications of Landsat imagery to a coastal inlet stability study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polcyn and Lyzenga (1975) and Middleton and Barber (1976) have demonstrated that it is possible to correlate the radiance values of a multispectral imagery, such as Landsat imagery, with the depth related information. The present study is one more example of such an effort. Two sets of Landsat magnetic tape were obtained and displayed on the screen of an Image-100 computer. Spectral analysis was performed to produce various signatures, their extent, and location. Subsequent ground truth observations and measurements were gathered by means of hydrographic surveys and low altitude aerial photographs for interpretation and calibration of the Landsat data. Finally, a coastal engineering assessment based on the Landsat data was made. Recommendations regarding the navigational canal alignment and dredging practice are presented in the light of inlet stability.

Wang, Y.-H.

1981-01-01

312

Crop classification with a Landsat/radar sensor combination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined Landsat/radar approach to classification of remotely sensed data, with emphasis on crops, was undertaken. Radar data were obtained by microwave radar spectrometers over fields near Eudora, Kansas and Landsat image data were obtained for the same test site. After Landsat digital images were registered and test-cells extracted, a comparable set of radar image pixels were simulated to match the Landsat pixels. The combined data set is then used for classification, and the results are examined with the best combination of sensor variables identified. Finally, the usefulness of radar in a simulated cloud-cover situation is demonstrated. The major conclusion derived from this study is that the combination of radar/optical sensors is superior to either one alone.

Li, R. Y.; Ulaby, F. T.; Eyton, J. R.

1980-01-01

313

Area estimation of crops by digital analysis of Landsat data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study for which the results are presented had these objectives: (1) to use Landsat data and computer-implemented pattern recognition to classify the major crops from regions encompassing different climates, soils, and crops; (2) to estimate crop areas for counties and states by using crop identification data obtained from the Landsat identifications; and (3) to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and timeliness of crop area estimates obtained from Landsat data. The paper describes the method of developing the training statistics and evaluating the classification accuracy. Landsat MSS data were adequate to accurately identify wheat in Kansas; corn and soybean estimates for Indiana were less accurate. Systematic sampling of entire counties made possible by computer classification methods resulted in very precise area estimates at county, district, and state levels.

Bauer, M. E.; Hixson, M. M.; Davis, B. J.

1978-01-01

314

Secretary Salazar Charts Future for Landsat Satellite Program  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Secretary Salazar visits the Ball Aerospace facility in Boulder, CO. This company produces components to the Landsat satellite series.  The Secretary is shown here with Ball Aerospace President and CEO Dave Taylor. ...

315

First Images from Landsat 7: Sailing Down the Missouri River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First Images from Landsat 7, South Dakota and the Missouri River. In this animation the viewer is flown down the Missouri river and delivered to Yankton, South Dakota, from an image taken April 22, 1998.

Stuart Snodgrass

1999-04-22

316

Landsat's Role in Ecological Applications of Remote Sensing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience is about the unique role of Landsat in remote sensing. Remote sensing, geographic information systems, and modeling have combined to produce a virtual explosion of growth in ecological investigations and applications that are explicitly spatial and temporal. Of all remotely sensed data, those acquired by Landsat sensors have played the most pivotal role in spatial and temporal scaling. Modern terrestrial ecology relies on remote sensing for modeling biogeochemical cycles and for characterizing land cover, vegetation biophysical attributes, forest structure, and fragmentation in relation to biodiversity. Given the more than 30-year record of Landsat data, mapping land and vegetation cover change and using the derived surfaces in ecological models is becoming commonplace. In this article, we summarize this large body of work, highlighting the unique role of Landsat.

WARREN B. COHEN and SAMUEL N. GOWARD (; )

2004-06-01

317

Case study in the practical use of LANDSAT data  

SciTech Connect

The use of computer aided classification of LANDSAT data in developing water quality plans for New Jersey watersheds is used to exemplify how a state natural resource management program benefits from satellite imagery. The transition of a research and development system into an operational remote sensing system to help decision makers is demonstrated. Nontechnial issues that can assist (or hinder) an agency in adopting a new technology are examined. The progress of LANDSAT use by state government from the earliest stage of curiosity through to incorporation in actual state planning methods is charted. Potential applications of LANDSAT data to real information needs and solutions to management problems are examined. The problems and mistakes that occurred in using LANDSAT data in the past are discussed as well as the ways by which these problems were overcome.

Cox, S.

1982-01-01

318

Tracking Landsat-5 by a differential GPS technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an international campaign to develop precise geodetic applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of differential GPS tracking using Landsat-5. Two strategies have been investigated: one in which only the Landsat-5 orbit is estimated, and one in which both the Landsat-5 and GPS orbits are estimated together. Error studies show that under the limited conditions of the experiment, three-dimensional Landsat-5 position accuracies of about 5 m with the first strategy and 2 m with the second strategy can be achieved over a 20-min period of good observing geometry. Orbit determination results using a version of the first strategy appear to achieve the 5 m goal. This is supported by various formal error measures and independent comparisons. The more powerful strategy has yet to be carried out.

Yunck, T. P.; Bertiger, W. I.; Lichten, S. M.; Wu, S. C.

1986-01-01

319

LANDSAT data for state planning. [of transportation for Georgia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an effort to generate and apply automated classification of LANDSAT digital data to state of Georgia problems are presented. This phase centers on an analysis of the usefulness of LANDSAT digital data to provide land-use data for transportation planning. Hall County, Georgia was chosen as a test site because it is part of a seventeen county area for which the Georgia Department of Transportation is currently designing a Transportation Planning Land-Use Simulation Model. The land-cover information derived from this study was compared to several other existing sources of land-use data for Hall County and input into this simulation. The results indicate that there is difficulty comparing LANDSAT derived land-cover information with previous land-use information since the LANDSAT data are acquired on an acre by acre grid basis while all previous land-use surveys for Hall County used land-use data on a parcel basis.

Faust, N. L.; Spann, G. W.

1975-01-01

320

CCRS proposal for evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement of registration errors in LANDSAT MSS data is discussed as well as the development of a revised algorithm for the radiometric calibration of TM data and the production of a geocoded TM image.

Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (principal investigators); Guindon, B.; Murphy, J.; Butlin, J. M.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.; Grieve, G.

1984-01-01

321

Analysis of the private market for LANDSAT products and applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The private sector was examined and evaluated to develop base line strategies and mechanisms for its increased utilization of LANDSAT (and future satellite) technologies as both consumer and producer of products and services. Methodologies used to assess the digital analysis service and national mapping industries are described. Private sector users in business and industry are identified and the potential U.S. industry role in the foreign LANDSAT market is considered.

1981-01-01

322

LANDSAT D to test thematic mapper, inaugurate operational system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA will launch the Landsat D spacecraft on July 9, 1982 aboard a new, up-rated Delta 3920 expendable launch vehicle. LANDSAT D will incorporate two highly sophisticated sensors; the flight proven multispectral scanner; and a new instrument expected to advance considerably the remote sensing capabilities of Earth resources satellites. The new sensor, the thematic mapper, provides data in seven spectral (light) bands with greatly improved spectral, spatial and radiometric resolution.

1982-01-01

323

History of Remote Sensing: Landsat's Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Landsat Thematic Mapper is a multispectral imaging sensor added to Landsats 4 and later. This site uses text, photographs, tables, and diagrams to explain how the Thematic Mapper works and the advantages of sensing radiation in wavelengths other than those normally visible to the human eye. It is part of NASA's Remote Sensing Tutorial and links to the rest of the tutorial are provided.

324

Analysis of Landsat for monitoring vegetables in New York mucklands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This pilot study assessed the feasibility of relying on Landsat multispectral scanner data for inventorying vegetables grown in mucklands,in variably shaped, variably sized fields. Classification of muckland vegetables using a Euclidean distance classifier and a parallelepiped classifier was performed with reasonable accuracy (generally over 60 percent) based on only one date of Landsat data. Prior canonical and principal component analyses did not improve the classification accuracy but did reduce the dimensionality of the data.

Zhu, M. H.; Yan, S. Y.; Philipson, W. R.; Yen, C. C.; Philpot, W. D.

1983-01-01

325

Application of LANDSAT images in the Minas Gerais tectonic division  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interpretation of LANDSAT data for a regional geological investigation of Brazil is provided. Radar imagery, aerial photographs and aeromagnetic maps were also used. Automatic interpretation, using LANDSAT OCT's was carried out by the 1-100 equipment. As a primary result a tectonic map was obtained, at 1:1,000,000 scale, of an area of about 143,000 square kilometers, in the central portion of Minas Gerais and Eastern Goias States, known as regions potentially rich in mineral resources.

Dacunha, R. P.; Demattos, J. T.

1978-01-01

326

Hydrography synthesis using LANDSAT remote sensing and the SCS models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The land cover requirements of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Model used for hydrograph synthesis in urban areas were modified to be LANDSAT compatible. The Curve Numbers obtained with these alternate land cover categories compare well with those obtained in published example problems using the conventional categories. Emergency spillway hydrographs and synthetic flood frequency flows computed for a 21.1 sq. mi. test area showed excellent agreement between the conventional aerial photo-based and the Landsat-based SCS approaches.

Ragan, R. M.; Jackson, T. J.

1976-01-01

327

Landsat and Earth Systems Science: Development of Terrestrial Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major catalysts leading to the development of the global-scale Earth Systems Science concept, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, and the U.S. Global Change Research Program were the unique views of Earth provided by Landsat sensors over the past 25 years. This paper ad- dresses Landsat's contributions in the Earth Systems Science arena. Early successes in observing the Earth's

Samuel N. Goward; Darrel L. Williams

1997-01-01

328

Full scale LANDSAT-D antenna pattern measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design verification of the LANDSAT-D antenna subsystem is addressed. In particular, the analysis of the antenna radiation patterns utilizing a full scale mockup of the LANDSAT-D satellite is discussed. Test antennas included two S-Band shaped beam antennas, two S-Band omni unit radiators (to operate in array), a GPS antenna, an X-Band shaped beam antenna, and one S-Band high-gain parabolic antenna.

1979-01-01

329

Remote sensing: Physical principles, sensors and products, and the LANDSAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques of data acquisition by remote sensing are introduced in this teaching aid. The properties of the elements involved (radiant energy, topograph, atmospheric attenuation, surfaces, and sensors) are covered. Radiometers, photography, scanners, and radar are described as well as their products. Aspects of the LANDSAT system examined include the characteristics of the satellite and its orbit, the multispectral band scanner, and the return beam vidicon. Pixels (picture elements), pattern registration, and the characteristics, reception, and processing of LANDSAT imagery are also considered.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Steffen, C. A.; Lorenzzetti, J. A.; Stech, J. L.; Desouza, R. C. M.

1981-01-01

330

Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper instruments, the protoflight (TM\\/PF) and flight (TM\\/F) models, respectively, is presented. Data collected by the Hughes\\/Santa Barbara Research Center on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with the spectral coverage and spectral matching specifications served as the basis for the characterization. Compliance with the spectral

BRIAN L. MARKHAM; JOHN L. BARKER

1985-01-01

331

A finite element overlay technique for modeling pinned composite joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A finite element technique using overlaid plane stress elements is presented for modeling a pinned composite joint. The technique allows for discrete modeling of the pin and web regions of the joint in a two-dimensional (2-D) finite element analysis. Thus, predictive capability is substantially increased without the added complexity of a three-dimensional (3-D) analysis. The overlay technique requires a thorough evaluation of the model constraints between the joint components. Bearing panels are used to account for a reduced compressive modulus under bearing loads. Application of the plane stress overlay technique to the Filament Wound Case (FWC) Program is discussed. The experimental approach to determine bearing panel moduli using a double lap shear test is detailed, and finite element results are correlated with full-scale FWC joint test results.

Colvin, G. E.; Adams, D. S.

1986-01-01

332

On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers  

SciTech Connect

Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Guok, Chin; Jackson, Keith; Kissel, Ezra; Swany, D. Martin; Agarwal, Deborah

2009-10-12

333

An Overview of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), currently with a launch readiness date of December, 2012, will see evolutionary changes in the Landsat data products available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The USGS initiated a revolution in 2009 when EROS began distributing Landsat data products at no cost to requestors in contrast to the past practice of charging the cost of fulfilling a request; that is, charging $600 per Landsat scene. To implement this drastic change, EROS terminated data processing options for requestors and began to produce all data products using a consistent processing recipe. EROS plans to continue this practice for the LDCM and will required new algorithms to process data from the LDCM sensors. All previous Landsat satellites flew multispectral scanners to collect image data of the global land surface. Additionally, Landsats 4, 5, and 7 flew sensors that acquired imagery for both reflective spectral bands and a single thermal band. In contrast, the LDCM will carry two pushbroom sensors; the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for reflective spectral bands and the Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) for two thermal bands. EROS is developing the ground data processing system that will both calibrate and correct the data from the thousands of detectors employed by the pushbroom sensors and that will also combine the data from the two sensors to create a single data product with registered data for all of the OLI and TIRS bands.

