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1

Thematic Mapper. Volume 1: Calibration report flight model, LANDSAT 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calibration of the Flight 1 Model Thematic Mapper is discussed. Spectral response, scan profile, coherent noise, line spread profiles and white light leaks, square wave response, radiometric calibration, and commands and telemetry are specifically addressed.

Cooley, R. C.; Lansing, J. C.

1984-01-01

2

Assessing the information content of Landsat5 Thematic Mapper data for mapping and characterizing fire scars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classical problem in multispectral satellite sensor data is the choice of the most effective three- channel color composites for enhancing certain characteristics of the scene, as for instance fire scars. Giving a paradigm, there are 210 unique ways to present in a three dimensional color space (i.e. RGB) the seven available spectral channels of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data (Sheffield,

Nikos Koutsias; Maria Tsakiri-Strati

3

Fire effects in the northern Chihuahuan Desert derived from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper spectral indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire effects on desert ecosystems may be long-lasting based on ecological impact of fire in these environments which potentially is detected from multispectral sensors. To assess this, we analyzed changes in spectral characteristics from 1986 to 2010 of pixels associated with the location of fires that occurred between 1986 and 1999 in Big Bend National Park, USA, located in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data, we derived spectral indices including the simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), and normalized burn ratio (NBR) from 1989, 1999, and 2010 from the TM data and compared changes in spectral index values for sites with and without observed fire. We found that the NDVI and SAVI had significantly different values over the time for burned sites of different fire sizes. When differences of the spectral indices were calculated from each time period, time since fire was correlated with the SR and NBR indices. These results showed that large fires potentially had a persistent and long-term change in vegetation cover and soil characteristics which were detected by the extraordinary long-data collection period of the Landsat-5 TM sensor.

White, Joseph D.; Swint, Pamela

2014-01-01

4

The geometric properties of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data and their conformity to Landsat-4 data and to earth's surface geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometry of two TIPS processed Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper scenes was analyzed and compared with that of SCROUNGE processed Landsat-4 data. Swath-to-swath and band-to-band registration of Washington, DC, and northeastern Iowa scenes was found to be similar to or better than that of Landsat-4 data. Results indicate a high degree of geometric conformity between the images produced by the different systems. The geometric conformity of the TIPS processed images to the Space Oblique Mercator projection, however, proved to be less accurate than the targeted processing error of 15 meters.

Walker, R. E.; Gokham, B.; Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

1985-01-01

5

A comparative study of infrared radiance measurements by an ER-2 based radiometer and the LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper (TM-6)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared radiance measurements were acquired from a radiometer on the NASA ER-2 during a coincident LANDSAT 5 overpass on 28 Oct. 1986 as part of the FIRE Cirrus IFO in the vicinity of Lake Michigan. A comparative study is made to infer microphysical properties of the cirrus cloud field. Radiances are derived from the image by convolving the ER-2 radiometer's effective field of view along the flight path. A multistream radiative transfer model is used to account for the differences in spectral bandwidths, 10.40 to 12.50 microns for the LANDSAT band and 9.90 to 10.87 microns for the radiometer.

Hammer, Philip D.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Kinne, Stefan

1990-01-01

6

Measurement of Thematic Mapper data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper data from Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 were examined for band-to-band registration, absolute geodetic registration, periodic noise and spatial resolution. Between focal planes, appreciable misregistrations existed in early data products but were corrected in later data products. The analysis of absolute geodetic registration used only system-corrected data because ground control point-corrected data were unavailable. Geodetic registration errors averaged only 9.7 pixels, less than expected for system-corrected data. Periodic noise at four spatial frequencies was observed in Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data by using Fourier analysis on small areas over water. Magnitudes of periodic noise components were consistent within a scene. The modulation transfer function was determined for two Landsat-4 scenes. The effective instantaneous field of view was 40.8 meters in one case, and 48.6 meters in the other.

Wrigley, R. C.; Hlavka, C. A.; Card, D. H.; Buis, J. S.; Schowengerdt, R. A.

1985-01-01

7

Thematic mapper design parameter investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study simulated the multispectral data sets to be expected from three different Thematic Mapper configurations, and the ground processing of these data sets by three different resampling techniques. The simulated data sets were then evaluated by processing them for multispectral classification, and the Thematic Mapper configuration, and resampling technique which provided the best classification accuracy were identified.

Colby, C. P., Jr.; Wheeler, S. G.

1978-01-01

8

Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper instruments, the protoflight (TM\\/PF) and flight (TM\\/F) models, respectively, is presented. Data collected by the Hughes\\/Santa Barbara Research Center on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with the spectral coverage and spectral matching specifications served as the basis for the characterization. Compliance with the spectral

BRIAN L. MARKHAM; JOHN L. BARKER

1985-01-01

9

Thematic Mapper bandpass solar exoatmospheric irradiances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on solar irradiance data published by Neckel and Labs (1984) and Iqbal (1983), the solar exoatmospheric irradiances for Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 1, 2, 3 and 4 have been calculated. Results vary by up to 1 per cent from our previously published values which were based on earlier data of Neckel and Labs. For TM bands 5 and 7,

B. L. MARKHAM; J. L. BARKER

1987-01-01

10

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress during the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan-ERIM's and 5 image data quality assessment program for the thematic mapper is described. Analyses of LANDSAT 5 TM radiometric characteristics were performed. Effects which had earlier been found in LANDSAT 4 TM data were found to be present in LANDSAT 5 data as well, including: (1) scan direction related signal droop; (2) scan correlated level shifts; and (3) low frequency coherent noise. Coincident LANDSAT 4 and 5 raw TM data were analyzed, and band by band relationships between the two sensors were derived. Earlier efforts which developed an information theoretic measure of multispectral information content were continued, comparing TM and MSS information content.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

11

Thematic mapper critical elements breadboard program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 40.6 cm bidirectional scan mirror assembly, a scan line corrector and a silicon photodiode array with integral preamplifier input stages were designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate performance consistent with requirements of the Hughes thematic mapper system. The measured performance met or exceeded the original design goals in all cases with the qualification that well defined and well understood deficiencies in the design of the photodiode array package will require the prescribed corrections before flight use.

Dale, C. H., Jr.; Engel, J. L.; Harney, E. D.

1976-01-01

12

Forestry information content of Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an initial investigation of the spectroradiometric data structure and information content of Thematic Mapper (TM) data for some Canadian forest-cover types. The Dryden-Lac Seul region in western Ontario is an important commercial and tourist area containing mainly boreal forest. A LANDSAT-4 TM scene of this region was analysed in conjunction with a considerable amount of ancillary data.

D. N. H. HORLER; F. J. AHERN

1986-01-01

13

Evaluation of corn/soybeans separability using Thematic Mapper and Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multitemporal Thematic Mapper, Thematic Mapper Simulator, and detailed ground truth data were collected for a 9- by 11-km sample segment in Webster County, IA, in the summer of 1982. Three dates were acquired each with Thematic Mapper Simulator (June 7, June 23, and July 31) and Thematic Mapper (August 2, September 3, and October 21). The Thematic Mapper Simulator data were converted to equivalent TM count values using TM and TMS calibration data and model based estimates of atmospheric effects. The July 31, TMS image was compared to the August 2, TM image to verify the conversion process. A quantitative measure of proportion estimation variance (Fisher information) was used to evaluate the corn/soybeans separability for each TM band as a function of time during the growing season. The additional bands in the middle infrared allowed corn and soybeans to be separated much earlier than was possible with the visible and near-infrared bands alone. Using the TM and TMS data, temporal profiles of the TM principal components were developed. The greenness and brightness exhibited behavior similar to MSS greenness and brightness for corn and soybeans.

Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Shen, S. S.; Sorensen, C. T.; Carnes, J. G.

1984-01-01

14

Thematic mapper studies of Andean volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective was to identify all the active volcanoes in the Andean region of Bolivia. Morphological features of the Tata Sabaya volcano, Bolivia, were studied with the thematic mapper. Details include marginal levees on lava and pyroclastic flows, and summit crater structure. Valley glacier moraine deposits, not easily identified on the multispectral band scanner, were also unambiguous, and provide useful marker horizons on large volcanic edifices which were built up in preglacial times but which were active subsequently. With such high resolution imagery, it is not only possible to identify potentially active volcanoes, but also to use standard photogeological interpretation to outline the history of individual volcanoes.

Francis, P. W.

1986-01-01

15

Thematic Mapper research in the earth sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.

Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke

1989-01-01

16

Thematic mapper studies of central Andean volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of false color composite images covering the volcanic cordillera was written. Each image is 45 km (1536 x 1536 pixels) and was constructed using bands 7, 4, and 2 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Approximately 100 images were prepared to date. A set of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images was used in conjunction with the TM hardcopy to compile a computer data base of all volcanic structure in the Central Andean province. Over 500 individual structures were identified. About 75 major volcanoes were identified as active, or potentially active. A pilot study was begun combining Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data with TM for a test area in north Chile and Bolivia.

Francis, Peter W.

1987-01-01

17

Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress under the LANDSAT-4 and 5 Image Data Quality Assessment program for the Thematic Mapper is described. An initial screening of LANDSAT-5 data is performed. Tools are developed to allow access to TIPS-format data. Analysis of scan direction related signal droop is resumed with detailed analysis of nighttime data. A new mathematical model is developed to describe the effect. Coherent noise of a lower frequency than previously reported is discovered and analyzed. Coincident LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS data are analyzed to improve understanding of radiometric relationships between similar wavebands in the two sensors.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

18

Multispectral scanner, thematic mapper, and beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities and functions of the Landsat D multispectral scanner (MSS) and thematic mapper (TM) are explored as a basis for improvements to satisfy increasing user demands. The MSS is an object-space line scanner for gathering data in four spectral bands ranging from 0.5-1.1 micron. In a 705 km near-polar sunsynchronous orbit, the MSS will generate 185 x 185 km imagery with 80 x 80 m ground resolution, mapping the entire earth every 16 days. Photomultiplier tubes are used for four of the bands and the other employs Si photodiodes. A calibration light source provides in orbit calibration during every reverse scan period of a pivotal on-board mirror. The TM collects data in seven bands from 0.45-12.5 microns, yielding a ground resolution of 30 x 30 m in six bands for reflected sunlight and 120 x 120 m for the 10.4-12.5 thermal bands. The addition of 16 Si detectors for 0.9-1.1 micron viewing for agricultural purposes, as well as higher resolution, is discussed.

Jones, C. R.; Engel, J. L.

1981-01-01

19

Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combinations of Thematic Mapper (TM) bands that best distinguish basalts of the Brooks Range ophiolites were determined. Geochemical analyses, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE), are being done in order to study the significance of TM spectral variations that were observed within some of the sampled rock units. An image of the topography of the western Brooks Range and Colville Basin was constructed. Elevation data for the rest of Northern Alaska are being acquired to expand the area covered by the topography image. Two balanced cross sections (one along the eastern margin, the other along the western margin of the Brooks Range) are being constructed, using the techniques of fault-bend and fault-propagation folding. These are being used to obtain regional shortening estimates for the Brooks Range in an attempt to constrain tectonic models for the evolution of Northern Alaska. The TM data are being used to confirm reconnaissance maps and to obtain structural data where no maps exist. Along with the TM data, digital topography, seismic reflection profiles, and magnetic and gravity surveys are examined to better understand the evolution of the Colville Basin, north of the Brooks Range.

Bird, J. M.

1986-01-01

20

Scrounge data processing film products for the thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on the format of the film product and type of film used for the LANDSAT-4 scrounge processed thematic mapper data is presented. Image gray scale, annotation field, and general layout are described.

1983-01-01

21

Thematic Mapper - An interim report on anticipated performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements and design concept of the Thematic Mapper are briefly reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the anticipated on-orbit performance based on subsystem and system level test results obtained from Engineering Model and Protoflight Model hardware. The anticipated performance of the Thematic Mapper is discussed in four key areas: spectral response, radiometric sensitivity, square-wave response, and band-to-band registration.

Engel, J. L.

1980-01-01

22

Landsat-4 thematic mapper and thematic mapper simulator data for a porphyry copper deposit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft thematic mapper (TM) data were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the Landsat-4 thematic mapper for geologic mapping and detection of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona. The data allow a comparison between aircraft TV simulator data and the Landsat-4 TM satellite data which possess similar spectral bands. A color rationcomposite of 30-m pixels was resampled, in order to clearly define a number of hydroxyl bearing minerals, (kaolinite, sericite, white mica), pyrite and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals. The iron oxide minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.45 and 0.85 micron regions of the spectrum, and the hydrous minerals are characterized by an absorption in the 2.2 micron region. The position of the spectral bands allow the TM to identify regions of hydrothermal alteration without resorting to a data processing algorithm. The comparison of the aircraft and Landsat-4 TM data showed considerable agreement, and confirmed the utility of TM data for identifying hydrothermal alteration zones. Samples of some color TM images are provided.

Abrams, M. J.

1984-01-01

23

Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

1986-01-01

24

Radiometric cross-calibration of the Landsat7 ETM+ and Landsat5 TM sensors based on tandem data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early in its mission, the Landsat-7 spacecraft was temporarily placed in a “tandem” orbit very close to that of the Landsat-5 spacecraft in order to facilitate the establishment of sensor calibration continuity between the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors. The key period for the tandem configuration was June 1–4, 1999, during which hundreds

P. m. Teillet; J. l. Barker; B. l. Markham; R. R Irish; G. Fedosejevs; J. c. Storey

2001-01-01

25

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress during ERIM's tenth quarter of effort under the LANDSAT-4 and 5 Image Data Quality Assessment program for the Thematic Mapper is described. Coincident LANDSAT-4 and 5 fully corrected (CCT-PT) TM data are analyzed in more detail and revised band-by-band relationships between the two sensors derived. An analysis technique employing the matching of cumulative distributions is developed and used and is believed to offer advantages over the histogram matching procedure currently used to produce LANDSAT data. Multiplicative factors ranging from 0.987 to 1.145 and offsets ranging from -2.7 to -6.2 video quantum levels are required to cause LANDSAT-5 data to match LANDSAT-4 data values. Evidence of low level clipping is found in TM Bands 5 and 7 of LANDSAT-5 but not LANDSAT-4. Analysis of the information content of LANDSAT TM and MSS data is continued. Components of information loss are identified and quantified and the effects of coarsened quantization are explored.

Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (principal investigators)

1985-01-01

26

Study of Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Data Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data for natural resource assessment and land cover information, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. In most cases, substantially more information was derived from TM data than from MSS data. The test areas included Washington, D.C. and prairie regions of South Dakota and Kansas.

Sadowski, F. G.; Haas, R. H.; Sturdevant, J. A.; Anderson, W. H.; Seevers, P. M.; Feuquay, J. W.; Balick, L. K.; Waltz, F. A.; Lauer, D. T.

1984-01-01

27

Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

1986-01-01

28

An Analysis LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Geometric Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT Thematic Mapper P-data of Washington, D. C., Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA are analyzed to determine magnitudes and causes of error in the geometric conformity of the data to known Earth surface geometry. Several tests of data geometry are performed. Intraband and interband correlation and registration are investigated, exclusive of map based ground truth. The magnitudes and statistical trends of pixel offsets between a single band's mirror scans (due to processing procedures) are computed, and the inter-band integrity of registration is analyzed. A line to line correlation analysis is included.

Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gokhman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

1984-01-01

29

Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

1992-01-01

30

Revised Landsat5 TM radiometric calibration procedures and postcalibration dynamic ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective May 5, 2003, Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) will be radiometrically calibrated using a new procedure and revised calibration parameters. This change will improve absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data.

Gyanesh Chander; Brian Markham

2003-01-01

31

Remote sensing of coastal wetlands biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral data, simulating thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 are gathered in salt and brackish marshes using a hand-held radiometer. Simple regression models are developed equating spectral radiance indices with total live biomass for S. alterniflora in a salt marsh and for a variety of plant species in a brackish marsh. Models are then tested using an independent set of data and compared to harvest estimates of biomass. In the salt marsh, biomass estimates from spectral data are similar to harvest biomass estimates during most of the growing season. Estimates of annual net aerial primary productivity calculated from spectral data are within 21% of production estimated from harvest data. During August, biomass estimates from spectral data in the brackish marsh are similar to biomass estimated by harvesting techniques. At other times during the growing season, spectral data estimates of biomass are not always comparable to harvest biomass estimates. Reasonable estimates of wetlands biomass are possible during the peak of the growing season (August) using spectral data similar to thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 gathered with hand-held radiometers.

Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.

1985-01-01

32

Analysis of forest structure using thematic mapper simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure information has been explored by principal components and feature selection techniques. In a survey of forest structural properties conducted for 123 field sites of the Sequoia National Park, the canopy closure could be well estimated (r = 0.62 to 0.69) by a variety of channel bands and band ratios, without reference to the forest type. Estimation of the basal area was less successful (r = 0.51 or less) on the average, but could be improved for certain forest types when data were stratified by floristic composition. To achieve such a stratification, individual sites were ordinated by a detrended correspondence analysis based on the canopy of dominant species. The analysis of forest structure in the Sequoia data suggests that total basal area can be best predicted in stands of lower density, and in younger even-aged managed stands.

Peterson, D. L.; Westman, W. E.; Brass, J. A.; Stephenson, N. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Spanner, M. A.

1986-01-01

33

Classification of corn and soybeans using multitemporal Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multitemporal classification approach based on the greenness profile derived from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral bands has proved successful in effectively separating and identifying corn, soybean, and other ground cover classes. Features derived from these profiles have been shown to carry virtually all the information contained in the original data and, in addition, have been shown to be stable over a large geographic area of the United States. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the same features derived from multitemporal Thematic Mapper (TM) data would also prove effective in separating these two crop types, and, in fact, if algorithms developed for MSS could be directly applied to TM. It is shown that this is indeed the case. In addition, because of greater spatial and spectral resolution, the accuracy of TM classifications is better than in MSS.

Badhwar, G. D.

1984-01-01

34

Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT thematic mapper sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data collected on the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-4 backup thematic mapper instruments, the protoflight (TM/PF) and flight (TM/F) models, respectively, are presented and analyzed. Tests were conducted on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with two sets of spectral specifications: band-by-band spectral coverage and channel-by-channel within-band spectral matching. Spectral coverage specifications were placed on: (1) band edges--points at 50% of peak response, (2) band edge slopes--steepness of rise and fall-off of response, (3) spectral flatness--evenness of response between edges, and (4) spurious system response--ratio of out-of-band response to in-band response. Compliance with the spectral coverage specifications was determined by analysis of spectral measurements on the individual components contributing to the overall spectral response: filters, detectors, and optical surfaces.

Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

1983-01-01

35

Landsat Thematic Mapper geodetic accuracy - Implications for geocoded map compatibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geodetic accuracy and geometric fidelity of corrected thematic mapper (TM) imagery are evaluated. The positional accuracy requirements for the TM are for a single band to within 0.5 pixels of true earth-surface locations at any point over 90 percent of the image and for interband registration to within 0.3 pixel tolerance over 90 percent of the data. Landsat 4 and 5 TM data are analyzed to investigate: (1) single band geometric integrity, (2) 30 m resolution interband registration; (3) image to image conformity; (4) image to ground conformity; and (5) image projective geometry conformity to a mapped earth geometry. The procedures used to study these characteristics are described. The data reveal that Landsat TM digital data met or exceed map accuracy standards for horizontal control.

Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.; Walker, R. E.; Gokhmann, B.

1985-01-01

36

Hydrological planning studies using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is evaluating the capabilities of Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for environmental and hydrological applications. Attention is given to the results of studies conducted at the Clinton River Basin in Michigan and the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. In the former, the evaluation conducted was for the band combinations: (1) 2, 3, and 4; (2) 3, 4, and 5; (3) 3, 4, 5, and 6; and (4) all seven bands. In the latter case, Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and TM data were classified for combinations (1), (3) and (4). Wetland classification accuracy for the 7-band TM data in this study was found to be 9 percent higher than with MSS data, allowing more reliable and accurate monitoring.

Gervin, J. C.; Mulligan, P. J.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

1984-01-01

37

Thematic Mapper simulator research for forest resource mapping in the Clearwater National Forest, Idaho  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Per-pixel maximum likelihood digital classification and photo interpretation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) composited images for a managed conifer forest were used to evaluate both land cover and forest structure characteristics. TMS channels 4, 7, 5 and 3, which were found to be optimal for forest vegetation analysis, used the full range of the Thematic Mapper's spectral capability. Photo interpretation results indicate that a false color composite from TMS channels 4, 7, and 2 provided the highest accuracies; the combination of improved spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of the Thematic Mapper yielded greater sensitivity to forest structural characteristics.

Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.; Spanner, M. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ulliman, J. J.; Brockhaus, J.

1984-01-01

38

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of experiments were initiated to determine the feasibility of using thematic mapper spectral data to estimate wetlands biomass. The experiments were conducted using hand-held radiometers simulating thematic mapper wavebands 3, 4 and 5. Spectral radiance data were collected from the ground and from a low altitude aircraft in an attempt to gain some insight into the potential utility of actual thematic mapper data for biomass estimation in wetland plant communities. In addition, radiative transfer models describing volume reflectance of eight water column containing submerged aquatic vegetation were refined.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

39

Preliminary Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Image Data Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper (TM) data from Mississippi County, Arkansas, and Webster County, Iowa, were examined for the purpose of evaluating the image data quality of the TM which was launched on board the LANDSAT-4 spacecraft. Preliminary clustering and principal component analysis indicates that the middle infrared and thermal infrared data of TM appear to add significant information over that of the near IR and visible bands of the multispectral scanner data. Moreover, the higher spatial resolution of TM appears to provide better definition of the edges and the within variability of agricultural fields. The geometric performance of TM data, without ground control correction, was found to exceed expectations. The modulation transfer function for the 1.65 m band was found to agree with prelaunch specifications when the effects of the GSFC cubic convolution and the atmosphere were removed. The band to band registration for the bands within the noncooled focal plane was found to be better than specified. However, the middle infrared and thermal infrared, which are on a separate cooled focal plane were found to be misregistered and were significantly worse than prelaunch specifications.

Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Pitts, D. E.; Bizzell, R. M.; Yao, S.; Sorensen, C.; Reyna, E.; Carnes, J. G.

1984-01-01

40

An analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper geometric properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data of Washington, DC, Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine geometric integrity and conformity of the data to known earth surface geometry. Several tests were performed. Intraband correlation and interband registration were investigated. No problems were observed in the intraband analysis, and aside from indications of slight misregistration between bands of the primary versus bands of the secondary focal planes, interband registration was well within the specified tolerances. A substantial number of ground control points were found and used to check the images' conformity to the Space Oblique Mercator (SOM) projection of their respective areas. The means of the residual offsets, which included nonprocessing related measurement errors, were close to the one pixel level in the two scenes examined. The Harrisburg scene residual mean was 28.38 m (0.95 pixels) with a standard deviation of 19.82 m (0.66 pixels), while the mean and standard deviation for the Salton Sea scene were 40.46 (1.35 pixels) and 30.57 m (1.02 pixels), respectively. Overall, the data were judged to be a high geometric quality with errors close to those targeted by the TM sensor design specifications.

Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gohkman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

1984-01-01

41

Resource and environmental surveys from space with the thematic mapper in the 1980's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of observation of vegetation is the primary optimization objective of the thematic mapper. The following are aspects of plans for the thematic mapper: (1) to include an appropriately modified first generation MSS in the thematic mapper mission; (2) to provide assured coverage for a minimum of six years to give agencies and other users an opportunity to justify the necessary commitment of resources for the transition into a completely valid operational phase; (3) to provide for global, direct data read-out, without the necessity for on-board data storage or dependence on foreign receiving stations; (4) to recognize the operational character of the thematic mapper after successful completion of its experimental evaluation; and (5) to combine future experimental packages with compatible orbits as part of the operational LANDSAT follow-on payloads.

1976-01-01

42

INPE LANDSAT-D thematic mapper computer compatible tape format specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The format of the computer compatible tapes (CCT) which contain Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery data acquired from the LANDSAT D and D Prime satellites by the INSTITUTO DE PERSQUISAS ESPACIALS (CNPq-INPE/BRAZIL) is defined.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Desouza, R. C. M.

1982-01-01

43

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Images of the Andes as a Classroom Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the use of Thematic Mapper images in undergraduate geology instruction. The work of the Andes Project at Cornell University is discussed. Digitally enhanced illustrations of landforms in the Andes mountains of South America are provided. (CW)

Bloom, Arthur L.; Fox, Andrew N.

1990-01-01

44

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part C: Subsystem data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reference lists are provided to acceptance data for each of the major subsystems of the thematic mapper. Configuration reports, lists and copies of all failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

1982-01-01

45

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part G: Miscellaneous system data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Functional and design data from various thematic mapper subsystems are presented. Coarse focus, modulation transfer function, and shim requirements are addressed along with spectral matching and spatial coverage tests.

1982-01-01

46

LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 3, Part 2: Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper is discussed as well as the atmospheric, radiometric, and geometric accuracy and correction of data obtained with this sensor. Methods are given for assessing TM band to band registration.

Barker, J. L. (editor)

1985-01-01

47

Evaluation of thematic mapper data for natural resource assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) date for natural resource assessment, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. Substantially more information was derived from TM data than from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. Greater resolution of TM data aided in locating roads, small stock ponds, and many other land features that could be used as landmarks. The improved spatial resolution of TM data also permitted more efficient visual interpretations of land use, better identification of resource types, and improved assessment of ecological status of natural vegetation. TM data also provided a new source of spectral information that was useful for natural resource assessment. New mid-infrared spectral bands, TM band 5 and band 7, aided in distinguishing water resources, wetland vegetation resources, and other important terrain features. The added information was useful for both manual interpretation and digital data classification of vegetation resources and land features. Results from the analyses of both TM and TM simulator (TMS) spectral data suggest that the coefficient of variation for major land cover types is generally less for TM data than for MSS data taken from the same area. This reduction in variance should contribute to an improved multispectral analysis, contributing new information about vegetation in natural ecosystems. Although the amount of new information in TM bands 5 and 7 is mall, it is unique in that the same information cannot be derived from four-band Landsat MSS spectral data.

Haas, R.H.; Waltz, F.A.

1983-01-01

48

Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reduction of the data measured on July 8, 1984 at White Sands, New Mexico is summarized. The radiance incident at the entrance pupil of the LANDSAT 5 sensors have been computed for bands 1 to 4. When these are compared to the digital counts of the TM image, the ground based calibration for this sensor will be given. The image was received from Goddard SFC and is presently being analyzed.

Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (principal investigators)

1984-01-01

49

Simulation of Thematic Mapper performance as a function of sensor scanning parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation and results of the Thematic Mapper Instrument Performance Study are described. The Thematic Mapper is the advanced multispectral scanner initially planned for the Earth Observation Satellite and now planned for LANDSAT D. The use of existing digital airborne scanner data obtained with the Modular Multispectral Scanner (M2S) at Bendix provided an opportunity to simulate the effects of variation of design parameters of the Thematic Mapper. Analysis and processing of this data on the Bendix Multispectral Data Analysis System were used to empirically determine categorization performance on data generated with variations of the sampling period and scan overlap parameters of the Thematic Mapper. The Bendix M2S data, with a 2.5 milliradian instantaneous field of view and a spatial resolution (pixel size) of 10-m from 13,000 ft altitude, allowed a direct simulation of Thematic Mapper data with a 30-m resolution. The flight data chosen were obtained on 30 June 1973 over agricultural test sites in Indiana.

Johnson, R. H.; Shah, N. J.; Schmidt, N. F.

1975-01-01

50

Use of TMS/TM data for mapping of forest decline damage in the northeastern United States. [Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing systems were used to monitor forest decline damage suspected of being due to air pollution. Field activities and aircraft overflights were centered on montane spruce/fir forest sites. Using aircraft data acquired with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) during the growing season, extensive areas of forest decline damage were accurately mapped. Seven levels of decline damage are discrininated and mapped and the levels of discriminated damage agree well (rsq-0.94) with visual assessment conducted on the ground. New areas of high damage were discovered. A band ratio (TM5/TM4) is most useful in discriminating and quantifying the various levels of forest decline damage.

Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.

1986-01-01

51

Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

1983-01-01

52

Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 2: Sensor system study. [thematic mapper for earth resources application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.

1974-01-01

53

Detection and Classification of Muskox Habitat on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using Landsat Thematic Mapper data for mapping muskox summer habitat was tested on northern Banks Island, Northwest Territories. Digital image enhancement and classification techniques were examined to determine if summer foraging habitats could be detected and mapped using Thematic Mapper imagery. Interpretations of the Satellite data were verified in the field during the summers of 1988 and

ROBERT S. FERGUSON

1991-01-01

54

Relationships between thematic mapper radiance and tree community characteristics in the mayan biosphere reserve, Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the relationships between topography, tree community composition and richness, foliage height and density measured in the field, and Thematic Mapper radiance values for a 750-m transect located in the seasonal tropical forests of the Mayan Biosphere Reserve, Guate- mala. Four forest units differed according to their characteristics as measured in the field and TM3, TM4, TMS, and

J. M. Rey Benayas; K. O. Pope

1996-01-01

55

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part C: Power supply data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acceptance test data package for the thematic mapper flight model power supply was reviewed and the data compared to the relevant specification. The power supply was found to be within specification. Final test data for outut voltage regulation and ripple, efficiency, over and undervoltage protection, telemetry, impedances, turn-on requirements, and input current limits are presented.

1982-01-01

56

LAND COVER MAPPING IN AN AGRICULTURAL SETTING USING MULTISEASONAL THEMATIC MAPPER DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

A multiseasonal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data set consisting of five image dates from a single year was used to characterize agricultural and related land cover in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon. Image registration was accomplished using an automated grou...

57

Remote sensing of phytoplankton An attempt from the Landsat Thematic Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atmospheric correction scheme using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 1, 2 and 4 was developed and the data corrected for atmospheric effects due to Rayleigh scattering and aerosols. Secondly phytoplankton pigment mapping was achieved through substitution of corrected radiances in TM bands 1 and 2 into a bio-optical algorithm developed for the study area off Azhikal in the Arabian

R. M. Dwivedi; A. Narain

1987-01-01

58

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part E: Electronics module data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests to verify the as-designed performance of all circuits within the thematic mapper electronics module unit are described. Specifically, the tests involved the evaluation of the scan line corrector driver, shutter drivers function, cal lamp controller function, post amplifier function, command decoder verification unit, and the temperature and actuator controllers function.

1982-01-01

59

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part A: System data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of vibration, acoustical noise, and thermal vacuum are described as well as tests studies of EMI/EMC and mass properties conducted for thematic mapper systems integration. Liens are summarized and the engineering change proposal status is presented. Requests for deviation/waiver are included along with failure and nonforming material reports.

1982-01-01

60

490 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 4, NO. 3, JULY 2007 Revised Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper  

E-print Network

from the in- strument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have), National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS), offset, radiance, reflectance, relative spectral response

Frank, Thomas D.

61

Water quality assessment with simultaneous Landsat5 TM at Manzala Lagoon, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at determining relationships between water quality parameters and radiance data from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). Fortunately, water samples and the total biomass of aquatic plants were collected at the same time of acquired satellite image (September 1995). TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 and band ratios 3\\/1, 2\\/1, 2\\/4, and 3\\/4 were compared with

Kh. Dewidar; A. Khedr

2001-01-01

62

Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

1986-01-01

63

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral thematic mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main emphasis of the research was to determine what effect different wetland plant canopies would have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. Biomass estimates computed from spectral data were most similar to biomass estimates determined from harvest data when models developed for a specific canopy were used. In other words, the spectral biomass estimate of a broadleaf canopy was most similar to the harvest biomass estimate when a broadleaf canopy radiance model was used. Work is continuing to more precisely determine regression coefficients for each canopy type and to model the change in the coefficients with various combinations of canopy types. Researchers suspect that textural and spatial considerations can be used to identify canopy types and improve biomass estimates from Thematic Mapper data.

Klemas, V.

1985-01-01

64

Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1988-01-01

65

Volume quantification of coniferous forest compartments using spectral radiance recorded by Landsat Thematic Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to (i) investigate the relationship between spectral radiance recorded by the Landsat Thematic Mapper and the volume (m ha) of forest compartments in a coniferous forest area in southern Sweden and (ii) establish and evaluate a regression for volume estimation of forest compartments. A regression of volume on spectral radiance of TM5 was established with Wald's method.Spectral radiance

J. Ardö

1992-01-01

66

GEODETIC ACCURACY OF LANDSAT 4 MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER AND THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

EROS Data Center is evaluating the geodetic accuracy of Landsat-4 data from both the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) processing systems. Geodetic accuracy is a measure of the precision of Landsat data registration to the Earth's figure. This paper describes a geodetic accuracy assessment of several MSS and TM scenes, based on the geodetic referencing information supplied on a standard Landsat 4 computer compatible tape.

