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1

Landsat5 Thematic Mapper outgassing effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A periodic 3% to 5% variation in detector response affecting both image and internal calibrator (IC) data has been observed in bands 5 and 7 of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper. The source for this variation is thought to be an interference effect due to buildup of an ice-like contaminant film on a ZnSe window, covered with an antireflective coating (ARC),

Dennis L. Helder; Esad Micijevic

2004-01-01

2

Environmental characterization of a hypersaline coastal lagoon from Landsat5 Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of two 1994 Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) images (TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) from a shallow coastal lagoon in Brazil yielded high correlations between the digitally processed upwelling radiances and synoptic field measurements of chlorophyll- a and Secchi disk depths in water depths greater than 3.5 m. However, in shallower water, bottom reflectance dominates the optical

C. Z. F. Braga; M. L. Vianna; B. Kjerfve

2003-01-01

3

Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 thematic mapper band 6 historical performance and calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, the Landsat-4 and -5 Thematic Mappers (TM) are the backbone of an extensive archive of moderate resolution Earth imagery. However, these sensors and their data products were not subjected to the type of intensive monitoring that has been part of the Landsat-7 system since its launch in 1999. With Landsat-4's 11 year and Landsat-5's 20+ year data record, there is a need to understand the historical behavior of the instruments in order to verify the scientific integrity of the archive and processed products. Performance indicators of the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands have recently been extracted from a processing system database allowing for a more complete study of thermal band characteristics and calibration than was previously possible. The database records responses to the internal calibration system, instrument temperatures and applied gains and offsets for each band for every scene processed through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS). Analysis of this database has allowed for greater understanding of the calibration and improvement in the processing system. This paper will cover the trends in the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands, the effect of the changes seen in the trends, and how these trends affect the use of the thermal data.

Barsi, J. A.; Chander, G.; Markham, B. L.; Higgs, N.

2005-01-01

4

Detection of tamarisk defoliation by the northern tamarisk beetle based on multitemporal Landsat 5 thematic mapper imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spread of tamarisk (Tamarix spp., also known as saltcedar) is a significant ecological disturbance in western North America and has long been targeted for control, leading to the importation of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) as a biological control agent. Following its initial release along the Colorado River near Moab, Utah in 2004, the beetle has successfully established and defoliated tamarisk across much of the upper Colorado River Basin. However, the spatial distribution and seasonal timing of defoliation are complex and difficult to quantify over large areas. To address this challenge, we tested and compared two remote sensing approaches to mapping tamarisk defoliation: Disturbance Index (DI) and a decision tree method called Random Forest (RF). Based on multitemporal Landsat 5 TM imagery for 2006-2010, changes in DI and defoliation probability from RF were calculated to detect tamarisk defoliation along the banks of Green, Colorado, Dolores and San Juan rivers within the Colorado Plateau area. Defoliation mapping accuracy was assessed based on field surveys partitioned into 10 km sections of river and on regions of interest created for continuous riparian vegetation. The DI method detected 3711 ha of defoliated area in 2007, 7350 ha in 2008, 10,457 ha in 2009 and 5898 ha in 2010. The RF method detected much smaller areas of defoliation but proved to have higher accuracy, as demonstrated by accuracy assessment and sensitivity analysis, with 784 ha in 2007, 960 ha in 2008, 934 ha in 2009, and 1008 ha in 2010. Results indicate that remote sensing approaches are likely to be useful for studying spatiotemporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation as the tamarisk leaf beetle spreads throughout the western United States.

Meng, Ran; Dennison, Philip E.; Jamison, Levi R.; van Riper, Charles, III; Nager, Pamela; Hultine, Kevin R.; Bean, Dan W.; Dudley, Tom

2012-01-01

5

Thematic Mapper radiometric characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of multispectral scanner systems that are desirable for radiometry are identified. Both 'macroscopic' and 'microscopic' studies of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper digital image data are described which assess several of these characteristics. Included are the range and quantization of signal values, scan-angle effects, scan-direction effects, and level-shift noise characteristics. Despite good overall radiometric quality, some relatively low-amplitude artifacts were noted and correction procedures are recommended. Consideration of the use of stepwise linear system-response characteristics is recommended. The acquisition of a unique data set of coincident Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 data is noted; it was acquired before Landsat 5 reached its final orbit.

Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D.

6

Intraband radiometric performance of the Landsat Thematic Mappers.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiometric characteristics have been examined of the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers (TMs) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. This analysis is based on radiometrically and geometrically raw (B-type) data of both uniform (flat-field) and high-contrast scenes. Subscenes selected for uniform radiance were used to characterized subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. Although the general performance of the Thematic Mappers is excellent, various anomalies that have a magnitude of a few digital levels (DN) or less are quantified. -from Authors

Kieffer, H. H.; Cook, D. A.; Eliason, E. M.; Eliason, P. T.

1985-01-01

7

An Assessment of Bison Habitat in the Mills\\/Mink Lakes Area, Northwest Territories, Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data were used to classify and map wood bison (Bison bison athabascue) habitat in an area of 3383.5 km2 in the vicinity of Mills and Mink lakes, Northwest Territories. Digital image analysis techniques were used to enhance and classify satellite data acquired 31 August 1986 to determine the distribution and extent of forage habitats. Visual interpretation

STEVEN B. MATTHEWS

1991-01-01

8

Radiometric comparison of the LANDSAT5 TM and MSS sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the radiometric accuracy of LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data and of LANDSAT-5 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data, using concurrent TM and MSS images recorded simultaneously over the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The data sets were obtained from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS), and have been preprocessed for geometric correction, and for radiometric 23calibration utilizing the

ALAIN ROYER; RICHARD BROCHU; JENNIFER M. MURPHY; PHILIPPE M. TEILLET

1987-01-01

9

Outgassing models for Landsat-4 thematic mapper short wave infrared bands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detector responses to the Internal Calibrator (IC) pulses in the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) have been observed to follow an oscillatory behavior. This phenomenon is present only in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands and has been observed throughout the lifetime of the instrument, which was launched in July 1982 and imaged the Earth's surface until late 1993. These periodic changes in amplitude, which can be as large as 7.5 percent, are known as outgassing effects and are believed to be due to optical interference caused by a gradual buildup of an ice-like material on the window of the cryogenically cooled dewar containing the SWIR detectors. Similar outgassing effects in the Landsat-5 TM have been characterized using an optical thin-film model that relates detector behavior to the ice film growth rate, which was found to gradually decrease with time. A similar approach, which takes into consideration the different operational history of the instrument, has been applied in this study to three closely sampled data sets acquired throughout the lifetime of the Landsat-4 TM. Although Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers are essentially identical instruments, data generated from analyses of outgassing effects indicate subtle, but important, differences between the two. The estimated lifetime model could improve radiometric accuracy by as much as five percent.

Micijevic, E.; Helder, D. L.

2005-01-01

10

Comparison of outgassing models for the landsat thematic mapper sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Thematic Mapper (TM) is a multi-spectral electro-optical sensor featured onboard both the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) satellites. TM sensors have seven spectral bands with center wavelengths of approximately 0.49, 0.56, 0.66, 0.83, 1.65, 11.5 and 2.21 ??m, respectively. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) bands are located on the primary focal plane (PFP), and two short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands and the thermal infrared (TIR) band are located on the cold focal plane (CFP). The CFP bands are maintained at cryogenic temperatures of about 91 K, to reduce thermal noise effects. Due to the cold temperature, an ice film accumulates on the CFP dewar window, which introduces oscillations in SWIR and an exponential decay in TIR band responses. This process is usually monitored and characterized by the detector responses to the internal calibrator (IC) lamps and the blackbody. The ice contamination on the dewar window is an effect of the sensor outgassing in a vacuum of the space environment. Outgassing models have been developed, which are based on the thin-film optical interference phenomenon. They provide the coefficients for correction for outgassing effects for the entire mission's lifetime. While the L4 TM ceased imaging in August 1993, the L5 TM continues to operate even after more than 23 years in orbit. The process of outgassing in L5 TM is still occurring, though at a much lower rate than during early years of mission. Although the L4 and L5 TM sensors are essentially identical, they exhibit slightly different responses to the outgassing effects. The work presented in the paper summarizes the results of modeling outgassing effects in each of the sensors and provides a detailed analysis of differences among the estimated modeling parameters. For both sensors, water ice was confirmed as a reasonable candidate for contaminant material, the contaminant growth rate was found to be gradually decreasing with the time since launch, and the indications exist that some film may remain after the CFP warm-up procedures, which are periodically initiated to remove accumulated contamination. The observed difference between the models could be contributed to differences in the operational history for the sensors, the content and amount of contaminant impurities, the sensor spectral filter responses, and the internal calibrator systems.

Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.

2007-01-01

11

Landsat5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed

Gyanesh Chander; Dennis L. Helder; Brian L. Markham; James D. Dewald; E. Kaita; Kurtis J. Thome; Esad Micijevic; Timothy A. Ruggles

2004-01-01

12

Inference of landslide susceptible areas by Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological structure and the exceptional water retention characteristic of soil, said to be the major factors that causes landslide in the upper basin of the Yoshino river in Shikoku Island, Japan. An indirect approach to estimate landslide susceptible areas in this river basin was investigated using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Inference of landslide potential areas was made by investigating

L. SAMARAKOON; S. OGAWA; N. EBISU; R. LAPITAN; Z. KOHKI

1993-01-01

13

Spatial sharpening of Thematic Mapper data using a multiband approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new image enhancement technique has been applied to enhance Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal infrared (IR) imagery and has improved its effective ground resolution from 120 m to 30 m. The technique is based on an adaptive multiband least squares (LS) method for computing an optimal image estimate from reference images, and a frequency domain replacement step. The approach

V. T. Tom; M. J. Carlotto; D. K. Scholten

1985-01-01

14

Spectral shape classification system for Landsat thematic mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multispectral classification system based on an alternative spectral representation is described and its performance over a full landsat thematic mapper (TM) scene evaluated. Spectral classes are represented by their spectral shape -- a vector of binary features that describes the relative values between spectral bands. An algorithm for segmenting or clustering TM data based on this representation is described.

Mark J. Carlotto

1996-01-01

15

Spectroradiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of analyses of Thematic Mapper (TM) images acquired on July 8 and October 28, 1984, and of a check of the calibration of the 1.22-m integrating sphere at Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) are described. The results obtained from the in-flig...

P. N. Slater J. M. Palmer

1985-01-01

16

Analysis of Forest Structure Using Thematic Mapper Simulator Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remotely sensed data from forested landscapes contain information on both cover type and structure. Structural properties include crown closure, basal area, leaf area index, and tree size. Cover type and structure together are useful variables for designing forest volume inventories. The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure has been explored by principal components and feature

David Peterson; Walter Westman; Nate Stephenson; Vincent Ambrosia; James Brass; Michael Spanner

1986-01-01

17

Mapping Slope Failure Tracks with Digital Thematic Mapper Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attempt to identify and map the distribution of slope failures in the Rennel Sound area of south-western Graham Island in the Queen Charlotte Islands through the use of digital LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data is discussed. The TM data was geometrical...

H. Epp L. Beaven

1988-01-01

18

Mapas Tematicos Utilizando Dados Do Sensor Thematic Mapper Do Satelite LANDSAT (Thematic Mapping Utilizing Data from the Thematic Mapper Sensor of the Landsat Satellite).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology for the elaboration of thematic maps in the scale 1:100,000 is developed. Techniques of digital processing and visual analysis of remote sensing images were used. The Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT satellite was employed and the selected are...

L. Antoniodeandrade

1986-01-01

19

INTRABAND RADIOMETRIC PERFORMANCE OF THE LANDSAT 4 THEMATIC MAPPER.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This preliminary report examines those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. Analysis is based largely on radiometrically raw (B type) data of three daytime and two nighttime scenes; in most scenes, a set of 512 lines were examined on an individual-detector basis. Subscenes selected for uniform-radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems.

Kieffer, Hugh, H.; Eliason, Eric, M.; Chavez, Jr. , Pat, S.

1985-01-01

20

Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

1986-02-01

21

Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality  

SciTech Connect

This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions. 17 refs.

Lathrop, R.G., JR. (Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States))

1992-04-01

22

Volcanology from space - Using Landsat thematic mapper data in the central Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the Landsat thematic mapper to identify potentially active Andean volcanos and to study the history of individual volcanos is discussed. A thematic mapper image of the 6150-m-high Socompa volcano is presented and it is noted that TM data have played a valuable role in tracking debris streams in the avalanche derived from the different parts of the

P. W. Francis; R. McAllister

1986-01-01

23

Data Processing For The Determination Of Pigments And Suspended Solids From Thematic Mapper Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

DATA PROCESSING The use of Thematic Mapper data for determination of chlorophyll and suspended solids in fresh water is shown. Data processing, an atmospheric correction model and a multiple regression model for chlorophyll A presented here. It is shown that it is possible to use Thematic Mapper data as a source for chlorophyll A mapping in f resh-water bodies. The

W. Mauser; K Schneider

1988-01-01

24

APPLICATION OF MULTI-DATE LANDSAT 5 TIM IMAGERY FOR WETLAND IDENTIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery was evaluated for the identification and monitoring of potential jurisdictional wetlands located in the states of Maryland and Delaware. A wetland map prepared from single-date TM imagery was compared to a hybrid map develope...

25

Location of Kimberlites Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Images and Aerial Photographs: The Redondao Diatreme, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LANDSAT Thematic Mapper images and aerial photographs were used in the detection of kimberlite derived materials in the Redondao test site. In this area, kimberlite derived soils show a flora constituted mainly by grasses and shrubs, which differ from the...

R. Almeida-filho R. M. G. Castelobranco

1991-01-01

26

Enhancement of Glacial Fractures by Analysis of Thematic Mapper Data: Glen Roy, Scotland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery resulted in the resolution of unidentified features within the glaciated terrain of the Glen Roy area, Scotland. Basement faults and more recent fractures are enhanced best by the processing of Band 4 data ...

P. S. Ringrose C. A. Davenport

1988-01-01

27

Investigations of the Cerro Colorado Pluton, Northern Chile, Using Enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper Images.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digitally enhanced Thematic Mapper images of the Cerro Colorado pluton, northern Chile, were studied in conjunction with fieldwork. The imagery displays many internal features which suggest that the intrusion is more complex than previously noted. The bul...

A. Pontual

1988-01-01

28

Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts’ ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater models to evaluate economic feasibility for various crop rotations systems and irrigation management practices. In this study, we used a novel approach to derive an irrigated area map covering a 4-county area (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties) in the northwest region of the Texas High Plains from a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on August 13, 2008. The spectral band ratios and vegetation indices were used to define threshold value for the irrigated pixels. The hierarchical rule-based decision tree classification algorithm was employed to delineate final irrigated class. Ground truth data collected for accuracy assessment included land cover type, irrigation practices and their geographic locations using a global positioning system. Accuracy assessment of the irrigated area map indicated that we achieved an overall mapping accuracy of 96% with omission and commission errors at 9% and 8%, respectively, which are mainly due to clouds and shadows of clouds. Irrigated acreages of summer crops derived from the TM image closely matched with that from agricultural statistical reports for the 4-county area. At present, a spring image is being processed to identify irrigated area planted with winter wheat in the study area. The combined irrigated area map will be used in the comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes.

Biradar, C. M.; Gowda, P. H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Xiao, X.

2009-12-01

29

Evaluating lake eutrophication with enhanced thematic mapper data in Wuhan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By analyzing the enhanced thematic mapper (ETM) images of September 1999, and quality observation data for many consecutive years in several parts of the Donghu Lake in Wuhan, China, the authors discovered a good linear relation between grey scale (GS) abstracted from ETM b5, b7 images and eutrophication level of the lakes, and extended the study to eight other major lakes in the area of Wuhan by using lake eutrophication models. Based on the in situ monitoring data, we also evaluated the eutrophication level of the lakes with modified trophic index method brought by M. Aizaki et al. The results of the two methods showed that the most of the lakes were eutrophicated, and even hyper-eutrophicated in some areas. Six of the 8 lakes had very similar trophic state index (TSI) values. Although two of them differed in TSI value, but within an order, while it was different largely from the one by traditional method. The difference of the results between the two methods might have been due to three causative reasons. First, remote sensing technology reflects the overall status of a certain area corresponding to the ETM images in a certain period, but the modified TSI reflects the annual average values of the monitoring spots. Second, the time the ETM images taken is later than that of in situ data. Third, ETM images are affected by clouds, water depth, and suspended matter. In short, remote sensing result agreed greatly with the in situ monitoring data, indicating that remote sensing technology is feasible and effective for monitoring and evaluating the lake eutrophication in the Wuhan area and it also can be used to evaluate large-scope lake eutrophication.

Zhang, Hailin; He, Baoyin

2006-09-01

30

Runoff estimation using Landsat Thematic Mapper data and the SCS model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landform, drainage pattern, slope, soil, vegetation and land use\\/land cover, all of which control surface runoff and peak flow, can be evaluated and mapped reliably and reasonably through Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) false colour composites of the post-monsoon season. Runoff curve numbers (CAO determined from those data predicted the runoff depth and peak flow with a coefficient of determination of

K. D. SHARMA; SURENDRA SINGH

1992-01-01

31

LAND COVER MAPPING IN AN AGRICULTURAL SETTING USING MULTISEASONAL THEMATIC MAPPER DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

A multiseasonal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data set consisting of five image dates from a single year was used to characterize agricultural and related land cover in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon. Image registration was accomplished using an automated grou...

32

Modelling forest cover attributes as continuous variables in a regional context with Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We modelled forest vegetation attributes as continuousvariables across western Oregon using a multi-image mosaic of Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Four specié c attributes were modelled using regression analysis: percent green vegetation cover, percent conifer cover, conifer crown diameter, and conifer stand age. Reference data for the cover and diameter attributes were derived from airphotos, and existing agency polygon databases were

W. B. Cohen; T. K. Maiersperger; T. A. Spies; D. R. Oetter

2001-01-01

33

Mineral mapping and landsat thematic mapper image classification using spectral unmixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, spectral image unmixing applied to Landsat Thematic mapper data from southern Spain is described to obtain a classified image based on abundance estimates of a number of spectral endmembers assuming linear mixing systematics. Spectral angle mapping (e.g. a technique by which a pixel spectrum is compared with a reference spectrum using the spectral angle between the two

Freek van der Meer

1997-01-01

34

Thematic Mapper characterization of lodgepole pine seral stages in Yellowstone National Park, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral data were used to identify the spectral reflectance characteristics of Yellowstone lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var latifolia) successional stages, and to examine the relationships between spectral and biophysical factors. Ten spectrally defined forest cover types were created from unsupervised classification of the Landsat TM data, using a geographic information system to restrict data analysis to areas

Mark E. Jakubauskas

1996-01-01

35

Tropical secondary forest regrowth in the Amazon: age, area and change estimation with Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of estimating the area, age and changes of tropical secondary forest regrowth from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). Sites of mature forest, agriculture, pasture, pasture with remnant trees, and stands of secondary forest regrowth from 2 to 19 years of age were surveyed in two study areas near Manaus, Amazonas,

M. K. STEININGER

1996-01-01

36

Chlorophyll distribution in Lake Kinneret determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophyll distribution in Lake Kinneret was estimated at a time of low chlorophyll concentrations (3-7 mgm). Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were acquired three days after the acquisition of high spectral resolution radiometric measurements in the range 400 to 750 nm, chlorophyll and suspended matter concentrations, and Secchi disk transparency at 22 stations. The radiometric data were used to create

M. Mayo; A. Gitelson; Y. Z. Yacobi; Z. Ben-Avraham

1995-01-01

37

Absolute calibration of the Landsat Thematic Mapper using the Internal Calibrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the accuracy and usefulness of the Internal Calibrator of the Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mappers and characterize the radiometric calibration of the instruments themselves, several hundred scenes were extracted from the Landsat TM archive at the EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. These scenes formed the basis of the TM Calibration Archive System and

Dennis Helder; W. Boucyk; Ron Morfitt

1998-01-01

38

Detection of Soil Erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) Satellite Data within Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soi...

K. P. Price

1987-01-01

39

Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper

K PRICE

1993-01-01

40

An operational atmospheric correction algorithm for Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery over the land  

Microsoft Academic Search

An operational atmospheric correction algorithm for Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery has been developed for both sequential and parallel computer environments considering both aerosol and molecular scattering and absorption. The aerosol optical depth is estimated from the image itself using the dark object approach on a moving-window basis, and the surface reflectance is then retrieved by searching lookup tables that are

Shunlin Liang; Hassan Fallah-Adl; Satya Kalluri; Joseph JáJá; Yoram J. Kaufman; John R. G. Townshend

1997-01-01

41

Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data  

SciTech Connect

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data. 26 references.

Westman, W.E.; Price, C.V.

1988-09-01

42

Table Rock Lake Water-Clarity Assessment Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Satellite Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality of Table Rock Lake in southwestern Missouri is assessed using Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data. A pilot study uses multidate satellite image scenes in conjunction with physical measurements of secchi disk transparency collected by the Lakes of Missouri Volunteer Program to construct a regression model used to estimate water clarity. The natural log of secchi disk transparency is the dependent variable in the regression and the independent variables are Thematic Mapper band 1 (blue) reflectance and a ratio of the band 1 and band 3 (red) reflectance. The regression model can be used to reliably predict water clarity anywhere within the lake. A pixel-level lake map of predicted water clarity or computed trophic state can be produced from the model output. Information derived from this model can be used by water-resource managers to assess water quality and evaluate effects of changes in the watershed on water quality.

Krizanich, Gary W.; Finn, Michael P.

2009-01-01

43

Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

1986-08-01

44

Application of Landsat thematic mapper to inlet dynamics, Old Drum Inlet, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early morning hours of September 27, 1985, Hurricane Gloria crossed the North Carolina coast near Cape Hatteras, opening several new inlets on the Outer Banks barrier-island chain. Landsat thematic mapper (TM) imagery was used to watch the closure of one of the breaches, Old Drum Inlet, and to test the applicability of the TM sensor to small-scale, high-frequency

J. T. Wells; J. E. Camp

1987-01-01

45

Assessing forest decline in coniferous forests of Vermont using NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the potential of measuring\\/mapping forest decline in spruce-fir forests using airborne NS-001 Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data. Using field instruments, it was found that ratios of 1.65\\/1.23 and 1 65\\/083 ?m reflectance discriminated between spruce samples of low and high damage sites. Using TMS data, 1.65\\/1.23 and 1 65\\/0.83 ?m band ratios were found to be strongly

J. E. VOGELMANN; B. N. ROCK

1986-01-01

46

Location of kimberlites using Landsat Thematic Mapper images and aerial photographs: the Redondao diatreme, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat Thematic Mapper images and aerial photographs were used in the detection of kimberlile-derived materials in the Redondao test site. In this area kimberlite-derived soils show a flora constituted mainly by grasses and shrubs, which differ from the surrounding savanna-park (cerrado) vegetation cover. Band-ratio images were able to distinguish kimberlite-derived materials by enhancing areas with different vegetation covers. However, the

R. Almeida-Filho; R. M. G. Castselo Branco

1992-01-01

47

SPECIES AND CANOPY COVER MAP DEVELOPMENT USING LANDSAT ENHANCED THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY FOR GRAND CANYON NATIONAL PARK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overstory vegetation maps of species and canopy cover were developed from Landsat 7 Thematic Enhanced Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Ecosystem Monitoring plot data, collected during the 1997-2001 field seasons, were used as training sites for the image classification. Sixty-two species classes and four canopy cover classes were mapped. The maps will be used to support a Joint Fire Science Program

Joseph E. Crouse; Peter Z. Fulé

48

Using the Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper tasseled cap transformation to extract shoreline  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A semiautomated method for objectively interpreting and extracting the land-water interface has been devised and used successfully to generate multiple shoreline data for the test States of Louisiana and Delaware. The method is based on the application of tasseled cap transformation coefficients derived by the EROS Data Center for Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Data, and is used in conjunction with ERDAS Imagine software. Shoreline data obtained using this method are cost effective compared with conventional mapping methods for State, regional, and national coastline applications. Attempts to attribute vector shoreline data with orthometric elevation values derived from tide observation stations, however, proved unsuccessful.

Scott, J. W., Jr.

2003-01-01

49

Assessing the accuracy of Landsat Thematic Mapper classification using double sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Double sampling was used to provide a cost efficient estimate of the accuracy of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) classification map of a scene located in the Rocky Moutnain National Park, Colorado. In the first phase, 200 sample points were randomly selected to assess the accuracy between Landsat TM data and aerial photography. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic were 49.5% and 32.5%, respectively. In the second phase, 25 sample points identified in the first phase were selected using stratified random sampling and located in the field. This information was used to correct for misclassification errors associated with the first phase samples. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic increased to 59.6% and 45.6%, respectively.Double sampling was used to provide a cost efficient estimate of the accuracy of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) classification map of a scene located in the Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. In the first phase, 200 sample points were randomly selected to assess the accuracy between Landsat TM data and aerial photography. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic were 49.5 per cent and 32.5 per cent, respectively. In the second phase, 25 sample points identified in the first phase were selected using stratified random sampling and located in the field. This information was used to correct for misclassification errors associated with the first phase samples. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic increased to 59.6 per cent and 45.6 per cent, respectively.

Kalkhan, M. A.; Reich, R. M.; Stohlgren, T. J.

1998-01-01

50

Application of thematic mapper imagery to oil exploration in Austin Chalk, central Gulf Coast basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

One of the newest major oil plays in the Gulf Coast basin, the Austin Chalk reportedly produces in three belts: an updip belt, where production is from fractured chalk in structurally high positions along faults above 7000 ft; a shallow downdip belt, where the chalk is uniformly saturated with oil from 7000 to 9000 ft; and a deeper downdip belt saturated with gas and condensate below 9000 ft. The updip fields usually occur on the southeastern, upthrown side of the Luling, Mexia, and Charlotte fault zones. Production is from fractures that connect the relatively sparse matrix pores with more permeable fracture systems. The fractures resulted from regional extensional stress during the opening of the Gulf Coast basin on the divergent margin of the North American plate during the Laramide orogeny. The fractures are more common in the more brittle chalk than in the overlying Navarro and underlying Eagle Ford shales, which are less brittle. The oil in the updip traps in the chalk may have been generated in place downdip, and migrated updip along the extension fractures into the updip traps during or after the Laramide orogeny. A fairway of previously unmapped updip faults and drag folds has been mapped using Thematic Mapper imagery and seismic, structural, and resistivity maps near the Nixon field, Burleson County, Texas. This fairway, prospective for oil from the Austin Chalk, contains wells reported to produce from the Austin Chalk which lie along lineaments and linear features on the Thematic Mapper imagery and faults in the seismic and structure maps.

Reid, W.M.

1988-02-01

51

Remote sensing of urban areas: linear spectral unmixing of Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired over Tartu (Estonia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas are characterized by a pattern of very heterogeneous patches resulting from the co-occurrence of different materials within the ground instantaneous field of view of a moderate resolution scanner, e.g. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The main objective of this study was to map vegetation, impervious surface, and soil from Landsat TM images acquired over the town of Tartu (Estonia)

Tõnis Kärdi

2007-01-01

52

Investigating the use of Landsat thematic mapper data for estimation of forest leaf area index in southern Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims at investigating the use of Landsat thematic mapper (TM) for mapping leaf area index (LAI) in coniferous and deciduous forests in southern Sweden. LAI has been estimated in the field with optical measurements, allometric equations, and litter-trap data, and empirical relationships between LAI estimates and satellite-measured reflectances have been analysed. Several common vegetation indices and multiple regressions

L. Eklundh; H. Eriksson; J. Ardö; P. Pilesjö

2003-01-01

53

Donnees Thematic Mapper de Landsat et perception de I'occupation du sol en milieu littoral mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

L' étude concerne I' évaluation des performances du Thematic Mapper de Landsat applique à la cartographie de I'occupation du sol en milieu méditer-raneen. Dans un premier temps, on a cherché à sélectionner, parmi les 6 canaux TM, quels sont les plus performants. Apres une classification non supervisée des données multispectrales (Analyse Factorielle des Correspondances, Classification Ascendante Hierarchique, Agrégation autour des

Roger Manière; Christel Chamignon; Jérôme Courboules; Marcel Barbero

1990-01-01

54

Application of Landsat thematic mapper to inlet dynamics, Old Drum Inlet, North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the early morning hours of September 27, 1985, Hurricane Gloria crossed the North Carolina coast near Cape Hatteras, opening several new inlets on the Outer Banks barrier-island chain. Landsat thematic mapper (TM) imagery was used to watch the closure of one of the breaches, Old Drum Inlet, and to test the applicability of the TM sensor to small-scale, high-frequency processes such as inlet dynamics. By photographically enlarging the 1:1000 000 film negatives to a scale of 1:20 000, we were able to map the progressive infilling of Old Drum Inlet over a four-month period. Good spatial resolution (30-m pixel size) and a 16-day repetition rate are features that make the TM sensor particularly useful in inaccessible areas where aerial photography is acquired at irregular and infrequent intervals.

Wells, J. T.; Camp, J. E.

1987-09-01

55

Digital to Analog Conversion and Visual Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Landsat D Image Data Quality Analysis Program, the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center (EDC) developed procedures to optimize the visual information content of Thematic Mapper data and evaluate the resulting photographic products by visual interpretation. A digital-to-analog transfer function was developed which would properly place the digital values on the most useable portion of a film response curve. Individual black-and-white transparencies generated using the resulting look-up tables were utilized in the production of color-composite images with varying band combinations. Four experienced photointerpreters ranked 2-cm-diameter (0. 75 inch) chips of selected image features of each band combination for ease of interpretability. A nonparametric rank-order test determined the significance of interpreter preference for the band combinations.

McCord, James, R.; Binnie, Douglas, R.; Seevers, Paul, M.

1985-01-01

56

Mapping thermal maturity in the Chainman shale, near Eureka, Nevada, with Landsat Thematic Mapper images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between measurements of organic matter (OM) maturity and laboratory measurements of visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance, and if Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images could be used to map maturity. The maturity of Mississippian Chainman Shale samples collected in east-central Nevada and west-central Utah was determined by using vitrinite reflectance and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. TM 4/TM 5 values correspond well to vitrinite reflectance and hydrogen index variations, and therefore this ratio was used to evaluate a TM image of the Eureka, Nevada, area for mapping thermal maturity differences in the Chainman Shale. -from Authors

Rowan, L. C.; Pawlewicz, M. J.; Jones, O. D.

1992-01-01

57

Monitoring of rice field by using Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between the typical vegetation indices (NDVI, EVI, etc.) computed from the time series data of Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ and the physical parameters (plant height of a rice, the spread of blade, LAI, vegetation coverage, etc.) concerned with a rice growth obtained by the field survey w s investigated. In this analysis, in order to use Landsat-5 TM (Thematic Mapper) dataa launched in 1984 together with Landsat-7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) data launched in 1999, the digital counts were converted into the spectral radiances by the calibration parameters recorded on satellite data, and the vegetation indices were computed using those values. On the other hand, the proportion ratio of the components (blade of a rice, ear of a rice, background water, background soil) of the rice field that exists in a fixed acreage was computed by the pictures of the rice field taken by a digital camera, and t e spectral reflectance of each object within the rice field collected by a portableh spectrometer (MSR-7000) was mixed using this proportion. Moreover, the periodical changes of the vegetation indices of the rice field from the planting of rice to the harvest were simulated based on the mixture model. The result of this study indicates that the periodical changes of vegetation indices of the rice field computed from satellite data are primarily correlated to the changes of

Oguro, Y.; Suga, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Ogawa, H.; Tsuchiya, K.

58

Water quality monitoring using Landsat Themate Mapper data with empirical algorithms in Chagan Lake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Chagan represents a complex situation of major optical constituents and emergent spectral signals for remote sensing analysis of water quality in the Songnen Plain. As such it provides a good test of the combined radiometric correction methods developed for optical remote sensing data to monitor water quality. Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data and in situ water samples collected concurrently with satellite overpass were used for the analysis, in which four important water quality parameters are considered: chlorophyll-a, turbidity, total dissolved organic matter, and total phosphorus in surface water. Both empirical regressions and neural networks were established to analyze the relationship between the concentrations of these four water parameters and the satellite radiance signals. It is found that the neural network model performed at better accuracy than empirical regressions with TM visible and near-infrared bands as spectral variables. The relative root mean square error (RMSE) for the neural network was < 10%, while the RMSE for the regressions was less than 25% in general. Future work is needed on establishing the dynamic characteristic of Chagan Lake water quality with TM or other optical remote sensing data. The algorithms developed in this study need to be further tested and refined with multidate imagery data

Song, Kaishan; Wang, Zongming; Blackwell, John; Zhang, Bai; Li, Fang; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Jiang, Guangjia

2011-01-01

59

Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data from Wind River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data are limited by MSS spatial resolution (80 m or 262 ft) and bandwidth selection. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data have greatly enhanced spatial resolution (30 m or 98 ft) and TM operates in spectral bands suited to geologic interpretation. To compare the two systems, three images center over the Wind River basin of Wyoming were obtained. Two were TM images - a false color composite (FCC) and a natural color composite (NCC) - and the third was an MSS image. A systematic analysis of drainage, landforms, geologic structure, gross lithologic characteristics, lineaments, and curvilinears was performed on the three images. Drainage density and landform distinction were greatly enhanced on the TM images. Geologic features such as faults, strike and dip, folds, and lithologic characteristics are often difficult to distinguish on the MSS image but are readily apparent on the TM images. The lineament-curvilinear analysis of the MSS image showed longer but less distinct linear features. In comparison, the TM images allowed interpretation of shorter but more distinct linear elements, providing a more accurate delineation of the actual dimensions of the geologic features which these lineaments are thought to represent. An analysis of the oil production present in the study area showed 75% of the surface productive structures were delineated on the TM images, whereas only the most obvious structures were visible on the MSS image.

Geronsin, R.L.; Merry, M.C.

1984-07-01

60

Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data  

SciTech Connect

Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. Correlation analysis showed that TM Band 4 (near infrared) accounted for 78% of the variability in percent trees (r=[minus] 0.88). In multiple regression, percent trees, total soil loss, and percent total nonliving cover together accounted for nearly 70% of the variability in TM Bands 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain the apparent accelerated rate of pinyon-juniper spread in the western United States. These include removal of natural plant competition by livestock overgrazing, reduction of wildfires, climatic change, and reinvasion of sites cleared of trees by 19th century settlers.

Price, K.P. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geography)

1993-09-01

61

Automatic lineament extraction in a heavily vegetated region using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lineament extraction from satellite remotely sensed data has been one of the widely used applications of remote sensing in geology. In fact, recent advances in digital image processing allow such lineament extraction to be accomplished in semi-automatic to fully automatic approaches. However, satellite remotely sensed data acquired in heavily vegetated regions such as tropical rainforest, are vulnerable to higher inherent noise levels attributed to the resultant effects of scattering by clouds and adjacency effects of highly inhomogeneous vegetation cover within the pixel dimension. In this study, we examined the effects of noise levels to lineament extraction using a fully automatic approach, consisting of a combination of edge-line detection algorithms. Ancillary information from a digitized topographic map and image classification was used to discriminate between cultural and natural lineaments from the extracted lineaments. Adapting the combination of edge detection and a line-linking algorithm, we have found the optimal parameters for automatic lineament extraction of such complex areas using Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data. A noise level of 30% is the maximum threshold before artifacts are generated. It is therefore concluded that the combination of edge-based and line-linking digital image processing operations with the priori local optimal parameters is crucial in lineament feature extraction in heavily vegetated regions.

Hashim, Mazlan; Ahmad, Samsudin; Johari, Mohd Amin Md; Pour, Amin Beiranvand

2013-03-01

62

Rural Land Use Inventory and Mapping in the Ardeche Area (France) Using Multitemporal Thematic Mapping (Tm) Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of 4 Thematic Mapper scenes (LANDSAT-5) covering the Ardeche region (Southern France) was examined. Image rectification was performed by least squares solution of polynomial equations using 39 to 45 GCP per TM half frame. Since a digital terrain mod...

J. Hill J. Megier

1986-01-01

63

Structural mapping and analysis of a Madagascar Precambrian shear zone using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the west coast of Madagascar has become a frontier region for petroleum exploration. Major structures in the Precambrian shield of Madagascar may have a strong control on the development of sedimentary basins, as has been documented in the Morondava basin. The 2.5-3.0+ Ga shield of Madagascar is an amphibolite- to granulite-grade metamorphic gneiss terrain, intruded by anorthosites and 550-Ma granites and pegmatites. Landsat Thematic Mapper data provides a cost-effective method for regional-scale structural mapping of this poorly known terrain. A five-component linear mixing model has been used to enhance the lithologic information in this six-band data. Lithologic component images thus produced utilize the full geologic spectral range of the data. A preliminary structural geologic map compiled from the component images has greater detail than existing maps at 1:100,000 scale, to which it has been compared. The Ankafotra-Saririaky shear zone has been identified as a north-northeast-trending, 15- to 20-km-wide region of appressed folds, attenuated layering, and subparallel faults on the western side of the shield. Two anorthosite massifs that occur within this shear zone have the structural characteristics of boudins in a ductile matrix. The shear deformed a preexisting terrain of poly-phase folding, characterized by tight folds and complex fold interference structures displayed by basins and domes on a scale of 10 km. Enhanced remote sensing data can be used to characterize the nature and mechanism of shear deformation in such zones.

Kilmer, D.S.; Duncan, I.J. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

1990-05-01

64

Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust  

SciTech Connect

The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefiting hydrocarbon exploration.

Miller, J.E.

1984-04-01

65

Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust  

SciTech Connect

The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefitting hydrocarbon exploration.

Miller, J.E.

1984-04-01

66

25 Years of Landsat 5  

NASA Video Gallery

Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the retreat of a Greenland glacier.

NASA - nasa.gov

2010-03-10

67

AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1997 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)  

EPA Science Inventory

High-Resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del Medio Ambiente y el Bes...

68

DISCRIMINATION OF ALTERED BASALTIC ROCKS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES BY ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat Thematic Mapper image data were analyzed to determine their ability to discriminate red cone basalts from gray flow basalts and sedimentary country rocks for three volcanic fields in the southwestern United States. Analyses of all of the possible three-band combinations of the six nonthermal bands indicate that the combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 best discriminates among these materials. The color-composite image of these three bands unambiguously discriminates 89 percent of the mapped red volcanic cones in the three volcanic fields. Mineralogic and chemical analyses of collected samples indicate that discrimination is facilitated by the presence of hematite as a major mineral phase in the red cone basalts (hematite is only a minor mineral phase in the gray flow basalts and red sedimentary rocks).

Davis, Philip, A.; Berlin, Graydon, L.; Chavez, Pat, S.

1987-01-01

69

Concerns about Landsat 5 failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electronic component on board the Landsat 5 Earth observation satellite has indicated signs of impending failure, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has stopped acquiring images from the satellite, the agency announced on 18 November. USGS engineers have suspended imaging activities for 90 days to explore options for restoring image transmissions from the satellite, which was launched in 1984 and has operated long beyond the 3 years it was designed to last. “This anticipated decline of Landsat 5 provides confirmation of the importance of the timely launch of the next Landsat mission and the need for an operational and reliable National Land Imaging System,” said Anne Castle, assistant secretary for water and science at the U.S. Department of the Interior. USGS is part of the Interior department. Landsat 7, launched in 1999 with a 5-year design life, remains in orbit. Landsat 8, the Landsat Data Continuity Mission, has a January 2013 scheduled launch.

Showstack, Randy

2011-12-01

70

Use of landsat thematic mapper data to identify crop types and estimate irrigated acreage, Uvalde and Medina counties, Texas, 1991  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to estimate that about 51,000 acres of crops were irrigated with water pumped from the Edwards aquifer in Uvalde and Medina Counties, Texas in 1991. Areas calculated for irrigated crops were 31,000 acres for Uvalde County and 20,000 acres for Medina County. Quantities of water pumped from the Edwards aquifer to irrigate crops in 1991 were estimated as 65,000 acre-feet for Uvalde County and 18,000 acre-feet for Medina County. Differences in estimates of ground water used for irrigation in the two counties were attributed primarily to greater pre- cipitation in Medina County than in Uvalde County. The total number of acres of irrigated crops estimated using Landsat TM data was about 9 percent lower in Uvalde County and about 13 percent lower in Medina County than the number of acres calculated from data reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS). The total quantity of water pumped from the Edwards aquifer in 1991 for irrigation in the two counties, about 83,000 acre- feet, was about 5 percent greater developed than the quantity calculated from data reported by the ASCS.

Raymond, L. H.; McFarlane, S. I.