Irons, James R.; Dwyer, John L.

2010-01-01

334

Detection of embedded fatigue cracks in Inconel weld overlay and the evaluation of the minimum thickness of the weld overlay using eddy current testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the applicability of eddy current testing to the detection and sizing of fatigue cracks embedded in Inconel weld overlays. Welded plate specimens, which model head penetration welds and their weld overlays, are fabricated, and fatigue cracks are artificially introduced into the specimens. Eddy current inspections are performed using a uniform eddy current probe driven with 10?kHz, and

Noritaka Yusa; Ladislav Janousek; Mihai Rebican; Zhenmao Chen; Kenzo Miya; Naoki Chigusa; Hajime Ito

2006-01-01

335

QoS-aware Service Composition in Service Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the amount of Web services over the Internet grows continuously, these services can be interconnected to form a service overlay network (SON). On the basis of SON, building value-added services by service composition is an effective method to satisfy the changeable functional and non-functional QoS (quality of service) requirements of customers. However, the previous research on QoS- aware service

Yang Li; Jinpeng Huai; Ting Deng; Hailong Sun; Huipeng Guo; Zongxia Du

2007-01-01

336

LOT: A Robust Overlay for Distributed Range Query Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale data-centric services are often handled by clusters of computers that include hundreds of thousands of computing nodes. However, traditional distributed query processing techniques fail to handle the large-scale distribution, peer-to-peer communication and frequent disconnection. In this paper, we introduce LOT, a robust, fault-tolerant and highly distributed overlay network for large-scale peer-to-peer query processing. LOT is based on a robust

Andre Allavena; Qiang Wang; Ihab Ilyas; Srinivasan Keshav

337

Service Overlay Networks: SLAs, QoS and Bandwidth Provisioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We advocate the notion of service overlay network (SON) as an effective means to address some of the issues, in par- ticular, end-to-end QoS, plaguing the current Internet, and to facilitate the creation and deployment of value-added In- ternet services such as VoIP, Video-on-Demand, and other emerging QoS-sensitive services. A SON purchases band- width with certain QoS guarantees from individual

Zhenhai Duan; Zhi-li Zhang; Yiwei Thomas Hou

2002-01-01

338

Predicting the fatigue life of asphalt concrete overlay systems  

E-print Network

Photograph of Ultrasonic Transducers Taken Apart. 14 Ultrasonic Transducers Epoxied to Overlay Sample. 15 Ultrasonic Calibration Curve - Normalized Voltage Versus Crack Height . 16 Schematic of Duomorhp Apparatus . 17 Duomorph Output as Viewed... to predict fatigue life and to explain crack growth, a mechanistic model was developed at Ohio State University ( 15, 17, 18). From fracture mechanics, fatigue life can be described by the process of crack initiation, crack growth, and ultimate fracture...

Germann, Frederick P

1979-01-01

339

Shielding turbine blades from cvitation: Experiments with polymer overlays  

SciTech Connect

Cavitation damage to hydroelectric machinery produces one of the most prevalent maintenance problems at any hydro plant. Damage to the turbine runner blades, draft tube liner and discharge ring, and sometimes even the runner hub can require extensive welding repair. Typically, each unit develops its own cavitation characteristics that continue throughout the life of the machine. The traditional cavitation repair method is to gouge out the damaged material, then refill the void with a stainless steel. This method is costly and time-consuming, may cause blade distortion, and may result in galvanic corrosion when the stainless steel is applied to carbon steel base materials. What's more, this gouging and filling at temperatures between 2,200 and 2.300[degrees]F within a tenth of a square inch may cause residual stresses in the parent material. One strategy for limiting cavitation effects on turbine components is to overlay the original material with a protective layer. This protective coating will absorb the cavitation load, or at least a portion of it, thus limiting further damage to repaired areas. Typically, an overlay consists of a 1/32-inch or 1/16-inch layer of polymer material (either epoxies or ceramics) and a thin adhesive that bonds the polymer to the turbine steel. A cavitation-induced shock (energy) wave propagates through the polymer material and either reflects or transmits into the steel. (The relative acoustic impedances of the two materials determine whether the shock wave travels into the turbine steel or reflects back through the polymer.) For the overlay to be effective, the shock wave must be reflected, attenuated, or dispersed. typical overlay materials do not reflect, attenuate, or disperse the cavitation shock wave. Polycarbonates, with their unique energy dissipation capabilities, are a good candidate for a protective turbine blade coating.

Armentrout, T.B. (Army Corps of Engineers, The Dalles, OR (United States))

1993-05-01

340

ROMA: Reliable Overlay Multicast with Loosely Coupled TCP Connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of architecting a reliable content delivery system across an overlay network using TCP connections as the transport primitive. We first argue that natural designs based on store-and-forward principles that tightly couple TCP connections at intermediate end-systems impose fundamen- tal performance limitations, such as dragging down all transfer rates in the system to the rate of the

Gu.-In. Kwon; John W. Byers

2004-01-01

341

Network load-aware content distribution in overlay networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Massive,content,distribution on,overlay,networks stresses both the server and the network,resources because,of the large volumes of data, relatively high bandwidth requirement, and,many,concurrent,clients. While the server limitation can be circumvented by replicating the data at more nodes, the network limitation is far less easy to cope with, due to the difficulty in determining,the cause and,location of congestion and in provisioning extra resources. In

Seung Chul Han; Ye Xia

2009-01-01

342

Overlay mark optimization using the KTD signal simulation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the overlay performance and accuracy requirements become tighter, the impact of process parameters on the target signal becomes more significant. Traditionally, in order to choose the optimum overlay target, several candidates are placed in the kerf area. The candidate targets are tested under different process conditions, before the target to be used in mass production is selected. The varieties of targets are left on the mass production mask and although they will not be used for overlay measurements they still consume kerf real estate. To improve the efficiency of the process we are proposing the KTD (KLA-Tencor Target Designer). It is an easy to use system that enables the user to select the optimum target based on advanced signal simulation. Implementing the KTD in production is expected to save 30% of kerf real estate due to more efficient target design process as well as reduced engineering time. In this work we demonstrate the capability of the KTD to simulate the Archer signal in the context of advanced DRAM processes. For several stacks we are comparing simulated target signals with the Archer100 signals. We demonstrate the robustness feature in the KTD application that enables the user to test the target sensitivity to process changes. The results indicate the benefit of using KTD in the target optimization process.

Marchelli, Anat; Gutjahr, Karsten; Kubis, Michael; Sparka, Christian; Ghinovker, Mark; Navarra, Alessandra; Widmann, Amir

2009-03-01

343

Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay.  

PubMed

Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:25267257

Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I

2014-09-30

344

An Overlapping Structured P2P for REIK Overlay Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

REIK is based on a ring which embedded an inverse Kautz digraph, to enable multi-path P2P routing. It has the constant degree and the logarithmic diameter DHT scheme with constant congestion and Byzantine fault tolerance. However, REIK did not consider the interconnection of many independent smaller networks. In this paper, we propose a new approach to build overlay network, OLS-REIK which is an overlapping structured P2P for REIK overlay network. It is a more flexible interconnecting different REIK network. Peers can belong to several rings, allowing this interconnection. By connecting smaller structured overlay networks in an unstructured way, it provides a cost effective alternative to hierarchical structured P2P systems requiring costly merging. Routing of lookup messages is performed as in REIK within one ring, but a peer belonging to several rings forwards the request to the different rings it belongs to. Furthermore a small number of across point is enough to ensure a high exhaustiveness level.

Liu, Wenjun; Song, Jingjing; Yu, Jiguo

345

Cross-calibration of Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI with Aqua MODIS using PICS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thematic Mapper (TM) onboard the Landsat 5 (L5) has provided an unprecedented amount of earth observations for more than 25 years since its launch on March 1, 1984. The MODIS sensor onboard the Aqua satellite is a part of the afternoon constellation of spacecraft and has been successfully providing near-continuous observations of the earth's surface and atmosphere since July 2002. A synergistic use of TM and MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) measurements is immensely beneficial to the broad user community for different land cover change and global climate studies. A consistent radiometric calibration between the sensors is a prerequisite for creating high quality science products. Various pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) identified by CEOS have been widely used to monitor the on-orbit calibration consistency for a number of sensors. Near-simultaneous observations of the Saharan PICS by L5 TM and Aqua MODIS are used in this study. The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance from the spectrally matching RSB are corrected for test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), relative spectral response (RSR) mismatch, and impacts for atmospheric water-vapor, and used to estimate the long-term calibration differences between the two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard the Landsat 8 (L8) launched in February, 2013, is a follow-on mission to maintain the continuity of Landsat acquisitions. A similar cross-calibration methodology was extended to compare the spectrally matching bands of Aqua MODIS with OLI. A long-term drift is observed in bands 1 (3.7%) and 3 (1.86%) of L5 TM, which is expected to be mitigated in the next calibration coefficient update. With the exception of the SWIR-2 band (L5 TM band 7), the agreement with Aqua MODIS is seen to be within 4%. The L8 OLI and Aqua MODIS agreement is seen within 4% across all wavelengths.

Angal, Amit; Mishra, Nischal; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Helder, Dennis

2014-09-01

346

Landsat Science: 40 Years of Innovation and Opportunity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat satellites have provided unparalleled Earth-observing data for nearly 40 years, allowing scientists to describe, monitor and model the global environment during a period of time that has seen dramatic changes in population growth, land use, and climate. The success of the Landsat program can be attributed to well-designed instrument specifications, astute engineering, comprehensive global acquisition and calibration strategies, and innovative scientists who have developed analytical techniques and applications to address a wide range of needs at local to global scales (e.g., crop production, water resource management, human health and environmental quality, urbanization, deforestation and biodiversity). Early Landsat contributions included inventories of natural resources and land cover classification maps, which were initially prepared by a visual interpretation of Landsat imagery. Over time, advances in computer technology facilitated the development of sophisticated image processing algorithms and complex ecosystem modeling, enabling scientists to create accurate, reproducible, and more realistic simulations of biogeochemical processes (e.g., plant production and ecosystem dynamics). Today, the Landsat data archive is freely available for download through the USGS, creating new opportunities for scientists to generate global image datasets, develop new change detection algorithms, and provide products in support of operational programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD). In particular, the use of dense (approximately annual) time series to characterize both rapid and progressive landscape change has yielded new insights into how the land environment is responding to anthropogenic and natural pressures. The launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) satellite in 2012 will continue to propel innovative Landsat science.

Cook, Bruce D.; Irons, James R.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Loveland, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

347

Simulation of non-uniform wafer geometry and thin film residual stress on overlay errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of residually stressed films in semiconductor manufacturing processes introduces elastic distortions in the wafer that can contribute to overlay errors in lithographic patterning. The distortion induced by film deposition causes out-of-plane distortion (i.e. wafer shape) that can be measured with commercial metrology tools as well as in-plane distortion that leads to overlay errors. In the present work, overlay

Sathish Veeraraghaven; Kevin T. Turner; Jaydeep Sinha

2011-01-01

348

LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner performance evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Representative data spans covering a little more than a year since the LANDSAT-4 launch were analyzed to evaluate the flight performance of the satellite's horizon scanner. High frequency noise was filtered out by 128-point averaging. The effects of Earth oblateness and spacecraft altitude variations are modeled, and residual systematic errors are analyzed. A model for the predicted radiance effects is compared with the flight data and deficiencies in the radiance effects modeling are noted. Correction coefficients are provided for a finite Fourier series representation of the systematic errors in the data. Analysis of the seasonal dependence of the coefficients indicates the effects of some early mission problems with the reference attitudes which were computed by the onboard computer using star trackers and gyro data. The effects of sun and moon interference, unexplained anomalies in the data, and sensor noise characteristics and their power spectrum are described. The variability of full orbit data averages is shown. Plots of the sensor data for all the available data spans are included.

Bilanow, S.; Chen, L. C.; Davis, W. M.; Stanley, J. P.