Thormodsgard, J.M.; DeVries, D.J.

1985-01-01

67

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part D: Focal plane assembly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data obtained for the Band 1 thematic mapper flight full band assembly (P/N 50797) are summarized. The data were collected from half band, post amplifier, and full band acceptance test data records.

1982-01-01

68

Landsat-D thematic mapper simulation using aircraft multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation of imagery from the upcoming Landsat-D Thematic Mapper was accomplished by using selected channels of aircraft 24-channel multispectral scanner data. The purpose was to simulate Thematic Mapper 30-meter resolution imagery, to compare its spectral quality with the original aircraft MSS data, and to determine changes in thematic classification accuracy for the simulated imagery. The original resolution of approximately 7.5 meters IFOV and simulated resolution of 15, 30, and 60 meters were used to indicate the trend of spectral quality and classification accuracy. The study was based in a 6.5 square kilometer area of urban Los Angeles having a diversity of land use. The original imagery was reduced in resolution by two related methods: pixel matrix averaging, and matrix smoothing with a unity box filter, followed by matrix averaging. Thematic land use classification using training sites and a Bayesian maximum-likelihood algorithm was performed at three levels of standard deviation - 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 sigma. Plots of relative standard deviation showed that for larger training sites with a normal distribution of data, as the resolution decreased, the distribution range of density values decreased. Also, the classification accuracies for three levels of standard deviation increased as resolution decreased. However, the indication is that a point of diminishing returns had been reached, and 30 meters IFOV should be the best for multispectral classification of urban scenes.

Clark, J.; Bryant, N. A.

1977-01-01

69

Feature selection and information content of thematic mapper simulator data for a forested environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feature selection and the information content of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data are investigated for a forested region in northern Idaho. The optimal TMS channels for forest structural characteristics are determined, and the capability of TMS data to describe the structural variability within a forest stand is evaluated. The comparative performance of TMS and MSS data to discriminate forest structural factors using per-pixel maximum likelihood classification is examined, and four optimal TMS channels are classified in order to ascertain if the full complement of TM channels provide higher accuracies than the four optimal ones.

Spanner, M. A.; Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.

1983-01-01

70

Feature selection and the information content of Thematic Mapper simulator data for forest structural assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is made of the information content of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the case of a forested region, in order to determine the sensitivity of such data to forest crown closure and tree size class. Principal components analysis and Monte Carlo simulation indicated that channels 4, 7, 5 and 3 were optimal for four-channel forest structure analysis. As the number of channels supplied to the Monte Carlo feature selection routine increased, classification accuracy increased. The greatest sensitivity to the forest structural parameters, which included succession within clearcuts as well as crown closure and size class, was obtained from the 7-channel TMS data.

Spanner, M. A.; Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.

1984-01-01

71

The use of thematic mapper simulator calibration data for assessment of data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In flight calibration data collected from the thematic mapper simulator (TMS) were used to assess the quality of Earth scan data. The following results are indicated: (1) based on limited samples, individual TMS channels have noise which varies from channel to channel, but remains constant within a channel; (2) short term variations of more than 5% in the average values of calibration source responses indicate problems; and (3) absolute radiometric calibration is unlikely to be meaningful in a temporal sense due to single point calibration methods used.

Forman, M. L.

1980-01-01

72

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR THEIR GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC ACCURACIES.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes results of some preliminary analyses of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data for the NASA Landsat Image Quality Analysis program. The work is being done under interagency agreement S-12407-C between the U. S. Geological Survey and NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. Landsat-4 TM scenes for Washington, D. C. Macon, Georgia (40050-15333, September 4, 1982) and Cape Canaveral, Florida have been examined to determine their geometric and radiometric accuracy. In addition, parts of these scenes are also being analyzed to determine the ability to identify specific rock types with the added near-infrared TM bands.

Podwysoki, M.H.; Falcone, N.; Bender, L.U.; Jones, O.D.

1985-01-01

73

Geobotanical determination of aggregate source material using Airborne Thematic Mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible use of vegetation to discriminate parent materials for suitability as aggregate source material is examined. Airborne Thematic Mapper data of two test sites representing potential alluvial and residual source areas in central California were analyzed. It is found that the most useful images were composites that included principal components bands and a Perpendicular Vegetation Index band. The image processing demarcated species compositional differences which characterized a shale site and revealed differences in an alluvial site caused by moisture stress due to aggregate size and sorting.

Minor, Timothy; Mouat, David; Myers, Jeff

1988-01-01

74

Geologic results of the TMS survey over Mt. Emmons, Colorado. [Thematic Mapper Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1981, NASA conducted with an American company a cooperative study, involving the use of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data. The study was concerned with an area near Crested Butte, Colorado, which contains a known, but unmined, major molybdenum deposit. Detailed ground observations in the Mt. Emmons area demonstrated that the imagery was extremely effective for detection of geologically significant features. The imagery specifically delineated areas of ferric iron staining, seritization, and hornfelized rock. Attention is given to data acquisition and data processing, field work in 1982 and in 1983, the integration of gravity data, and costs.

Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

1985-01-01

75

An evaluation of thematic mapper simulator data for mapping forest cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer-aided analysis techniques applied to Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data were evaluated for the purpose of mapping forest cover types. Classification results obtained using a supervised set of training statistics and various combinations of three and four channel subsets of the seven available TMS channels are compared for the L2 (Minimum Euclidean Distance), GML (Gaussian Maximum Likelihood), and SECHO (Supervised Extraction and Classification of Homogeneous Objects) classification algorithms. SECHO performed significantly better than either of the two per-point classifiers for the untransformed data. Overall classification results of the Karhunen-Loeve transformation increased for the L2 algorithm, but decreased for both the GML and SECHO algorithms.

Dean, M. E.; Hoffer, R. M.

1982-01-01

76

Thematic Mapper laser profile resolution of Holocene Lake limit, Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The limit of Great Salt Lake's maximum expansion onto the floor of the Great Salt Lake Desert during Holocene time is marked by a break in slope which is clearly depicted in terrain models which merge Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner data and Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) laser profile data. Mean elevations of APTS-coincident TM pixels are strongly correlated with reflectance in TM Bands 5 and 7 when and where sufficient moisture contrasts among terrain components are high. TM-APTS models and field surveys place the highest Holocene standing water at an elavation of 4221 ft (1286.7 m).

Merola, John A.; Currey, Donald R.; Ridd, Merrill K.

1989-01-01

77

Development of thematic mapper vegetative indices for assessing biomass in corn, soybeans and wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral transformations that utilize thematic mapper (TM) bands were found to be highly related to various agronomic parameters such as leaf area index, percent ground cover, total fresh biomass, and plant moisture for corn, soybeans, and wheat. It was found that different spectral transformations are necessary in order to obtain the maximum predictability for each agronomic variable. The TM bands in the water absorption region (1.55 micrometers to 1.75 micrometer and 2.08 micrometer 2.35 micrometer) appear to provide information concerning the water condition of the canopy.

Gardner, B. R.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Blad, B. L. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

78

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect different wetland plant canopies have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands is examined. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. Biomass estimates computed from spectral data were most similar to biomass estimates determined from harvest data when models developed for a specific canopy were used. Precise determination of regression coefficients for each canopy type and modeling changes in the coefficients with various combinations of canopy types are being tested. The multispectral band scanner vegetation index estimates are very similar to the vegetation index estimates.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

79

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect different wetland plant canopies have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands is studied. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. The spectral biomass estimate of a broadleaf canopy is most similar to the harvest biomass estimate when a broadleaf canopy radiance model is used. All major wetland vegetation species can be identified through TM imagery. Simple regression models are developed equating the vegetation index and the infrared index with biomass. The spectral radiance index largely agreed with harvest biomass estimates.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

80

Atmospheric modeling related to Thematic Mapper scan geometry. [atmospheric effects on satellite-borne photography of LANDSAT D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation study was carried out to characterize atmospheric effects in LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper data. In particular, the objective was to determine if any differences would result from using a linear vs. a conical scanning geometry. Insight also was gained about the overall effect of the atmosphere on Thematic Mapper signals, together with the effects of time of day. An added analysis was made of the geometric potential for direct specular reflections (sun glint). The ERIM multispectral system simulation model was used to compute inband Thematic Mapper radiances, taking into account sensor, atmospheric, and surface characteristics. Separate analyses were carried out for the thermal band and seven bands defined in the reflective spectral region. Reflective-region radiances were computed for 40 deg N, 0 deg, and 40 deg S latitudes; June, Mar., and Dec. days; and 9:30 and 11:00 AM solar times for both linear and conical scan modes. Also, accurate simulations of solar and viewing geometries throughout Thematic Mapper orbits were made. It is shown that the atmosphere plays an important role in determining Thematic Mapper radiances, with atmospheric path radiance being the major component of total radiances for short wavelengths and decreasing in importance as wavelength increases. Path radiance is shown to depend heavily on the direct radiation scattering angle and on haze content. Scan-angle-dependent variations were shown to be substantial, especially for the short-wavelength bands.

Malila, W. A.; Gleason, J. M.; Cicone, R. C.

1976-01-01

81

Landsat thematic mapper (TM) soil variability analysis over Webster County, Iowa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data acquired June 7, June 23, and July 31, 1982, and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data acquired August 2, September 3, and October 21, 1982, over Webster County, Iowa, were examined for within-field soil effects on corn and soybean spectral signatures. It was found that patterns displayed on various computer-generated map products were in close agreement with the detailed soil survey of the area. The difference in spectral values appears to be due to a combination of subtle soil properties and crop growth patterns resulting from the different soil properties. Bands 4 (0.76-.90 micron), 5 (1.55-1.75 micron), and 7 (2.08-2.35 micron) were found to be responding to the within-field soil variability even with increasing ground cover. While these results are preliminary, they do indicate that the soil influence on the vegetation is being detected by TM and should provide improved information relating to crop and soil properties.

Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Pitts, D. E.

1984-01-01

82

Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

Price, Kevin Paul

1987-01-01

83

Status of the Landsat thematic mapper and multispectral scanner archive conversion system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) manages the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive. This archive includes Landsat thematic mapper (TM) multispectral scanner (MSS) data acquired since 1972. The Landsat archive is an important resource to global change research. To ensure long-term availability of Landsat data from the archive, the EDC specified requirements for a Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Archive Conversion System (TMACS) that would preserve the data by transcribing it to a more durable medium. In addition to media conversion, hardware and software was installed at EDC in July 1992. In December 1992, the EDC began converting Landsat MSS data from high-density, open reel instrumentation tapes to digital cassette tapes. Almost 320,000 MSS images acquired since 1979 and more than 200,000 TM images acquired since 1982 will be converted to the new medium during the next 3 years. During the media conversion process, several high-density tapes have exhibited severe binder degradation. Even though these tapes have been stored in environmentally controlled conditions, hydrolysis has occurred, resulting in "sticky oxide shed". Using a thermostatically controlled oven built at EDC, tape "baking" has been 100 percent successful and actually improves the quality of some images.

Werner, Darla J.

1993-01-01

84

Radiometric calibration and processing procedure for reflective bands on LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric subsystem of NASA's LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor is described. Special emphasis is placed on the internal calibrator (IC) pulse shapes and timing cycle. The procedures for the absolute radiometric calibration of the TM channels with a 122-centimeter integrating sphere and the transfer of radiometric calibration from the channels to the IC are reviewed. The use of the IC to calibrate TM data in the ground processing system consists of pulse integration, pulse averaging, IC state identification, linear regression analysis, and histogram equalization. An overview of the SCROUNGE-era (before August 1983) method is presented. Procedural differences between SCOUNGE and the TIPS-era (after July 1983) and the implications of these difference are discussed.

Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

1985-01-01

85

Geometric and radiometric characterization of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper and multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geometrically raw image of Washington, D.C. was acquired and radiometrically corrected. The data show little of the detector stripping common in earlier MSS images. The radiometrically corrected data have uniform means and standard deviations for the detectors in each band; however, the data for different detectors utilize a different pattern of DN levels, resulting in ubiquitous stripping of 1 DN amplitude. Band-to-band registration was assessed using color composites and small area correlation techniques. The spectral equivalency of the first four bands of the thematic mapper with the four bands of the MSS is being examined. Geometric analysis of the Washington, D.C. scene have started and a generalized routine for examining the contents of the label files and nonvideo data files was implemented. Several discrepancies from the documentation are described. Night scenes and daytime ocean scenes required for radiometric purposes were identified and the data ordered.

Kieffer, H. H. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

86

Digital to Analog Conversion and Visual Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Landsat D Image Data Quality Analysis Program, the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center (EDC) developed procedures to optimize the visual information content of Thematic Mapper data and evaluate the resulting photographic products by visual interpretation. A digital-to-analog transfer function was developed which would properly place the digital values on the most useable portion of a film response curve. Individual black-and-white transparencies generated using the resulting look-up tables were utilized in the production of color-composite images with varying band combinations. Four experienced photointerpreters ranked 2-cm-diameter (0. 75 inch) chips of selected image features of each band combination for ease of interpretability. A nonparametric rank-order test determined the significance of interpreter preference for the band combinations.

McCord, James R.; Binnie, Douglas R.; Seevers, Paul M.

1985-01-01

87

Radiometric calibration and processing procedure for reflective bands on LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric subsystem of NASA's LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor is described. Special emphasis is placed on the internal calibrator (IC) pulse shapes and timing cycle. The procedures for the absolute radiometric calibration of the TM channels with a 122-centimeter integrating sphere and the transfer of radiometric calibration from the channels to the IC are reviewed. The use of the IC to calibrate TM data in the ground processing system consists of pulse integration, pulse averaging, IC state identification, linear regression analysis, and histogram equalization. An overview of the SCROUNGE-era (before August 1983) method is presented. Procedural differences between SCROUNGE and the TIPS-era (after July 1983) and the implications of these differences are discussed.

Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

1984-01-01

88

Radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner. [of Thematic Mapper Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absolute radiometric calibration of the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator reflective channels was examined based on laboratory tests and in-flight comparisons to ground measurements. The NS001 data are calibrated in-flight by reference to the NS001 internal integrating sphere source. This source's power supply or monitoring circuitry exhibited greater instability in-flight during 1988-1989 than in the laboratory. Extrapolating laboratory behavior to in-flight data resulted in 7-20 percent radiance errors relative to ground measurements and atmospheric modeling. Assuming constancy in the source's output between laboraotry and in-flight resulted in generally smaller errors. Upgrades to the source's power supply and monitoring circuitry in 1990 improved its in-flight stability, though in-flight ground reflectance based calibration tests have not yet been performed.

Markham, Brian L.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Gellman, David I.; Slater, Philip N.

1991-01-01

89

Regional analysis of tertiary volcanic Calderas (western U.S.) using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery of the Basin and Range province of southern Nevada was analyzed to identify and map volcanic rock assemblages at three Tertiary calderas. It was found that the longer-wavelength visible and the NIR TM Bands 3, 5, and 7 provide more effective lithologic discrimination than the shorter-wavelength bands, due partly to deeper penetration of the longer-wavelength bands, resulting in more lithologically driven radiances. Shorter-wavelength TM Bands 1 and 2 are affected more by surficial weathering products including desert varnish which may or may not provide an indirect link to lithologic identity. Guidelines for lithologic analysis of volcanic terrains using Landsat TM imagery are outlined.

Spatz, David M.; Taranik, James V.

1989-01-01

90

Improved classification of small-scale urban watersheds using thematic mapper simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of Landsat MSS classification methods in the case of small, highly urbanized hydrological basins containing complex land-use patterns is limited, and is plagued by misclassifications due to the spectral response similarity of many dissimilar surfaces. Landsat MSS data for the Conley Creek basin near Atlanta, Georgia, have been compared to thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data obtained on the same day by aircraft. The TMS data were able to alleviate many of the recurring patterns associated with MSS data, through bandwidth optimization, an increase of the number of spectral bands to seven, and an improvement of ground resolution to 30 m. The TMS is thereby able to detect small water bodies, powerline rights-of-way, and even individual buildings.

Owe, M.; Ormsby, J. P.

1984-01-01

91

Evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for mapping forest, agricultural and soil resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Color composite TM film products which include TM5, TM4, and a visible band (TM1, TM2, or TM3) are superior to composites which exclude TM4 for discriminating most forest and agricultural cover types and estimating area proportions for inventory and sampling purposes. Clustering a subset of TM data results in a spectral class map which groups diverse forest cover types into spectrally and ecologically similar areas suitable for use as a stratification base in traditional forest inventory practices. Analysis of simulated Thematic Mapper data indicate that the location and number of TM spectral bands are suitable for detecting differences in major soil properties and characterizing soil spectral curve form and magnitude.

Degloria, S.; Benson, A.; Dummer, K.; Fakhoury, E.

1985-01-01

92

Thematic Mapper Data Quality and Performance Assessment in Renewable Resources/agriculture/remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of the early thematic mapper (TM) data indicate the TM sensor and associated ground processing are performing equal to the high expectations and within advertised specifications. The overall TM system with improved resolution, together with additional and more optimumly placed spectral bands shows much promise for benefits in future analysis activities. By selecting man-made features of known dimensions (e.g., highways, airfields, buildings, and isolated water bodies), an assessment was made of the TM performance relative to the specified 30-meter (98-foot) resolution. The increase of spatial resolution of TM (30 m) over MSS (80 M) appears to be significant not only in resolving spectrally distinct classes that were previously undefinable but also in distinguishing within-field variability. An Important result of the early TM evaluation and pre-TM analyses was the development of an integrated system to receive LANDSAT-4 TM (as well as MSS) data and analyze the data via various approaches.

Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.

1985-01-01

93

Application of thematic mapper-type data over a porphyry-molybdenum deposit in Colorado  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of thematic mapper data as a source of geologically useful information for mountainous areas of varying vegetation density. Much of the processing was done in an a priori manner without prior ground-based information. This approach resulted in a successfull mapping of the alteration associated with the Mt. Emmons molybdenum ore body as well as several other hydrothermal systems. Supervised classification produced a vegetation map at least as accurate as the mapping done for the environmental impact statement. Principal components were used to map zones of general, subtle alteration and to separate hematitically stained rock from staining associated with hydrothermal activity. Decorrelation color composites were found to be useful field mapping aids, easily delineating many lithologies and vegetation classes of interest. The factors restricting the interpretability and computer manipulation of the data are examined.

Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

1983-01-01

94

Land cover map of Great Britain. An automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

SciTech Connect

The Land Cover Map of Great Britain was produced using supervised maximum-likelihood classifications of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. By combining summer and winter data, classification accuracies were substantially improved over single-data analyses. The map, bosed on a 25-m grid, records 25 cover types, consisting of sea and inland water, beaches and bare ground, developed and arable land, and 18 types of semi-natural vegetation. General cover is recorded at a field-by-field scale, while key landscape features, with strong spectral signatures, show patterns down to a minimum mappable unit of 0.125 ha. Comparisons with independent ground reference data showed correspondences which varied between 67 percent and 89 percent depending on the level of detail at which comparisons were made.

Fuller, R.M.; Groom, G.B.; Jones, A.R. [Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom)

1994-05-01

95

Remote Sensing of Coastal Wetlands Biomass Using Thematic Mapper Wavebands. [Lewes, Delaware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral data, simulating thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 were gathered in salt and brackish marshes using a hand-held radiometer. Simple regression models were developed equating spectral radiance indicies with total live biomass for S. alterniflora in a salt marsh and for a variety of plant species in a brackish marsh. Models were then tested and compared to harvest estimates of biomass. In the salt marsh, biomass estimates from spectral data were similar to harvest biomass estimates during most of the growing season. Estimates of annual net aerial primary productivity calculated from spectral data were within 21% of production estimated from harvest data. During August, biomass estimates from spectral data in the brackish marsh were similar to biomass estimated by harvesting techniques but not always comparable at other times in the growing season.

Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.

1985-01-01

96

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part B: Scan mirror assembly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the thematic mapper scan mirror assembly (SMA) acceptance test are presented. Documentation includes: (1) a list of the acceptance test discrepancies; (2) flight 1 SMA test data book; (3) flight 1 SMA environmental report; (4) the configuration verification index; (5) the flight 1 SMA test failure reports; (6) the flight 1 data tapes log; and (7) the requests for deviation/waivers.

1982-01-01

97

Thematic Mapper analysis to identify geomorphologic and sediment texture of El Tineh plain, north-western coast of Sinai, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic Mapper data combined with field inspection are successfully applied to detect a wide variety of texture analysis of sediments and geomorphologic variability along the coastal plain of El Tineh bay at the north-western part of Sinai. Processing techniques used in this study include: image enhancement, principal component analysis (PCA), TM band ratios and supervised classification. The analysis of colour

K. H. M. DEWIDAR; O. E. Frihy

2003-01-01

98

Thematic mapper protoflight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part A: Multiplexer data book 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Final performance test data for the thematic mapper flight model multiplexer are presented in tables. Aspects covered include A/D thresholds for bands 5, 6, and 7; cross talk; the thermistor; bilevel commands signal parameters; A/D threshold ambient, voltage margin low bus; serial data and bit clock parameters; and the wire check. Tests were conducted at ambient temperature.

1982-01-01

99

Remote sensing of urban areas: linear spectral unmixing of Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired over Tartu (Estonia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas are characterized by a pattern of very heterogeneous patches resulting from the co-occurrence of different materials within the ground instantaneous field of view of a moderate resolution scanner, e.g. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The main objective of this study was to map vegetation, impervious surface, and soil from Landsat TM images acquired over the town of Tartu (Estonia)

Tõnis Kärdi

2007-01-01

100

Revised Landsat-5 TM Radiometrie Calibration Procedures and Postcalibration Dynamic Ranges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective May 5, 2003, Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) will be radiometrically calibrated using a new procedure and revised calibration parameters. This change will improve absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Users will need to use new parameters to convert the calibrated data products to radiance. The new procedure for the reflective bands (1-5,7) is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration curve for the instrument derived from the instrument's internal calibrator, cross-calibration with the ETM+, and vicarious measurements. The thermal band will continue to be calibrated using the internal calibrator. Further updates to improve the relative detector-to-detector calibration and thermal band calibration are being investigated, as is the calibration of the Landsat-4 (L4) TM.

Chander, G.; Markham, B.

2003-01-01

101

Soil classification using Thematic Mapper data at Mapimi Biosphere Reserve, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil is an essential part of any terrestrial ecosystem. Scientists, technicians, and farmers have studied its physical and chemical properties for many years for agriculture and soil conservation. These studies usually require field sampling and laboratory analysis that are time-consuming and destructive to the samples being analyzed. Remotely sensed data are an alternative that provides reliable information at low cost based on a non-destructive technique. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Landsat Thematic Mapper data to classify soils in and lands. To this end, two Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from the Chihuahuan Desert were used: (1) the calibration area scene in Dona Ana County, NM, mapped with the Soil Taxonomy System, and (2) the study area scene at Mapimi, Mexico mapped with the FAO system. Furthermore, four remote sensing approaches were created to determine the best method to identify soil mapping units. They were named simple , technical, scaled, and complex. The agreement of TM and soils maps was tested using the error matrix approach in a supervised classification. Spectral signatures were selected by separability analysis applying the transformed divergency technique. Once determined on the calibration area, the best approach was applied to the scene in Mexico. The results revealed that the simple approach, based on thermal band discrimination, obtained classification accuracies of 70.67%, suggesting bands 2, 4, and 7 as the best for identifying soil mapping units. The technical approach, based on the principal components analysis technique, obtained accuracies of 66.86%, suggesting that data reduction is possible through this technique. The scaled approach, based on band ratios, achieved accuracies of 61.43%, suggesting ratios 1/5, 3/4, and 5/4 as the best transformations. The complex approach, based on indices, obtained accuracies of 28.50%, distinguishing SAVI, SVI, and albedo as the best data transformations. Based on its data reduction and its statistical accuracy, the technical approach was selected to classify soils at Mapimi, which then produced accuracies of 70.27%. Because of its agreement with both the soil Taxonomy and the FAO classification systems, remotely sensed data are a meaningful alternative for detecting different soil types in and environments.

Martinez-Rios, Juan Jose

102

The GSFC Mark-2 three band hand-held radiometer. [thematic mapper for ground truth data collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self-contained, portable, hand-radiometer designed for field usage was constructed and tested. The device, consisting of a hand-held probe containing three sensors and a strap supported electronic module, weighs 4 1/2 kilograms. It is powered by flashlight and transistor radio batteries, utilizes two silicon and one lead sulfide detectors, has three liquid crystal displays, sample and hold radiometric sampling, and its spectral configuration corresponds to LANDSAT-D's thematic mapper bands. The device was designed to support thematic mapper ground-truth data collection efforts and to facilitate 'in situ' ground-based remote sensing studies of natural materials. Prototype instruments were extensively tested under laboratory and field conditions with excellent results.

Tucker, C. J.; Jones, W. H.; Kley, W. A.; Sundstrom, G. J.

1980-01-01

103

Relationship of Thematic Mapper simulator data to leaf area index of temperate coniferous forests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regional relationships between remote sensing data and the leaf area index (LAI) of coniferous forests were analyzed using data acquired by an Airborne Thematic Mapper. Eighteen coniferous forest stands with a range of projected leaf area index of 0.6-16.1 were sampled from an environmental gradient in moisture and temperature across west-central Oregon. Spectral radiance measurements to account for atmospheric effects were acquired above the canopies from a radiometer mounted on a helicopter. A strong positive relationship was observed between LAI of closed canopy forest stands and the ratio of near-infrared and red spectral bands. A linear regression based on LAI explained 83 percent of the variation in the ratio of the atmospherically corrected bands. A log-linear equation fit the asymptotic characteristic of the relationship better, explaining 91 percent of the variance. The positive relationship is explained by a strong asymptotic inverse relationship between LAI and red radiation and a relatively flat response between LAI and near-infrared radiation.

Peterson, David L.; Spanner, Michael A.; Running, Steven W.; Teuber, Kurt B.

1987-01-01

104

Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

Price, Kevin P.

1993-01-01

105

Application of Thematic Mapper data to corn and soybean development stage estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model, utilizing direct relationship between remotely sensed spectral data and the development stage of both corn and soybeans has been proposed and published previously (Badhwar and Henderson, 1981; and Henderson and Badhwar, 1984). This model was developed using data acquired by instruments mounted on trucks over field plots of corn and soybeans as well as satellite data from Landsat. In all cases, the data was analyzed in the spectral bands equivalent to the four bands of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). In this study the same model has been applied to corn and soybeans using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data combined with simulated TM data to provide a multitemporal data set in TM band intervals. All data (five total acquisitions) were acquired over a test site in Webster County, Iowa from June to October 1982. The use of TM data for determining development state is as accurate as with Landsat MSS and field plot data in MSS bands. The maximum deviation of 0.6 development stage for corn and 0.8 development stage for soybeans is well within the uncertainty with which a field can be estimated with procedures used by observers on the ground in 1982.

Badhwar, G. D.; Henderson, K. E.

1985-01-01

106

The use of landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus for mapping leafy spurge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge) is an invasive weed that is a major problem in much of the Upper Great Plains region, including parts of Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming. Infestations in North Dakota alone have had a serious economic impact, estimated at $87 million annually in 1991, to the state's wildlife, tourism, and agricultural economy. Leafy spurge degrades prairie and badland ecosystems by displacing native grasses and forbs. It is a major threat to protected ecosystems in many national parks, national wild lands, and state recreational areas in the region. This study explores the use of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (Landsat) imagery and derived products as a management tool for mapping leafy spurge in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in southwestern North Dakota. An unsupervised clustering approach was used to map leafy spurge classes and resulted in overall classification accuracies of approximately 63%. The uses of Landsat imagery did not provide the accuracy required for detailed mapping of small patches of the weed. However, it demonstrated the potential for mapping broad-scale (regional) leafy spurge occurrence. This paper offers recommendations on the suitability of Landsat imagery as a tool for use by resource managers to map and monitor leafy spurge populations over large areas.

Mladinich, C.S.; Bustos, M.R.; Stitt, S.; Root, R.; Brown, K.; Anderson, G.L.; Hager, S.

2006-01-01

107

Thematic mapper data quality and performance assessment in renewable resource/agricultural remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A "quick look" investigation of the initial LANDSAT-4, thematic mapper (TM) scene received from Goddard Space Flight Center was performed to gain early insight into the characteristics of TM data. The initial scene, containing only the first four bands of the seven bands recorded by the TM, was acquired over the Detroit, Michigan, area on July 20, 1982. It yielded abundant information for scientific investigation. A wide variety of studies were conducted to assess all aspects of TM data. They ranged from manual analyses of image products to detect obvious optical, electronic, or mechanical defects to detailed machine analyses of the digital data content for evaluation of spectral separability of vegetative/nonvegetative classes. These studies were applied to several segments extracted from the full scene. No attempt was made to perform end-to-end statistical evaluations. However, the output of these studies do identify a degree of positive performance from the TM and its potential for advancing state-of-the-art crop inventory and condition assessment technology.

Erickson, J. D.; Macdonald, R. B. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

108

A geobotanical investigation based on linear discriminant and profile analyses of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the application of linear discriminant and profile analyses to detailed investigation of an airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) image collected over a geobotanical test site. The test site was located on the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and remote sensing data collection coincided with the onset of leaf senescence in the regional deciduous flora. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that sites overlying soil geochemical anomalies were distinguishable from background sites by the reflectance and thermal emittance of the tree canopy imaged in the airborne TMS data. The correlation of individual bands with the linear discriminant function suggested that the TMS thermal Channel 7 (10.32-12.33 microns) contributed most, while TMS Bands 2 (0.53-0.60 microns), 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), and 5 (1.53-1.73 microns) contributed somewhat more modestly to the separation of anomalous and background sites imaged by the TMS. The observed changes in canopy reflectance and thermal emittance of the deciduous flora overlying geochemically anomalous areas are consistent with the biophysical changes which are known or presumed to occur as a result of injury induced in metal-stressed vegetation.

Schwaller, Mathew R.

1987-01-01

109

Extracting spectral contrast in Landsat Thematic Mapper image data using selective principal component analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A challenge encountered with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data, which includes data from size reflective spectral bands, is displaying as much information as possible in a three-image set for color compositing or digital analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the six TM bands simultaneously is often used to address this problem. However, two problems that can be encountered using the PCA method are that information of interest might be mathematically mapped to one of the unused components and that a color composite can be difficult to interpret. "Selective' PCA can be used to minimize both of these problems. The spectral contrast among several spectral regions was mapped for a northern Arizona site using Landsat TM data. Field investigations determined that most of the spectral contrast seen in this area was due to one of the following: the amount of iron and hematite in the soils and rocks, vegetation differences, standing and running water, or the presence of gypsum, which has a higher moisture retention capability than do the surrounding soils and rocks. -from Authors

Chavez, P.S., Jr.; Kwarteng, A.Y.

1989-01-01

110

Evaluation of Thematic Mapper for detecting soil properties under grassland vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of Thematic Mapper data acquired November 15, 1982, over a vegetated site located in the East Texas Timberlands and Claypan area of Texas has indicated that montmorillonitic clay textured soils can be separated from soils with different textures. The difference of TM band 4 (0.76-0.90 micron) and band 7 (2.08-2.35 microns) had an agreement of 55.8 percent with the USDA soil survey for upland clay soils. This compared to 55.9-percent agreement when all six bands (excluding the thermal) were used. The disagreement occurred at the boundary lines as defined by the USDA soil survey and the spectral data. This result is considered to be fairly good, considering the difficulty in placement of soil boundaries by the soil scientist in the field. While the exact influence on the vegetation, and thus the spectral response observed by TM, is not understood at this time, it appears that TM band 7 is responding to the type of mineralogy of the soil and that soil properties important to the plant can be detected using TM.

Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

1984-01-01

111

Forest fire hazard rating assessment in peat swamp forest using Landsat thematic mapper image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are one of the major causes of the deforestation of tropical peat swamps in Malaysia. One way of trying to identify which peat swamp forests are vulnerable to forest fire is to develop a forest fire risk index. The objectives of this study were to develop both a fuel-type map and a forest fire hazard rating assessment for the peat swamp forests. The study was conducted in a peat swamp forest located at Batu Enam, Penor/Kuantan District of Pahang. This area suffered a severe forest fire on 12 March 1998 which degraded the peat swamp area. Digitally processed Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite image were integrated with geographic information layer of fuel type, roads and canal layer to derive a fire hazard rating map of the area. Using the superior spectral and temporal resolution of a Landsat TM, five fire hazard rating classifications were defined. A forest fire hazard rating map was produced showing that 49% of the area was 'low' fire hazard rating, 23% was 'high', 17% was 'moderate', 10% was 'extreme' and 1% was 'null'. Peat lands within 150 meters of roads and of a canal were identified as having an 'extreme' fire hazard rating. Both the fire hazard rating map and the forest fire hazard rating assessment can be used in future forest fire management planning.

Razali, Sheriza M.; Nuruddin, A. Ainuddin; Malek, Ismail A.; Patah, Norizan A.

2010-05-01

112

Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objective of the project was to evaluate LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data in the context of geologic applications. This involved a quantitative assessment of the data quality including the spatial and spectral characteristics realized by the instrument. Three test sites were selected for the study: (1) Silver Bell, Arizona; (2) Death Valley, California; and (3) Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming. Conclusions include: (1) Artificial and natural targets can be used to atmospherically calibrate TM data and investigate scanner radiometry, atmospheric parameters, and construction of atmospheric Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF's), (2) No significant radiometric degradation occurs in TM data as a result of SCROUNGE processing; however, the data exhibit narrow digital number (DN) distributiosn suggesting that the configuration of the instrument is not optimal for each science applications, (30 Increased spatial resolution, 1:24,000 enlargement capability, and good geometric fidelity of TM data allow accurate photogeologic/geomorphic mapping, including relative age dating of alluvial fans, measurement of structural and bedding attitudes, and construction of such things as structural cross sections and stratigraphic columns. (4) TM bands 5 and 7 are particularly useful for geologic applications because they span a region of the spectrum not previously sampled by multispectral scanner data and are important for characterizing clay and carbonate materials.

Paylor, E. D.; Abrams, M. J.; Conel, J. E.; Kahle, A. B.; Lang, H. R.

1985-01-01

113

Analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data for classification of forest stands in Baldwin County, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer-implemented classification has been derived from Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data acquired over Baldwin County, Alabama on January 15, 1983. One set of spectral signatures was developed from the data by utilizing a 3x3 pixel sliding window approach. An analysis of the classification produced from this technique identified forested areas. Additional information regarding only the forested areas. Additional information regarding only the forested areas was extracted by employing a pixel-by-pixel signature development program which derived spectral statistics only for pixels within the forested land covers. The spectral statistics from both approaches were integrated and the data classified. This classification was evaluated by comparing the spectral classes produced from the data against corresponding ground verification polygons. This iterative data analysis technique resulted in an overall classification accuracy of 88.4 percent correct for slash pine, young pine, loblolly pine, natural pine, and mixed hardwood-pine. An accuracy assessment matrix has been produced for the classification.

Hill, C. L.

1984-01-01

114

Blocking reduction of Landsat Thematic Mapper JPEG browse images using optimal PSNR estimated spectra adaptive postfiltering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two representative sample images of Band 4 of the Landsat Thematic Mapper are compressed with the JPEG algorithm at 8:1, 16:1 and 24:1 Compression Ratios for experimental browsing purposes. We then apply the Optimal PSNR Estimated Spectra Adaptive Postfiltering (ESAP) algorithm to reduce the DCT blocking distortion. ESAP reduces the blocking distortion while preserving most of the image's edge information by adaptively postfiltering the decoded image using the block's spectral information already obtainable from each block's DCT coefficients. The algorithm iteratively applied a one dimensional log-sigmoid weighting function to the separable interpolated local block estimated spectra of the decoded image until it converges to the optimal PSNR with respect to the original using a 2-D steepest ascent search. Convergence is obtained in a few iterations for integer parameters. The optimal logsig parameters are transmitted to the decoder as a negligible byte of overhead data. A unique maxima is guaranteed due to the 2-D asymptotic exponential overshoot shape of the surface generated by the algorithm. ESAP is based on a DFT analysis of the DCT basis functions. It is implemented with pixel-by-pixel spatially adaptive separable FIR postfilters. PSNR objective improvements between 0.4 to 0.8 dB are shown together with their corresponding optimal PSNR adaptive postfiltered images.

Linares, Irving; Mersereau, Russell M.; Smith, Mark J. T.

1994-01-01

115

Summary of research addressing the potential utility of thematic mapper data for renewable resource applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT-D, scheduled for launch in July 1982, will carry a multispectral scanner subsystem (MSS) similar to that flown on earlier missions, as well as a new multispectral scanner called the thematic mapper (TM). The TM will offer improvements over the MSS with respect to spectral, spatial, and radiometric characteristics. In preparation for the delivery of actual TM data, extensive research was conducted using simulated TM data. From a review of this research, it is concluded that: TM's improved radiometric resolution is a valuable sensor attribute; the availability of spectral bands from each portion of the reflective spectrum (visible, near-infrared, middle-infrared) is very useful; and TM's finer spatial resolution enables the identification of smaller spatial features. Research to develop improved classifiers which take full advantage of finer spatial resolution data is needed. The collective effect of the TM's improvements is an increase in the content and utility of information extracted from TM data when compared to information derived from MSS data.

Irons, J. R.

1982-01-01

116

Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data from Wind River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data are limited by MSS spatial resolution (80 m or 262 ft) and bandwidth selection. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data have greatly enhanced spatial resolution (30 m or 98 ft) and TM operates in spectral bands suited to geologic interpretation. To compare the two systems, three images center over the Wind River basin of Wyoming were obtained. Two were TM images - a false color composite (FCC) and a natural color composite (NCC) - and the third was an MSS image. A systematic analysis of drainage, landforms, geologic structure, gross lithologic characteristics, lineaments, and curvilinears was performed on the three images. Drainage density and landform distinction were greatly enhanced on the TM images. Geologic features such as faults, strike and dip, folds, and lithologic characteristics are often difficult to distinguish on the MSS image but are readily apparent on the TM images. The lineament-curvilinear analysis of the MSS image showed longer but less distinct linear features. In comparison, the TM images allowed interpretation of shorter but more distinct linear elements, providing a more accurate delineation of the actual dimensions of the geologic features which these lineaments are thought to represent. An analysis of the oil production present in the study area showed 75% of the surface productive structures were delineated on the TM images, whereas only the most obvious structures were visible on the MSS image.

Geronsin, R.L.; Merry, M.C.

1984-07-01

117

Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data  

SciTech Connect

Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. Correlation analysis showed that TM Band 4 (near infrared) accounted for 78% of the variability in percent trees (r=[minus] 0.88). In multiple regression, percent trees, total soil loss, and percent total nonliving cover together accounted for nearly 70% of the variability in TM Bands 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain the apparent accelerated rate of pinyon-juniper spread in the western United States. These include removal of natural plant competition by livestock overgrazing, reduction of wildfires, climatic change, and reinvasion of sites cleared of trees by 19th century settlers.

Price, K.P. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geography)

1993-09-01

118

Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust  

SciTech Connect

The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefiting hydrocarbon exploration.

Miller, J.E.

1984-04-01

119

Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust  

SciTech Connect

The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefitting hydrocarbon exploration.

Miller, J.E.

1984-04-01

120

Statistical analysis of Thematic Mapper Simulator data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types in southwest Oregon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types based on vegetative cover characteristics is addressed in this research. A methodology for accomplishing this evaluation utilizing univariate and multivariate techniques is presented. TMS data acquired with a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral scanner were integrated with vegetation and geologic information for subsequent statistical analyses, which included a chi-square test, an analysis of variance, stepwise discriminant analysis, and Duncan's multiple range test. Results indicate that ultramafic rock types are spectrally separable from nonultramafics based on vegetative cover through the use of statistical analyses.

Morrissey, L. A.; Weinstock, K. J.; Mouat, D. A.; Card, D. H.

1984-01-01

121

Radiometric calibration of the reflective bands of NS001-Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and modular multispectral radiometers (MMR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator scanner (TMS) and several modular multispectral radiometers (MMRs) are among the primary instruments used in the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE). The NS001 has a continuously variable gain setting. Calibration of the NS001 data is influenced by drift in the dark current level of up to six counts during a mirror scan at typical gain settings. The MMR instruments are being used in their 1 deg FOV configuration on the helicopter and 15 deg FOV on the ground.

Markham, Brian L.; Wood, Frank M., Jr.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.

1988-01-01

122

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications: Objectives, accomplishments, conclusions, and recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this investigation are to quantify the performance of the Thematic Mapper, as manifested by the quality of its image data, in order to suggest improvements in data production and to assess the effects of the data quality on its utility for land resources applications. Analyses of radiometric, spatial, spectral, and geometric effects, with primary emphasis on radiometric effects are included. This effort is part of the LANDSAT 4/5 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) program sponsored by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D.

1985-01-01

123

Change Detection Analysis in Urban and Suburban Areas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper data: Case of Huntsville, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, from July 1984 and July 1992, were used to identify land use/cover changes in the urban and suburban fringe of the city of Huntsville, Alabama. Image difference was the technique used to quantify the change between the two dates. The eight-year period showed a 16% change, mainly from agricultural lands to urban areas generated by the settlement of industrial, commercial, and residential areas. Visual analysis of the change map (i.e., difference image) supported this phenomenon by showing that most changes were occurring in the vicinity of the major roads and highways across the city.

Kuan, Dana; Fahsi, A.; Steinfeld S.; Coleman, T.

1998-01-01

124

EVALUATION OF LOW-SUN ILLUMINATED LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR MAPPING HYDROTHERMALLY ALTERED ROCKS IN SOUTHERN NEVADA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of southern Nevada collected under conditions of low-angle solar illumination were digitally processed to identify hydroxyl-bearing minerals commonly associated with hydrothermal alteration in volcanic terrains. Digital masking procedures were used to exclude shadow areas and vegetation and thus to produce a CRC image suitable for testing the new TM bands as a means to map hydrothermally altered rocks. Field examination of a masked CRC image revealed that several different types of altered rocks displayed hues associated with spectral characteristics common to hydroxyl-bearing minerals. Several types of unaltered rocks also displayed similar hues.

Podwysocki, Melvin, H.; Power, Marty, S.; Salisbury, Jack; Jones, O. D.

1984-01-01

125

Spectral discrimination of ignimbritic rocks of southern Argentina in Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery using GER SIRIS laboratory data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article shows some basic approaches to discriminate ignimbrite type pyroclastic flow deposits in Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery of semi-arid areas. Beside certain topographical and tectonical fea- tures which already describe ignimbrites and associated pyroclastic flows in those environments, our interest is focused on the influence of specific mineralogical and depositional characteristics on the spectral reflectance response. Spectral signatures in the visible and near infrared region of various fresh and weathered samples as well as desert varnish and soil samples were recorded using a GER SIRIS laboratory spectroscope to determine the factors controlling their proper response in all Thematic Mapper bands. Whole rock geochemistry data, X-ray powder diffraction analysis and microscopical studies as well as surface interpretations of the samples documented certain properties which might cause different spectral signatures also of geochemically mostly equivalent rocks. According to the semi-arid conditions of the South Patagonian Massif which are the most important constituents with respect to rock weathering and mineral alteration a more effective discrimination of the mostly leucocratic rocks was obtained using TM bands 7-4-1 and 7-5-2 as RGB false colour com- posites. Three image processing techniques, contrast stretched ratio composites, decorrelation stretched false colour composites and relative channel colour composites were examined to distinguish the variable ignimbrite outcrops in the chosen test site.

Mehl, Harald; Reimer, Wolfgang; Miller, Hubert

1994-12-01

126

Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Extremadura region of western Spain, Ag, Pb, Zn, and Sn deposits occur in the pieces of late Hercynian granitic plutons and near the pluton contacts in late Proterozoic slate and metagraywacke that have been regionally metamorphosed to the green schist facies. The plutons generally are well exposed and have distinctive geomorphological expression and vegetation; poor exposures of the metasedimentary host rocks and extensive cultivation, however, make delineation of the contact aureoles difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been used to distinguish soil developed on the contact metamorphic rocks from soil formed on the stratigraphically equivalent slate-metagraywacke sequence. The mineral constituents of these soils are similar, except that muscovite is more common in the contact metamorphic soil; carbonaceous material is common in both soils. Contact metamorphic soil have lower reflectance, especially in the 1.6-micrometers wavelength region (TM 5), and weaker Al-OH, Mg-OH, and Fe3+ absorption features than do spectra of the slate-metagraywacke soil. The low-reflectance and subdued absorption features exhibited by the contact metamorphic soil spectra are attributed to the high absorption coefficient f the carbonaceous material caused by heating during emplacement of the granitic plutons. These spectral differences are evident in a TM 4/3, 4/5, 3/1 color-composite image. Initially, this image was used to outline the contact aureoles, but digital classification of the TM data was necessary for generating internally consistent maps of the distribution of the exposed contact metamorphic soil. In an August 1984, TM scene of the Caceras area, the plowed, vegetation-free fields were identified by their low TM 4/3 values. Then, ranges of TM 4/5 and 3/1 values were determine for selected plower fields within and outside the contact aureoles; TM 5 produced results similar to TM 4/5. Field evaluation, supported by X-ray diffraction and petrographic studies, confirmed the presence of more extensive aureoles than shown in published geologic maps; few misclassified areas were noted. Additional plowed fields consisting of exposed contact metamorphic soil were mapped digitally in an August 1985 TM scene. Subsequently, this approach was used to map two 1-km-wide linear zones of contact metamorphosed rock and oil in the San Nicolas-Sn-W Mine area, which is located approximated 125 km southeast of the Caceras study area. Exposures of granite in the San Nicolas area are limited to a few unaltered granitic dikes in the mine and a small exposure of unaltered pegmatite-bearing granite in a quarry about 1.5 km west of the mine. The present of coarsely crystalline biotite and beryl in the granite in the quarry and of contact metamorphosed slate up to 2.5 km from the nearest granite exposure suggest that only the apical part of a pluton is exposed in the quarry and that a larger, shallowly buried body is probably present. These results indicate that potential application of TM image analysis to mineral exploration in lithologically similar areas that are cultivated in spite of poor rock exposures.

Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

1987-01-01

127

Preliminary results of a quantitative comparison of the spectral signatures of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS).  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operationally acquired Thematic Mapper and experimental MOMS-01 data are evaluated quantitatively concerning the systems spectral response and performance for geoscientific applications. Results show the two instruments to be similar in the spectral bands compared. Although the MOMS scanner has a smaller IFOV, it has a lower modulation transfer function performance for small, low contrast features as compared to Thematic Mapper. This deficiency does not only occur when MOMS was switched to the low gain mode. It is due to the CD arrays used (ITEK CCPD 1728).

Bodechtel, J.; Zilger, J.; Salomonson, V. V.

1985-01-01

128

Multi-Temporal Land Cover Analysis in the Mid-Willamette Basin, Oregon: Assessment of Riparian Forest Canopy Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11,500 sq. mi. Willamette Basin is home to 70% of Oregon’s population and is associated with an extensive post-settlement history of land cover modification. Existing assessments estimate that between 30 and 44% of riparian zones have been subject to anthropogenic disturbances, which in turn have negatively impacted TMDL levels for temperature and sediment loading (Oregon DEQ, 2009). As such, riparian forest restoration is cited as one of the primary management objectives needed to improve habitat quality. This study involves a regional multi-temporal land cover analysis utilizing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery and supervised image classification to document changes in canopy cover (Landsat acquisition years 2000 and 2009). The rectangular study site is oriented north-south and extends from Yamhill to Eugene, occupying a 3,133 sq. mi. footprint that captures the dynamic landuse interface between urban centers, lowland riparian habitats, and Oregon Coast Range forests. Landsat 5 TM data for the study site were acquired via the USGS Global Visualization Viewer with multispectral imagery including 6 reflected bands suited for quantifying broad-scale land cover regimes, including vegetation. Classification training sites for water, forest, and agricultural land-cover categories were selected to accurately represent within-class spectral variability. A supervised classification scheme was employed to compare training signatures against the six reflective bands in each image year. A maximum likelihood algorithm was utilized to delineate land-cover classes with overlapping spectral signatures. Other processing techniques included radiometric normalization of brightness values, and derivation of NDVI and Tasseled Cap vegetative indices. Final classification accuracy was assessed by randomly assigning 100 spatially distributed point samples per class and comparing each to available ground truth. Two distinct landuse domains were delineated within the study area and separately analyzed to provide increased classification accuracy. The Oregon Coast Range domain, characterized by steeper slopes and timber management, transitions into a lower-gradient valley-agriculture subregion. Preliminary land-cover analyses reveal a 6% and 2.5% decline in canopy cover for the Coast Range and valley-agriculture domains, respectively. Results from this study have implications for monitoring riparian vegetation, which is essential for healthy streams and native fish habitats. This remote sensing survey produces regional land cover information suited for a wide spectrum of applications, including land management, landscape metric analyses and watershed planning.

Stanley, R. J.; Taylor, S. B.

2010-12-01

129

Recent data quality and earth science results from the Landsat thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the NASA Landsat Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) program are reviewed. Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 TM data quality with regard to image geometry and radiometry are discussed. The results indicate that the TM provides excellent imagery that can be used in the form of satellite image maps meeting cartographic standards at scales of 1:100,000 or smaller. These data can be used to locate features or guide the revision or updating of maps for scales up to 1:24,000. The TM sensor is also providing data of good radiometric quality and stability, with radiometric uncertainties of 1 percent or smaller. The temperature dependence in the absolute radiometry is on the order of 1 to 5 percent of full scale. In terms of bidirectional reflectance estimated at the satellite, the error is estimated at under 6 percent and commonly 3 percent. Preliminary results also corroborate the utility of the TM data for geological or geographical studies.

Salomonson, Vincent V.; Barker, John L.

1987-01-01

130

Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

1987-01-01

131

Estimating forest productivity in southern Illinois using Landsat thematic mapper data and geographic information system analysis techniques  

SciTech Connect

Ecological researchers have recently begun to explore the potential of remote sensing in addressing questions about the structural and functional properties of ecosystems. The objective of our research is to analyze the relationship of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data and field-collected measurements of forest productivity in southern Illinois. In addition to TM data, such site characteristics as slope angle and position, soil productivity indexes, and sun radiance factors were incorporated in the analysis. Techniques for using image and geographic information system data in relation to productivity measurements taken in the field are discussed. Correlation and multiple regression results revealed the importance of TM band ratios 7:4 and 2:1 and of the woodland productivity indexes of soils in predicting forest productivity. Directions for further research in this area are suggested.

Cook, E.A.; Iverson, L.R.; Graham, R.L.

1986-01-01

132

Impact of Thematic Mapper Sensor Characteristics on Classification Accuracy. [suburban Washington, D.C., Maryland, and the Chesapeake Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fixed effect, three factor (two levels per factor) analysis of variance was used to quantitatively assess the significance of the improved spectral, spatial and radiometric resolution capabilities of the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper sensor relative to the familiar MSS sensor. TM data acquired over the Washington, D.C. area were progressively degraded in spectral, spatial and radiometric characteristics to simulate the MSS, and classification accuracies were derived in a consistent manner for all eight treatments in the ANOVA design. Statistical testing of the significance of differences in classification accuracies between treatments indicated that the increased number of spectral bands and the improved quantization capabilities afforded by the TM sensor design would lead to significant improvements in classification accuracies attainable relative to MSS. In contrast, however, the improved spatial resolution provided by the TM sensor did not enhance classification accuracy. This latter result was felt to be more a function of the type of classification algorithms available.

Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Markham, B. L.; Nelson, R. F.; Toll, D. L.; Latty, R. S.; Stauffer, M. L.

1985-01-01

133

An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper data for the classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Anderson, J. E.; Brannon, D. P.; Hill, C. L.

1982-01-01

134

An analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper P-Product internal geometry and conformity to earth surface geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance requirements regarding geometric accuracy have been defined in terms of end product goals, but until recently no precise details have been given concerning the conditions under which that accuracy is to be achieved. In order to achieve higher spatial and spectral resolutions, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor was designed to image in both forward and reverse mirror sweeps in two separate focal planes. Both hardware and software have been augmented and changed during the course of the Landsat TM developments to achieve improved geometric accuracy. An investigation has been conducted to determine if the TM meets the National Map Accuracy Standards for geometric accuracy at larger scales. It was found that TM imagery, in terms of geometry, has come close to, and in some cases exceeded, its stringent specifications.

Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.; Walker, R. E.; Gokhman, B.

1985-01-01

135

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of training statistics for the 30 meter resolution simulated thematic mapper MSS data was generated based on land use/land cover classes. In addition to this supervised data set, a nonsupervised multicluster block of training statistics is being defined in order to compare the classification results and evaluate the effect of the different training selection methods on classification performance. Two test data sets, defined using a stratified sampling procedure incorporating a grid system with dimensions of 50 lines by 50 columns, and another set based on an analyst supervised set of test fields were used to evaluate the classifications of the TMS data. The supervised training data set generated training statistics, and a per point Gaussian maximum likelihood classification of the 1979 TMS data was obtained. The August 1980 MSS data was radiometrically adjusted. The SAR data was redigitized and the SAR imagery was qualitatively analyzed.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

1981-01-01

136

Comparative point-spread function calculations for the MOMS-1, Thematic Mapper and SPOT-HRV instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Point-spread functions (PSF) comparisons were made between the Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS-01), the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and the SPOT-HRV instruments, principally near Lake Nakuru, Kenya. The results, expressed in terms of the width of the point spread functions at the 50 percent power points as determined from the in-scene analysis show that the TM has a PSF equal to or narrower than the MOMS-01 instrument (50 to 55 for the TM versus 50 to 68 for the MOMS). The SPOT estimates of the PSF range from 36 to 40. When the MOMS results are adjusted for differences in edge scanning as compared to the TM and SPOT, they are nearer 40 in the 575 to 625 nm band.

Salomonson, V. V.; Nickeson, J. E.; Bodechtel, J.; Zilger, J.

1988-01-01

137

AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1997 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)  

EPA Science Inventory

High-Resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del Medio Ambiente y el Bes...

138

Results of 17 Independent Geopositional Accuracy Assessments of Earth Satellite Corporation's GeoCover Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery. Geopositional Accuracy Validation of Orthorectified Landsat TM Imagery: Northeast Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides results of an independent assessment of the geopositional accuracy of the Earth Satellite (EarthSat) Corporation's GeoCover, Orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over Northeast Asia. This imagery was purchased through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program.

Smith, Charles M.

2003-01-01

139

25 Years of Landsat 5  

NASA Video Gallery

Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

140

Lithologic mapping of mafic intrusions in East Greenland using Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The East Greenland Tertiary Igneous Province contains a variety of intrusive and extrusive rock types. The Skaergaard complex is the most well known of the intrusive centers. Landsat thematic mapping (TM) was used in conjunction with field spectrometer data to map these mafic intrusions. These intrusions are of interest as possible precious metal ore deposits. They are spectrally distinct from the surrounding Precambrian gneisses. However, subpixel contamination by snow, oxide surface coatings, lichen cover and severe topography limit the discrimination of lithologic units within the gabbro. Imagery of the Skaergaard and surrounding vicinity, and image processing and enhancement techniques are presented. Student theses and other publications resulting from this work are also listed.

Naslund, H. Richard; Birnie, R. W.; Parr, J. T.

1989-01-01

141

An evaluation of simulated Thematic Mapper data and Landsat MSS data for discriminating suburban and regional land use and land cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne multispectral scanner, operating in the same spectral channels as the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), was used in a region east of Denver, CO, for a simulation test performed in the framework of using TM to discriminate the level I and level II classes. It is noted that at the 30-m spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) the overall discrimination for such classes as commercial/industrial land, rangeland, irrigated sod, irrigated alfalfa, and irrigated pasture was superior to that of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner, primarily due to four added spectral bands. For residential and other spectrally heterogeneous classes, however, the higher resolution of TMS resulted in increased variability within the class and a larger spectral overlap.

Toll, D. L.

1984-01-01

142

Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Data for Hydrologic Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed land cover classifications were performed on the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and MSS data of the Clinton River Basin (acquired on August 19, 1981, and June 28, 1980, respectively) using supervised classification techniques. Differences in interclass separability were compared to select several promising TMS band combinations, selected from the 27 covering the Clinton River Basin. The TMS data produced a more accurate and spatially contiguous classification than MSS for this study site. While the accuracy of the 4-band TM data set was as good as the 7-band, the 3-band TMS data sets were also better than the MSS. These results indicate that both the increased spectral discrimination and spatial resolution contribute to improved classification accuracy. The possibility of reducing the data analysis burden associated with large TM data volumes through effective band selection therefore appears promising. The implications of the improved classification accuracy of TMS data are important for hydrologic and economic modeling. In particular, the higher accuracies for the developed categories (residential and commercial) should improve the predictions of runoff in flood forecasting models and of flood damage for damage calculation models appreciably.

Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

1984-01-01

143

Estimation of vegetation water content for corn and soybeans with a normalized difference water index (NDWI) using Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mid-infrared Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) is proposed for the estimation of vegetation water content (VWC). As part of a large-scale hydrology experiment (SMEX02) an extensive VWC data set was collected for corn and soybeans over a portion of the growth cycle. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data for several dates were used to develop two indices, the well-known NDVI

Daoyi Chen; T. J. Jackson; F. Li; M. H. Cosh; C. Walthall; M. Anderson

2003-01-01

144

The time-space relationship of the data point (Pixels) of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner or the myth of simultaneity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified explanation of the time space relationships among scanner pixels is presented. The examples of the multispectral scanner (MSS) on Landsats 1, 2, and 3 and the thematic mapper (TM) of Landsat D are used to describe the concept and degree of nonsimultaneity of scanning system data. The time aspects of scanner data acquisition and those parts of the MSS and TM systems related to that phenomena are addressed.

Gordon, F., Jr.

1980-01-01

145

Paleobasin analysis and tectonic framework development of southern Zagros basin, interpreted from Landsat 4 thematic mapper image  

SciTech Connect

Detailed lineament maps produced with the digitally enhanced Landsat 4 thematic mapper in conjunction with field data provide new information on structural relations to the southern Zagros basin. Three major parallel lineaments are from north to south, Qatar-Kazern, Razak, and Oman. These lineaments trend approximately N17/sup 0/E and subdivide the Zagros basin into northern, central, and southern segments. The study area is enclosed by the Razak and Oman lineaments. Piercement salt domes (Precambrian salt) are abundant within the southern Zagros basin, absent east of the Oman lineament, and scarce in the area west of the Razak lineament. This salt dome distribution and the N17/sup 0/E trend suggest that these lineaments are surface manifestations of boundaries of basement crustal blocks that have been reactivated periodically since the Precambrian. The northern extension of this Precambrian basin is marked by salt domes (Precambrian salt) along the Oman lineament, located in the Kerman region 400 km north of Minab. Along the eastern boundary, at the juncture of the southern Zagros basin and western Makran Ranges, the trend of fold axes changes from east-west to north-south. The western basin boundary is characterized by a gradual change in the trend of the fold axis from east-west to northwest-southeast. This study provides useful information for subsurface interpretations, which will benefit hydrocarbon exploration. The Razak and Oman lineaments enclose a highly productive area, and separate the southern Zagros basin from less productive areas to the west and from a nonproductive region to the east where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that lineaments may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of the southern Zagros basin.

Iranpanah, A.

1986-05-01

146

Landsat Thematic Mapper for Evapotranspiration via the SEBAL process for Water Rights Management and Hydrologic Water Balances  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land) is an image-processing model comprised of twenty-five submodels for calculating evapotranspiration (ET) as a residual of the surface energy balance. In this study, SEBAL was applied to Landsat 5 images for the Bear River Basin of Idaho, Utah and Wyoming. ET for periods in between satellite overpasses was computed using ratios of ET

R. G. Allen; A. Morse; M. Tasumi; W. Bastiaanssen; W. Kramber; H. Anderson

2001-01-01

147

Forest cover type and landuse mapping using landsat Thematic Mapper False colour Composite a case study for chakrata in western himalayas U.P  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study authors have attempted to prepare a forest composition cover type map using landsat Thematic Mapper (T.M.)\\u000a False colour Composite (F.C.C.) on 1:3n250,000 scale synthesized by combining band 2, 3 & 4 pertaining to study area. Landsat\\u000a T.M.F.C.C. have been visually interpreted for delineation of forest cover type identified on the basis of tone\\/colour, texture,\\u000a pattern &

M. C. Porwal; D. N. Pant

1989-01-01

148

Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A stochastic spatial computer model addressing coastal resource problems in Lousiana is being refined and validated using thematic mapper (TM) imagery. The TM images of brackish marsh sites were processed and data were tabulated on spatial parameters from TM images of the salt marsh sites. The Fisheries Image Processing Systems (FIPS) was used to analyze the TM scene. Activities were concentrated on improving the structure of the model and developing a structure and methodology for calibrating the model with spatial-pattern data from the TM imagery.

Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson, Jr.; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

1987-01-01

149

Preliminary assessment of airborne imaging spectrometer and airborne thematic mapper data acquired for forest decline areas in the Federal Republic of Germany  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study evaluated the utility of data collected by the high-spectral resolution airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS-2, tree mode, spectral range 0.8-2.2 microns) and the broad-band Daedalus airborne thematic mapper (ATM, spectral range 0.42-13.0 micron) in assessing forest decline damage at a predominantly Scotch pine forest in the FRG. Analysis of spectral radiance values from the ATM and raw digital number values from AIS-2 showed that higher reflectance in the near infrared was characteristic of high damage (heavy chlorosis, limited needle loss) in Scotch pine canopies. A classification image of a portion of the AIS-2 flight line agreed very well with a damage assessment map produced by standard aerial photointerpretation techniques.

Herrmann, Karin; Ammer, Ulrich; Rock, Barrett; Paley, Helen N.

1988-01-01

150

Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The land-water interface of coastal marshes may influence the production of estuarine-dependent fisheries more than the area of these marshes. To test this hypothesis, a spatial model was created to explore the dynamic relationship between marshland-water interface and level of disintegration in the decaying coastal marshes of Louisiana's Barataria, Terrebonne, and Timbalier basins. Calibrating the model with Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery, a parabolic relationship was found between land-water interface and marsh disintegration. Aggregated simulation data suggest that interface in the study area will soon reach its maximum and then decline. A statistically significant positive linear relationship was found between brown shrimp catch and total interface length over the past 28 years. This relationship suggests that shrimp yields will decline when interface declines, possibly beginning about 1995.

Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

1988-01-01

151

Thematic mapper research in the earth sciences: Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe River Estuary, German Bight and Tidal Flats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Thematic Mapper (TM) field experiment was followed by a data analysis to determine TM capabilities for analysis of suspended matter and phytoplankton. Factor analysis showed that suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature can be retrieved as independent factors which determine the variation in the TM data over water areas. Spectral channels in the near infrared open the possibility of determining the Angstrom exponent better than for the coastal zone color scanner. The suspended matter distribution may then be calculated by the absolute radiance of channel 2 or 3 or the ratio of both. There is no indication of whether separation of chlorophyll is possible. The distribution of suspended matter and sea surface temperature can be observed with the expected fine structure. A good correlation between water depth and suspended matter distribution as found from ship data can now be analyzed for an entire area by the synoptic view of the TM scenes.

Grassl, H.; Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Brockmann, C.; Stoessel, M.

1987-01-01

152

Distribution of Potential Hydrothermally Altered Rocks in Central Colorado Derived From Landsat Thematic Mapper Data: A Geographic Information System Data Set  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the Central Colorado Mineral Resource Assessment Project, the digital image data for four Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes covering central Colorado between Wyoming and New Mexico were acquired and band ratios were calculated after masking pixels dominated by vegetation, snow, and terrain shadows. Ratio values were visually enhanced by contrast stretching, revealing only those areas with strong responses (high ratio values). A color-ratio composite mosaic was prepared for the four scenes so that the distribution of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks could be visually evaluated. To provide a more useful input to a Geographic Information System-based mineral resource assessment, the information contained in the color-ratio composite raster image mosaic was converted to vector-based polygons after thresholding to isolate the strongest ratio responses and spatial filtering to reduce vector complexity and isolate the largest occurrences of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks.

Knepper, Daniel H., Jr.