1994-01-01

71

Water quality monitoring by thematic mapper in coastal environments. A performance analysis of local biooptical algorithms and atmospheric correction procedures  

SciTech Connect

The Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor's ability to monitor localized phenomena associated with anthropogenic pollution in coastal waters has been investigated with reference to experimental data collected on a test site in the Gulf of Naples. In situ measurements yielded the biooptical algorithms for chlorophyll and sediment retrieval as well as an optical model for the computation of the subsurface reflectance as a function of water composition, specific to the site. The algorithms' performance was assessed through a sensitivity analysis, taking into account the correlation among chlorophyll, sediment, and yellow substance contents, as well as the stratification characteristics of the water body. Sensitivity analysis techniques were similarly used to evaluate the performance in the coastal environment of three atmospheric correction models, which assume uniform aerosol load and composition, uniform aerosol composition, and varying aerosol load and composition, respectively. A comparison with sea-truth data collected for the Land-sat overpass of 22 June 1988 showed a satisfactory correspondence between measured concentrations and concentrations retrieved from the TM data using the above atmospheric correction procedures and local biooptical algorithms. Consistent with the indications of the sensitivity analysis, the best agreement was obtained by the atmospheric model assuming varying aerosol load and composition.

Tassan, S. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Remote Sensing Applications); d'Alcala, M.R. (Stazione Zoologica, Napoli (Italy). Biological Oceanography Lab.)

1993-08-01

72

Monitoring the recovery of Juncus roemerianus marsh burns with the normalized difference vegetation index and Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nine atmospherically corrected Landsat Thematic Mapper images were used to generate mean normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) at 11 burn sites throughout a coastal Juncus roemerianus marsh in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Time-since-burn, the time lapse from the date of burn to the date of image collection, was related to variation in mean NDVI over time. Regression analysis showed that NDVI increased for about 300 to 400 days immediately after the burn, overshooting the typical mean NDVI of a nonburned marsh. For about another 500 to 600 days NDVI decreased until reaching a nearly constant NDVI of about 0.40. During the phase of increasing NDVI the ability to predict time-since-burn was within about ??60 days. Within the decreasing phase this dropped to about ??88 days. Examination of each burn site revealed some nonburn related influences on NDVI (e.g., seasonality). Normalization of burn NDVI by site-specific nonburn control NDVI eliminated most influences. However, differential responses at the site-specific level remained related to either storm impacts or secondary burning. At these sites, collateral data helped clarify the abnormal changes in NDVI. Accounting for these abnormalities, site-specific burn recovery trends could be broadly standardized into four general phases: Phase 1-preburn, Phase 2-initial recovery (increasing NDVI), Phase 3-late recovery (decreasing NDVI), and Phase 4-final coalescence (unchanging NDVI). Phase 2 tended to last about 300 to 500 days, Phase 3 an additional 500 to 600 days, and finally reaching Phase 4, 900 to 1,000 days after burn.

Ramsey, III, E. W.; Sapkota, S. K.; Barnes, F. G.; Nelson, G. A.

2002-01-01

73

Distribution of Potential Hydrothermally Altered Rocks in Central Colorado Derived From Landsat Thematic Mapper Data: A Geographic Information System Data Set  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the Central Colorado Mineral Resource Assessment Project, the digital image data for four Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes covering central Colorado between Wyoming and New Mexico were acquired and band ratios were calculated after masking pixels dominated by vegetation, snow, and terrain shadows. Ratio values were visually enhanced by contrast stretching, revealing only those areas with strong responses (high ratio values). A color-ratio composite mosaic was prepared for the four scenes so that the distribution of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks could be visually evaluated. To provide a more useful input to a Geographic Information System-based mineral resource assessment, the information contained in the color-ratio composite raster image mosaic was converted to vector-based polygons after thresholding to isolate the strongest ratio responses and spatial filtering to reduce vector complexity and isolate the largest occurrences of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks.

Knepper, Daniel H., Jr.

2010-01-01

74

Computer analysis of Landsat, Thematic Mapper imagery and existing road locations for elk habitat mapping in northern California  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed Landsat, Thermatic Mapper imagery and previously mapped, road locations to identify vegetation classes and measure elk habitat quality throughout a 350,810 hectare study area in north-central California. Computerized image classification procedures were used to identify and map 26 classes of vegetation cover and ten classes of non-vegetated land. A geographic information system was used to integrate road locations, quantify forage and cover quality ratings for vegetation types, and calculate an elk habitat quality index. Vegetation classes were aggregated into three forage quality and three cover quality ratings. Road locations were used to define corridors of low habitat quality, representing hunting pressure. Mountainous regions were dominated by conifer forest types and foothill regions were dominated by Juniper-Pine-Grass types. The valley region contained large amounts of the sage and rabbit brush types. Thirty-four percent of the western third of the study area, dominated by foothills and mountains, was classed as good habitat. By contrast the central and eastern portions of the study area, dominated by the valley region and mountains, contained a small proportion (12 percent) of the better habitats. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Fox, L. III [Department of Forestry, College of Natural Resources and Sciences, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California 95521 (United States); Burton, T.S. [State of California, The Resources Agency, Department of Fish & Game, Shasta Valley Wildlife Area, 1724 Ball Mountain Road, Montague, California 96064 (United States)

1996-03-01

75

Three-date landsat thematic mapper composite in seasonal land-cover change identification in a mid-latitudinal region of diverse climate and land use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use and land-cover (LULC) classification accuracy in different seasons is not constant due to seasonal variations in spectral characteristics of different land-cover classes. This study addresses the problem of selecting a suitable season for mapping land-cover and identifying changes between seasons of midlatitude (29 deg 30? to 31 deg 0?S) region of distinctive summer and winter rainfall, a broad altitudinal range, a temperate to subtropical climate and diverse land uses (e.g., summer and winter crops and nature conservation). Six landsat thematic mapper (TM) images from 2007 to 2009 were used taking three sequential three-date composites for seasonal change detection. January (midsummer) was the most suitable season in providing high spectral separability between most classes. The study demonstrates the means for improving LULC classification accuracy through the selection of optimal season for individual LULC class mapping and also provides a method of combining two or more classifications using referential refinement technique to generate aggregate LULC map of the region.

Sinha, Priyakant; Kumar, Lalit; Reid, Nick

2012-01-01

76

Relating magnetic susceptibility (MS) to the simulated thematic mapper (TM) bands of the Chinese loess: Application of TM image for soil MS mapping on Loess Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic susceptibility (MS) is a very important physical attribute of the Earth's soils and surficial sediments. Soil-containing deposits in the Loess Plateau of central China offer a unique opportunity to study the relationship between soil reflectance and MS. In this paper, data on MS and diffuse reflectance spectra obtained from seven Loess Plateau sections were used to establish quantitative relationships between MS and spectral parameters related to remote sensing. By integrating the diffuse reflectance values corresponding to thematic mapper (TM) channels, five TM bands were simulated and served as independent variables for a multiple linear regression relating the bands to MS. The resulting calibration equation provides good estimates of MS values and has excellent correlation coefficients, >0.90, for all the test samples. The application of the regression equation for mapping soil MS was performed using the enhanced TM image from northwest part of Loess Plateau. The MS values obtained from TM data are convincing and compare well with the limited field test data. The spatial MS variations on the TM image clearly show a decrease toward the northwest and are in a good agreement with the monsoon directions. Results of this study demonstrate that the surface MS signal in soil can be mapped with data from satellite-based remote sensors operating in the visible and near-infrared bands. The future possibilities of this method in other soil types and climates need to be explored.

Ji, Junfeng; Chen, Jun; Jin, Li; Zhang, Wanchang; Balsam, William; Lu, Huayu

2004-05-01

77

Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower generation, dredging, forestry, agriculture, channel alteration, diking, bank stabilization and floodplain development, have dramatically altered both the type and distribution of habitats along the Columbia River Estuary (CRE) and its floodplain. Along the Columbia River, tidally influenced habitats occur from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of 230 km. If we are to effectively manage the natural resources of the Columbia River ecosystem, there is a need to understand how habitats have changed because fish and wildlife populations are known to respond to changes in habitat quality and distribution. The goal of this study was to measure the amount and type of change of CRE land cover from 1992 to 2000. We performed a change analysis on two spatial data sets describing land cover along the lower portion of the estuary (Fig. 1). The 1992 data set was created by the NOAA Coastal Remote Sensing, Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) in cooperation with Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Point Adams Field Station, and State of Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR). The 2000 data set was produced by Earth Design Consultants, Inc. (EDC) and the Wetland Ecosystem Team (WET: University of Washington) as part of a larger Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) habitat mapping study. Although the image classification methodologies used to create the data sets differed, both data sets were produced by classifying Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery, making it feasible to assess land cover changes between 1992 and 2000.

Garono, Ralph; Anderson, Becci; Robinson, Rob

2003-10-01

78

Monitoring land use changes in the Upper Ganga Basin, India by using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques on Landsat 5 TM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green Revolution represents one of the largest environmental changes in India over the last century. The Upper Ganga basin is experiencing rapid rates of change of land use and irrigation practices. In combination with exploitation of groundwater resources in the northern Indian plains, this causes variations in recharge and fundamentally affects surface and groundwater resources, threatening India's water supplies. In this study, we have developed a methodology to map and investigate land-use change by applying Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques on 30m resolution multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for 1984, 1998 and 2010. Firstly, an automated protocol was applied to effectively correct the images for radiometric effects and remove atmospheric interference during the pre-processing analysis of satellite images. Afterwards, maximum likelihood supervised classifications were carried out on Landsat 5 TM colour composites of 1984, 1998 and 2010 with the aid of ground truth data. Post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat images in order to map land cover changes in the Upper Ganga basin. Change vectors of NDVI and Tasseled Cap brightness, greenness and wetness of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images are compared with those values from the initial date of imagery to detect change from no change. Ground truth information and historic images were used to assess the accuracy of the classification results. We find that most of the land-use change is conversion from forest and barren land to agricultural areas. Results indicate that between 1984 and 2010 agricultural areas have increased by more than 150% while forest areas decreased by 28%. The classification accuracy is also examined. Results confirm the importance of field-based accuracy assessment to identify problems in a land-use map and to improve area estimates for each class. The results quantify the land cover change patterns in the Upper Ganga basin and demonstrate the potential of multi-temporal Landsat data to provide an accurate map and analyse changes in land use over time that can be an important input in regional land-use planning and management strategies.

Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Buytaert, Wouter

2013-04-01

79

Extending aircraft- and tower-based CO2 flux measurements to a boreal region using a Landsat thematic mapper land cover map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been an increasing need to measure the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and vegetated surfaces for large areas in order to quantify the carbon budget of the terrestrial biosphere. The boreal landscape is heterogeneous owing to different forest cover types and disturbance regimes, and regional quantification of CO2 flux is difficult without numerous species-specific flux measurements. During the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study in 1994 and 1996 the National Research Council of Canada operated a Twin Otter aircraft that measured CO2, sensible and latent heat fluxes, and other trace gases over boreal forests in Saskatchewan, Canada. A flux-unmixing method was developed to calculate flux densities for eight major cover types from the aircraft-based measurements. Using a coregistered land cover map at 30-m resolution derived from Landsat thematic mapper data, the contribution of each cover type to the CO2 flux measured by the aircraft was estimated using a contributing area (footprint) function according to the wind direction, the atmospheric stability, the horizontal distance of each pixel from the aircraft, and aircraft height. The unmixing method uses a linear inversion method with the footprint-weighted cover type fractions as the set coefficients for each segment of a flight line. In the inversion, various constraint strategies were used to confine the inversion results to minimize the effect of various sampling errors. It is shown that (1) mathematical constraint is critically important in the inversion, (2) a simple constraint toward the mean flux values is effective in producing reasonable inversion results, and (3) the inversion accuracy can be further improved when simultaneous tower measurements in the dominant cover types are used as tight constraints. With such constraints the estimated fluxes from the cover types without tower measurements appear to be reasonable. It is concluded that aircraft measurement adds to our ability to map the regional flux field using remote sensing images because (1) it allows the derivation of flux data for cover types without tower-based measurements and (2) it can be used to infer the representativeness of tower measurements for the measured cover types in the landscape.

Chen, Jing M.; Leblanc, Sylvain G.; Cihlar, Josef; Desjardins, Raymond L.; MacPherson, J. Ian

1999-07-01

80

Contingency plans set for Landsat 5 and 7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the Landsat 5 Earth observation satellite failing due to a rapidly degrading electronic component, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is exploring ways to alleviate a data gap if both Landsat 5 and 7 fail prior to the planned launch of Landsat 8—known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission—in 2013. USGS director Marcia McNutt told Eos that although the satellite's engineering team has “brought Landsat 5 back from death's doorstep several times over the last 27 years” during its mission—which has extended far beyond its design life—“another miracle recovery is becoming less likely.” She added that the survey is looking forward to a successful launch of Landsat 8 “and to establishing a more consistent land imaging program.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-01-01

81

TerraSAR-X versus Landsat 5 TM: A comparison of different sensors for estimating the present distribution of peat lands in the state of Baden- Württemberg (Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the project is to show how different remote sensing sensors can be used to derive a peat land map at a regional scale. For this reason optical multispectral data from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper sensor as well as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the TerraSAR-X sensor were processed and analyzed. The accuracy of the mapping results were evaluated by field observations and a "conventional" peat land map made by K. H. Göttlich (1967). As a study site the so called "Pfrunger- Burgweiler Ried" was selected. The site represents a peat land with an area of 12 km2, located at 615 m. a. s. l., 25 km north of the lake Constance. With a space borne SAR sensor like TerraSAR-X earth observation could be carried out almost regardless of weather and illumination conditions with a high geometrical resolution of up to one meter. The attempt to apply this SAR sensor for mapping of peat land represents therefore a new research field in remote sensing. The remote sensing data was pre- processed in order to correct the radiometric values and geometric location of each pixel. Thus, an atmospheric correction was performed on the optical data using the Software ATCOR 3. Furthermore the Lee- Sigma algorithm was executed on the SAR data in order to minimize the speckle effect. Afterwards both datasets have been classified separately using an object- oriented approach. For this reason the nearest neighborhood algorithm was used within the software eCognition. The results indicate that both sensors were able to detect peat lands with varying accuracies. While it was possible to distinguish different peat land types with the multispectral optical sensor, this was not possible with the SAR sensor. In summary, this work identifies the advantages and disadvantages of a multispectral optical sensor against a SAR sensor with respect to the special application of peat land mapping.

Kalia, A. C.; Weippert, H.; Käufler, K.; Billen, N.; Herrmann, L.; Stahr, K.

2012-04-01

82

Mapping sedimentary and volcanic units within and surrounding Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, using Landsat5 and SPOT panchromatic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT panchromatic data were analysed to determine the lateral variation of the sedimentary and volcanic formations within and surrounding the Petrified Forest National Park in northeastern Arizona. Detailed geological mapping of portions of Petrified Forest National Park allowed for a correlation between TM images and the geological formations that aided in identifying these formations in

K. Mickus; E. Johnson

2001-01-01

83

Using the Sonoran and Libyan Desert test sites to monitor the temporal stability of reflective solar bands for Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus and Terra moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing imagery is effective for monitoring environmental and climatic changes because of the extent of the global coverage and long time scale of the observations. Radiometric calibration of remote sensing sensors is essential for quantitative & qualitative science and applications. Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing sensors. This paper focuses on the use of the Sonoran Desert site to monitor the radiometric stability of the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The results are compared with the widely used Libya 4 Desert site in an attempt to evaluate the suitability of the Sonoran Desert site for sensor inter-comparison and calibration stability monitoring. Since the overpass times of ETM+ and MODIS differ by about 30 minutes, the impacts due to different view geometries or test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are also presented. In general, the long-term drifts in the visible bands are relatively large compared to the drift in the near-infrared bands of both sensors. The lifetime Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance trends from both sensors over 10 years are extremely stable, changing by no more than 0.1% per year (except ETM+ Band 1 and MODIS Band 3) over the two sites used for the study. The use of a semi-empirical BRDF model can reduce the impacts due to view geometries, thus enabling a better estimate of sensor temporal drifts.

Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-Young; Chander, Gyanesh; Wu, Aisheng

2010-04-01

84

Spectral unmixing of Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed spectral signature of pixels in remote sensing imagery in most cases is the result of the reflecting properties of a number of surface materials constituting the area of a pixel. Despite this knowledge most image classification techniques aim at labelling a pixel according to a singular surface category. An alternative product can be generated using spectral unmixing: a

F. Van Der Meer

1995-01-01

85

In-flight validation and recovery of water surface temperature with Landsat-5 thermal infrared data using an automated high-altitude lake validation site at Lake Tahoe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The absolute radiometric accuracy of the thermal infrared band (B6) of the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument on the Landsat-5 (L5) satellite was assessed over a period of approximately four years using data from the Lake Tahoe automated validation site (California-Nevada). The Lake Tahoe site was established in July 1999, and measurements of the skin and bulk temperature have been made approximately every 2 min from four permanently moored buoys since mid-1999. Assessment involved using a radiative transfer model to propagate surface skin temperature measurements made at the time of the L5 overpass to predict the at-sensor radiance. The predicted radiance was then convolved with the L5B6 system response function to obtain the predicted L5B6 radiance, which was then compared with the radiance measured by L5B6. Twenty-four cloud-free scenes acquired between 1999 and 2003 were used in the analysis with scene temperatures ranging between 4??C and 22??C. The results indicate LSB6 had a radiance bias of 2.5% (1.6??C) in late 1999, which gradually decreased to 0.8% (0.5??C) in mid-2002. Since that time, the bias has remained positive (predicted minus measured) and between 0.3% (0.2??C) and 1.4% (0.9??C). The cause for the cold bias (L5 radiances are lower than expected) is unresolved, but likely related to changes in instrument temperature associated with changes in instrument usage. The in situ data were then used to develop algorithms to recover the skin and bulk temperature of the water by regressing the L5B6 radiance and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) total column water data to either the skin or bulk temperature. Use of the NCEP data provides an alternative approach to the split-window approach used with instruments that have two thermal infrared bands. The results indicate the surface skin and bulk temperature can be recovered with a standard error of 0.6??C. This error is larger than errors obtained with other instruments due, in part, to the calibration bias. L5 provides the only long-duration high spatial resolution thermal infrared measurements of the land surface. If these data are to be used effectively in studies designed to monitor change, it is essential to continue to monitor instrument performance in-flight and develop quantitative algorithms for recovering surface temperature.

Hook, S. J.; Chander, G.; Barsi, J. A.; Alley, R. E.; Abtahi, A.; Palluconi, F. D.; Markham, B. L.; Richards, R. C.; Schladow, S. G.; Helder, D. L.

2004-01-01

86

Influencia de Parametros Culturais de Cafezais Sobre OS Dados TM/LANDSAT-5 (Effect of Coffee Plantation Cultural Variables on LANDSAT-5/TM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coffee fields are very complex at a remote sensing satellite view. The objective was to understand this complexity. To do that, TM LANDSAT-5 digital images and ground truth data were obtained nearly simultaneously. Digital data were transformed to reflect...

L. Leonardi

1990-01-01

87

Landsat-7 and Landsat-5 thermal band calibration updates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landsat-7 ETM+, launched in April 1999, and Landsat-5 TM, launched in 1984, both have a single thermal band. Both instruments' thermal band calibrations have been updated: ETM+ in 2001 for a pre-launch calibration error and TM in 2007 for data acquired since the current era of vicarious calibration has been in place (1999). This year, the vicarious calibration teams have made regular collects of very hot targets, and have been able to make use of archived buoy data to extend the TM calibration back in time. The new data has made it clear that both instruments require slight adjustments in their thermal calibration coefficients. These new coefficients will be generated and put into the operational processing system to remove the calibration errors. The JPL vicarious calibration team has long operated automated buoys on Lake Tahoe for the purpose of vicarious calibration. This year, the Salton Sea station came on line. Salton Sea, located in southern California, gets far hotter than Lake Tahoe. Vicarious calibration results of the Salton Sea for both instruments added to the understanding of a small gain error that the Tahoe data had suggested. With the Salton Sea data, an ETM+ gain error became statistically significant. Though it causes errors as large as 1.2K at high temperatures (35C), at more usual earth temperatures (4-20C) the calibration error is within the noise of the calibration methodology (+/-0.6K). With an ETM+ calibration update, the RMSE will be +/-0.6K for all temperatures. The RIT vicarious calibration team mined the archive of the NOAA National Data Buoy Center for sites on the Great Lakes and in the Atlantic Ocean where buoy data was regularly available between 1984 and 2007 and there were radiosonde data within close proximity to allow for atmospheric correction. Four Landsat scenes were chosen and the study made use of almost 200 separate acquisitions of these scenes. The technique was first tested with Landsat-7 data, and was shown to be as reliable as the standard RIT vicarious calibration methods. The TM calibration was largely unmonitored for most if it's lifetime. The buoy results suggest a lifetime error in gain and a change in the offset after 1997. The 2007 TM calibration update accounted for much of the offset error but was only implemented for data acquired after 1999. With the additional buoy data, the calibration will be corrected for the earlier time period and the result will be a consistent calibration to within +/-0.6K for the lifetime of the TM.

Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Schott, John R.; Hook, Simon J.; Raqueno, Nina G.

2009-08-01

88

Modeling Suspended Solids Concentrations Based on TM/LANDSAT-5 Images at Guanabara Bay, Rj, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A distribution of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) for Guanabara Bay is presented. The distribution was obtained through the expansion of a stepwise regression model that resulted from in situ and TM/LANDSAT-5 data. Water samples from 12 sites in the Bay were...

C. Z. F. Braga A. W. Setzer

1991-01-01

89

Spectral characteristics of fire scars in Landsat5 TM images of Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes spectral characteristics of fire scars in an area of intense deforestation in the Amazon tropical forest as recorded in the seven Landsat-5 TM spectral channels of an image in 1985. Ground covers were divided into four themes: natural forests, ‘capoeiras’, pastures in general and fire scars. Single-cell and maximum likelihood classification algorithms were used in the analysis.

M. C. PEREIRA; A. W. SETZER

1993-01-01

90

Spectral Shape Classification System for Landsat The matic Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multispectral classification system based on an alternative spectral representation is described and its perfor mance over a full Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scene evaluated. Spectral classes are represented by their s pectral shape - a vector of binary features that describes the relative values between spectral bands. An algorit hm for segmenting or clustering TM data based on this

Mark J. Carlotto

1996-01-01

91

Venus mapper resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA program managers for the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) mission have decided to make improvements to the spacecraft's Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system that will increase its mapping resolution by one and a half times over the original design. The changes, including a doubling of the system's range bandwidth, will add a total of about $5 million to a project

Tony Reichhardt

1984-01-01

92

Multispectral Image Maps from Landsat Thematic Mapper Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a capability to produce prototype 1:50,000 scale multispectral image maps using Landsat TM data. These image maps are in the standard UTM projection, contain imbedded 1,000 meter grid lines with labeled UTM coordinates, and can easil...

D. A. Davis J. E. Anderson R. S. Rand

1991-01-01

93

Quantifying Wetland Dynamics and Hydrologic Function with Landsat Thematic Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America spans the glaciated prairies from Alberta, Canada, to central Iowa. The region contains hundreds of thousands of wetlands that provide habitat for an estimated 50 to 80 percent of North America's waterfowl. The composition of species that use the PPR are a function of wetland water chemistry. The water chemistry is driven by wetland functional processes that determine hydrogeochemical interactions of surface water, ground water, and their connectivity to other wetlands. As wetlands cycle from drought to deluge, significant surface water fluctuations can alter water chemistry and hydroperiods, influencing the composition of wetland communities. We quantified these temporal water dynamics with Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery, spanning a 17-year period during a drought-deluge cycle. Using clustering techniques, we grouped wetlands based on their functional responses to climate and quantified the traits of each cluster. We found that wetlands receiving groundwater discharge respond very differently to climatic shifts than wetlands functioning as recharge basins. In addition, wetlands with closed basins are less dynamic than wetlands located in open basins. Accuracies of the initial classification ranged from 75 to 100 percent. This study offers the first insight into wetland dynamics at a regional scale with implications for modeling biogeochemistry and ecosystem services across the PPR. Although this method was developed in the Missouri Coteau and nearby drift plains of the PPR, we believe this technique is applicable to other regions.

Rover, J. A.; Wright, C.; Wylie, B. K.; Euliss, N. H.

2007-12-01

94

Lithologic mapping using geobotanical and Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

SciTech Connect

Detailed work has been undertaken to study the correlations among Landsat TM spectral data, lithologic units, geobotanical forest associations, and geomorphic site parameters in the predominantly deciduous forest of the Valley and Ridge province, Pennsylvania. The TM spectral data are taken from the November 2, 1982, overpass at a time when some of the study area was undergoing fall senescence. The forest association data are based on over 250 1/10-acre surveys. The lithologies are primarily two clastic sedimentary units, sandstone and shales, each with a different geomorphic slope and aspect. Both the TM and forest association data can be divided into four groups representing unique lithologic and geomorphic site parameters. The first principal component of the TM data separates the four lithologic/geomorphic units on the basis of their associated botanical and geomorphic site parameters. The second and third principal components contain information about forest density and canopy closure. It is apparent from this study that geobotanical forest associations are useful as indicators of lithology, and that changes in these forest associations are detectable with Landsat TM data from space.

Birnie, R.W.; Defeo, N.

1987-05-01

95

Geologic Exploration: The Contribution of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major advantages of the TM data over that of MSS systems are increased spatial resolution and a greater number of narrow, strategically placed spectral bands. The 30 meter pixel size permits finer definition of ground features and improves reliability...

J. R. Everett J. D. Dykstra C. A. Sheffield

1983-01-01

96

In-Flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an absolute manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were m...

K. R. Castle R. G. Holm C. J. Kastner J. M. Palmer P. N. Slater

1983-01-01

97

Monitoring of defoliation in mixed-aged Eucalyptus plantations using Landsat 5-TM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of foliage is one of the primary physiological controls of plant functioning, which ultimately influences plant survival and growth. Repeated severe defoliation events have been linked to reduced growth rates and tree mortality in Eucalyptus forests throughout the world. Satellite remote sensing provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional ground-based assessment of forest health. In this study the potential of spectral mixture analysis for defoliation monitoring is evaluated. A novel spectral unmixing technique, referred to as weighted Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (wMESMA), was developed and successfully applied to Landsat 5 TM data acquired over a Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) plantation in southern Australia. This technique combines an iterative mixture analysis cycle allowing endmembers to vary on a per pixel basis (MESMA) and a weighting algorithm that prioritizes wavebands based on their robustness against endmember variability. Spectral mixture analysis provides an estimate of the physically interpretable canopy cover, which is not necessarily correlated with defoliation in mixed aged plantations due to natural variation in canopy cover as stands age. Results show that considerable variability in the degree of defoliation exists as well as in stand age amongst sites. In this study significantly improvement of the link between spectral unmixing and defoliation is observed by the inclusion of an age correction algorithm for the multispectral (R² no age correction = 0.55 vs. R² age correction = 0.73).

Somers, B.; Verbesselt, J.; Ampe, E. M.; Sims, N.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Coppin, P.

2010-05-01

98

TVI: Um Modelo Numerico Para Estimativa Global DA Fitomassa DOS Cerrados Brasileiros (TVI: A Mathematical Model for Global Estimation of Brazilian Cerrado Phytomass).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective is to discuss the Transformed Vegetation Index (TVI) potentialities to estimate the cerrado phytomass. The ground and remote sensing data (thematic mapper/LANDSAT-5) were gathered on three selected areas: Roncador Ecological Reserve (IB...

J. R. Dossantos

1989-01-01

99

Monitoring glacier variations in the Urubamba and Vilcabamba Mountain Ranges, Peru, using "Landsat 5" images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Urubamba and Vilcabamba mountain ranges are two geological structures belonging to the Andes in the southern part of Peru, which is located in the tropical region. These mountain ranges are especially located within the transition area between the Amazon region (altitudes close to 1'000 m a.s.l.) and the Andes. These mountains, with a maximum height of 6'280 m a.s.l. (Salkantay Snow Peak in the Vilcabamba range), are characterized by glaciers mainly higher than 5000 m a.s.l. Here we present a study on the evolution of the ice cover based on "Landsat 5" images from 1991 and 2011 is presented in this paper. These data are freely available from the USGS in a georeferenced format and cover a time span of more than 25 years. The glacier mapping is based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). In 1991 the Vilcabamba mountain range had 221 km2 of glacier cover, being reduced to 116.4 km2 in 2011, which represents a loss of 48%. In the Urubamba mountain range, the total glacier area was 64.9 km2 in 1991 and 29.4 km2 in 2011, representing a loss of 54.7%. It means that the glacier area was halved during the past two decades although precipitation patterns show an increase in recent years (the wet season lasts from September to April with precipitation peaks in February and March). Glacier changes in these two tropical mountain ranges also impact from an economic point of view due to small local farming common in this region (use of water from the melting glacier). Furthermore, potential glacier related hazards can pose a threat to people and infrastructure in the valleys below these glaciers, where the access routes to Machu Picchu Inca City, Peru's main tourist destination, are located too.

Suarez, Wilson; Cerna, Marcos; Ordoñez, Julio; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Huggel, Christian

2013-04-01

100

Twenty-Five Years of Landsat Thermal Band Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+), launched in April 1999, and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), launched in 1984, both have a single thermal band. Both instruments thermal band calibrations have been updated previously: ETM+ in 2001 for a pre-laun...

B. L. Markham J. A. Barsi J. R. Schoff N. G. Raqueno S. J. Hook

2010-01-01

101

Landsat sensor performance: history and current status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current Thematic Mapper (TM) class of Landsat sensors began with Landsat-4, which was launched in 1982. This series continued with the nearly identical sensor on Landsat-5, launched in 1984. The final sensor in the series was the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), which was carried into orbit in 1999. Varying degrees of effort have been devoted to the

Brian L. Markham; James C. Storey; Darrel L. Williams; James R. Irons

2004-01-01

102

Hurricane Sandy Storm Tide Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

United States Geological Survey (USGS) provides real-time map-based information from USGS storm tide sensors. The data is reflected on the Hurricane Sandy Tide Mapper. The mapper provides location information, site photos and data for storm tide and inland flooding. In addition, the data from these sensors is used to create models of the precise time the storm-tide arrived, how ocean and inland water levels changed during the storm, the depth of the storm-tide throughout the event, and how long it took for the water to recede.

103

The Venus Radar Mapper mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) mission is sponsored by NASA to put a single spacecraft in orbit around Venus to map the surface using a synthetic aperture mapping radar. This paper describes the VRM mission at its present state of design. The science objectives and project constraints are described. Key features of the spacecraft system and radar system are discussed.

E. Cutting; J. H. Kwok; S. N. Mohan

1984-01-01

104

Metodologia Para a Confeccao de Mapas Tematicos Utilizando Dados T.M.-LANDSAT (Methodology for the Elaboration of Thematic Maps Utilizing LANDSAT-TM Data).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology for the elaboration of thematic maps for military use in the scale of 1:100,000 is developed. Techniques of digital processing and visual analysis of remote sensing images were used. The thematic mapper sensor of the LANDSAT Satellite was em...

L. A. Deandrade

1986-01-01

105

Sensitivity of vegetation indices to different burn and vegetation ratios using LANDSAT-5 satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of vegetation indices is a very common approach in remote sensing of burned areas to either map the fire scar or estimate burn severity since they minimize the effect of exogenous factors and enhance the correlation with the internal parameters of vegetation. In a recent study we found that the original spectral channels, based on which these indices are estimated, are sensitive to external parameters of the vegetation as for example the spectral reflectance of the background soil. In such cases, the influence of the soil in the reflectance values is different in the various spectral regions depending on its type. These problems are further enhanced by the non-homogeneous pixels, as created from fractions of different types of land cover. Parnitha (Greece), where a wildfire occurred on July 2007, was established as test site. The purpose of this work is to explore the sensitivity of vegetation indices when used to estimate and map different fractions of fire-scorched (burned) and non fire-scorched (vegetated) areas. IKONOS, a very high resolution satellite imagery, was used to create a three-class thematic map to extract the percentages of vegetation, burned surfaces, and bare soil. Using an overlaid fishnet we extracted samples of completely "burned", completely "vegetated" pixels and proportions with different burn/vegetation ratios (45%-55% burned - 45%-55% vegetation, 20%-30% burned - 70%- 80% vegetation, 70%-80% burned - 20%-30% vegetation). Vegetation indices were calculated (NDVI, IPVI, SAVI) and their values were extracted to characterize the mentioned classes. The main findings of our recent research were that vegetation indices are less sensitive to external parameters of the vegetation by minimizing external effects. Thus, the semi-burned classes were spectrally more consistent to their different fractions of scorched and non-scorched vegetation, than the original spectral channels based on which these indices are estimated.

Pleniou, M.; Koutsias, N.

2013-08-01

106

Mapper: high throughput maskless lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maskless electron beam lithography, or electron beam direct write, has been around for a long time in the semiconductor industry and was pioneered from the mid-1960s onwards. This technique has been used for mask writing applications as well as device engineering and in some cases chip manufacturing. However because of its relatively low throughput compared to optical lithography, electron beam lithography has never been the mainstream lithography technology. To extend optical lithography double patterning, as a bridging technology, and EUV lithography are currently explored. Irrespective of the technical viability of both approaches, one thing seems clear. They will be expensive [1]. MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10-20 wafers per hour. By clustering several of these columns together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV alternatives. In 2007 MAPPER obtained its Proof of Lithography milestone by exposing in its Demonstrator 45 nm half pitch structures with 110 electron beams in parallel, where all the beams where individually switched on and off [2]. In 2008 MAPPER has taken a next step in its development by building several tools. A new platform has been designed and built which contains a 300 mm wafer stage, a wafer handler and an electron beam column with 110 parallel electron beams. This manuscript describes the first patterning results with this 300 mm platform.

Kuiper, V.; Kampherbeek, B. J.; Wieland, M. J.; de Boer, G.; ten Berge, G. F.; Boers, J.; Jager, R.; van de Peut, T.; Peijster, J. J. M.; Slot, E.; Steenbrink, S. W. H. K.; Teepen, T. F.; van Veen, A. H. V.

2009-01-01

107

The Further Development of Fluid Mappers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid mappers can be built to simulate, and lead to the solution of a great many field situations in electrostatics, electromagnetics, eddy currents, heat conduction, and other analogous cases. Distributed sources, as well as ordinary sources, may be represented. Fluid mapper techniques are well enough developed so that many fields now can be simulated with sufficient accuracy, by applying tested

A. D. Moore

1950-01-01

108

Análise comparativa entre imagens de satélites CBERS2 e LANDSAT5 na classificação da cobertura vegetal na região de Jaboticabal - SP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing images present potential for mapping and estimating crop yield. This paper details a technique for estimating percent vegetation cover based on land use classify on satellite images using a geographic information system (GIS)-IDRISI and CBERS2 and LANDSAT5 satellites images. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary College - FCAV - UNESP,

Christiano Luna Arraes

109

A drainage system analysis evaluation of, and comparison between, Landsat3 RBV, Landsat5 TM and SPOT PA imageries covering the Central Macedonia district, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat-3 RBV, Landsat-5 TM imageries and SPOT PA stereopair diapositives were visually interpreted for the purpose of finding the accuracy of certain morphometric variables of three drainage basin sample areas in Central Macedonia, North Greece, drawn separately from each of the above three types of satellite imageries and comparisons were made between the efficiency of drainage systems drawn from each

T. Astaras; N. Lambrinos; N. Soulakellis

1990-01-01

110

"The Outsiders": Thematic Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic curriculum unit on the adolescent novel, "The Outsiders" (S.E. Hinton) discusses issues that are relevant to students' lives and important to their future decisions. In the unit, students will discuss issues relevant to the novel and will use the novel as a bridge to analyze their own lives. The unit, with an overall theme of…

Zimmerman, Chad

111

MAPPER: high throughput maskless lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology. The technology combines massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport used in the telecommunication industry. The electron optics generates 13,000 electron beams that are focused on the wafer by electrostatic lens arrays which are manufactured by using MEMS manufacturing techniques. Each beam has its own optical column to avoid a central cross-over. This secures high throughput (> 10 wafers per hour) at high resolution (< 45 nm half pitch). The 13,000 e-beams are generated by splitting up a single electron beam that originates from a single electron source and are finally accelerated to 5 kV to expose the resist on the wafer. The e-beams are arranged in such a way that they form a rectangular slit with a width of 26 mm, the same width of a field in an optical stepper. During exposure the e-beams are deflected over 2 ?m perpendicular to the wafer stage movement. This means that with one scan of the wafer a full field of 26 mm x 33 mm can be exposed. During the simultaneous scanning of the wafer and deflection of the electron beams the beams are switched on and off by 13,000 light signals, one for each e-beam. The light beams are generated in a data system that contains the chip patterns in a bitmap format. This bitmap is divided over 13,000 data channels and streamed to the ebeams at 1-10 GHz. This paper will explain the design drivers behind the system and provide more detail on the current design. Finally, results of our technology Demonstrator are presented, showing the viability of MAPPER's concept.

Slot, E.; Wieland, M. J.; de Boer, G.; Kruit, P.; ten Berge, G. F.; Houkes, A. M. C.; Jager, R.; van de Peut, T.; Peijster, J. J. M.; Steenbrink, S. W. H. K.; Teepen, T. F.; van Veen, A. H. V.; Kampherbeek, B. J.

2008-04-01

112

Star mapper using linear CCD array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A star mapper using a Fairchild 2048 element linear CCD array was flown on board Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-1A) launched in March 1988. The star mapper comprises an f\\/1.25 catadioptric optics with the CCD detector mounted near the focal plane. The detector is cooled by means of a thermoelectric cooler. Stars up to 5th magnitude are sensed in an

Y. K. Jain; V. Koteswara Rao; D. V. B. Rao; G. Nagendra Rao; T. K. Alex

1988-01-01

113

MAPPING SPATIAL THEMATIC ACCURACY WITH FUZZY SETS  

EPA Science Inventory

Thematic map accuracy is not spatially homogenous but variable across a landscape. Properly analyzing and representing spatial pattern and degree of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable information for using thematic maps. However, current thematic map accuracy measures (...

114

MAPPER: high-throughput maskless lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10-20 wafers per hour. By clustering several of these systems together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV alternatives[1]. In 2009 MAPPER shipped two systems one to TSMC and one to CEA-Leti. Both systems will be used to verify the applicability of MAPPER's technology for CMOS manufacturing. This paper presents a status update on the development of the MAPPER system over the past year. First an overview will be presented how to scale the current system to a 10 wph machine which can consequently be used in a cluster configuration to enable 100 wph throughputs. Then the results of today's (pre-) alpha systems with 300 mm wafer capability are presented from the machines at MAPPER, TSMC and CEA-Leti.

Wieland, M. J.; de Boer, G.; ten Berge, G. F.; van Kervinck, M.; Jager, R.; Peijster, J. J. M.; Slot, E.; Steenbrink, S. W. H. K.; Teepen, T. F.; Kampherbeek, B. J.

2010-03-01

115

Using KML for Thematic Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thematic mapping has a long history in cartography, but the new geobrowsers tend not to focus on this aspect of geographical information representation. This talk demonstrates how Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and geobrowsers can be used for thematic mapping. Due to their huge public interest and relative accessibility, geobrowsers are potentially capable of bringing thematic maps or visualisations to a wider audience. KML is not targeted towards thematic mapping, but it is possible to use KML elements in ways that were probably not intended. Current possibilities for making proportional symbol maps, chart maps, choropleth maps and animated maps with KML will be presented. An open source Thematic Mapping Engine (TME) has been developed as a proof-of-concept. This application allows the user to make thematic maps through an easy-to-use web interface. TME provides a low-cost solution suitable for non-profits and public- benefit organisations.

Sandvik, B.

2008-12-01

116

Using thematic analysis in psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different

Virginia Braun; Victoria Clarke

2006-01-01

117

The Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) mission is sponsored by NASA to put a single spacecraft in orbit around Venus to map the surface of Venus using a synthetic aperture mapping radar. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in April 1988 using a Shuttle-Centaur G combination. The spacecraft arrives at Venus in late July 1988 and begins its mapping mission

E. Cutting; J. H. Kwok; S. N. Mohan

1984-01-01

118

Venus Radar Mapper orbit accuracy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacecraft orbital accuracies during the mapping phase of the Venus Radar Mapper Mission are the subject of this paper. The analysis presented describes the navigational strategy for the prime mission in support of mapping the planet Venus using a spacecraft deployed Synthetic Aperture Radar. Achievable orbital accuracies are shown to be limited by accuracy of interferometric data to be used.

S. N. Mohan; P. B. Esposito

1984-01-01

119

International Monetary Fund (IMF) Data Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IMF publishes a range of time series data on IMF lending, exchange rates and other economic and financial indicators. Manuals, guides, and other material on statistical practices at the IMF, in member countries, and of the statistical community at large are also available. The data mapper allows the user to view IMF data in a variety of ways using differing indicators.

Fund, International M.