1984-01-01

349

Science Writer's Guide to Landsat 7  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS), the centerpiece of NASA's Earth science program, is a suite of spacecraft and interdisciplinary science investigations dedicated to advancing our understanding of global change. The flagship EOS satellite, Terra (formerly EOS AM-1), scheduled for launch in July 1999, will provide key measurements of the physical and radiative properties of clouds; air-land and air-sea exchanges of energy, carbon, and water; trace gases; and volcanoes. Flying in formation with Terra, Landsat 7 will make global high spatial resolution measurements of land surface and surrounding coastal regions. Other upcoming EOS missions and instruments include QuikSCAT, to collect sea surface wind data; the Stratospheric Gas and Aerosol Experiment (SAGE III), to create global profiles of key atmospheric gases; and the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitors (ACRIM) to measure the energy output of the Sun. The second of the major, multi-instrument EOS platforms, PM-1, is scheduled for launch in 2000. Interdisciplinary research projects sponsored by EOS use specific Earth science data sets for a broader investigation into the function of Earth systems. Current EOS research spans a wide range of sciences, including atmospheric chemistry, hydrology, land use, and marine ecosystems. The EOS program has been managed since 1990 by the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., for NASA's Office of Earth Science in Washington, D. C. Additional information on the program can be found on the EOS Project Science Office Web site (http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov).

1999-01-01

350

Landsat-7 Simulation and Testing Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spacecraft Attitude Control and Determination Subsystem (ACDS) is heavily dependent upon simulation throughout its entire development, implementation and ground test cycle. Engineering simulation tools are typically developed to design and analyze control systems to validate the design and software simulation tools are required to qualify the flight software. However, the need for simulation does not end here. Operating the ACDS of a spacecraft on the ground requires the simulation of spacecraft dynamics, disturbance modeling and celestial body motion. Sensor data must also be simulated and substituted for actual sensor data on the ground so that the spacecraft will respond by sending commands to the actuators as they will on orbit. And finally, the simulators is the primary training tool and test-bed for the Flight Operations Team. In this paper various ACDS simulation, developed for or used by the Landsat 7 project will be described. The paper will include a description of each tool, its unique attributes, and its role in the overall development and testing of the ACDS. Finally, a section is included which discusses how the coordinated use of these simulation tools can maximize the probability of uncovering software, hardware and operations errors during the ground test process.

Holmes, E.; Ha, K.; Hawkins, K.; Lombardo, J.; Ram, M.; Sabelhaus, P.; Scott, S.; Phillips, R.

1999-01-01

351

Characterization of the LANDSAT sensors' spatial responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) sensors on LANDSATs 4 and 5 affecting their spatial responses are described, and functions defining the response of the system to an arbitrary input spatial pattern are derived, i.e., transfer functions (TF) and line spread functions (LSF). These design LSF's and TF's were modified based on prelaunch component and system measurements to provide improved estimates. Prelaunch estimates of LSF/FT's are compared to in-orbit estimates. For the MSS instruments, only limited prelaunch scan direction square-wave response (SWR) data were available. Design estimates were modified by convolving in Gaussian blur till the derived LSF/TF's produced SWR's comparable to the measurements. The two MSS instruments were comparable at their temperatures of best focus; separate calculations were performed for bands 1 and 3, band 2 and band 4. The pre-sample nadir effective instantaneous field's of view (EIFOV's) based on the .5 modulation transfer function (MTF) criteria vary from 70 to 75 meters in the track direction and 79 to 82 meters in the scan direction. For the TM instruments more extensive prelaunch measurements were available. Bands 1 to 4, 5 and 7, and 6 were handled separately as were the two instruments. Derived MTF's indicate nadir pre-sample EIFOV's of 32 to 33 meter track (bands 1 to 5, 7) and 36 meter scan (bands 1 to 5, 7) and 1245 meter track (band 6) and 141 meter scan (band 6) for both TM's.

Markham, B. L.

1984-01-01

352

Snow reflectance from Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In California 75 percent of the agricultural water supply comes from the melting Sierra Nevada snowpack. Basin-wide spectral albedo measurements from the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) could be used to better forecast the timing of the spring runoff, because these data can be combined with solar radiation calculations to estimate the net radiation balance. The TM is better-suited for this purpose than the Multispectral Scanner because of its larger dynamic range. Saturation still occurs in bands 1-4, but is severe only in TM1 (0.45-0.52 micron). Snow reflectance in TM2 (0.43-0.61 micron) is typical of the visible wavelength region, where reflectance is almost insensitive to crystal size but sensitive to contamination. TM4 (0.78-0.90 micron) allows estimation of effective optical grain size and thereby spectral extension throughout the near-infrared. TM5 (1.57-1.78 microns) can discriminate clouds from snow.

Dozier, J.

1984-01-01

353

Tracking Agricultural Land Degradation with Landsat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land preservation and in particular, soil preservation, is key to maintaining the stability of wildlife on earth. The necessity to maintain land quality isn't unique to any specific area, it is a global issue. Land degradation can be witnessed across the globe, from the Heihe River Basin, China to the San Joaquin River in Central Valley, California. Large-scale 'traditional' agricultural practices such as widespread monoculture, overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and over-farming, have been found to cause significant land degradation in many regions. Once the causes of land degradation have been established, it is important to research preventative and rehabilitative measures. This is where the popularization of agricultural sustainability has proven wildly important, manifesting in a world-wide phenomenon. This research used Landsat and ENVI to: (1) identify changes in vegetation, over time, along the Heihe River, in an effort to measure the effectiveness of a new mandate focused on rehabilitating this desertification-prone area; and (2) show changes in the San Joaquin River through three droughts (1986 to present). The sudden spur of interest in agricultural sustainability and land preservation has led to changes in legislation, such as the Heihe River Basin Mandate, increased concern over the use of land degrading techniques, tools, chemicals, and more research on extreme weather events.

Lam, K.; Jimenez, U.; Mclean, A.

2013-12-01

354

LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work done on evaluating the geometric and radiometric quality of early LANDSAT-4 sensor data is described. Band to band and channel to channel registration evaluations were carried out using a line correlator. Visual blink comparisons were run on an image display to observe band to band registration over 512 x 512 pixel blocks. The results indicate a .5 pixel line misregistration between the 1.55 to 1.75, 2.08 to 2.35 micrometer bands and the first four bands. Also a four 30M line and column misregistration of the thermal IR band was observed. Radiometric evaluation included mean and variance analysis of individual detectors and principal components analysis. Results indicate that detector bias for all bands is very close or within tolerance. Bright spots were observed in the thermal IR band on an 18 line by 128 pixel grid. No explanation for this was pursued. The general overall quality of the TM was judged to be very high.

Anuta, P. E. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

355

Landsat Data Continuity Mission Expected Instrument Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is scheduled for a December 2012 launch date. LDCM is being managed by an interagency partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In order to provide the necessary spectral coverage of the visible through shortwave-infrared (SWIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR), the satellite will carry two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) will collect data for nine visible to shortwave spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m (with a 15 m panchromatic band). The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will collect coincident image data for two TIR bands with a spatial resolution of 100 m. The OLI is fully assembled and tested and has been shipped by it's manufacturer, Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation, to the Orbital Sciences Corporation (Orbital) facility where it is being integrated onto the LDCM spacecraft. Pre-launch testing indicates that OLI will meet all performance specification with margin. TIRS is in development at the NASA Goddard Space F!ight Center (GSFC) and is in final testing before shipping to the Orbital facility in January, 2012. The presentation will describe the LDCM satellite instrument systems, present pre-launch performance data for OLI and TIRS, and present simulated images to highlight notable features and expected imaging performance.

Dabney, Philip W.; Irons, James R.; Markham, Brian L.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Storey, James C.

2012-01-01

356

Landsat Data Continuity Mission - Launch Fever  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The year 2013 will be an exciting period for those that study the Earth land surface from space, particularly those that observe and characterize land cover, land use, and the change of cover and use over time. Two new satellite observatories will be launched next year that will enhance capabilities for observing the global land surface. The United States plans to launch the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in January. That event will be followed later in the year by the European Space Agency (ESA) launch of the first Sentinel 2 satellite. Considered together, the two satellites will increase the frequency of opportunities for viewing the land surface at a scale where human impact and influence can be differentiated from natural change. Data from the two satellites will provide images for similar spectral bands and for comparable spatial resolutions with rigorous attention to calibration that will facilitate cross comparisons. This presentation will provide an overview of the LDCM satellite system and report its readiness for the January launch.

Irons, James R.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Markham, Brian L.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cook, Bruce; Dwyer, John L.

2012-01-01

357

Landsat classification of Argentina summer crops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Landsat MSS and TM classification approach based on three features derived from the greenness profile has proved very effective in separating and identifying corn, soybeans, and other ground cover classes in the U.S. The objective of this study is to investigate the separation of summer crops in Argentina, one of the most important commodity exporters, using the same greenness profile features that have proved effective in the U.S. Corn Belt. The area chosen for study is a more complex cropping practice area located in the north-west corner of Buenos Aires province in Pampa Humeda, where corn, soybean, sorghum, sunflower, and pastures are cultivated. It is shown that the profile features can provide very effective separation, except in the case of corn from sorghum. Separation between corn and soybeans was found to be greater than in the U.S. This study suggests that the automatic, unsupervised classification approach developed in the U.S., with relatively minor modification, can be used for summer crop area estimation in Argentina.

Badhwar, G. D.; Gargantini, C. E.; Redondo, F. V.

1987-01-01

358

Conduction-Type Control of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors by Ti and Pd Overlayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conduction-type of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) was controlled by depositing metal overlayers with different work functions (Ti and Pd) onto the side surfaces of the CNT channel of the ambipolar CNTFETs. The devices with the Ti overlayer showed n-type conduction. On the other hand, the devices with the Pd overlayer showed p-type conduction. The phenomena were explained by the suppression of carrier injection from the drain contact by the energy barrier formed at the CNT-overlayer source-side contact.

Ishii, Satoshi; Tamaoki, Masato; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Mizutani, Takashi

2013-03-01

359

Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an effort to better understand these challenges, we dissect the anatomy of some of Landsat's social benefit success stories and draw on the advice of Landsat experts to outline some of the important steps needed to facilitate the recognition of usable environmental science.

Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

2006-12-01

360

Rice crop monitoring with multitemporal MODIS-Landsat data fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rice is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and is the major crop in Taiwan. However, it is a challenge because rice fields are generally small and fragmental, while crop mapping requires information of crop phenology associating with the high spatiotemporal resolution of remote-sensing data. This problem can be partially overcome by a spatiotemporal fusion to create a new dataset that has a better spatiotemporal resolution. In this study, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat imageries were used because MODIS data, which a spatial resolution of land bands of 500 m and temporal resolution of 1-2 days, were able to achieve the phenological information of rice crops at a large region; while Landsat data demonstrate the effectiveness to collectively map small patches of crop fields at the subnational level due to its spatial resolution of 30 m. However, the temporal resolution of Landsat data is lower (16 days), making it difficult to investigate temporal responses of crop phenology from rice fields. The main objective of this study was to take into account of advantages of MODIS and Landsat imageries to generate a synthetic dataset at Landsat spatial resolution and MODIS temporal resolution for rice crop mapping in Taiwan. The methodology comprised five steps: (1) satellite data for 2011 were pre-processed to account for geometric and radiometric correction of MODIS and Landsat data, (2) MODIS-Landsat data fusion using the Spatial Temporal Adaptive Fusion Model (STARFM), (3) construct the smooth time-series Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data using wavelet transform, (4) rice crop classification using phenological information of crop phenology, and (5) accuracy assessment. The data fusion results for day of year (DOY) 153 were compared with the reference Landsat data (DOY 153) indicated a close correlation (R2 = 0.81). The phenology-based classification results compared with the ground reference data revealed close agreement between these two datasets. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 82% and 0.75, respectively. The relationship between the MODIS-derived rice areas and those from the government's rice area statistics at the district level was examined, reaffirming a strong correlation between the two datasets with R2 > 0.9. This study demonstrates advantages of MODIS-Landsat data fusion for rice crop mapping in Taiwan. Such an approach used in this study could be applied for other regions to map small patches of crops at a subnational scale.

Chen, Cheng-Ru; Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh

2014-05-01

361

Rock type discrimination techniques using Landsat and Seasat image data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a sedimentary rock type discrimination project using Seasat radar and Landsat multispectral image data of the San Rafael Swell, in eastern Utah, are presented, which has the goal of determining the potential contribution of radar image data to Landsat image data for rock type discrimination, particularly when the images are coregistered. The procedure employs several images processing techniques using the Landsat and Seasat data independently, and then both data sets are coregistered. The images are evaluated according to the ease with which contacts can be located and rock units (not just stratigraphically adjacent ones) separated. Results show that of the Landsat images evaluated, the image using a supervised classification scheme is the best for sedimentary rock type discrimination. Of less value, in decreasing order, are color ratio composites, principal components, and the standard color composite. In addition, for rock type discrimination, the black and white Seasat image is less useful than any of the Landsat color images by itself. However, it is found that the incorporation of the surface textural measures made from the Seasat image provides a considerable and worthwhile improvement in rock type discrimination.

Blom, R.; Abrams, M.; Conrad, C.