2010-01-01

153

Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Data for Hydrologic Applications. [Clinton River Basin, Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data produced a more accurate and spatially contiguous classification than MSS for the Clinton River Basin in Michigan. While the accuracy of the 4-band TMS data set was as good as the 7-band, the 3-band TMS data sets were also better than the MSS. The combination of bands selected based on the transformed divergence technique provided one band in each of the major regions of the spectrum: visible (band 3), near IR (band 4), middle IR (band 5) and thermal IR (band 7). These results should be viewed with some caution, since the data are from a TMS rather than the actual TM and the MSS data were obtained in early summer while the TMS was flown in late summer. The higher accuracies for the developed categories (residential and commercial) should improve the predictions of runoff in flood forecasting models and of flood damage for damage calculation models appreciably.

Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

1985-01-01

154

LANDSAT-5 orbit adjust maneuver report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The orbit adjust maneuvers performed to raise the LANDSAT 5 spacecraft to mission altitude, synchronize it with the required groundtrack, and properly phase the spacecraft with LANDSAT-4 to provide an 8 day full Earth coverage cycle are described. Maneuver planning and evaluation procedures, data and analysis results for all maneuvers performed to date, the frozen orbit concept, and the phasing requirement between LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 are also examined.

Hassett, P. J.; Johnson, R. L.

1984-01-01

155

Computer analysis of Landsat, Thematic Mapper imagery and existing road locations for elk habitat mapping in northern California  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed Landsat, Thermatic Mapper imagery and previously mapped, road locations to identify vegetation classes and measure elk habitat quality throughout a 350,810 hectare study area in north-central California. Computerized image classification procedures were used to identify and map 26 classes of vegetation cover and ten classes of non-vegetated land. A geographic information system was used to integrate road locations, quantify forage and cover quality ratings for vegetation types, and calculate an elk habitat quality index. Vegetation classes were aggregated into three forage quality and three cover quality ratings. Road locations were used to define corridors of low habitat quality, representing hunting pressure. Mountainous regions were dominated by conifer forest types and foothill regions were dominated by Juniper-Pine-Grass types. The valley region contained large amounts of the sage and rabbit brush types. Thirty-four percent of the western third of the study area, dominated by foothills and mountains, was classed as good habitat. By contrast the central and eastern portions of the study area, dominated by the valley region and mountains, contained a small proportion (12 percent) of the better habitats. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Fox, L. III [Department of Forestry, College of Natural Resources and Sciences, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California 95521 (United States); Burton, T.S. [State of California, The Resources Agency, Department of Fish & Game, Shasta Valley Wildlife Area, 1724 Ball Mountain Road, Montague, California 96064 (United States)

1996-03-01

156

Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continuing disintegration of the coastal marshes of Louisiana is one of the major environmental problems of the nation. The problem of marsh loss in Louisiana is relevant to fishery management because Louisiana leads the nation in landings of fishery products, and most of the landed species are dependent upon estuaries and their associated tidal marshes. In evaluating the potential effect of marshland loss on fisheries, the first two critical factors to consider are: whether land-water interface in actual disintegrating marshes is currently increasing or decreasing, and the magnitude of the change. In the present study, LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering specific marshes in coastal Louisiana were used to test conclusions from the Browder et al (1984) model with regard to the stage in disintegration at which maximum interface occurs; to further explore the relationship between maximum interface and the pattern of distribution of land and water suggested by the model; and to determine the direction and degree of change in land-water interface in relation to land loss in actual marshes.

Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson, Jr.; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

1988-01-01

157

Automated mapping of mineral groups and green vegetation from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery with an example from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral satellite data acquired by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM) sensors are being used to populate an online Geographic Information System (GIS) of the spatial occurrence of mineral groups and green vegetation across the western conterminous United States and Alaska. These geospatial data are supporting U.S. Geological Survey national-scale mineral deposit database development and other mineral resource and geoenvironmental research as a means of characterizing mineral exposures related to mined and unmined hydrothermally altered rocks and mine waste. This report introduces a new methodology for the automated analysis of Landsat TM data that has been applied to more than 180 scenes covering the western United States. A map of mineral groups and green vegetation produced using this new methodology that covers the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, and the Four Corners Region is presented. The map is provided as a layered GeoPDF and in GIS-ready digital format. TM data analysis results from other well-studied and mineralogically characterized areas with strong hydrothermal alteration and (or) supergene weathering of near-surface sulfide minerals are also shown and compared with results derived from ASTER data analysis.

Rockwell, Barnaby W.

2013-01-01

158

Anaysis of the quality of image data required by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner. [agricultural and forest cover types in California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial, geometric, and radiometric qualities of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were evaluated by interpreting, through visual and computer means, film and digital products for selected agricultural and forest cover types in California. Multispectral analyses employing Bayesian maximum likelihood, discrete relaxation, and unsupervised clustering algorithms were used to compare the usefulness of TM and MSS data for discriminating individual cover types. Some of the significant results are as follows: (1) for maximizing the interpretability of agricultural and forest resources, TM color composites should contain spectral bands in the visible, near-reflectance infrared, and middle-reflectance infrared regions, namely TM 4 and TM % and must contain TM 4 in all cases even at the expense of excluding TM 5; (2) using enlarged TM film products, planimetric accuracy of mapped poins was within 91 meters (RMSE east) and 117 meters (RMSE north); (3) using TM digital products, planimetric accuracy of mapped points was within 12.0 meters (RMSE east) and 13.7 meters (RMSE north); and (4) applying a contextual classification algorithm to TM data provided classification accuracies competitive with Bayesian maximum likelihood.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

159

A procedure for radiometric recalibration of Landsat 5 TM reflective-band data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to the internal calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time, causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20%. In May 2003, the L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) were updated to use a lifetime lookup-table (LUT) gain model to radiometrically calibrate TM data instead of using scene-specific IC gains. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. The L5 TM data processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work-order report that was included in the original standard data product delivery is available. However, if users do not have the original work-order report, the IC trends can be used for recalibration. The IC trends were generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database. This paper provides the details of the recalibration procedure for the following: 1) data processed using IC where users have the work-order file; 2) data processed using IC where users do not have the work-order file; 3) data processed using prelaunch calibration parameters; and 4) data processed using the previous version of the LUT (e.g., LUT03) that was released before April 2, 2007.

Chander, G.; Haque, M.O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J.A.

2010-01-01

160

Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower generation, dredging, forestry, agriculture, channel alteration, diking, bank stabilization and floodplain development, have dramatically altered both the type and distribution of habitats along the Columbia River Estuary (CRE) and its floodplain. Along the Columbia River, tidally influenced habitats occur from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of 230 km. If we are to effectively manage the natural resources of the Columbia River ecosystem, there is a need to understand how habitats have changed because fish and wildlife populations are known to respond to changes in habitat quality and distribution. The goal of this study was to measure the amount and type of change of CRE land cover from 1992 to 2000. We performed a change analysis on two spatial data sets describing land cover along the lower portion of the estuary (Fig. 1). The 1992 data set was created by the NOAA Coastal Remote Sensing, Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) in cooperation with Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Point Adams Field Station, and State of Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR). The 2000 data set was produced by Earth Design Consultants, Inc. (EDC) and the Wetland Ecosystem Team (WET: University of Washington) as part of a larger Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) habitat mapping study. Although the image classification methodologies used to create the data sets differed, both data sets were produced by classifying Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery, making it feasible to assess land cover changes between 1992 and 2000.

Garono, Ralph; Anderson, Becci; Robinson, Rob

2003-10-01

161

Feasibility of sea ice typing with synthetic aperture radar (SAR): Merging of Landsat thematic mapper and ERS 1 SAR satellite imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS) 1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) images were acquired for the same area in the Beaufort Sea, April 16 and 18, 1992. The two image pairs were colocated to the same grid (25-m resolution), and a supervised ice type classification was performed on the TM images in order to classify ice free, nilas, gray ice, gray-white ice, thin first-year ice, medium and thick first-year ice, and old ice. Comparison of the collocated SAR pixels showed that ice-free areas can only be classified under calm wind conditions (less than 3 m/s) and for surface winds greater than 10 m/s based on the backscattering coefficient alone. This is true for pack ice regions during the cold months of the year where ice-free areas are spatially limited and where the capillary waves that cause SAR backscatter are dampened by entrained ice crystals. For nilas, two distinct backscatter classes were found at -17 dB and at -10 dB. The higher backscattering coefficient is attributed to the presence of frost flowers on light nilas. Gray and gray-white ice have a backscatter signature similar to first-year ice and therefore cannot be distinguished by SAR alone. First-year and old ice can be clearly separated based on their backscattering coefficient. The performance of the Geophysical Processor System ice classifier was tested against the Landsat derived ice products. It was found that smooth first-year ice and rough first-year ice were not significantly different in the backscatter domain. Ice concentration estimates based on ERS 1 C band SAR showed an error range of 5 to 8% for high ice concentration regions, mainly due to misclassified ice-free and smooth first-year ice areas. This error is expected to increase for areas of lower ice concentration. The combination of C band SAR and TM channels 2, 4, and 6 resulted in ice typing performance with an estimated accuracy of 90% for all seven ice classes.

Steffen, Konrad; Heinrichs, John

1994-01-01

162

Monitoring land use changes in the Upper Ganga Basin, India by using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques on Landsat 5 TM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green Revolution represents one of the largest environmental changes in India over the last century. The Upper Ganga basin is experiencing rapid rates of change of land use and irrigation practices. In combination with exploitation of groundwater resources in the northern Indian plains, this causes variations in recharge and fundamentally affects surface and groundwater resources, threatening India's water supplies. In this study, we have developed a methodology to map and investigate land-use change by applying Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques on 30m resolution multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for 1984, 1998 and 2010. Firstly, an automated protocol was applied to effectively correct the images for radiometric effects and remove atmospheric interference during the pre-processing analysis of satellite images. Afterwards, maximum likelihood supervised classifications were carried out on Landsat 5 TM colour composites of 1984, 1998 and 2010 with the aid of ground truth data. Post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat images in order to map land cover changes in the Upper Ganga basin. Change vectors of NDVI and Tasseled Cap brightness, greenness and wetness of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images are compared with those values from the initial date of imagery to detect change from no change. Ground truth information and historic images were used to assess the accuracy of the classification results. We find that most of the land-use change is conversion from forest and barren land to agricultural areas. Results indicate that between 1984 and 2010 agricultural areas have increased by more than 150% while forest areas decreased by 28%. The classification accuracy is also examined. Results confirm the importance of field-based accuracy assessment to identify problems in a land-use map and to improve area estimates for each class. The results quantify the land cover change patterns in the Upper Ganga basin and demonstrate the potential of multi-temporal Landsat data to provide an accurate map and analyse changes in land use over time that can be an important input in regional land-use planning and management strategies.

Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Buytaert, Wouter

2013-04-01

163

LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis. [LANDSAT 5 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reformatting software to handle LANDSAT 5 data in quadrant format was completed and tested. The sensor two-dimensional point spread function was estimated from scene data. Budget recalculations are discussed. Two publications done under this contract are named.

Anuta, P. E. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

164

Using the Sonoran and Libyan Desert test sites to monitor the temporal stability of reflective solar bands for Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus and Terra moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remote sensing imagery is effective for monitoring environmental and climatic changes because of the extent of the global coverage and long time scale of the observations. Radiometric calibration of remote sensing sensors is essential for quantitative & qualitative science and applications. Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing sensors. This paper focuses on the use of the Sonoran Desert site to monitor the radiometric stability of the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The results are compared with the widely used Libya 4 Desert site in an attempt to evaluate the suitability of the Sonoran Desert site for sensor inter-comparison and calibration stability monitoring. Since the overpass times of ETM+ and MODIS differ by about 30 minutes, the impacts due to different view geometries or test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are also presented. In general, the long-term drifts in the visible bands are relatively large compared to the drift in the near-infrared bands of both sensors. The lifetime Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance trends from both sensors over 10 years are extremely stable, changing by no more than 0.1% per year (except ETM+ Band 1 and MODIS Band 3) over the two sites used for the study. The use of a semi-empirical BRDF model can reduce the impacts due to view geometries, thus enabling a better estimate of sensor temporal drifts.

Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-young; Chander, Gyanesh; Wu, Aisheng

2010-01-01

165

Landsat7 and Landsat5 thermal band calibration updates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat-7 ETM+, launched in April 1999, and Landsat-5 TM, launched in 1984, both have a single thermal band. Both instruments' thermal band calibrations have been updated: ETM+ in 2001 for a pre-launch calibration error and TM in 2007 for data acquired since the current era of vicarious calibration has been in place (1999). This year, the vicarious calibration teams have

Julia A. Barsi; Brian L. Markham; John R. Schott; Simon J. Hook; Nina G. Raqueno

2009-01-01

166

Thematic mapping of basement-related cross-strike structural discontinuities and their relationship to potential oil-bearing structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports how a digitally enhanced Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper mosaic (TM) data, a hand-held color space photograph from one of the early NASA satellite missions (Gemini), and field data were used to delineate three major basement-structural discontinuities (CSDs) with the Zagros Basin of southwestern Iran. Three major subparallel CSDs are, from north to south, Kazerun-Qatar (N05{sup {degrees}W} trend), Razak (N17{degrees}E trend), and Oman (N18{degrees}E). These subparallel CSDs subdivide the Zagros Basin into northern, central, and southern sub-basins. The Razak and Oman CSD enclose a relatively nonproductive area, separating the southern Zagros sub-basin from more productive regions to the northwest and the nonproductive Makran Ranges to the southeast where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that CSD may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of sedimentary basins. The results of this investigation also prove that lineament analysis is a potentially effective method for interpreting the basement-related CSD within a basin setting.

Iranpanah, A. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Pittsburg at Bradford, Bradford, PA (US))

1989-10-01

167

Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results obtained for the absolute calibration of TM bands 2, 3, and 4 are presented. The results are based on TM image data collected simultaneously with ground and atmospheric data at White Sands, New Mexico. Also discussed are the results of a moments analysis to determine the equivalent bandpasses, effective central wavelengths and normalized responses of the TM and MSS spectral bands; the calibration of the BaSO, plate used at White Sands; and future plans.

Slater, P. N. (principal investigator); Palmer, J. M.

1983-01-01

168

WATERSHED CHARACTERIZATION USING LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY: BLACKFOOT RIVER, MT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a portion of a large regional project undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and water quality authorities in the States of Montana, Idaho, and Washington to identify and analyze factors which are affecting water quality in the Lake Pend Ore...

169

Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of the atmosphere on propagating radiation must be known in order to calibrate an in orbit sensor using ground based measurements. A set of model atmosphere parameters, applicable to the White Sands (New Mexico) area is defined with particular attention given to those parameters which are required as input to the Herman Code. The radial size distribution, refractive index, vertical distribution, and visibility of aerosols are discussed as well as the molecular absorbers in the visible and near IR wavelength which produce strong absorption lines. Solar irradiance is also considered.

Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N. (principal investigators)

1985-01-01

170

Impact of Thematic Mapper Sensor Characteristics on Classification Accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three factor (spectral, spatial, and radiometric resolution), two level (TM and MSS) analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach allowed evaluation of the effects of each factor individually and in all possible combinations. Digital classification accuracy was used as the figure of merit. Nine study sites in Washington, D.C. each of approximately 256 x 256 TM pixels, were randomly selected from the full scene for analysis. These results strongly suggest that the quantization level improvements and the addition of new spectral bands in the visible and middle IR regions (both afforded by the TM sensor design) can result in improved capabilities to accurately delineate land cover categories using a per point Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier. On the other hand, results indicate that the increase in spatial resolution to 30m does not significantly enhance classification accuracy. The spatial result points to an inherent limitation of a per point classifier and to the need to improve data analysis techniques to handle high spatial resolution data.

Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Markham, B. L.; Nelson, R. F.; Toll, D. L.; Latty, R. S.; Stauffer, M. L.

1984-01-01

171

Impact of thematic mapper sensor characteristics on classification accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three factor (spectral, spatial, and radiometric resolution), two level (TM and MSS) analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach allowed evaluation of the effects of each factor individually and in all possible combinations. Digital classification accuracy was used as the figure of merit. Nine study sites in Washington, DC, each of approximately 256 x 256 TM pixels, were randomly selected from the full scene for analysis. These results strongly suggest that the quantization level improvements and the addition of new spectral bands in the visible and middle IR regions (both afforded by the TM sensor design) can result in improved capabilities to accurately delineate land cover categories using a per point Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier. On the other hand, results indicate that the increase in spatial resolution to 30 m does not significantly enhance classification accuracy. The spatial result points to an inherent limitation of a per point classifier and to the need to improve data analysis techniques to handle high spatial resolution data.

Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Markham, B. L.; Nelson, R. F.; Toll, D. L.; Latty, R. S.; Stauffer, M. L.

1983-01-01

172

Preliminary Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Image Data Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements in the ability to monitor renewable resources/vegegation due to improvements in the spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of TM data were evaluated. Results presented from the first 4 months of analysis presented include: (1) geometric performance; (2) band-to-band registration; (3) modulation transfer function; and (4) crop separabililty performance. Crop separability in Webster County, Iowa and in Mississippi County, Arkansas as determined by cluster and principal components analyses is assessed.

Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Pitts, D. E.; Bizzell, R. M.; Yao, S.; Sorensen, C.; Reyna, E.; Carnes, J.

1985-01-01

173

Characterizing Meadow Vegetation With Multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet meadows are important biological components in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Many meadows in the Blue Mountains and elsewhere in the Western United States are in a state of change owing to grazing, mining, logging, road development, and other factors. This project evaluated the utility of remotely sensed data to characterize and monitor meadow vegetation for 32 meadows

Alan A. Ager; Karen E. Owens

174

Thematic mapper radiomtric variability on ostensibly uniform agricultural scenes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of the interaction of the sensor point spread function with a heterogeneous scene consisting of elements giving rise to different spectral radiant intensities cause errors in multitemporal signatures due to fractional pixel repositioning errors. In the case of a heterogeneous scene, the repositioning accuracy between acquisitions could affect the radiometric output in any band and could affect the spectral distribution of radiance between bands. Error caused by within-band and between-band variations in radiance with time could be compounded by resampling along and between scan lines during processing. The magnitude of both error sources depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the scene.

Duggin, M. J.

1983-01-01

175

Simulation of landsat thematic mapper imagery using AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we present a methodology for simulating multispectral imagery (MSI) using hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and present a validation of the technique using one nearly coincident Landsat TM and AVIRIS data set. Generation of MSI from HSI supports several investigations including selection of multispectral sensor band edges, and engineering trade studies related to on-board or ground-based aggregation of HSI to simulate MSI. In addition, the utility of this technique as a potential procedure for monitoring calibration changes in spaceborne instrument is also addressed.

Kalman, Linda S.; Peltzer, Gerard R.

1993-01-01

176

LANDSAT 4 investigation of thematic mapper and multispectral scanner applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six different band combinations of TM data were selected for evaluation by four experienced photointerpreters who were asked to rank the band combinations according to the ease with which the category of image feature designated for each set of combinations could be distinguished. There were four sets of combinations selected for each category of image feature. Scenes of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and of the Sacramento Valley, California area were enlarged to 1:250,000 and 2 cm circular chips were cut from each print. A nonparametric rank order test was carried out on the data to determine if the interpreters found no difference among the band combinations in ranking for the designated categories. Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) was calculated and the significance of the W value was determined by a chi-square test. A table summarizes the results of the evaluation and shows the rank order of band combinations indicated as valid by rejection of the null hypothesis.

Lauer, D. T. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

177

Response of Thematic Mapper bands to plant water stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in leaf reflectance as water content decreases have been hypothesized to occur in the 1.55-1.75 and 2.08-2.35 micron wavelength regions. To evaluate this hypothesis, studies were conducted on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and oats (Avena sativa L.), which were grown in a controlled, outdoor situation. Both fully-watered control beds and water-stressed beds were periodically examined with a spectroradiometer calibrated against a reflectance reference of polytetrafluoroethylene. The observed changes correspond to those predicted by stochastic leaf models employed by other investigators (leaf reflection increases in the 1.55-1.75 micron region as leaf water content decreases). Although the percentage changes in TM bands 1-3 are nearly as great as those found in TM bands 5 and 7, the absolute values of reflectance change are much lower. It is believed that these patterns are probably characteristic of a broad range of vegetation types. In terms of phenomena detection, these patterns should be considered in any practical remote sensing sensor scenario.

Cibula, W. G.; Zetka, E. F.; Rickman, D. L.

1992-01-01

178

Floodplain land cover mapping using Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of land-cover classifications based on Landsat-4 TM and MSS images (obtained in August 1982) and airborne TMS images (obtained in September 1981) of the New Martinsville, West Virginia area is evaluated by comparison with ground-truth data. TM, TMS, and MSS are found to have overall mapping accuracies 80.1, 78.5, and 75.6 percent; agriculture/grass accuracies 62.0, 29.7, and 46.6 percent; and developed-area accuracies 67.2, 77.8, and 59.4 percent, respectively.

Kerber, A. G.; Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y.-C.; Marcell, R.; Edwardo, H. A.

1986-01-01

179

Early evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for coastal process studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two sets of TM data taken over the ocean off the coast of the Southeastern U.S. Bight were studied for the applicability of TM data to marine environments. First, the results of applying TM and TMS data to determine chlorophyll concentration in the ocean are presented. Chlorophyll quantification in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 mg/cu m was achieved by taking the ratio of TM band-1/band-2. Second, the results of applying TM band-6 data to monitor sea surface temperature are described. A comparison of TM data with AVHRR data shows TM readings coincide with AVHRR data within a scatter of 0.5 deg C in most of the areas studied. Lastly, the results of a technique to map the water depths of coral reefs in the Great Bahama Bank are demonstrated. Depths from 0 to 20 meters were delineated using TM band-1. The classification accuracy and origins of anomalous depth points are discussed.

Kim, H. H.; Linebaugh, G.

1985-01-01

180

A cumulus cloud field observed by Landsat Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a spatial coherence scene model which is to be utilized to determine cloud properties from TM data is described. The observed radiances are modeled in terms of ocean and cloud spectra, the cloud fraction, and a geometric factor. Consideration is given to saturation effects and the need to constrain the model. The conjugate gradient algorithm is utilized to fit the model. A one-dimensional simulation was performed in order to evaluate the model; it is observed that the model provides good fit.

Hoffman, Ross N.; Isaacs, Ronald G.

1986-01-01

181

Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are summarized and analyzed from several prelaunch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere used as part of the absolute radiometric calibration experiments for the protoflight TM sensor carried on the LANDSAT-4 satellite. The calibration procedure is presented and the radiometric sensitivity of the TM is assessed. The internal calibrator and dynamic range after calibration are considered. Tables show dynamic range after ground processing, spectral radiance to digital number and digital number to spectral radiance values for TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and for channel 4 of band 6.

Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

1984-01-01

182

In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

1984-01-01

183

In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, NM area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1: 0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2: 0.53 to 0.61 micrometers, band 3: 0.62 to 0.70 micrometers, and 4: 0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. Previously announced in STAR as N84-15633

Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

1984-01-01

184

Solar thematic maps for space weather operations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thematic maps are arrays of labels, or "themes", associated with discrete locations in space and time. Borrowing heavily from the terrestrial remote sensing discipline, a numerical technique based on Bayes' theorem captures operational expertise in the form of trained theme statistics, then uses this to automatically assign labels to solar image pixels. Ultimately, regular thematic maps of the solar corona will be generated from high-cadence, high-resolution SUVI images, the solar ultraviolet imager slated to fly on NOAA's next-generation GOES-R series of satellites starting ~2016. These thematic maps will not only provide quicker, more consistent synoptic views of the sun for space weather forecasters, but digital thematic pixel masks (e.g., coronal hole, active region, flare, etc.), necessary for a new generation of operational solar data products, will be generated. This paper presents the mathematical underpinnings of our thematic mapper, as well as some practical algorithmic considerations. Then, using images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Advanced Imaging Array (AIA) as test data, it presents results from validation experiments designed to ascertain the robustness of the technique with respect to differing expert opinions and changing solar conditions.

Rigler, E. Joshua; Hill, Steven M.; Reinard, Alysha A.; Steenburgh, Robert A.

2012-01-01

185

Creating Thematic Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses getting started, organizing a thematic unit, developing a unit around classroom concerns, and skills students need. Discusses creating a thematic unit in American literature focused on Henry David Thoreau. Presents a series of nine questions for teachers to ask themselves when selecting a novel for use in a thematic unit with middle or…

Mitchell, Diana; Young, Linda Payne

1997-01-01

186

SkyMapper and Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SkyMapper Southern Sky Survey will be a wide-area digital survey of the southern sky, run from the robotic 1.3-m SkyMapper telescope at Siding Spring Observatory near Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia. The survey will include a supernova search run during poor seeing time, run as a rolling search to produce high-quality light curves for Hubble diagram cosmology. The search is currently taking data in science verification mode. I will briefly describe SkyMapper and then give an overview of su- pernova search activities, including pipeline design, operations, and interaction with the community.

Scalzo, R.

187

Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

188

Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

1992-01-01

189

A Quantitative Comparison of Traditional and Image-Derived Bathymetry From Landsats 5, 7, and 8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though the ocean covers 70% of the earth and is a prime driver of our climate, roughly 95% of it is unexplored. As a basic geophysical parameter, accurate and sufficiently detailed bathymetry is a key piece in understanding the oceans and coasts. Moreover, coastal bathymetry in particular can change rapidly in response to storms, sea level rise, changes in river conditions, and engineering activity. Because of the expense and time involved with traditional, though very accurate, bathymetric methods, remote sensing imagery-derived measurement is often used as a technique for in-fill or rapid response to bathymetry-changing events. While imagery-based bathymetry has been in use for many decades, the techniques and imaging platforms have both evolved and improved over the years. Landsat 8, with its added coastal band, 12-bit capability, 2-week revisit, and global coverage, is an important step forward in updating coastal morphology maps and extending them in to less well-known coastal waters. Here, we present results quantitatively comparing Landsat 5, Landsat 7, and Landsat 8 to sonar-derived bathymetry.

Hulslander, D.

2013-12-01

190

THEMATIC ACCURACY OF MRLC LAND COVER FOR THE EASTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

One objective of the MultiResolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortium is to map general land-cover categories for the conterminous United States using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Land-cover mapping and classification accuracy assessment are complete for the e...

191

National Wetlands Inventory Online Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) online mapper displays current geospatially referenced information on the status, extent, characteristics and functions of wetland, riparian, deepwater and related aquatic habitats for the lower 48 States, Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Saipan. Users may zoom or pan to the desired area and view availability information for map scales either less than or greater than 1:100,000, and access wetland polygons, metadata and scans, or historic wetlands information. Other layers include cities and towns, roads and highways, zip code boundaries, U.S. Geological Survey map index outlines, and others. A tutorial on how to use the mapper is provided.

192

Hurricane Sandy Storm Tide Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

United States Geological Survey (USGS) provides real-time map-based information from USGS storm tide sensors. The data is reflected on the Hurricane Sandy Tide Mapper. The mapper provides location information, site photos and data for storm tide and inland flooding. In addition, the data from these sensors is used to create models of the precise time the storm-tide arrived, how ocean and inland water levels changed during the storm, the depth of the storm-tide throughout the event, and how long it took for the water to recede.

193

Monitoring glacier variations in the Urubamba and Vilcabamba Mountain Ranges, Peru, using "Landsat 5" images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Urubamba and Vilcabamba mountain ranges are two geological structures belonging to the Andes in the southern part of Peru, which is located in the tropical region. These mountain ranges are especially located within the transition area between the Amazon region (altitudes close to 1'000 m a.s.l.) and the Andes. These mountains, with a maximum height of 6'280 m a.s.l. (Salkantay Snow Peak in the Vilcabamba range), are characterized by glaciers mainly higher than 5000 m a.s.l. Here we present a study on the evolution of the ice cover based on "Landsat 5" images from 1991 and 2011 is presented in this paper. These data are freely available from the USGS in a georeferenced format and cover a time span of more than 25 years. The glacier mapping is based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). In 1991 the Vilcabamba mountain range had 221 km2 of glacier cover, being reduced to 116.4 km2 in 2011, which represents a loss of 48%. In the Urubamba mountain range, the total glacier area was 64.9 km2 in 1991 and 29.4 km2 in 2011, representing a loss of 54.7%. It means that the glacier area was halved during the past two decades although precipitation patterns show an increase in recent years (the wet season lasts from September to April with precipitation peaks in February and March). Glacier changes in these two tropical mountain ranges also impact from an economic point of view due to small local farming common in this region (use of water from the melting glacier). Furthermore, potential glacier related hazards can pose a threat to people and infrastructure in the valleys below these glaciers, where the access routes to Machu Picchu Inca City, Peru's main tourist destination, are located too.

Suarez, Wilson; Cerna, Marcos; Ordoñez, Julio; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Huggel, Christian

2013-04-01

194

ICOS Atmospheric Thematic Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICOS is a recently-launched, world-class research infrastructure dedicated to the monitoring and improved understanding of carbon sources and sinks. It consists of complementary, harmonized networks of long-term ecosystem monitoring stations focusing on Europe and adjacent regions. The ICOS networks will comprise about 40 operational atmospheric stations (measuring atmospheric composition in greenhouse gases and other core parameters), 30 ecosystem stations (measuring fluxes from ecosystems) and about 10 oceanic measurement platforms. The networks will be coordinated through a set of central facilities: three Thematic centres respectively for atmospheric, ecosystem and ocean data, and a Central analytical lab. The mission of the thematic centres are to process, validate and distribute data to end-users. ICOS will also set up a Carbon portal dedicated to easy discovery of and access to data and elaborated products such as flux maps by end users.The Atmospheric Thematic Center (ATC) has three main functions: Operate the atmospheric data processing chains, going from data transmission from stations to the routine delivery of quality checked data-stream Carry out regular measurement technology survey, analysis and enable development of new sensors and their testing Monitor the network and propose spare instruments, training, and technical assistance.

Rivier, Leonard; Hazan, Lynn; Tarniewicz, Jerome; Laurent, Olivier; Yver, Camille; Laurila, Tuomas; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Ramonet, Michel; Ciais, Philippe

2014-05-01

195

Louisiana Air Quality - Using ASTER, Landsat 5, and MODIS to Assess the Impact of Sugarcane and Marsh Burning Practices on Local Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Earth Observing Systems data products were employed to quantify burned area and related emissions from sugarcane and marsh burning practices on local air quality in coastal Louisiana. This study focused on two parishes, Iberia and Cameron, in the state of Louisiana. As part of Louisiana’s large sugarcane industry, the burning of excess biomass takes place throughout the harvesting period of September through December. In addition, Louisiana contains 30% of the total coastal marsh of the United States. The periodic burning of marshland is an important ecosystem management tool that is practiced throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. Voluntary burning guidelines have been set into place by the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) to address both agricultural and marshland burning. This analysis focused on the atmospheric species of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), particulate matter 10 (PM10) and lead. The 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Active Fire product was used to identify location and frequency of agricultural and marsh burning in the state of Louisiana. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) 15m data and 30m Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were utilized in this study to quantify total burned area in sugarcane fields and marshlands for Iberia and Cameron Parishes, respectively, for the years 2008 and 2009. Emissions estimates were quantified using the Seiler and Crutzen (1980) bottom-up emission algorithm and published fuel load and combustion completeness variables. Emission estimate results suggested that sugarcane and marsh burning may be significant contributors to poor air quality in Louisiana and that previous biomass burning emission estimates for the state of Louisiana appear to underestimate emissions from sugarcane and marshlands. The results have been shared with the Environmental Protection Agency with the goal of assessing air quality of coastal Louisiana and mitigating health risks to vulnerable human populations in coastal Louisiana.

Reahard, R. R.; Clark, R.; Robin, C.; Zeringue, J.; McCarty, J. L.

2010-12-01

196

Area-normalized thematic views  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel technique for dealing with a classic problem that frequently arises in visualization. Very expressive nonlinear transformations can be automatically generated to correct thematic maps so that the areas of map regions are proportional to the thematic variables assigned to them. This helps to eliminate one of the most commonly occurring visual lies that occurs in information visualization. Thematic variables are commonly used in cartography to encode additional information within the spatial layout of a map. Common examples of thematic variables are population density, pollution level and birth rate. The method is illustrated with two examples, mapping interstate speed limits and presidential election results.

Keahey, T.A.

1998-10-01

197

MAPPER: A personal computer map projection tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MAPPER is a set of software tools designed to let users create and manipulate map projections on a personal computer (PC). The capability exists to generate five popular map projections. These include azimuthal, cylindrical, mercator, lambert, and sinusoidal projections. Data for projections are contained in five coordinate databases at various resolutions. MAPPER is managed by a system of pull-down windows. This interface allows the user to intuitively create, view and export maps to other platforms.

Bailey, Steven A.