120

The laser cloud mapper and its applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser cloud mapper is a rapidly scanning laser radar system for transmission and concentration mapping of aerosol clouds in three dimensions and for real-time dynamic information. It has been applied to the evaluation of IR-screening clouds, forestry spraying, and rarified aerosols.

Evans, B. T. N.; Roy, G.

1986-01-01

121

Moon Mineralogy Mapper Imaging Spectrometer Science Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) was selected as a NASA Discovery Mission of Opportunity in early February 2005 and entered phase B in May 2005. The primary science goal is to characterize and map the lunar surface composition m the context ol its geologic evolution.The primary exploration goal is to assess and map the Moon mineral resources at high spatial

R. O. Green; C. Pieters; P. Mouroulis; T. Koch

2008-01-01

122

Using Landsat 5 TM Data to Identify and Map Areas of Mangrove in Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves are recognized worldwide as a major ecosystem that provides significant ecosystem services. They are threatened due to rising pressures from human overpopulation and economic development. The Caribbean Coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula contains mangrove habitat that have been negatively impacted by the development of the region's tourist industry. However, little research has been done to map and quantify the extent of mangrove in the region. This study used remote sensing techniques to identify mangrove in the Municipality of Tulum located in Quintana Roo, and to produce an accurate vector based thematic map that inventories these areas. Anatomical differences were analyzed and related to high-resolution field spectral data for each mangrove species. A vector map of mangrove habitat, including areas of inland mangrove, was produced with an overall accuracy of 88%. The 19,262 ha. of mangrove identified by this study represents a 140% increase in area over previous studies.

Meachum, Samuel Standish

123

Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts' ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater

C. M. Biradar; P. H. Gowda; J. E. Hernandez; T. A. Howell; T. H. Marek; X. Xiao

2009-01-01

124

A Neural Network Model for Estimating Sea Surface Chlorophyll and Sediments from Thematic Mapper Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two important parameters used for monitoring coastal water quality are the concentrations of chlorophyll and suspended sediment in surface waters. Ocean color remote sensing provides a convenient method of determining these concentrations from upwelling radiances. In the open ocean, it is not difficult to derive empirical algorithms relating the received radiances to surface concentrations of chlorophyll. In turbid coastal waters,

Louis E. Keiner; Xiao-Hai Yan

1998-01-01

125

Geologic mapping of the Semipalatinsk region, Eastern Kazakstan, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and spot panchromatic data  

SciTech Connect

This geologic reconnaissance study centers on a 90 by 140 km area about 100 km southwest of Semipalatinsk near the east border of the Kazakstan Republic of the USSR. Semipalatinsk, a regional center for grain growing, and several other cities along the Irtysh River were originally established as fortified outposts by the Russians during the 18th and 19th centuries to contain the indigenous, nomadic Kazak herdsmen. The Kazakstan region remained largely undeveloped until after the 1917 Russian Revolution, when exploration geologists began discovering many large mineral deposits. Today, known resources include coal, copper, iron ore, lead, zinc, and barite; most of these are of national significance. These vast mineral resources have prompted development of many metallurgical and chemical industries in the republic. Despite the extensive exploration for mineral resources in this region, published geologic maps (Nalivkin, 1960; Esenov, 1971; Borovikov, 1972) are all at scales of 1:1,100,000 or smaller, and there are no detailed descriptions of the geology around Semipalatinsk in the open literature. Our preliminary examination of commercial remote-sensing, data indicated that the lithology and structure of this area are extremely varied and complex at all scales -- much more so than that portrayed on the published geologic maps. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to use commercially available remotely sensed data for the area and remotely sensed data obtained for analog study sites, as well as the sparse, sketchy information in the published literature, to better define and map the geologic units (Sheet 1), structure (Sheet 2), and drainage features (Sheet 3) of this area.

Davis, P.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Berlin, G.L. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

1992-12-31

126

Lava flow cooling estimated from Landsat Thematic Mapper infrared data - The Lonquimay eruption (Chile, 1989)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat TM data are used to measure the crust temperature and the fractional area for an active lava flow during the Lonquimay eruption. A progressive cooling of crusted lava from 250 to 170 C down a 1.5-km segment of the flow is shown. These results are obtained by solving 'dual-band' equations for the two short-wavelength infrared TM bands and by

Clive Oppenheimer

1991-01-01

127

Mapping deforestation and secondary growth in Rondonia, Brazil, using imaging radar and thematic mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excellent data on deforestation have been obtained in the tropics with the use of high-resolution optical sensors. Yet, several problems remain. Cloud cover creates data gaps that limit the possibility of complete and frequent assessments, and secondary growth is not well characterized. Active microwave sensors could complement these sensors because they operate independently of cloud cover and smoke and can

Eric Rignot; William A. Salas; David L. Skole

1997-01-01

128

A Physically-Based Transformation of Thematic Mapper Data---The TM Tasseled Cap  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an extension of previous simulation studies, a transformation of actual TM data in the six reflective bands is described which achieves three objectives: a fundamental view of TM data structures is presented, the vast majority of data variability is concentrated in a few (three) features, and the defined features can be directly associated with physical scene characteristics. The underlying

Eric P. Crist; Richard C. Cicone

1984-01-01

129

Estimating Net Solar Radiation Using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Digital Elevation Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiative transfer algorithm is combined with digital elevation and satellite reflectance data to model spatial variability in net solar radiation at fine spatial resolution. The method is applied to the tall-grass prairie of the 16 × 16 km2 FIFE site (First ISLSCP Field Experiment) of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project. Spectral reflectances as measured by the Landsat

R. Dubayah

1992-01-01

130

Opportunities and difficulties associated with using Landsat Thematic Mapper data for determining surface water temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes results of research efforts to estimate surface-water temperatures using Landsat 4 and 5 TM thermal band data. Recent research involved the analysis of day- and night-time TM Band 6 data in both corrected (P tape) and uncorrected (A tape) formats. Results reported are for (1) a reservoir reactor cooling system (PAR Pond) at the Department of Energy's

G. W. Wukelic; J. C. Barnard; G. M. Petrie; H. P. Foote

1985-01-01

131

Landscape Cover-Type Modeling Using a MultiScene Thematic Mapper Mosaic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landscape ecological applications of remotely sensed data are needed over increasingly larger areas and at finer spatial scales. Within the framework of the National Biological Ser- vice Gap Analysis program, 36 Utah cover types were mod- eled from a state-wide Landsat TM mosaic created from 24 scenes at 30-metre resolution (219,883 sq km). The state was subset into three ecoregions

Collin G. Homer; R. Douglas Ramsey; Thomas C. Edwards; Allan Falconer

132

Application of thematic mapper imagery to oil exploration in Austin Chalk, Central Gulf Coast basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

One of the newest major oil plays in the Gulf Coast basin, the Austin Chalk reportedly produces in three belts: an updip belt, where production is from fractured chalk in structurally high positions along faults above 7,000 ft; a shallow downdip belt, where the chalk is uniformly saturated with oil from 7,000 to 9,000 ft; and a deeper downdip belt saturated with gas and condensate below 9,000 ft. The updip fields usually occur on the southeastern, upthrown side of the Luling, Mexia, and Charlotte fault zones. Production is from fractures that connect the relatively sparse matrix pores with more permeable fracture systems. The fractures resulted from regional extensional stress during the opening of the Gulf Coast basin on the divergent margin of the North American plate during the Laramide orogeny. The fractures are more common in the more brittle chalk than in the overlying Navarro and underlying Eagle Ford shales, which are less brittle. The oil in the updip traps in the chalk may have been generated in place downdip, and migrated updip along the extension fractures into the updip traps during or after the Laramide orogeny.

Reid, W.M.

1988-01-01

133

Application of thematic mapper imagery to oil exploration in Austin Chalk, central Gulf Coast basin, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the newest major oil plays in the Gulf Coast basin, the Austin Chalk reportedly produces in three belts: an updip belt, where production is from fractured chalk in structurally high positions along faults above 7000 ft; a shallow downdip belt, where the chalk is uniformly saturated with oil from 7000 to 9000 ft; and a deeper downdip belt

William M. Reid

1988-01-01

134

MAPPING TILLAGE PRACTICES IN SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS OF TEXAS WITH LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tillage information is crucial in environmental modeling as it has a direct impact on soil erosion and water holding capacity of agricultural soils. A remote sensing approach is promising for the rapid collection of tillage information on individual fields over large areas. In this study, existing...

135

Deriving hourly surface energy fluxes and ET from Landsat Thematic mapper data using METRIC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET) have long been recognized as playing an important role in determining exchanges of energy and mass between the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. In this study, we applied the METRIC (Mapping ET at high Resolutions with Internal Calibration) alg...

136

Scaling Vegetation Water Content from Thematic Mapper to MODIS During SMEX04  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation water content (VWC) is important for accurate retrievals of soil moisture using microwave sensors and may be important for determining water stress and forest fire potential. The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and future operational sensors have bands in the shortwave infrared region which can be used for monitoring VWC. The Soil Moisture Experiments 2004 (SMEX04) were conducted during

E. Raymond Hunt; M. Tugrul Yilmaz; Thomas J. Jackson

2006-01-01

137

Study of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved delineation of known oil and gas fields in southern Ontario and a spectacularly high amount of structural information on the Owl Creek, Wyoming scene were obtained from analysis of TM data. The use of hue, saturation, and value image processing techniques on a Death Valley, California scene permitted direct comparison of TM processed imagery with existing 1:250,000 scale geological

1983-01-01

138

Applications of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper Imagery to the Study of Subtle Variations in Lithology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Study of enhanced LANDSAT TM images of several localities in semi-arid to arid regions revealed subtle variations within lithologies the reasons for which were not directly evident in the field. Samples were collected during fieldwork, and laboratory spec...

A. Pontual

1988-01-01

139

A star mapper using linear CCD array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A star mapper using linear 2048 element CCD array is being developed for providing high accuracy post-facto attitude information for the India Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-1A) scheduled to be launched by the end of 1986. The sensor employs the orbital motion of the sun-synchronous satellite to map the sky at the orbital rate and generates co-ordinate information of the stars

Y. K. Jain; V. K. Rao; D. V. B. Rao; N. J. Babu

1984-01-01

140

Throughput enhancement technique for MAPPER maskless lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing in combination with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. With 13,000 electron beams each delivering a current of 13nA on the wafer, a throughput of 10 wph is realized for 22nm node lithography. By clustering several of these systems together high throughputs can

M. J. Wieland; H. Derks; H. Gupta; T. van de Peut; F. M. Postma; A. H. V. van Veen; Y. Zhang

2010-01-01

141

MAPPER: high-throughput maskless lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10-20 wafers per hour. By clustering several of these systems together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly

M. J. Wieland; G. de Boer; G. F. Ten Berge; M. van Kervinck; R. Jager; J. J. M. Peijster; E. Slot; S. W. H. K. Steenbrink; T. F. Teepen; B. J. Kampherbeek

2010-01-01

142

SkyMapper: Surveying the Southern Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SkyMapper is a 1.3m telescope built by the Australian National University as a replacement for the Great Melbourne Telescope lost in the fires that destroyed Mt Stromlo Observatory in 2003. The telescope features an 8sq-degree FOV, which when coupled with a new 16kx16k array, yields 5.7sq-degree sampled at 0.5" per pixel. SkyMapper is undertaking a comprehensive 6-colour, 6-epoch survey of the southern celestial hemisphere - the Southern Sky Survey, as well as a shallow full hemispheric survey to provide photometric and astrometric calibrations to 16mag. Additional time will be used to undertake a limited number of other science programs, including a supernova survey that will help imprive Dark Energy constraints. In addition to reviewing the telescope and its surveys, I will show the first results of the telescope, and discuss how others can work with our team and use the SkyMapper dataset on their own scientific programs.

Schmidt, Brian P.

2012-05-01

143

MAPPER: high-throughput maskless lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maskless electron beam lithography, or electron beam direct write, has been around for a long time in the semiconductor industry and was pioneered from the mid-1960s onwards. This technique has been used for mask writing applications as well as device engineering and in some cases chip manufacturing. However because of its relatively low throughput compared to optical lithography, electron beam lithography has never been the mainstream lithography technology. To extend optical lithography double patterning, as a bridging technology, and EUV lithography are currently explored. Irrespective of the technical viability of both approaches, one thing seems clear. They will be expensive [1]. MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10-20 wafers per hour. By clustering several of these columns together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV alternatives. In 2007 MAPPER obtained its Proof of Lithography milestone by exposing in its Demonstrator 45 nm half pitch structures with 110 electron beams in parallel, where all the beams where individually switched on and off [2]. In 2008 MAPPER has taken a next step in its development by building several tools. The objective of building these tools is to involve semiconductor companies to be able to verify tool performance in their own environment. To enable this, the tools will have a 300 mm wafer stage in addition to a 110-beam optics column. First exposures at 45 nm half pitch resolution have been performed and analyzed. On the same wafer it is observed that all beams print and based on analysis of 11 beams the CD for the different patterns is within 2.2 nm from target and the CD uniformity for the different patterns is better than 2.8 nm.

Wieland, M. J.; de Boer, G.; ten Berge, G. F.; Jager, R.; van de Peut, T.; Peijster, J. J. M.; Slot, E.; Steenbrink, S. W. H. K.; Teepen, T. F.; van Veen, A. H. V.; Kampherbeek, B. J.

2009-03-01

144

Scanning exposures with a MAPPER multibeam system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, three MAPPER multi-electron beam lithography tools are operational. Two are located at customers, TSMC and LETI, and one is located at MAPPER. The tools at TSMC and LETI are used for process development. These tools each have 110 parallel electron beams and have demonstrated sub-30 nm half pitch resolution in chemically amplified resists. One important step towards the high volume tool is the capability to stitch the exposure of one electron beam to the next. The pre-alpha tool at MAPPER has been upgraded with an interferometer to enable exposures with a scanning stage and demonstrate first beam-to-beam stitching. A scan of 200 micrometers has been used to create a stitch area of 50 x 3 microns. The stitch error over all stitches was found to be below 25 nm. The electron beam position stability during the 10 seconds required for beam-to-beam stitching showed a contribution to the stitch error of 2.3 nm. The beam separation measurement, used to correct the static error, adds about 2.2 nm and the stage stability and linearity adds another 5 nm in the scan (interferometer) direction. In the perpendicular direction the stage instability gives the largest contribution to the stitch error (15 nm) due to the use of capacitive sensors. Overall, the electron beam stability and the beam position correction method work correctly and with sufficient accuracy for the high volume tool, 'Matrix'. The wafer stage for the Matrix system will incorporate full interferometer control to attain the needed positioning accuracy and stability.

van den Berg, C.; de Boer, G.; Boschker, S.; Hakkennes, E. A.; Holgate, G.; Hoving, M.; Jager, R.; Koning, J. J.; Kuiper, V.; Ma, Yue; van Mil, I. L.; Mook, H. W.; Ooms, T.; van de Peut, T.; Postma, S.; Sanderse, M.; Scheffers, P.; Slot, E.; Tudorie, A.; Valkering, A. M. C.; Venema, N.; Vergeer, N.; Weirsma, A.; Woutersen, S.; Wieland, M. J.; Kampherbeek, B. J.

2011-03-01

145

Descriptive Writing: A Thematic Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic unit for teaching descriptive writing is organized around 10 days of lesson plans. The unit begins by asking key questions about descriptive writing and providing information on grade level, ability level, number of lessons and length of classes, and prior knowledge students should have. It also offers a unit rationale and key…

Smith, Joanna J.

146

Transformed Vegetation Index (TVI) for Estimation of Brazilian Cerrado's Phytomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this study is to make an analysis of the relationship between the cerrado's foliar phytomass and the vegetation indices (TVI sub 4,3 and TVI sub 5,3) obtained by the Thematic Mapper/LANDSAT-5. The ground and remote sensing data were ...

J. R. Dossantos A. A. Disperati A. J. Dearaujo R. T. Hosakawa

1988-01-01

147

Experimental Satellite Image Map of Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The map, compiled from a Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper image recorded on July 18, 1984, illustrates how digital satellite images can be used to analyze earth resources data. The research that led to the development of the prototype map was aimed at (1) evalua...

T. Lillesand T. Lo

1985-01-01

148

Assessing heterogeneity from remote sensing images: the case of desertification in southern Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10-year series of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images was used to test the hypothesis that increasing environmental heterogeneity at the landscape scale is evidence for desertification. The proposed methodology, based on spatiotemporal statistical analysis, was implemented for a study area in the innersouthern Alentejo region of Portugal. Major findings from the study include the increasing 'greenness' of vegetation patterns and

J. Seixas

2000-01-01

149

Sacramento Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows Landsat Thematic Mapper data from the shortwave infrared (TM band 5), infrared (TM band 4), and visible green (TM band 2) channels of Sacramento. The TM data was collected by Landsat 5 on the 27th of September, 1997.

Allen, Jesse; Williams, Darrel

1999-04-09

150

Deforestation in Costa Rica: A Quantitative Analysis Using Remote Sensing Imagery1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimates of forest cover and forest fragmentation are critical for developing countries such as Costa Rica, which holds four to five percent of the world's plant and bird species. We estimated forest cover for Costa Rica using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite scenes acquired between 1986 and 1991. In 1991, 29 percent (ca 14,000 km2) of the land cover

G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa; Robert C. Harriss; David L. Skole

2001-01-01

151

St. Louis Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows Landsat Thematic Mapper data from the shortwave infrared (TM band 5), infrared (TM band 4), and visible green (TM band 2) channels of St. Louis. The TM data was collected by Landsat 5 on the 18th of November, 1997.

Allen, Jesse; Williams, Darrel

1999-04-09

152

Estimation Of Leaf Area Index From Landsat Imagery For Texas High Plains Using Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important hydrologic parameter used for the estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) amongst other processes. Remote sensing provides an inexpensive and non-destructive tool in collecting LAI information on various spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we have developed models based on support vector machines (SVM) to estimate LAI using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data.

D. Misra; T. Oommen; P. H. Gowda; S. G. Bajwa; T. A. Howell

2008-01-01

153

Vegetation classification by satellite image processing in a dry area of north-eastern Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

As vegetation classification on the highly diverse rangeland is an inevitable procedure in evaluating total forage resources and assessing human impact in large areas, a supervised classification was conducted by satellite image processing using geocoded bands 2, 3 and 4 of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) images, dated 13 April 1994 in the Abdal Aziz Mountain study area in northeastern

Masahiro Hirata; Naoki Kogab; Hitoshi Shinjo; Haruhiro Fujita; Gustave Gintzburger; Akira Miyazaki

2001-01-01

154

Spatial characteristics of thematic role representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans use language to describe actions by mapping the thematic roles of agent (doer of actions) and patient (recipient of actions) on the grammatical categories of subject and object. The extent to which thematic roles can be conceptualized independent of language is not known. If nonlinguistic conceptualization of thematic roles is possible, then representation of these roles would evidence nonlinguistic

Anjan Chatterjee; Lynn M. Maher; Kenneth M. Heilman

1995-01-01

155

Thematic Relations Affect Similarity Via Commonalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the rowing theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing differences. In Experiment 1, thematic relations affected similarity more than difference, thereby producing

Sabrina Golonka; Zachary Estes

2009-01-01

156

A Process Approach to Teaching Thematic Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents information on using a process approach to teaching thematic instruction in preservice teacher education. Section 1 offers a junior block thematic mini-unit designed to give students intensive practice in a specific content area by designing a thematic topic in the content area and by developing lessons on three or four…

Murray, Ann

157

Development of image mappers for hyperspectral biomedical imaging applications.  

PubMed

A new design and fabrication method is presented for creating large-format (>100 mirror facets) image mappers for a snapshot hyperspectral biomedical imaging system called an image mapping spectrometer (IMS). To verify this approach a 250 facet image mapper with 25 multiple-tilt angles is designed for a compact IMS that groups the 25 subpupils in a 5 x 5 matrix residing within a single collecting objective's pupil. The image mapper is fabricated by precision diamond raster fly cutting using surface-shaped tools. The individual mirror facets have minimal edge eating, tilt errors of <1 mrad, and an average roughness of 5.4 nm. PMID:20357875

Kester, Robert T; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

2010-04-01

158

MAPPER alignment sensor evaluation on process wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing. In order to reduce costs and to minimize the footprint of this tool a new alignment sensor has been developed; based on technologies used for DVD optical heads. A wafer with an alignment mark is scanned with the sensor, resulting in an intensity pattern versus position. From this pattern the mark position can be calculated. Evaluations have been made over the performance of this type of sensor using different mark designs at several lithography process steps for FEOL and BEOL manufacturing. It has been shown that sub-nanometer reproducibility (3? std) of alignment mark readings can be achieved while being robust against various process steps.

Vergeer, N.; Lattard, L.; de Boer, G.; Couweleers, F.; Dave, D.; Pradelles, J.; Bustos, J.

2013-03-01

159

Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout Program Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on the Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout (LRM/LGS) program status. Topics covered include the LEXWG Lunar Observer science measurement priorities, space exploration initiative priorities, the question of why...

M. Conley

1992-01-01

160

Implementation of a time-warping AER mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent implementations of neuromorphic spike-based sensors, multi-neuron processors, and actuators; the spike traffic between devices is coded in the form of asynchronous spike streams following the address-event-representation protocol. This spike information can be modified during the transmission from one device to another by using a mapper device. In this paper we present a mapper implementation which transforms event addresses

A. Linares-Barranco; F. Gomez-Rodriguez; G. Jimenez; T. Delbruck; R. Berner; S. C. Liu

2009-01-01

161

The NBS-LANL RTM end-magnet field mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer-controlled magnetic field mapper is under construction at the National Bureau of Standards to map the end magnets of the NBS-LANL racetrack microtron (RTM). The mapper consists of a large, two-dimensional translation stage which simultaneously positions a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnetometer probe in the 55 cm x 135 cm uniform field region and a temperature-compensated Hall effect probe

E. R. Lindstrom; P. H. Debenham; D. L. Mohr; N. R. Yoder

1983-01-01

162

Spectral mixture analysis to monitor defoliation in mixed-aged Eucalyptus globulus Labill plantations in southern Australia using Landsat 5-TM and EO-1 Hyperion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defoliation is a key parameter of forest health and is associated with reduced productivity and tree mortality. Assessing the health of forests requires regular observations over large areas. Satellite remote sensing provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional ground-based assessment of forest health, but assessing defoliation can be difficult due to mixed pixels where vegetation cover is low or fragmented. In this study we apply a novel spectral unmixing technique, referred to as weighted Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (wMESMA), to Landsat 5-TM and EO-1 Hyperion data acquired over a Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) plantation in southern Australia. This technique combines an iterative mixture analysis cycle allowing endmembers to vary on a per pixel basis (MESMA) and a weighting algorithm that prioritizes wavebands based on their robustness against endmember variability. Spectral mixture analysis provides an estimate of the physically interpretable canopy cover, which is not necessarily correlated with defoliation in mixed-aged plantations due to natural variation in canopy cover as stands age. There is considerable variability in the degree of defoliation as well as in stand age among sites and in this study we found that results were significantly improved by the inclusion of an age correction algorithm for both the multi-spectral ( R2no age correction = 0.55 vs R2age correction = 0.73 for Landsat) and hyperspectral ( R2no age correction = 0.12 vs R2age correction = 0.50 for Hyperion) image data. The improved accuracy obtained from Landsat compared to the Hyperion data illustrates the potential of applying SMA techniques for analysis of multi-spectral datasets such as MODIS and SPOT-VEGETATION.

Somers, B.; Verbesselt, J.; Ampe, E. M.; Sims, N.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Coppin, P.

2010-08-01

163

An approach for developing Landsat-5 TM-based retrieval models of suspended particulate matter concentration with the assistance of MODIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is challenging to develop Landsat-5 TM (TM5) image-based retrieval models for estimating the suspended particulate matter concentration (CSPM) in water when missing coincident ground CSPM measurements. This study, with the Poyang Lake in China as a case study, proposed an approach for developing TM5-based CSPM retrieval models with the assistance of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. After validation with an independent dataset, a cubic CSPM retrieval model of 250 m MODIS red band was used to estimate the CSPM values at 100 sampling points from the MODIS images (MODIS-based CSPM) captured at three time periods. The MODIS-based CSPM values at the time period with the largest CSPM variation were combined with their coincident TM5 image reflectance for TM5-based model calibrations. The linear, quadratic, cubic, power and exponential models of MODIS-based CSPM against TM5 single bands and their combinations were calibrated, respectively. Four best-fitting TM5-based CSPM models were selected to retrieve the CSPM values at 100 sampling points from the TM5 images (TM5-based CSPM) at the other two time periods, and the coincident MODIS- and TM5-based CSPM values were compared to assess TM5-based model performances. Model calibration results showed that the cubic and exponential models of TM5 red band (band 3) and red subtracting mid-infrared band (band 5) obtained the best fitting for estimating CSPM from the TM5 image on 12 August 2005, and they explained 94–97% of the variation of MODIS-based CSPM values with an estimated standard error of 6.617–8.457 mg/l. Model validations indicated that the exponential model of TM5 red band got the best result for estimating CSPM from TM5 images when the MODIS-based CSPM values were assumed as ground truths (correlation coefficient between MODIS- and TM5-based CSPM values = 0.96, root mean square error = 4.60 mg/l). We concluded that the TM5-based CSPM retrieval models could be developed with the assistance of MODIS, and the approach proposed in this study will be helpful for other researchers who also want to retrieve CSPM from TM5 image archive but without coincident ground CSPM measurements.

Wu, Guofeng; Cui, Lijuan; Duan, Hongtao; Fei, Teng; Liu, Yaolin

2013-11-01

164

Facilitating Preservice Students' Development of Thematic Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher educators taught elementary-level student teachers how to compose thematic integrated units, first coconstructing a view of thematic teaching, planning events to engage students, and developing an assignment description supporting students' unit writing. The paper describes the unit development, noting how student and faculty reflection on…

Barrentine, Shelby J.

1999-01-01

165

Thematic mapping of the lunar surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of thematic mapping in lunar studies is emphasized, and the activities of Soviet organizations involved in thematic mapping are briefly described. Particular attention is given to the production of a series of structural-morphological maps as well as maps representing the physical properties of the lunar surface, including areas with high and low degrees of polarization.

Krasnopevtseva, B. V.; Shingareva, K. B.; Grigor'eva, G. S.; Usova, V. V.

166

Non-verbal Thematic Proto-Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let us suppose that thematic roles, or something very much like them, are needed to describe lexical and semantic patterns in the behavior of verbal predicates. But what about nouns? Is there evidence independent of verbal constructions motivating a system of nominal thematic relations? Beginning with the analysis of relational nouns in Barker (1991), we go on to suggest that

Chris Barker; David Dowty

167

The NBS-LANL RTM end-magnet field mapper  

SciTech Connect

A computer-controlled magnetic field mapper is under construction at the National Bureau of Standards to map the end magnets of the NBS-LANL racetrack microtron (RTM). The mapper consists of a large, two-dimensional translation stage which simultaneously positions a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnetometer probe in the 55 cm x 135 cm uniform field region and a temperature-compensated Hall effect probe in the fringe field region. A computer-based control system automatically positions the probes at points on a selected grid and records the measured field values and positions in computer memory. In this paper the authors describe the field mapping requirements, the mapper, its operation, and the field measurements and analysis that are to be performed.

Lindstrom, E.R.; Debenham, P.H.; Mohr, D.L.; Yoder, N.R.

1983-08-01

168

CosmoQuest MoonMappers: Citizen Lunar Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MoonMappers citizen science project is part of CosmoQuest, a virtual research facility designed for the public. CosmoQuest seeks to take the best aspects of a research center - research, seminars, journal clubs, and community discussions - and provide them to a community of citizen scientists through a virtual facility. MoonMappers was the first citizen science project within CosmoQuest, and is being used to define best practices in getting the public to effectively learn and do science.

Gay, P. L.; Antonenko, I.; Robbins, S. J.; Bracey, G.; Lehan, C.; Moore, J.; Huang, D.

2012-09-01

169

Sensitivity of the thematic mapper enhanced wetness difference index to detect mountain pine beetle red-attack damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-attack damage caused by mountain pine beetle (Dentroctonus ponderosa Hopkins) infestation in stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in the Prince George Forest Region of British Columbia was examined using multitemporal Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery acquired in 1999, 2000, and 2001. The image data were geometrically and atmospherically corrected, and processed using the Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT) to obtain wetness indices.

Robert S. Skakun; Michael A. Wulder; Steven E. Franklin

2003-01-01

170

The radiance contrast of forest-to-clearcut edges on a medium resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper satellite winter image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest logging results in decreased and fragmented forest area and the increased appearance of edge habitats. The monitoring of forest area and particularly, the detection of changes over the years relies on correctly determined forest edge locations.Radiance contrast of forest clearcut edgesOur objective was to characterize the radiance contrast at the sharp forest edges of recently created clearcuts of boreal

Jaan Liira; Kersti Püssa; Urmas Peterson

2006-01-01

171

Spatial and seasonal variations along the U.S.Mexico border: An analysis with Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in global ecology has been concerned with the effect of vegetation removal in semi-arid regions including aspects such as plant succession and desertification and its impact on global change, specifically global warming. In addition, conditions along international borders often are presented as discontinuities in terms of vegetation and soil status. To better document these discontinuities in a semi-arid region,

Gerardo de Lira Reyes

1997-01-01

172

Improving the results of spectral unmixing of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery by enhancing the orthogonality of end-members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral unmixing is a technique that has been developed to derive fractions of spectrally pure materials that contribute to observed spectral reflectance characteristics of a mixture through a inverse least-squares deconvolution using end-member spectra. This technique has been shown to be very successful when applied to high spectral resolution imaging or non-imaging data where subtle diagnostic absorption features largely determine

F. van der Meer; S. M. de Jong

2000-01-01

173

Karst Drainage in the Peloponnesus Area: A Case Study for Application of TM (Thematic Mapper) Data in Hydrogeology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The drainage system between the catchment areas and the various springs on the coast were investigated and possible ways of collection of fresh water before its submarine discharge were studied. The use of special band combinations of the reflective data ...

B. Reichert H. Hoetzl H. Kaufmann

1989-01-01

174

Radiometric correction of multitemporal Thematic Mapper data for use in agricultural land-cover classification and vegetation monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many remote sensing applications, especially multitemporal approaches, require radiometric corrections of image data in which radiometric normalization to standard conditions and modelistic atmospheric corrections are often considered as alternative solutions. Successful radiometric normalization depends on the availability of suitable reference targets within the scenes under considerations, which may be critical. It is demonstrated that even simplified atmospheric correction modelling can

Joachim Hill; Boris Sturm

1991-01-01

175

Thematic Mapper and field investigations at the intersection of the Death Valley and Garlock fault zones, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of processed images and detailed field investigations have provided significant information concerning the late-Pliocene and Quaternary evolution of the intersection of the Garlock and Death Valley fault zones. The imagery was used to determine patterns of sedimentation and age relationships on alluvial fans and to determine the geometry, styles of deformation, and relative ages of movements on major and minor faults in the study area. The field investigation often confirmed the inferences drawn from the images and provided additional tectonic and geomorphologic data about the Quaternary deformation of the region. All the data gathered in the course of this project support the contention that the Garlock fault zone terminates in the Avawatz Mountains and that the Death Valley fault zone continues south of the intersection for at least 50 km, forming the eastern boundary of the Mojave province.

Brady, Roland H., III; Cregan, Alan; Clayton, Jeff; Troxel, Bennie W.; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Abrams, Michael

1989-06-01

176

Spatial resolution enhancement of Cassini Titan Radar mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post processing reconstruction and resolution enhancement algorithms can be applied to Cassini Titan Radar Mapper data to improve the image resolution for scatterometermode imagery. Reconstruction algorithms can also yield enhanced resolution images when multiple passes are combined. This paper briefly describes the application of the AVE and the Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR) algorithms to Cassini Radar data. Some sample results

David G. Long

2009-01-01

177

Dynamics of thematic activation in recognition testing  

PubMed Central

Two experiments investigated the effects of spreading semantic activation during a recognition test. In Experiment 1, activation spreading during testing from words that were thematic associates of unstudied critical words yielded a linear increase in false alarms to such critical words as the number of tested associates increased, regardless of whether the theme appeared during study or whether any thematic processing occurred during study at all. In Experiment 2, with the number of tested associates held constant, false alarms to critical words from unstudied themes increased linearly with the strength of association between the critical word and its tested associates, consistent with predictions of spreading activation theory. However, for studied themes, testing weaker or stronger associates yielded similar rates of such false alarms, contrary to spreading activation theory. These results suggest that test-induced thematic priming is driven by spreading activation for unstudied themes but by thematic reactivation for studied themes.

Kimball, Daniel R.; Muntean, William J.; Smith, Troy A.

2010-01-01

178

ThemeRiver: Visualizing Thematic Changes in Large Document Collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ThemeRiver visualization depicts thematic variations over time within a large collection of documents. The thematic changes are shown in the context of a time line and corresponding external events. The focus on temporal thematic change within a context framework allows a user to discern patterns that suggest relationships or trends. For example, the sudden change of thematic strength following

Susan L. Havre; Elizabeth G. Hetzler; Paul D. Whitney; Lucy T. Nowell

2002-01-01

179

Orbit determination study results for the Venus Radar Mapper orbiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Venus Radar Mapper (VRM), to be launched by the U.S. in July 1988 is described and Doppler-only and Doppler plus N-Delta-VLBI data analyses are contrasted in order to evaluate the importance of VLBI data to VRM orbit determination (OD). VRM OD study results are summarized by showing the accuracy of various orbital parameters for ten cases selected over a

P. B. Esposito; S. Demcak

1986-01-01

180

An Honorable Seduction: Thematic Studies in Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By using a thematic approach and by drawing on other disciplines for breadth, English teachers can "honorably seduce" career-oriented students into a love affair with literature and draw them back into the English curriculum. For example, a teacher's conversation with a student focusing on fathers and sons led the teacher to suggest that the…

Worby, Diana Z.

181

A Thematic Unit: "Le Peineta Colorada"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This thematic unit was written by Michele Montas and Luz Cannon, middle school Spanish teachers, who were participants in a summer institute held at the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center in 2001. The institute, called "Temas Anejos: Recurring Themes in Ancient and Modern Latin America," brought together a talented group of…

Montas, Michele; Cannon, Luz

2003-01-01

182

Genres of Literature. Thematic Study Guides & Bibliographies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at helping students in grades 5-8 read and enjoy more varieties of literature as well as promoting more writing, this guide offers materials which use a thematic approach to reading, writing, and literature. The guide provides reproducible and hands-on activity ideas plus bibliographies for the genres of realistic fiction, animal tales,…

Withington, Janice J.

183

Downscaling of Aircraft, Landsat, and MODIS-based Land Surface Temperature Images with Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

High spatial resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) images are required to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) at a field scale for irrigation scheduling purposes. Satellite sensors such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can offer images at several spectral bandwidths including visible, near-infrared (NIR), shortwave-infrared, and thermal-infrared (TIR). The TIR images usually have coarser spatial resolutions

W. Ha; P. H. Gowda; T. Oommen; T. A. Howell; J. E. Hernandez

2010-01-01

184

Processing and analysis of commercial satellite image data of the nuclear accident near Chernobyl, U. S. S. R  

SciTech Connect

Advanced digital processing techniques were applied to Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data and SPOT high-resolution visible (HRV) panchromatic data to maximize the utility of images of a nuclear power plant emergency at Chernobyl in the Soviet Ukraine. The results of the data processing and analysis illustrate the spectral and spatial capabilities of the two sensor systems and provide information about the severity and duration of the events occurring at the power plant site.

Sadowski, F.G.; Covington, S.J.

1987-01-01

185

Sequence-specific NMR assignment of proteins by global fragment mapping with the program MAPPER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new program, MAPPER, for semiautomatic sequence-specific NMR assignment in proteins is introduced. The program uses an input of short fragments of sequentially neighboring residues, which have been assembled based on sequential NMR connectivities and for which either the 13Ca and 13Cb chemical shifts or data on the amino acid type from other sources are known. MAPPER then performs an

Peter Güntert; Michael Salzmann; Daniel Braun; Kurt Wüthrich

2000-01-01

186

Remote sensing capabilities of the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) was designed and built at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) as part of an effort to provide cost-effective remote sensing observations of tropospheric and boundary layer pollutants and visible imagery for cloud and surface information. ACAM has participated in three campaigns to date aboard NASA's Earth Science Project Office (ESPO) WB-57 aircraft. This paper provides an overview of the instrument design and summarizes its ability to determine the minimal measurable slant-column concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as well as exploring the calibration stability of commercially available miniature spectrometers.

Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Janz, Scott J.

2009-08-01

187

Analysis of thematic map classification error matrices.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The classification error matrix expresses the counts of agreement and disagreement between the classified categories and their verification. Thematic mapping experiments compare variables such as multiple photointerpretation or scales of mapping, and produce one or more classification error matrices. This paper presents a tutorial to implement a typical problem of a remotely sensed data experiment for solution by the linear model method.-from Author

Rosenfield, G. H.

1986-01-01

188

AMICA, Astro Mapper for Instrument Check of Attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the characteristics of a star mapper, AMICA, which could be used for determining the pointing direction of external payloads mounted on the International Space Station. AMICA, which is complementary to the GPS attitude determination system provided by the ISS, is a stand alone system able to provide both the pointing direction in the inertial reference frame with arc-sec precision at a 1 Hz rate and the angular orientation of the stellar field with slightly lower precision. The star mapper is derived from the pointing system of the UVSTAR telescope that has flown three times on the Shuttle. We present a description of the AMICA optical and electronics architecture and its functionality. We also give a summary of the key pointing/tracking results obtained during the Shuttle missions. Finally we report on simulations performed to determine the instrument expected precision and performances, including the percentage of recognized stellar fields. AMICA is presently considered for flying in support to the ASI mission SPOrt, onboard an ESA EXPA, in the early utilization of the ISS. .

Trampus, Paolo; Stalio, Roberto; Cortiglioni, Stefano

2000-01-01

189

Cross-calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-5 TM with the ResourceSat-1 (IRS-P6) AWiFS and LISS-III sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasingly, data from multiple sensors are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. The Landsat suite of satellites has collected the longest continuous archive of multispectral data. The ResourceSat-1 Satellite (also called as IRS-P6) was launched into the polar sunsynchronous orbit on Oct 17, 2003. It carries three remote sensing sensors: the High Resolution Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-IV), Medium Resolution Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-III), and the Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS). These three sensors are used together to provide images with different resolution and coverage. To understand the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy of IRS-P6 AWiFS and LISS-III sensors, image pairs from these sensors were compared to the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ sensors. The approach involved the calibration of nearly simultaneous surface observations based on image statistics from areas observed simultaneously by the two sensors.

Chander, G.; Scaramuzza, P. L.

2006-01-01

190

The Lightning Mapper Sensor for GOES-NEXT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a design overview of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS). The LMS is an instrument designed to be flown on a GOES-NEXT satellite. Its function is to detect total lightning activity within a 8 x 10 degree FOV with a 90 percent detection efficiency and with a spatial resolution of 10 km (a scale typical of convective storm cells). From the GOES 75-deg W location, the LMS will provide coverage of the continental United States and the northern portion of South America to 10-deg S latitude. It will provide data on the distribution and variability of lightning activity, and increase understanding of the underlying and interrelated phenomena (including atmospheric convection, lightning/precipitation relationships, lightning/trace-gas interactions, and the global electric circuit). The LMS will be a valuable 'nowcasting' tool providing severe storm warning and tracking information to population centers, aircraft, shipping, launch sites and forest-fire fighters.

Manlief, S. K.

1992-03-01

191

Airborne Salinity Mapper Makes Debut in Coastal Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New technology has been developed through a joint public-private partnership that could greatly improve the ocean sciences community's ability to study coastal oceanography in the same way that satellitebased infrared imaging revolutionized basinscale oceanography. Recent advances in passive microwave technologies and novel means of integrating those advances haveled to the development of the Scanning Low-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SLFMR) for remote sensing of sea-surface salinity.Designed and built for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the SLFMR—also known as the salinity mapper—was recently used by a team of scientists from government and industry to generate the first remotely sensed image of sea-surface salinity (Figure 1). This image of salinity was obtained near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, during the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Chesapeake Outflow Plume Experiment (COPE), elements of which were conducted in collaboration with NOAA.

Miller, Jerry L.; Goodberlet, Mark A.; Zaitzeff, James B.

192

Regional and Temporal Variations in the Western Mare Basalts: New Observations from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last major phases of lunar volcanism produced spectrally unique basalts on the western near side of the Moon. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper on Chandrayaan-1 has provided detailed new measurements to assess the mineralogy of these basalts.

Staid, M. I.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Head, J. W.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L. A.; Isaacson, P.; Besse, S.; Klima, R. L.; Kramer, G. Y.; Dhingra, D.