1981-01-01

362

On-Orbit ACDS Performance of the Landsat 7 Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat 7 is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The ESE is committed to developing an understanding of the total Earth system, the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment, and how natural processes affect humans and how humans affect them. The Landsat 7 satellite consists of the spacecraft bus which was provided under a NASA contract with Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space in Philadelphia, PA, and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+) instrument, procured under a NASA contract with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, in Santa Barbara, CA. The Landsat 7 Attitude Control and Determination System (ACDS) provides many essential functions for the operation of the spacecraft bus and for ETM+. The ACDS maintains the required attitude and orbit at the degree of accuracy necessary for power generation, command and telemetry, thermal balance, image acquisition, Gimbaled X-Band Antenna (GXA) pointing and data for image post-processing. Descriptions of the Landsat 7 mission and the ACDS modes and requirements are presented. A brief summary of significant events of the on-orbit initialization and validation period are provided. Finally, the Landsat 7 product generation system is described and the impact that the ACDS performance has on the ground based image processing system is explored.

Sabelhaus, Phillip; Bolek, Joseph; Scott, Steve; Holmes, Eric; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Storey, James

2001-01-01

363

Characterizing the LANDSAT Global Long-Term Data Record  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of global climate change are fast becoming politically, sociologically, and personally important: increasing storm frequency and intensity, lengthening cycles of drought and flood, expanding desertification and soil salinization. A vital asset in the analysis of climate change on a global basis is the 34-year record of Landsat imagery. In recognition of its increasing importance, a detailed analysis of the Landsat observation coverage within the US archive was commissioned. Results to date indicate some unexpected gaps in the US-held archive. Fortunately, throughout the Landsat program, data have been downlinked routinely to International Cooperator (IC) ground stations for archival, processing, and distribution. These IC data could be combined with the current US holdings to build a nearly global, annual observation record over this 34-year period. Today, we have inadequate information as to which scenes are available from which IC archives. Our best estimate is that there are over four million digital scenes in the IC archives, compared with the nearly two million scenes held in the US archive. This vast pool of Landsat observations needs to be accurately documented, via metadata, to determine the existence of complementary scenes and to characterize the potential scope of the global Landsat observation record. Of course, knowing the extent and completeness of the data record is but the first step. It will be necessary to assure that the data record is easy to use, internally consistent in terms of calibration and data format, and fully accessible in order to fully realize its potential.

Arvidson, T.; Goward, S. N.; Williams, D. L.

2006-01-01

364

Combined overlay, focus and CD metrology for leading edge lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As leading edge lithography moves to 22-nm design rules, low k1 technologies like double patterning are the new resolution enablers, and system control and setup are the new drivers to meet remarkably tight process requirements. The way of thinking and executing setup and control of lithography scanners is changing in four ways. First, unusually tight process tolerances call for very dense sampling [1], which in effect means measurements at high throughput combined with high order modeling and corrections to compensate for wafer spatial fingerprint. Second, complex interactions between scanner and process no longer allow separation of error sources through traditional metrology approaches, which are based on using one set of metrology tools and methods for setup and another for scanner performance control. Moreover, setup and control of overlay is done independently from CD uniformity, which in effect leads to independent and conflicting adjustments for the scanner. Third, traditional CD setup and control is based on the focus and dose calculated from their CD response and not from measurement of their effect on pattern profile, which allows a clean and orthogonal de-convolution of focus and dose variations across the wafer. Fourth, scanner setup and control has to take into consideration the final goal of lithography, which is the accurate printing of a complex pattern describing a real device layout. To this end we introduce a new setup and control metrology step: measuring-to-match scanner 1D and 2D proximity. In this paper we will describe the strategy for setup and control of overlay, focus, CD and proximity based on the YieldStarTM metrology tool and present the resulting performance. YieldStar-200 is a new, high throughput metrology tool based on a high numerical aperture scatterometer concept. The tool can be used stand-alone as well as integrated in a processing track. It is suitable for determining process offsets in X,Y and Z directions through Overlay and Focus measurements respectively. In addition CD profile information can be measured enabling proximity matching applications. By using a technique [2][3][4] to de-convolve dose and focus based on the profile measurement of a well-characterized process monitor target, we show that the dose and focus signature of a high NA 193nm immersion scanner can be effectively measured and corrected. A similar approach was also taken to address overlay errors using the diffraction based overlay capability [5] of the same metrology tool. We demonstrate the advantage of having a single metrology tool solution, which enables us to reduce dose, focus and overlay variability to their minimum non-correctable signatures. This technique makes use of the high accuracy and repeatability of the YieldStar tool and provides a common reference of scanner setup and user process. Using ASML's YieldStar in combination with ASML scanners, and control solutions allows for a direct link from the metrology tool to the system settings, ensuring that the appropriate system settings can be easily and directly updated.

Ebert, Martin; Cramer, Hugo; Tel, Wim; Kubis, Michael; Megens, Henry

2011-04-01

365

Methodology for predicting asphalt concrete overlay life against reflection cracking  

E-print Network

Q in Equation 28 above, Hetenyi's solutions for a semi-inf1nite beam are used. 2k [(I+B d C d A -(I+2B d-C d)B +(2-D -D ? )] (29) Z6 E Php /r ///////////, f M M / rr , . /r Figure 3. - Deformation of the Pavement With the Wheel Load P1aced Eccentrically.... Experimental investigations carried out at Ohio State University ( 1, 2, 3) and Texas A8M University ( 4, 5, 6 ) have verified the applicability of fracture mechanics principles in predicting fatigue life of asphalt TIP OF THE CRACX /~ // N/i OVERLAY OLD...

Jayawickrama, Priyantha Warnasuriya

1985-01-01

366

Ductile film delamination from compliant substrates using hard overlayers  

PubMed Central

Flexible electronic devices call for copper and gold metal films to adhere well to polymer substrates. Measuring the interfacial adhesion of these material systems is often challenging, requiring the formulation of different techniques and models. Presented here is a strategy to induce well defined areas of delamination to measure the adhesion of copper films on polyimide substrates. The technique utilizes a stressed overlayer and tensile straining to cause buckle formation. The described method allows one to examine the effects of thin adhesion layers used to improve the adhesion of flexible systems. PMID:25641995

Cordill, M.J.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.

2014-01-01

367

Landsat Witnesses the Destruction of Mesopotamian Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In one of the greatest ecological disasters of our time, the ancient marshlands of Mesopotamia are systematically being converted to dry salt flats as a result of human mismanagement of the regions water resources.Landsat satellite imagery reveals that in the last 10 years, wetlands that once covered as much as 20,000 square km in parts of Iraq and Iran have been reduced to a small fraction of their original size. The authors of a new report released by the United Nations Environment Programmes (UNEP) at the 11th Stockholm Water Symposium on August 13, 2001, warn that the marshlands could completely disappear within the next 3-5 years unless dramatic steps are taken immediately to reverse the damage being done. The UNEP Executive Director described the wetlands condition as a major environmental catastrophe that will be remembered as one of humanitys worst engineered disasters. He noted that the tragic loss of this rare wetland has occurred in approximately the same period since world leaders pledged to safeguard the environment at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the Earth Summit) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Regarded by historians as one of the cradles of civilization, the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent has supported Marsh Arab society for millennia. But through the damming and siphoning off of waters from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, the countries of Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Syria have decimated the ecosystem and, with it, a culture rooted in the dawn of human history (dating back to ancient Sumeria about 5,000 years ago).

Lori Perkins

2001-08-02

368

Characterization of wafer geometry and overlay error on silicon wafers with nonuniform stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Process-induced overlay errors are a growing problem in meeting the ever-tightening overlay requirements for integrated circuit production. Although uniform process-induced stress is easily corrected, nonuniform stress across the wafer is much more problematic, often resulting in noncorrectable overlay errors. Measurements of the wafer geometry of free, unchucked wafers give a powerful method for characterization of such nonuniform stress-induced wafer distortions. Wafer geometry data can be related to in-plane distortion of the wafer pulled flat by an exposure tool vacuum chuck, which in turn relates to overlay error. This paper will explore the relationship between wafer geometry and overlay error by the use of silicon test wafers with deliberate stress variations, i.e., engineered stress monitor (ESM) wafers. A process will be described that allows the creation of ESM wafers with nonuniform stress and includes many thousands of overlay targets for a detailed characterization of each wafer. Because the spatial character of the stress variation is easily changed, ESM wafers constitute a versatile platform for exploring nonuniform stress. We have fabricated ESM wafers of several different types, e.g., wafers where the center area has much higher stress than the outside area. Wafer geometry is measured with an optical metrology tool. After fabrication of the ESM wafers including alignment marks and first level overlay targets etched into the wafer, we expose a second level resist pattern designed to overlay with the etched targets. After resist patterning, relative overlay error is measured using standard optical methods. An innovative metric from the wafer geometry measurements is able to predict the process-induced overlay error. We conclude that appropriate wafer geometry measurements of in-process wafers have strong potential to characterize and reduce process-induced overlay errors.

Brunner, Timothy A.; Menon, Vinayan C.; Wong, Cheuk Wun; Gluschenkov, Oleg; Belyansky, Michael P.; Felix, Nelson M.; Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Vukkadala, Pradeep; Veeraraghavan, Sathish; Sinha, Jaydeep K.

2013-10-01

369

LANDSAT application of remote sensing to shoreline-form analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT imagery of the southern end of Assateague Island, Virginia, was enlarged to 1:80,000 and compared with high altitude (1:130,000) and low altitude (1:24,000) aerial photography in an attempt to quantify change in land area over a nine month period. Change in area and configuration was found with LANDSAT and low altitude photography. Change in configuration, but no change in area was found with high altitude photography. Due to tidal differences at time of image obtention and lack of baseline data, the accuracy of the LANDSAT measurements could not be determined. They were consistent with the measurements from the low altitude photography.

Dolan, R.; Hayden, B.; Heywood, J. (principal investigators); Hewitt, C.; Michel, J.

1976-01-01

370

Kerr Reservoir LANDSAT experiment analysis for March 1981  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT radiance data were used in an experiment conducted on the waters of Kerr Reservoir to determine if reliable algorithms could be developed that relate water quality parameters to remotely sensed data. A mix of different types of algorithms using the LANDSAT bands was generated to provide a thorough understanding of the relationships among the data involved. Except for secchi depth, the study demonstrated that for the ranges measured, the algorithms that satisfactorily represented the data encompass a mix of linear and nonlinear forms using only one LANDSAT band. Ratioing techniques did not improve the results since the initial design of the experiment minimized the errors against which this procedure is effective. Good correlations were found for total suspended solids, iron, turbidity, and secchi depth. Marginal correlations were discovered for nitrate and tannin + lignin. Quantification maps of Kerr Reservoir are presented for many of the water quality parameters using the developed algorithms.

Lecroy, S. R. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

371

Use of Landsat data to assess waterfowl habitat quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a discussion of the feasibility of using Landsat data to generate information of value for effective management of migratory waterfowl. Effective management of waterfowl includes regulating waterfowl populations through hunting regulations and habitat management. This report examines the ability to analyze annual production by monitoring the number of breeding and brood ponds that are present, and the ability to assess waterfowl habitat based on the various relationships between ponds and the surrounding upland terrain types. The basic conclusions of this report are that: 1) Landsat data can be used to improve estimates of pond numbers which may be correlated with duck production; and 2) Landsat data can be used to generate information on terrain types which subsequently can be used to assess relative waterfowl habitat quality.

Colwell, J.E.; Gilmer, D.S.; Work, E.A., Jr.; Rebel, D.

1978-01-01

372

Spatial and spectral simulation of LANDSAT images of agricultural areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A LANDSAT scene simulation capability was developed to study the effects of small fields and misregistration on LANDSAT-based crop proportion estimation procedures. The simulation employs a pattern of ground polygons each with a crop ID, planting date, and scale factor. Historical greenness/brightness crop development profiles generate the mean signal values for each polygon. Historical within-field covariances add texture to pixels in each polygon. The planting dates and scale factors create between-field/within-crop variation. Between field and crop variation is achieved by the above and crop profile differences. The LANDSAT point spread function is used to add correlation between nearby pixels. The next effect of the point spread function is to blur the image. Mixed pixels and misregistration are also simulated.

Pont, W. F., Jr. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

373

Two-way communication and analysis program on LANDSAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Community workshops, field visits, telephone surveys, and other research reveals that professionals at the substate level are interested in and open to consideration of LANDSAT as a planning and resource management tool, but are at the same time skeptical about some of the inherent problems with LANDSAT such as cost, resolution, frequency of coverage, and data continuity. The principal requirements for increasing the utilization of LANDSAT by potential substate users were identified and documented. Without a committment from the Federal Government for increased substrate utilization and the availability of trained professionals to meet the needs of a largely new user community, substrate activity is likely to remain at a minimum. Well conceived and well executed demonstration projects could play a critical role is shaping the technology's ability to be more sensitive to substate user needs and interests as well as validating the effectiveness of this data to a skeptical audience.