1993-01-01

198

Paperbacks and the Thematic Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The thematic approach to literature in which a single concept is developed through various works and genres has been greatly facilitated today by the convenience, ubiquity, and economy of the paperback book. By utilizing the paperback boom and by employing both small group and individual instruction, thematic units can be planned to meet the…

Demicell, Jeanette; Cromer, Nancy

1968-01-01

199

Evaluation of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio image for mapping lithologic differences in western South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From analysis of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio, image, a map of the vegetation density distribution has been produced by Raines of 25,000 sq km of western South Dakota. This 5/6 ratio image is produced digitally calculating the ratios of the bands 5 and 6 of the Landsat data and then color coding these ratios in an image. Bretz and Shurr compared this vegetation density map with published and unpublished data primarily of the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Dakota Geological Survey; good correspondence is seen between this map and existing geologic maps, especially with the soils map. We believe that this Landsat ratio image can be used as a tool to refine existing maps of surficial geology and bedrock, where bedrock is exposed, and to improve mapping accuracy in areas of poor exposure common in South Dakota. In addition, this type of image could be a useful, additional tool in mapping areas that are unmapped.

Raines, Gary L.; Bretz, R.F.; Shurr, George W.

1979-01-01

200

Integrating remote sensing techniques at Cuprite, Nevada: AVIRIS, Thematic Mapper, and field spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cuprite mining district in southwestern Nevada has become a test site for remote sensing studies with numerous airborne scanners and ground sensor data sets collected over the past fifteen years. Structurally, the Cuprite region can be divided into two areas with slightly different alteration and mineralogy. These zones lie on either side of a postulated low-angle structural discontinuity that strikes nearly parallel to US Route 95. Hydrothermal alternation at Cuprite was classified into three major zones: silicified, opalized, and argillized. These alteration types form a bulls-eye pattern east of the highway and are more linear on the west side of the highway making a striking contrast from the air and the imagery. Cuprite is therefore an ideal location for remote sensing research as it exhibits easily identified hydrothermal zoning, is relatively devoid of vegetation, and contains a distinctive spectrally diagnostic mineral suite including the ammonium feldspar buddingtonite, several types of alunite, different jarosites, illite, kaolinite, smectite, dickite, and opal. This present study brings a new dimension to these previous remote sensing and ground data sets compiled for Cuprite. The development of a higher resolution field spectrometer now provides the capability to combine extensive in-situ mineralogical data with a new geologic field survey and detailed Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images. The various data collection methods and the refinement of the integrated techniques are discussed.

Hill, Bradley; Nash, Greg; Ridd, Merrill; Hauff, Phoebe L.; Ebel, Phil

1992-01-01

201

Application of thematic mapper imagery to oil exploration in Austin Chalk, central Gulf Coast basin, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the newest major oil plays in the Gulf Coast basin, the Austin Chalk reportedly produces in three belts: an updip belt, where production is from fractured chalk in structurally high positions along faults above 7000 ft; a shallow downdip belt, where the chalk is uniformly saturated with oil from 7000 to 9000 ft; and a deeper downdip belt

William M. Reid

1988-01-01

202

Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sensitivity of Landsat TM data for detecting soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands, and the potential of the spectral data for assigning the universal soil loss equation (USLE) crop managemnent (C) factor to varying cover types within the woodlands are assessed. Results show greatly accelerated rates of soil erosion on pinyon-juniper sites. Percent cover by pinyon-juniper, total soil-loss, and total nonliving ground cover accounted for nearly 70 percent of the variability in TM channels 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion than the biotic and abiotic field variables. Satellite data were more sensitive to vegetation variation than the USLE C factor, and USLE was found to be a poor predictor of soil loss on pinyon-juniper sites. A new string-to-ground soil erosion prediction technique is introduced.

Price, Kevin P.; Ridd, Merrill K.

1991-01-01

203

Evaluation of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat-4 image data quality was evaluated for test sites in Iowa and Illinois. Radiometric and geometric quality was tested and an applications evaluation was carried out using a cooling-pond thermal-mapping example. Geometric quality was found to be generally very good. Small errors were found in registration of the middle IR bands of the TM and the thermal IR band was found to be misregistered by one 120-meter pixel. Radiometric quality of the TM is excellent with only minor striping effects.

Bartolucci, L. A.; Dean, M. E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Anuta, P. E.; Yu, K. B.

1984-01-01

204

Scaling Vegetation Water Content from Thematic Mapper to MODIS During SMEX04  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation water content (VWC) is important for accurate retrievals of soil moisture using microwave sensors and may be important for determining water stress and forest fire potential. The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and future operational sensors have bands in the shortwave infrared region which can be used for monitoring VWC. The Soil Moisture Experiments 2004 (SMEX04) were conducted during

E. Raymond Hunt; M. Tugrul Yilmaz; Thomas J. Jackson

2006-01-01

205

A Physically-Based Transformation of Thematic Mapper Data---The TM Tasseled Cap  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an extension of previous simulation studies, a transformation of actual TM data in the six reflective bands is described which achieves three objectives: a fundamental view of TM data structures is presented, the vast majority of data variability is concentrated in a few (three) features, and the defined features can be directly associated with physical scene characteristics. The underlying

Eric P. Crist; Richard C. Cicone

1984-01-01

206

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral thematic mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An area along the southeastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay was subsetted from TM imagery. The subsetted image was then enhanced and classified using an ERDAS 400 system. Results obtained were compared with a chart showing the distribution of both Zolsters marina and Rupplia martime in the Vaucluse Shores and which supports a large community of SAV. Radiative transfer models describing the irradiance reflectance of a water column containing SAV are being refined. Radiative transfer theory was used to model upwelling radiance for an orbiting sensor viewing an estuarine environment. Upwelling radiance was calculated for a clear maritime atmosphere, an optically shallow estuary of either clear or turbid water, and one of three bottom types: vegetation, sand, or mud using TM bands 1, 2, and 3 and MSS bands 4 and 5. A spectral quality index was defined similar to the equation for apparent contrast and used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of TM and MSS bands in detecting submerged vegetation.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

207

Abstract Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM+) data are presented which document the thermal  

E-print Network

characteristics of a series of lava flows emplaced at Mount Etna volcano, Sicily, during 27­28 October 1999- served on Kilauea, Hawaii. Model predictions of the maximum length that such flows could attain compare · Lava flow-field evolution · Landsat ETM+ Introduction Mount Etna is the largest active volcano

Wright, Robert

208

Response of some Thematic Mapper band ratios to variation in soil water content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bidirectional reflectance to nadir in the reflective TM bands and the 1.15-1.3-micron band was measured in the laboratory as moisture content was varied in ten soils. Stronger absorption by water in TM5 and TM7 was expected to cause ratios of other bands to TM5 and TM7 to increase with water content, but in most cases these ratios were constant or decreased at low to intermediate water content and increased only at high moisture levels. Because these ratios were found to decrease as illumination elevation angle decreased, it was suggested that increased roughness resulting from the methods of moistening and mixing the soil may have tended to counteract the expected ratio increases.

Musick, H. Brad; Pelletier, Ramona E.

1986-01-01

209

Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the thematic mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The change in mean signal level as a function of scan angle and scan direction was studied. The overall scan angle effect corresponded to that expected based on atmospheric modeling and scene characteristics. An initial, empirical correction model employing exponential decay was developed for reflective bands. Band 6 has a significant scan direction effect which is markedly different from that found in the reflective bands. A low frequency noise was discovered which was most pronounced in Band 1, detectors 4, 12, 10, and 8, having amplitudes of approximately 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.75 quantizing levels, respectively. This low frequency variation in mean signal amplitude was highly correlated among these four Band 1 detectors. Low frequency noise was also observed in Band 7, detector 7; band 2, detector 1; Band 3, detectors 1 and 16; and Band 5, detector 10.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1983-01-01

210

Mapping deforestation and secondary growth in Rondonia, Brazil, using imaging radar and thematic mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excellent data on deforestation have been obtained in the tropics with the use of high-resolution optical sensors. Yet, several problems remain. Cloud cover creates data gaps that limit the possibility of complete and frequent assessments, and secondary growth is not well characterized. Active microwave sensors could complement these sensors because they operate independently of cloud cover and smoke and can

Eric Rignot; William A. Salas; David L. Skole

1997-01-01

211

Processed Thematic Mapper Satellite Imagery for Selected Areas within the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The study is summarized in the Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) file OF00-309.PDF. This publication also contain satellite full-scene images of selected areas along the U.S.-Mexico border. These images are presented as high-resolution images in jpeg format (IMAGES). The folder LOCATIONS in contains TIFF images showing exact positions of easily-identified reference locations for each of the Landsat TM scenes located at least partly within the U.S. A reference location table (BDRLOCS.DOC in MS Word format) lists the latitude and longitude of each reference location with a nominal precision of 0.001 minute of arc

Dohrenwend, John C.; Gray, Floyd; Miller, Robert J.

2000-01-01

212

Estimating regional forest cover in East Texas using Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data  

E-print Network

using aerial photographs. Satellite-based remotely sensed data and digital image processing techniques cover estimates for a six-county region in East Texas. Satellite data were processed using a combination could substantially reduce the time required to generate this information. Satellites collect data

213

Mapping surface energy balance components by combining Landsat Thematic Mapper and ground-based meteorological data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface energy balance components were evaluated by combining satellite-based spectral data with on-site measurements of solar irradiance, air temperature, wind speed, and vapor pressure. Maps of latent heat flux density and net radiant flux density were produced using Landsat TM data for three dates. The TM-based estimates differed from Bowen-ratio and aircraft-based estimates by less than 12 percent over mature fields of cotton, wheat, and alfalfa.

Moran, M. Susan; Jackson, Ray D.; Raymond, Lee H.; Gay, Lloyd W.; Slater, Philip N.

1989-01-01

214

Assessing forest decline in coniferous forests of Vermont using NS-001 Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study evaluates the potential of measuring/mapping forest decline in spruce-fir forests using airborne NS-001 TMS data. Using field instruments, it was found that ratios of 1.65/1.23 and 1.65/0.83-micron reflectance discriminated between spruce samples of low and high-damage sites. Using TMS data, band ratios were found to be strongly correlated with ground-based measurements of forest damage. Ratio colo-density slice images using these band ratios, and images using 0.56 and 1.65-micron bands with either of these band ratios in a false-color composite, provide accurate means of detecting, quantifying and mapping levels of forest decline.

Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.

1986-01-01

215

The effect of Thematic Mapper spectral properties on land cover mapping for hydrologic modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of unsupervised land-cover classification from all seven Landsat TM bands and from six combinations of three or four bands is evaluated using images of the Clinton River Basin, a suburban watershed near Detroit. Data from aerial TMS photography, USGS topographic maps, and ground surveys are employed to determine the classification accuracy. The mapping accuracy of all seven bands is found to be significantly better (6 percent overall, 12 percent for residential areas, and 13 percent for commercial districts) than that with bands 2, 3, and 4; but almost the same accuracy is obtained by including at least one band from each major spectral region (visible, NIR, and mid-IR).

Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Gauthier, R. L.; Miller, J. R.; Irish, R. R.

1986-01-01

216

Comparative performance of thematic mapper middle-infrared bands in crop discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-date classification accuracies of wheat, mustard and gram were investigated using Landsat TM data of five acquisition dates (24 January, 9, 16, 25 February and 12 March 1988) and combinations of three (TM234, TM345, TM347) and four (TM1234, TM2345, TM2347) bands over an irrigated, optimum-fertility site in Hisar (Haryana). Differences in classification accuracies were tested for significance using paired sample

V. K. DADHWAL; J. S. PARIHAR; T. T. MEDHAVY; D. S. RUHAL; S. D. JARWAL; A. P. KHERA

1996-01-01

217

Mapping permafrost in the boreal forest with Thematic Mapper satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geographic data base incorporating Landsat TM data was used to develop and evaluate logistic discriminant functions for predicting the distribution of permafrost in a boreal forest watershed. The data base included both satellite-derived information and ancillary map data. Five permafrost classifications were developed from a stratified random sample of the data base and evaluated by comparison with a photo-interpreted permafrost map using contingency table analysis and soil temperatures recorded at sites within the watershed. A classification using a TM thermal band and a TM-derived vegetation map as independent variables yielded the highest mapping accuracy for all permafrost categories.

Morrissey, L. A.; Strong, L. L.; Card, D. H.

1986-01-01

218

Thematic Mapper Data Quality and Performance Assessment in Renewable Resources/agriculture Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is believed that the increased spatial resolution will provide solutions to proportion estimation error due to mixed pixels, and the increased spectral resolution will provide for the identification of important agricultural features such as crop stage, and condition. The results of analyses conducted relative to these hypothesis from sample segments extracted from the 4-band Detroit scene and the 7-band Mississippi County, Arkansas engineering test scene are described. Several studies were conducted to evaluate the geometric and radiometric performance of the TM to determine data viability for the more pertinent investigations of TM utility. In most cases this requirement was more than sufficiently satisfied. This allowed the opportunity to take advantage of detailed ground observations for several of the sample segments to assess class separability and detection of other important features with TM. The results presented regarding these TM characteristics show that not only is the increased definition of the within scene variance captured by the increased spatial and spectral resolution, but that the mid-IR bands (5 and 7) are necessary for optimum crop type classification. Both qualitative and quantitative results are presented that describe the improvements gained with the TM both relative to the MSS and on its own merit.

Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.

1984-01-01

219

LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy. [Walnut Creek Watershed, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principal components transformations was applied to a Walnut Creek, Texas subscene to reduce the dimensionality of the multispectral sensor data. This transformation was also applied to a LANDSAT 3 MSS subscene of the same area acquired in a different season and year. Results of both procedures are tabulated and allow for comparisons between TM and MSS data. The TM correlation matrix shows that visible bands 1 to 3 exhibit a high degree of correlation in the range 0.92 to 0.96. Correlation for bands 5 to 7 is 0.93. Band 4 is not highly correlated with any other band, with corrections in the range 0.13 to 0.52. The thermal band (6) is not highly correlated with other bands in the range 0.13 to 0.46. The MSS correlation matrix shows that bands 4 and 5 are highly correlated (0.96) as are bands 6 and 7 with a correlation of 0.92.

Ford, G. E. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

220

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part A: Subsystem data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance and acceptance data are presented for the multiplexer, scan mirror, power supply, mainframe/top mechanical and the aft optics, assemblies. Other major subsystems evaluated include the relay optics, the electronic module, the radiative cooler, and the cable harness. Reference lists of nonconforming materials reports, failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are also given.

1982-01-01

221

Selection of a seventh spectral band for the LANDSAT-D thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Each of the candidate bands were examined in terms of the feasibility of gathering high quality imagery from space while taking into account solar illumination, atmospheric attenuation, and the signal/noise ratio achievable within the TM sensor constraints. For the 2.2 micron region and the thermal IR region, inband signal values were calculated from representative spectral reflectance/emittance curves and a linear discriminant analysis was employed to predict classification accuracies. Based upon the substantial improvement (from 78 t0 92%) in discriminating zones of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered zones, over a broad range of observation conditions, a 2.08-2.35 micron spectral band having a ground resolution of 30 meters was recommended.

Holmes, Q. A. (principal investigator); Nuesch, D. R.

1978-01-01

222

Introduction to Thematic Mapper investigations. Section 1: Radiometry. Section 2: Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of papers which deal with radiometric characterization of the TM sensor is presented. Spectral characteristics are summarized. The geometric accuracy of TM are also examined. Aspects of prelaunch and post launch sensor performance, ground processing techniques, and error correction are also investigated.

Barker, J. L.; Markham, B. L.

1984-01-01

223

Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous characterization of scan-related low-frequency noise was extended and refined through detailed analysis of shutter calibration data on CCT-ADDS tapes and reflective-band data from nighttime acquisitions. A recommended correction procedure was identified that uses calibration shutter data both as a diagnostic and to obtain correction values. Through comparison of coincident TM and MSS data, illustrations of the added information content of TM data for agricultural applications were developed. The capability of improved spatial resolution to better define boundaries and to resolve spatial details is shown. Spectral analysis of tasseled-cap transformations of TM and MSS data shows high correlation between greenness features, greater signal range for TM, and indications that a subset of TM bands could accurately simulate MSS data, if required.

Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (principal investigators); Crist, E. P.

1983-01-01

224

Landsat Thematic Mapper studies of land cover spatial variability related to hydrology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Past accomplishments involving remote sensing based land-cover analysis for hydrologic applications are reviewed. Ongoing research in exploiting the increased spatial, radiometric, and spectral capabilities afforded by the TM on Landsats 4 and 5 is considered. Specific studies to compare MSS and TM for urbanizing watersheds, wetlands, and floodplain mapping situations show that only a modest improvement in classification accuracy is achieved via statistical per pixel multispectral classifiers. The limitations of current approaches to multispectral classification are illustrated. The objectives, background, and progress in the development of an alternative analysis approach for defining inputs to urban hydrologic models using TM are discussed.

Wharton, S.; Ormsby, J.; Salomonson, V.; Mulligan, P.

1984-01-01

225

In-flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper. [White Sands, New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground spectral reflectance and atmospheric spectral optical depth measurements made at White Sands, New Mexico were used with an atmospheric radiative transfer program to determine the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the LANDSAT-4 TM. Comparison with the output digital counts of the TM, when imaging the measured ground area, provided an absolute calibration for five detectors in TM bands 2, 3, and 4. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration was extended to all 16 detectors in each of three bands. Preflight calibration results agreed with these inflight measurements to 6.6%, 2.4%, and 12.9% in bands 2,3, and 4, respectively.

Palmer, J.; Slater, P. N. (principal investigators); Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

1984-01-01

226

Empirical models for estimating the suspended sediment concentration in Amazonian white water rivers using Landsat 5/TM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended sediment yield is a very important environmental indicator within Amazonian fluvial systems, especially for rivers dominated by inorganic particles, referred to as white water rivers. For vast portions of Amazonian rivers, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is measured infrequently or not at all. However, remote sensing techniques have been used to estimate water quality parameters worldwide, from which data for suspended matter is the most successfully retrieved. This paper presents empirical models for SSC retrieval in Amazonian white water rivers using reflectance data derived from Landsat 5/TM. The models use multiple regression for both the entire dataset (global model, N = 504) and for five segmented datasets (regional models) defined by general geological features of drainage basins. The models use VNIR bands, band ratios, and the SWIR band 5 as input. For the global model, the adjusted R2 is 0.76, while the adjusted R2 values for regional models vary from 0.77 to 0.89, all significant (p-value < 0.0001). The regional models are subject to the leave-one-out cross validation technique, which presents robust results. The findings show that both the average error of estimation and the standard deviation increase as the SSC range increases. Regional models were more accurate when compared with the global model, suggesting changes in optical proprieties of water sampled at different sampling stations. Results confirm the potential for the estimation of SSC from Landsat/TM historical series data for the 1980s and 1990s, for which the in situ database is scarce. Such estimates supplement the SSC temporal series, providing a more comprehensive SSC temporal series which may show environmental dynamics yet unknown.

Montanher, Otávio C.; Novo, Evlyn M. L. M.; Barbosa, Cláudio C. F.; Rennó, Camilo D.; Silva, Thiago S. F.

2014-06-01

227

Penn's College of Thematic Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College of Thematic Studies of the University of Pennsylvania, is an experiment in interdisciplinary and interdepartmental work for undergraduates offering 51 courses in 7 topic areas from University Studies to Energy Management. (Author/PG)

Binzen, Peter

1974-01-01

228

Automatic Spectral Rule-Based Preliminary Mapping of Calibrated Landsat TM and ETM+ Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on purely spectral-domain prior knowledge taken from the remote sensing (RS) literature, an original spectral (fuzzy) rule-based per-pixel classifier is proposed. Requiring no training and supervision to run, the proposed spectral rule-based system is suitable for the preliminary classification (primal sketch, in the Marr sense) of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images calibrated into planetary

Andrea Baraldi; V. Puzzolo; P. Blonda; L. Bruzzone; C. Tarantino

2006-01-01

229

International Monetary Fund (IMF) Data Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IMF publishes a range of time series data on IMF lending, exchange rates and other economic and financial indicators. Manuals, guides, and other material on statistical practices at the IMF, in member countries, and of the statistical community at large are also available. The data mapper allows the user to view IMF data in a variety of ways using differing indicators.

Fund, International M.

230

Freshman General Studies Thematic. 1973-.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Freshman General Studies Thematic Program (GST) at California State University, Chico was established in 1973 to create a general education program for freshmen and to give faculty the opportunity to explore innovative teaching methods. What resulted was a 33-unit, year-long interdisciplinary course for 36 well-motivated, well-prepared…

California State Univ., Chico.

231

THEMATIC LIMNA SYMPOSIUM SYSTEMS GENETICS  

E-print Network

THEMATIC LIMNA SYMPOSIUM SYSTEMS GENETICS OF METABOLISM Starling Hotel, Lausanne Friday 14th Aebersold Genetic variability and the quantitative proteome 12h10 Greg Barsh Genetics of color variation Aldons J. Lusis Systems genetics of lipid metabolism 14h40 Johan Auwerx Systems analysis of mitochondria

Picasso, Marco

232

Applications of statistics to thematic mapping.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two statistical problems occurring in the effort to analyze thematic maps and mapping are determining the accuracy of thematic content and comparing factors studied in thematic mapping. Statistical procedures applicable to thematic mapping involve sampling, determining accuracy, and comparing factors. A sampling procedure using an unaligned pattern within a square grid network is applicable for use with thematic maps. Sample size may be determined using the binomial distribution based upon the confidence interval to define the true mean of the population within certain limits. The confidence interval may also be used to define the upper and lower limits of the accuracy of the thematic map. - from Authors

Rosenfield, G. H.; Melley, M. L.

1980-01-01

233

SkyMapper: Surveying the Southern Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SkyMapper is a 1.3m telescope built by the Australian National University as a replacement for the Great Melbourne Telescope lost in the fires that destroyed Mt Stromlo Observatory in 2003. The telescope features an 8sq-degree FOV, which when coupled with a new 16kx16k array, yields 5.7sq-degree sampled at 0.5" per pixel. SkyMapper is undertaking a comprehensive 6-colour, 6-epoch survey of the southern celestial hemisphere - the Southern Sky Survey, as well as a shallow full hemispheric survey to provide photometric and astrometric calibrations to 16mag. Additional time will be used to undertake a limited number of other science programs, including a supernova survey that will help imprive Dark Energy constraints. In addition to reviewing the telescope and its surveys, I will show the first results of the telescope, and discuss how others can work with our team and use the SkyMapper dataset on their own scientific programs.

Schmidt, Brian P.

2012-05-01

234

A Process Approach to Teaching Thematic Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents information on using a process approach to teaching thematic instruction in preservice teacher education. Section 1 offers a junior block thematic mini-unit designed to give students intensive practice in a specific content area by designing a thematic topic in the content area and by developing lessons on three or four related…

Murray, Ann

235

Patent-Mapper: Visualization of the geolocation of patents  

E-print Network

Patent-Mapper: Visualization of the geolocation of patents Yang Shen (Kevin) Department of Letter://www.funginstitute.berkeley.edu/sites/default/ les/PatentMapper.pdf August 5, 2013 130 Blum Hall #5580 Berkeley, CA 94720-5580 | (510) 664-4337 | www insightful decisions with the con dence that comes from a synthesized understanding of technological

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

236

An investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT-5 data quality. [Palmer County, Shelby, mt; White sands, NM; Great Salt Lake, UT; San Matted Bridge and Sacramento, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Band-to-band registration, geodetic registration, interdector noise, and the modulation transfer function (MTE) are discussed for the Palmer County; TX scene. Band combinations for several LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT 5 scenes; the geodetic registration test for the Sacramento, CA area; periodic noise components in TM band 5; and grey level measurements by detector for Great Salt Lake (UT) dark water forescans and backscans are considered. Results of MTF analyses of the San Mateo Bridge and of TM high resolution and aerial Daedalus scanner imagery are consistent and appear to be repeatable. An oil-on-sand target was constructed on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The two-image analysis procedure used is summarized.

Wrigley, R. C. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

237

Mapping Deforestation and Age of Evergreen Trees by Applying a Binary Coding Method to Time-Series Landsat November Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a binary coding method, a novel post classification change detection method that indexes multitemporal satellite images into a single information layer. As a case study, this method is applied to the production of a deforestation map and a tree age map of evergreen trees. Seven images of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat-7 Enhanced TM Plus of

Hoonyol Lee

2008-01-01

238

Vegetation classification by satellite image processing in a dry area of north-eastern Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

As vegetation classification on the highly diverse rangeland is an inevitable procedure in evaluating total forage resources and assessing human impact in large areas, a supervised classification was conducted by satellite image processing using geocoded bands 2, 3 and 4 of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) images, dated 13 April 1994 in the Abdal Aziz Mountain study area in northeastern

Masahiro Hirata; Naoki Kogab; Hitoshi Shinjo; Haruhiro Fujita; Gustave Gintzburger; Akira Miyazaki

2001-01-01

239

San Diego Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows Landsat Thematic Mapper data from the shortwave infrared (TM band 5), infrared (TM band 4), and visible green (TM band 2) channels of San Diego. The TM data was collected by Landsat 5 on the 12th of September, 1996.

Allen, Jesse; Williams, Darrel

1999-04-09

240

Deforestation in Costa Rica: A Quantitative Analysis Using Remote Sensing Imagery1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimates of forest cover and forest fragmentation are critical for developing countries such as Costa Rica, which holds four to five percent of the world's plant and bird species. We estimated forest cover for Costa Rica using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite scenes acquired between 1986 and 1991. In 1991, 29 percent (ca 14,000 km2) of the land cover

G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa; Robert C. Harriss; David L. Skole

2001-01-01

241

Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula) Classification Performance Using Hyperspectral and Multispectral Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two demonstration sites in southeast Idaho were used to extend the scope of remote sensing of leafy spurge research toward investigating coarser scale detection limits. Hyperspectral images were obtained to produce baseline leafy spurge maps, from which spatially and\\/or spectrally degraded images were subsequently derived for comparative purposes with Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM). The baseline presence\\/absence maps had an

Jessica J. Mitchell; Nancy F. Glenn

2009-01-01

242

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands  

E-print Network

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands: The contribution of the United Kingdom ........................................................................ 1 1.2 OVERVIEW OF ISLANDS .................................................................................................... 3 1.5 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLANDS

243

MAPPER alignment sensor evaluation on process wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing. In order to reduce costs and to minimize the footprint of this tool a new alignment sensor has been developed; based on technologies used for DVD optical heads. A wafer with an alignment mark is scanned with the sensor, resulting in an intensity pattern versus position. From this pattern the mark position can be calculated. Evaluations have been made over the performance of this type of sensor using different mark designs at several lithography process steps for FEOL and BEOL manufacturing. It has been shown that sub-nanometer reproducibility (3? std) of alignment mark readings can be achieved while being robust against various process steps.

Vergeer, N.; Lattard, L.; de Boer, G.; Couweleers, F.; Dave, D.; Pradelles, J.; Bustos, J.

2013-03-01

244

Venus radar mapper attitude reference quaternion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.

Lyons, D. T.

1986-01-01

245

Consistency of land surface reflectance data: presentation of a new tool and case study with Formosat-2, SPOT-4 and Landsat-5/7/8 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining consistent dataset of Surface Reflectance (SR) data derived from the large panel of in-orbit sensors is an important challenge to ensure long term analysis of earth observation data. Continuous validation of such SR products through comparison with a reference dataset is thus an important challenge. Validating with in situ or airborne SR data is not easy since the sensors rarely match completely the same spectral, spatial and directional characteristics of the satellite measurement. Inter-comparison between satellites sensors data appears as a valuable tool to maintain a long term consistency of the data. However, satellite data are acquired at various times of the day (i.e., variation of the atmosphere content) and within a relative large range of geometry (view and sun angles). Also, even if band-to-band spectral characteristics of optical sensors are closed, they rarely have identical spectral responses. As the results, direct comparisons without consideration of these differences are poorly suitable. In this study, we suggest a new systematic method to assess land optical SR data from high to medium resolution sensors. We used MODIS SR products (MO/YD09CMG) which benefit from a long term calibration/validation process, to assess SR from 3 sensors data: Formosat-2 (280 scenes 24x24km - 5 sites), SPOT-4 (62 scenes 120x60km - 1 site) and Landsat-5/7 (104 180x180km scenes - 50 sites). The main issue concerns the difference in term of geometry acquisition between MODIS and compared sensors data. We used the VJB model (Vermote et al. 2009, TGRS) to correct MODIS SR from BRDF effects and to simulate SR at the corresponding geometry (view and sun angles) of each pixel of the compared sensor data. The comparison is done at the CMG spatial resolution (0.05°) which ensures a constant field-of-view and negligible geometrical errors. Figure 1 displays the summary of the NIR results through APU graphs where metrics A, P and U stands for Accuracy, Precision and Uncertainty (metrics explained in Claverie et al., 2013, RSE) and allows comparison with standard Specifications (S in magenta). The results shows relatively good uncertainty taking into account that atmospheric correction differs from MODIS and the sensors data (LEDAPS for Landsat-5/7 and MACC for Formosat-2 and SPOT-4). Biases (referring to the metric A) are in many cases related to the spectral differences which are analyzed using PROSAIL radiative transfer modeling. Finally some images of Landsat-8 OLI SR (computed using the preliminary adaptation of LEDAPS for Landsat-8) are assessed using this method. Figure 1: APU graph of SR comparison between MODIS NIR (from AQUA) and Landsat-5/7, Formosat-2 and SPOT-4. A, P and U metrics are given per bin (red, green and blue line, respectively) and for the whole range (upper left text values). Magenta line refers to the MODIS SR Specification.

Claverie, M.; Vermote, E.; Franch, B.; Huc, M.; Hagolle, O.; Masek, J.

2013-12-01

246

Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing…

Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

2009-01-01

247

Word Order and Thematic Structure in Mandarin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent proposals concerning the relationship between thematic structure and syntactic structure, including the idea of thematic hierarchy, when used with certain language-specific properties, offer insight into some problems concerning the Mandarin Chinese phrase structure condition (PSC). The PSC is such that the internal structure of XP contains…

Yoon, James H.

248

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial characteristics of the data were evaluated. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. The potential need for some level of radiometric adjustment was evidenced by an along track band of high reflectance across different cover types in the Varian imagery. A multiple regression analysis was employed to explore the viewing angle effect on measured reflectance. Areas in the data set which appeared to have no across track stratification of cover type were identified. A program was developed which computed the average reflectance by column for each channel, over all of the scan lines in the designated areas. A regression analysis was then run using the first, second, and third degree polynomials, for each channel. An atmospheric effect as a component of the viewing angle source of variance is discussed. Cover type maps were completed and training and test field selection was initiated.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

249

The radiance contrast of forest-to-clearcut edges on a medium resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper satellite winter image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest logging results in decreased and fragmented forest area and the increased appearance of edge habitats. The monitoring of forest area and particularly, the detection of changes over the years relies on correctly determined forest edge locations.Radiance contrast of forest clearcut edgesOur objective was to characterize the radiance contrast at the sharp forest edges of recently created clearcuts of boreal

Jaan Liira; Kersti Püssa; Urmas Peterson

2006-01-01

250

Mapping of Fugitive Dust Generation, Transport, and Deposition in the Nogales, Arizona Region Using Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban centers located along the U.S.-Mexico border represent significant sources of fugitive (airborne) dust. This dust, which can lead to adverse health effects, arises from several factors including construction activities related to land use conversion (i.e., agricultural to residential), unpaved roadways, agricultural activities, and human disturbance of the soil. Fundamental baseline data needed for modeling and monitoring of particulate generation and transport are accurate regional classification of land cover, degree of disturbance, and a metric of land cover change. Identification and delineation of fugitive dust source regions using a purely field-based approach is time and labor intensive and can lead to errors over time as land use changes. Further, restrictions on access to specific areas (such as private lands and reservations) may impede or prevent site investigations in these areas. Remotely gathered information can be used to circumvent these difficulties and provide rapid dust source region identification with quantitative area measurements required in transport models. Landsat ETM+ data was used to identify and delineate surficial materials that were either potential fugitive dust source regions or were important factors in dust transport and deposition. Using a knowledge-based system, land cover was classified into three generalized types: natural and disturbed soils (dust generation sites); asphalt, concrete, and urban materials (dust transport areas); and vegetated areas (dust deposition sites). Accuracy of the land cover classification was assessed using field verification, comparison of field and image reflectance spectra, and digital aerial orthophotographs. Results of image classification and field verification for Landsat data acquired during the winter of 2000 show a strong correlation, and will be used with data collected during the summer dry season for change detection analysis. The digital format of the classified data is optimal for input into fugitive dust transport models, and is available for use by federal, state, and municipal research and regulatory entities.

Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Ramsey, M. S.; Christensen, P. R.

2001-05-01

251

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Separate holograms of horizontally (HH) and vertically (HV) polarized responses obtained by the APQ-102 side-looking radar were processed through an optical correlator and the resulting image was recorded on positive film from which black and white negative and positive prints were made. Visual comparison of the HH and HV images reveals a distinct dark band in the imagery which covers about 30% of the radar strip. Preliminary evaluaton of the flight line 1 date indicates that various features on the HH and HV images seem to have different response levels. The amount of sidelap due to the look angle between flight lines 1 and 2 is negligible. NASA mission #425 to obtain flightlines of NS-001 MSS data and supporting aerial photography was successfully flown. Flight line 3 data are of very good quality and virtually cloud-free. Results of data analysis for selection of test fields and for evaluation of waveband combination and spatial resolution are presented.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator); Latty, R. S.; Dean, E.; Knowlton, D. J.

1980-01-01

252

The use of the Thematic Mapper for the analysis of eutrophic lakes: a case study in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat TM images were analysed to assess the scope and limitations of their use for inland water quality detection. The spectral information in the six visible to middle infrared bands is discussed. The relatively wide spectral bands, 1 to 4, of the TM, in the optical wavelength domain contain a mixture of spectrally opposing features of absorption and scatteringQualitative and

A. G. DEKKER; S. W. M. PETERS

1993-01-01

253

Early Results of Investigations of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Applications. [Washington, D.C.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TM digital data were evaluated for their potential to provide improved land cover information. The analyses included: (1) testing for information that may be offered by the new TM spectral bands, and (2) comparing data characteristics for equivalent spectral bands of the TM and MSS sensors. The analyses were conducted on several large samples of pixels corresponding to five broad land cover classes. Some TM spectral data are presented and evaluated as single-band, black-and-white images, and in several three-band color-composite images. Some data transformations which can be used to present TM data in a manner that is potentially more useful for analysis or display are demonstrated. These transformations enable generating hue, intensity, and saturation data space from red, green, and blue color space, as well as perspective view images.

Sadowski, F. G.; Sturdevant, J. A.; Anderson, W. H.; Seevers, P. M.; Feuquay, J. W.; Balick, L. K.; Waltz, F. A.; Lauer, D. T.

1985-01-01

254

Comparative techniques used to evaluate Thematic Mapper data for land cover classification in Logan County, West Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several digital data processing techniques were evaluated in an effort to identify and map active/abandoned, partially reclaimed, and fully revegetated surface mine areas in the central portion of Logan County. The TM data were first subjected to various enhancement procedures, including a linear contrast stretch, principal components and canonical analysis transformations. At the same time, four general procedures were followed to produce six classifications as a means of comparing the techniques involved. Preliminary results show that various feature extraction/data reduction techniques provide classification results equal or superior to the more straightforward unsupervised clustering technique. Analyst interaction time for labelling clusters is reduced using the canonical analysis and principal components procedures, though the canonical technique has clearly produced better results to date.

Brumfield, J. O.; Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. F.

1985-01-01

255

Remote detection of geobotanical anomalies associated with hydrocarbon microseepage using thematic mapper simulator (TMS) and airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interpretation of TMS and AIS data sets collected from Lost River, West Virginia, are presented, along with a brief review of the supervised vegetation classification approach to vegetation mapping used at Lost River. A preliminary study of AIS data suggests that contiguous high-spectral resolution data from a very limited portion of the spectrum (1.2-1.5 micron) provide a greater discriminatory capability than do broad-band sensors such as the TMS covering of wider spectral range (0.45-2.35 microns).

Rock, B. N.

1984-01-01

256

Integration of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data and digitized aerial photography via an ISH transformation. [Intensity Saturation Hue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.

Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.

1991-01-01

257

Gaussian maximum likelihood and contextual classification algorithms for multicrop classification experiments using thematic mapper and multispectral scanner sensor data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the results of a four-factor two-level analysis of a variance experiment designed to evaluate the combined effect of the improved quality of remote-sensor data and the use of context by the classifier on classification accuracy. The improvement achievable by using the context via relaxation techniques is significantly smaller than that provided by an increase of the radiometric resolution of the sensor from 6 to 8 bits per sample (the relative increase in radiometric resolution of TM relative to MSS). It is almost equal to that achievable by an increase in the spectral coverage as provided by TM relative to MSS.

Di Zenzo, Silvano; Degloria, Stephen D.; Bernstein, R.; Kolsky, Harwood G.

1987-01-01

258

Analysis of data acquired by Shuttle Imaging Radar SIR-A and Landsat Thematic Mapper over Baldwin County, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seasonally compatible data collected by SIR-A and by Landsat 4 TM over the lower coastal plain in Alabama were coregistered, forming a SIR-A/TM multichannel data set with 30 m x 30 m pixel size. Spectral signature plots and histogram analysis of the data were used to observe data characteristics. Radar returns from pine forest classes correlated highly with the tree ages, suggesting the potential utility of microwave remote sensing for forest biomass estimation. As compared with the TM-only data set, the use of SIR-A/TM data set improved classification accuracy of the seven land cover types studied. In addition, the SIR-A/TM classified data support previous finding by Engheta and Elachi (1982) that microwave data appear to be correlated with differing bottomland hardwood forest vegetation as associated with varying water regimens (i.e., wet versus dry).

Wu, S.-T.

1985-01-01

259

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The column normalizing technique was used to adjust the data for variations in the amplitude of the signal due to look angle effects with respect to solar zenith angle along the scan lines (i.e., across columns). Evaluation of the data set containing the geometric and radiometric adjustments, indicates that the data set should be satisfactory for further processing and analysis. Software was developed for degrading the spatial resolution of the aircraft data to produce a total of four data sets for further analysis. The quality of LANDSAT 2 CCT data for the test site is good for channels four, five, and six. Channel seven was not present on the tape. The data received were reformatted and analysis of the test site area was initiated.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

260

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To facilitate comparison between the four different spatial resolution of the NS-001 MSS data sets, a supervised approach was taken in defining training blocks for each of the different cover types. The training fields representing each cover type category were grouped and this group was clustered to determine the individual spectral classes within each cover type category which would effectively characterize the entire test site. Graphs show the variation in spectral response level with respect to distance in the across track dimension for four sampling intervals. Radar digitization procedures were developd. Flight characteristics and parameters for digitization of radar imagery are tabulated. The statement of work for phase 3 was reviewed and modifications were suggested to meet funding reduction.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

261

An evaluation of thematic mapper simulator data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types in Southwest Oregon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rock type identification may be assisted by the use of remote sensing of associated vegetation, particularly in areas of dense vegetative cover where surface materials are not imaged directly by the sensor. The geobotanical discrimination of ultramafic parent materials was investigated and analytical techniques for lithologic mapping and mineral exploration were developed. The utility of remotely sensed data to discriminate vegetation types associated with ultramafic parent materials in a study area in southwest Oregon were evaluated. A number of specific objectives were identified, which include: (1) establishment of the association between vegetation and rock types; (2) examination of the spectral separability of vegetation types associated with rock types; (3) determination of the contribution of each TMS band for discriminating vegetation associated with rock types and (4) comparison of analytical techniques for spectrally classifying vegetation.

Weinstock, K. J.; Morrissey, L. A.

1984-01-01

262

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several possibilities were considered for defining the data set in which the same test areas could be used for each of the four different spatial resolutions being evaluated. The LARSYS CLUSTER was used to sort the vectors into spectral classes to reduce the within-spectral class variability in an effort to develop training statistics. A data quality test was written to determine the basic signal to noise characteristics within the data set being used. Because preliminary analysis of the LANDSAT MSS data revealed the presence of high cirrus clouds, other data sets are being sought.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

263

A Landsat Thematic Mapper investigation of the geobotanical relationships in the northern spruce-fir forest, Mt. Moosilauke, New Hampshire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation, in the northern spruce-fir forest at Mt. Moosilauke, NH, indicates that Landsat TM data can be used to distinguish between and map major vegetation zones. Principal components analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the TM data; and in this simpler spectral space, it is easier to visualize the discrimination between major vegetation zones: the northern hardwoods zone, spruce-fir zone, fir zone, and alpine tundra zone. The moisture stress index highlights areas of heavy forest damage (fir waves), but does not correlate with low levels of damage in the mixed, background forest at Mt. Moosilauke. Care must be taken to avoid confusion between high-elevation climatically-stressed vegetation (normal krummholz forest) and damaged lower elevation forests, both of which have similar TM5/TM4 ratio values.

Torcoletti, Paul J.; Birnie, Richard W.

1988-01-01

264

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners. [Plumas County, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A seven step procedure developed for evaluating the geometric properties of MSS and TM film produces is being implemented. Some 476 control points were selected of which 238 are being tested and edited for digitization and scaling errors. Tables show statistics established for assessing the spectral characteristics and variability, as well as the spatial resolution and radiometric sensitivity of TM data for a forest environment in an effort to determine the extent to which major forest cover type can be detected and identified on TM digital and image products. Results thus far show that the high quality obtained are more than sufficient for meeting most of the inventory objectives of the renewable resource specialist. The TM data should be extremely valuable for: (1) estimating forest cover types; (2) updating land use survey maps; and (3) determining the size and shape and location of individual forest clearings and water resources.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

265

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometric quality of TM film and digital products is evaluated by making selective photomeasurements and by measuring the coordinates of known features on both the TM products and map products. These paired observations are related using a standard linear least squares regression approach. Using regression equations and coefficients developed from 225 (TM film product) and 20 (TM digital product) control points, map coordinates of test points are predicted. The residual error vectors and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed on the east and north residual using nine image segments (blocks) as treatments. Based on the root mean square error of the 223 (TM film product) and 22 (TM digital product) test points, users of TM data expect the planimetric accuracy of mapped points to be within 91 meters and within 117 meters for the film products, and to be within 12 meters and within 14 meters for the digital products.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

266

The GOES-R Lightning Mapper Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lightning Mapper Sensor on GOES-R builds on previous measurements of lightning from low earth orbit by the OTD (Optical Transient Detector) and LIS (Lightning Imaging Sensor) sensors. Unlike observations from low earth orbit, the GOES-R platform will allow continuous monitoring of lightning activity over the Continental United States and southern Canada, Central and South America, and portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The LMS will detect total (cloud-to-ground and intracloud) lightning at storm scale resolution (approx. 8 km) using a highly sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector array. Discrimination between lightning optical transients and a bright sunlit background scene is accomplished by employing spectral, spatial, and temporal filtering along with a background subtraction technique. The result is 24 hour detection capability of total lightning. These total lightning observations can be made available to users within about 20 seconds. Research indicates a number of ways that total lightning observations from LMS could benefit operational activities, including 1) potential increases in lead times and reduced false alarms for severe thunderstorm and tornado Warnings, 2) improved routing of &rail around thunderstorms, 3) support for spacecraft launches and landings, 4) improved ability to monitor tropical cyclone intensity, 5) ability to monitor thunderstorm intensification/weakening during radar outages or where radar coverage is poor, 6) better identification of deep convection for the initialization of numerical prediction models, 7) improved forest fire forecasts, 8) identification of convective initiation, 9) identification of heavy convective snowfall, and 10) enhanced temporal resolution of storm evolution (1 minute) than is available from radar observations. Total lightning data has been used in an operational environment since July 2003 at the Huntsville, Alabama National Weather Service office. Total lightning measurements are obtained by the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and have successfully been used in warning decisions. Every 2 minutes, total lightning counts in 2 km by 2 km horizontal, 1 km vertical grids are available to forecasters on an AWIPS (Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System) workstation. Experience with the LMA total lightning data is used to illustrate the potential use of LMS data that would be available to forecasters across the US. This abstract is for submission as a presentation to the National Weather Association Annual Meeting to be held 16-21 October 2004 in Portland, OR. This abstract will be published in the conference proceedings.

Buechler, Dennis; Christian, Hugh; Goodman, Steve

2004-01-01

267

New dust opacity maps from Viking IR thermal mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mapping of dust opacity of the Martian atmosphere, using the silicate-induced absorption of 9 micron radiation, was performed with the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data for several local dust storms and in a global sense. We present here the first results from an effort to extend the earlier mapping work to the period of the 1977b major storm, and

T. Z. Martin; M. I. Richardson

1992-01-01

268

JIRAM, the Jupiter Infrared Auroral Mapper on Juno  

Microsoft Academic Search

JIRAM, the Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper, is part of the payload of the NASA New Frontiers mission Juno to Jupiter to be launched in August 2011. JIRAM scientific goals are: the exploration of the dynamics and the chemistry of Jovian auroral regions by high contrast imaging and spectroscopy, the study of the hot spots through the Jupiter troposphere in order

A. Adriani; A. Coradini; G. Filacchione; J. I. Lunine; M. Cosi; A. Bini; L. Calamai; F. Colosimo; G. Magni; M. L. Moriconi; R. Orosei

2007-01-01

269

New dust opacity mapping from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global dust opacity mapping for Mars has been carried forward using the approach described by Martin (1986) for Viking IR Thermal Mapper data. New maps are presented for the period from the beginning of Viking observations, until Ls 210 deg in 1979 (1.36 Mars years). This range includes the second and more extensive planet-encircling dust storm observed by Viking, known

T. Z. Martin; Mark I. Richardson

1993-01-01

270

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic  

E-print Network

with role of forensic services and interview processes. · Familiarisation with original booklet publishedProject Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 1 February, 2012 Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http

Hickman, Mark

271

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic  

E-print Network

with role of forensic services and interview processes. Familiarisation with original booklet publishedProject Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 13 February, Noon Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http

Hickman, Mark

272

An Honorable Seduction: Thematic Studies in Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By using a thematic approach and by drawing on other disciplines for breadth, English teachers can "honorably seduce" career-oriented students into a love affair with literature and draw them back into the English curriculum. For example, a teacher's conversation with a student focusing on fathers and sons led the teacher to suggest that the…

Worby, Diana Z.

273

A Thematic Unit: "Le Peineta Colorada"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic unit was written by Michele Montas and Luz Cannon, middle school Spanish teachers, who were participants in a summer institute held at the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center in 2001. The institute, called "Temas Anejos: Recurring Themes in Ancient and Modern Latin America," brought together a talented group of professors.…

Montas, Michele; Cannon, Luz

2003-01-01

274

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 30, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

275

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 29, 2006: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

276

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 29, 2004: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

277

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 28, 2004: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

278

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 21, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

279

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 4, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

280

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 7, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

281

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 2, 2006: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

282

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 23, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

283

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 26, 2004: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

284

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 1, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

285

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 12, 2004: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

286

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 16, 2006: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

287

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 22, 2006: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

288

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 19, 2006: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

289

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 30, 2004: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

290

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 20, 2006: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

291

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 27, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

292

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 25, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

293

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 17, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

294

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for May 25, 2004: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

295

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 16, 2004: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

296

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 18, 2006: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

297

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 7, 2004: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

298

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for November 8, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

299

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 29, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

300

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 19, 2006: Path 44 Row 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

301

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 9, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

302

Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for May 6, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

Snyder, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

303

Thematic Teaching: Integrating Cognitive and Affective Outcomes in Elementary Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines thematic teaching, also known as interdisciplinary or authentic instruction, as representing cross-disciplinary programs which integrate cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes. Highlights include integrating thematic teaching into elementary school classrooms, cognitive and social learning theories, motivation, cooperative…

Brodeur, Doris R.

1998-01-01

304

Data and Information Exchange System for the "Reindeer Mapper" Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During this past year, the Reindeer Mapper Intranet system has been set up on the NASA system, 8 team members have been established, a Reindeer Mapper reference list containing 696 items has been entered, 6 power point presentations have been put on line for review among team members, 304 satellite images have been catalogued (including 16 Landsat images, 288 NDVI 10-day composited images and an anomaly series- May 1998 to December 2002, and 56 SAR CEOS S A R format files), schedules and meeting dates are being shared, students at the Nordic Sami Institute are experimenting with the system for reindeer herder indigenous knowledge sharing, and an "address book" is being developed. Several documents and presentations have been translated and made available in Russian for our Russian colleagues. This has enabled our Russian partners to utilize documents and presentations for use in their research (e.g., SAR imagery comparisons with Russian GIS of specific study areas) and discussion with local colleagues.

Maynard, Nancy; Yurchak, Boris

2005-01-01

305

Reading Thematically Related Texts to Develop Knowledge and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When literacy instruction uses books selected on the basis of thematic content, it can foster the attainment of literacy goals while developing readers' knowledge. This paper provides a rationale for the use of thematically-related texts in literacy instruction and describes some thematic units that have been a part of literacy intervention…

Gelzheiser, Lynn; Hallgren-Flynn, Laura; Connors, Margaret; Scanlon, Donna

2014-01-01

306

Efficient generation of area thematic maps in KML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic maps using KML and KMZ are common for point and line features, but scarce for area features. We present a method and website for generation of the thematic map KMLs based on US Census geography. By taking advantage of various preprocessing and indexing methods, thematic maps viewable in any KML compliant viewer (eg, Google Maps, Google Earth, or ArcGIS

Bruce A. Ralston; Joshua A. Streufert

2008-01-01

307

Airborne Topographic Mapper Calibration Procedures and Accuracy Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of NASA Airborn Topographic Mapper (ATM) lidar calibration procedures including analysis of the accuracy and consistancy of various ATM instrument parameters and the resulting influence on topographic elevation measurements. The ATM elevations measurements from a nominal operating altitude 500 to 750 m above the ice surface was found to be: Horizontal Accuracy 74 cm, Horizontal Precision 14 cm, Vertical Accuracy 6.6 cm, Vertical Precision 3 cm.

Martin, Chreston F.; Krabill, William B.; Manizade, Serdar S.; Russell, Rob L.; Sonntag, John G.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

2012-01-01

308

New dust opacity maps from Viking IR thermal mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mapping of dust opacity of the Martian atmosphere, using the silicate-induced absorption of 9 micron radiation, was performed with the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data for several local dust storms and in a global sense. We present here the first results from an effort to extend the earlier mapping work to the period of the 1977b major storm, and to concentrate attention on the details of opacity behavior during the initial phases of the 1977a and b storms.

Martin, T. Z.; Richardson, M. I.

1992-01-01

309

Analyzing thematic maps and mapping for accuracy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two problems which exist while attempting to test the accuracy of thematic maps and mapping are: (1) evaluating the accuracy of thematic content, and (2) evaluating the effects of the variables on thematic mapping. Statistical analysis techniques are applicable to both these problems and include techniques for sampling the data and determining their accuracy. In addition, techniques for hypothesis testing, or inferential statistics, are used when comparing the effects of variables. A comprehensive and valid accuracy test of a classification project, such as thematic mapping from remotely sensed data, includes the following components of statistical analysis: (1) sample design, including the sample distribution, sample size, size of the sample unit, and sampling procedure; and (2) accuracy estimation, including estimation of the variance and confidence limits. Careful consideration must be given to the minimum sample size necessary to validate the accuracy of a given. classification category. The results of an accuracy test are presented in a contingency table sometimes called a classification error matrix. Usually the rows represent the interpretation, and the columns represent the verification. The diagonal elements represent the correct classifications. The remaining elements of the rows represent errors by commission, and the remaining elements of the columns represent the errors of omission. For tests of hypothesis that compare variables, the general practice has been to use only the diagonal elements from several related classification error matrices. These data are arranged in the form of another contingency table. The columns of the table represent the different variables being compared, such as different scales of mapping. The rows represent the blocking characteristics, such as the various categories of classification. The values in the cells of the tables might be the counts of correct classification or the binomial proportions of these counts divided by either the row totals or the column totals from the original classification error matrices. In hypothesis testing, when the results of tests of multiple sample cases prove to be significant, some form of statistical test must be used to separate any results that differ significantly from the others. In the past, many analyses of the data in this error matrix were made by comparing the relative magnitudes of the percentage of correct classifications, for either individual categories, the entire map or both. More rigorous analyses have used data transformations and (or) two-way classification analysis of variance. A more sophisticated step of data analysis techniques would be to use the entire classification error matrices using the methods of discrete multivariate analysis or of multiviariate analysis of variance.

Rosenfield, G. H.

1982-01-01

310

Both associative activation and thematic extraction count, but thematic false memories are more easily rejected.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to analyse the roles played by associative activation and thematic extraction in the explanation of false memories using the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Associative lists with two different types of critical items (CIs) were used: one, the associative CI, corresponded to the word most strongly primed by the associates in the list and another, the thematic CI, was the word that best described the theme of the list. Following three different types of encoding instructions (standard, warning or strategic), false recognition for these two types of CIs was analysed in either self-paced or speeded response recognition tests. The results showed considerable levels of false memories for both types of CIs. Even without the quality of being "good themes", associative CIs produced high levels of false recognition, which suggests that associative activation plays a prominent role in false memory formation. More interestingly, thematic CIs were more prone to be edited out, reinforcing the argument that thematic identifiability has a major role in the rejection of false memories. PMID:24304394

Carneiro, Paula; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Fernandez, Angel; Albuquerque, Pedro

2014-11-01

311

Evaluation of Narrowband and Broadband Vegetation Indices for Determining Optimal Hyperspectral Wavebands for Agricultural Crop Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

he main goal of the study was to determine optimal waveband centers and widths required to best estimate agricultural crop characteristics. The hyperspectral narrowband data was ac- quired over 395 to 1020 nanometers using a 1.43-nanometer- wide, 430 bands, hand-held spectroradiometer. Broadband data were derived using a Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper image acquired to correspond with field spectroradiometer and ground-truth measurements.

Prasad S. Thenkabail; Ronald B. Smith; Eddy De Pauw

312

Water quality monitoring in a slightly-polluted inland water body through remote sensing — Case study of the Guanting Reservoir in Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the water quality of the Guanting Reservoir, a possible auxiliary drinking water source for Beijing.\\u000a Through a remote sensing (RS) approach and using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data, water quality retrieval models were\\u000a established and analyzed for eight common water quality variables, including algae content, turbidity, and concentrations\\u000a of chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia

Weiqi He; Shan Chen; Xuehua Liu; Jining Chen

2008-01-01

313

Downscaling of Aircraft, Landsat, and MODIS-based Land Surface Temperature Images with Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

High spatial resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) images are required to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) at a field scale for irrigation scheduling purposes. Satellite sensors such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can offer images at several spectral bandwidths including visible, near-infrared (NIR), shortwave-infrared, and thermal-infrared (TIR). The TIR images usually have coarser spatial resolutions

W. Ha; P. H. Gowda; T. Oommen; T. A. Howell; J. E. Hernandez

2010-01-01

314

GOES-R GLM: Introduction to the Geostationary Lightning Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extension of the COMET module âGOES-R: Benefits of Next Generation Environmental Monitoringâ focuses on the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) instrument, the satellite's lightning mapper. The GLM will provide continuous lightning measurements over a large portion of the Western Hemisphere, mapping total lightning (intra-cloud and cloudâtoâground) flash rates and trends. GLM observations will improve local forecasts and warnings of severe weather and air quality, and provide new data for numerical weather prediction and studies of regional climate and climate change. The first part of the lesson describes the need for real-time lightning information and introduces the capabilities of the GLM, which will fly on the next-generation GOES-R satellites. The second section lets users explore the life cycle of a typical cloud-to-ground lightning flash, how it is observed by space and ground-based detection systems, and how lightning flashes translate into GLM observations. The final section explores some of the many applications that will benefit from GLM observations including convection and severe weather nowcasting, warning of lightning ground strike hazards, aviation, atmospheric chemistry, quantitative precipitation estimation, tropical cyclones, fire ignitions, numerical weather prediction, and climate and global studies.

Comet

2014-09-05

315

Advanced mesospheric temperature mapper for high-latitude airglow studies.  

PubMed

Over the past 60 years, ground-based remote sensing measurements of the Earth's mesospheric temperature have been performed using the nighttime hydroxyl (OH) emission, which originates at an altitude of ?87??km. Several types of instruments have been employed to date: spectrometers, Fabry-Perot or Michelson interferometers, scanning-radiometers, and more recently temperature mappers. Most of them measure the mesospheric temperature in a few sample directions and/or with a limited temporal resolution, restricting their research capabilities to the investigation of larger-scale perturbations such as inertial waves, tides, or planetary waves. The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) is a novel infrared digital imaging system that measures selected emission lines in the mesospheric OH (3,1) band (at ?1.5???m) to create intensity and temperature maps of the mesosphere around 87 km. The data are obtained with an unprecedented spatial (?0.5??km) and temporal (typically 30?) resolution over a large 120° field of view, allowing detailed measurements of wave propagation and dissipation at the ?87??km level, even in the presence of strong aurora or under full moon conditions. This paper describes the AMTM characteristics, compares measured temperatures with values obtained by a collocated Na lidar instrument, and presents several examples of temperature maps and nightly keogram representations to illustrate the excellent capabilities of this new instrument. PMID:25321674

Pautet, P-D; Taylor, M J; Pendleton, W R; Zhao, Y; Yuan, T; Esplin, R; McLain, D

2014-09-10

316

AMICA, Astro Mapper for Instrument Check of Attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the characteristics of a star mapper, AMICA, which could be used for determining the pointing direction of external payloads mounted on the International Space Station. AMICA, which is complementary to the GPS attitude determination system provided by the ISS, is a stand alone system able to provide both the pointing direction in the inertial reference frame with arc-sec precision at a 1 Hz rate and the angular orientation of the stellar field with slightly lower precision. The star mapper is derived from the pointing system of the UVSTAR telescope that has flown three times on the Shuttle. We present a description of the AMICA optical and electronics architecture and its functionality. We also give a summary of the key pointing/tracking results obtained during the Shuttle missions. Finally we report on simulations performed to determine the instrument expected precision and performances, including the percentage of recognized stellar fields. AMICA is presently considered for flying in support to the ASI mission SPOrt, onboard an ESA EXPA, in the early utilization of the ISS. .

Trampus, Paolo; Stalio, Roberto; Cortiglioni, Stefano

2000-01-01

317

PRESENCE 2006 Content knowledge and thematic inertia predict virtual presence  

E-print Network

PRESENCE 2006 38 Content knowledge and thematic inertia predict virtual presence David Nunez, Edwin by the user. Furthermore, a particular cognitive tendency (thematic inertia), should facilitate the effect inertia, as well as controls for age and immersion/display factors. The ITC-SOPI was the dependent

Blake, Edwin

318

Science Adventures with Children's Literature: A Thematic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides background information on the development and implementation of thematic units that focus on a hands-on approach, process orientation, integrated curriculum, cooperative learning, and critical thinking. Topics of the thematic units and mini-units include wild animals, dinosaurs, rainforests, the human body, earth science,…

Fredericks, Anthony D.

319

Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

Preece, Julia

2010-01-01

320

Thematic Week: The Role of Market Instruments in Integrated Water Management Thematic Axis: 7. Water Economics and Financing  

E-print Network

. The discussion concludes with an abridged list of available insights. Key words: water marketing, water policy the nature of water scarcity problems and the true character of available policy approaches. Water marketingThematic Week: The Role of Market Instruments in Integrated Water Management Thematic Axis: 7

Griffin, Ronald

321

A thematic approach to system safety  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has refined a process for developing inherently safer system designs, based on methods used by the Laboratories to design detonation safety into nuclear weapons. The process was created when the Laboratories realized that standard engineering practices did not provide the level of safety assurance necessary for nuclear weapon operations, with their potential for catastrophic accidents. A systematic approach, which relies on mutually supportive design principles integrated through fundamental physical principles, was developed to ensure a predictably safe system response under a variety of operational and accident based stresses. Robust, safe system designs result from this thematic approach to safety, minimizing the number of safety critical features. This safety assurance process has two profound benefits: the process avoids the need to understand or limit the ultimate intensity of off normal environments and it avoids the requirement to analyze and test a bewildering and virtually infinite array of accident environment scenarios (e.g., directional threats, sequencing of environments, time races, etc.) to demonstrate conformance to all safety requirements.

Ekman, M.E.; Werner, P.W.; Covan, J.M.; D`Antonio, P.E.

1997-12-01

322

The Mars mapper science and mission planning tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Mapper Program (MOm) is an interactive tool for science and mission design developed for the Mars Observer Mission (MO). MOm is a function of the Planning and Sequencing Element of the MO Ground Data System. The primary users of MOm are members of the science and mission planning teams. Using MOm, the user can display digital maps of Mars in various projections and resolutions ranging from 1 to 256 pixels per degree squared. The user can overlay the maps with ground tracks of the MO spacecraft (S/C) and footprints and swaths of the various instruments on-board the S/C. Orbital and instrument geometric parameters can be computed on demand and displayed on the digital map or plotted in XY-plots. The parameter data can also be saved into files for other uses. MOm is divided into 3 major processes: Generator, Mapper, Plotter. The Generator Process is the main control which spawns all other processes. The processes communicate via sockets. At any one time, only 1 copy of MOm may operate on the system. However, up to 5 copies of each of the major processes may be invoked from the Generator. MOm is developed on the Sun SPARCStation 2GX with menu driven graphical user interface (GUI). The map window and its overlays are mouse-sensitized to permit on-demand calculations of various parameters along an orbit. The program is currently under testing and will be delivered to the MO Mission System Configuration Management for distribution to the MO community in 3/93.

Lo, Martin W.

1993-01-01

323

Xmap: A technology mapper for table-lookup field-programmable gate arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new algorithm, Xmap, for doing mapping from multi-level logic to field-programmable gate arrays based on table-lookup gates, such as those used in the Xilinx chip. The algorithm is baaed on an if-then-else DAG representation for the functions. The technology mapper differs from previous mappers in that the circuit is not decomposed into fan-out-free trees. The Xmap

Kevin Karplus

1991-01-01

324

Analysis of Micro-Rearrangements in 25 Eukaryotic Species Pairs by SyntenyMapper  

PubMed Central

High-quality mapping of genomic regions and genes between two organisms is an indispensable prerequisite for evolutionary analyses and comparative genomics. Existing approaches to this problem focus on either delineating orthologs or finding extended sequence regions of common evolutionary origin (syntenic blocks). We propose SyntenyMapper, a novel tool for refining predefined syntenic regions. SyntenyMapper creates a set of blocks with conserved gene order between two genomes and finds all minor rearrangements that occurred since the evolutionary split of the two species considered. We also present TrackMapper, a SyntenyMapper-based tool that allows users to directly compare genome features, such as histone modifications, between two organisms, and identify genes with highly conserved features. We demonstrate SyntenyMapper's advantages by conducting a large-scale analysis of micro-rearrangements within syntenic regions of 25 eukaryotic species. Unsurprisingly, the number and length of syntenic regions is correlated with evolutionary distance, while the number of micro-rearrangements depends only on the size of the harboring region. On the other hand, the size of rearranged regions remains relatively constant regardless of the evolutionary distance between the organisms, implying a length constraint in the rearrangement process. SyntenyMapper is a useful software tool for both large-scale and gene-centric genome comparisons. PMID:25375783

Kaufmann, Stefanie; Frishman, Dmitrij

2014-01-01

325

ASSESSMENT OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Landscape characteristics such as small patch size and land cover heterogeneity have been hypothesized to increase the likelihood of misclassifying pixels during thematic image classification. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence, to support these hypotheses. This...

326

The GOES-R GeoStationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved capability for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The Geostationary Lighting Mapper (GLM) will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms (environmental data records), cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications using GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, merged with ground-based sensors, and decision aids augmented by numerical weather prediction model forecasts. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. An international field campaign planned for 2011-2012 will produce concurrent observations from a VHF lightning mapping array, Meteosat multi-band imagery, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) overpasses, and related ground and in-situ lightning and meteorological measurements in the vicinity of Sao Paulo. These data will provide a new comprehensive proxy data set for algorithm and application development.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

2011-01-01

327

The Goes-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved storm diagnostic capability with the Advanced Baseline Imager. The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this paper we will report on new Nowcasting and storm warning applications being developed and evaluated at various NOAA Testbeds.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

2011-01-01

328

Lead Optimization Mapper: Automating free energy calculations for lead optimization  

PubMed Central

Alchemical free energy calculations hold increasing promise as an aid to drug discovery efforts. However, applications of these techniques in discovery projects have been relatively few, partly because of the difficulty of planning and setting up calculations. Here, we introduce Lead Optimization Mapper, LOMAP, an automated algorithm to plan efficient relative free energy calculations between potential ligands within a substantial library of perhaps hundreds of compounds. In this approach, ligands are first grouped by structural similarity primarily based on the size of a (loosely defined) maximal common substructure, and then calculations are planned within and between sets of structurally related compounds. An emphasis is placed on ensuring that relative free energies can be obtained between any pair of compounds without combining the results of too many different relative free energy calculations (to avoid accumulation of error) and by providing some redundancy to allow for the possibility of error and consistency checking and provide some insight into when results can be expected to be unreliable. The algorithm is discussed in detail and a Python implementation, based on both Schrödinger's and OpenEye's APIs, has been made available freely under the BSD license. PMID:24072356

Liu, Shuai; Wu, Yujie; Lin, Teng; Abel, Robert; Redmann, Jonathan P.; Summa, Christopher M.; Jaber, Vivian R.; Lim, Nathan M.; Mobley, David L.