2010-03-01

193

Sharing Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)/Chandrayaan-1 with Students and the Public  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a high spatial and spectral resolution spectrometer on India's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. EPO modules will help students investigate light and the geologic history of the Moon.

Runyon, C. J.; Shipp, S.; Shupla, C.; Tuthill, G.; Halau, K.

2008-07-01

194

Mixing of Surface Materials Investigated by Spectral Mixture Analysis with the Moon Mineralogy Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithological and mineralogical mapping of lunar surface is one main goal of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer. Spectral mixture analysis provides large scale maps of the main components that show diverse mare units and mineral contents.

Combe, J.-Ph.; McCord, T. B.; Kramer, G. Y.; Pieters, C. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Petro, N. E.; Boardman, J. W.; Mustard, J. F.; Sunshine, J. M.; Tompkins, S.; Green, R. O.; M3 Team

2010-03-01

195

What's New with the Moon Mineralogy Mapper\\/Chandrayaan-1 E\\/PO Program?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) team is actively engaged in E\\/PO activities that provide educators with exposure to lunar geology and experience with spectroscopy as a means of exploring and understanding the composition of the lunar surface.

C. Runyon; S. Shipp; G. Tuthill; K. Garver

2009-01-01

196

Regional and Temporal Variations in the Western Mare Basalts: New Observations from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last major phases of lunar volcanism produced spectrally unique basalts on the western near side of the Moon. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper on Chandrayaan-1 has provided detailed new measurements to assess the mineralogy of these basalts.

M. I. Staid; C. M. Pieters; J. Boardman; J. W. Head; J. Sunshine; L. A. Taylor; P. Isaacson; S. Besse; R. L. Klima; G. Y. Kramer; D. Dhingra

2010-01-01

197

Sharing Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)\\/Chandrayaan-1 with Students and the Public  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a high spatial and spectral resolution spectrometer on India's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. EPO modules will help students investigate light and the geologic history of the Moon.

C. J. Runyon; S. Shipp; C. Shupla; G. Tuthill; K. Halau

2008-01-01

198

Lower Crustal Materials Exposed in the Apollo Basin Revealed Using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moon Mineralogy Mapper data show the interior of the Apollo Basin to contain distinct anorthositic and noritic materials, which might represent unique exposures of lower crustal material that were not excavated by the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA).

N. E. Petro; J. Sunshine; C. Pieters; R. Klima; J. Boardman; S. Besse; J. Head; P. Isaacson; L. Taylor; S. Tompkins

2010-01-01

199

Thematic minireview series: metals in biology 2013.  

PubMed

One-half of the available protein structures contain metals, explaining their roles as essential trace elements. Metals are also critical in many aspects of nucleic acid biochemistry. This prologue briefly introduces the fifth of the Thematic Series on Metals in Biology, which began in the Journal of Biological Chemistry in 2009. The five minireviews in this 2013 series deal with the molybdenum prosthetic group (a pterin known as Moco); the biosynthesis of the "M-cluster" molybdenum prosthetic group of nitrogenase; the biosynthesis of the nickel-based metallocenter of the enzyme urease; several of the processing, transport, and medical aspects of cobalamins; and the growing roles of heme sensor proteins. PMID:23539620

Guengerich, F Peter

2013-03-28

200

Learning and remembering from thematic maps of familiar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine how four methods of symbolizing data affect learning from thematic maps of familiar regions, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, 86 college students viewed one of three types of thematic map or a control table, then read a map-related text. Recall of regions with their associated theme information was greater for those who studied a map than

Kent A. Rittschof; Raymond W. Kulhavy

1998-01-01

201

Science Adventures with Children's Literature: A Thematic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide provides background information on the development and implementation of thematic units that focus on a hands-on approach, process orientation, integrated curriculum, cooperative learning, and critical thinking. Topics of the thematic units and mini-units include wild animals, dinosaurs, rainforests, the human body, earth science,…

Fredericks, Anthony D.

202

An Overview of Cassini Radar Mapper Observations of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CassiniRadar Mapper imaged the surface of TItan in Ku-band (wavelength = 2.17 cm) on February 14, 2005, more than doubling the coverage obtained in October 2004. The new (T3) flyby collected a 420-km long synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) swath, varying in width from 200 to 500km, and larger-scale radiometry and scatterometry. Data from both passes show that fluvial, impact and volcanic processes are clearly all at work. Evidence will be presented and discussed for each, including a large (440km) impact basin, a smaller (80km) crater with an ejecta blanket, a volcanic construct with flows, and a set of SAR-bright braided and sinuous drainage channels. Recurring patches of subparallel SAR-dark linear features, dubbed ``cat scratches", are tentatively identified as aeolian. A greater diversity of landforms was observed on the T3 flyby than on the previous (Ta) pass. Based on the small number of impact craters detected, the surface thus far imaged by radar is very young compared with those of other Saturnian satellites. The Cassini Project is a joint endeavor of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI). Cassini is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

Wall, S.; Elachi, C.; Cassini RADAR Science Team

2005-08-01

203

A thematic approach to system safety  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has refined a process for developing inherently safer system designs, based on methods used by the Laboratories to design detonation safety into nuclear weapons. The process was created when the Laboratories realized that standard engineering practices did not provide the level of safety assurance necessary for nuclear weapon operations, with their potential for catastrophic accidents. A systematic approach, which relies on mutually supportive design principles integrated through fundamental physical principles, was developed to ensure a predictably safe system response under a variety of operational and accident based stresses. Robust, safe system designs result from this thematic approach to safety, minimizing the number of safety critical features. This safety assurance process has two profound benefits: the process avoids the need to understand or limit the ultimate intensity of off normal environments and it avoids the requirement to analyze and test a bewildering and virtually infinite array of accident environment scenarios (e.g., directional threats, sequencing of environments, time races, etc.) to demonstrate conformance to all safety requirements.

Ekman, M.E.; Werner, P.W.; Covan, J.M.; D`Antonio, P.E.

1997-12-01

204

A Thematic Approach to Increasing Climate Literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), an NSF, NASA, and NOAA supported program providing K-12 teacher professional development uses a thematic approach to frame participant inquiry. To address topics such as carbon sequestration, ocean acidification or aerosols, ESSEA online courses present participants with scenarios or contexts depicting an anomaly or perturbation to the Earth system. The courses deepen teachers’ content knowledge within an inquiry environment through reflection, analysis and self-discovery. Courses familiarize participants with Earth system analyses and provide a suite of techniques that can be employed to facilitate student learning, for example, through the use of Problem-based learning (PBL). Problem-based learning (PBL) is designed to "simultaneously develop both problem solving strategies and disciplinary knowledge bases and skills by placing students in the active role of problem-solvers confronted with an ill-structured problem that mirrors real-world problems.” PBL models are generally characterized by the following steps: 1) the presentation of a problem to a small group of students, 2) discussion of the problem among the students which produces tentative explanations of the problem, and 3) an attempt to solve the problem. When participants work to solve ill-structured problems, they are working toward learning generalized procedures for problem solving that will transfer to new situations (University of Delaware, 1999). At the end of an ESSEA course experience, teachers are better equipped with the content and the confidence in using inquiry in the teaching of climate science.

Myers, R. J.; Schwerin, T. G.; Witiw, M. R.

2010-12-01

205

Study of Detection and Estimation Techniques Applied to Attitude Measurements of Satellites. Volume 3: Analysis of Specific Applications to Star Mapper and Infrared Earth Sensor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analog matched filters for attitude sensing by means of star mappers and infrared earth sensors were considered. Two different filter configurations were examined for the silicon type star mapper, approximating the optimal matched filter. The first one co...

D. Sciacovelli A. Santinelli

1974-01-01

206

ExoExoZodi Mapper: a starshade probe mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct detection and imaging of Exo-Earths is a prime candidate for the next Astrophysics flagship mission. Much effort is focused on developing the mission concept and technology to enable the direct imaging of an Exo-Earth. However, several key astronomical unknowns stand in the way of a fully optimized Exo-Earth imaging mission, the primary of which is the uncertainty in the Exo-Zodi brightness. By analogy to our own Zodiacal dust, Exo-Zodiacal dust is predicted to exist in the habitable zones of other stars, exactly in the locations where Exo-Earths would reside. Reflected light from this dust could be a primary background contribution to measurements of the Exo-Earth. We propose a mission concept called the Exo-Zodi Mapper (EZM) to obtain definitive measurements of the brightness of the Exo-Zodi dust around target stars which are the prime targets for a future mission aimed at the direct detection of Exo-Earths. Our mission concept uses a medium sized starshade that works with the James Webb Space Telescope to image and characterize the brightness and distribution of Exo-Zodiacal dust around ~40 primary target stars. This measurement would provide more precise requirements for the eventual Exo-Earth flagship mission, which may translate into significant savings. In addition, EZM can provide a host of ancillary science information on these important targets, including detailed maps of their dust distribution, studies of outer, giant planets, and exploration of the overall architecture of these planetary systems. The EZM starshade can also be used to enable high-contrast imaging of other targets of value to the astronomical community such as debris disks around young stars. We present an overview of the science that motivated the mission concept, the driving requirements, and the top level mission architecture.

Glassman, Tiffany; Lo, Amy

2012-09-01

207

Titan's Geology as Viewed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper has imaged the surface of Titan on 8 flybys to date, collecting Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data at spatial resolution ranging from about 300 m to about 2 km. These radar images reveal that Titan's surface has been modified by both endogenic (volcanism, tectonism) and exogenic (impact cratering, erosion) processes, with no process dominating in an obvious way. Although less than 15 % of the surface of Titan has been imaged to date using SAR, the acquired swaths are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. Cryovolcanic units have been identified in SAR images mostly at mid-latitudes (40-60 N), these include the construct Ganesa Macula, several calderas with associated flows, and large cryovolcanic flows. Flybys over high northern latitudes have shown lacustrine features, the distribution of these features is consistent with colder temperatures and more precipitation at high latitudes. Some of the depressions filled by the lakes may be volcanic calderas, but a thermokarstic origin is also possible (Mitchell et al., Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. XXXVIII, 2007). Ridges and mountains that are interpreted to be of tectonic origin have been seen mostly at low latitudes (Radebaugh et al., Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. XXXVIII, 2007), while drainage channels appear common at all latitudes (Lorenz et al., Plan. Space Sci., submitted). Fields of dunes (Titan's "sand seas") are mostly equatorial, but a few isolated patches of dunes extend as far north as ~60 degrees. The distribution and orientation of dunes is as expected from Titan's winds (Lorenz et al., 2006, Science 312; Radebaugh et al., Icarus, submitted). Erosion by fluvial processes is likely to have occurred on a global scale. The small number of definitive impact craters suggests that these geologic processes are erasing or burying the majority of impacts. Future data will allow us to further constrain the distribution of tectonism and volcanism, providing valuable input for models of Titan's interior.

Lopes, R. M.; Stofan, E. R.; Wood, C.; Robshaw, L.; Mitchell, K. L.; Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Wall, S. D.; Kirk, R.; Cassini RADAR Team

2007-05-01

208

Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower

Ralph Garono; Becci Anderson; Rob Robinson

2003-01-01

209

Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and man...

B. Anderson R. Garono R. Robinson

2003-01-01

210

Multi-Temporal Land Cover Analysis in the Mid-Willamette Basin, Oregon: Assessment of Riparian Forest Canopy Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 11,500 sq. mi. Willamette Basin is home to 70% of Oregon's population and is associated with an extensive post-settlement history of land cover modification. Existing assessments estimate that between 30 and 44% of riparian zones have been subject to anthropogenic disturbances, which in turn have negatively impacted TMDL levels for temperature and sediment loading (Oregon DEQ, 2009). As such,

R. J. Stanley; S. B. Taylor

2010-01-01

211

Estuarine and Tidal Freshwater Habitat Cover Types Along the Lower Columbia River Estuary Determined from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.  

SciTech Connect

Developing an understanding of the distribution and changes in estuarine and tidal floodplain ecosystems is critical to the management of biological resources in the lower Columbia River. Columbia River plants, fish, and wildlife require specific physicochemical and ecological conditions to sustain their populations. As habitats are degraded or lost, this capability is altered, often irretrievably; those species that cannot adapt are lost from the ecosystem. The Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) completed a comprehensive ecosystem protection and enhancement plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary in 1999 (Jerrick, 1999). The plan identified habitat loss and modification as a critical threat to the integrity of the lower Columbia River ecosystem and called for a habitat inventory as a key first step in its long term restoration efforts. In 2000, the Estuary Partnership initiated a multiphase project to produce a spatial data set describing the current location and distribution of estuarine and tidal freshwater habitat cover types along the lower Columbia River from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam using a consistent methodology and data sources (Fig. 1). The first phase of the project was the development of a broadbrush description of the estuarine and tidal freshwater habitat cover classes for the entire study area ({approx}146 river miles) using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite imagery. Phase II of the project entailed analysis of the classified satellite imagery from Phase I. Analysis of change in landcover and a summary of the spatial relationships between cover types are part of Phase II. Phase III of the project included the classification of the high resolution hyperspectral imagery collected in 2000 and 2001 for key focal areas within the larger study area. Finally, Phase IV consists of this final report that presents results from refining the Landsat ETM+ classification and provides recommendations for future actions. Previous studies (Thomas, 1980; Thomas, 1983; Graves et al., 1995; NOAA, 1997; Allen, 1999) produced similar landcover data sets; however, most of these studies used multiple and varied data sources and differed from one another in methodologies. Currently, no single data set has been produced using a consistent methodology and uniform scale data, which describes current estuarine and tidal freshwater floodplain cover types from the Columbia's mouth to the Bonneville Dam (Fig. 1). Results from this study will be used by the Estuary Partnership and its cooperators to: (1) develop indicators of 'habitat health' for target species and populations, and biological integrity at the community and ecosystem scales; (2) develop definitions of 'important salmonid habitat'; (3) identify and evaluate potential wetland conservation and restoration sites; (4) track non-indigenous and invasive species; and (5) develop an understanding of how estuarine and floodplain habitats have changed over the past 200 years. This study focused on estuarine and tidal freshwater floodplain habitat cover types, which are important to native species, particularly juvenile salmonids. Results from this study are meant to provide support for the multiple efforts currently underway to recover 12 species of Columbia River salmonids identified as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Spatial scale was an important consideration in this study. Our goal was to create a geographic information system (GIS) coverage depicting habitat cover types for the entire 146 river miles of the study area and the associated floodplain, at a spatial resolution sufficient to resolve important estuarine and floodplain features, wherever possible. Thus, in addition to the small scale (30 m pixel size) satellite imagery covering the study area described in this report, we also acquired high spatial resolution imagery ({approx}1.5 m pixel size) for key portions of the study area using a Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). Compared to the rather coarse, low spectral resolution of the satellite ima

Garono, Ralph; Robinson, Rob

2003-10-01

212

Determination of regional distributions and seasonal variations of land surface heat fluxes from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper data over the central Tibetan Plateau area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a parameterization method based on Landsat-7 ETM data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface reflectance, surface temperature, NDVI, MSAVI, vegetation coverage, LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous landscape. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the CAMP/Tibet, which located at the central Tibetan Plateau. Two scenes of Landsat-7 ETM data were used in this study. The scene of 9 June 2002 was selected as a case of summer, and the scene of 2 December 2002 was selected as a case of winter. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface reflectance, surface temperature, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux are compared to Landsat-7 ETM derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in two different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. These parameters show a wide range due to the strong contrast of surface features. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good agreement with ground measurements, and all their absolute percent difference is less than 9.9% in the validation sites. It is therefore concluded that the proposed methodology is successful for the retrieval of land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes using the Landsat-7 ETM data and filed observations over the study area.

Ma, Yaoming; Zhong, Lei; Su, Zhongbo; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Menenti, Massimo; Koike, Toshio

2006-05-01

213

Robotic Exploration of Moon and Mars: Thematic Education Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robotic exploration of the Moon and Mars is a major NASA goal and will help pave the way for human exploration. Our team consolidated the robotic exploration thematic story components and associated education activities into useful education materials.

Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Lowes, L. L.; Betrue, R.

2008-03-01

214

ThemeRiver: Visualizing Thematic Changes in Document Collections  

SciTech Connect

The ThemeRiver(TM) visualization depicts thematic variations over time within a large collection of documents. The thematic changes are shown in the context of a time line and corresponding external events. The focus on temporal thematic change within a context framework allows a user to discern patterns that suggest relationships or trends. For example, the sudden change of thematic strength following an external event may indicate a causal relationship. Such patterns are not readily accessible in other visualizations of the data. We use a river metaphor to convey several key notions. The document collection's time line, selected thematic content, and thematic strength are indicated by the river's directed flow, composition and changing width, respectively. The directed flow from left to right is interpreted as movement through time; the horizontal distance between two points on the river defines a time interval. At any point in time, the vertical distance, or width, of the river indicates the collective strength of the selected themes. Colored ''currents'' flowing within the river represent individual themes. A current's vertical distance narrows or widens to indicate a decreases or increases in the strength of the individual theme.

Havre, Susan L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Whitney, Paul D.; Nowell, Lucy T.

2002-01-01

215

The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series (GOES-R) is the next block of four satellites to follow the existing GOES constellation currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Advanced spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved cloud and moisture imagery with the 16-channel Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity continuously day and night with near-uniform storm-scale spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 s over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions in the western hemisphere. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low Earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive prelaunch field campaigns. The GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extend their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with preoperational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and checkout of GOES-R in late 2015. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas; Bailey, Jeffrey; Buechler, Dennis; Carey, Larry; Schultz, Chris; Bateman, Monte; McCaul, Eugene; Stano, Geoffrey

2013-05-01

216

A Comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network Classifiers Combined with Landsat TM Imagery Analysis for Obtaining Burnt Area Mapping  

PubMed Central

Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878) the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795). Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ?1% for ANN and ?6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting.

Petropoulos, George P.; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Karantounias, George; Scholze, Marko

2010-01-01

217

CONTAMINANT CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY USING SPECTRAL ANGLE MAPPER ALGORITHM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spectral angle mapper (SAM) supervised classification method for hyperspectral poultry imagery was performed well for classifying fecal and ingesta contaminants on the surface of broiler carcasses. Spatially averaged spectra of three different feces from the duodenum, ceca, colon, and ingesta of co...

218

Feasibility Test for a V-Slit Star Mapper for Pioneer Spacecraft Terminal Navigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory demonstration of the feasibility of using a V-slit star mapper to meet the sensitivity and accuracy of on-board navigational requirements for future Pioneer Missions to the outer planets was conducted by the Control and Sensors Laboratory of ...

R. F. Gates J. V. Flannery J. T. Cragin

1973-01-01

219

Spectral Angle Mapper Classification of Fluorescence Hyperspectral Image for Aflatoxin Contaminated Corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contamination in corn is a serious problem for both producers and consumers. The present study applied the Spectral Angle Mapper classification technique to classify single corn kernels into contaminated and healthy groups. Fluorescence hyperspectral images were used in the classification....

220

Software used with the flux mapper at the solar parabolic dish test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dicated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attemps at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations result in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the anaysis is included in an appendix.

Miyazono, C.

1984-09-01

221

Software used with the flux mapper at the Solar Parabolic Dish Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dictated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attempts at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations resulted in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future or alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the analysis is included in an appendix.

Miyazono, C.

1984-09-15

222

Ice loss in Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland, measured by NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper and ICESat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenland's fastest glacier, Jakobshavn Isbrae, drains about 7% of the icesheet. Repeat airborne laser surveys of the glacier were begun in 1993 by NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) under the NASA PARCA program and continue under the ongoing IceBridge program. ATM and ICESat (2003-2009) observations quantify the spreading of the region that is thinning and the volume of ice loss.

W. B. Krabill; S. S. Manizade; J. G. Sonntag; J. Yungel

2010-01-01

223

Spectral Angle Mapper classification of fluorescence hyperspectral image for aflatoxin contaminated corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxin contamination in corn is a serious problem for both producers and consumers. The present study applied the Spectral Angle Mapper classification technique to classify single corn kernels into contaminated and healthy groups. Fluorescence hyperspectral images were used in the classification. Actual corn aflatoxin concentration was chemically determined using the VICAM analytical method for quantification purpose. An obvious fluorescence peak

Haibo Yao; Zuzana Hruska; Russell Kincaid; Ambrose Ononye; Robert L. Brown; Thomas E. Cleveland

2010-01-01

224

USE OF SPECTRAL ANGLE MAPPER (SAM) AND HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY FOR YIELD ESTIMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetation indices (VIs) derived from remotely sensed imagery are commonly used to estimate crop yields. Spectral angle mapper (SAM) provides an alternative approach to quantifying the spectral differences among all pixels in imagery and therefore has the potential for mapping yield variability. The...

225

Optical maturity variation in lunar spectra as measured by Moon Mineralogy Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

High spectral and spatial resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument on Chandrayaan-1 are used to investigate in detail changes in the optical properties of lunar materials accompanying space weathering. Three spectral parameters were developed and used to quantify spectral effects commonly thought to be associated with increasing optical maturity: an increase in spectral slope (“reddening”), a decrease

J. W. Nettles; M. Staid; S. Besse; J. Boardman; R. N. Clark; D. Dhingra; P. Isaacson; R. Klima; G. Kramer; C. M. Pieters; L. A. Taylor

2011-01-01

226

Lunar Mineralogy Exploration Using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M^3) Hyperspectral Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moon Mineralogy Mapper imagery is used to develop iron band ratios for ilmenite exploration. We compare the index images created from these band ratios with ultraviolet/visible light index images from the LROC Wide Angle Camera to check our results.

Standart, D. L.; Hurtado, J. M.

2012-03-01

227

Mixing of surface materials investigated by spectral mixture analysis with the Moon Mineralogy Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping of surface units on the Moon, as well as identification and quantification of mineralogical components is the main task of the imaging spectrometer Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) [1] onboard Chandrayaan-1. In spectral analysis, mixing of surface materials need to be considered because they may have implications for the interpretation of the lithology. Materials that are juxtaposed within the field

Jean-Philippe Combe; Thomas B. McCord; Georgiana Y. Kramer; Carle M. Pieters; Lawrence A. Taylor; Joseph W. Boardman; John F. Mustard; Sunshine M Jessica; Stephanie Tompkins; Robert O. Green

2010-01-01

228

Deriving a Photometric Model for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper Data (M3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of the photometric model derived for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data using a Lambert component and the full set of M3 data. The phase function is similar to previous studies, however, we notited a relatively flat phase function at large phase angles.

S. Besse; J. Boardman; J. Nettles; M. Staid; J. M. Sunshine; J.-Y. Li; Y. Yokota; B. Buratti; M. Hicks; C. Pieters

2011-01-01

229

Mapping of lunar volatiles with Moon Mineralogy Mapper spectra: A challenge due to thermal emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of the thermal emission contribution to lunar surface reflectance spectra measurements by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper is critical for characterizing the surface composition. We use a surface roughness-based thermal emission model in order to correct M3 spectra and to monitor time of day variations of the 3-?m absorption band.

Combe, J.-Ph.; McCord, T. B.; Hayne, P. O.; Paige, D. A.

2011-10-01

230

Assessment of carbon storage and biomass on minelands reclaimed to grassland environments using Landsat spectral indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated carbon (C) storage and biomass in grasslands of West Virginia reclaimed surface minesites. Mine-related disturbance and subsequent reclamation may be an important component of C cycling. Biomass and C storage generally increased for the first five years after reclamation, but then declined, suggesting a nonlinear pattern to vegetation recovery. Three 2007 Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images were used to assess the potential to predict biomass from raw red and near infrared radiance, the tasseled cap transformation (TC), and four vegetation indices [normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index (EVI), triangular vegetation index, and the soil adjusted vegetation index]. TC greenness and EVI were most strongly correlated with biomass and illustrate a modest potential for monitoring vegetation recovery in reclaimed minelands. Additionally, a number of regression models that included age since reclamation and spectral indices were statistically significant suggesting a temporal recovery pattern amongst minesites in this study.

Kazar, Sheila A.; Warner, Timothy A.

2013-01-01

231

The Lunar Orientale Basin: Structure and Crustal Mineralogy from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data have provided new insight into the lunar Orientale basin and the nature of multi-ring impact basin formation, depth of sampling, impact melt characteristics, crustal structure and processes of ring formation.

J. W. Head; C. Pieters; J. Boardman; B. Burratti; L. Cheek; R. Clark; J.-P. Combe; C. Fassett; R. Green; M. Hicks; P. Isaacson; R. Klima; G. Kramer; S. Lundeen; E. Malaret; T. McCord; J. Mustard; J. Nettles; N. Petro; C. Runyon; M. Staid; J. Sunshine; L. Taylor; S. Tompkins; P. Varanasi

2010-01-01

232

A New Lunar Globe as Seen by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Image Coverage, Spectral Dimensionality and Statistical Anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper, flown on ISRO's Chandrayaan-1, collected a global imaging spectrometry data set. We explore the M3 coverage, the principal components of the whole data set and the detection of anomalous areas, revealing a new Moon.

J. W. Boardman; C. M. Pieters; R. O. Green; R. N. Clark; J. Sunshine; J.-P. Combe; P. Isaacson; S. R. Lundeen; E. Malaret; T. McCord; J. Nettles; N. E. Petro; P. Varanasi; L. Taylor

2010-01-01

233

Morphology and Distribution of Volcanic Vents in the Orientale Basin from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data have provided new insight into the distribution, morphology and morphometry of volcanic vents, such as sinuous rilles, in the Orientale basin and their relationship to ring structures and basin thermal evolution.

J. W. Head; C. Pieters; M. Staid; J. Mustard; L. Taylor; T. McCord; P. Isaacson; R. Klima; N. Petro; R. Clark; J. Nettles; J. Whitten

2010-01-01

234

European thematic network IFS-intelligent forecasting systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given as follows. The European thematic network IFS brings together more than 20 universities, manufactures and end-users for the particular research objective intelligent forecasting systems. The paper describes the network structure and the national subprojects. The project is funded from the European Union by the Brite EuRam program. Countries all over Europe, from Crete and Rome in

B. E. Bitzer

1999-01-01

235

Learner Differences for Affecting Schemata for Thematic Maps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study that examined five influences on college students' schemata to determine what affected their ability to make effective use of instructional thematic maps. Topics include use of the Group Embedded Figures Test to determine field dependence/independence; sex differences; student preferences for data representation types; and…

Rittschof, Kent A.; Griffin, Marlynn M.; Custer, Wendy L.

1998-01-01

236

An Analysis of the Thematic Content of Televised Beer Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After summarizing the widespread occurrence and male orientation of television beer advertising, this paper describes a study of the thematic content of beer commercials. Two-hundred and six beer advertisements which appeared on WTBS, the USA Network, and ESPN between September 1983 and September 1985 were studied. Event-specific ads and those in…

Funkhouser, Edward

237

DESIGNA ND ANALYSIS FOR THEMATIC MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Before being used in scientific investigations and policy decisions, thematic maps constructed from remotely sensed data should be subjected to a statistically rigorous accuracy assessment. The three basic components of an accuracy assessment are: 1) the sampling design used to s...

238

Contextual essay for integrated thematic unit: Kids, Quarks, and Quanta  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay provides the research and rationale to support the theory that early adolescence is the best time to present an introduction to quantum mechanics. It supports the creation of an integrated thematic unit to be used with students ages 11--14 in an inclusion classroom without limiting the unit to only an inclusion setting. The first section sets forth five

Vicki Lee Draeger

2002-01-01

239

Thematic Progression in a Cardiologist's Text: Context, Frames and Progression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thematic progression (TP) is examined in the text of a communication between a cardiologist and a general practitioner concerning a patient, offering a clinical diagnosis of the patient's condition. Analysis of the discourse looks at the field, tenor, and mode of the communication as a context for TP. The methods of analysis are first described,…

Salter, Robert T.

240

Some Aspects of the Thematic Organization of the English Clause.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis is presented of the English clause from the point of view of its structure as a message: its thematic organization. The study is concerned with spoken English only. Recorded conversations were analyzed by rhythm, stress, and tonality, as well ...

M. A. K. Halliday

1967-01-01

241

Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities. Third Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seven thematic units in this guide focus on communication skills, offering English teachers contemporary plans for teaching writing, listening, reading, reasoning, critical thinking, and appreciation of literary genres. The units were selected for their humanistic approaches to student language learning, combining English instruction with…

Spann, Sylvia, Ed.; Culp, Mary Beth, Ed.

242

Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities. Second Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seven units in this second supplement to "Thematic Units" focus on communication skills, offering English teachers contemporary plans for teaching writing, listening, persuasion, and reasoning. The units were selected for their humanistic approaches to student language learning, combining English instruction with topics in the humanities. Each…

Spann, Sylvia, Ed.; Culp, Mary Beth, Ed.

243

Using Thematic Units To Promote Literacy in a Scottish Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a literature-based thematic unit to teach language arts in concert with science, social studies, mathematics, and art, a Scottish teacher instilled in her 6- and 7-year-old pupils an understanding of their own lives, a love for language, and a feeling of satisfaction and pride in their accomplishments. The teacher developed a topic based on…

Erwin, Barbara; And Others

244

Going beyond Location: Thematic Maps in the Early Elementary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that cartographic research has long suggested that preschool and early elementary students possess advanced mapping behaviors. Reports on a study of the thematic mapping abilities of 74 second-grade students. Finds that the map tasks were appropriate for this age level and provides four recommendations for classroom instruction. (CFR)|

Trifonoff, Karen M.

1995-01-01

245

A Digital Airborne Camera System for Photogrammetry and Thematic Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

At this moment fundamental changes in sensors, plat- forms and applications are taking place. Market needs for the use of airborne and spaceborne imagery are changing. Soon there will be new high resolution spaceborne sensors available. Besides Photogramme- try new thematic applications will drive the future image market. Needs like cost saving, time saving, higher and reproducible radiometric resolution or

Helmut Heier; Alexander Hinz

1999-01-01

246

THEMATICS: A simple computational predictor of enzyme function from structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that theoretical microscopic titration curves (THEMATICS) can be used to identify active-site residues in proteins of known structure. Results are featured for three enzymes: triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), aldose reductase (AR), and phosphomannose isomerase (PMI). We note that TIM and AR have similar structures but catalyze different kinds of reactions, whereas TIM and PMI have different structures but catalyze

Mary Jo Ondrechen; James G. Clifton; Dagmar Ringe

2001-01-01

247

Curricula Enhancement and Thematic Learning via Undergraduate Design Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching fundamental engineering concepts by using advanced and applicable design projects is often a challenging task. Baccalaureate I and II institutions face additional challenges to conduct meaningful and fulfilling research projects with the inherent lack of graduate students and potentially limited financial resources. To address these issues, we propose the use of a project-based thematic learning approach. The project, to

Thomas E. Salem; Ryan Rakvic; Robert Voigt; Samara Firebaugh

2006-01-01

248

Accelerating Academic Literacy for ELLs through Thematic Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper identifies a series of activities which reinforce each other and form part of a thematic unit of instruction across the content areas for English language learners (ELLs). These activities will be connected to the relevant English language proficiency (ELP) standards established at level three by the World-Class Instructional Design…

Montgomery, Joel R.

2008-01-01

249

Challenging the Notion of a Thematic Preference in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two- to 4-year-olds were presented with pictures of a target item (for example, carrot), a thematic alternative (rabbit), and an taxonomic alternative (tomato). The target was identified and children were asked to choose one of the alternatives. Children revealed no preference for either alternative. (BC)|

Waxman, Sandra R.; Namy, Laura L.

1997-01-01

250

ITI: The Model. Integrated Thematic Instruction. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI), a model for implementing a "brain-compatible" learning environment for students and teachers using a year-long theme to organize curriculum content and skills. The book's introduction identifies six "mismemes" (or mistaken ideas) that have hindered educational reform, and proposes seven…

Kovalik, Susan; Olsen, Karen

251

Women in United States History: A Thematic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines a thematic approach to a U.S. history survey course that focused on the struggles and achievements of women. Covers cultural images of femininity and beauty as well as political and economic issues. Includes brief biographies of Eliza Pinckey, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Alice Paul. (MJP)|

Connor, Mary

1997-01-01

252

Women in United States History: A Thematic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a thematic approach to a U.S. history survey course that focused on the struggles and achievements of women. Covers cultural images of femininity and beauty as well as political and economic issues. Includes brief biographies of Eliza Pinckey, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Alice Paul. (MJP)

Connor, Mary

1997-01-01

253

Learning from Mistakes in History--A Thematic Instructional Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a thematic unit for secondary education students that focuses on eight themes, with accompanying activities, on learning from mistakes, such as "mistakes are inevitable, and everyone makes them" and "making mistakes does not make you a faulty person." Provides a concluding activity on the Titanic. (CMK)|

Richburg, Robert W.; Harward, Kathleen; Steinkamp, Kathy

2000-01-01

254

MathThematics. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"MathThematics" is a mathematics curriculum for grades 6 through 8 that combines activity-based, discovery learning with direct instruction. The textbook for each grade level has eight instructional modules, with each module focused on a theme. Open-ended questions and projects are utilized throughout the curriculum to assess problem-solving…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

2008-01-01

255

Thematic contribution to overgeneralization in memory for quantified discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined whether overgeneralization of the quantified relations in a story reflects reasonable inferences from the story's theme. 90 college students were asked to read narratives with similar story structures but with different thematic conflicts. Two-choice recognition results show that overgeneralization \\

Russell Revlin; Bruce Bromage; Michael Van Ness

1981-01-01

256

A THEMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE ADDICTIVE EXPERIENCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHOTHERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the proliferation of discussion on the problem of addiction, little agreement obtains as to the nature of the addictive problem and implications for psychotherapy of the addictions. A thematic analysis of the addictive experience is conducted. The addictive experience is characterized by intensity of feelings which cannot be rendered symbolically via language. Out of this mode of experiencing emerges

RONALD E. HOPSON

1993-01-01

257

Individual Differences in the Strength of Taxonomic versus Thematic Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Knowledge about word and object meanings can be organized taxonomically (fruits, mammals, etc.) on the basis of shared features or thematically (eating breakfast, taking a dog for a walk, etc.) on the basis of participation in events or scenarios. An eye-tracking study showed that both kinds of knowledge are activated during comprehension of a…

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2012-01-01

258

Physics thematic paths: laboratorial activities and historical scientific instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Physics Department of Padua University keeps an important collection of historical physics instruments which alludes to the fruitful scientific activity of Padua through the centuries. This heritage led to the suggestion of setting up laboratory activities connected to the Museum collection for secondary school students. This article shows how different thematic paths have been developed, reflecting on the importance

O. Pantano; S. Talas

2010-01-01

259

Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities. Second Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The seven units in this second supplement to "Thematic Units" focus on communication skills, offering English teachers contemporary plans for teaching writing, listening, persuasion, and reasoning. The units were selected for their humanistic approaches to student language learning, combining English instruction with topics in the humanities.…

Spann, Sylvia, Ed.; Culp, Mary Beth, Ed.

260

Thematic Progression in a Cardiologist's Text: Context, Frames and Progression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thematic progression (TP) is examined in the text of a communication between a cardiologist and a general practitioner concerning a patient, offering a clinical diagnosis of the patient's condition. Analysis of the discourse looks at the field, tenor, and mode of the communication as a context for TP. The methods of analysis are first described,…

Salter, Robert T.

261

Books on Wheels: Cooperative Learning through Thematic Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed as an integrated package for thematic instruction, this book helps librarians and teachers select appropriate reading materials to use in specific areas of study and promote reading to students in primary grades. Sixteen chapters include such popular themes as: (1) "Risky Reading: Adventure Stories"; (2) "Old MacDonald's Place: Farm…

McArthur, Janice; McGuire, Barbara E.

262

IMAGINE: an open consortium to boost maskless lithography take off: first assessment results on MAPPER technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the latest ITRS roadmap updated in July 2010, Maskless remains identified as one of the candidate to address lithography needs for the sub-16nm technology nodes. The attractiveness of this solution in terms of cost and flexibility linked to the throughput potential of the massively parallel writing solutions maintain the interest of large scale IC manufacturers, such as TSMC(1) and STMicroelectronics, to push the development of this technology. In July 2009, LETI and MAPPER have initiated an open collaborative program IMAGINE focused on the assessment of the MAPPER technology. This paper reports on the key results obtained during this first assessment year in terms of: resolution capabilities, stitching performances, technology reliability and infrastructure development. It also provides an extensive overview on the maturity degree and the ability of this low energy accelerating voltage multibeam option to answer to the industry needs in the 2015 horizon.

Pain, L.; Icard, B.; Martin, M.; Constancias, C.; Tedesco, S.; Wiedeman, P.; Farah, A.; Kampherbeek, B. J.; Pieczulewski, C.; Kandrashov, H.

2011-03-01

263

Orientale Impact Basin: New Insights into Formation and Evolution from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The youngest, best-preserved and unfilled multi-ringed impact basin on the Moon (Orientale; ~920 km diameter) provides a laboratory for studying the nature of basin interior deposits and ring formation. We report here on the acquisition of new Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data related to several key questions: Nature of Basin Ejecta (Hevelius Formation-HF): This unit is characterized by homogeneous and

J. W. Nettles; J. W. Head; C. M. Pieters; J. F. Mustard; M. Staid; L. A. Taylor; T. B. McCord; N. E. Petro; P. Isaacson; R. Klima; J. Dickson; C. Fassett

2009-01-01

264

Goldschmidt crater and the Moon's north polar region: Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils within the impact crater Goldschmidt have been identified as spectrally distinct from the local highland material. High spatial and spectral resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter are used to examine the character of Goldschmidt crater in detail. Spectral parameters applied to a north polar mosaic of M3 data are used to discern large-scale

L. C. Cheek; C. M. Pieters; J. W. Boardman; R. N. Clark; J. P. Combe; J. W. Head; P. J. Isaacson; T. B. McCord; D. Moriarty; J. W. Nettles; N. E. Petro; J. M. Sunshine; L. A. Taylor

2011-01-01

265

A Year at the Moon on Chandrayaan-1: Moon Mineralogy Mapper Data in a Global Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper, M3, a high-fidelity high-resolution imaging spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1 has completed two of its four scheduled optical periods during its maiden year in lunar orbit, collecting over 4.6 billion spectra covering most of the lunar surface. These imaging periods (November 2008-February 2009 and April 2009-August 2009) correspond to times of equatorial solar zenith angle less than sixty

J. W. Boardman; C. M. Pieters; R. N. Clark; J. Combe; R. O. Green; P. Isaacson; S. Lundeen; E. Malaret; T. B. McCord; J. W. Nettles; N. E. Petro; M. Staid; P. Varanasi

2009-01-01

266

CheS-Mapper - Chemical Space Mapping and Visualization in 3D  

PubMed Central

Analyzing chemical datasets is a challenging task for scientific researchers in the field of chemoinformatics. It is important, yet difficult to understand the relationship between the structure of chemical compounds, their physico-chemical properties, and biological or toxic effects. To that respect, visualization tools can help to better comprehend the underlying correlations. Our recently developed 3D molecular viewer CheS-Mapper (Chemical Space Mapper) divides large datasets into clusters of similar compounds and consequently arranges them in 3D space, such that their spatial proximity reflects their similarity. The user can indirectly determine similarity, by selecting which features to employ in the process. The tool can use and calculate different kind of features, like structural fragments as well as quantitative chemical descriptors. These features can be highlighted within CheS-Mapper, which aids the chemist to better understand patterns and regularities and relate the observations to established scientific knowledge. As a final function, the tool can also be used to select and export specific subsets of a given dataset for further analysis.

2012-01-01

267

PepMapper: A Collaborative Web Tool for Mapping Epitopes from Affinity-Selected Peptides  

PubMed Central

Epitope mapping from affinity-selected peptides has become popular in epitope prediction, and correspondingly many Web-based tools have been developed in recent years. However, the performance of these tools varies in different circumstances. To address this problem, we employed an ensemble approach to incorporate two popular Web tools, MimoPro and Pep-3D-Search, together for taking advantages offered by both methods so as to give users more options for their specific purposes of epitope-peptide mapping. The combined operation of Union finds as many associated peptides as possible from both methods, which increases sensitivity in finding potential epitopic regions on a given antigen surface. The combined operation of Intersection achieves to some extent the mutual verification by the two methods and hence increases the likelihood of locating the genuine epitopic region on a given antigen in relation to the interacting peptides. The Consistency between Intersection and Union is an indirect sufficient condition to assess the likelihood of successful peptide-epitope mapping. On average from 27 tests, the combined operations of PepMapper outperformed either MimoPro or Pep-3D-Search alone. Therefore, PepMapper is another multipurpose mapping tool for epitope prediction from affinity-selected peptides. The Web server can be freely accessed at: http://informatics.nenu.edu.cn/PepMapper/

Chen, Wenhan; Guo, William W.; Huang, Yanxin; Ma, Zhiqiang

2012-01-01

268

IMPACTS OF PATCH SIZE AND LANDSCAPE HETEROGENEITY ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Impacts of Patch Size and Landscape Heterogeneity on Thematic Image Classification Accuracy. Currently, most thematic accuracy assessments of classified remotely sensed images oily account for errors between the various classes employed, at particular pixels of interest, thu...