1983-01-01

374

Investigation of mesoscale cloud features viewed by LANDSAT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Some 50 LANDSAT images displaying mesoscale cloud features were analyzed. This analysis was based on the Rayleigh-Kuettner model describing the formation of that type of mesoscale cloud feature. This model lends itself to computation of the average wind speed in northerly flow from the dimensions of the cloud band configurations measured from a LANDSAT image. In nearly every case, necessary conditions of a curved wind profile and orientation of the cloud streets within 20 degrees of the direction of the mean wind in the convective layer were met. Verification of the results by direct observation was hampered, however, by the incompatibility of the resolution of conventional rawinsonde observations with the scale of the banded cloud patterns measured from LANDSAT data. Comparison seems to be somewhat better in northerly flows than in southerly flows, with the largest discrepancies in wind speed being within 8m/sec, or a factor of two.

Sherr, P. E. (principal investigator); Feteris, P. J.; Lisa, A. S.; Bowley, C. J.; Fowler, M. G.; Barnes, J. C.

1976-01-01

375

Crop classification using airborne radar and LANDSAT data. [Colby, Kansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne radar data acquired with a 13.3 GHz scatterometer over a test-site near Colby, Kansas were used to investigate the statistical properties of the scattering coefficient of three types of vegetation cover and of bare soil. A statistical model for radar data was developed that incorporates signal-fading and natural within-field variabilities. Estimates of the within-field and between-field coefficients of variation were obtained for each cover-type and compared with similar quantities derived from LANDSAT images of the same fields. The classification accuracy provided by LANDSAT alone, radar alone, and both sensors combined was investigated. The results indicate that the addition of radar to LANDSAT improves the classification accuracy by about 10; percentage-points when the classification is performed on a pixel basis and by about 15 points when performed on a field-average basis.

Ulaby, F. T. (principal investigator); Li, R. Y.; Shanmugam, K. S.

1981-01-01

376

BRAVO economic study of LANDSAT follow-on  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT Follow-On satellite consists of two major systems: the instrument module and the Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS). The instrument module contains the thematic mapper and the five-band multispectral scanner instruments. The instrument module also includes the solar array, the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) antenna, and the wideband data module. The MMS contains the modularized and standardized power, propulsion, attitude control, and command and data handling subsystems. The Shuttle will be supporting the LANDSAT Follow-On system. The LANDSAT Follow-On Project plans two Delta 3910 launches. The first is scheduled for 1981; the second Delta launch will occur as needed to keep one satellite operational on orbit. The second satellite will be ready six months after the first. It could be launched any time after that. Shuttle support of the system could begin in early 1983 but would be scheduled to start after the second Delta launch.

Pritchard, E. I.; Blake, R. T.; Plough, J. A.; Mead, O. J.; Dawson, J. J.

1977-01-01

377

Landsat-8: science and product vision for terrestrial global change research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Landsat 8, a NASA and USGS collaboration, acquires global moderate-resolution measurements of the Earth's terrestrial and polar regions in the visible, near-infrared, short wave, and thermal infrared. Landsat 8 extends the remarkable 40 year Landsat record and has enhanced capabilities including new...

378

Improved Landsat-based forest mapping in steep mountainous terrain using object-based classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of forest stand type maps derived from a Landsat Thematic Mapper (Landsat TM) image of a heterogeneous forest covering rugged terrain is generally low. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to assess whether topographic correction of TM bands and adding the digital elevation model (DEM) as additional band improves the accuracy of Landsat TM-based forest stand

Luuk K. A. Dorren; Bernhard Maier; Arie C. Seijmonsbergen

2003-01-01

379

Deforestation planning for cattle grazing in Amazon Basin using LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This research did not show the total potential of the LANDSAT system, but tried to open up new research aspects for the utilization of LANDSAT data in natural resource control. Results obtained through this research showed that LANDSAT data can be used to develop monitoring programs in the tropical forest areas of Brazil.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Dossantos, A. P.; Demoraisnovo, E. M. L.

1978-01-01

380

A time-series analysis of flood disaster around Lena river using Landsat TM\\/ETM+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat satellite has provided a continuous record of earth observation since 1972, gradually improving sensors (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+). Already processed archives of Landsat image are now available free of charge from the internet. The Landsat image of 30 m spatial resolution with multiple spectral bands between 450 and 2350 nm is appropriate for detailed mapping of natural resource

Toru Sakai; Shigemi Hatta; Makoto Okumura; Wataru Takeuchi; Tetsuya Hiyama; Gen Inoue

2010-01-01

381

Radiometric calibration of the Landsat MSS sensor series  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral remote sensing of the Earth using Landsat sensors was ushered on July 23, 1972, with the launch of Landsat-1. Following that success, four more Landsat satellites were launched, and each of these carried the Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). These five sensors provided the only consistent multispectral space-based imagery of the Earth's surface from 1972 to 1982. This work focuses on developing both a consistent and absolute radiometric calibration of this sensor system. Cross-calibration of the MSS was performed through the use of pseudoinvariant calibration sites (PICSs). Since these sites have been shown to be stable for long periods of time, changes in MSS observations of these sites were attributed to changes in the sensors themselves. In addition, simultaneous data collections were available for some MSS sensor pairs, and these were also used for cross-calibration. Results indicated substantial differences existed between instruments, up to 16%, and these were reduced to 5% or less across all MSS sensors and bands. Lastly, this paper takes the calibration through the final step and places the MSS sensors on an absolute radiometric scale. The methodology used to achieve this was based on simultaneous data collections by the Landsat-5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments. Through analysis of image data from a PICS location and through compensating for the spectral differences between the two instruments, the Landsat-5 MSS sensor was placed on an absolute radiometric scale based on the Landsat-5 TM sensor. Uncertainties associated with this calibration are considered to be less than 5%.

Helder, Dennis L.; Karki, Sadhana; Bhatt, Rajendra; Micijevik, Esad; Aaron, David; Jasinski, Benjamin

2012-01-01

382

Mass balance investigation of alpine glaciers through LANDSAT TM data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees in the Austrian Alps was undertaken and compared with meteorological data of nearby weather stations. Alpine or valley glaciers can be used to study regional and worldwide climate changes. Alpine glaciers respond relatively fast to a warming or cooling trend in temperature through an advance or a retreat of the terminus. In addition, the mass balance of the glacier is being affected. Last year two TM scenes of the Pasterze Glacier of Aug. 1984 and Aug. 1986 were used to study the difference in reflectance. This year, in addition to the scenes from last year, one MSS scene of Aug. 1976 and a TM scene from 1988 were examined for both the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees. During the overpass of the LANDSAT on 6 Aug. 1988 ground truthing on the Pasterze Glacier was undertaken. The results indicate that there was considerable more reflectance in 1976 and 1984 than in 1986 and 1988. The climatological data of the weather stations Sonnblick and Rudolfshuette were examined and compared with the results found through the LANDSAT data. There were relations between the meteorological and LANDSAT data: the average temperature over the last 100 years showed an increase of .4 C, the snowfall was declining during the same time period but the overall precipitation did not reveal any significant change over the same period. With the use of an interactive image analysis computer, the LANDSAT scenes were studied. The terminus of the Pasterze Glacier retreated 348 m and the terminus of the Kleines Fleisskees 121 m since 1965. This approach using LANDSAT MSS and TM digital data in conjunction with meteorological data can be effectively used to monitor regional and worldwide climate changes.

Bayr, Klaus J.

1989-01-01

383

Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1988-01-01

384

Landsat change detection can aid in water quality monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison between Landsat-1 and -2 imagery of Arkansas provided evidence of significant land use changes during the 1972-75 time period. Analysis of Arkansas historical water quality information has shown conclusively that whereas point source pollution generally can be detected by use of water quality data collected by state and federal agencies, sampling methodologies for nonpoint source contamination attributable to surface runoff are totally inadequate. The expensive undertaking of monitoring all nonpoint sources for numerous watersheds can be lessened by implementing Landsat change detection analyses.

Macdonald, H. C.; Steele, K. F.; Waite, W. P.; Shinn, M. R.

1977-01-01

385

Landsat Imagery Enables Global Studies of Surface Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat 8 is the latest in the NASA-developed series of satellites that have provided a continuous picture of Earth for more than 40 years. Mountain View, California-based Google has incorporated Landsat data into several products, most recently generating a cloud-free view of Earth. Google has also teamed up with researchers at the University of Maryland and Goddard Space Flight Center to create a global survey showing changes in forest cover over many years-the first of its kind.

2015-01-01

386

Assessment of LANDSAT for rangeland mapping, Rush Valley, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using LANDSAT MSS (multispectral scanner) data to identify and map cover types for rangeland, and to determine comparative condition of the ecotypes was assessed. A supporting objective is to assess the utility of various forms of aerial photography in the process. If rangelands can be efficiently mapped with Landsat data, as supported by appropriate aerial photography and field data, then uniform standards of cover classification and condition may be applied across the rangelands of the state. Further, a foundation may be established for long-term monitoring of range trend, using the same satellite system over time.

Ridd, M. K.; Price, K. P.; Douglass, G. E.

1984-01-01

387

LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 2: Telemetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formats used for the transmission of LANDSAT-D and LANDSAT-D Prime spacecraft telemetry data through either the TDRS/GSTDN via the NASCOM Network to the CSF are described as well as the telemetry flow from the command and data handling subsystem, a telemetry list and telemetry matrix assignment for the mission and engineering formats. The on-board computer (OBC) controlled format and the dwell format are also discussed. The OBCs contribution to telemetry, and the format of the reports, are covered. The high rate data channel includes the payload correction data format, the narrowband tape recorder and the OBC dump formats.

Talipsky, R.

1982-01-01

388

A radiometric interpretive legend for Landsat digital thematic maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A legend is suggested for use with computer-generated thematic maps made from Landsat digital data that designates some of the radiometric characteristics of each thematic map unit as well as the described terrain attributes of each map unit. The relationship between spectral band and radiance for each map unit is shown by a two-dimensional polygon with the four Landsat multispectral scanner bands plotted on the ordinate and radiance levels on the abscissa. The resulting shape is colored to correspond with the map unit color, thus facilitating the recognition and understanding of the computer-generated map units.

Robinove, Charles J.

1977-01-01

389

Linear dimensionality of Landsat agricultural data with implications for classification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for the Landsat multispectral scanner data, representing a generalization of the commonly used Gaussian model, has been formulated and analyzed. The model hypothesizes that the data for different crop types essentially lie on distinct hyperplanes in the feature space. Tests of this model reveal that: (1) the agricultural data from any single acquisition (i.e., four-channel) of Landsat are essentially two dimensional, regardless of the crop type; and (2) the data from different sites and different stages of crop development all lie on planes which are parallel. These findings have significant implications for data display, classification, feature extraction, and signature extension.

Wheeler, S. G.; Misra, P. N.; Holmes, Q. A.

1976-01-01

390

Mapping wetland and forest landscapes in Siberia with Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landsat data availability provides opportunity for improving the knowledge of the Siberian ecosystems necessary for quantifying the response of the regional carbon cycle to the climate change. We developed a new wetland map based on Landsat data for whole West Siberia aiming at scaling up the methane emission observations. Mid-summer Landsat scenes were used in supervised classification method, based on ground truth data obtained during multiple field surveys. The method allows distinguishing following wetland types: pine-dwarf shrubs-sphagnum bogs or ryams, ridge-hollows complexes, shallow-water complexes, sedge-sphagnum poor fens, herbaceous-sphagnum poor fens, sedge-(moss) poor fens and fens, wooded swamps or sogra, palsa complexes. In our estimates wetlands cover 36% of the taiga area. Total methane emission from WS taiga mires is estimated as 3.6 TgC/yr,which is 77% larger as compared to the earlier estimate based on partial Landsat mapping combined with low resolution map due to higher fraction of fen area. We make an attempt to develop a forest typology system useful for a dynamic vegetation modeling and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in West and East Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas where ample ground truth and inventory data are available, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exists for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Forest classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills.

Maksyutov, Shamil; Kleptsova, Irina; Glagolev, Mikhail; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Silaev, Anton; Frolov, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander

2014-05-01

391

LANDSAT-D ground segment operations plan, revision A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic concept for the utilization of LANDSAT ground processing resources is described. Only the steady state activities that support normal ground processing are addressed. This ground segment operations plan covers all processing of the multispectral scanner and the processing of thematic mapper through data acquisition and payload correction data generation for the LANDSAT 4 mission. The capabilities embedded in the hardware and software elements are presented from an operations viewpoint. The personnel assignments associated with each functional process and the mechanisms available for controlling the overall data flow are identified.

Evans, B.