2013-01-01

329

An Overview of Cassini Radar Mapper Observations of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CassiniRadar Mapper imaged the surface of TItan in Ku-band (wavelength = 2.17 cm) on February 14, 2005, more than doubling the coverage obtained in October 2004. The new (T3) flyby collected a 420-km long synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) swath, varying in width from 200 to 500km, and larger-scale radiometry and scatterometry. Data from both passes show that fluvial, impact and volcanic processes are clearly all at work. Evidence will be presented and discussed for each, including a large (440km) impact basin, a smaller (80km) crater with an ejecta blanket, a volcanic construct with flows, and a set of SAR-bright braided and sinuous drainage channels. Recurring patches of subparallel SAR-dark linear features, dubbed ``cat scratches", are tentatively identified as aeolian. A greater diversity of landforms was observed on the T3 flyby than on the previous (Ta) pass. Based on the small number of impact craters detected, the surface thus far imaged by radar is very young compared with those of other Saturnian satellites. The Cassini Project is a joint endeavor of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI). Cassini is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

Wall, S.; Elachi, C.; Cassini RADAR Science Team

2005-08-01

330

The GOES-R Series Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), which will have just completed Critical Design Review and move forward into the construction phase of instrument development. The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (an engineering development unit and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas M.

2011-01-01

331

New dust opacity mapping from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global dust opacity mapping for Mars has been carried forward using the approach described by Martin (1986) for Viking IR Thermal Mapper data. New maps are presented for the period from the beginning of Viking observations, until Ls 210 deg in 1979 (1.36 Mars years). This range includes the second and more extensive planet-encircling dust storm observed by Viking, known as storm 1977b. Improvements in approach result in greater time resolution and smaller noise than in the earlier work. A strong local storm event filled the Hellas basin at Ls 170 deg, prior to the 1977a storm. Dust is retained in equatorial regions following the 1977b storm far longer than in mid-latitudes. Minor dust events appear to raise the opacity in northern high latitudes during northern spring. Additional mapping with high time resolution has been done for the periods of time near the major storm origins in order to search for clues to the mechanism of storm initiation. The first evidence of the start of the 1977b storm is pushed back to Ls 274.2 deg, preceding signs of the storm in images by about 15 hours.

Martin, Terry Z.; Richardson, Mark I.

1993-01-01

332

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill - Landsat 5  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, an explosion at an oil well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a major oil spill. Since then, emergency response efforts have been underway to cap the leaking well system and contain the growing oil slick before it reaches wildlife refuges, fisheries, and beaches along the southern...

2010-05-10

333

CheS-Mapper 2.0 for visual validation of (Q)SAR models  

PubMed Central

Background Sound statistical validation is important to evaluate and compare the overall performance of (Q)SAR models. However, classical validation does not support the user in better understanding the properties of the model or the underlying data. Even though, a number of visualization tools for analyzing (Q)SAR information in small molecule datasets exist, integrated visualization methods that allow the investigation of model validation results are still lacking. Results We propose visual validation, as an approach for the graphical inspection of (Q)SAR model validation results. The approach applies the 3D viewer CheS-Mapper, an open-source application for the exploration of small molecules in virtual 3D space. The present work describes the new functionalities in CheS-Mapper 2.0, that facilitate the analysis of (Q)SAR information and allows the visual validation of (Q)SAR models. The tool enables the comparison of model predictions to the actual activity in feature space. The approach is generic: It is model-independent and can handle physico-chemical and structural input features as well as quantitative and qualitative endpoints. Conclusions Visual validation with CheS-Mapper enables analyzing (Q)SAR information in the data and indicates how this information is employed by the (Q)SAR model. It reveals, if the endpoint is modeled too specific or too generic and highlights common properties of misclassified compounds. Moreover, the researcher can use CheS-Mapper to inspect how the (Q)SAR model predicts activity cliffs. The CheS-Mapper software is freely available at http://ches-mapper.org. Graphical abstract Comparing actual and predicted activity values with CheS-Mapper.

2014-01-01

334

LANDSAT 4 investigations of Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner applications. [Death Valley, California; Silver Bell Copper Mine, Arizona, and Dulles Airport near Washington, D.C.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimum index factor package was used to choose TM band for color compositing. Processing techniques were also used on TM data over several sites to: (1) reduce the amount of data that needs to be processed and analyzed by using statistical methods or by combining full-resolution products with spatially compressed products; (2) digitally process small subareas to improve the visual appearance of large-scale products or to merge different-resolution image data; and (3) evaluate and compare the information content of the different three-band combinations that can be made using the TM data. Results indicate that for some applications the added spectral information over MSS is even more important than the TM's increased spatial resolution.

Lauer, D. T. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

335

Applications of Landsat Thematic Mapper and ground-based spectrometer data to a study of the Skaergaard and other mafic intrusions of East Greenland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat TM data have been used in conjunction with field spectrometer data to map the lithologic units associated with a series of gabbroic intrusions in the East Greenland Tertiary Igneous Province. The general lack of vegetation combined with the difficulty of access to these intrusions make them ideal candidates for lithologic mapping using remote sensing techniques. In addition, these bodies are of interest as possible precious metal ore deposits. The intrusions are spectrally distinct from the surrounding Precambrian gneisses; however, subpixel contamination by snow, oxide surface coatings, and lichen cover and severe topography limit the discrimination of lithologic units within the gabbro. The spectral nature of the surface contaminants was evaluated with a Barringer Hand Held Ratioing Radiometer (HHRR). These HHRR data indicate that bare rock exposures have distinct TM signatures for each lithologic unit but that even small amounts of subpixel contamination are enough to mask these differences because of the large differences between the TM signatures of the rocks and the contaminants.

Birnie, Richard W.; Naslund, H. Richard; Nichols, Jennifer D.; Turner, Patricia A.; Parr, J. Thomas

1989-01-01

336

Relating magnetic susceptibility (MS) to the simulated thematic mapper (TM) bands of the Chinese loess: Application of TM image for soil MS mapping on Loess Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic susceptibility (MS) is a very important physical attribute of the Earth's soils and surficial sediments. Soil-containing deposits in the Loess Plateau of central China offer a unique opportunity to study the relationship between soil reflectance and MS. In this paper, data on MS and diffuse reflectance spectra obtained from seven Loess Plateau sections were used to establish quantitative relationships

Junfeng Ji; Jun Chen; Li Jin; Wanchang Zhang; William Balsam; Huayu Lu

2004-01-01

337

JIRAM, the Jupiter Infrared Auroral Mapper on Juno  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JIRAM, the Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper, is part of the payload of the NASA New Frontiers mission Juno to Jupiter to be launched in August 2011. JIRAM scientific goals are: the exploration of the dynamics and the chemistry of Jovian auroral regions by high contrast imaging and spectroscopy, the study of the hot spots through the Jupiter troposphere in order to determine their vertical structure and hence test their formation mechanisms and, eventually, the sounding of the Jupiter atmosphere to map water moist convection and determine the water abundance and other constituents at depths corresponding to the water clouds. The JIRAM heritage comes from Italian Visual-InfraRed Imaging Spectrometers dedicated to planetary exploration like Cassini /VIMS-V, Rosetta and Venus Express /VIRTIS, and Dawn /VIR-MS. However, Juno presents more technological challenges due to the harsh radiative environment generated by the Jupiter powerful magnetic field, the spinning spacecraft, its speed in respect to the target to be observed ( which is more than 50 km/s at the Jupiter closest approach) and the shortness of the mission which impose a very tight observation schedule. JIRAM shares a single telescope, between an infrared camera and a spectrometer to allow a large observational flexibility in obtaining at the same time simultaneous images in a field of view of 5.9x1.7 deg and in the L (˜ 3.4 ?m) and M (˜ 5 ?m) bands. JIRAM will also perform measurements of spectral radiance over the central zone of the M image. It will also be able to compose spectral images of the planet between 1.85 and 5.2 ?m with a spectral resolution better than 10 nm.

Adriani, A.; Coradini, A.; Filacchione, G.; Lunine, J. I.; Cosi, M.; Bini, A.; Calamai, L.; Colosimo, F.; Magni, G.; Moriconi, M. L.; Orosei, R.

2007-12-01

338

The BHVI-EyeMapper: Peripheral Refraction and Aberration Profiles  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this article was to present the optical design of a new instrument (BHVI-EyeMapper, EM), which is dedicated to rapid peripheral wavefront measurements across the visual field for distance and near, and to compare the peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles obtained in myopic eyes with and without accommodation. Methods Central and peripheral refractive errors (M, J180, and J45) and higher-order aberrations (C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0]) were measured in 26 myopic participants (mean [±SD] age, 20.9 [±2.0] years; mean [±SD] spherical equivalent, ?3.00 [±0.90] diopters [D]) corrected for distance. Measurements were performed along the horizontal visual field with (?2.00 to ?5.00 D) and without (+1.00 D fogging) accommodation. Changes as a function of accommodation were compared using tilt and curvature coefficients of peripheral refraction and aberration profiles. Results As accommodation increased, the relative peripheral refraction profiles of M and J180 became significantly (p < 0.05) more negative and the profile of M became significantly (p < 0.05) more asymmetric. No significant differences were found for the J45 profiles (p > 0.05). The peripheral aberration profiles of C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0] became significantly (p < 0.05) less asymmetric as accommodation increased, but no differences were found in the curvature. Conclusions The current study showed that significant changes in peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles occurred during accommodation in myopic eyes. With its extended measurement capabilities, that is, permitting rapid peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration measurements up to visual field angles of ±50 degrees for distance and near (up to ?5.00 D), the EM is a new advanced instrument that may provide additional insights in the ongoing quest to understand and monitor myopia development. PMID:25105690

Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Bakaraju, Ravi C.; Holden, Brien A.

2014-01-01

339

Titan's Geology as Viewed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper has imaged the surface of Titan on 8 flybys to date, collecting Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data at spatial resolution ranging from about 300 m to about 2 km. These radar images reveal that Titan's surface has been modified by both endogenic (volcanism, tectonism) and exogenic (impact cratering, erosion) processes, with no process dominating in an obvious way. Although less than 15 % of the surface of Titan has been imaged to date using SAR, the acquired swaths are distributed over a wide latitudinal and longitudinal range, enabling some conclusions to be drawn about the global distribution of processes. Cryovolcanic units have been identified in SAR images mostly at mid-latitudes (40-60 N), these include the construct Ganesa Macula, several calderas with associated flows, and large cryovolcanic flows. Flybys over high northern latitudes have shown lacustrine features, the distribution of these features is consistent with colder temperatures and more precipitation at high latitudes. Some of the depressions filled by the lakes may be volcanic calderas, but a thermokarstic origin is also possible (Mitchell et al., Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. XXXVIII, 2007). Ridges and mountains that are interpreted to be of tectonic origin have been seen mostly at low latitudes (Radebaugh et al., Lunar Planet Sci. Conf. XXXVIII, 2007), while drainage channels appear common at all latitudes (Lorenz et al., Plan. Space Sci., submitted). Fields of dunes (Titan's "sand seas") are mostly equatorial, but a few isolated patches of dunes extend as far north as ~60 degrees. The distribution and orientation of dunes is as expected from Titan's winds (Lorenz et al., 2006, Science 312; Radebaugh et al., Icarus, submitted). Erosion by fluvial processes is likely to have occurred on a global scale. The small number of definitive impact craters suggests that these geologic processes are erasing or burying the majority of impacts. Future data will allow us to further constrain the distribution of tectonism and volcanism, providing valuable input for models of Titan's interior.

Lopes, R. M.; Stofan, E. R.; Wood, C.; Robshaw, L.; Mitchell, K. L.; Radebaugh, J.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Wall, S. D.; Kirk, R.; Cassini RADAR Team

2007-05-01

340

Spaceborne and ground thermal infrared observations provide a firm basis for the Space Station FireMapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of successful spaceborne and ground based experiments have provided a firm basis for the design of the Space Station based FireMapper instrument. The prototype of the FireMapper Instrument was called ISIR (Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer) and was fabricated by Space Instruments, Inc. for NASA under an SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) contract. ISIR was flown successfully on shuttle

James W. Hoffman; Philip J. Riggan; James A. Brass

2000-01-01

341

Large-scale computational identification of regulatory SNPs with rSNP-MAPPER  

PubMed Central

Background The computational analysis of regulatory SNPs (rSNPs) is an essential step in the elucidation of the structure and function of regulatory networks at the cellular level. In this work we focus in particular on SNPs that potentially affect a Transcription Factor Binding Site (TFBS) to a significant extent, possibly resulting in changes to gene expression patterns or alternative splicing. The application described here is based on the MAPPER platform, a previously developed web-based system for the computational detection of TFBSs in DNA sequences. Methods rSNP-MAPPER is a computational tool that analyzes SNPs lying within predicted TFBSs and determines whether the allele substitution results in a significant change in the TFBS predictive score. The application's simple and intuitive interface supports several usage modes. For example, the user may search for potential rSNPs in the promoters of one or more genes, specified as a list of identifiers or chosen among the members of a pathway. Alternatively, the user may specify a set of SNPs to be analyzed by uploading a list of SNP identifiers or providing the coordinates of a genomic region. Finally, the user can provide two alternative sequences (wildtype and mutant), and the system will determine the location of variants to be analyzed by comparing them. Results In this paper we outline the architecture of rSNP-MAPPER, describing its intuitive and powerful user interface in detail. We then present several examples of the use of rSNP-MAPPER to reproduce and confirm experimental studies aimed at identifying regulatory SNPs in human genes, that show how rSNP-MAPPER is able to detect and characterize rSNPs with high accuracy. Results are richly annotated and can be displayed online or downloaded in a number of different formats. Conclusions rSNP-MAPPER is optimized for large scale work, allowing for the efficient annotation of thousands of SNPs, and is designed to assist in the genome-wide investigation of transcriptional regulatory networks, prioritizing potential rSNPs for subsequent experimental validation. rSNP-MAPPER is freely available at http://genome.ufl.edu/mapper/. PMID:22759655

2012-01-01

342

The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series (GOES-R) is the next block of four satellites to follow the existing GOES constellation currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Advanced spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved cloud and moisture imagery with the 16-channel Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity continuously day and night with near-uniform storm-scale spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 s over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions in the western hemisphere. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low Earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive prelaunch field campaigns. The GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extend their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with preoperational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and checkout of GOES-R in late 2015. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas; Bailey, Jeffrey; Buechler, Dennis; Carey, Larry; Schultz, Chris; Bateman, Monte; McCaul, Eugene; Stano, Geoffrey

2013-05-01

343

The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series provides the continuity for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive pre-launch field campaigns. GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extends their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in late 2015. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Results from recent field campaigns and forecaster evaluations on the utility of the total lightning products will be presented.

Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Buechler, D. E.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, C. J.; Bateman, M. G.; McCaul, E., Jr.; Stano, G. T.

2012-12-01

344

An Analysis of the Thematic Content of Televised Beer Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After summarizing the widespread occurrence and male orientation of television beer advertising, this paper describes a study of the thematic content of beer commercials. Two-hundred and six beer advertisements which appeared on WTBS, the USA Network, and ESPN between September 1983 and September 1985 were studied. Event-specific ads and those in…

Funkhouser, Edward

345

Thematic Solutions Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…

Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.

2006-01-01

346

Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities. First Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The units in this first supplement to "Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities" have been selected, as were those in the original publication, because they involve students actively in reading, writing, listening, and speaking for a purpose--that purpose being to explore and communicate with others on issues of vital interest. The…

Spann, Sylvia, Ed.; Culp, Mary Beth, Ed.

347

The Functional Neuroanatomy of Thematic Role and Locative Relational Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical-semantic investigations in cognitive neuroscience have focused on conceptual knowledge of concrete objects. By contrast, relational concepts have been largely ignored. We examined thematic role and locative knowledge in 14 left- hemisphere-damage patients. Relational concepts shift cogni- tive focus away from the object to the relationship between objects, calling into question the relevance of traditional sensory- functional accounts of semantics.

Denise H. Wu; Sara Waller; Anjan Chatterjee

2007-01-01

348

Individual Differences in the Strength of Taxonomic versus Thematic Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge about word and object meanings can be organized taxonomically (fruits, mammals, etc.) on the basis of shared features or thematically (eating breakfast, taking a dog for a walk, etc.) on the basis of participation in events or scenarios. An eye-tracking study showed that both kinds of knowledge are activated during comprehension of a…

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2012-01-01

349

LOGICAL METONYMY DISENTANGLING OBJECT TYPE AND THEMATIC FIT  

E-print Network

LOGICAL METONYMY DISENTANGLING OBJECT TYPE AND THEMATIC FIT Alessandra Zarcone1, Sebastian Padó2 1 Sprachverarbeitung, Stuttgart, Germany A LEXICAL HYPOTHESIS FOR LOGICAL METONYMY The Lexical Hypothesis (the events rigid, not suitable to modeling effects of context and discourse Logical metonymy seen

Reyle, Uwe

350

DESIGNA ND ANALYSIS FOR THEMATIC MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Before being used in scientific investigations and policy decisions, thematic maps constructed from remotely sensed data should be subjected to a statistically rigorous accuracy assessment. The three basic components of an accuracy assessment are: 1) the sampling design used to s...

351

Learning from Mistakes in History--A Thematic Instructional Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a thematic unit for secondary education students that focuses on eight themes, with accompanying activities, on learning from mistakes, such as "mistakes are inevitable, and everyone makes them" and "making mistakes does not make you a faulty person." Provides a concluding activity on the Titanic. (CMK)

Richburg, Robert W.; Harward, Kathleen; Steinkamp, Kathy

2000-01-01

352

Challenging the Notion of a Thematic Preference in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two- to 4-year-olds were presented with pictures of a target item (for example, carrot), a thematic alternative (rabbit), and an taxonomic alternative (tomato). The target was identified and children were asked to choose one of the alternatives. Children revealed no preference for either alternative. (BC)

Waxman, Sandra R.; Namy, Laura L.

1997-01-01

353

An Automated Method for Digitizing Color Thematic Maps  

E-print Network

An Automated Method for Digitizing Color Thematic Maps Rick L. Lawrence, Joseph E. Means maps that makes use of standard image processing techniques. The method uses a digital camera followed an extremely challenging test map was 93 percent, our results indicate that for most applications ex- pected

Lawrence, Rick L.

354

Books on Wheels: Cooperative Learning through Thematic Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as an integrated package for thematic instruction, this book helps librarians and teachers select appropriate reading materials to use in specific areas of study and promote reading to students in primary grades. Sixteen chapters include such popular themes as: (1) "Risky Reading: Adventure Stories"; (2) "Old MacDonald's Place: Farm…

McArthur, Janice; McGuire, Barbara E.

355

Actual evapotranspiration estimation in a Mediterranean mountain region by means of Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS imagery and Sap Flow measurements in Pinus sylvestris forest stands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration monitoring has important implications on global and regional climate modelling, as well as in the knowledge of the hydrological cycle and in the assessment of environmental stress that affects forest and agricultural ecosystems. An increase of evapotranspiration while precipitation remains constant, or is reduced, could decrease water availability for natural and agricultural systems and human needs. Consequently, water balance methods, as the evapotranspiration modelling, have been widely used to estimate crop and forest water needs, as well as the global change effects. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute evapotranspiration at regional scales in a feasible way. Currently, the 38% of Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula) is covered by forests, and one of the most important forest species is Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) which represents the 18.4% of the area occupied by forests. The aim of this work is to model actual evapotranspiration in Pinus sylvestris forest stands, in a Mediterranean mountain region, using remote sensing data, and compare it with stand-scale sap flow measurements measured in the Vallcebre research area (42° 12' N, 1° 49' E), in the Eastern Pyrenees. To perform this study a set of 30 cloud-free TERRA-MODIS images and 10 Landsat-5 TM images of path 198 and rows 31 and 32 from June 2003 to January 2005 have been selected to perform evapotranspiration modelling in Pinus sylvestris forest stands. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected two different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily evapotranspiration, daily LST product and daily calibrated reflectances product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital Elevation Model, obtaining an RMS less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994) which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009). To compute actual evapotranspiration (AET) we have used the B-Method proposed by Jakson et al. (1977) and modified by Carlson et al. (1995) and Caselles et al. (1998), based on the energy budget, that needs as an input variables net radiation (Rn) and the difference between land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature (Ta). Air temperature has been modelled by means of multiple regression analysis and GIS interpolation using ground meteorological stations. Net radiation have been computed following two approaches based on the energy balance equation using albedo, land surface temperature, air temperature and solar radiation. Both air temperature and net radiation have been modelled at a regional scale. We have compared remote sensing daily actual evapotranspiration estimates with measured canopy transpiration. Sap flux density was measured by means of Heat dissipation sensors in 12 trees per stand, sampled according to diametric distribution, corrected to account for radial patter of sap flow using the Heat Field Deformation method and then scaled-up to stand level transpiration using tree sapwood areas. Sap flow measurements are comparable with AETd as in the Scots pine stand understorey evaporation is not significant. Measurements with sap flow technique show a mean, minimum and maximum values of AETd = 2.2, 0.6 and 3.6 mm day -1, respectively (Poyatos et al. 2005). Results show, in the case of MODIS AETd modelling, a RMSE of 1.6 mm compared with sap flo

Cristóbal, J.; Poyatos, R.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.

2009-04-01

356

A comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network classifiers combined with Landsat TM imagery analysis for obtaining burnt area mapping.  

PubMed

Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878) the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795). Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ? 1% for ANN and ? 6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting. PMID:22294909

Petropoulos, George P; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Karantounias, George; Scholze, Marko

2010-01-01

357

Lightning Mapper Sensor Lens Assembly S.O. 5459: Project Management Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kaiser Electro-Optics, Inc. (KEO) has developed this Project Management Plan for the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) program. KEO has integrated a team of experts in a structured program management organization to meet the needs of the LMS program. The project plan discusses KEO's approach to critical program elements including Program Management, Quality Assurance, Configuration Management, and Schedule.

Zeidler, Janet

1999-01-01

358

Amap: a Technology Mapper for Selector-based Field-Programmable Gate Arrays  

E-print Network

. requires a fee and/or specific permission. Figure 2.I: Basic cell used in Actel chips field- pr~grammable-gateAmap: a Technology Mapper for Selector-based Field-Programmable Gate Arrays Kevin Karplus* Baskin to selector-based field-programmable gate arrays, such as the Actel chip. The gate counts and CPU time

Karplus, Kevin

359

Long-term orbit prediction for the Venus Radar Mapper Mission using an averaging method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of singly averaged equations of motion are presented and applied to long-term orbit prediction of an orbiting spacecraft around a slowly rotating planet, using the Venus Radar Mapper Mission as an example. The equations of motion used are valid for all eccentricities less than one. The disturbing potentials used include nonsphericity of the Venus gravity field and third-body

J. H. Kwok

1984-01-01

360

The role of action representations in thematic object relations  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have explored the role of associative/event-based (thematic) and categorical (taxonomic) relations in the organization of object representations. Recent evidence suggests that thematic information may be particularly important in determining relationships between manipulable artifacts. However, although sensorimotor information is on many accounts an important component of manipulable artifact representations, little is known about the role that action may play during the processing of semantic relationships (particularly thematic relationships) between multiple objects. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions relevant to object relationship processing. First, we assessed whether participants tended to favor thematic relations including action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle—corkscrew), thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle—cheese), or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle—water bottle) when choosing between them in an association judgment task with manipulable artifacts. Second, we assessed whether the underlying constructs of event relatedness, action relatedness, and categorical relatedness determined the choices that participants made. Third, we assessed the hypothesis that degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex, a region of the brain associated with the representation of action knowledge, would reduce the influence of action on the choice task. Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness were differentially predictive of healthy participants' choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region to use action relatedness in determining their choices. These data indicate that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable artifacts. PMID:24672461

Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Watson, Christine E.; Jax, Steven A.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

2014-01-01

361

IMPACTS OF PATCH SIZE AND LANDSCAPE HETEROGENEITY ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Impacts of Patch Size and Landscape Heterogeneity on Thematic Image Classification Accuracy. Currently, most thematic accuracy assessments of classified remotely sensed images oily account for errors between the various classes employed, at particular pixels of interest, thu...

362

THEMATIC RELEVANCE AND PERCEPTUAL SALIENCE OF DYNAMIC GEOVISUALIZATION DISPLAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a research agenda for empirically assessing the effectiveness of dynamic displays with the eye-movement data collection method. The proposed framework is based on the relationship between perceptual salience and thematic relevance in static (e.g., visual variables: color hue, color value and orientation) and animated displays (e.g., dynamic variables including transitions). The proposed empirical studies adhere to experimental design

Sara Irina Fabrikant; Kirk Goldsberry

363

A CIESIN Thematic Guide to Social Science Applications of Remote Sensing  

E-print Network

A CIESIN Thematic Guide to Social Science Applications of Remote Sensing Alex de Sherbinin 1-98162 #12;CIESIN Thematic Guides Social Science Applications of Remote Sensing 2 Copyright © 2002://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/tg/guide_main.jsp. #12;CIESIN Thematic Guides Social Science Applications of Remote Sensing 3 1.0 ­ Social Science

Columbia University

364

Abstracts of the annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, 2001, Albuquerque, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting serves two purposes. In addition to giving mappers the opportunity to exchange ideas, experiences, victories, and problems with others, presentations are reviewed by the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GeMS) to provide input to the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Mapping Program review panel’s consideration of new proposals and progress reports that include mapping tasks. Funded mappers bring both oral presentation materials (slides or viewgraphs) and map products to post for review by GeMS and fellow mappers. Additionally, the annual meetings typically feature optional field trips offering earth analogs and parallels to planetary mapping problems. The 2001 Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, was convened by Tim Parker, Dave Senske, and Ken Tanaka and was hosted by Larry Crumpler and Jayne Aubele of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Oral presentations were given in the Museum’s Honeywell Auditorium, and maps were posted in the Sandia Room. In addition to active mappers, guests included local science teachers who had successfully competed for the right to attend and listen to the reports. It was a unique pleasure for mappers to have the opportunity to interact with and provide information to teachers responding so enthusiastically to the meeting presentation. On Sunday, June 17, Larry and Jayne conducted an optional pre-meeting field trip. The flanks of Rio Grande Rift, east and west of Albuquerque and Valles Caldera north of town presented tectonic, volcanic, and sedimentary examples of the Rift and adjoining areas analogous to observed features on Mars and Venus. The arid but volcanically and tectonically active environment of New Mexico’s rift valley enables focus on features that appear morphologically young and spectacular in satellite images and digital relief models. The theme of the trip was to see what, at orbiter resolution, "obvious" geologic features look like at lander (outcrop) scales. Trips to the top of the rift-flanking mountains (Sandia Peak, 10,600 ft) and the Valles Caldera, as well as various active spring deposits highlighted the day. After welcoming remarks from the host, Larry Crumpler, opening remarks by Tim Parker and Dave Senske and a report on mapping program status by Ken Tanaka, the mappers’ oral presentations began the morning of June 18, with a session on Venus Geologic Mapping. The afternoon continued with an exciting USGS Planetary GIS on the Web (PIGWAD) demonstration and ended with an open discussion of issues in planetary mapping. Posted maps of Venus quadrangles were viewed during the morning break. Tuesday’s Mars Geologic Mapping session began with a pep talk from Tim Parker encouraging mapping community input to the MER landing site selection committee and continued with Steve Saunders describing the potential contribution of Odyssey Mission data to the geologic mapping of Mars. A Mars map poster session was held during the morning break, and the meeting was adjourned mid-afternoon. After the mappers meeting on Tuesday, attendants were treated to a "Field trip to Mars." The Institute of Meteoritics at the University of New Mexico houses an outstanding collection of meteorites, including those that have been identified as originating from Mars. The Institute tour featured examples of most of the different lithologies exhibited by martian meteorites identified to date, as well as some of the analytical tests (scanning electron microscope) they are conducting on specimens from ALH84001. Wednesday, June 20, featured an optional post-meeting field trip to see a travertine quarry and nearby sites of travertine deposition, the Very Large Array near Socorro, and other volcanic features within the Rio Grande Rift.

Parker, Timothy J., (Edited By); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Senske, David A.

2002-01-01

365

Abstracts of the annual meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers: June 21-22, 2002, Tempe, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The annual meeting of planetary geologic mappers allows mappers the opportunity to exchange ideas, experiences, victories, and problems. In addition, presentations are reviewed by the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) to provide input to the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Mapping Program review panel’s consideration of new proposals and progress reports that include mapping tasks. Funded mappers bring both oral presentation materials (slides or viewgraphs) and map products to post for review by GEMS and fellow mappers. Additionally, the annual meetings typically feature optional field trips that offer Earth analogs and parallels to planetary mapping problems or workshops that provide information and status of current missions. The 2002 meeting of planetary geologic mappers was held June 21-22 at the Mars Flight Facility, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. Dr. Phil Christensen graciously offered the use of the newly renovated facility, and Ms. Kelly Bender not only proved to be a courteous hostess, but also arranged a short workshop on June 23 regarding TES and THEMIS data. Approximately 30 people attended each day of the 2-day meeting, although not the same 30—some attended only on Thursday and others only on Friday. On Thursday, eight mappers gave oral presentations of Mars mapping, and an additional two presentations were presented as posters only. Eight oral presentations on Venus mapping were given on Friday, and an additional four presentations were posters only. Twelve people attended the TES/THEMIS workshop. Presentations of Ganymede mapping and Europa mapping (the latter not yet financially sponsored by PG&G mapping program) were also given on Friday. Aside from the regular presentations of maps-in-progress, there were some additional talks. Lisa Gaddis (USGS) presented a proposal seeking support for a new lunar mapping program in light of all the new data available; she made a good case that the GEMS panel discussed. Jim Skinner (USGS) gave a short presentation on free (or nearly so) software available for 3D viewing of planetary surfaces. Healthy discussions focused on the review time for some maps and the use of different styles of correlation charts observed on the presented maps. Next year’s meeting will be held June 19-20 at Brown University, Providence, RI.

Gregg, Tracy K. P., (Edited By); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Senske, David A.

2002-01-01

366

FireMapper 2.0: a multispectral uncooled infrared imaging system for airborne wildfire mapping and remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

FireMapper® 2.0 is a second-generation airborne system developed specifically for wildfire mapping and remote sensing. Its design is based on lessons learned from two years of flight-testing of a research FireMapper® system by the Pacific uthwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service. The new, operational design features greater coverage and improved performance with a rugged sensor that is less

James W. Hoffman; Philip J. Riggan; Stephanie A. Griffin; Ronald C. Grush; William H. Grush; James Pena

2003-01-01

367

A Year at the Moon on Chandrayaan-1: Moon Mineralogy Mapper Data in a Global Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper, M3, a high-fidelity high-resolution imaging spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1 has completed two of its four scheduled optical periods during its maiden year in lunar orbit, collecting over 4.6 billion spectra covering most of the lunar surface. These imaging periods (November 2008-February 2009 and April 2009-August 2009) correspond to times of equatorial solar zenith angle less than sixty

J. W. Boardman; C. M. Pieters; R. N. Clark; J. Combe; R. O. Green; P. Isaacson; S. Lundeen; E. Malaret; T. B. McCord; J. W. Nettles; N. E. Petro; M. Staid; P. Varanasi

2009-01-01

368

Evidence for dust transport in Viking IR thermal mapper opacity data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global maps of 9-micron dust opacity derived from radiometric observations made by the Viking Orbiter IR Thermal Mapper instruments have revealed a wealth of new information about the distribution of airborne dust over 1.36 Mars years from 1976-1979. In particular, the changing dust distribution during major dust storms is of interest since the data provide a point of contact with both Earth-based observations of storm growth and with global circulation models.

Martin, Terry Z.