269

MAPPING SPATIAL ACCURACY AND ESTIMATING LANDSCAPE INDICATORS FROM THEMATIC LAND COVER MAPS USING FUZZY SET THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The accuracy of thematic map products is not spatially homogenous, but instead variable across most landscapes. Properly analyzing and representing the spatial distribution (pattern) of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable user information for assessing appropriate applic...

270

Thematic Design: My Story is Better When Your Story is Better  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What does a well-designed thematic workshop look like? This is an attempt to describe the thematic approach to space science education that has been demonstrated in solar system exploration education forum workshops.

Tobola, K.; Allen, J.

2011-03-01

271

Titan Radar Mapper observations from Cassini's T3 fly-by.  

PubMed

Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper imaged the surface of Saturn's moon Titan on its February 2005 fly-by (denoted T3), collecting high-resolution synthetic-aperture radar and larger-scale radiometry and scatterometry data. These data provide the first definitive identification of impact craters on the surface of Titan, networks of fluvial channels and surficial dark streaks that may be longitudinal dunes. Here we describe this great diversity of landforms. We conclude that much of the surface thus far imaged by radar of the haze-shrouded Titan is very young, with persistent geologic activity. PMID:16760968

Elachi, C; Wall, S; Janssen, M; Stofan, E; Lopes, R; Kirk, R; Lorenz, R; Lunine, J; Paganelli, F; Soderblom, L; Wood, C; Wye, L; Zebker, H; Anderson, Y; Ostro, S; Allison, M; Boehmer, R; Callahan, P; Encrenaz, P; Flamini, E; Francescetti, G; Gim, Y; Hamilton, G; Hensley, S; Johnson, W; Kelleher, K; Muhleman, D; Picardi, G; Posa, F; Roth, L; Seu, R; Shaffer, S; Stiles, B; Vetrella, S; West, R

2006-06-01

272

Titan Radar Mapper observations from Cassini's T3 fly-by  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper imaged the surface of Saturn's moon Titan on its February 2005 fly-by (denoted T3), collecting high-resolution synthetic-aperture radar and larger-scale radiometry and scatterometry data. These data provide the first definitive identification of impact craters on the surface of Titan, networks of fluvial channels and surficial dark streaks that may be longitudinal dunes. Here we describe this great diversity of landforms. We conclude that much of the surface thus far imaged by radar of the haze-shrouded Titan is very young, with persistent geologic activity. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

Elachi, C.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Stofan, E.; Lopes, R.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Ostro, S.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

2006-01-01

273

Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.  

PubMed

We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle. PMID:22063815

Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

2011-01-01

274

Improving Discrimination of Savanna Tree Species Through a Multiple-Endmember Spectral Angle Mapper Approach: Canopy-Level Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in within-species phenology and structure are controlled by genetic variation, as well as topography, edaphic properties, and climatic variables across the landscape, and present important challenges to species differentiation with remote sensing. The objectives of this paper are as follows: 1) to evaluate the classification performance of a multiple-endmember spectral angle mapper (SAM) classification approach in discriminating ten common

Moses Azong Cho; Pravesh Debba; Renaud Mathieu; Laven Naidoo; Jan van Aardt; Gregory P. Asner

2010-01-01

275

Global Distribution and Composition of Low-Ca Pyroxenes on the Moon as Viewed by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

High spectral and spatial resolution Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data is enabling quantitative characterization of pyroxene composition on the lunar surface. We present results of a global survey of low-Ca pyroxenes, focusing on their Mg-Fe ratios.

R. L. Klima; C. M. Pieters; P. J. Isaacson; J. W. Head; M. Staid; L. A. Taylor; N. E. Petro; J. M. Sunshine

2010-01-01

276

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Imaging Spectrometer: Early Assessment of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial, and Uniformity Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper is a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio NASA imaging spectrometer that is a guest instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mission. We present an early assessment of the M3 science measurement performance.

R. O. Green; C. M. Pieters; J. Boardman; D. Barr; C. Bruce; J. Bousman; A. Chatterjee; M. Eastwood; V. Essandoh; S. Geier; T. Glavich; V. Haemmerle; S. Hyman; L. Hovland; T. Koch; K. Lee; S. Lundeen; E. Motts; P. Mouroulis; S. Paulson; K. Plourde; C. Racho; D. Robison; J. Rodriguez; P. Rothman; G. Sellar; C. Smith; H. Sobel; J. Stamp; H. Tseng; P. Varanasi; D. Wilson; M. White

2009-01-01

277

Why Are The Poles So Cool? Thematic Outreach for IPY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding an overarching outreach strategy and theme is the challenge facing institutions aiming to make the International Polar Year a widely recognized and successful event. Defining themes that are appealing and flexible, and that can accommodate outreach in different venues and to different audiences is a crucial step in ensuring that the IPY effort yields high returns for the scientific community. A thematic approach makes sense in the context of the IPY, since information about the poles is wide-ranging and compelling, from the history of polar exploration to how microorganisms adapt to extreme conditions. Polar science can thus be incorporated into existing curricula in many subjects and disciplines, and it also lends itself well to informal education venues, interactive web-based tools, and mainstream media coverage.

Unger, H. M.

2004-12-01

278

[International research in nursing: thematic and methodological tendencies].  

PubMed

It was aimed to analyze the research tendency developed by nursing in international scope. Obtained data of two nursing journals were analyzed from the total of 104 articles, being 58 of the Nursing and Health Sciences and 48 of the Journal of Research in Nursing published in the period of 2005 the 2006. The most investigated thematic areas are: professional formation (19.2%), adult health (11%), collective health (11%) and Care and Autonomy (9.6%). A major tendency of data collection carried outin hospital area (42.3%), teaching (34.7%), and public health (23%). We consider that the articles under analysis reveal tendency for qualitative approach, however, the study reveals the need to expand some areas such as the management. PMID:18982226

Silva, Lucilane Maria Sales da; Oliveira, Nara Ryane Nobre; Frota, Mirna Albuquerque; Fialho, Ana Virgínia de Melo

279

SkyMapper and AEGIS: Tracing the Structure and Evolution of the Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAOmega Evolution of Galactic Structure (AEGIS) program aims to constrain the chemodynamical evolution of the Milky Way through the study of the halo and the outer thick disk. The AEGIS survey will determine the metal content, kinematics and chemical abundance ratios for 70,000 stars over 4,900 deg2 using the AAOmega multi-object spectrograph on the 3.9m Australian Astronomical Telescope. With such a vast survey area, AEGIS benefits by allocating fibres to very rare high impact classes of objects such as globular cluster tidal tails, white dwarfs, hyper-velocity stars, QSOs, and extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. Here we present the progress of the AEGIS survey and highlight the efficiency in using SkyMapper photometry to select rare EMP candidates.

Casey, A. R.; Keller, S. C.; Ness, M. K.; Aegis Collaboration; Skymapper Team

2012-08-01

280

The connectome mapper: an open-source processing pipeline to map connectomes with MRI.  

PubMed

Researchers working in the field of global connectivity analysis using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can count on a wide selection of software packages for processing their data, with methods ranging from the reconstruction of the local intra-voxel axonal structure to the estimation of the trajectories of the underlying fibre tracts. However, each package is generally task-specific and uses its own conventions and file formats. In this article we present the Connectome Mapper, a software pipeline aimed at helping researchers through the tedious process of organising, processing and analysing diffusion MRI data to perform global brain connectivity analyses. Our pipeline is written in Python and is freely available as open-source at www.cmtk.org. PMID:23272041

Daducci, Alessandro; Gerhard, Stephan; Griffa, Alessandra; Lemkaddem, Alia; Cammoun, Leila; Gigandet, Xavier; Meuli, Reto; Hagmann, Patric; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

2012-12-18

281

Ice loss in Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland, measured by NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper and ICESat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenland’s fastest glacier, Jakobshavn Isbrae, drains about 7% of the icesheet. Repeat airborne laser surveys of the glacier were begun in 1993 by NASA’s Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) under the NASA PARCA program and continue under the ongoing IceBridge program. ATM and ICESat (2003-2009) observations quantify the spreading of the region that is thinning and the volume of ice loss. Coincident acceleration of the icestream suggests a dynamic mechanism to the thinning as the icestream draws in greater quantities of ice from the surrounding basin. In our presentation we will show results from new observations collected as a part of IceBridge, which demonstrates thinning near the glacier snout continues at about the same rate since 1997, while further inland thinning has accelerated.

Krabill, W. B.; Manizade, S. S.; Sonntag, J. G.; Yungel, J.

2010-12-01

282

Damage to Temporo-Parietal Cortex Decreases Incidental Activation of Thematic Relations during Spoken Word Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both taxonomic and thematic semantic relations have been studied extensively in behavioral studies and there is an emerging consensus that the anterior temporal lobe plays a particularly important role in the representation and processing of taxonomic relations, but the neural basis of thematic semantics is less clear. We used eye tracking to…

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2012-01-01

283

The Effects of Semantic and Thematic Clustering on the Learning of Second Language Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the effects upon the academic progress of English-as-a-Second-Language students' learning of vocabulary of semantic and thematic clustering. Results present a wide range of evidence suggesting that semantic clustering does serve as a hindrance while thematic clustering facilitates L2 vocabulary development. (21 references) (Author/CK)|

Tinkham, Thomas

1997-01-01

284

Meaning of Democracy Around the World: A Thematic and Structural Analysis of Videos Defining Democracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines thematic and structural features of 120 short films submitted to a worldwide video competition encouraging global dialogue on democracy. Each video is analyzed to identify prominent themes of democracy, such as equal participation and diversity, along with audio and visual structural elements. Authors investigate whether and how thematic and structural aspects of videos differ depending upon the

Hyunjin Seo; Dennis F. Kinsey

2012-01-01

285

Up from Basic Stories: A Thematic Unit for Cognitive and Affective Instruction in College Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a thematic interdisciplinary reading course aimed at affective and cognitive development. Includes a rationale for literature in a reading curriculum and suggests an approach for presenting the short story in the context of a thematic interdisciplinary college reading course. (DMM)

Pacheco, Beth

1982-01-01

286

Thematic preorganizers and the reading comprehension of tenth?grade world literature students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the effects which thematic preorganizers might have on secondary students’ comprehension of prose fiction, the authors gave specially prepared organizers to tenth?grade experimental group subjects before they read each of six short stories selected from commercial anthologies. Control group subjects read the stories without benefit of the organizers. The investigation demonstrated that thematic preorganizers did not

Terry C. Ley

1991-01-01

287

Damage to Temporo-Parietal Cortex Decreases Incidental Activation of Thematic Relations during Spoken Word Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both taxonomic and thematic semantic relations have been studied extensively in behavioral studies and there is an emerging consensus that the anterior temporal lobe plays a particularly important role in the representation and processing of taxonomic relations, but the neural basis of thematic semantics is less clear. We used eye tracking to…

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2012-01-01

288

An Algorithm for Estimation and Correction of the Thermal Emitted Radiance with Preservation of Spectral Structure in Data Measured by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

An novel algorithm for estimation and correction of the thermal emitted radiance with preservation of spectral structure in data measured by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper is present with initial test results.

R. O. Green; J. Boardman; C. M. Pieters; R. Clark

2010-01-01

289

Contextual essay for integrated thematic unit: Kids, Quarks, and Quanta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This essay provides the research and rationale to support the theory that early adolescence is the best time to present an introduction to quantum mechanics. It supports the creation of an integrated thematic unit to be used with students ages 11--14 in an inclusion classroom without limiting the unit to only an inclusion setting. The first section sets forth five problems the unit was written to address. Citing The National Center for Education Statistics 2000 version of The Nation's Report Card, the problems with current practices in science education resulting in poor student performance are presented. References to Project 2061: Science for All Americans help to demonstrate that students with disabilities are seldom considered when physical science curriculum is being developed, supporting the position that equity in science education is necessary, while maintaining challenging subject matter. The problem of the poor quality of many physical science texts is addressed, with an emphasis on the importance of curricular connections. The poor quality of physical science teacher training in many university teacher training courses is discussed, and the nature of the integrated thematic unit as a curriculum design is examined with reference to what is considered the over-emphasis on "reality-based" content to the exclusion of abstract subject matter. Having presented the problems and supporting their validity, the essay then demonstrated how Kids, Quarks, and Quanta specifically addresses each problem. The two and a half year study of Dr. John Hubisz and the committee he formed under The David and Lucille Packard Foundation grant to review and critique the physical science textbooks currently used with early adolescents is often referenced to support both the problems of teacher training and the poor quality of many texts. Recent brain research conducted by researchers of the National Institute of Mental Health is used to support the presentation of more abstract subject matter for the 11--14 year old student. The research shows that rapid neuron growth and pruning does not just occur in the first years of life. Early adolescence is a second time of rapid neuron growth that begins at age ten for girls and eleven for boys, with pruning taking place until age 24. The theory is that this is the time when abstract thinking is developing and a "use it or lose it" maxim applies. The essay promotes the importance of differentiating curriculum for all students, and includes a substantial literature review and bibliography.

Draeger, Vicki Lee

290

Thematic data processing on board the satellite BIRD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general trend in remote sensing is on one hand to increase the number of spectral bands and the geometric resolution of the imaging sensors which leads to higher data rates and data volumes. On the other hand the user is often only interested in special information of the received sensor data and not in the whole data mass. Concerning these two tendencies a main part of the signal pre-processing can already be done for special users and tasks on-board a satellite. For the BIRD (Bispectral InfraRed Detection) mission a new approach of an on-board data processing is made. The main goal of the BIRD mission is the fire recognition and the detection of hot spots. This paper describes the technical solution, of an on-board image data processing system based on the sensor system on two new IR- Sensors and the stereo line scanner WAOSS (Wide-Angle- Optoelectronic-Scanner). The aim of this data processing system is to reduce the data stream from the satellite due to generations of geo-coded thematic maps. This reduction will be made by a multispectral classification. For this classification a special hardware based on the neural network processor NI1000 was designed. This hardware is integrated in the payload data handling system of the satellite.

Halle, Winfried

2001-12-01

291

Spectral angle mapper based assessment of detectability of man-made targets from hyperspectral imagery after SNR enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the effectiveness of a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement technology for hyperspectral imagery to examine whether it can better serve remote sensing applications. A hyperspectral data set acquired using an airborne Short-wave-infrared Full Spectrum Image II with man-made targets in the scene of the data set was tested. Spectral angle mapper and end-members of different target materials were

Shen-En Qian; Hisham Othman; Josée Lévesque

2006-01-01

292

Insights into Lunar Farside Highlands Crustal Development from the Moscoviense Basin and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper onboard Chandrayaan-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper, a reflectance spectrometer on India's Chandrayaan-1, has enabled the detailed mineralogical and geological mapping of the Moon. Much of the highlands terrain on the Moon's nearside has been drastically modified by the 3.8-4.09 Ga heavy bolide bombardment and subsequent volcanism. However, remote sensing observations, in combination with studies of Apollo and Luna samples, have provided invaluable

K. G. Thaisen; L. A. Taylor; J. W. Head; C. M. Pieters; G. Y. Kramer; T. B. McCord; M. Staid; N. E. Petro; P. Isaacson

2009-01-01

293

The mineralogy of late stage lunar volcanism as observed by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper on Chandrayaan-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last major phases of lunar volcanism produced spectrally unique high-titanium basalts on the western nearside of the Moon. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1 has provided detailed measurements of these basalts at spatial and spectral resolutions necessary for mineralogical interpretation and mapping of distinct compositional units. The M3 imaging spectrometer acquired data in 85 spectral bands from ?430

M. I. Staid; C. M. Pieters; S. Besse; J. Boardman; D. Dhingra; R. Green; J. W. Head; P. Isaacson; R. Klima; G. Kramer; J. M. Mustard; C. Runyon; J. Sunshine; L. A. Taylor

2011-01-01

294

Hemispheric Mineralogy of the Moon: A First Look from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a guest instrument on India's Chandrayaan-1 mission, which was launched October 22, 2008. M3 is an imaging spectrometer covering the wavelength range from 430 - 3000 nm, and was designed to identify and map the principal rock-forming minerals across the lunar surface. To perform initial compositional assessments, the M3 data were reduced in spatial

Peter Isaacson; C. Pieters; J. Boardman; B. Buratti; R. Clark; J. Combe; R. Green; J. Goswami; M. Hicks; R. Klima; G. Kramer; S. Lundeen; E. Malaret; T. McCord; J. Mustard; J. Nettles; N. Petro; C. Runyon; M. Staid; J. Sunshine; L. Taylor; S. Tompkins; P. Varanasi

2009-01-01

295

Damage to temporo-parietal cortex decreases incidental activation of thematic relations during spoken word comprehension  

PubMed Central

Both taxonomic and thematic semantic relations have been studied extensively in behavioral studies and there is an emerging consensus that the anterior temporal lobe plays a particularly important role in the representation and processing of taxonomic relations, but the neural basis of thematic semantics is less clear. We used eye tracking to examine incidental activation of taxonomic and thematic relations during spoken word comprehension in participants with aphasia. Three groups of participants were tested: neurologically intact control participants (N=14), individuals with aphasia resulting from lesions in left hemisphere BA 39 and surrounding temporo-parietal cortex regions (N=7), and individuals with the same degree of aphasia severity and semantic impairment and anterior left hemisphere lesions (primarily inferior frontal gyrus and anterior temporal lobe) that spared BA 39 (N=6). The posterior lesion group showed reduced and delayed activation of thematic relations, but not taxonomic relations. In contrast, the anterior lesion group exhibited longer-lasting activation of taxonomic relations and did not differ from control participants in terms of activation of thematic relations. These results suggest that taxonomic and thematic semantic knowledge are functionally and neuroanatomically distinct, with the temporo-parietal cortex playing a particularly important role in thematic semantics.

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2012-01-01

296

Lightning Sensing from Space: Early Observations to the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning was serendipitously detected by some of the earliest space-based sensors. Small instruments of opportunity such as the Piggy Back Experiment followed these early observations. In 1980, NASA began a serious study on the possibility for observing lightning from geostationary orbit. An U-2 aircraft was instrumented with optical and electric field sensors and flown over the tops of thunderstorms. This early work quantified the characteristics of the lightning optical emissions radiating from cloud tops and lead to the selection of the 774 nm oxygen emission line (originally identified by Leon Salanave) as the line of choice for space-based lightning observations. The U-2 results provided the basis for the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) designs. The OTD and LIS were the first pixilated lightning sensors to be flown in space, an approach that enabled high detection efficiency for both cloud and ground flashes and good spatial resolution. OTD and LIS data provided the first detailed view of the global distribution of lightning activity, an accurate estimate of the global flash rate, helped quantify the global relationship between ice flux and flash rates, provided a lightning climatology over a continuous 15 year interval and made numerous other contributions. In addition, OTD and LIS data provided the detailed characterization of optical lightning emissions that been necessary for the effective design of geostationary-based lightning sensors. The low earth orbiting lightning data played an essential role in refining the conceptional design of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) and provided the basis for the detailed design of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) which is scheduled to be launch on the GOES-R satellite. The GLM is being designed to detect 90% of all lightning flashes within its field of view with less than a 5% false alarm rate and a spatial resolution of 8 km. An analysis of how these performance goals can be achieved will be presented along with details of how lightning characteristics drove the instrument design.

Christian, H.

2010-12-01

297

Highlights from the 2013 Science of Placebo thematic workshop.  

PubMed

In the last 30 years, a converging series of laboratory experiments, clinical trials, and neurocognitive studies have identified several key mechanisms of placebo effects. These studies suggest not only that placebo responses may be ubiquitous across research and clinical settings, but also that they can significantly modulate symptoms across a wide spectrum of highly prevalent conditions such as acute pain, chronic pain, anxiety, depression, Parkinson's disease, and nausea, just to name a few. In order to inform the medical community about the most recent advances in the field of placebo studies, a thematic workshop entitled "The Science of Placebo" was held at the Beth Israel Deaconesses Medical Center (BIDMC), Harvard Medical School, in Boston (MA), on the 19-20 of June 2013. The workshop, sponsored by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, was organised by the Program in Placebo Studies and the Therapeutic Encounter, a Harvard-wide network of researchers dedicated to the study of the placebo phenomenon hosted by the BIDMC. The event was structured as a series of four public lectures, each delivered by a leading investigator in the field of placebo studies. The four keynote speakers were Fabrizio Benedetti, professor of neurophysiology and human physiology at the University of Turin Medical School and at the National Institute of Neuroscience in Italy; Tor Wager, director of the Cognitive and Affective Control Laboratory and associate professor of psychology and neuroscience at the University of Colorado; Predrag Petrovic, psychiatrist and researcher in the Department of Clinical Neuroscience at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm; and Ted Kaptchuk, director of the Program in Placebo Studies and associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. PMID:24019848

Annoni, Marco

2013-09-04

298

Goldschmidt crater and the Moon's north polar region: Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils within the impact crater Goldschmidt have been identified as spectrally distinct from the local highland material. High spatial and spectral resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter are used to examine the character of Goldschmidt crater in detail. Spectral parameters applied to a north polar mosaic of M3 data are used to discern large-scale compositional trends at the northern high latitudes, and spectra from three widely separated regions are compared to spectra from Goldschmidt. The results highlight the compositional diversity of the lunar nearside, in particular, where feldspathic soils with a low-Ca pyroxene component are pervasive, but exclusively feldspathic regions and small areas of basaltic composition are also observed. Additionally, we find that the relative strengths of the diagnostic OH/H2O absorption feature near 3000 nm are correlated with the mineralogy of the host material. On both global and local scales, the strongest hydrous absorptions occur on the more feldspathic surfaces. Thus, M3 data suggest that while the feldspathic soils within Goldschmidt crater are enhanced in OH/H2O compared to the relatively mafic nearside polar highlands, their hydration signatures are similar to those observed in the feldspathic highlands on the farside. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Cheek, L. C.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J. W.; Clark, R. N.; Combe, J. P.; Head, J. W.; Isaacson, P. J.; McCord, T. B.; Moriarty, D.; Nettles, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Sunshine, J. M.; Taylor, L. A.

2011-01-01

299

Compositional diversity and geologic insights of the Aristarchus crater from Moon Mineralogy Mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) acquired high spatial and spectral resolution data of the Aristarchus Plateau with 140 m/pixel in 85 spectral bands from 0.43 to 3.0 m. The data were collected as radiance and converted to reflectance using the observational constraints and a solar spectrum scaled to the Moon-Sun distance. Summary spectral parameters for the area of mafic silicate 1 and 2 m bands were calculated from the M3 data and used to map the distribution of key units that were then analyzed in detail with the spectral data. This analysis focuses on five key compositional units in the region. (1) The central peaks are shown to be strongly enriched in feldspar and are likely from the upper plagioclase-rich crust of the Moon. (2) The impact melt is compositionally diverse with clear signatures of feldspathic crust, olivine, and glass. (3) The crater walls and ejecta show a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and evidence for massive breccia blocks. (4) Olivine, strongly concentrated on the rim, wall, and exterior of the southeastern quadrant of the crater, is commonly associated the impact melt. (5) There are at least two types of glass deposits observed: pyroclastic glass and impact glass. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Mustard, J. F.; Pieters, C. M.; Isaacson, P. J.; Head, J. W.; Besse, S.; Clark, R. N.; Klima, R. L.; Petro, N. E.; Staid, M. I.; Sunshine, J. M.; Runyon, C. J.; Tompkins, S.

2011-01-01

300

Optical maturity variation in lunar spectra as measured by Moon Mineralogy Mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High spectral and spatial resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument on Chandrayaan-1 are used to investigate in detail changes in the optical properties of lunar materials accompanying space weathering. Three spectral parameters were developed and used to quantify spectral effects commonly thought to be associated with increasing optical maturity: an increase in spectral slope ("reddening"), a decrease in albedo ("darkening"), and loss of spectral contrast (decrease in absorption band depth). Small regions of study were defined that sample the ejecta deposits of small fresh craters that contain relatively crystalline (immature) material that grade into local background (mature) soils. Selected craters are small enough that they can be assumed to be of constant composition and thus are useful for evaluating trends in optical maturity. Color composites were also used to identify the most immature material in a region and show that maturity trends can also be identified using regional soil trends. The high resolution M3 data are well suited to quantifying the spectral changes that accompany space weathering and are able to capture subtle spectral variations in maturity trends. However, the spectral changes that occur as a function of maturity were observed to be dependent on local composition. Given the complexity of space weathering processes, this was not unexpected but poses challenges for absolute measures of optical maturity across diverse lunar terrains. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Nettles, J. W.; Staid, M.; Besse, S.; Boardman, J.; Clark, R. N.; Dhingra, D.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Pieters, C. M.; Taylor, L. A.

2011-01-01

301

Newer views of the Moon: Comparing spectra from Clementine and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) provided the first global hyperspectral data of the lunar surface in 85 bands from 460 to 2980 nm. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and near-infrared (NIR). In an effort to understand how M3 improves our ability to analyze and interpret lunar data, we compare M3 spectra with those from Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the UV-VIS and NIR. We have found that M3 reflectance values are lower across all wavelengths compared with albedos from both of Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. M3 spectra show the Moon to be redder, that is, have a steeper continuum slope, than indicated by Clementine. The 1 m absorption band depths may be comparable between the instruments, but Clementine data consistently exhibit shallower 2 m band depths than M 3. Absorption band minimums are difficult to compare due to the significantly different spectral resolutions. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Kramer, G. Y.; Besse, S.; Nettles, J.; Combe, J. -P.; Clark, R. N.; Pieters, C. M.; Staid, M.; Malaret, E.; Boardman, J.; Green, R. O.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T. B.

2011-01-01

302

The MAPPER database: a multi-genome catalog of putative transcription factor binding sites.  

PubMed

We describe a comprehensive map of putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) across multiple genomes created using a search method that relies on hidden Markov models built from experimentally determined TFBSs. Using the information in the TRANSFAC and JASPAR databases, we built 1134 models for TFBSs and used them to scan regions 10 kb upstream of the start of the transcript for all known genes in the human, mouse and Drosophila melanogaster genomes. The results, together with homology information on clusters of ortholog genes across the three genomes, were used to create a multi-organism catalog of annotated TFBSs. The catalog can be queried through a web interface accessible at http://bio.chip.org/mapper that allows the identification, visualization and selection of TFBSs occurring in the promoter of a gene of interest and also the common factors predicted to bind across the cluster of orthologs that includes that gene. Alternatively, the interface allows the user to retrieve binding sites for a single transcription factor of interest in a single gene or in all genes of the human, mouse or fruit fly genomes. PMID:15608292

Marinescu, Voichita D; Kohane, Isaac S; Riva, Alberto

2005-01-01

303

Newer views of the Moon: Comparing spectra from Clementine and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) provided the first global hyperspectral data of the lunar surface in 85 bands from 460 to 2980 nm. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and near-infrared (NIR). In an effort to understand how M3 improves our ability to analyze and interpret lunar data, we compare M3 spectra with those from Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the UV-VIS and NIR. We have found that M3 reflectance values are lower across all wavelengths compared with albedos from both of Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. M3 spectra show the Moon to be redder, that is, have a steeper continuum slope, than indicated by Clementine. The 1 ?m absorption band depths may be comparable between the instruments, but Clementine data consistently exhibit shallower 2 ?m band depths than M3. Absorption band minimums are difficult to compare due to the significantly different spectral resolutions.

Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Besse, Sebastien; Nettles, Jeffrey; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Clark, Roger N.; Pieters, Carlé M.; Staid, Matthew; Malaret, Erik; Boardman, Joseph; Green, Robert O.; Head, James W., III; McCord, Thomas B.

2011-04-01

304

Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture Radar images of Titan's surface during four fly-bys during the mission's first year. These images show that Titan's surface is very complex geologically, showing evidence of major planetary geologic processes, including cryovolcanism. This paper discusses the variety of cryovolcanic features identified from SAR images, their possible origin, and their geologic context. The features which we identify as cryovolcanic in origin include a large (180 km diameter) volcanic construct (dome or shield), several extensive flows, and three calderas which appear to be the source of flows. The composition of the cryomagma on Titan is still unknown, but constraints on rheological properties can be estimated using flow thickness. Rheological properties of one flow were estimated and appear inconsistent with ammonia-water slurries, and possibly more consistent with ammonia-water-methanol slurries. The extent of cryovolcanism on Titan is still not known, as only a small fraction of the surface has been imaged at sufficient resolution. Energetic considerations suggest that cryovolcanism may have been a dominant process in the resurfacing of Titan. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc.

Lopes, R. M. C.; Mitchell, K. L.; Stofan, E. R.; Lunine, J. I.; Lorenz, R.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R. L.; Wood, C. A.; Wall, S. D.; Robshaw, L. E.; Fortes, A. D.; Neish, C. D.; Radebaugh, J.; Reffet, E.; Ostro, S. J.; Elachi, C.; Allison, M. D.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Boubin, G.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M. A.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D. O.; Ori, G.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L. E.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L. A.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R. D.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H. A.

2007-01-01

305

Compositional diversity and geologic insights of the Aristarchus crater from Moon Mineralogy Mapper data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) acquired high spatial and spectral resolution data of the Aristarchus Plateau with 140 m/pixel in 85 spectral bands from 0.43 to 3.0 ?m. The data were collected as radiance and converted to reflectance using the observational constraints and a solar spectrum scaled to the Moon-Sun distance. Summary spectral parameters for the area of mafic silicate 1 and 2 ?m bands were calculated from the M3 data and used to map the distribution of key units that were then analyzed in detail with the spectral data. This analysis focuses on five key compositional units in the region. (1) The central peaks are shown to be strongly enriched in feldspar and are likely from the upper plagioclase-rich crust of the Moon. (2) The impact melt is compositionally diverse with clear signatures of feldspathic crust, olivine, and glass. (3) The crater walls and ejecta show a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and evidence for massive breccia blocks. (4) Olivine, strongly concentrated on the rim, wall, and exterior of the southeastern quadrant of the crater, is commonly associated the impact melt. (5) There are at least two types of glass deposits observed: pyroclastic glass and impact glass.

Mustard, John F.; Pieters, Carle M.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Head, James W.; Besse, Sebastien; Clark, Roger N.; Klima, Rachel L.; Petro, Noah E.; Staid, Matthew I.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Runyon, Cassandra J.; Tompkins, Stefanie

2011-05-01

306

Optical maturity variation in lunar spectra as measured by Moon Mineralogy Mapper data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High spectral and spatial resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument on Chandrayaan-1 are used to investigate in detail changes in the optical properties of lunar materials accompanying space weathering. Three spectral parameters were developed and used to quantify spectral effects commonly thought to be associated with increasing optical maturity: an increase in spectral slope (“reddening”), a decrease in albedo (“darkening”), and loss of spectral contrast (decrease in absorption band depth). Small regions of study were defined that sample the ejecta deposits of small fresh craters that contain relatively crystalline (immature) material that grade into local background (mature) soils. Selected craters are small enough that they can be assumed to be of constant composition and thus are useful for evaluating trends in optical maturity. Color composites were also used to identify the most immature material in a region and show that maturity trends can also be identified using regional soil trends. The high resolution M3 data are well suited to quantifying the spectral changes that accompany space weathering and are able to capture subtle spectral variations in maturity trends. However, the spectral changes that occur as a function of maturity were observed to be dependent on local composition. Given the complexity of space weathering processes, this was not unexpected but poses challenges for absolute measures of optical maturity across diverse lunar terrains.

Nettles, J. W.; Staid, M.; Besse, S.; Boardman, J.; Clark, R. N.; Dhingra, D.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Pieters, C. M.; Taylor, L. A.

2011-07-01

307

Spatial Variation of Soil Salinity in the Mexicali Valley, Mexico: Application of a Practical Method for Agricultural Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation of irrigated lands through the process of soil salinization, or the buildup of salts in the soil, has hampered recent increases in agricultural productivity and threatens the sustainability of large-scale cultivation in critical agricultural regions of the world. Rapid detection of soil salinity on a regional basis has been identified as key for effective mitigation of such land degradation. The ability to detect regional patterns of soil salinity at an accuracy sufficient for regional-scale resource management is demonstrated using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. A case study of the Mexicali Valley of Baja California, Mexico was selected due to the region's agricultural significance and concern for future soil salinity increases. Surface soil salinity was mapped using georeferenced field measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), collected concurrently with Landsat 5 TM imagery. Correlations between EC measurements and common indices derived from the satellite imagery were used to produce a model of soil salinity through regression analysis. Landsat band 7, TNDVI, PCA 1, Tasseled Cap 3 and Tasseled Cap 5 were found to offer the most promising correlations with surface soil salinity. Generally low levels of soil salinity were detected, however, distinct areas of elevated surface salinity were detected at levels potentially impacting sensitive crops cultivated within the region. The difficulty detecting low levels of salinity and the mid-range spatial resolution of Landsat 5 TM imagery restrict the applicability of this methodology to the study of broad regional patterns of degradation most appropriate for use by regional resource managers.

Judkins, Gabriel; Myint, Soe

2012-09-01

308

Achievement of Spacecraft Autonomy Through the Thematic Application of Multiple Cooperating Intelligent Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given of UNICORN, a prototype system developed for the purpose of investigating artificial intelligence (AI) concepts supporting spacecraft autonomy. UNICORN employs thematic reasoning, of the type first described by Rodger Schank of Nort...

P. J. Rossomando

1992-01-01

309

IMPACTS OF PATCH SIZE AND LAND COVER HETEROGENEITY ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Landscape characteristics such as small patch size and land cover heterogeneity have been hypothesized to increase the likelihood of miss-classifying pixels during thematic image classification. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support these hypotheses,...

310

Thematic Literature and Curriculum for English Language Learners in Early Childhood Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of age-and language-appropriate thematic lit-erature into the early childhood curriculum can stimulate content-based academic learning for English language learners (ELLs). This systematic approach is particularly beneficial to young ELLs ages 3 through 8 because it provides background knowledge and cultural information along with opportunities to hear, speak, and interact with carefully crafted language in thematic and story contexts.

Betty Ansin Smallwood

311

The impact of thematic resolution on the patch-mosaic model of natural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that thematic resolution, i.e., the level of categorical detail of a thematic map expressed by the number of classes\\u000a included in the map legend, is an inherent component of the scale at which a landscape is analyzed. Changing the number of\\u000a classes can change the configuration of the patch mosaic as much as changing the grain does. We

Guillermo Castilla; Kerry Larkin; Julia Linke; Geoffrey J. Hay

2009-01-01

312

Une nouvelle analyse multi-temporelle d'images satellitales, les résidus de l'Analyse en Composantes Principales. Un cas d'étude: une série d'images Landsat Thematic Mapper de la Camargue, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé. Les méthodes d'analyses de séries temporelles d'images satellitales sont nombreuses. Après une brève revue de ces méthodes, une nouvelle approche est proposée. Elle consiste à calculer les résidus de l'ACP (Analyse en Composantes Principales) du tableau des NDVI par la procédure suivante: calculer les variables NDVI à chacune des dates; construire le tableau de données espace × temps, par

T. Naizot; A. Dervieux; J. Thioulouse; M. F. Bellan

2004-01-01

313

Une nouvelle analyse multi-temporelle d'images satellitales, les residus de l'Analyse en Composantes Principales. Un cas d'etude: une serie d'images Landsat Thematic Mapper de la Camargue, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resume´. Les methodes d'analyses de series temporelles d'images satellitales sont nombreuses. Apres une breve revue de ces methodes, une nouvelle approche est proposee. Elle consiste acalculer les residus de l'ACP (Analyse en Composantes Principales) du tableau des NDVI par la procedure suivante: calculer les variables NDVI achacune des dates; construire le tableau de donnees espace 6 temps, par accolement des

T. Naizot; Y. Auda; A. Dervieux; J. Thioulouse; et Bellan

2004-01-01

314

A visible and near-infrared photometric correction for Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the Moon obtained by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument were acquired at various local viewing geometries. To compensate for this, a visible near-infrared photometric correction for the M3 observations of the lunar surface has been derived. Images are corrected to the standard geometry of 30° phase angle with an incidence of 30° and an emission of 0°. The photometric correction is optimized for highland materials but is also a good approximation for mare deposits. The results are compared with ground-based observations of the lunar surface to validate the absolute reflectance of the M3 observations. This photometric model has been used to produce the v1.0 Level 2 delivery of the entire set of M3 data to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The photometric correction uses local topography, in this case derived from an early version of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter data, to more accurately determine viewing geometry. As desired, this photometric correction removes most of the topography of the M3 measurements. In this paper, two additional improvements of the photometric modeling are discussed: (1) an extrapolated phase function long ward of 2500 nm to avoid possible misinterpretation of spectra in the wavelength region that includes possible OH/H2O absorptions and (2) an empirical correction to remove a residual cross-track gradient in the data that likely is an uncorrected instrumental effect. New files for these two effects have been delivered to PDS and can be applied to the M3 observations.

Besse, S.; Sunshine, J.; Staid, M.; Boardman, J.; Pieters, C.; Guasqui, P.; Malaret, E.; McLaughlin, S.; Yokota, Y.; Li, J.-Y.

2013-01-01

315

Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent continuum slopes common to remotely sensed reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We have validated our continuum removal on a suite of laboratory reflectance spectra. Suites of olivine-dominated reflectance spectra from a small crater near Mare Moscoviense, the Copernicus central peak, Aristarchus, and the crater Marius in the Marius Hills were analyzed. Spectral diversity was detected in visual evaluation of the spectra and was quantified using the MGM. The MGM-derived band positions are used to estimate the olivine's composition in a relative sense. Spectra of olivines from Moscoviense exhibit diversity in their absorption features, and this diversity suggests some variation in olivine Fe/Mg content. Olivines from Copernicus are observed to be spectrally homogeneous and thus are predicted to be more compositionally homogeneous than those at Moscoviense but are of broadly similar composition to the Moscoviense olivines. Olivines from Aristarchus and Marius exhibit clear spectral differences from those at Moscoviense and Copernicus but also exhibit features that suggest contributions from other phases. If the various precautions discussed here are weighed carefully, the methods presented here can be used to make general predictions of absolute olivine composition (Fe/Mg content).

Isaacson, Peter J.; Pieters, Carle M.; Besse, Sebastien; Clark, Roger N.; Head, James W.; Klima, Rachel L.; Mustard, John F.; Petro, Noah E.; Staid, Matthew I.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Thaisen, Kevin G.; Tompkins, Stefanie

2011-04-01

316

Temporal Dynamics of Activation of Thematic and Functional Knowledge During Conceptual Processing of Manipulable Artifacts  

PubMed Central

The current research aimed at specifying the activation time course of different types of semantic information during object conceptual processing and the effect of context on this time course. We distinguished between thematic and functional knowledge and the specificity of functional similarity. Two experiments were conducted with healthy older adults using eye tracking in a word-to-picture matching task. The time course of gaze fixations was used to assess activation of distractor objects during the identification of manipulable artifact targets (e.g., broom). Distractors were (a) thematically related (e.g., dustpan), (b) related by a specific function (e.g., vacuum cleaner), or (c) related by a general function (e.g., sponge). Growth curve analyses were used to assess competition effects when target words were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and embedded in contextual sentences of different generality levels (Experiment 2). In the absence of context, there was earlier and shorter lasting activation of thematically related as compared to functionally related objects. The time course difference was more pronounced for general functions than specific functions. When contexts were provided, functional similarities that were congruent with context generality level increased in salience with earlier activation of those objects. Context had little impact on thematic activation time course. These data demonstrate that processing a single manipulable artifact concept implicitly activates thematic and functional knowledge with different time courses and that context speeds activation of context-congruent functional similarity.

Kalenine, Solene; Mirman, Daniel; Middleton, Erica L.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

2012-01-01

317

Reconciliation of Disparate Earth Observation Thematic Data through Semantics Driven Middleware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing demand for digital databases of topographic and thematic information for a multitude of applications in environmental management, and also in data integration and efficient updating of other spatially oriented data. These thematic datasets are highly heterogeneous in syntax, structure and semantics as they are produced and provided by a variety of agencies having different definitions, standards and applications of the data. In this paper we focus on the semantic heterogeneity in thematic information sources, as it has been widely recognized that semantic conflicts are responsible for the most serious data heterogeneity problems hindering the efficient interoperability between heterogeneous information sources. In particular, we focus on the semantic heterogeneities present in the land cover classification schemes corresponding to the North America Land cover characterization data. We propose a framework (Semantics Enabled Thematic data Integration (SETI)) that describes in depth the methodology involved in the reconciliation of such semantic conflicts by adopting the emerging semantic web technologies. Ontologies were developed for the classification schemes and a shared ontology approach for integration of the application level Ontologies is described. A semantics driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been developed in Java that implements the SETI framework for the integration of disparate thematic data sources. We employ Description Logics (DL) based reasoning on the terminological knowledgebase developed for the land cover characterization which enables querying and retrieval that goes beyond just keyword based searches.