1982-01-01

392

LANDSAT-D program. Volume 2: Ground segment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raw digital data, as received from the LANDSAT spacecraft, cannot generate images that meet specifications. Radiometric corrections must be made to compensate for aging and for differences in sensitivity among the instrument sensors. Geometric corrections must be made to compensate for off-nadir look angle, and to calculate spacecraft drift from its prescribed path. Corrections must also be made for look-angle jitter caused by vibrations induced by spacecraft equipment. The major components of the LANDSAT ground segment and their functions are discussed.

1984-01-01

393

Comparison of outgassing models for the Landsat thematic mapper sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thematic Mapper (TM) is a multi-spectral electro-optical sensor featured onboard both the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) satellites. TM sensors have seven spectral bands with center wavelengths of approximately 0.49, 0.56, 0.66, 0.83, 1.65, 11.5 and 2.21 mum, respectively. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) bands are located on the primary focal plane (PFP), and two short-wave infrared (SWIR)

Esad Micijevic; Gyanesh Chander

2007-01-01

394

Collagen gel overlay induces two phases of apoptosis in MDCK cells.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that collagen gel overlay induced cell remodeling to form lumen and apoptosis in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In the present study, we established that collagen gel overlay-induced apoptosis was initiated at areas exclusive of cell remodeling within 24 h (first phase) and extended into areas of cell remodeling within 48 h (second phase). Collagen gel overlay-induced apoptosis was accompanied by selective proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), talin, p130(cas), and c-src. Upon collagen gel overlay, FAK was initially degraded into a 90-kDa product during the first phase and subsequently into a 80-kDa product during the second phase. Collagen gel overlay-induced apoptosis of focal adhesion complex proteins and apoptosis of the first phase could be blocked only by a protease inhibitor cocktail. In addition, we found that both DEVD-fmk and ZVAD-fmk inhibited secondary proteolysis of FAK, but only ZVAD-fmk blocked collagen gel overlay-induced apoptosis of the second phase. Finally, collagen gel overlay-induced apoptosis and proteolysis of focal adhesion complex proteins were completely inhibited by the combination of protease inhibitor cocktail and ZVAD-fmk. Taken together, collagen gel overlay induces two phases of apoptosis; the first phase is dependent on proteolysis of focal adhesion complex proteins, and the second phase on activation of caspases. PMID:11350739

Wang, Y K; Lin, H H; Tang, M J

2001-06-01

395

The GridMapper challenge: how to integrate into manufacturing for reduced overlay error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More sophisticated corrections of overlay error are required because of the challenge caused by technology scaling faster than fundamental tool improvements. Starting at the 45 nm node, the gap between the matchedmachine- overlay error (MMO) and technology requirement has decreased to the point where additional overlay correction methods are needed. This paper focuses on the steps we have taken to enable GridMapperTM, which is offered by ASML, as a method to reduce overlay error. The paper reviews the basic challenges of overlay error and previous standard correction practices. It then describes implementation of GridMapper into IBM's 300 mm fabrication facility. This paper also describes the challenges we faced and the improvements in overlay control observed with the use of this technique. Specifically, this paper will illustrate several improvements: 1. Minimization of non-linear grid signature differences between tools 2. Optimization of overlay corrections across all fields 3. Decreased grid errors, even on levels not using GridMapper 4. Maintenance of the grid for the lifetime of a product 5. Effectiveness in manufacturing - cycle time, automated corrections for tool grid signature changes and overlay performance similar to dedicated chuck performance

Gabor, Allen; Liegl, Bernhard; Pike, Michael; Hwang, Emily; Wiltshire, Timothy

2010-04-01

396

Debunking some myths about structured and unstructured overlays Miguel Castro Manuel Costa Antony Rowstron  

E-print Network

Debunking some myths about structured and unstructured overlays Miguel Castro Manuel Costa Antony study using sim- ulations driven by real-world traces that debunks these widespread myths. We describe to this debate by debunking some widespread myths. Unstructured overlays, for example Gnutella [1], or- ganize

Narasayya, Vivek

397

Towards a Common API for Structured Peer-to-Peer Overlays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe an ongoing effort to define com- mon APIs for structured peer-to-peer overlays and the key abstractions that can be built on them. In doing so, we hope to facilitate independent innovation in overlay pro- tocols, services, and applications, to allow direct experi- mental comparisons, and to encourage application devel- opment by third parties. We provide

Frank Dabek; Ben Y. Zhao; Peter Druschel; John Kubiatowicz; Ion Stoica

2003-01-01

398

Questioning the Benefits That Coloured Overlays Can Have for Reading in Students with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual stress (the experience of visual distortions and discomfort during prolonged reading) is frequently identified and alleviated with coloured overlays or lenses. Previous studies have associated visual stress with dyslexia and as a consequence, coloured overlays are widely distributed to children and adults with reading difficulty. However,…

Henderson, Lisa M.; Tsogka, Natassa; Snowling, Margaret J.

2013-01-01

399

GIS based map overlay method for comprehensive assessment of road environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the matrix method, a Geographic Information System (GIS) based map overlay method is developed to analyze comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around road and its impact on the environment, which is adapted for the comprehensive assessment of road environmental impact and the optimal selection of road alignments. The assessment process of

Xiugang Li; Wei Wang; Fang Li; Xuejun Deng

1999-01-01

400

CONCRETE REQUIREMENTS FOR ULTRA-THIN CONCRETE OVERLAYS (WHITETOPPING) FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Whitetopping solutions for old flexible asphalt pavement overlays have been a challange for highway agencies and designers in the recent past years, with special regards to ultra-thin concrete overlays, also called by ultra-thin whitetopping (UTW). Considering the needs of full bond between the UTW and the old asphalt concrete (AC) layer it is clear the impossibility of applying conventional

José T. Balbo; Marcos P. Rodolfo

401

Dynamic Bandwidth Auctions in Multi-overlay P2P Streaming with Network Coding  

E-print Network

1 Dynamic Bandwidth Auctions in Multi-overlay P2P Streaming with Network Coding Chuan Wu, Student, bli}@eecg.toronto.edu {zongpeng}@cpsc.ucalgary.ca Abstract--In peer-to-peer (P2P) live streaming applications such as IPTV, it is natural to accommodate multiple coexisting streaming overlays, corresponding

Li, Zongpeng

402

Neighborhood Filtering Strategies for Overlay Construction in P2P-TV Systems: Design and  

E-print Network

1 Neighborhood Filtering Strategies for Overlay Construction in P2P-TV Systems: Design, Trento, Italy ­ {lastname}@fbk.eu Abstract--Peer-to-Peer live-streaming (P2P-TV) systems aim to benchmark different strategies for the construction and maintenance of the overlay topology in P2P

403

1 Scalable and Secure P2P Overlay Networks 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1  

E-print Network

Contents 1 Scalable and Secure P2P Overlay Networks 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 P2P Overlay Network Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3.1 Classification of P2P systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3.2 Unstructured P2P

Shi, Weisong

404

Small-World Overlay P2P Networks: Construction and Handling Dynamic Flash Crowd  

E-print Network

Small-World Overlay P2P Networks: Construction and Handling Dynamic Flash Crowd Ken Y.K. Hui John C@cs.purdue.edu Abstract In this paper, we consider how to "construct" and "maintain" an overlay structured P2P network with a high clustering coefficient implies the underlying P2P net- work has the "potential" to provide object

Lui, John C.S.

405

Adaptive Overlay Topology for Mesh-Based P2P-TV Richard John Lobb  

E-print Network

Adaptive Overlay Topology for Mesh-Based P2P-TV Systems Richard John Lobb University of Canterbury and maintaining the overlay top- ology in mesh-based P2P-TV systems. Our algorithm opti- mizes the topology-to-peer Live Streaming (P2P-TV) systems are can- didates for becoming the next Internet killer applications

406

Variance component analysis based fault diagnosis of multi-layer overlay lithography processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overlay lithography process is one of the most important steps in semiconductor manufacturing. This work attempts to solve a challenging problem in this technique, namely error source identification and diagnosis for multistage overlay processes. In this paper, a multistage state space model for the misalignment errors of the lithography process is developed and a general mixed linear input–output model

Jie Yu; S. Joe Qin

2009-01-01

407

Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers Salles V. G. Maghales and W Randolph Franklin  

E-print Network

Exactly computing map overlays using rational numbers Salles V. G. Maghalães and W Randolph by representing coordinates as rational numbers. Now, intersections have no roundoff errors. Rational numbers for different kinds of soil. This paper presents Rat-overlay, an algorithm that uses rational numbers to perform

Franklin, W. Randolph

408

Perturbation-Resistant and Overlay-Independent Resource Discovery Steven Y. Ko and Indranil Gupta  

E-print Network

Perturbation-Resistant and Overlay-Independent Resource Discovery Steven Y. Ko and Indranil Gupta and discovery in dis- tributed systems should be both perturbation-resistant and overlay-independent. Perturbation-resistance means that inserts and lookups must be robust to ordinary stresses such as node

Gupta, Indranil

409

Stochastic Graph Processes for Performance Evaluation of Content Delivery Applications in Overlay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new methodology to model the distribution of finite size content to a group of users connected through an overlay network. Our methodology describes the distribution process as a constrained stochastic graph process (CSGP), where the con- straints dictated by the content distribution protocol and the characteristics of the overlay network define the interaction among nodes. A

Damiano Carra; Renato Lo Cigno; Ernst W. Biersack

2008-01-01

410

Change in the electronic states of graphite overlayers depending on thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic states of graphite overlayers formed on the TaC(111) surface have been investigated with the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. The graphite film grows on the substrate layer by layer. The thickness of the overlayer has been adjusted precisely to be either one or two monolayers. The physical properties of the monolayer graphite film are modified by

A. Nagashima; H. Itoh; T. Ichinokawa; C. Oshima; S. Otani

1994-01-01

411

[ ]May 2014 Portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays have been used with great success in many locations  

E-print Network

[ ]May 2014 PROBLEM Portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays have been used with great success or concrete. The proven durability and cost-effective construction method of bonded concrete overlay over concrete layer over a PCC or cement-stabilized soil base. Due to the increasing costs of roadway

Harms, Kyle E.

412

Toward 7nm target on product overlay for C028 FDSOI technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous need for lithography overlay performance improvement is a key point for advanced integrated circuit manufacturing. Overlay control is more and more challenging in the 2x nm process nodes regarding functionality margin of the chip and tool capability. Transistor architecture rules which are set, confirm poly to contact space as the most critical one for 28nm technology node. Critical Dimension variability of these layers, even with best in class process stability, in addition to design constraint lead to on product overlay specifications of around 7nm. In order to ensure that the target is met in production environment and to identify potential ways for improvement, identification of the contributors to overlay errors is essential. We have introduced a novel budget breakdown methodology using both bottom-up and top-down overlay data. For the bottom up part, we have performed extensive testing with very high sampling scheme so as to quantify the main effects. In-line overlay metrology data has been used for top down approach to verify the overall performance in production. In this paper we focused on the 28nm contact to gate overlay in a FDSOI process. The initial inconsistency between bottom up and top down results led us to further exploration of the root cause of these inconsistencies. We have been able to highlight key figures to focus on, like reticle heating, wafer table contamination and etch processing effects. Finally, we conclude on 7nm overlay target achievement feasibility in high volume manufacturing environment.

Gatefait, Maxime; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Goirand, Pierre Jerome; Lam, Auguste; Van Haren, Richard; Pastol, Anne; Doytcheva, Maya; Liu, Xing Lan; Beltman, Jan

2013-04-01

413

Combining Computer and Manual Overlays--Willamette River Greenway Study1  

E-print Network

Combining Computer and Manual Overlays-- Willamette River Greenway Study1 Asa Hanamoto and Lucille computer mapping with manual overlays. An example of its use is the Willamette River Greenway Study to develop policy for qualitative use of the land. The environment is the visual, physical. chemical

Standiford, Richard B.

414

Overlay Networks with Linear Capacity Constraints Ying Zhu and Baochun Li, Senior Member, IEEE  

E-print Network

Abstract-- Overlay networks are virtual networks residing over the IP network, consequently, overlay links formulate Maximum-Flow with LCC as a linear program, and propose an efficient distributed algorithm to solve optimal or near-optimal bandwidth. We also outline a distributed algorithm to efficiently construct

Li, Baochun

415

Lightweight storage and overlay networks for fault tolerance.  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of capability-class, massively parallel processing (MPP) systems is expected to have hundreds of thousands to millions of processors, In such environments, it is critical to have fault-tolerance mechanisms, including checkpoint/restart, that scale with the size of applications and the percentage of the system on which the applications execute. For application-driven, periodic checkpoint operations, the state-of-the-art does not provide a scalable solution. For example, on today's massive-scale systems that execute applications which consume most of the memory of the employed compute nodes, checkpoint operations generate I/O that consumes nearly 80% of the total I/O usage. Motivated by this observation, this project aims to improve I/O performance for application-directed checkpoints through the use of lightweight storage architectures and overlay networks. Lightweight storage provide direct access to underlying storage devices. Overlay networks provide caching and processing capabilities in the compute-node fabric. The combination has potential to signifcantly reduce I/O overhead for large-scale applications. This report describes our combined efforts to model and understand overheads for application-directed checkpoints, as well as implementation and performance analysis of a checkpoint service that uses available compute nodes as a network cache for checkpoint operations.

Oldfield, Ron A.

2010-01-01

416

Exact and reliable overlay metrology in nanoscale semiconductor devices using an image processing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As semiconductor processing becomes more complicated and pattern sizes shrink, the overlay metrology has become one of the most important issues in the semiconductor industry. Therefore, in order to obtain correct, reliable overlay values in semiconductor fabrication facilities (fab), quantization methods for the efficient management and implementation of a measurement algorithm are required, as well as an understanding of the target structures in the semiconductor device. We implemented correct, reliable overlay values in the pattern using the image processing method. The quantization method, through correlation analysis and a new algorithm for target structures, were able to improve the sensitivity to misalignment in the pattern and enable more stable and credible in-line measurement by decreasing the distribution of the residuals in overlay values. Since overlay values of the pattern in the fab were measured and managed more reliably and quickly, it is expected that our study will be able to contribute to the yield enhancement of semiconductor companies.

Park, Jinkook; Shin, ChaeHo; Kim, Minkook; Kim, Junghwan; Park, JeongKyun; Kim, JungSoo; Jun, ChungSam; Yim, Yeny; Lee, Janghee

2014-10-01

417

Innovative techniques for improving overlay accuracy by using DCM (device correlated metrology) targets as reference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overlay metrology performance as Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), design rule compatibility, device correlation and measurement accuracy are been challenged at 2x nm node and below. Process impact on overlay metrology becoming critical, and techniques to improve measurement accuracy becomes increasingly important. In this paper, we present an innovative methodology for improving overlay accuracy. A propriety quality metric, Qmerit, is used to identify overlay metrology measurement settings with least process impacts and reliable accuracies. Using the quality metric, an innovative calibration method, ASC (Archer Self Calibration) is then used to remove the inaccuracies. Accuracy validation can be achieved by correlation to reference overlay data from another independent metrology source such as CDSEM data collected on DCM (Device Correlated Metrology) hybrid target or electrical testing. Additionally, reference metrology can also be used to verify which measurement conditions are the most accurate. In this paper we bring an example of such use case.

Tzai, Wei-Jhe; Hsu, Simon C. C.; Chen, Howard; Chen, Charlie; Pai, Yuan Chi; Yu, Chun-Chi; Lin, Chia Ching; Itzkovich, Tal; Yap, Lipkong; Amit, Eran; Tien, David; Huang, Eros; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

2014-04-01

418

Computer vision and soft computing for automatic skull-face overlay in craniofacial superimposition.  

PubMed

Craniofacial superimposition can provide evidence to support that some human skeletal remains belong or not to a missing person. It involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. Within the craniofacial superimposition process, the skull-face overlay stage just focuses on achieving the best possible overlay of the skull and a single ante mortem image of the suspect. Although craniofacial superimposition has been in use for over a century, skull-face overlay is still applied by means of a trial-and-error approach without an automatic method. Practitioners finish the process once they consider that a good enough overlay has been attained. Hence, skull-face overlay is a very challenging, subjective, error prone, and time consuming part of the whole process. Though the numerical assessment of the method quality has not been achieved yet, computer vision and soft computing arise as powerful tools to automate it, dramatically reducing the time taken by the expert and obtaining an unbiased overlay result. In this manuscript, we justify and analyze the use of these techniques to properly model the skull-face overlay problem. We also present the automatic technical procedure we have developed using these computational methods and show the four overlays obtained in two craniofacial superimposition cases. This automatic procedure can be thus considered as a tool to aid forensic anthropologists to develop the skull-face overlay, automating and avoiding subjectivity of the most tedious task within craniofacial superimposition. PMID:25447179

Campomanes-Álvarez, B Rosario; Ibáñez, O; Navarro, F; Alemán, I; Botella, M; Damas, S; Cordón, O

2014-10-18

419

Implementing IPv6 as a Peer-to-Peer Overlay Network Lidong Zhou Robbert van Renesse Michael Marsh  

E-print Network

Implementing IPv6 as a Peer-to-Peer Overlay Network Lidong Zhou Robbert van Renesse Michael Marsh,rvr,mmarsh}@cs.cornell.edu Abstract This paper proposes to implement an IPv6 routing in- frastructure as a self-organizing overlay network on top of the current IPv4 infrastructure. The overlay network builds upon a distributed IPv6 edge

Birman, Kenneth P.

420

Overlay stability improvement at metal layers using combination of feedforward and feedback run-to-run control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We had to rework many lots at metal layers for the overlay instability. We found that the wafer rotation in overlay components related at the number of wafers from the change of CMP PAD at Tungsten CMP process and then improved overlay stability by using the feedforward run-to-run control as utilizing above correlation and confirmed the advantage for using the

T. Higashi; K. Murakami; A. Oikawa

2003-01-01

421

Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT-D multispectral scanner subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relative spectral response data for the multispectral scanner subsystems (MSS) to be flown on LANDSAT-D and LANDSAT-D backup, the protoflight and flight models, respectively, are presented and compared to similar data for the Landsat 1,2, and 3 subsystems. Channel-bychannel (six channels per band) outputs for soil and soybean targets were simulated and compared within each band and between scanners. The two LANDSAT-D scanners proved to be nearly identical in mean spectral response, but they exhibited some differences from the previous MSS's. Principal differences between the spectral responses of the D-scanners and previous scanners were: (1) a mean upper-band edge in the green band of 606 nm compared to previous means of 593 to 598 nm; (2) an average upper-band edge of 697 nm in the red band compared to previous averages of 701 to 710 nm; and (3) an average bandpass for the first near-IR band of 702-814 nm compared to a range of 693-793 to 697-802 nm for previous scanners. These differences caused the simulated D-scanner outputs to be 3 to 10 percent lower in the red band and 3 to 11 percent higher in the first near-IR band than previous scanners for the soybeans target. Otherwise, outputs from soil and soybean targets were only slightly affected. The D-scanners were generally more uniform from channel to channel within bands than previous scanners.

Markham, B. L. (principal investigator); Barker, J. L.

1982-01-01

422

Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico - Landsat 7  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, an explosion at an oil well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a major oil spill. Since then, emergency response efforts have been underway to contain the growing oil slick before it reaches the southern coast of the United States. Landsat imagery, acquired by the U.S. Geological ...

423

Quantifying Changes in the Land Over Time with Landsat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students analyze land cover change in order to help them grasp the extent, significance, and consequences of land cover change; and to introduce them to the perspective of space-based Earth observations. Students learn to identify kinds of land cover (such as roads, fields, urban areas, and lakes) in Landsat satellite images. They decide which land cover types allow the passage of water into the soil (pervious) and which types do not allow it (impervious). They consider some effects of increasing impervious surface area on ecosystem health. Students then make land cover maps using two Landsat satellite images taken about a decade apart, and quantify the change of land cover from pervious to impervious surface. They also make predictive maps of what they think the nature and extent of land cover change in the area will be in the year 2025, and speculate about the consequences for the availability of water for people and ecosystems. Students justify in writing their predictive maps and their thoughts about the consequences of change. This activity uses Landsat images of Phoenix, Arizona; links are also provided for finding Landsat images of other cities.

424

Prospecting in glaciated terrain-integrating airborne and Landsat MSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of a glacially enriched zone of trace elements on soils and vegetation in the Thetford Mines area of Quebec were investigated using ground information plus digital Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data from airborne and Landsat sensors. The enriched zone was developed during the last glaciation when a southeastward flowing glacier eroded and dispersed an ultrabasic outcrop that had anomalous levels of Ni, Cu, Co, Cr, Mg and Fe. The dispersal train of enriched trace elements was detectable over an area at least 70 × 15 km `down-ice' from the outcrop. In this zone total Ni concentrations in the soil ranged from background levels of 10 ppm to levels in excess of 1800 ppm. The dominant tree species, Abies balsamea (balsam fir) and Picea glauca (white spruce) reflect the soil anomaly with higher concentrations of trace elements in their tissue and lower concentrations of chlorophyll. An unsupervised enhancement of Landsat imagery showed that a tonal discontinuity was caused by a vegetation segregation related to the heavy metal enrichment soils. A detailed study based on Landsat MSS data was able to establish regional patterns of chlorophyll production by certain plant species closely related to the ultrabasic dispersal train. Multi-channel airborne MSS data confirmed the Landsat soil-plant patterns.

Belanger, J. R.; Rencz, A. N.

425

LANDSAT-4/5 image data quality analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) quality evaluation study was conducted to identify geometric and radiometric sensor errors in the post-launch environment. The study began with the launch of LANDSAT-4. Several error conditions were found, including band-to-band misregistration and detector-to detector radiometric calibration errors. Similar analysis was made for the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper and compared with results for LANDSAT-4. Remaining band-to-band misregistration was found to be within tolerances and detector-to-detector calibration errors were not severe. More coherent noise signals were observed in TM-5 than in TM-4, although the amplitude was generally less. The scan direction differences observed in TM-4 were still evident in TM-5. The largest effect was in Band 4 where nearly a one digital count difference was observed. Resolution estimation was carried out using roads in TM-5 for the primary focal plane bands rather than field edges as in TM-4. Estimates using roads gave better resolution. Thermal IR band calibration studies were conducted and new nonlinear calibration procedures were defined for TM-5. The overall conclusion is that there are no first order errors in TM-5 and any remaining problems are second or third order.

Malaret, E.; Bartolucci, L. A.; Lozano, D. F.; Anuta, P. E.; Mcgillem, C. D.

1984-01-01

426

Secretary Salazar Charts Future for Landsat Satellite Program  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Landsat satellites capture data about the Earth's surface that no other private or public source can provide. This unique data has become vital to agricultural, water management, disaster response, scientific, and national security uses, providing hundreds of millions of dollars in estimated value t...

427

Some aspects of geological information contained in LANDSAT images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of MSS images and methods of interpretation are analyzed from a geological point of view. The supportive role of LANDSAT data are illustrated in several examples of surface expressions of geological features, such as synclines and anticlines, spectral characteristics of lithologic units, and circular impact structures.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Liu, C. C.; Vitorello, I.; Meneses, P. R.

1980-01-01

428

Geopositional Accuracy Validation of Orthorectified Landsat ETM+ Imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides the results of two independent evaluations, an absolute and a relative assessment, of the geopositional accuracy of the Earth Satellite (EarthSat) Corporation's GeoCover orthorectified Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery. This imagery was purchased through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program.

Smith, Charles M.

2004-01-01

429

Geopositional Accuracy Validation of Orthorectified Landsat MSS Imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides results of an independent assessment of the horizontal geopositional accuracy of Earth Satellite (EarthSat) Corporation's GeoCover orthorectified Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. This imagery was purchased through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program.

Smith, Charles M.

2004-01-01

430

LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation, Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievement thus far includes the successful charting of high probability fishing areas from LANDSAT MSS data and the successful simulation of an operational satellite system to provide tactical information for the commercial harvest of menhaden.

Savastano, K. (principal investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Leming, T.; Holley, H.; Faller, K. H.

1977-01-01

431

LANDSAT menhaden and thread herring resources investigation, Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant achievements thus far include the successful charting of high probability fishing areas from LANDSAT MSS data and the successful simulation of an operational satellite system to provide tactical information for the commercial harvest of menhaden.

Savastano, K. (principal investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Leming, T.; Holley, H.; Faller, K. H.

1976-01-01

432

The Delaware River Basin Landsat-Data Collection System Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This experiment successfully demonstrated that standard U.S. Geological Survey field instrumentation could be easily interfaced with the LANDSAT-DCS and the data made to flow smoothly to water resources management agencies. The experiment was conducted in the Delaware River basin. A truly operational system could not be deployed.

Paulson, R. W. (principal investigator)

1975-01-01

433

LANDSAT-D flight segment operations manual, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Functions, performance capabilities, modes of operation, constraints, redundancy, commands, and telemetry are described for the thematic mapper; the global positioning system; the direct access S-band; the multispectral scanner; the payload correction; the thermal control subsystem; the solar array retention, deployment, and jettison assembly; and the boom antenna retention, deployment, and jettison assembly for LANDSAT 4.

Varhola, J.