Durbha, S. S.; King, R. L.; Ling, Y.; Younan, N. H.; Shah, V. P.

2006-12-01

318

Adaptive thematic object extraction from remote sensing image based on spectral matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thematic object extraction is of great significance to remote sensing applications. Its procedure is always complicated while the result is not so precise, especially for object with various subtypes. An adaptive extraction method based on spectral matching, considering both spectral and spatial information, is proposed to extract thematic object completely and accurately from remote sensing image. This method considers the essential spectral representation of thematic object through endmember selection, and then achieves complete extraction via "whole-local" scale spectral matching. Experiments on ETM+ images to extract water and bare land are employed, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness and universality of this method through comparison with maximum likelihood classification and support vector machine (SVM) classification.

Qiao, Cheng; Luo, Jiancheng; Shen, Zhanfeng; Zhu, Zhiwen; Ming, Dongping

2012-10-01

319

Matching of beams on the MAPPER MATRIX tool: a simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

So far, the CMOS technology roadmap has been consistent with Moore's law, even if manufacturing photolithography tools are now operating beyond their resolution limit. This has been made feasible at the expense of an intensive joint work between designers and process people who have successfully enabled double patterning processes. Tools that can provide photo lithographers with some relief are on their way although not yet in production. Among them, massively parallel mask-less electron beam lithography stands out as a serious candidate since it can achieve the required resolution at the right cost of ownership provided targeted throughput performance is reached. This paper focuses on this latter technique and more precisely, reports on simulation works performed using an emulator of the high volume manufacturing tool being developed by MAPPER Lithography, called MATRIX. In a nutshell, the MATRIX tool will operate using more than 13,000 beams, each one writing a stripe 2?m wide. Each beam itself will be composed of 49 individual sub-beams that can be blanked independently in order to write pixels onto the wafer. The residual placement errors and any current mismatch between the beams will be measured in-situ and corrected through the data path. In order to validate that this concept can actually work, the authors have built an off-line emulator of the data treatment performed down to the information sent to the blanker. It has then been plugged into an electron beam simulator such that the performance on real designs can be tested. In this paper, the methodology used for the corrections is explained as well as the validation process applied. The results of an extensive statistical study are presented showing CD, placement and residual scaling errors simulated on a set of predefined key structures assuming current and misplacement ranges within the MATRIX tool specifications, applying various correction solutions. Based on the collected data, it is shown that CD uniformity on the MATRIX tool is better than +/-10% 3? taking into account data path, beam variation, stitching and shot noise effects, meeting specifications for circuits designed at 64nm pitch.

Belledent, J.; Berglund, G. Z. M.; Brandt, P. L.; Bérard-Bergery, S.; Wieland, M. J.; Pain, L.

2013-03-01

320

TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper): database-driven creation and analysis of transcriptome maps from multiple sources  

PubMed Central

Background Several tools have been developed to perform global gene expression profile data analysis, to search for specific chromosomal regions whose features meet defined criteria as well as to study neighbouring gene expression. However, most of these tools are tailored for a specific use in a particular context (e.g. they are species-specific, or limited to a particular data format) and they typically accept only gene lists as input. Results TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper) is a new general tool that allows the simple generation and analysis of quantitative transcriptome maps, starting from any source listing gene expression values for a given gene set (e.g. expression microarrays), implemented as a relational database. It includes a parser able to assign univocal and updated gene symbols to gene identifiers from different data sources. Moreover, TRAM is able to perform intra-sample and inter-sample data normalization, including an original variant of quantile normalization (scaled quantile), useful to normalize data from platforms with highly different numbers of investigated genes. When in 'Map' mode, the software generates a quantitative representation of the transcriptome of a sample (or of a pool of samples) and identifies if segments of defined lengths are over/under-expressed compared to the desired threshold. When in 'Cluster' mode, the software searches for a set of over/under-expressed consecutive genes. Statistical significance for all results is calculated with respect to genes localized on the same chromosome or to all genome genes. Transcriptome maps, showing differential expression between two sample groups, relative to two different biological conditions, may be easily generated. We present the results of a biological model test, based on a meta-analysis comparison between a sample pool of human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and a sample pool of megakaryocytic cells. Biologically relevant chromosomal segments and gene clusters with differential expression during the differentiation toward megakaryocyte were identified. Conclusions TRAM is designed to create, and statistically analyze, quantitative transcriptome maps, based on gene expression data from multiple sources. The release includes FileMaker Pro database management runtime application and it is freely available at http://apollo11.isto.unibo.it/software/, along with preconfigured implementations for mapping of human, mouse and zebrafish transcriptomes.

2011-01-01

321

A Year at the Moon on Chandrayaan-1: Moon Mineralogy Mapper Data in a Global Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper, M3, a high-fidelity high-resolution imaging spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1 has completed two of its four scheduled optical periods during its maiden year in lunar orbit, collecting over 4.6 billion spectra covering most of the lunar surface. These imaging periods (November 2008-February 2009 and April 2009-August 2009) correspond to times of equatorial solar zenith angle less than sixty degrees, relative to the Chandrayaan-1 orbit. The vast majority of the data collected in these first two optical periods are in Global Mode (85 binned spectral bands from 460 to 2976 nanometers with a 2-by-2 binned angular pixel size of 1.4 milliradians). Full-resolution Target Mode data (259 spectral bands and 0.7 milliradian pixels) will be the focus of the remaining two collection periods. Chandrayaan-1 operated initially in a 100-kilometer polar orbit, yielding 70 meter Target pixels and 140 meter Global pixels. The orbit was raised on May 20, 2009, during Optical Period 2, to a nominal 200 kilometer altitude, effectively doubling the pixel spatial sizes. While the high spatial and spectral resolutions of the data allow detailed examination of specific local areas on the Moon, they can also reveal remarkable features when combined, processed and viewed in a global context. Using preliminary calibration and selenolocation, we have explored the spectral and spatial properties of the Moon as a whole as revealed by M3. The data display striking new diversity and information related to surface mineralogy, distribution of volatiles, thermal processes and photometry. Large volumes of complex imaging spectrometry data are, by their nature, simultaneously information-rich and challenging to process. For an initial assessment of the gross information content of the data set we performed a Principal Components analysis on the entire suite of Global Mode imagery. More than a dozen linearly independent spectral dimensions are present, even at the global scale. An animation of a Grand Tour Projection, sweeping a three-dimensional red/green/blue image visualization window through the M3 hyperdimensional spectral space, confirms both spatially and spectrally that the M3 data will revolutionize our understanding of our nearest celestial neighbor.

Boardman, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Clark, R. N.; Combe, J.; Green, R. O.; Isaacson, P.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T. B.; Nettles, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Staid, M.; Varanasi, P.

2009-12-01

322

Compositional anomalies in Moscoviense Basin: Constraints from integrated Diviner, Moon Mineralogy Mapper and Spectral Profiler analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations using near-infrared (NIR) data from the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), Kaguya Spectral Profiler (SP) and Multiband Imager (MI) have shown the Moscoviense Basin on the lunar farside has a range of compositional anomalies including exposures rich in the oxide Mg-spinel and the mafic minerals olivine and pyroxene, [Yamamoto et al., 2010; Pieters et al., 2011] and have posed a range of possibilities for their origin, including possible exposures of lunar mantle material. A mantle origin would require some or all of these anomalies to contain little feldspar. However, in the presence of substantial quantities of mafic minerals the abundance of feldspar is highly uncertain in near-infrared data, particularly if the feldspar is shocked and does not feature a diagnostic absorption. In contrast, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer thermal-infrared (TIR) data are more linearly sensitive to feldspar in the presence of mafic minerals and these data are used to make more accurate estimates of mafic to feldspar ratio. Diviner has three channels near 8 microns (7.81, 8.28, and 8.55) designed to characterize the Christiansen feature (CF) of lunar soils, a well studied indicator of silicate mineralogy (Greenhagen et al., 2010; Paige et al., 2010). However, in Diviner data the class of the mafic (i.e. pyroxene v. olivine) strongly influences the spectral interpretation because CF is affected by the three major minerals classes, leading to a range of possible compositions. Specifically, feldspar and olivine show CF values at the extremes of the range of CF values, while pyroxene has an intermediate CF value. It is the combination of NIR data and TIR CF data that provides an unambiguous solution. NIR data is very sensitive to the olivine-pyroxene ratio as demonstrated by many studies (e.g. Cloutis & Gaffey, 1990; Sunshine et al., 1990). In turn, given the ratio of pyroxene to olivine, the CF parameter provides a unique solution with respect to feldspar abundance. Preliminary analysis of six mafic exposures in Moscoviense, including both previously reported exposures [Yamamoto et al., 2010; Pieters et al., 2011] and new exposures discovered using Diviner data show a range of feldspar contents, ranging from very small abundances of feldspar to approximately equal abundances of mafics and feldspar. Additionally, the spectral properties of Mg-spinels of the compositions inferred from NIR data are poorly known at TIR wavelengths. The peculiar NIR properties of Mg-spinel strongly suggest that few other mafic minerals can be present, so these exposures enable us to characterize the CF properties of Mg-spinel to aid interpretation of other unique locations.

Greenhagen, B. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Paige, D. A.

2011-12-01

323

Spirit of aging rising: cross-cutting thematic modules to enrich foundation graduate social work courses.  

PubMed

To enrich an urban generalist MSW program serving a diverse aging community, an innovative approach was initiated. A team of students, faculty and a field instructor collaborated in creating and evaluating 3 sets of cross-cutting thematic modules. An overview of the thematic modules (addressing elder abuse, family caregiving, and mental health), integrated across multiple curriculum areas (Human Behavior and the Social Environment, Macro/Policy, Practice and Research), is presented along with results of a faculty focus group evaluating the process of coordinating module content for one full week of class per foundation area (one topic per quarter). PMID:17210534

Saltz Corley, Connie; Davis, Pamela; Jackson, LaTina; Bach, Marlena Stuart

2007-01-01

324

Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

325

Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States. (UNH)  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

326

Live Site Demonstrations: Former Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area, Laramie, WY. MetalMapper Data Analysis for Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project involved the processing and analysis of MetalMapper data collected at the Pole Mountain Target and Maneuver Area. 2,370 data files were inverted and analyzed using the UX-Analyze add-on to Geosoft's Oasis Montaj software package. Once analysi...

J. E. Baptiste

2012-01-01

327

Hidden in Plain Sight: Spinel-rich Deposits on the Nearside of the Moon as Revealed by Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper has revealed a new, unique, and unexpected spinel-rich lithology on the central nearside. These spinel-rich deposits are found only among the Sinus Aestuum pyroclastic deposits and are notably absent from nearby Rima Bode.

Sunshine, J. M.; Besse, S.; Petro, N. E.; Pieters, C. M.; Head, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Klima, R. L.; Isaacson, P. J.; Boardman, J. W.; Clark, R. C.; M3 Team

2010-03-01

328

Hidden in Plain Sight: Spinel-rich Deposits on the Nearside of the Moon as Revealed by Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper has revealed a new, unique, and unexpected spinel-rich lithology on the central nearside. These spinel-rich deposits are found only among the Sinus Aestuum pyroclastic deposits and are notably absent from nearby Rima Bode.

J. M. Sunshine; S. Besse; N. E. Petro; C. M. Pieters; J. W. Head; L. A. Taylor; R. L. Klima; P. J. Isaacson; J. W. Boardman; R. C. Clark

2010-01-01

329

Spectroscopic Character and Spatial Distribution of Hydroxyl and Water Absorption Features Measured on the Lunar Surface by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper Imaging Spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1 has a broad spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm. By design, the range was specified to extend to 3000 nm to allow for possible detection of trace volatile compounds that possess absorption bands near 3000 nm. Soon after acquisition and calibration of a large fraction of the lunar surface in early

R. O. Green; C. M. Pieters; J. Goswami; R. N. Clark; M. Annadurai; J. W. Boardman; B. J. Buratti; J. Combe; M. D. Dyar; J. W. Head; C. Hibbitts; M. Hicks; P. Isaacson; R. L. Klima; G. Y. Kramer; S. Kumar; K. E. Livo; S. Lundeen; E. Malaret; T. B. McCord; J. F. Mustard; J. W. Nettles; N. E. Petro; C. J. Runyon; M. Staid; J. M. Sunshine; L. A. Taylor; S. Tompkins; P. Varanasi

2009-01-01

330

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety

R. O. Green; C. Pieters; P. Mouroulis; M. Eastwood; J. Boardman; T. Glavich; P. Isaacson; M. Annadurai; S. Besse; D. Barr; B. Buratti; D. Cate; A. Chatterjee; R. Clark; L. Cheek; J. Combe; D. Dhingra; V. Essandoh; S. Geier; J. N. Goswami; V. Haemmerle; J. Head; L. Hovland; S. Hyman; R. Klima; T. Koch; G. Kramer; A. S. K. Kumar; K. Lee; S. Lundeen; E. Malaret; T. McCord; S. McLaughlin; J. Mustard; J. Nettles; N. Petro; K. Plourde; C. Racho; J. Rodriquez; C. Runyon; G. Sellar; C. Smith; H. Sobel; M. Staid; J. Sunshine; L. Taylor; K. Thaisen; S. Tompkins; H. Tseng; G. Vane; P. Varanasi; M. White; D. Wilson

2011-01-01

331

Assessing a Thematic Condom Advertising Campaign on Condom Use in Urban Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to assess communication processes involving a thematic condom advertising campaign in Pakistan in 2009. To evaluate the social marketing campaign for Touch condoms, the authors conducted a nationally representative survey of 1,606 men married to women aged 15–49 years. About 15% of urban married men were aware of Touch advertising. After controlling for a range of other

Sohail Agha; Christopher E. Beaudoin

2011-01-01

332

Assessing a Thematic Condom Advertising Campaign on Condom Use in Urban Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to assess communication processes involving a thematic condom advertising campaign in Pakistan in 2009. To evaluate the social marketing campaign for Touch condoms, the authors conducted a nationally representative survey of 1,606 men married to women aged 15–49 years. About 15% of urban married men were aware of Touch advertising. After controlling for a range of other

Sohail Agha; Christopher E. Beaudoin

2012-01-01

333

Process Recording Revisited: A Learning-Oriented Thematic Approach Integrating Field Education and Classroom Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A learning-oriented thematic model of process recording is proposed in which the student's recording is based on internal and external learning themes, pre-selected by the student and the field education instructor. The themes, which serve as the organizing focus of the recording, parallel classroom curricula, agency service, and student learning…

Black, Phyllis N.; Feld, Allen

2006-01-01

334

Images From Old Myths: An Analysis Of Six Thematic Motifs In The Modern Irish Short Story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six major motifs from ancient Celtic narratives and sagas recur thematically as myth-forming structural elements in the modern Irish short story: The Exile, The Priest, The Bestiary, The Sea, The Big House, and The Dead. Transformed into symbols of modern life, these particular images or archetypes link the traditional mythologies with the modern stories. Because each motif is an image

Laurelynn Smith Kaplan

1981-01-01

335

Corruption in the South African construction industry: a thematic analysis of verbatim comments from survey participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corruption is a pervasive stain on the construction industry in many countries. South Africa is no exception. A questionnaire survey showed that corruption there is perceived to be widespread. Beyond the quantitative survey findings, thematic analysis was used to explore the verbatim comments offered by many survey participants. This analysis clarified the nature and extent of corruption more precisely and

Paul Anthony Bowen; Peter J. Edwards; Keith Cattell

2012-01-01

336

The variable experiences of becoming retired and seeking retirement guidance: a qualitative thematic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty interviews were conducted with individuals across the UK who had retired between two and ten years ago, with the aim of exploring the variability of retirement experiences in terms of (a) retirement antecedents\\/reasons for retirement, (b) change in wellbeing and satisfaction over time, (c) personal relationships and (d) retirement guidance. Interviews were subject to a multi-level thematic qualitative analysis.

Oliver C. Robinson; James D. Demetre; Roslyn H. Corney

2011-01-01

337

Understanding Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Benefits of Thematic Center-Based Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmentally appropriate practice acknowledges and respects the unique learning styles, approaches, and individual needs of students, and is the key to establishing an effective and sucessful learning environment. Early childhood classrooms that utilize this approach, in combination with hands-on exploration and thematic, center-based instruction, maximize the support of students' overall physical, emotional, cognitive, and social development. It is this type

Santia Mazzaferro

2008-01-01

338

Slavery in America: A Thematic Unit Appropriate for Adult Literacy Classrooms. Teacher to Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic unit is designed for adult literacy students with at least a third grade reading level. Objectives are tied closely to skills needed for the General Educational Development tests and include computer and workplace skills. Equipped for the Future (EFF) roles and skills are also integrated into the plans. Best practice teaching…

White, Lisa

339

Chandler as a biographer: content thematic analysis of Chandler's biography of Henry Varnum Poor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper analyzes Chandler's biography of Henry Varnum Poor to assess Chandler's contribution to management history as a biographer. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using Winter's content thematic analysis, measure Poor's motivational needs for achievement, affiliation-intimacy, and power, as they are depicted by Chandler throughout the stages of Poor's career as a business editor, analyst, and reformer. Findings – Our analysis

Leigh Ann Bynum; Russell W. Clayton; Mario Hayek; Miriam Moeller; Wallace A. Williams Jr

2009-01-01

340

Maintaining Basic Skills through Summer Thematic Tutoring with Exceptional Students in Residential Foster Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A thematic teaching program and portfolio assessment were used to maintain basic academic language arts and mathematics skills during the summer for 21 elementary students placed in residential foster care settings as victims of physical and/or sexual abuse. All activities were designed around the selected theme of a safari. Students listened to…

Colombey, Hanna

341

Medical Student Professionalism Narratives: A Thematic Analysis and Interdisciplinary Comparative Investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Professionalism development is influenced by the informal and hidden curriculum. The primary objective of this study was to better understand this experiential learning in the setting of the Emergency Department (ED). Secondarily, the study aimed to explore differences in the informal curriculum between Emergency Medicine (EM) and Internal Medicine (IM) clerkships. Methods A thematic analysis was conducted on 377 professionalism narratives from medical students completing a required EM clerkship from July 2008 through May 2010. The narratives were analyzed using established thematic categories from prior research as well as basic descriptive characteristics. Chi-square analysis was used to compare the frequency of thematic categories to prior research in IM. Finally, emerging themes not fully appreciated in the established thematic categories were created using grounded theory. Results Observations involving interactions between attending physician and patient were most abundant. The narratives were coded as positive 198 times, negative 128 times, and hybrid 37 times. The two most abundant narrative themes involved manifesting respect (36.9%) and spending time (23.7%). Both of these themes were statistically more likely to be noted by students on EM clerkships compared to IM clerkships. Finally, one new theme regarding cynicism emerged during analysis. Conclusions This analysis describes an informal curriculum that is diverse in themes. Student narratives suggest their clinical experiences to be influential on professionalism development. Medical students focus on different aspects of professionalism depending on clerkship specialty.

2011-01-01

342

Thematic Evolutionary Analysis of Core Agricultural and Natural Resource Academic Journals in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a core journal to be developed, fruitful research articles, diversity, and continuity of research topics are essential. The main goal of this study was to trace the thematic evolution (historical development) of agricultural and natural resource academic journals (ANAJs) published by public academic institutions in Iran. To this end, the study analyzed 2,961 articles published from 1905–2003 in all

Iraj Malek Mohammadi

2008-01-01

343

Using a thematic organizer to facilitate transfer learning with college developmental studies students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether an instructional strategy could facilitate generalizability of ideas from one context to another. A text adjunct, called a thematic organizer, was developed to activate students’ prior knowledge and illustrate that attributes of a concept may differ when it is presented in two different contexts. The subjects were forty?eight low ability readers enrolled in college developmental studies

Marino C. Alvarez; Victoria J. Risko

1988-01-01

344

THEMATIC ACCURACY OF THE 1992 NATIONAL LAND-COVER DATA FOR THE WESTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The MultiResolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortium sponsored production of the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) for the conterminous United States, using Landsat imagery collected on a target year of 1992 (1992 NLCD). Here we report the thematic accuracy of the 1992 NLCD f...

345

A Thematic Analysis of Edwin L. Godkin's Editorials in the "Nation," 1865-1899.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This thematic analysis of Edward L. Godkin's editorials appearing in the "Nation" seeks to reveal the major themes on which he wrote and then, by quantitative analysis, to provide some order to the themes and to study the interaction of the themes. Five hundred and twelve editorials, written over a period of 35 years and representing one-third of…

Lee, Richard W.

346

MAPPING SPATIAL ACCURACY AND ESTIMATING LANDSCAPE INDICATORS FROM THEMATIC LAND COVER MAPS USING FUZZY SET THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a fuzzy set-based method of mapping spatial accuracy of thematic map and computing several ecological indicators while taking into account spatial variation of accuracy associated with different land cover types and other factors (e.g., slope, soil type, etc.)...

347

Thematic Organizers as a Tool for Teaching from a Wholetheme Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning in the wholetheme approach is defined as reorganizing one's own intuitive knowledge base, as opposed to storing facts. This presentation discusses several thematic organizers to illustrate their role as a teaching tool in helping learners reorganize their own intuitive knowledge base. Intimately tied to the brain's ground-figure processes…

Iran-Nejad, Asghar

348

Application of the Multi-disciplinary Thematic Seminar Method in two Homecare Cases - A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. A significant problem ,with current health information technologies is that they poorly support collaborative work of healthcare professionals, sometimes leading to a ,fragmentation of workflow ,and disruption of healthcare ,processes. Objective: This paper presents two homecare cases, both applying multi- disciplinary thematic seminars (MdTS) as a ,collaborative method ,for user needs elicitation and requirements ,specification. Methods: This study describes

Isabella Scandurra; Maria Hägglund; Sabine Koch

2008-01-01

349

Suicide Notes from India and the United States: A Thematic Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or…

Leenaars, Antoon A.; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T. D.; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey

2010-01-01

350

EEG Theta and Alpha Responses Reveal Qualitative Differences in Processing Taxonomic versus Thematic Semantic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the importance of semantic relationships to our understanding of semantic knowledge, the nature of the neural processes underlying these abilities are not well understood. In order to investigate these processes, 20 healthy adults listened to thematically related (e.g., leash-dog), taxonomically related (e.g., horse-dog), or unrelated…

Maguire, Mandy J.; Brier, Matthew R.; Ferree, Thomas C.

2010-01-01

351

An Intelligent Learning Diagnosis System for Web-Based Thematic Learning Platform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This work proposes an intelligent learning diagnosis system that supports a Web-based thematic learning model, which aims to cultivate learners' ability of knowledge integration by giving the learners the opportunities to select the learning topics that they are interested, and gain knowledge on the specific topics by surfing on the Internet to…

Huang, Chenn-Jung; Liu, Ming-Chou; Chu, San-Shine; Cheng, Chih-Lun

2007-01-01

352

The Stories of People's Lives: Thematic Investigations and the Development of a Critical Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stories of people's lives are captured in historic and contemporary media. Through these lenses, students and teachers can see into the world of social issues and movements, figures, and events. Ultimately, they yield a range of perspectives across time and space. In this article, the author introduces thematic investigations as a systematic…

Jewett, Sarah

2007-01-01

353

Curriculum Change in Uganda: Teacher Perspectives on the New Thematic Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on a fieldwork study, this article seeks to investigate the implementation of "thematic curriculum" in Uganda from the perspectives of teachers. The article shows that although the majority of teachers are enthusiastic about the new curriculum, their implementation efforts are constrained by a multitude of challenges. The findings raise…

Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

2010-01-01

354

The Influence of Thematic and Spatial Resolution on Maps of a Coral Reef Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four maps of a reef ecosystem were created using two levels of both spatial and thematic resolution commonly used in science and management applications. Differences among maps were quantified using ecologically meaningful landscape indices. The objective was to inform research and management activities that are based on maps of reef ecosystems. Results indicate that inferences regarding the structure and organization

Matthew S. Kendall; Thomas Miller

2008-01-01

355

Food, Hunger, and Poverty: A Thematic Approach to Integrating Service Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a thematic approach that can be used to integrate service learning into the introductory sociology curriculum. Describes the different institutional contexts that may influence its effectiveness, the course content and objectives, the service-learning component, use of themes, and student outcomes. (CMK)|

Sullivan-Catlin, Heather

2002-01-01

356

The effect of experimental arousal of the affiliation motive on thematic apperception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a method of scoring thematic apperception stories to measure strength of motivation for social acceptance, or n Affiliation. Imaginative stories were written in response to pictures by two groups of male Ss under experimental conditions designed to differ in the degree to which motivation to be accepted and liked by others would

John W. Atkinson; Roger W. Heyns; Joseph Veroff

1954-01-01

357

Thematization in EFL Students' Composition Writing and Its Relation to Academic Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study made frequency and functional analysis of thematization in English students' compositions in Shahid Chamran University. Ninety students were selected and divided into three groups, followed by a homogeneity test (Fowler and Coe, 1976). An educated native speaker was also used as a criterion measure. Then, they were asked to narrate…

Jalilifar, Alireza

2010-01-01

358

High School PREP: Thematic Planning, Fall '83. Preparation for Raising Educational Performance. [HS PREP Experimental Program].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a handbook designed for carrying out the goals and objectives of Preparation for Raising Educational Performance (PREP), a thematic, remedial program for ninth graders in New York City public schools. The lessons presented in the handbook model an approach to learning which follows the patterns of actual language development: listening,…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

359

Disambiguation of Homonyms in Real-Time Japanese Sentence Processing: Case-Markings and Thematic Constraint  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper experimentally examines the effects of the case-markings and the constraint on the assignments and the receptions of thematic roles in Japanese sentence processing. A self-paced reading experiment was carried out with syntactically well-controlled Japanese sentences including homonyms locally ambiguous between nouns and verbs. The…

Tokimoto, Shingo

2005-01-01

360

Learning effects of thematic peer-review: A qualitative analysis of reflective journals on spiritual care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the learning effects of thematic peer-review discussion groups (Hendriksen, 2000. Begeleid intervisie model, Collegiale advisering en probleemoplossing, Nelissen, Baarn.) on developing nursing students’ competence in providing spiritual care. It also discusses the factors that might influence the learning process. The method of peer-review is a form of reflective learning based on the theory of experiential learning (Kolb,

René van Leeuwen; Lucas J. Tiesinga; Henk Jochemsen; Doeke Post

2009-01-01

361

Social processing deficits in agenesis of the corpus callosum: narratives from the Thematic Apperception Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical observations suggest that individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) and normal IQ may have deficits in social intelligence. This study analyzed responses by normally intelligent individuals with ACC to pictures from the Thematic Apperception Test. A rating system was developed to assess three elements of story-generation: story logic, social understanding, and common content. Six individuals with ACC

Lynn K Paul; Beatrix Schieffer; Warren S Brown

2004-01-01

362

Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a growing recognition of the value of synthesising qualitative research in the evidence base in order to facilitate effective and appropriate health care. In response to this, methods for undertaking these syntheses are currently being developed. Thematic analysis is a method that is often used to analyse data in primary qualitative research. This paper reports on the

James Thomas; Angela Harden

2008-01-01

363

What Does 'Recovery' Mean to People with Neck Pain? Results of a Descriptive Thematic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the meaning of being recovered as perceived by people with chronic mechanical neck pain. Methods: To determine the way people with neck pain would describe a recovered state a descriptive thematic approach was used. A nominal focus group technique, written reflections, and one-on-one semi-structured interviews were used to collect sufficient data. Data from the focus groups were analyzed both through vote tallying and thematic analysis. Reflections and interviews were analyzed thematically by two independent researchers. Triangulation and member-checking were employed to establish trustworthiness of results. Results: A total of 35 people, primarily females with neck pain of traumatic origin, participated in this study. Thematic analysis identified 6 themes that adequately described the data: absent or manageable symptoms, having the physical capacity one ought to have, participation in life roles, feeling positive emotions, autonomy & spontaneity, and re-establishing a sense of self. Member checking and triangulation suggested data saturation and accuracy of the generated themes. Discussion: Recovery from neck pain appears to be informed by factors that fit with existing models of health, quality of life and satisfaction. Basing recovery solely on symptom or activity-level measures risks inaccurate estimates of recovery trajectories from traumatic or non-traumatic neck pain.

Walton, David M; MacDermid, Joy C; Taylor, Todd

2013-01-01

364

Efficacy of Thematic Units on Language and Literacy: A Collaborative Study of a Shelter Unit Intervention with Struggling First Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of using thematic units in small group instructional settings for struggling readers to increase oral language in the areas of receptive, expressive, and written vocabulary. This research examined the efficacy of using thematic units in small group instructional settings for struggling readers…

Hale, Suzan L.

2010-01-01

365

Mathematics and Middle School Students of Mexican Descent: The Effects of Thematically Integrated Instruction. Research Report No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the effects of thematically integrated mathematics instruction on achievement, attitudes, and motivation in mathematics among middle school students of Mexican descent. A school-university collaborative effort led to the development and testing of a thematic approach undertaken as a means of contextualizing instruction for…

Henderson, Ronald W.; Landesman, Edward M.

366

The structural and thematic mapping of coral reefs using high Resolution SPOT data: Application to the Tétembia reef (New Caledonia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of high?resolution SPOT data for the structural and thematic mapping of shallow coral reefs. Results are presented as structural and thematic maps of the main reef environment types. Different substrate themes including soft bottom, coral débris, coral rubble, and living coral have been identified. The separation of various living coral themes, as measured by differences

Olivier Y. de Vel; William Bour

1990-01-01

367

Analysis of land use and cover change in Sichuan province, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of environmental policies in Sichuan province was executed to restore the grassland and forestland on some degraded lands after 2000. But the effectiveness on land use and cover change (LUCC) has not yet been systematically investigated. We undertook a detailed analysis about land use and cover change between 2000 and 2005 in Sichuan province. Our study mainly utilized remotely sensed data of 2005 China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite II (CBERS II) and 2000 Landsat 5 thematic mapper (TM) data. Land use and cover change between 2000 and 2005 was visually interpreted by CBERS II with ArcInfo Workstation based on land use and cover database interpreted from TM. Then LUCC was validated by ground truth with global positioning system receivers. Our analysis illustrates that the conservation policies to restore the grassland and forestland were successful to a lesser extent. But more measures to restore the grassland and forestland of Sichuan province have to be taken further in the future.

Zheng, Zezhong; Yang, Wunian; Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Xiaoting

2012-01-01

368

Application of remote sensing techniques for monitoring the thermal pollution of cooling-water discharge from nuclear power plant.  

PubMed

This article introduces a practical method to investigate thermal pollution in coastal water from satellite data. The intensity and distribution areas of thermal pollution by the heated effluent discharge from the nuclear power plant on Daya Bay, southern China were investigated by using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal band data from 1994 to 2001. A local algorithm was developed, based on sea-truth data of water surface temperature measured when the satellite passed over the study area. The local algorithm was then applied to estimate water temperature from TM data. It shows that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means to quantitatively monitor the intensity of thermal pollution and to retrieve a very detailed distribution pattern of thermal pollution in coastal waters. The remotely-sensed results of the thermal pollution can be used for environmental management of coastal waters. PMID:12929815

Chen, Chuqun; Shi, Ping; Mao, Qingwen

2003-08-01

369

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity validation effort has been pursued with selected data sets including an Earth-view data set. With this effort an initial validation of the on-orbit performance of the imaging spectrometer has been achieved, including validation of the cross-track spectral uniformity and spectral instantaneous field of view uniformity. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper is the first imaging spectrometer to measure a data set of this kind at the Moon. These calibrated science measurements are being used to address the full set of science goals and objectives for this mission.

Green, R. O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J. N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A. S. K.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

2011-10-01

370

A Thematic Analysis of Theoretical Models for Translational Science in Nursing: Mapping the Field  

PubMed Central

Background The quantity and diversity of conceptual models in translational science may complicate rather than advance the use of theory. Purpose This paper offers a comparative thematic analysis of the models available to inform knowledge development, transfer, and utilization. Method Literature searches identified 47 models for knowledge translation. Four thematic areas emerged: (1) evidence-based practice and knowledge transformation processes; (2) strategic change to promote adoption of new knowledge; (3) knowledge exchange and synthesis for application and inquiry; (4) designing and interpreting dissemination research. Discussion This analysis distinguishes the contributions made by leaders and researchers at each phase in the process of discovery, development, and service delivery. It also informs the selection of models to guide activities in knowledge translation. Conclusions A flexible theoretical stance is essential to simultaneously develop new knowledge and accelerate the translation of that knowledge into practice behaviors and programs of care that support optimal patient outcomes.

Mitchell, Sandra A.; Fisher, Cheryl A.; Hastings, Clare E.; Silverman, Leanne B.; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

2010-01-01

371

The system of thematic classification of an integrated databank of geological research considering polydisciplinarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions about the construction of linguistic tools of an integrated databank on geology on a unified basis considering the\\u000a polydisciplinarity and comparison of generally adopted information retrieval languages are examined. A system model of thematic\\u000a classification for the integration of heterogeneous geological information on the basis of research problems is offered. Using\\u000a the example of the common rubricators at the

D. A. Kuz’mina

2010-01-01

372

Nurse and pharmacist supplementary prescribing in the UK—A thematic review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesSupplementary prescribing (SP) represents a recent development in non-medical prescribing in the UK, involving a tripartite agreement between independent medical prescriber, dependent prescriber and patient, enabling the dependent prescriber to prescribe in accordance with a patient-specific clinical management plan (CMP). The aim in this paper is to review, thematically, the literature on nurse and pharmacist SP, to inform further research,

Richard Jason Cooper; Claire Anderson; Tony Avery; Paul Bissell; Louise Guillaume; Allen Hutchinson; Veronica James; Joanne Lymn; Aileen McIntosh; Elizabeth Murphy; Julie Ratcliffe; Sue Read; Paul Ward

2008-01-01

373

Suicide in Different Cultures: A Thematic Comparison of Suicide Notes From Turkey and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be central; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual analysis of 60 suicide notes drawn from Turkey and the United States, matched for age and sex, was undertaken, based on Leenaars’s empirical-based multidimensional model of suicide. The results suggested that there were more

Antoon A. Leenaars; Asl?han Sayin; Selçuk Candansayar; Lindsey Leenaars; Taner Akar; Birol Demirel

2010-01-01

374

A study of thematic content in hospital mission statements: a question of values.  

PubMed

We examined the content of Canadian hospital mission statements using thematic content analysis. The mission statements that we studied varied in terms of both content and length. Although there was some content related to goals designed to ensure organizational visibility, survival, and competitiveness, the domain of values predominated over our entire coding structure. The primary value-related theme that emerged concerned the importance of patient care. PMID:16292007

Williams, Jaime; Smythe, William; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David C; Martin, Ronald

375

Qualitative analysis in gay men's health research: comparing thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis.  

PubMed

Gay men's health typically relies on traditional forms of qualitative analysis, such as thematic analysis, and would benefit from a diversity of analytic approaches. Such diversity offers public health researchers a breadth of tools to address different kinds of research questions and, thus, substantiate different types of social phenomenon relevant to the health and wellbeing of gay men. In this article, I compare and contrast three qualitative analytic approaches: thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis. I demonstrate and distinguish their key analytic assumptions by applying each approach to a single data excerpt taken from a public health interview conducted for a broader study on gay men's health. I engage in a discussion of each approach in relation to three themes: its utility for gay men's health, its approach to dilemmas of voice, and its capacity for reflexivity. I advocate that qualitative researchers should capitalise on the full range of qualitative analytic approaches to achieve the goals of gay men's health. However, I specifically encourage qualitative researchers to engage with conversation analysis, not only because of its capacity to resolve dilemmas of voice and to achieve reflexivity, but also for its ability to capture forms of social life hitherto undocumented through thematic and critical discourse analysis. PMID:22853179

Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P

2012-01-01

376

What works in offender profiling? A comparison of typological, thematic, and multivariate models.  

PubMed

Utilizing a sample of 85 stranger rapists, three models (Hazelwood's (1987) Power and Anger FBI model, the Behavioral Thematic evaluation of Canter, Bennell, Alison, and Reddy (2003), and the Massachusetts Treatment Center: Rape classification system revision 3 (MTC:R3, Knight & Prentky, 1990)) were contrasted with a multivariate regression approach to assess their ability to predict an offender's previous convictions from crime scene information. In respect of the three aforementioned models, logistic regression and AUC analysis indicated that the Power and Anger FBI model was the most effective, followed by the MTC:R3, and then the Behavioral Thematic evaluation. However, predictive analyses based on a multivariate approach using a mixture of crime scene behaviors, as opposed to the grouping of behaviors into themes or types as in the three models, far exceeded the predictive ability of the three models under AUC analysis. The results suggest that emphasis should be placed on further exploration of the predictive validity of each of the individual behaviors that comprise existing thematic, typological, and multivariate classification systems, especially those that are subject to inter-situational variation. PMID:19437553

Goodwill, Alasdair M; Alison, Laurence J; Beech, Anthony R

377

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper Imaging Spectrometer: Instrument Description, Calibration, and On-Orbit Validation of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial and Uniformity Characteristics (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) imaging spectrometer built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) , is a guest instrument on the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. M3 measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm at 10 nm sampling. The instrument has a 24 degree spatial field-of-view

R. O. Green; C. M. Pieters; J. W. Boardman; M. Eastwood; S. Geier; S. Lundeen; T. B. McCord; P. Mouroulis; G. Sellar; P. Varanasi; M. White

2009-01-01

378

On-Orbit Science Measurement Performance of the NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Imaging Spectrometer On-Board the Chandrayaan-1 Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is an imaging spectrometer of the pushbroom type that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm at 10 nm resolution with a nominal target mode spatial sampling of 70 m with 600 cross-track spatial elements. M3 has a signal-to-noise ratio requirement of 400 for equatorial illumination and 100 for polar illumination levels. In

Robert Green; C. Pieters

2009-01-01

379

Diviner observations of crystalline plagioclase-rich regions on the Moon as observed by the Spectral Profiler and Moon Mineralogy Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near infrared observations from the SELENE Spectral Profiler (SP) and the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) have been used to identify iron-bearing crystalline plagioclase in the central peaks of several highland craters and the Inner and Outer Rook mountains of Orientale Basin. The crystalline plagioclase-rich regions are identified by a diagnostic absorption band at 1.2 mum and a lack of

K. L. Donaldson Hanna; M. B. Wyatt; B. T. Greenhagen; D. A. Paige; P. G. Lucey; C. M. Pieters; J. Helbert; A. Maturilli

2009-01-01

380

Remote sensing imageries for land cover and water quality dynamics on the west coast of Korea.  

PubMed

As human activities influence land cover changes, the environment on human life such as water quality, has been impacted. In particular, huge constructions or reclamation projects are responsible for dramatic land cover changes. The Saemangeum area in South Korea has been one of the largest reclamation projects to progress nearly in two decades. In this study, Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images were used to classify land cover types in the Saemangeum area. A change detection method was utilized to determine the impacts of the reclamation project. While wetland, grassland, and urban areas were increased, forest, water, and agricultural areas were decreased during the reclamation progress. Water quality analysis related to the land cover changes was conducted to determine the influence of reclamation construction on the environment. Chemical oxygen demand and suspended sediment variability were significantly impacted by the sea current changes after the dyke construction. On the contrary, water temperature and dissolved oxygen were affected by the seasonal influences rather than the reclamation construction. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus were influenced by the fertilizers and pesticides as a result of agricultural activity. The trends of suspended sediment from Landsat images were similar with those from the ground observation sites and also impacted by the dyke construction. PMID:23685982

Choi, Minha; Han, Seungjae

2013-05-19

381

Terrestrial mapping of the Oak Ridge Reservation: Phase 1. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the first phase in development of a habitat map of the terrestrial ecosystem on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). During this phase, a satellite image of the ORR was classified into land use/land cover types, the classified image was incorporated into a geographic information system map of the ORR, and the accuracy of the map was assessed. A habitat map is a critical foundation for evaluation of the potential impact of historical (or ongoing) contamination on terrestrial biota of the ORR. The abundance and distribution of wildlife species and plant communities of concern are intrinsically linked to the abundance and distribution of habitat on which those species and communities rely. Thus, the impact of spatially discrete patches of contamination on those biota is directly proportional to the degree of overlap between habitat and contamination. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite imagery was used to create the land use/land cover map. A Thematic Mapper image consists of seven images of the same point on the earth produced by seven separate sensors, each of which detects a unique part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Separately and in various combinations, these spectral images can be correlated with vegetation type or other land cover type. The image selected for this map was from April 13, 1994, and covers 189,000 ha.