1981-01-01

434

Geometric accuracy of LANDSAT-4 MSS image data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses of the LANDSAT-4 MSS image data of North Georgia provided by the EDC in CCT-p formats reveal that errors of approximately + or - 30 m in the raw data can be reduced to about + or - 55 m based on rectification procedures involving the use of 20 to 30 well-distributed GCPs and 2nd or 3rd degree polynomial equations. Higher order polynomials do not appear to improve the rectification accuracy. A subscene area of 256 x 256 pixels was rectified with a 1st degree polynomial to yield an RMSE sub xy value of + or - 40 m, indicating that USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangle-sized areas of LANDSAT-4 data can be fitted to a map base with relatively few control points and simple equations. The errors in the rectification process are caused by the spatial resolution of the MSS data, by errors in the maps and GCP digitizing process, and by displacements caused by terrain relief. Overall, due to the improved pointing and attitude control of the spacecraft, the geometric quality of the LANDSAT-4 MSS data appears much improved over that of LANDSATS -1, -2 and -3.

Welch, R.; Usery, E. L.

1983-01-01

435

Geometric accuracy of LANDSAT-4 MSS image data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses of the LANDSAT-4 MSS image data of North Georgia provided by the EDC in CCT-p formats reveal that errors of approximately + or - 30 m in the raw data can be reduced to about + or - 55 m based on rectification procedures involving the use of 20 to 30 well-distributed GCPs and 2nd or 3rd degree polynomial equations. Higher order polynomials do not appear to improve the rectification accuracy. A subscene area of 256 x 256 pixels was rectified with a 1st degree polynomial to yield an RMSE sub xy value of + or - 40 m, indicating that USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangle-sized areas of LANDSAT-4 data can be fitted to a map base with relatively few control points and simple equations. The errors in the rectification process are caused by the spatial resolution of the MSS data, by errors in the maps and GCP digitizing process, and by displacements caused by terrain relief. Overall, due to the improved pointing and attitude control of the spacecraft, the geometric quality of the LANDSAT-4 MSS data appears much improved over that of LANDSATS -1, -2 AND -3.

Welch, R.; Usery, E. L.

1985-01-01

436

Geometric Accuracy of LANDSAT-4 MSS Image Data. [Georgia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses of the LANDSAT-4 MSS image data of North Georgia provided by the EDC in CTT-p formats reveal that errors of approximately + or - 30 m in the raw data can be reduced to about + or - 55 m based on rectification procedures involving the use of 20 to 30 well-distributed GCPs and 2nd or 3rd degree polynomial equations. Higher order polynomials do not appear to improve the rectification accuracy. A subscene area of 256 by 256 pixels was rectified with a 1st degree polynomial to yield an RMSE sub xy value of + or - 40 m, indicating that USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangle-sized areas of LANDSAT-4 data can be fitted to a map base with relatively few control points and simple equations. The errors in the rectification process are caused by the spatial resolution of the MSS data, by errors in the maps and GCP digitizing process, and by displacements caused by terrain relief. Overall, due to the improved pointing and attitude control of the spacecraft, the geometric quality of the LANDSAT-4 MSS data appears much improved over that of LANDSAT-1, -2 AND -3.

Welch, R.; Usery, E. L.

1984-01-01

437

Geometric accuarcy assessment of LANDSAT-4 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standard LANDSAT 4 MSS data for Washington, DC was analyzed to characterize the geodetic, temporal registration, and band-to-band registration accuracy of standard P-format MSS image data. Geodetic accuracy was assessed by comparing geodetic verification points selected from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic triangles against the corresponding LANDSAT 4 image feature locations. Cross-correlation was used to evaluate band-to-band and temporal registration accuracy. The geometric accuracies of LANDSAT 4 MSS data are excellent. The geodetic registration accuracy appears very good. The LANDSAT data closely match the USGS map products with image-to-map offset errors of 5 (57 x 57 m) pixels. Temporal registration accuracy is also quite good although results from this analysis do not meet specifications. The specifications for temporal registration are 0.3 sensor (82 x 82 m) pixel or 24.6 m 90 percent of the time. The results show that the 90 percent error figure for temporal registration is 0.68 (57 x 57 m) pixel or 38.8 meters. Band-to-band registration could be considered to meet specifications. The registration error between the bands having naturally higher correlations between information content (bands 1 and 2 and bands 3 and 4) proved to meet specifications 14.2m and 13.7m, respectively.

Imhoff, M. L.; Alford, W. L.

1985-01-01

438

Simulation of meteorological satellite (METSAT) data using LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The information content which can be expected from the advanced very high resolution radiometer system, AVHRR, on the NOAA-6 satellite was assessed, and systematic techniques of data interpretation for use with meteorological satellite data were defined. In-house data from LANDSAT 2 and 3 were used to simulate the spatial, spectral, and sampling methods of the NOAA-6 satellite data.

Austin, W. W.; Ryland, W. E.

1983-01-01

439

Educator's Guide for Mission to Earth: LANDSAT Views the World  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This teacher's guide is specifically designed to provide information and suggestions for using LANDSAT imagery to teach basic concepts in several content areas. Content areas include: (1) Earth science and geology; (2) environmental studies; (3) geography; and (4) social and urban studies.

Tindal, M. A.

1978-01-01

440

OHIO RIVER WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT USING LANDSAT-7 DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this project were (1) to develop a universal index for measuring Turbidity and Chlorophyll-A from remote sensing data and (2) to correlate satellite image parameters from Landsat-7 data with field measurements of water quality for five parameters: Chlorophyll-A ...

441

A strategy for analyzing urban forest using Landsat ETM+ imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban forest is of great interest to a variety of scientific and urban planning applications. This paper presents a strategy for calculating tree canopy density in urban areas using Landsat ETM+ imagery and calculating its ecological value. The strategy consists of two key steps: one is to extract urban tree canopy area from remote sensing images; the other is to

Chudong Huang; Yun Shao; Jinsong Chen; Jinghui Liu; Jieqiong Chen; Jing Li

2007-01-01

442

Landsat 7 Images Show Scale of Tsunami Damage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA page shows before and after pictures taken by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument of a part of the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The images show that the scale of the tsunami's impact can be seen from space.

NASA

443

Nyiragongo volcano, Congo, Pre-eruption Perspective View, SRTM / Landsat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo erupted on January 17, 2002, and subsequently sent streams of lava into the city of Goma on the north shore of Lake Kivu. More than 100 people were killed, more than 12000 homes were destroyed, and hundreds of thousands were forced to flee the broader community of nearly half a million people. This computer generated visualization combines a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to provide a view of both the volcano and the city of Goma, looking slightly east of north.

Nyiragongo is the steep volcano on the right, Lake Kivu is in the foreground, and the city of Goma has a light pink speckled appearance along the shoreline. Nyiragongo peaks at about 3470 meters (11,380 feet) elevation and reaches almost exactly 2000 meters (6560 feet) above Lake Kivu. The shorter but broader Nyamuragira volcano appears in the left background. Topographic expression has been exaggerated vertically by a factor of 1.5 for this visualization.

Goma, Lake Kivu, Nyiragongo, Nyamuragira and other nearby volcanoes sit within the East African Rift Valley, a zone where tectonic processes are cracking, stretching, and lowering the Earth's crust. Volcanic activity is common here, and older but geologically recent lava flows (magenta in this depiction) are particularly apparent on the flanks of the Nyamuragira volcano.

The Landsat image used here was acquired on December 11, 2001, about a month before the eruption, and shows an unusually cloud-free view of this tropical terrain. Minor clouds and their shadows were digitally removed to clarify the view, topographic shading derived from the SRTM elevation model was added to the Landsat image, and a false sky was added.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive. This Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: View width 21 kilometers (13 miles), View distance 42 kilometers (26 miles) Location: 1.5 deg. South lat., 29.3 deg. East lon. Orientation: View east-northeast, 5 degrees below horizontal Image Data: Landsat Bands 3, 2, 1 as red, green, blue, respectively. Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (30 meters or 98 feet), Landsat 30 meters (98 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), 11 December 2001 (Landsat)

2002-01-01

444

Mapping forest succesion types in Siberia with Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a forest typology system based on dynamic vegetation approach and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), one in Central Siberia and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas covered with analysis of the ground truth and inventory data, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects published in literature. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information seem to be a promising way to complement Landsat data, including SAR-based biomass maps and terrain data

Maksyutov, S. S.; Sedykh, V.; Kleptsova, I.; Frolov, A.; Silaev, A.; Kuzmenko, E.; Farber, S.; Kuzmik, N.; Sokolov, V. A.; Fedorov, A.; Nikolaeva, S.

2013-12-01

445

MONITORING LARGE AREAS FOR FOREST CHANGE USING LANDSAT: GENERALIZATION ACROSS SPACE, TIME AND LANDSAT SENSORS. (R828309)  

EPA Science Inventory

Landsat 7 ETM+ provides an opportunity to extend the area and frequency with which we are able to monitor the Earth's surface with fine spatial resolution data. To take advantage of this opportunity it is necessary to move beyond the traditional image-by-image approac...

446

A refined empirical line approach for reflectance factor retrieval from Landsat5 TM and Landsat7 ETM+  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent launch of Landsat-7 ETM+ extends the uninterrupted stream of TM and ETM+ images to a potential span of 32 years. This exceptional image set will allow long-term studies of natural resources, but will require an operational method for converting image digital number (dn) to the temporally comparable surface reflectance factor (?s?). A refinement to the empirical line (EL)

M. s. Moran; R. Bryant; K. Thome; W. Ni; Y. Nouvellon; M. p. Gonzalez-dugo; J. Qi; T. r. Clarke

2001-01-01

447

BWR pipe crack and weld clad overlay studies  

SciTech Connect

Leaks and cracks in the heat-affected zones of weldments in austenitic stainless steel piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs) due to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) have been observed since the mid-1960s. Since that time, cracking has continued to occur, and indication have been found in all parts of the recirculation system, including the largest diameter lines. Proposed solutions for the problem include procedures that produce a more favorable residual stress state on the inner surface, materials that are more resistant to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and changes in the reactor environment that decrease the susceptibility to cracking. In addition to the evaluation of these remedies, it is also important to gain a better understanding of the weld overlay procedure, which is the most widely used short-term repair for flawed piping.

Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.

1984-10-01

448

Ubiquitous map-image access through wireless overlay networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the availability of various wireless link-layer technologies, such as Bluetooth, WLAN and GPRS, in one wireless device, ubiquitous communications can be realized through managing vertical handoff in the environment of wireless overlay networks. In this paper, we propose a vertical handoff management system based on mobile IPv6, which can automatically manage the multiple network interfaces on the mobile device, and make decisions on network interface selection according to the current situation. Moreover, we apply our proposed vertical handoff management with JPEG-2000 codec to the wireless application of map image access. The developed system is able to provide seamless communications, as well as fast retrieve any interested map region with any block size, in different resolutions and different color representations directly from the compressed bitstream.

Cai, Jianfei; Huang, Haijie; Ni, Zefeng; Chen, Chang Wen

2004-10-01

449

Monitoring process-induced overlay errors through high-resolution wafer geometry measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling overlay errors resulting from wafer processing, such as film deposition, is essential for meeting overlay budgets in future generations of devices. Out-of-plane distortions induced on the wafer due to processing are often monitored through high-resolution wafer geometry measurements. While such wafer geometry measurements provide information about the wafer distortion, mechanics models are required to connect such measurements to overlay errors, which result from in-plane distortions. The aim of this paper is to establish fundamental connections between the out-ofplane distortions that are characterized in wafer geometry measurements and the in-plane distortions on the wafer surface that lead to overlay errors. First, an analytical mechanics model is presented to provide insight into the connection between changes in wafer geometry and overlay. The analytical model demonstrates that the local slope of the change in wafer shape induced by the deposition of a residually stressed film is related to the induced overlay for simple geometries. Finite element modeling is then used to consider realistic wafer geometries and assess correlations between the local slope of the wafer shape change induced by the deposition of a stressed film and overlay. As established previously, overlay errors only result when the stresses in the film are non-uniform, thus the finite element study considers wafers with several different nonuniform residual stress distributions. Correlation between overlay and a metric based on a corrected wafer slope map is examined. The results of the modeling and simulations are discussed and compared to recently published experimental results.

Turner, K. T.; Vukkadala, P.; Veeraraghavan, S.; Sinha, J. K.

2014-04-01

450

Cloud characterization and clear-sky correction from Landsat-7  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat, with its wide swath and high resolution, fills an important mesoscale gap between atmospheric variations seen on a few kilometer scale by local surface instrumentation and the global view of coarser resolution satellites such as MODIS. In this important scale range, Landsat reveals radiative effects on the few hundred-meter scale of common photon mean-free-paths, typical of scattering in clouds at conservative (visible) wavelengths, and even shorter mean-free-paths of absorptive (near-infrared) wavelengths. Landsat also reveals shadowing effects caused by both cloud and vegetation that impact both cloudy and clear-sky radiances. As a result, Landsat has been useful in dev