Washington-Allen, R.A.; Ashwood, T.L.; Christensen, S.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Scarbrough-Luther, P. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-06-01

382

Dark and background response stability for the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) is a pushbroom sensor that will be a part of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is a joint mission between NASA and the USGS. The TIRS instrument will continue to collect the thermal infrared data that are currently being collected by the Thematic Mapper and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus on Landsats 5 and 7, respectively. One of the key requirements of the new sensor is that the dark and background response be stable to ensure proper data continuity from the legacy Landsat instruments. Pre launch testing of the instrument has recently been completed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which included calibration collects that mimic those that will be performed on orbit. These collects include images of a cold plate meant to simulate the deep space calibration source as viewed by the instrument in flight. The data from these collects give insight into the stability of the instrument's dark and background response, as well as factors that may cause these responses to vary. This paper quantifies the measured background and dark response of TIRS as well as its stability.

Vanderwerff, Kelly; Montanaro, Matthew

2012-09-01

383

Participants in Action: The Interplay of Aspectual Meanings and Thematic Relations in the Semantics of Semitic Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to demonstrate that event structure and thematic relations are closely intertwined. Specifically, we show that\\u000a in Modern Hebrew the choice of a morphological template has profound effects on the event structure of derived verbs. These\\u000a effects are correlated with the thematic features marked by the templates, and are mediated by the aspectual classification\\u000a of the lexical material

Reut Tsarfaty

2005-01-01

384

Taxonomic and thematic categories: Neural correlates of categorization in an auditory-to-visual priming task using fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Categorization is a basic principle of knowledge organization in the brain. The goal of the current fMRI study was to compare the neural correlates of thematic (e.g., car - garage) and taxonomic (e.g., couch - bed) categories under automatic processing conditions using auditory-to-visual semantic priming. Behavioral data revealed a priming effect for thematically but not for taxonomically related word pairs.

Katharina Sass; Olga Sachs; Sören Krach; Tilo Kircher

2009-01-01

385

Metadata Mapper: a web service for mapping data between independent visual analysis components, guided by perceptual rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The explosion of online scientific data from experiments, simulations, and observations has given rise to an avalanche of algorithmic, visualization and imaging methods. There has also been enormous growth in the introduction of tools that provide interactive interfaces for exploring these data dynamically. Most systems, however, do not support the realtime exploration of patterns and relationships across tools and do not provide guidance on which colors, colormaps or visual metaphors will be most effective. In this paper, we introduce a general architecture for sharing metadata between applications and a "Metadata Mapper" component that allows the analyst to decide how metadata from one component should be represented in another, guided by perceptual rules. This system is designed to support "brushing [1]," in which highlighting a region of interest in one application automatically highlights corresponding values in another, allowing the scientist to develop insights from multiple sources. Our work builds on the component-based iPlant Cyberinfrastructure [2] and provides a general approach to supporting interactive, exploration across independent visualization and visual analysis components.

Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Matasci, Naim

2011-02-01

386

Tracking Changes in Northwest and Southeast Greenland with NASA's Operation IceBridge and the Airborne Topographic Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northwestern and southeastern flanks of the Greenland Ice Sheet have each been undergoing major regional-scale changes in recent years. The southeast experienced near synchronous thinning of many of its major outlet glaciers, followed by slowing of much of this thinning and even thickening of some glaciers more recently. Widespread thinning in the northwest, particularly along the upper Baffin Bay coast south of Thule Air Base, probably began much more recently, according to results from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and other techniques. Here we present initial results from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), deployed in extensive airborne surveys of these and other Greenland regions as part of the 2010 IceBridge campaign. During this campaign we flew centerline surveys of approximately a dozen glaciers in each of these two regions, most of which were exact repeats of earlier surveys and from which we can derive precise changes in the surface topography of these glaciers. In the case of the southeast, many of the glacier centerlines have now been surveyed in three consecutive years with the ATM and we can derive not only changes in the glaciers, but trends in these changes as well. We present these results and assess how they compare with GRACE results and other investigations.

Sonntag, J. G.; Krabill, W. B.; Manizade, S. S.; Yungel, J.

2010-12-01

387

Development, importance, and effect of a ground truth correction for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper reflectance data set  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the effect and importance of a ground truth correction for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) level 2 (reflectance) data set. This correction is derived from extensive laboratory characterizations of mature feldspathic lunar soils and is designed to improve the accuracy of 1 µm absorption features in M3 reflectance data. To evaluate the correction, the band strength across a subset of the feldspathic highlands terrane (FHT) is analyzed with M3 imaging spectroscopy data. Using M3 reflectance data and derived products, we find significant differences in band strength and shape between M3 observations collected over identical terrain but under different observational and operational conditions. The ground truth correction minimizes these differences in 1 µm band strengths and also brings the 1 µm band strengths measured with M3 data into closer agreement with laboratory measurements of lunar soil samples. Although the FHT region studied was found to have very low band strengths, the M3 ground truth correction results in overall stronger absorption features for all mature soils relative to uncorrected level 2 (reflectance) data for the same region. These differences between M3 data collected under different operational conditions and the effects of the ground truth correction, while minor in appearance, can have significant implications for interpretations of any regional soil analyses with M3 data that rely on absolute 1 µm absorption feature strength. The M3 ground truth correction corrects only wavelengths below ~1500 nm, and comparisons between corrected and uncorrected wavelengths must be done with caution.

Isaacson, Peter J.; Petro, Noah E.; Pieters, Carle M.; Besse, Sebastien; Boardman, Joseph W.; Clark, Roger N.; Green, Robert O.; Lundeen, Sarah; Malaret, Erick; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

2013-03-01

388

Professionals' views of fetal monitoring during labour: a systematic review and thematic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Current recommendations do not support the use of continuous electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for low risk women during labour, yet EFM remains widespread in clinical practice. Consideration of the views, perspectives and experiences of individuals directly concerned with EFM application may be beneficial for identifying barriers to and facilitators for implementing evidence-based maternity care. The aim of this paper is to offer insight and understanding, through systematic review and thematic analysis, of research into professionals’ views on fetal heart rate monitoring during labour. Methods Any study whose aim was to explore professional views of fetal monitoring during labour was considered eligible for inclusion. The electronic databases of MEDLINE (1966–2010), CINAHL (1980–2010), EMBASE (1974–2010) and Maternity and Infant Care: MIDIRS (1971–2010) were searched in January 2010 and an updated search was performed in March 2012. Quality appraisal of each included study was performed. Data extraction tables were developed to collect data. Data synthesis was by thematic analysis. Results Eleven studies, including 1,194 participants, were identified and included in this review. Four themes emerged from the data: 1) reassurance, 2) technology, 3) communication/education and 4) midwife by proxy. Conclusion This systematic review and thematic analysis offers insight into some of the views of professionals on fetal monitoring during labour. It provides evidence for the continuing use of EFM when caring for low-risk women, contrary to current research evidence. Further research to ascertain how some of these views might be addressed to ensure the provision of evidence-based care for women and their babies is recommended.

2012-01-01

389

A coefficient of agreement as a measure of thematic classification accuracy.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The classification error matrix typically contains tabulated results of accuracy evaluation for a thematic classification, such as a land-use and land-cover map. Diagonal elements of the matrix represent counts correct. The usual designation of classification accuracy has been total percent correct. Nondiagonal elements of the matrix have usually been neglected. A coefficient of agreement is determined for the interpreted map as a whole, and individually for each interpreted category. These coefficients utilize all cell values in the matrix.-from Authors

Rosenfield, G. H.; Fitzpatrick-Lins, K.

1986-01-01

390

Prediction of locus of control orientation from the Thematic Apperception Test.  

PubMed

This study attempted to predict locus of control orientation from responses to the Thematic Apperception Test. Forty male and 40 female undergraduates who scored at the extremes on the Rotter Locus of Control Scale responded to TAT cards. By use of Dies' rating procedure; two judges predicted Ss' locus of control orientation with 70% accuracy. Because an external orientation was predicted with much greater efficiency than an internal orientation, it was suggested that the TAT cards may elicit more external than internal responses. PMID:1165285

Johnson, B L; Kilmann, P R

1975-07-01

391

The experiences of suffering of palliative care informal caregivers in Malaysia: a thematic analysis.  

PubMed

A qualitative study was conducted with semi-structured interviews to explore the experiences of suffering in 15 palliative care informal caregivers in University Malaya Medical Centre. The data were thematically analyzed. Seven basic themes were generated (1) empathic suffering, (2) anticipatory grief, (3) obsessive-compulsive suffering, (4) helpless-powerless suffering, (5) obligatory suffering, (6) impedimental suffering, and (7) repercussion suffering. A model of compassion suffering was conceptualized from the analysis. This model may serve as a guide in the assessment and management of suffering in palliative care informal caregivers. PMID:23341445

Beng, Tan Seng; Guan, Ng Chong; Seang, Lim Kheng; Pathmawathi, Subramaniam; Ming, Moy Foong; Jane, Lim Ee; Chin, Loh Ee; Loong, Lam Chee

2013-01-21

392

Introduction to the Thematic Minireview Series on Redox-active Protein Modifications and Signaling.  

PubMed

The dynamics of redox metabolism necessitate cellular strategies for sensing redox changes and for responding to them. A common mechanism for receiving and transmitting redox changes is via reversible modifications of protein cysteine residues. A plethora of cysteine modifications have been described, including sulfenylation, glutathionylation, and disulfide formation. These post-translational modifications have the potential to alter protein structure and/or function and to modulate cellular processes ranging from division to death and from circadian rhythms to secretion. The focus of this thematic minireview series is cysteine modifications in response to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. PMID:23861402

Banerjee, Ruma

2013-07-16

393

Different influences on lexical priming for integrative, thematic, and taxonomic relations  

PubMed Central

Word pairs may be integrative (i.e., combination of two concepts into one meaningful entity; e.g., fruit—cake), thematically related (i.e., connected in time and place; e.g., party—cake), and/or taxonomically related (i.e., shared features and category co-members; e.g., muffin—cake). Using participant ratings and computational measures, we demonstrated distinct patterns across measures of similarity and co-occurrence, and familiarity for each relational construct in two different item sets. In a standard lexical decision task (LDT) with various delays between prime and target presentation (SOAs), target RTs and priming magnitudes were consistent across the three relations for both item sets. However, across the SOAs, there were distinct patterns among the three relations on some of the underlying measures influencing target word recognition (LSA, Google, and BEAGLE). These distinct patterns suggest different mechanisms of lexical priming and further demonstrate that integrative relations are distinct from thematic and taxonomic relations.

Jones, Lara L.; Golonka, Sabrina

2012-01-01

394

Taxonomic and thematic categories: Neural correlates of categorization in an auditory-to-visual priming task using fMRI.  

PubMed

Categorization is a basic principle of knowledge organization in the brain. The goal of the current fMRI study was to compare the neural correlates of thematic (e.g., car - garage) and taxonomic (e.g., couch - bed) categories under automatic processing conditions using auditory-to-visual semantic priming. Behavioral data revealed a priming effect for thematically but not for taxonomically related word pairs. On a neural level, thematically related words led to a left-lateralized temporal activation (superior temporal sulcus), whereas taxonomically related word pairs evoked a right-lateralized frontal activation and within the hippocampus. A direct comparison between both categories revealed enhanced activation for thematically related and response suppression for taxonomically related trials in the left superior temporal sulcus. These results suggest that processing of thematic and taxonomic categories leads to activation of distinct brain areas. The mainly right-lateralized fronto-temporal activation for taxonomic relations suggests increased attention and effort for processing this category. The interaction within the left superior temporal sulcus reflects the processing and retrieval of semantic relations whereby specific memory contents seem to influence the direction of activation. PMID:19306848

Sass, Katharina; Sachs, Olga; Krach, Sören; Kircher, Tilo

2009-03-21

395

Intra field CD uniformity correction by Scanner Dose Mapper using Galileo mask transmission mapping as the CDU data source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intra-field CD variation can be corrected through wafer CD feedback to the scanner in what is called the Dose Mapper (DOMA) process. This will correct errors contributed from both reticle and scanner processes. Scanner process errors include uncorrected illumination non uniformities and projection lens aberration. However, this is a tedious process involving actual wafer printing and representative CD measurement from multiple sites. A novel method demonstrates that measuring the full-field reticle transmission with Galileo® can be utilized to generate an intensity correction file for the scanner DOMA feature. This correction file will include the reticle transmission map and the scanner CD signature that has been derived in a preliminary step and stored in a database. The scanner database is periodically updated after preventive maintenance with CD from a monitoring reticle for a specific process. This method is easy to implement as no extra monitoring feature is needed on the production reticle for data collection and the new reticle received can be immediately implemented to a production run without the need for wafer CD data collection. Correlation of the reticle transmission and wafer CD measurement can be up to 90% depending on the quality of CD data measurements and repeatability of the scanner signature. CD mapping on the Galileo® tool takes about 20 minutes for 1500 data points (there is no limit to the number of measurement point on the Galileo®), which is more than enough for the DOMA process. Turn Around Time (TAT) for the whole DOMA process can thus be shortened from 3 Days to about an hour with significant savings in time and resources for the fab.

Chua, Gek Soon; Eran, Chason; Tan, Sia Kim; Choi, Byoung Il; Ng, Teng Hwee; Lua, Poh Ling; Sharoni, Ofir; Ben-Zvi, Guy

2010-03-01

396

MAPPER: a search engine for the computational identification of putative transcription factor binding sites in multiple genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Cis-regulatory modules are combinations of regulatory elements occurring in close proximity to each other that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes. The ability to identify them in a genome-wide manner depends on the availability of accurate models and of search methods able to detect putative regulatory elements with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. Results We describe the implementation of a search method for putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) based on hidden Markov models built from alignments of known sites. We built 1,079 models of TFBSs using experimentally determined sequence alignments of sites provided by the TRANSFAC and JASPAR databases and used them to scan sequences of the human, mouse, fly, worm and yeast genomes. In several cases tested the method identified correctly experimentally characterized sites, with better specificity and sensitivity than other similar computational methods. Moreover, a large-scale comparison using synthetic data showed that in the majority of cases our method performed significantly better than a nucleotide weight matrix-based method. Conclusion The search engine, available at , allows the identification, visualization and selection of putative TFBSs occurring in the promoter or other regions of a gene from the human, mouse, fly, worm and yeast genomes. In addition it allows the user to upload a sequence to query and to build a model by supplying a multiple sequence alignment of binding sites for a transcription factor of interest. Due to its extensive database of models, powerful search engine and flexible interface, MAPPER represents an effective resource for the large-scale computational analysis of transcriptional regulation.

Marinescu, Voichita D; Kohane, Isaac S; Riva, Alberto

2005-01-01

397

[Contributions by integrative community therapy to users of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS) and family members: thematic oral history].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze contributions by integrative community therapy to behavior changes in users of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS). This was a comprehensive-interpretative study with a qualitative approach, based on thematic oral history. The study site was the Caminhar Center in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil. The study material was produced with interviews conducted with six subjects and was discussed using thematic analysis as proposed by Minayo, providing the basis for two major thematic lines: integrative community therapy as a liberating praxis and changes that make the difference. The subjects' stories revealed significant changes in the personal, professional, and community fields, based on their inclusion in the integrative community therapy circles, a strategy that promoted the recovery of processes of natural socialization that constitute human life. The use of integrative community therapy was clearly related to proposals for the participants' psychosocial integration and rehabilitation. PMID:24127097

Carvalho, Mariana Albernaz Pinheiro de; Dias, Maria Djair; Miranda, Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de; Ferreira Filha, Maria de Oliveira

2013-10-01

398

Thematic Analysis of Iranian Female Adolescents' Perceptions About HIV/AIDS: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate common opinions and beliefs about HIV/AIDS among Iranian teenager girls. Methods: This Qualitative study (face-to-face interviews with tape recording) was conducted among fifty female teenager school students in Urmia-Iran. Results: The thematic analysis indicated the main information sources for HIV/AIDS among teenage girls to be their mother and teachers. The participants had little concern about the dissemination of HIV/AIDS in Iran. Using a common syringe is mentioned as the main risk factor for HIV transmission. There were some misconceptions about the at-risk group among teenage girls. Conclusions: Considering the misconceptions among the teenage girls, their beliefs should be reformed and reorganized in order to reduce the risk of exposure to HIV. The best practice is training life skills in the school level.

Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Hatami, Sanaz; FayyazJahani, Farshid; Ahmadnezhad, Somayyeh; Karamyyar, Mohammad; BazarganHejazi, Shahrzad

2013-01-01

399

Responses to online photographs of non-suicidal self-injury: a thematic analysis.  

PubMed

There is concern that graphic pictures of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) may detrimentally impact vulnerable viewers--namely those who may self-injure. How individuals (most who have, but some of whom have not, self-injured) respond to photographs of NSSI is currently unknown. Thematic analysis was used to assess testimony regarding NSSI imagery online. Analysis of testimony regarding NSSI photographs revealed a dichotomy. Individuals reporting positive perceptions said the photographs reduced loneliness and NSSI enactment. People reporting negative perceptions argued photographs reinforce and encourage NSSI. Experiences of being triggered by NSSI images were described by several participants. Photographs of NSSI posted online may have several risks for viewers. It is important to achieve a greater understanding of the effects of various forms of online NSSI content and to develop supportive NSSI resources on the Internet. PMID:23889572

Baker, Thomas G; Lewis, Stephen P

2013-01-01

400

Our Place in the World: An Inquiry-based Thematic Curriculum Resource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our Place in the World, a curriculum unit for elementary and secondary teachers by Dr. Mary Erickson, Professor of Art Education at Arizona State University, is the first in a series of ten curriculum units (Stories of Art) to be made available at the ArtsEdNet (Getty Education Institute for the Arts) site. The unit is driven by an inquiry-based approach to learning, in which "students formulate questions and search for answers in their own experiences and by consulting knowledgeable sources." However, it also incorporates thematic and discipline-based approaches. The unit consists of seven core lessons, as well as several supplementary lessons, including a theme portfolio, imagination story, art making, and art history, among others.

Erickson, Mary.

1997-01-01

401

The thematic apperception test: toward a standard measure of the big three motives.  

PubMed

The application of the Thematic Apperception Test to the assessment of motives has been heralded as an important milestone in personality psychology. However, although this approach is well established, there is at present no standard battery of cues for measuring the Big Three motives (achievement, affiliation, power). Furthermore, the extent to which scoring subcategories contribute to overall motive scores has been neglected. Our research with students and managers examined the effectiveness of picture cues in eliciting motive imagery and the prevalence of scoring subcategories within each motive scoring system. Results from 2 data sets comprising 547 men and women suggested that there were 3 cues that should be retained for future research and that motive scoring systems could be refined through removal of redundant subcategories. Further research is needed to systematically investigate the effectiveness of a standard battery of cues and the validity of revised motive scoring systems. PMID:17134336

Langan-Fox, Janice; Grant, Sharon

2006-12-01

402

An investigation of the motivations driving the online representation of self-injury: a thematic analysis.  

PubMed

The objetive of the study was to identify a) the motivations for communicating about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a publicly accessible online forum, b) The significance (if any) of the "publicness" of the behavior. Using a Thematic Analysis of 423 text-based posts from an online NSSI forum, 5 motivations for using the site were identified: confessional, marking a turning point, acting as a deterrent, dispelling myths and offering or seeking support. Motivations for using the site differ markedly from motivations for engaging in NSSI and tend to be more outwardly focused. The publicness of the site therefore seems to be significant in terms of bearing witness, providing the opportunity to confront negative stereotypes, and the ability to seek and offer support to like-minded individuals. PMID:23614489

Rodham, K; Gavin, J; Lewis, S P; St Dennis, J M; Bandalli, P

2013-01-01

403

Thematic content analysis of work-family interactions: Retired cosmonauts’ reflections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anecdotal evidence and qualitative research attest to the importance of work-family interactions pre-, during and post-missions. This study uses thematic content analysis to quantify characteristics of work-family interactions and how these changed by stage of cosmonauts’ career, identifying the effect of space career variables (e.g., time in space and station) on such interactions during and post-career. Using a thematic scoring scheme developed for this study, we coded work-family interactions identified from interviews with 20 retired male cosmonauts. The majority of work-family interactions were ones in which work overlapped into family life and work hindered or interfered with the family situation. The most common resolution was that family adjusted to work, and the mood or tone about this outcome was almost equally divided among negative, positive and neutral. Changes in work-family interactions and their resolution over the cosmonaut’s life showed that the significant interactions were most evident during the cosmonaut career. Although the cosmonaut career has high work demands, it did adjust for family when the need arose. The Russian Space Agency (RKS) eased the impact of the periodic absences, especially through regular communication sessions. Positive work-family interactions, i.e., work or family helping the opposite role, were more likely for those who had been on ISS, not Mir, and for those whose last flight was after 2000. Our data reflect retired cosmonauts’ recollections of work-family interactions during their career. Examples of work overlapping into family life and work viewed as interfering with family life were possibly more salient or better remembered than work or family helping the other role.

Johnson, Phyllis J.; Asmaro, Deyar; Suedfeld, Peter; Gushin, Vadim

2012-12-01

404

Using NASA`s Airborne Topographic Mapper IV to Quantify Geomorphic Change in Arid Southwestern Stream Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how arid stream systems respond to individual climatic events is often difficult given the dynamic and `flashy' nature of most watersheds and the unpredictable nature of individual storm events. Until recently conventional methods for quantifying change dictated the use of stream gauge measurements coupled with periodic cross-section measurements to quantify changes in large-scale channel geometry. Using this approach to quantify change across large areas often proves to be impractical and unattainable given the laborious nature of most surveying techniques including modern GPS systems. Alternately, airborne laser technologies such as NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) are capable of quantifying small-scale changes (~5-10cm) across large-scale terrain rapidly and accurately. The ATM was developed at the NASA-GSFC Wallops Flight Facility. Its current version, ATM-4, measures topography 5,000 times per second across a 45-degree swath below the aircraft by transmitting a 532nm (green) laser pulse and receiving the backscattered signal in a high-speed waveform digitizer. The laser range measurements are combined with aircraft location from GPS and attitude from an inertial navigation system (INS) to provide a precise XYZ coordinate for each (~1-meter diameter) laser footprint on the ground. Our work focuses on the use of airborne laser altimetry to quantify the nature of individual surfaces and the geomorphic change that occurs within small arid stream systems during significant storm events. In September of 2003 and 2005 acquisition surveys using NASA's ATM-IV were flown over Mission Creek, a small arid stream system in Southern California's Mojave Desert with a relatively long gauging history (>40yrs), allowing us to quantify the geomorphic change occurring within the channel as a result of the record storm events during the winter of 2004-2005. Preliminary results associated with our work are encouraging and lead us to believe that when compared to conventional GPS surveys that the accuracy of airborne data is well within the boundaries of data collection necessary for accurate scientific measurements.

Finnegan, D. C.; Krabill, W.; Lichvar, R. W.; Ericsson, M. P.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Yungel, J.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.

2005-12-01

405

An Exploration of Therapists' Reactions to Working with Children Displaying Sexually Problematic Behaviour: A Thematic Analytic Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nine therapists were interviewed regarding their reactions to children displaying sexually problematic behaviour and how they managed these reactions. The framework of countertransference was used to understand therapists' reactions. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The participants reported a wide range of powerful and…

Shevade, Devayani; Norris, Emma; Swann, Richard

2011-01-01

406

THREDDS Second Generation (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services): Engaging the GIS Community and Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central mission of the THREDDS (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) project is to make it possible for educators and researchers to publish, locate, analyze, and visualize data in a wide variety educational settings. In the initial phase THREDDS established a solid, working prototype of services and tools to enable data providers to create inventory catalogs of the data

B. Domenico; J. Caron; E. Davis; D. Edelson; R. Kambic; R. Pandya; S. Nativi

2003-01-01

407

Strengthening the science–policy interface: experiences from a European Thematic Network on Air Pollution and Health (AIRNET)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic Network projects are increasingly viewed as promising mechanisms for improving the link between science and policy, particularly in light of further improving air quality that will require substantial financial investments. As the literature identifying principles or guidelines for planning and implementing such network projects is limited, this paper describes the experience of the European Commission (Directorate General Research) funded

Annike I. Totlandsdal; Nina Fudge; Eric G. Sanderson; Leendert van Bree; Bert Brunekreef

2007-01-01

408

An exploration of therapists' reactions to working with children displaying sexually problematic behaviour: a thematic analytic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine therapists were interviewed regarding their reactions to children displaying sexually problematic behaviour and how they managed these reactions. The framework of countertransference was used to understand therapists' reactions. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The participants reported a wide range of powerful and intense reactions including powerlessness, feeling deskilled, fear, shock, having sexual feelings and feeling like an

Devayani Shevade; Emma Norris; Richard Swann

2011-01-01

409

Hemispheric sensitivity to thematic role information derived from active and passive verbs: An event related brain potentials study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research examining differences in the way the left (LH) and right (RH) hemispheres of the brain process language have used the visual half-field (VHF) paradigm to examine whether each hemisphere can independently process information from sentences. The current study expanded upon such work by using event related brain potential (ERP) measures to examine how the comprehension of thematic role

Christopher A. Schwint

2007-01-01

410

Korean Deaf Adolescents' Awareness of Thematic and Taxonomic Relations among Ordinary Concepts Represented by Pictures and Written Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individuals' relative awareness of thematic and taxonomic relations is influenced by factors such as language and background knowledge. Relatively weak in Korean language skills and also having relatively limited social opportunities, Korean deaf adolescents might be different from hearing adolescents in how they make decisions in taxonomically…

Yi, Kwangoh; Li, Degao; Park, Woon Seok; Park, Kyung-hee; Shim, Tae-taek; Kwern, Ohgoo; Kim, Jung Yeon

2011-01-01

411

Thematic Study and Guidelines: Identification and Evaluation of U.S. Army Cold War Era Military-Industrial Historic Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides a national historic context for the U.S. Army's military industrial involvement in the Cold War (1946-1989). The goal of the project was two-fold: (1) to develop a thematic study on historic properties associated specifically with t...

M. K. Lavin

1998-01-01

412

An Exploration of Therapists' Reactions to Working with Children Displaying Sexually Problematic Behaviour: A Thematic Analytic Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine therapists were interviewed regarding their reactions to children displaying sexually problematic behaviour and how they managed these reactions. The framework of countertransference was used to understand therapists' reactions. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The participants reported a wide range of powerful and…

Shevade, Devayani; Norris, Emma; Swann, Richard

2011-01-01

413

The Cross-Thematic Approach and the "New" Curricula of Greek Compulsory Education: Review of an Incompatible Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compulsory Greek education has long shown its need for revision. The Greek Pedagogical Institute (GPI) has presented the cross-thematic approach as a panacea, yet further changes are necessary in terms of experiential learning, school subject demarcation, teaching time management, teaching material, and the student/educator role. This article…

Aggelakos, Ostas

2007-01-01

414

The Role of Animacy and Thematic Relationships in Processing Active English Sentences: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent event-related potential studies report a P600 effect to incongruous verbs preceded by semantically associated inanimate noun-phrase (NP) arguments, e.g., "eat" in "At breakfast the eggs would eat...". This P600 effect may reflect the processing cost incurred when semantic-thematic relationships between critical verbs and their preceding NP…

Kuperberg, Gina R.; Kreher, Donna A.; Sitnikova, Tatiana; Caplan, David N.; Holcomb, Phillip J.

2007-01-01

415

Favorites, Friendships, Food, and Fantasy: Literature-Based Thematic Units for Early Primary. Volume One [and] Volume Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for teachers who are interested in learning how to use literature to enhance emergent literacy growth, this handbook, in two volumes, focuses on how to implement integrated, literature-based, thematic units that stress the development of effective strategies required of independent, self-directed competent readers and writers. The first…

Lukasevich, Ann; Pieronek, Florence

416

A Multi-Age, Multi-Ability, Thematically Taught, Full Inclusion Approach to Education: A Model Summer Educational Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a summer remedial program for third- and fifth-grade students administered by Valdosta State University in Georgia. The program utilizes a multi-age, multi-ability, thematic, and full-inclusion approach. Assessment of the program was based on data collected through interviews with 18 students and a survey of 28 parents. Both…

Hertzog, C. Jay; Diamond, Pollyann

417

Effectiveness of Thematic Teaching in Curriculum Design and Implementation in a Third Grade Classroom, Including a Planning Process Model Using the Michigan Model Core Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the thematic study approach in theory and practice as it applies to the elementary grades, specifically to third grade. Part 1 defines the theme study approach and explains the theories and assumptions that support it as a viable approach to teaching and learning. Part 2 examines research supporting the thematic approach.…

Colasanti, Angela M.; Follo, Eric

418

Involving the Students: Outcomes and Experiences from the Participation of the Board of European Students of Technology in the Thematic Network E4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to keep on developing the European dimension of engineering education, the European Commission decided to launch the thematic network Enhancing Engineering Education in Europe (E4) to continue the work done in the previous thematic network, Higher European Engineering Education (H3E). As in H3E, the input of students was considered to be…

Coniavitis, E.; Jarnefelt, C.; Wojewoda, N.

2005-01-01

419

A theoretical basis and methodology for the quantitative evaluation of thematic map series from SAR/InSAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR (InSAR) data are increasingly being used for specific operational purposes such as detailed elevation maps, detection of military targets, and coastline mapping of perpetually cloud-covered areas. One topic that has been studied extensively since the 1970's is the generation of thematic maps from this data. However, most of the relevant literature relies on highly labor-intensive approaches to yield "accurate" results for a particular scene, by fine-tuning parameters to minimize the "error" in the scene (as compared to sampled ground truth for the same scene). Consequently, it remains to be seen whether or how these data can be used to produce thematic map series efficiently and reliably in the face of varying landscapes, sensors, processors, classifiers, and output requirements. To the best of our knowledge, no one has yet examined the linked, complex, and multi-faceted issues involved in using SAR/InSAR data for this purpose; indeed, even a basis for conducting such a study has not been determined. This study adapts recent ISO (International Organization of Standardization) standards on measurand, repeatability, and reproducibility and applies them to the study of these issues. The standards are applied to analyze the range of measurement uncertainties associated with the end-to-end processes that are involved in generating thematic maps. These processes are: (1) the physical interaction of the SAR/InSAR signal with various terrain and landscape characteristics; (2) antenna characteristics and signal processing steps in generating an image; (3) image classification models and algorithms; and (4) standard map output requirements. The primary outcome is the development of a methodology through applying the ISO principles to thematic map classification of SAR/InSAR data. The methodology is expected to aid in determining the expected quality of a SAR/InSAR-based thematic map series and its fitness for intended end uses, by associating a fuller measure of confidence with the results.

Stevenson, Paula Jean

2001-07-01

420

Natural gas leak mapper  

DOEpatents

A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

2008-05-20

421

World Mapper: Income Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Map animation sized by the population living on a given income per day. The lowest category is less than $100 dollars per day, while the highest is over $200 dollars per day. Provides a graphic representation of world inequality. In the beginning the map is dominated by Africa, while by the end that continent has nearly disappeared in a map made up of North America and Europe. Because it focuses on absolute numbers it ought to be compared to the population map: http://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?selected=2

The University Of Michigan, The U.

422

Thematic Review Series: Sphingolipids. Biodiversity of sphingoid bases ("sphingosines") and related amino alcohols*  

PubMed Central

“Sphingosin” was first described by J. L. W. Thudichum in 1884 and structurally characterized as 2S,3R,4E-2-aminooctadec-4-ene-1,3-diol in 1947 by Herb Carter, who also proposed the designation of “lipides derived from sphingosine as sphingolipides.” This category of amino alcohols is now known to encompass hundreds of compounds that are referred to as sphingoid bases and sphingoid base-like compounds, which vary in chain length, number, position, and stereochemistry of double bonds, hydroxyl groups, and other functionalities. Some have especially intriguing features, such as the tail-to-tail combination of two sphingoid bases in the ?,?-sphingoids produced by sponges. Most of these compounds participate in cell structure and regulation, and some (such as the fumonisins) disrupt normal sphingolipid metabolism and cause plant and animal disease. Many of the naturally occurring and synthetic sphingoid bases are cytotoxic for cancer cells and pathogenic microorganisms or have other potentially useful bioactivities; hence, they offer promise as pharmaceutical leads. This thematic review gives an overview of the biodiversity of the backbones of sphingolipids and the broader field of naturally occurring and synthetic sphingoid base-like compounds.

Pruett, Sarah T.; Bushnev, Anatoliy; Hagedorn, Kerri; Adiga, Madhura; Haynes, Christopher A.; Sullards, M. Cameron; Liotta, Dennis C.; Merrill, Alfred H.

2008-01-01

423

Acculturation in elite sport: a thematic analysis of immigrant athletes and coaches.  

PubMed

Abstract To identify key issues concerning the acculturation of immigrant athletes in sport psychology, a thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006 ) was conducted on focus group interview data from immigrant elite athletes relocated to Canada (n = 13) and coaches working with such athletes (n = 10). Two central themes were identified: (a) navigating two world views which referred to acculturation as a fluid process where athletes navigated between cultural norms of the home community and the host community, and (b) acculturation loads, which referred to whether immigrants and those in the host country shared acculturation (i.e., acculturation as a two-way process) or managed the load with or without support from others (i.e., acculturation as one-directional). Each of these central themes comprised sub-themes, which provided further insight into the experiences of acculturation for immigrant elite athletes. From the project, the authors recommend further research utilising case studies to provide a holistic description of the acculturation process from the vantage of various people within the sport context. PMID:23688005

Schinke, Robert Joel; McGannon, Kerry R; Battochio, Randy Cesar; Wells, Greg D

2013-05-20

424

Thematic clustering of text documents using an EM-based approach  

PubMed Central

Clustering textual contents is an important step in mining useful information on the web or other text-based resources. The common task in text clustering is to handle text in a multi-dimensional space, and to partition documents into groups, where each group contains documents that are similar to each other. However, this strategy lacks a comprehensive view for humans in general since it cannot explain the main subject of each cluster. Utilizing semantic information can solve this problem, but it needs a well-defined ontology or pre-labeled gold standard set. In this paper, we present a thematic clustering algorithm for text documents. Given text, subject terms are extracted and used for clustering documents in a probabilistic framework. An EM approach is used to ensure documents are assigned to correct subjects, hence it converges to a locally optimal solution. The proposed method is distinctive because its results are sufficiently explanatory for human understanding as well as efficient for clustering performance. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides a competitive performance compared to other state-of-the-art approaches. We also show that the extracted themes from the MEDLINE® dataset represent the subjects of clusters reasonably well.

2012-01-01

425

Visual-spatial exploration of thematic spaces: a comparative study of three visualization models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scatter graphs are a popular medium for visualizing spatial- semantic structures derived from abstract information spaces. For small spaces such graphs can be an effective means of reducing high-dimensional information into two or three spatial dimensions. As dimensionally increases, representing the thematic diversity of documents using spatial proximity alone becomes less and less effective. This paper reports an experiment designed to determine whether, for larger spaces, benefits are to be gained from adding visual links between document nodes as an additional means of representing the most important semantic relationships. Two well known algorithms, minimum spanning trees (MST) and pathfinder associative networks (PFNET), were tested against both a scatter graph visualization, derived from factor analysis, and a traditional list-based hypertext interface. It was hypothesized that visual links would facilitate users' comprehension of the information space with corresponding gains in information space with corresponding gains in information seeking performance. Navigation performance and user impression were analyzed across a range of different search tasks. Results indicate both significant performance gains and more positive user feedback for MST and PFNET visualizations over scatter graphs. Performance on all visualizations was generally poorer and never better than that achieved on the text list interface although the magnitude of these differences was found to be highly task dependent.

Cribbin, Timothy; Chen, Chaomei

2001-05-01

426

What do space voyagers value? a thematic analysis of the narratives of spaceflight veterans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Values are desired outcomes, differing in importance, that guide people's lives. Considerable anecdotal evidence suggests that astronauts and cosmonauts experience changes in values as a consequence of their experiences in space. Among the most frequently mentioned changes are a greater appreciation of the unity of Earth and humanity, and an increase in self-confidence. Two preliminary studies by the author have confirmed significant changes in values among (a) four Apollo-era American astronauts and (b) ten male astronauts from the Apollo, Mercury, and Gemini programs, three female veterans of the Shuttle-Mir, and two male high-ranking NASA administrators. The current study expanded the database to 104 space veterans from the US, Russia, and other nations, whose narratives (memoirs, media interviews, and oral histories) were subjected to thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value categories. Significant pre-flight differences were found related to nationality, space age era (through vs. later than 1975), and longest flight duration. Comparing references from the pre-flight period with those to the time of the mission and then to post-return from space, we found a U-shaped curve for the values of Achievement, Power, and Self-Direction, and steady increases across periods for Enjoyment and Universalism. Compared to multicultural norms, astronauts showed higher values placed on Achievement, Enjoyment (their two primary values), and Power (after the mission only), and lower values on Security, Self-Direction (after the mission), Universalism, and Tradition.

Suedfeld, Peter

427

The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: a thematic history  

PubMed Central

The Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada (Annual Statistics) is the most recognizable achievement of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries in its history to date. This article gives a thematic history of the Annual Statistics, emphasizing the leadership role of editors and Editorial Boards, the need for cooperation and membership support to produce comparable data useful for everyday management of academic medical center libraries and the use of technology as a tool for data gathering and publication. The Annual Statistics' origin is recalled, and survey features and content are related to the overall themes. The success of the Annual Statistics is evident in the leadership skills of the first editor, Richard Lyders, executive director of the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library. The history shows the development of a survey instrument that strives to produce reliable and valid data for a diverse group of libraries while reflecting the many complex changes in the library environment. The future of the Annual Statistics is assured by the anticipated changes facing academic health sciences libraries, namely the need to reflect the transition from a physical environment to an electronic operation.

Shedlock, James; Byrd, Gary D.

2003-01-01

428

Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments.  

PubMed

Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease) and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published. PMID:20205874

Negrini, Stefano; Grivas, Theodoros B

2010-01-28

429

Defense and object relational maturity on Thematic Apperception Test scales indicate levels of personality organization.  

PubMed

Psychoanalytic theories describe defense mechanisms and object relations as psychological structures that have functions vital to personality regulation. In theory, these structures develop in stages and emerge as a coordinated, stable system in early adulthood. However, different levels of maturity of systemic function predominate in various individuals so that people exhibit levels of personality organization (LPO; Kernberg, 1975) differing in degree of maturity. Moreover, the various LPO of adults parallel various developmental stages of maturity of these structures in childhood and predispose to varying psychopathologies. We call this the parallelism hypothesis: Adult LPO parallels the stages of childhood development of these structures. In 2 studies (Study 1, students, n = 301; Study 2, diagnosed and presumed normal people, n = 155), we compared indicators of LPO with relative maturity of defenses and object relations using Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) scales (Cramer, 1991; Westen, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, & Goodrich, 1989). We compared scores to other indicators of participants' LPO. The parallelism hypothesis was largely supported in both studies. PMID:20408024

Hibbard, Stephen; Porcerelli, John; Kamoo, Ray; Schwartz, Mark; Abell, Steven

2010-05-01

430

Learning effects of thematic peer-review: a qualitative analysis of reflective journals on spiritual care.  

PubMed

This study describes the learning effects of thematic peer-review discussion groups (Hendriksen, 2000. Begeleid intervisie model, Collegiale advisering en probleemoplossing, Nelissen, Baarn.) on developing nursing students' competence in providing spiritual care. It also discusses the factors that might influence the learning process. The method of peer-review is a form of reflective learning based on the theory of experiential learning (Kolb, 1984. Experiential learning, Experience as the source of learning development. Englewoods Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hill). It was part of an educational programme on spiritual care in nursing for third-year undergraduate nursing students from two nursing schools in the Netherlands. Reflective journals (n=203) kept by students throughout the peer-review process were analysed qualitatively The analysis shows that students reflect on spirituality in the context of personal experiences in nursing practice. In addition, they discuss the nursing process and organizational aspects of spiritual care. The results show that the first two phases in the experiential learning cycle appear prominently; these are 'inclusion of actual experience' and 'reflecting on this experience'. The phases of 'abstraction of experience' and 'experimenting with new behaviour' are less evident. We will discuss possible explanations for these findings according to factors related to education, the students and the tutors and make recommendations for follow-up research. PMID:19027200

van Leeuwen, René; Tiesinga, Lucas J; Jochemsen, Henk; Post, Doeke

2008-11-21

431

Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments  

PubMed Central

Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease) and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

2010-01-01

432

Passive airborne remote sensing and plume model inversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plants measured by the MAMAP/CarbonMapper instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAMAP/CarbonMapper is an airborne passive remote sensing instrument designed for measuring columns of methane and carbon dioxide (CO2) below the aircraft. Retrieval precision of the measured column relative to background is typically 1% or better. Its ground pixel size is about 25m x 35m for an aircraft altitude of 1000m and a ground speed of 200km/h. In 2007 measurement campaigns at the coal-fired power plants Jänschwalde and Schwarze Pumpe operated by Vattenfall Europe were performed. The column parameters for CO2 have been retrieved with a modified version of SCIAMACHY's WFM-DOAS algorithm. To invert for the CO2 emission rates of the power plants a gaussian plume model approach has been chosen. The results are compared to a simple Gaussian Integral method approach and to the CO2 emission rates directly derived from power generation as stated by Vattenfall.

Krings, Thomas; Buchwitz, Michael; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John; Tretner, Andreas; Sachs, Torsten; Erzinger, Jörg

2010-05-01

433

Landsat5 TM and Landsat7 ETM+ absolute radiometric calibration using the reflectance-based method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reflectance-based method of vicarious calibration has been used for the absolute radiometric calibration of the Landsat series of sensors since the launch of Landsat-4. The reflectance-based method relies on ground-based measurements of the surface reflectance and atmospheric conditions at a selected test site nearly coincident with the imaging of that site by the sensor of interest. The results of

Kurtis J. Thome; Dennis L. Helder; D. Aaron; James D. Dewald

2004-01-01

434

Accounting for spatial patterns of multiple geological data sets in geological thematic mapping using GIS-based spatial analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based spatial analysis scheme to account for spatial patterns and\\u000a association in geological thematic mapping with multiple geological data sets. The multi-buffer zone analysis, the main part\\u000a of the present study, was addressed to reveal the spatial pattern around geological source primitives and statistical analysis\\u000a based on a contingency table was performed to

No-Wook Park; Kwang-Hoon Chi; Byung-Doo Kwon

2007-01-01

435

The thematic continuity of mental experiences in REM and NREM sleep.  

PubMed

In this study the characteristics of interrelated contents in paired reports of mental sleep experience (MSE) were analyzed to obtain insight as to the functioning of processes by which contents previously stored in memory are retrieved and inserted into MSE in rapid eye movements (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep. Ten subjects were awakened 3 times on each of 4 nights after 3 min of NREM sleep (in stage II or III before the first REM), of the first phase of REM sleep, and again of NREM sleep (in stage II or III after the first REM). The contents of all the possible pairings of reports were scored by using Clark's (1970) feature-matching model and compared with respect to the factors 'night' (same/different), 'type of report pairs' (1stNREM-REM/REM-2ndNREM/1stNREM-2ndNREM), 'unit interrelated' (lexical/propositional), 'interrelationship' (paradigmatic/syntagmatic). The occurrences of interrelations were greater for same night pairs than for different night pairs, but without significant differences between types of report pairs: these data provide support for the thematic continuity of MSE in both NREM and REM sleep. The units interrelated in pairs of reports were more frequent at a lexical than a propositional level, showing more paradigmatic than syntagmatic interrelationships: these data suggest that the re-elaboration of contents of previous MSEs occurs mainly at a lower level, and that the modality of processing previous contents by insertion into current MSE is similar in NREM and REM sleep.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3225207

Cipolli, C; Fagioli, I; Baroncini, P; Fumai, A; Marchiò, B; Sancini, M

1988-11-01

436

An airborne thematic thermal infrared and electro-optical imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an advanced Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System (ATTIREOIS) and its potential applications. ATTIREOIS sensor payload consists of two sets of advanced Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) - a broadband Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) and a four (4) band Multispectral Electro-Optical Sensor (MEOS) to approximate Landsat ETM+ bands 1,2,3,4, and 6, and LDCM bands 2,3,4,5, and 10+11. The airborne TIRS is 3-axis stabilized payload capable of providing 3D photogrammetric images with a 1,850 pixel swathwidth via pushbroom operation. MEOS has a total of 116 million simultaneous sensor counts capable of providing 3 cm spatial resolution multispectral orthophotos for continuous airborne mapping. ATTIREOIS is a complete standalone and easy-to-use portable imaging instrument for light aerial vehicle deployment. Its miniaturized backend data system operates all ATTIREOIS imaging sensor components, an INS/GPS, and an e-Gimbal™ Control Electronic Unit (ECU) with a data throughput of 300 Megabytes/sec. The backend provides advanced onboard processing, performing autonomous raw sensor imagery development, TIRS image track-recovery reconstruction, LWIR/VNIR multi-band co-registration, and photogrammetric image processing. With geometric optics and boresight calibrations, the ATTIREOIS data products are directly georeferenced with an accuracy of approximately one meter. A prototype ATTIREOIS has been configured. Its sample LWIR/EO image data will be presented. Potential applications of ATTIREOIS include: 1) Providing timely and cost-effective, precisely and directly georeferenced surface emissive and solar reflective LWIR/VNIR multispectral images via a private Google Earth Globe to enhance NASA's Earth science research capabilities; and 2) Underflight satellites to support satellite measurement calibration and validation observations.

Sun, Xiuhong; Shu, Peter

2011-06-01

437

Can Speaker Gaze Modulate Syntactic Structuring and Thematic Role Assignment during Spoken Sentence Comprehension?  

PubMed

During comprehension, a listener can rapidly follow a frontally seated speaker's gaze to an object before its mention, a behavior which can shorten latencies in speeded sentence verification. However, the robustness of gaze-following, its interaction with core comprehension processes such as syntactic structuring, and the persistence of its effects are unclear. In two "visual-world" eye-tracking experiments participants watched a video of a speaker, seated at an angle, describing transitive (non-depicted) actions between two of three Second Life characters on a computer screen. Sentences were in German and had either subject(NP1)-verb-object(NP2) or object(NP1)-verb-subject(NP2) structure; the speaker either shifted gaze to the NP2 character or was obscured. Several seconds later, participants verified either the sentence referents or their role relations. When participants had seen the speaker's gaze shift, they anticipated the NP2 character before its mention and earlier than when the speaker was obscured. This effect was more pronounced for SVO than OVS sentences in both tasks. Interactions of speaker gaze and sentence structure were more pervasive in role-relations verification: participants verified the role relations faster for SVO than OVS sentences, and faster when they had seen the speaker shift gaze than when the speaker was obscured. When sentence and template role-relations matched, gaze-following even eliminated the SVO-OVS response-time differences. Thus, gaze-following is robust even when the speaker is seated at an angle to the listener; it varies depending on the syntactic structure and thematic role relations conveyed by a sentence; and its effects can extend to delayed post-sentence comprehension processes. These results suggest that speaker gaze effects contribute pervasively to visual attention and comprehension processes and should thus be accommodated by accounts of situated language comprehension. PMID:23227018

Knoeferle, Pia; Kreysa, Helene

2012-12-05

438

A Thematic Data Portal to Satellite-Derived Ocean Surface Properties -- Lessons Learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the NASA funded REASoN project, A Thematic Data Portal to Satellite-Derived Ocean Surface Properties, the University of Rhode Island in conjunction with OPeNDAP Inc. is developing a suite of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) to facilitate access to data sets of satellite-derived ocean surface properties. These data sets are served from a variety of institutions in the US and abroad. The suite of GUIs currently (1 March 2008) consists of eight major oceanographic data sets. On average, one new GUI is being added every three weeks. That which distinguishes these data sets is their size and their complexity. In fact, some of the more complex 'data sets' actually consist of collections of data sets. For example, the ocean color data set, served from CSIRO in Australia, consists of CZCS, SeaWiFS, MODIS and merged MODIS and SeaWiFS data sets and the 4km Pathfinder SST data set, served from JPL, consists of a number of SST products based on the AVHRR GAC data stream, ranging from climatologies to time series, both sets at a number of different temporal resolutions. The complexity of these data sets together with the lack of consistent inventories and metadata from one site to another renders finding and accessing the desired subset of data difficult at best -- true even for the expert in the field. In addition, the lack of consistency in the organization of data within returned data records makes using the data once acquired difficult. In this presentation, we describe approaches taken to achieve consistency, from the user's perspective, from one GUI ('data set') to another for each of the following: The overall structure of the 'data set', Data set inventories, Use metadata, and Returned data structure.

Cornillon, P.; Buckingham, C.; Sheremet, M.; Gallagher, J.; Fox, P.

2008-05-01

439

A Thematic Review of Studies into the Effectiveness of Context-Based Chemistry Curricula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context-based chemistry education aims at making connections between real life and the scientific content of chemistry courses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate context-based chemistry studies. In looking for the context-based chemistry studies, the authors entered the keywords `context-based', `contextual learning' and `chemistry education' in well-known databases (i.e. Academic Search Complete, Education Research Complete, ERIC, Springer LINK Contemporary). Further, in case the computer search by key words may have missed a rather substantial part of the important literature in the area, the authors also conducted a hand search of the related journals. To present a detailed thematic review of context-based chemistry studies, a matrix was used to summarize the findings by focusing on insights derived from the related studies. The matrix incorporates the following themes: needs, aims, methodologies, general knowledge claims, and implications for teaching and learning, implications for curriculum development and suggestions for future research. The general knowledge claims investigated in this paper were: (a) positive effects of the context-based chemistry studies; (b) caveats, both are examined in terms of students' attitudes and students' understanding/cognition. Implications were investigated for practice in context- based chemistry studies, for future research in context- based chemistry studies, and for curriculum developers in context- based chemistry studies. Teachers of context-based courses claimed that the application of the context-based learning approach in chemistry education improved students' motivation and interest in the subject. This seems to have generated an increase in the number of the students who wish to continue chemistry education at higher levels. However, despite the fact that the majority of the studies have reported advantages of context-based chemistry studies, some of them have also referred to pitfalls, i.e. dominant structure of out-of-school learning, tough nature of some chemistry topics, and teacher anxiety of lower-ability students.

Ültay, Neslihan; Çal?k, Muammer

2012-12-01

440

A Thematic Review of Studies into the Effectiveness of Context-Based Chemistry Curricula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context-based chemistry education aims at making connections between real life and the scientific content of chemistry courses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate context-based chemistry studies. In looking for the context-based chemistry studies, the authors entered the keywords `context-based', `contextual learning' and `chemistry education' in well-known databases (i.e. Academic Search Complete, Education Research Complete, ERIC, Springer LINK Contemporary). Further, in case the computer search by key words may have missed a rather substantial part of the important literature in the area, the authors also conducted a hand search of the related journals. To present a detailed thematic review of context-based chemistry studies, a matrix was used to summarize the findings by focusing on insights derived from the related studies. The matrix incorporates the following themes: needs, aims, methodologies, general knowledge claims, and implications for teaching and learning, implications for curriculum development and suggestions for future research. The general knowledge claims investigated in this paper were: (a) positive effects of the context-based chemistry studies; (b) caveats, both are examined in terms of students' attitudes and students' understanding/cognition. Implications were investigated for practice in context-based chemistry studies, for future research in context-based chemistry studies, and for curriculum developers in context-based chemistry studies. Teachers of context-based courses claimed that the application of the context-based learning approach in chemistry education improved students' motivation and interest in the subject. This seems to have generated an increase in the number of the students who wish to continue chemistry education at higher levels. However, despite the fact that the majority of the studies have reported advantages of context-based chemistry studies, some of them have also referred to pitfalls, i.e. dominant structure of out-of-school learning, tough nature of some chemistry topics, and teacher anxiety of lower-ability students.

Ültay, Neslihan; Çal?k, Muammer

2011-12-01

441

A thematic analysis of factors influencing recruitment to maternal and perinatal trials  

PubMed Central

Background Recruitment of eligible participants remains one of the biggest challenges to successful completion of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Only one third of trials recruit on time, often requiring a lengthy extension to the recruitment period. We identified factors influencing recruitment success and potentially effective recruitment strategies. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1966 to December Week 2, 2006, the Cochrane Library Methodology Register in December 2006, and hand searched reference lists for studies of any design which focused on recruitment to maternal/perinatal trials, or if no studies of maternal or perinatal research could be identified, other areas of healthcare. Studies of nurses' and midwives' attitudes to research were included as none specifically about trials were located. We synthesised the data narratively, using a basic thematic analysis, with themes derived from the literature and after discussion between the authors. Results Around half of the included papers (29/53) were specific to maternal and perinatal healthcare. Only one study was identified which focused on factors for maternal and perinatal clinicians and only seven studies considered recruitment strategies specific to perinatal research. Themes included: participant assessment of risk; recruitment process; participant understanding of research; patient characteristics; clinician attitudes to research and trials; protocol issues; and institutional or organisational issues. While no reliable evidence base for strategies to enhance recruitment was identified in any of the review studies, four maternal/perinatal primary studies suggest that specialised recruitment staff, mass mailings, physician referrals and strategies targeting minority women may increase recruitment. However these findings may only be applicable to the particular trials and settings studied. Conclusion Although factors reported by both participants and clinicians which influence recruitment were quite consistent across the included studies, studies comparing different recruitment strategies were largely missing. Trials of different recruitment strategies could be embedded in large multicentre RCTs, with strategies tailored to the factors specific to the trial and institution.

Tooher, Rebecca L; Middleton, Philippa F; Crowther, Caroline A

2008-01-01

442

Practice Environments of Nurses in Ambulatory Oncology Settings: A Thematic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The practice environments of nurses have been studied extensively in inpatient settings, but rarely in the ambulatory context. As the majority of cancer care is delivered in ambulatory settings, a better understanding of the nursing practice environment may contribute to quality improvement efforts. Objective We sought to examine the features of nursing practice environments that contribute to quality patient care and nursing job satisfaction. Interventions/Methods In 2009-2010, we conducted focus groups with nurses who cared for adults with cancer outside of inpatient units. A semi-structured moderator guide explored practice environment features that promoted safe, high-quality care, and high job satisfaction. We also asked nurses to identify practice environment features that hindered quality care and reduced job satisfaction. We conducted thematic analysis to report themes, and to construct a conceptual framework. Results From two focus groups, comprised of 13 participants, nurses reported that variability in workloads, support from managers and medical assistants, and the practice's physical resources could facilitate or hinder high-quality care and job satisfaction. High-quality communication across team members improved patient safety and satisfaction. Conclusions Consistent with research findings from inpatient settings, nurses identified staffing and resource adequacy, management support, and collegiality as important inputs to high-quality care. Implications for Practice These findings can inform quality improvement initiatives in ambulatory oncology practices. Strengthening nurse-medical assistant relationships, smoothing patient workload variability, and implementing strategies to strengthen communication, may contribute to quality cancer care. Studies to test our proposed conceptual framework would bridge existing knowledge gaps in ambulatory settings.

Kamimura, Akiko; Schneider, Karin; Lee, Cheryl S.; Crawford, Scott D.; Friese, Christopher R.

2010-01-01

443

Electrophysiological Evidence for Use of the Animacy Hierarchy, but not Thematic Role Assignment, During Verb Argument Processing  

PubMed Central

Animacy is known to play an important role in language processing and production, but debate remains as to how it exerts its effects: 1) through links to syntactic ordering, 2) through inherent differences between animate and inanimate entities in their salience/lexico-semantic accessibility, 3) through links to specific thematic roles. We contrasted these three accounts in two event related potential (ERP) experiments examining the processing of direct object arguments in simple English sentences. In Experiment 1, we found a larger N400 to animate than inanimate direct object arguments assigned the Patient role, ruling out the second account. In Experiment 2 we found no difference in the N400 evoked by animate direct object arguments assigned the Patient role (prototypically inanimate) and those assigned the Experiencer role (prototypically animate), ruling out the third account. We therefore suggest that animacy may impact processing through a direct link to syntactic linear ordering, at least on post-verbal arguments in English. We also examined processing on direct object arguments that violated the animacy-based selection restriction constraints of their preceding verbs. These violations evoked a robust P600, which was not modulated by thematic role assignment or reversibility, suggesting that the so-called semantic P600 is driven by overall propositional impossibility, rather than thematic role reanalysis.

Paczynski, Martin; Kuperberg, Gina R.

2011-01-01

444

Syntactic and Thematic Constraint Effects on Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent Signal Correlates of Comprehension of Relative Clauses  

PubMed Central

The effects of plausibility of thematic role assignment and syntactic structure on blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal were studied using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging by orthogonally varying syntactic structure (subject- vs. object-extracted relative clauses) and the plausibility of nouns playing thematic roles (constrained vs. unconstrained sentences) in a plausibility judgment task. In plausible sentences, BOLD signal increased for object-compared to subject-extracted clauses in unconstrained sentences in left middle temporal and left inferior frontal areas, for this contrast in constrained sentences in left middle temporal but not left inferior frontal areas, and for constrained subject-extracted sentences compared to unconstrained subject-extracted sentences in the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We relate these areas of activation to the assignment of the syntactic structure of object-compared to subject-extracted structures and the process of checking which thematic roles activated in the course of processing a sentence are licensed by the syntactic structure of the sentence.

Caplan, David; Stanczak, Louise; Waters, Gloria

2008-01-01

445

Late summer variability of dissolved organic matter in the Kolyma River observed using satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kolyma River basin in northeastern Siberia, one of the six largest river basins draining to the Arctic Ocean, contains vast reserves of carbon in its Pleistocene-aged permafrost soils. Already this region has experienced significant warming over the last few decades and is poised to experience even more dramatic climate change in the near future. Resulting permafrost degradation may cause shifts in riverine biogeochemistry as terrestrial organic matter inputs to adjacent aquatic environments change. Satellite remote sensing offers an opportunity to supplement and extrapolate field-based observations of dissolved organic matter in this expansive and remote region. We present an empirically-derived algorithm that estimates chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Kolyma River and its major tributaries in the vicinity of Cherskiy, Russia. Field samples from July 2008 and 2009 were regressed against spectral data from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus (ETM+). A combination of band 3 and bands 2:1 resulted in an R2 of 0.78 between in situ CDOM concentrations and satellite-derived predictions. Using the strong correlation between CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), this algorithm can be used to assess the spatial variability in CDOM and DOC throughout the Kolyma River and its major tributaries during the late-summer period. DOC mapped in July of 2000-2002 and 2004-2009 shows a high degree of interannual variability, with Kolyma River main stem concentrations varying between approximately 3 mg L-1 and 12 mg L-1. The driving forces behind such variability are unclear, but may be most closely related to interannual variability in river discharge.

Griffin, C. G.; Frey, K. E.; Rogan, J.; Holmes, R. M.

2010-12-01

446

A comparison of remote sensing of active fires from MODIS and VIIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the NASA EOS Terra and Aqua satellites was the first sensor on medium-resolution polar orbiting missions with dedicated bands for the detection and characterization of high temperature objects, predominantly actively burning fires. The MODIS active fire data record now extends to over a decade and is a result of multiple re-processing of the data with improved algorithms resulting from extensive product validation. The active fire product from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, launched on October 28, 2011, and on future JPSS (Joint Polar Satellite System) satellites, represents a continuation of the MODIS data record. VIIRS has capabilities for active fire detection and characterization for a broad range of fires, and observing and environmental conditions. While NPP and Aqua have similar orbital characteristics and compatible sampling of the diurnal cycle of fire activity, sensor differences result in inherent differences in the expected fire observations. The differences between the MODIS and VIIRS moderate resolution "M" band pixel sizes (nominally, 1km vs. 750m at nadir) lead to differences in the lower detection limits. The VIIRS along-scan aggregation scheme is aimed at reducing the increase of pixel size towards the edges of the swath and thus results in an overall improvement of performance for off-nadir conditions, but also in a more complex variation of detection limits with satellite view angle. In addition, spatial aggregation impacts within-pixel variation of contribution to the radiometric signal, which in turn impacts retrieval of the Fire Radiative Power. These issues can be analyzed by purely theoretical simulations and by a hybrid empirical-theoretical modeling framework that incorporates actual fire observations from higher spatial resolution sensors, such as the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat-5 TM (Thematic Mapper) and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+).

Csiszar, I.; Schroeder, W.; Giglio, L.; Ellicott, E.; Justice, C. O.

2012-04-01

447

Characterization of intra-annual reflectance properties of land cover classes in southeastern South Dakota using Landsat TM and ETM+ data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat-7 and Landsat-5 have orbits that are offset from each other by 8 days. During the time that the sensors on both satellites are operational, there is an opportunity for conducting analyses that incorporate multiple intra-annual high spatial resolution data sets for characterizing the Earth's land surface. In the current study, nine Landsat thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) data sets, covering the same path and row on different dates, were acquired during a 1-year time interval for a region in southeastern South Dakota and analyzed. Scenes were normalized using pseudoinvariant objects, and digital data from a series of test sites were extracted from the imagery and converted to surface reflectance. Sunphotometer data acquired on site were used to atmospherically correct the data. Ground observations that were made throughout the growing season by a large group of volunteers were used to help interpret spectroradiometric patterns and trends. Normalized images were found to be very effective in portraying the seasonal patterns of reflectance change that occurred throughout the region. Many of the radiometric patterns related to plant growth and development, but some also related to different background properties. The different kinds of land cover in the region were spectrally and radiometrically characterized and were found to have different seasonal patterns of reflectance. The degree to which the land cover classes could be separated spectrally and radiometrically, however, depended on the time of year during which the data sets were acquired, and no single data set appeared to be adequate for separating all types of land cover. This has practical implications for classification studies because known patterns of seasonal reflectance properties for the different types of land cover within a region will facilitate selection of the most appropriate data sets for producing land cover classifications.

Vogelmann, J. E.; DeFelice, T. P.

2003-01-01

448

Through the looking glass: self-reassuring meta-cognitive capacity and its relationship with the thematic content of voices  

PubMed Central

Aims: To examine the self-critical thoughts and self-reassuring meta-cognitive capacity of those who hear voices and explore whether they are associated with the theme of voice content and appraisals of voice power and voice expressed emotion. Method: A cross-sectional design was used, combining semi-structured interviews and self-report measures. Data on symptomatology, self-critical thoughts and self-reassuring meta-cognitive capacity, thematic voice content, and appraisals of voice power and expressed emotion were collected from 74 voice-hearers in Birmingham, UK. Results: Common themes of voice content reflected issues of shame, control, and affiliation. Controlling content was the most prevalent theme, however, no significant predictor of this theme was found; shaming thematic voice content linked with reduced capacity to self-reassure following self-critical thoughts. Voice-hearers with the greatest level of self-critical thoughts appraised their voices as powerful and high in voice expressed emotion. Conclusions: Findings suggest that voice-hearers self-critical thoughts are reflected in the type of relationship they have with their voice. However, access to self-reassuring meta-cognitive capacity may serve as a protective factor for those who hear voices, resulting in more benign voice content. These findings highlight the importance of this specific meta-cognitive capacity and will inform future therapeutic interventions for the management of voices in this vulnerable group.

Connor, Charlotte; Birchwood, Max

2013-01-01

449

Theories of behaviour change synthesised into a set of theoretical groupings: introducing a thematic series on the theoretical domains framework  

PubMed Central

Behaviour change is key to increasing the uptake of evidence into healthcare practice. Designing behaviour-change interventions first requires problem analysis, ideally informed by theory. Yet the large number of partly overlapping theories of behaviour makes it difficult to select the most appropriate theory. The need for an overarching theoretical framework of behaviour change was addressed in research in which 128 explanatory constructs from 33 theories of behaviour were identified and grouped. The resulting Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) appears to be a helpful basis for investigating implementation problems. Research groups in several countries have conducted TDF-based studies. It seems timely to bring together the experience of these teams in a thematic series to demonstrate further applications and to report key developments. This overview article describes the TDF, provides a brief critique of the framework, and introduces this thematic series. In a brief review to assess the extent of TDF-based research, we identified 133 papers that cite the framework. Of these, 17 used the TDF as the basis for empirical studies to explore health professionals’ behaviour. The identified papers provide evidence of the impact of the TDF on implementation research. Two major strengths of the framework are its theoretical coverage and its capacity to elicit beliefs that could signify key mediators of behaviour change. The TDF provides a useful conceptual basis for assessing implementation problems, designing interventions to enhance healthcare practice, and understanding behaviour-change processes. We discuss limitations and research challenges and introduce papers in this series.

2012-01-01

450

Ongoing Changes in Small Ice Caps in Greenland and Arctic Canada As Measured by NASA's Operation IceBridge and the Airborne Topographic Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thinning of small ice caps may be an important near-term indicator of a warming climate, and may also be a significant contributor to sea level rise. Changes in smaller Arctic ice masses have been documented previously, and recent Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) results suggest that these changes are continuing and perhaps accelerating. Beginning in 1993 with flights by NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) scanning lidar, and continuing through the spring of 2011 under Operation IceBridge, NASA has sampled the surface topography of many small ice caps in the Arctic, and now repeated these measurements multiple times. These ice caps include Sukkertoppen in southwest Greenland and Flade Isblink in the northeast, both of which are not connected to the main ice sheet. They also include Barnes, Devon, Prince of Wales, Agassiz, Muller and Meighen Ice Caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. We examine the latest changes in the surface topography of these ice caps, and we put these changes into the context of changes we have measured previously.

Sonntag, J. G.; Krabill, W. B.; Yungel, J.; Manizade, S.

2011-12-01

451

Superpixel segmentation for analysis of hyperspectral data sets, with application to Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars data, Moon Mineralogy Mapper data, and Ariadnes Chaos, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a semiautomated method to extract spectral end-members from hyperspectral images. This method employs superpixels, which are spectrally homogeneous regions of spatially contiguous pixels. The superpixel segmentation is combined with an unsupervised end-member extraction algorithm. Superpixel segmentation can complement per pixel classification techniques by reducing both scene-specific noise and computational complexity. The end-member extraction step explores the entire spectrum, recognizes target mineralogies within spectral mixtures, and enhances the discovery of unanticipated spectral classes. The method is applied to Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) images and compared to a manual expert classification and to state-of the-art image analysis techniques. The technique successfully recognizes all classes identified by the expert, producing spectral end-members that match well to target classes. Application of the technique to CRISM multispectral data and Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) hyperspectral data demonstrates the flexibility of the method in the analysis of a range of data sets. The technique is then used to analyze CRISM data in Ariadnes Chaos, Mars, and recognizes both phyllosilicates and sulfates in the chaos mounds. These aqueous deposits likely reflect changing environmental conditions during the Late Noachian/Early Hesperian. This semiautomated focus-of-attention tool will facilitate the identification of materials of interest on planetary surfaces whose constituents are unknown.

Gilmore, Martha S.; Thompson, David R.; Anderson, Laura J.; Karamzadeh, Nader; Mandrake, Lukas; Castaño, Rebecca

2011-07-01

452

Detection of Mg spinel lithologies on central peak of crater Theophilus using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral reflectance data derived from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard India's Chandrayaan-1 has revealed Fe bearing Mg-spinel-rich lithology on central peaks of the crater Theophilus. These newly identified Fe bearing Mg-spinel-rich rock types are defined by their strong 2-?m absorption and lack of 1-?m absorptions in spectral reflectance response. Such lithology has been reported previously along the inner ring of Moscoviense Basin on the lunar far side. The Modified Gaussian Modeling (MGM) analysis of the Fe bearing Mg-spinel reflectance spectra has been done and the results of the analysis clearly bring out a strong spectral absorption at 1872 nm with no significant absortion around 1000 nm. The presence of spinel group of minerals in the Theophilus central peak and the fact that central peaks mostly represent uplifted mass of deep crustal material confirm that central peaks can be used as a window to study the deep crustal and/or upper mantle composition and may lead to a fresh perspective about the crustal composition of Moon.

Lal, D.; Chauhan, P.; Shah, R. D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Ajai; Kiran Kumar, A. S.

2012-06-01

453

The stressed eyewitness: the interaction of thematic arousal and post-event stress in memory for central and peripheral event information  

PubMed Central

Both arousal during the encoding of stimuli and subsequent stress can affect memory, often by increasing memory for important or central information. We explored whether event-based (thematic) arousal and post-event stress interact to selectively enhance eyewitnesses' memory for the central aspects of an observed incident. Specifically, we argue that memory for stimuli should be enhanced when (1) the stimuli are encoded under arousal (vs. non-arousal), and (2) stress is experienced soon after the encoding episode. We designed an experiment that extended previous research by manipulating arousal without changing the stimulus material, distinguishing between central and peripheral event information, and using a dynamic, life-like event instead of static pictures. After watching a video depicting a burglary under high or low thematic arousal, psychosocial stress was induced or not induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was measured at standard intervals. Consistent with our prediction, we found a significant post-event stress × thematic arousal × centrality interaction, indicating that the recognition advantage for central event items over peripheral event items was most pronounced under both high thematic arousal and post-event stress. Because stress was induced after encoding this interaction cannot be explained by possible differences at encoding, such as narrowed attention. The centrality effect of post-event stress under high thematic arousal was statistically mediated by the cortisol increase, which suggests a key role of the stress hormone. We discuss implications of our findings for psychological and neuroscientific theories of emotional memory formation.

Echterhoff, Gerald; Wolf, Oliver T.

2012-01-01

454

The health buck stops where? Thematic framing of health discourse to understand the context for CVD prevention.  

PubMed

Using a constructed week methodology, we analyzed media summaries for the type of health discourse (health care delivery, disease-specific prevention, lifestyle risk factors, public/environmental health disease, social determinants of health) portrayed over a 5-year period as a means of describing the context within which health staff worked to prevent heart disease in one Canadian province. The results reveal that heart disease received very little media coverage, despite provincial health data revealing it to be the leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. Coverage of the health care system dominated the media landscape over the 5-year period. The study findings also suggest that the health discourses in the media summaries were represented as primarily thematic, rather than as episodic narratives, relieving any one level of government as entirely responsible for the health of its constituents. Media advocacy strategies may be a means to redress the imbalance of health discourses presented by the media. PMID:16624798

Higgins, Joan Wharf; Naylor, P J; Berry, Tanya; O'Connor, Brian; McLean, David

455

Mineralogy of Mare Serenitatis on the near side of the Moon based on Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral analysis of Mare Serenitatis has been carried out using Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data in order to map the compositional diversity of the basaltic units that exist in the basin. Mare Serenitatis is characterized by multiple basaltic flows of different ages indicating a prolonged volcanism subsequent to the basin formation event. Reflectance spectra of fresh craters from the Mare Serenitatis have been analyzed to study the nature and location of the spectral absorption features around 1- and 2-?m respectively, arising due to the electronic charge transition of Fe2+ in the crystal lattice of pyroxenes and/or olivine. Chandrayaan-1 M3 data have been utilized to obtain an Integrated Band Depth (IBD) mosaic of the Serenitatis basin. Based on the spectral variations observed in the IBD mosaic, 13 spectral units have been mapped in the Mare Serenitatis. In the present study, we have also derived spectral band parameters, namely, band center, band strength, band area and band area ratio from the M3 data to study the mineralogical and compositional variations amongst the basaltic units of the studied basin. On the basis of spectral band parameter analysis, the pyroxene compositions of the basaltic units have been determined, which vary from low to intermediate end of the high-Ca pyroxene and probably represent a sub-calcic to calcic augite compositional range. Detailed spectral analyses reveal little variations in the mafic mineralogy of the mare basalts in terms of pyroxene chemistry. The uniformity in pyroxene composition across the basaltic units of Mare Serenitatis, therefore, suggest a probably stable basaltic source region, which might not have experienced large-scale fractionation during the prolonged volcanism that resulted in filling of the large Serenitatis basin.

Kaur, Prabhjot; Bhattacharya, Satadru; Chauhan, Prakash; Ajai; Kiran Kumar, A. S.

2013-01-01

456

30 Collaborative Books for Your Class To Make and Share! Easy Patterns and How-to's for Creating a Year's Worth of Thematic Rhyming Books. Grades K-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book offers a collection of 30 fun-filled book-writing and book-making projects guaranteed to engage beginning writers of every ability level. Intended for teachers of kindergarten through grade 2, the book provides an easy-to-implement approach to bookmaking. Each of the books is thematic in content and shape and use rhyming poetry as a…

Spann, Mary Beth

457

Sensational Sea Life: A Teacher-Friendly Thematic Unit [with CD-ROM]. R.E.A.D. A.N.D. F.E.E.D. Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is the second in a series of thematic units designed especially for children who are deaf and hard of hearing in kindergarten through the elementary grades. The unit focuses on sea creatures and is divided into seven sections. Five sections contain lessons on particular sea animals including whales, turtles, starfish, octopuses, and…

Klingborg, Beverly; Cardinalli, Antonina

458

Stand Together or Apart: A Thematic Unit for "The Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier and "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic unit is all about what a classic novel about race relations in the 1930s American South, "To Kill a Mockingbird," and a frequently banned contemporary teen story about a candy sale, "The Chocolate War," have in common. The unit considers what people have in common, what it means to stand apart, and what individuals do when forced to…

Yinger, Lisa

459

Stand Together or Apart: A Thematic Unit for "The Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier and "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This thematic unit is all about what a classic novel about race relations in the 1930s American South, "To Kill a Mockingbird," and a frequently banned contemporary teen story about a candy sale, "The Chocolate War," have in common. The unit considers what people have in common, what it means to stand apart, and what individuals do when forced to…

Yinger, Lisa

460

The stressed eyewitness: the interaction of thematic arousal and post-event stress in memory for central and peripheral event information.  

PubMed

Both arousal during the encoding of stimuli and subsequent stress can affect memory, often by increasing memory for important or central information. We explored whether event-based (thematic) arousal and post-event stress interact to selectively enhance eyewitnesses' memory for the central aspects of an observed incident. Specifically, we argue that memory for stimuli should be enhanced when (1) the stimuli are encoded under arousal (vs. non-arousal), and (2) stress is experienced soon after the encoding episode. We designed an experiment that extended previous research by manipulating arousal without changing the stimulus material, distinguishing between central and peripheral event information, and using a dynamic, life-like event instead of static pictures. After watching a video depicting a burglary under high or low thematic arousal, psychosocial stress was induced or not induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was measured at standard intervals. Consistent with our prediction, we found a significant post-event stress × thematic arousal × centrality interaction, indicating that the recognition advantage for central event items over peripheral event items was most pronounced under both high thematic arousal and post-event stress. Because stress was induced after encoding this interaction cannot be explained by possible differences at encoding, such as narrowed attention. The centrality effect of post-event stress under high thematic arousal was statistically mediated by the cortisol increase, which suggests a key role of the stress hormone. We discuss implications of our findings for psychological and neuroscientific theories of emotional memory formation. PMID:22936900

Echterhoff, Gerald; Wolf, Oliver T

2012-08-23

461

Risk communication and informed consent in the medical tourism industry: A thematic content analysis of canadian broker websites  

PubMed Central

Background Medical tourism, thought of as patients seeking non-emergency medical care outside of their home countries, is a growing industry worldwide. Canadians are amongst those engaging in medical tourism, and many are helped in the process of accessing care abroad by medical tourism brokers - agents who specialize in making international medical care arrangements for patients. As a key source of information for these patients, brokers are likely to play an important role in communicating the risks and benefits of undergoing surgery or other procedures abroad to their clientele. This raises important ethical concerns regarding processes such as informed consent and the liability of brokers in the event that complications arise from procedures. The purpose of this article is to examine the language, information, and online marketing of Canadian medical tourism brokers' websites in light of such ethical concerns. Methods An exhaustive online search using multiple search engines and keywords was performed to compile a comprehensive directory of English-language Canadian medical tourism brokerage websites. These websites were examined using thematic content analysis, which included identifying informational themes, generating frequency counts of these themes, and comparing trends in these counts to the established literature. Results Seventeen websites were identified for inclusion in this study. It was found that Canadian medical tourism broker websites varied widely in scope, content, professionalism and depth of information. Three themes emerged from the thematic content analysis: training and accreditation, risk communication, and business dimensions. Third party accreditation bodies of debatable regulatory value were regularly mentioned on the reviewed websites, and discussion of surgical risk was absent on 47% of the websites reviewed, with limited discussion of risk on the remaining ones. Terminology describing brokers' roles was somewhat inconsistent across the websites. Finally, brokers' roles in follow up care, their prices, and the speed of surgery were the most commonly included business dimensions on the reviewed websites. Conclusion Canadian medical tourism brokers currently lack a common standard of care and accreditation, and are widely lacking in providing adequate risk communication for potential medical tourists. This has implications for the informed consent and consequent safety of Canadian medical tourists.

2011-01-01

462

Insights into Lunar Far-side Highlands Crustal Development from the Moscoviense Basin and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper onboard Chandrayaan-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper, a reflectance spectrometer on India’s Chandrayaan-1, has enabled the detailed mineralogical and geological mapping of the Moon. Much of the highlands terrain on the Moon’s nearside has been drastically modified by the 3.8-4.09 Ga heavy bolide bombardment and subsequent volcanism. However, remote sensing observations, in combination with studies of Apollo and Luna samples, have provided invaluable insights into the complex nature of nearside lunar crustal material. When compared to the significant basin forming episodes, which literally changed the face of the nearside of the Moon, the northern hemisphere of the lunar farside consists of relatively undisturbed highlands, albeit with a few impact basins that may present cross-sections of the pristine products of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) and early crustal magmatism. The Moscoviense basin is one of these farside, multi-ring impact basins. It resulted from a major impact during the Nectarian Period (3.85-3.92 Ga), and experienced subsequent mare volcanism during the Upper Imbrian Epoch (3.2-3.8 Ga) and possibly even as recent as 1.1-3.2 Ga. It is approximately 445 km across, and its floor is >5 km below the surrounding rim. The inner peak-ring is represented by a half ring of approximately 105 km radius, stands 2-3 km above the basin floor, and is open to the northeast. The middle ring, which is the best approximation of the original crater rim, has a radius of about 220 km and is nearly continuous around the basin. A fault scarp, which formed during the late stages of basin formation as the crust collapsed into the crater, can be identified approximately 275 km west of the center of the basin. The surrounding rim is higher to the west and south with corresponding steeper slopes into the basin than to the north and east, which contain lower rims, gentler slopes, and distinct slump blocks. Much of the floor of the basin has been filled by mare basalts of varying compositions and occupies a roughly rectangular depression which trends southwest to northeast. The geologic setting of the Moscoviense basin provides a cross-section through what may be a relatively undisturbed crust formed by the LMO, with subsequent serial magmatism, and windows into the lunar mantle in the form of the several types of mare basalts.

Thaisen, K. G.; Taylor, L. A.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Kramer, G. Y.; McCord, T. B.; Staid, M.; Petro, N. E.; Isaacson, P.

2009-12-01

463

Dippers, Constellations, and Mappers -- Satellite Orbits and Multiple Satellite Configurations to Significantly Advance our Knowledge of the Earth`s Ionosphere and Thermosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct measurements using in situ probes have been at the forefront of aeronomy research since the earliest satellite and rocket-borne measurements of the upper atmosphere. The most effective in situ measurement packages are those that gather simultaneous measurements of comprehensive gas properties (density, composition, temperature, and velocity of both the neutral and ionized species), electrodynamic parameters (DC and AC electric fields and magnetic fields), and energetic charged particle populations including both electrons and ions from suprathermal to higher energies. Although satellite measurements are essential for revealing the numerous physical plasma and neutral gas processes at work in the upper atmosphere and how they are related to the magnetosphere above and the troposphere below, there remain many critical regions of the earth's upper atmosphere that have not yet been sampled, or have been sampled very poorly. Chief among these is the lower ionosphere/thermosphere (below 200 km), where our direct knowledge of the energy transfer and dissipation, winds, electrodynamics, and chemistry are practically non-existent. The lower ionosphere remains very much a 'frontier' within geospace for which our knowledge base is poor and for which critical measurement inputs for models of the ionosphere/thermosphere system are not available. Multiple satellite missions in the ionosphere/thermosphere region are expected to revolutionize our knowledge of aeronomy in the earth's ionosphere/thermosphere system. Examples of new missions concepts, including some that are already far advanced in the NASA formulation stage, include: (1) constellations of identical satellites (e.g., GEC) that will be flown in a variety of configurations to provide information on the neutral and plasma scales and how they interact, couple, and dissipate energy; (2) missions with simultaneous orbits along different longitudes (e.g., I-TSP, Ionospheric Mappers) that promise to provide critical information at different local times which are essential to understand the large scale/global extent of key physical processes; and (3) multiple satellites in elliptical orbits within the same orbit plane but with diametrically opposed major axes (e.g., Tropical Coupler) which will provide the simultaneous measurements at different altitudes needed for understanding the chemistry, gravity wave, and electrodynamic structuring within the I-T system with respect to altitude. This talk will present a variety of new mission concepts involving in situ probes and discuss the most critical areas in aeronomy for which such measurements promise to significantly advance our knowledge and understanding. We discuss the trade space and challenges of optimizing orbit and platform selection given the restrictions imposed by both finite resources as well as the physical laws of motion which govern satellite orbits.

Pfaff, R. F.; Grebowsky, J. M.

2005-12-01

464

Thermal radiance observations of an active lava flow during the June 1984 eruption of Mount Etna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal budget of an active lava flow observed on 20 June 1984 from the Southeast crater of Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy, was analyzed from data taken by the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The Thematic Mapper images constitute one of the few satellite data sets of sufficient spatial and spectral resolution to allow calibrated measurements on the distribution and intensity of

David C. Pieri; Lori S. Glaze; Michael J. Abrams

1990-01-01