1993-01-01

369

Clone Mapper: An Online Suite of Tools for RNAi Experiments in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi), mediated by the introduction of a specific double-stranded RNA, is a powerful method to investigate gene function. It is widely used in the Caenorhabditis elegans research community. An expanding number of laboratories conduct genome-wide RNAi screens, using standard libraries of bacterial clones each designed to produce a specific double-stranded RNA. Proper interpretation of results from RNAi experiments requires a series of analytical steps, from the verification of the identity of bacterial clones, to the identification of the clones’ potential targets. Despite the popularity of the technique, no user-friendly set of tools allowing these steps to be carried out accurately, automatically, and at a large scale, is currently available. We report here the design and production of Clone Mapper, an online suite of tools specifically adapted to the analysis pipeline typical for RNAi experiments with C. elegans. We show that Clone Mapper overcomes the limitations of existing techniques and provide examples illustrating its potential for the identification of biologically relevant genes. The Clone Mapper tools are freely available via http://www.ciml.univ-mrs.fr/EWBANK_jonathan/software.html. PMID:25187039

Thakur, Nishant; Pujol, Nathalie; Tichit, Laurent; Ewbank, Jonathan J.

2014-01-01

370

PepMapper: A Collaborative Web Tool for Mapping Epitopes from Affinity-Selected Peptides  

PubMed Central

Epitope mapping from affinity-selected peptides has become popular in epitope prediction, and correspondingly many Web-based tools have been developed in recent years. However, the performance of these tools varies in different circumstances. To address this problem, we employed an ensemble approach to incorporate two popular Web tools, MimoPro and Pep-3D-Search, together for taking advantages offered by both methods so as to give users more options for their specific purposes of epitope-peptide mapping. The combined operation of Union finds as many associated peptides as possible from both methods, which increases sensitivity in finding potential epitopic regions on a given antigen surface. The combined operation of Intersection achieves to some extent the mutual verification by the two methods and hence increases the likelihood of locating the genuine epitopic region on a given antigen in relation to the interacting peptides. The Consistency between Intersection and Union is an indirect sufficient condition to assess the likelihood of successful peptide-epitope mapping. On average from 27 tests, the combined operations of PepMapper outperformed either MimoPro or Pep-3D-Search alone. Therefore, PepMapper is another multipurpose mapping tool for epitope prediction from affinity-selected peptides. The Web server can be freely accessed at: http://informatics.nenu.edu.cn/PepMapper/ PMID:22701536

Chen, Wenhan; Guo, William W.; Huang, Yanxin; Ma, Zhiqiang

2012-01-01

371

Earthquakes and faults in southern California (1970-2010)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The map depicts both active and inactive faults and earthquakes magnitude 1.5 to 7.3 in southern California (1970–2010). The bathymetry was generated from digital files from the California Department of Fish And Game, Marine Region, Coastal Bathymetry Project. Elevation data are from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Database. Landsat satellite image is from fourteen Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper scenes collected between 2009 and 2010. Fault data are reproduced with permission from 2006 California Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey data. The earthquake data are from the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center.

Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.; Walter, Stephen R.

2012-01-01

372

Fires Scorch Oregon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In southwestern Oregon, the Florence Fire (north) and the Sour Biscuit Fire (south) continue to burn virtually out of control. Numerous evacuation notices have been issued for residents in the area as the fires remain difficult to control due to the steep, rugged terrain of the Klamath Mountains. This false-color image from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper was acquired on July 21, 2002. In the image, vegetation is green, burned areas are deep magenta, active fire is bright pink, and smoke is light blue. Credit:Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

2002-01-01

373

ForM@Ter: a solid Earth thematic pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last years, several notable initiatives have been developed to provide Solid Earth sciences with an efficient research e-infrastructure. The EPOS project (European Plate Observing System) was included in the EFSRI roadmap in 2008. The 7th European frame program funded an e-science environment such as the Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community in Europe (VERCE). GEO supports the development of the Geohazard SuperSites and Natural Laboratories portal, while the ESA SSEP project (SuperSites exploitation plateform) is developing as an Helix Nebula usecase. Meanwhile, operational use of space data for emergency management is in constant progress, within the Copernicus services. This rich activity is still leaving some gaps between the data availability and its scientific use, either for technical reasons (big data issues) or due to the need for a better support in term of expert knowledge on the data, of software availability, or of data cost. French infrastructures for data distribution are organized around National Observatory Services (in situ data), scientific services participating to the International association of geodesy data centres and wider research infrastructures such as the Réseau Sismologique et géodésique Français (RESIF) that is contributing to EPOS. The need for thematic cooperative platforms has been underlined over tha last years. In 2009, after a scientific prospective of the French national space agency (CNES) it becomes clear the urgent need to create thematic centres designed to federate the scientific community of Earth observation. Four thematic data centres are currently developing in France in the field of ocean , atmosphere, critical zone and solid Earth sciences. For Solid Earth research, the project - named ForM@Ter - was initiated at the beginning of 2012 to design, with the scientific community, the perimeter, structure and functions of such a thematic centre. It was launched by the CNES and the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), with the active participation of the National institute for geographical and forestry information (IGN). Currently, it relies on the contributions of scientists from more than 20 French Earth science laboratories. Preliminary analysis showed that a focus on the determination of the shape and movements of the Earth surface ForM@Ter : Formes et Mouvements de la Terre can federate a wide variety of scientific areas (earthquake cycle, tectonics, morphogenesis, volcanism, erosion dynamics, mantle rheology, geodesy) and offers many interfaces with other thematics, such as glaciology or snow evolution. This choice motivates the design of an ambitious data distribution scheme, including a wide variety of sources - optical imagery, SAR, GNSS, gravity, satellite altimetry data, in situ observations (inclinometers, seismometers, topometry, etc.) - as well as a wide variety of processing techniques. The challenge of the project, in the evolving context of the current and forthcoming national and international e-infrastructures, is to design a non redundant service based on interoperations with existing services, and to cope with highly complex data flows due to the granularity of the data and its associated knowledge.

Ostanciaux, Emilie; Jamet, Olivier; Mandea, Mioara; Diament, Michel

2014-05-01

374

Thematic and Spatial Resolutions Affect Model-Based Predictions of Tree Species Distribution  

PubMed Central

Subjective decisions of thematic and spatial resolutions in characterizing environmental heterogeneity may affect the characterizations of spatial pattern and the simulation of occurrence and rate of ecological processes, and in turn, model-based tree species distribution. Thus, this study quantified the importance of thematic and spatial resolutions, and their interaction in predictions of tree species distribution (quantified by species abundance). We investigated how model-predicted species abundances changed and whether tree species with different ecological traits (e.g., seed dispersal distance, competitive capacity) had different responses to varying thematic and spatial resolutions. We used the LANDIS forest landscape model to predict tree species distribution at the landscape scale and designed a series of scenarios with different thematic (different numbers of land types) and spatial resolutions combinations, and then statistically examined the differences of species abundance among these scenarios. Results showed that both thematic and spatial resolutions affected model-based predictions of species distribution, but thematic resolution had a greater effect. Species ecological traits affected the predictions. For species with moderate dispersal distance and relatively abundant seed sources, predicted abundance increased as thematic resolution increased. However, for species with long seeding distance or high shade tolerance, thematic resolution had an inverse effect on predicted abundance. When seed sources and dispersal distance were not limiting, the predicted species abundance increased with spatial resolution and vice versa. Results from this study may provide insights into the choice of thematic and spatial resolutions for model-based predictions of tree species distribution. PMID:23861828

Liang, Yu; He, Hong S.; Fraser, Jacob S.; Wu, ZhiWei

2013-01-01

375

Depression diagnosis and treatment amongst multimorbid patients: a thematic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background We explored experiences of depression diagnosis and treatment amongst multimorbid patients referred to a metropolitan multidisciplinary outpatient clinic to identify commonalities across this patient group. Methods Patients with two or more chronic conditions and a diagnosis of depression participated in semi-structured interviews that were digitally recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was performed on the transcriptions. Results Multimorbid patients attributed depressive symptoms to the loss of ‘normal’ roles and functionality and struggled to reconcile the depression diagnosis with their sense of identity. Beliefs about themselves and depression affected their receptivity to diagnosis and intervention strategies. These included prescribed interventions, such as psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, and patient-developed strategies. Conclusions Functional and social role losses present a clear context in which GPs should raise the subject of mood, with the situational attribution of depression suggesting that psychotherapy, which is rarely offered, should be prioritised in these circumstances. PMID:24947875

2014-01-01

376

Titan Radar Mapper observations from Cassini's T3 fly-by  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper imaged the surface of Saturn's moon Titan on its February 2005 fly-by (denoted T3), collecting high-resolution synthetic-aperture radar and larger-scale radiometry and scatterometry data. These data provide the first definitive identification of impact craters on the surface of Titan, networks of fluvial channels and surficial dark streaks that may be longitudinal dunes. Here we describe this great diversity of landforms. We conclude that much of the surface thus far imaged by radar of the haze-shrouded Titan is very young, with persistent geologic activity.

Elachi, C.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Stofan, E.; Lopes, R.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Ostro, S.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

2006-06-01

377

Titan Radar Mapper observations from Cassini's T3 fly-by  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper imaged the surface of Saturn's moon Titan on its February 2005 fly-by (denoted T3), collecting high-resolution synthetic-aperture radar and larger-scale radiometry and scatterometry data. These data provide the first definitive identification of impact craters on the surface of Titan, networks of fluvial channels and surficial dark streaks that may be longitudinal dunes. Here we describe this great diversity of landforms. We conclude that much of the surface thus far imaged by radar of the haze-shrouded Titan is very young, with persistent geologic activity. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

Elachi, C.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Stofan, E.; Lopes, R.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Ostro, S.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

2006-01-01

378

Moon Mineral Mapper (M3): A High Uniformity and High Precision Science Imaging Spectrometer in the Solar Reflected Spectrum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was selected as a NASA Discovery Mission of Opportunity in February 2005. At the core of this mission is an imaging spectrometer instrument with high spectral-spatial uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio for the expected illumination conditions. The spectral range of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper is from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling. The radiometric range is from 0 to maximum expected radiance with 14 bit sampling. The spatial swath is nominally 40 Ian with 70 m spatial sampling. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper has both a global and target mode of data acquisition. In global spectral and spatial resolution full coverage of the Moon will be acquired. Target mode will be used to examine selected areas a full spectral and spatial resolution. The science objectives and mission and instrument characteristics are presented.

Green, Robert O.; Pieters, Carle; Mouroulis, Pantazis

2006-01-01

379

PTM: A Technology Mapper for Pass-Transistor Logic Nan Zhuang, Marcus v. Scotti and Peter Y.K. Cheung1  

E-print Network

PTM: A Technology Mapper for Pass-Transistor Logic Nan Zhuang, Marcus v. Scotti and Peter Y.K. Cheung1 Abstract Pass-Transistor Mapper PTM, a logic synthesis tool speci cally designed for pass- transistor based logic library that has only three basic cells, is reported. It exploits the close

Cheung, Peter Y. K.

380

The Role of the Immigrant in United States History: A Thematic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the ability of teaching history thematically to excite students with traditional chronological approaches to history instruction. Argues that immigration provides an excellent model for learning thematically because it is one of the most personal and engaging topics. Presents a brief history of immigration to the United States along with…

Connor, Mary E.

1998-01-01

381

Damage to Temporo-Parietal Cortex Decreases Incidental Activation of Thematic Relations during Spoken Word Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both taxonomic and thematic semantic relations have been studied extensively in behavioral studies and there is an emerging consensus that the anterior temporal lobe plays a particularly important role in the representation and processing of taxonomic relations, but the neural basis of thematic semantics is less clear. We used eye tracking to…

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2012-01-01

382

Logical Metonymy from Type Clash to Thematic Fit Alessandra Zarcone1  

E-print Network

Logical Metonymy from Type Clash to Thematic Fit Alessandra Zarcone1 , Jason Utt1 , Alessandro@ims.uni-stuttgart.de 2. Dipartimento di Linguistica, Università di Pisa, Italy. Keywords: logical metonymy; type clash; thematic fit; similarity-based model; distributional memory. Logical Metonymy and Type Clash Logical

Reyle, Uwe

383

Thematic maps for environmental and landscape compatibility in Sicily for projects on energy crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at verifying the environmental and landscape compatibility of energy crop cultivation in Sicily, by means of georeferenced thematic maps. GIS was used to identify suitable areas for cultivation and each map is made up of a set of shapefiles which represent the desired themes to be highlighted at any given time. Processing thematic maps for environmental and

Giuseppina Marina D'Agosta; Agata Milazzo; Cristina Patanè

384

Study on automatic vectorization of thematic map based on Neighborhood Filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to distill vector data from thematic map automatically and accurately because of disturb information. Therefore, an algorithm named Neighborhood Filling is discussed here to separate disturb information from thematic map. On the basis of distinction between disturb information and the interference background information. Set some background information on the priority. Use principle of space nearest neighbor information

Jun Chen; Fang Miao; Hanyu Lu; Yingjie Duan

2011-01-01

385

The EPOS implementation of thematic services for solid Earth sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of EPOS is to build an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the solid Earth sciences in Europe. In particular, EPOS is a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data, models and facilities from mainly distributed existing, but also new, research infrastructures for Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes, ground stability, and tsunamis as well as those processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a significant step forward by developing new concepts and tools for accurate, durable, and sustainable answers to societal questions concerning geo-hazards and those geodynamic phenomena relevant to the environment and human welfare. EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and is building the integrating RI elements. This integration requires a significant coordination between, among others, disciplinary (thematic) communities, national RIs policies and initiatives, as well as geo- and IT-scientists. The RIs that EPOS coordinates include: i) Regionally-distributed geophysical observing systems (seismological and geodetic networks); ii) Local observatories (including geomagnetic, near-fault and volcano observatories); iii) Analytical and experimental laboratories; iv) Integrated satellite data and geological information services. We present the results achieved during the EPOS Preparatory Phase (which will end on October 2014) and the progress towards construction in terms of both the design of the integrated core services (ICS) and the development of thematic core services (TCS) for the different communities participating to the integration plan. We will focus on discussing the strategies adopted to foster the necessary implementation of TCS, clarifying their crucial role as domain-specific service hubs for coordinating and harmonizing national resources/plans with the European dimension of EPOS. We will present the prototype of the ICS central hub as a key contribution for providing multidisciplinary services for solid Earth sciences as well as the glue to keep ICT aspects integrated and rationalized across EPOS. Finally we will present the well-defined role of the EPOS-ERIC Head-Quarter to coordinate and harmonize national RIs and EPOS services (through ICS and TCS) with a clear commitment by national governments. This will be an important opportunity to discuss the EPOS multidisciplinary platform for discoveries to foster scientific excellence in solid Earth research.

Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos

2014-05-01

386

Feasibility test for a V-slit star mapper for pioneer spacecraft terminal navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory demonstration of the feasibility of using a V-slit star mapper to meet the sensitivity and accuracy of on-board navigational requirements for future Pioneer Missions to the outer planets was conducted by the Control and Sensors Laboratory of TRW. The breadboard was extremely simple in configuration, consisting of an end-on photomultiplier tube and a V-slit reticle located at the focal plane of the objective lens. In addition, a plano-convex lens was used between the reticle and the PMT in a Fabry-Perot configuration. The analytical effort indicated that the sensor should easily meet the requirements. The Pioneer SRA test set was examined to determine its basic accuracy and modify it where necessary to bring its accuracy into the 1-3 arc second range. The test results show that it is feasible to use this type of star mapper in the 10 arc second accuracy range. The test equipment accuracy (approximately 5 arc Sec) was sufficient to bound the sensor errors at less than 10 arc seconds.

Gates, R. F.; Flannery, J. V.; Cragin, J. T.

1973-01-01

387

Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Tucson, AZ 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction Report of the Annual Mappers Meeting Planetary Science Institute Tucson, Arizona June 28 and 29, 2007 Approximately 22 people attended this year's mappers meeting, and many more submitted abstracts and maps in absentia. The 2007 meeting was convened by Tracy Gregg, Les Bleamaster, Steve Saunders, and Ken Tanaka and was hosted by David Crown and Les Bleamaster of the Planetary Science Institute (PSI) in Tucson, Arizona. Oral presentations and poster discussions took place on Thursday, June 28 and Friday, June 29. This year's meeting also included a unique opportunity to visit the operations centers of two active Mars missions; field trips to the University of Arizona took place on Thursday and Friday afternoons. Outgoing Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) chairperson, Tracy Gregg, commenced the meeting with an introduction and David Crown followed with a discussion of logistics and the PSI facility; Steve Saunders (Planetary Geology and Geophysics Discipline Scientist) then provided a brief program update. Science presentations kicked off with Venus mapper Vicki Hansen and graduate students Eric Tharalson and Bhairavi Shankar of the University of Minnesota, Duluth, showing a 3-D animation of the global distribution of tesserae and discussing the implications, a progress report for V-45 quadrangle mapping, and a brief discussion of circular lows. Les Bleamaster (PSI) followed with a progress report on mapping of the V-50 quadrangle and the 1:10M Helen Planitia quadrangle. David Crown (PSI) concluded the Venus presentations with a discussion of progress made on the V-30 quadrangle. The remainder of Thursday's presentations jumped around the Solar System including Mars, Io, and Earth. Ken Tanaka of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began the afternoon with a general discussion of the status of the planetary mapping program at USGS. Buck Janes (University of Arizona) provided background information about the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) and presented some new element maps, which may be useful for geologic mapping. Dave Williams of Arizona State University reported on the progress of his global Io map and James Dohm (University of Arizona) discussed results of terrestrial remote mapping studies. Thursday afternoon, the mappers were given a tour of the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) operations facility and were given some basic information about how the images are obtained, processed, and publicly released. With official GEMS transition completed at lunch on Thursday, incoming GEMS chair Leslie Bleamaster took the reigns of Friday's meeting. Science presentations began with Ken Tanaka discussing 1:20M-scale global and 1:2M-scale polar mapping of Mars. Jim Zimbelman (Smithsonian Institution) described his 1:1M Medusae Fossae map (MC-8 SE), which is nearing completion, and new mapping (MC-16 NW and MC-23 NW) to further evaluate the Medusae Fossae. Brent Garry, also of the Smithsonian Institution, presented work on Ascraeus Mons. Peter Mouginis-Mark (University of Hawai`i) reported progress on his 1:200K and larger maps of Tooting crater and of the Olympus Mons summit caldera. Laszlo Keszthelyi (USGS) presented mapping of Athabasca Valles, with much of the credit going to Windy Jaeger. Jim Skinner (USGS) introduced a new mapping project including nine MTM quadrangles in the Utopia Planitia region. Tracy Gregg finished off the day's science presentations with discussion of Hesperia Planum. After discussion was complete, the group once again traveled to the University of Arizona - this time for a tour of the Mars Phoenix operations center. Principal Investigator Peter Smith beamed as he led mappers through the multi-million dollar facility. A main topic of discussion throughout the entire meeting was that of nomenclature, specifically how to classify the individual depressions at the tops of volcanoes. Paterae, as has been used for Mars, Venus, and Io, was suggested, but i

Gregg, Tracy K.P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Saunders, R. Stephen

2007-01-01

388

What is sexual satisfaction? Thematic analysis of lay people's definitions.  

PubMed

Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women. PMID:24070214

Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

2014-01-01

389

Young people's food practices and social relationships. A thematic synthesis.  

PubMed

Food practices are embedded in everyday life and social relationships. In youth nutrition promotion little attention is awarded to this centrality of food practices, yet it may play a pivotal role for young people's overall health and wellbeing beyond the calories food provides. Limited research is available explicitly investigating how food practices affect social relationships. The aim of this synthesis was therefore to find out how young people use everyday food practices to build, strengthen, and negotiate their social relationships. Using a thematic synthesis approach, we analysed 26 qualitative studies exploring young people's food practices. Eight themes provided insight into the ways food practices affected social relationships: caring, talking, sharing, integrating, trusting, reciprocating, negotiating, and belonging. The results showed that young people use food actively to foster connections, show their agency, and manage relationships. This synthesis provides insight into the settings of significance for young people where more research could explore the use of food in everyday life as important for their social relationships. A focus on social relationships could broaden the scope of nutrition interventions to promote health in physical and psychosocial dimensions. Areas for future research are discussed. PMID:25017130

Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine

2014-11-01

390

Acme Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map tool allows users to create maps of any locality on Earth. It uses a Google-Maps-like interface which permits panning, zooming and re-centering the tool to obtain the correct location. Several types of imagery are available as overlays: map overlay, topography, satellite imagery, digital orthophotography, or Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) images. A cross-hair symbol appears to show the exact point on which the map is centered, and options on the control panel allow users to print, email or create links to the map they have created. The display shows the exact coordinates of the center of the map, as well as distance and direction to a few nearby place names. There is also a find function that allows searching by street address, city name , USA ZIP code, latitude and longitude, or URL of a Flickr photo that has geotags.

391

A New Lunar Globe as Seen by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Image Coverage, Spectral Dimensionality and Statistical Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper, flown on ISRO’s Chandrayaan-1, collected a global imaging spectrometry data set. We explore the M3 coverage, the principal components of the whole data set and the detection of anomalous areas, revealing a new Moon.

Boardman, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Green, R. O.; Clark, R. N.; Sunshine, J.; Combe, J.-P.; Isaacson, P.; Lundeen, S. R.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N. E.; Varanasi, P.; Taylor, L.

2010-03-01

392

Aplicação da técnica SAM ( Spectral Angle Mapper ) para dados hiperespectrais do corpo de água do reservatório de Manso, MT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remote sensing applied to the water color monit oring offers important information about the components that are present in the water, like: org anic substances, phytoplankton, suspension sediment s and pure water. Their optical properties are distinguis hed when they interact to the electromagnetic radia tion, showing their spectral signature. The spectral angl e mapper (SAM) it's a common

Aline de Matos Valério

393

Highlights from the 2013 Science of Placebo thematic workshop  

PubMed Central

In the last 30 years, a converging series of laboratory experiments, clinical trials, and neurocognitive studies have identified several key mechanisms of placebo effects. These studies suggest not only that placebo responses may be ubiquitous across research and clinical settings, but also that they can significantly modulate symptoms across a wide spectrum of highly prevalent conditions such as acute pain, chronic pain, anxiety, depression, Parkinson’s disease, and nausea, just to name a few. In order to inform the medical community about the most recent advances in the field of placebo studies, a thematic workshop entitled “The Science of Placebo” was held at the Beth Israel Deaconesses Medical Center (BIDMC), Harvard Medical School, in Boston (MA), on the 19–20 of June 2013. The workshop, sponsored by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, was organised by the Program in Placebo Studies and the Therapeutic Encounter, a Harvard-wide network of researchers dedicated to the study of the placebo phenomenon hosted by the BIDMC. The event was structured as a series of four public lectures, each delivered by a leading investigator in the field of placebo studies. The four keynote speakers were Fabrizio Benedetti, professor of neurophysiology and human physiology at the University of Turin Medical School and at the National Institute of Neuroscience in Italy; Tor Wager, director of the Cognitive and Affective Control Laboratory and associate professor of psychology and neuroscience at the University of Colorado; Predrag Petrovic, psychiatrist and researcher in the Department of Clinical Neuroscience at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm; and Ted Kaptchuk, director of the Program in Placebo Studies and associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. PMID:24019848

Annoni, Marco

2013-01-01

394

The Cross-Thematic Approach and its Implications for Secondary Education with Particular Reference to Greece and Cyprus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the impact of the Cross thematic approach on Greek and Greek Cypriot secondary education. The major argument put forward is that the Cross thematic approach (CTA) affects not only pedagogy and educational knowledge but teacher professionalism as well. In justifying this argument, the Cross thematic approach is considered as a…

Dieronitou, Irene

2009-01-01

395

Continued Monitoring of Landsat Reflective Band Calibration Using Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Though both of the current Landsat instruments, Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+) and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), include on-board calibration systems, since 2001, pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been added to the suite of metrics to assess the instruments calibration. These sites do not provide absolute calibration data since there are no ground measurements of the sites, but in monitoring these PICS over time, the relative calibration can be tracked. The sites used by the Landsat instruments are primarily in the Saharan Desert. To date, the trending from the PICS sites has confirmed that most of the degradation seen in the ETM+ on-board calibration systems is likely not degradation of the instrument, but rather degradation of the calibration systems themselves. However, the PICS data show statistically significant degradation (at 2-sigma) in all the reflective spectral bands of up to -0.22%/year since July 2003. For the TM, the PICS were instrumental in updating the calibration in 2007 and now suggest two bands may require another update. The data show a statistically significant degradation (at 2-sigma) in Bands 1 and 3 of -0.27 and -0.15%/year, respectively, since March 1999. The data filtering and processing methods are currently being reviewed but these PICS results may lead to an update in the reflective band calibration of both Landsat-7 and Landsat-5.

Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Helder, Dennis L.

2012-01-01

396

InsertionMapper: a pipeline tool for the identification of targeted sequences from multidimensional high throughput sequencing data  

PubMed Central

Background The advent of next-generation high-throughput technologies has revolutionized whole genome sequencing, yet some experiments require sequencing only of targeted regions of the genome from a very large number of samples. These regions can be amplified by PCR and sequenced by next-generation methods using a multidimensional pooling strategy. However, there is at present no available generalized tool for the computational analysis of target-enriched NGS data from multidimensional pools. Results Here we present InsertionMapper, a pipeline tool for the identification of targeted sequences from multidimensional high throughput sequencing data. InsertionMapper consists of four independently working modules: Data Preprocessing, Database Modeling, Dimension Deconvolution and Element Mapping. We illustrate InsertionMapper with an example from our project 'New reverse genetics resources for maize’, which aims to sequence-index a collection of 15,000 independent insertion sites of the transposon Ds in maize. Identified sequences are validated by PCR assays. This pipeline tool is applicable to similar scenarios requiring analysis of the tremendous output of short reads produced in NGS sequencing experiments of targeted genome sequences. Conclusions InsertionMapper is proven efficacious for the identification of target-enriched sequences from multidimensional high throughput sequencing data. With adjustable parameters and experiment configurations, this tool can save great computational effort to biologists interested in identifying their sequences of interest within the huge output of modern DNA sequencers. InsertionMapper is freely accessible at https://sourceforge.net/p/insertionmapper and http://bo.csam.montclair.edu/du/insertionmapper. PMID:24090499

2013-01-01

397

Long-term orbit prediction for the Venus Radar Mapper Mission using an averaging method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of singly averaged equations of motion are presented and applied to long-term orbit prediction of an orbiting spacecraft around a slowly rotating planet, using the Venus Radar Mapper Mission as an example. The equations of motion used are valid for all eccentricities less than one. The disturbing potentials used include nonsphericity of the Venus gravity field and third-body effects due to the sun. Recursive relationships are used in the expansion and evaluation of these potentials and their respective partial derivatives. Special care is taken to optimize computational efficiency. The averaging method is compared with high precision Cowell's method using a desktop microcomputer and shows computational saving of about two orders of magnitude.

Kwok, J. H.

1984-01-01

398

Long-term orbit prediction for the Venus Radar Mapper Mission using an averaging method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of singly averaged equations of motion are presented and applied to long-term orbit prediction of an orbiting spacecraft around a slowly rotating planet, using the Venus Radar Mapper Mission as an example. The equations of motion used are valid for all eccentricities less than one. The disturbing potentials used include nonsphericity of the Venus gravity field and third-body effects due to the sun. Recursive relationships are used in the expansion and evaluation of these potentials and their respective partial derivatives. Special care is taken to optimize computational efficiency. The averaging method is compared with high precision Cowell's method using a desktop microcomputer and shows computational saving of about two orders of magnitude.

Kwok, J. H.

1984-08-01

399

The Connectome Mapper: An Open-Source Processing Pipeline to Map Connectomes with MRI  

PubMed Central

Researchers working in the field of global connectivity analysis using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can count on a wide selection of software packages for processing their data, with methods ranging from the reconstruction of the local intra-voxel axonal structure to the estimation of the trajectories of the underlying fibre tracts. However, each package is generally task-specific and uses its own conventions and file formats. In this article we present the Connectome Mapper, a software pipeline aimed at helping researchers through the tedious process of organising, processing and analysing diffusion MRI data to perform global brain connectivity analyses. Our pipeline is written in Python and is freely available as open-source at www.cmtk.org. PMID:23272041

Daducci, Alessandro; Gerhard, Stephan; Griffa, Alessandra; Lemkaddem, Alia; Cammoun, Leila; Gigandet, Xavier; Meuli, Reto; Hagmann, Patric; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

2012-01-01

400

SkyMapper Filter Set: Design and Fabrication of Large Scale Optical Filters  

E-print Network

The SkyMapper Southern Sky Survey will be conducted from Siding Spring Observatory with u, v, g, r, i and z filters that comprise glued glass combination filters of dimension 309x309x15 mm. In this paper we discuss the rationale for our bandpasses and physical characteristics of the filter set. The u, v, g and z filters are entirely glass filters which provide highly uniform band passes across the complete filter aperture. The i filter uses glass with a short-wave pass coating, and the r filter is a complete dielectric filter. We describe the process by which the filters were constructed, including the processes used to obtain uniform dielectric coatings and optimized narrow band anti-reflection coatings, as well as the technique of gluing the large glass pieces together after coating using UV transparent epoxy cement. The measured passbands including extinction and CCD QE are presented.

Bessell, Michael; Schmidt, Brian; Keller, Stefan; Tisserand, Patrick; Francis, Paul

2011-01-01

401

SkyMapper and AEGIS: Tracing the Structure and Evolution of the Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AAOmega Evolution of Galactic Structure (AEGIS) program aims to constrain the chemodynamical evolution of the Milky Way through the study of the halo and the outer thick disk. The AEGIS survey will determine the metal content, kinematics and chemical abundance ratios for 70,000 stars over 4,900 deg2 using the AAOmega multi-object spectrograph on the 3.9m Australian Astronomical Telescope. With such a vast survey area, AEGIS benefits by allocating fibres to very rare high impact classes of objects such as globular cluster tidal tails, white dwarfs, hyper-velocity stars, QSOs, and extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. Here we present the progress of the AEGIS survey and highlight the efficiency in using SkyMapper photometry to select rare EMP candidates.

Casey, A. R.; Keller, S. C.; Ness, M. K.; Aegis Collaboration; Skymapper Team

2012-08-01

402

The connectome mapper: an open-source processing pipeline to map connectomes with MRI.  

PubMed

Researchers working in the field of global connectivity analysis using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can count on a wide selection of software packages for processing their data, with methods ranging from the reconstruction of the local intra-voxel axonal structure to the estimation of the trajectories of the underlying fibre tracts. However, each package is generally task-specific and uses its own conventions and file formats. In this article we present the Connectome Mapper, a software pipeline aimed at helping researchers through the tedious process of organising, processing and analysing diffusion MRI data to perform global brain connectivity analyses. Our pipeline is written in Python and is freely available as open-source at www.cmtk.org. PMID:23272041

Daducci, Alessandro; Gerhard, Stephan; Griffa, Alessandra; Lemkaddem, Alia; Cammoun, Leila; Gigandet, Xavier; Meuli, Reto; Hagmann, Patric; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

2012-01-01

403

The Goes-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM): Algorithm and Instrument Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved capability for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The Geostationary Lighting Mapper (GLM) will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. A joint field campaign with Brazilian researchers in 2010-2011 will produce concurrent observations from a VHF lightning mapping array, Meteosat multi-band imagery, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) overpasses, and related ground and in-situ lightning and meteorological measurements in the vicinity of Sao Paulo. These data will provide a new comprehensive proxy data set for algorithm and application development.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

2010-01-01

404

Priming word order by thematic roles: No evidence for an additional involvement of phrase structure.  

PubMed

Three experiments are reported that studied the priming of word order in German. Experiment 1 demonstrated priming of the order of case-marked verb arguments. However, order of noun phrases and order of thematic roles were confounded. In Experiment 2, we therefore aimed at disentangling the impact of these two possible factors. By using primes that differed from targets in phrase structure but were parallel with regard to the order of thematic roles, we nevertheless found priming demonstrating the critical impact of thematic roles. Experiment 3 replicated the priming effects from Experiments 1 and 2 within participants and revealed no evidence for a modulation of priming by phrase structure. Consequently, our findings suggest that word order priming crucially depends on the structural outline of thematic roles rather than on the linearization of phrases. PMID:24766562

Pappert, Sandra; Pechmann, Thomas

2014-11-01

405

The Relation between Thematic Role Computing and Semantic Relatedness Processing during On-Line Sentence Comprehension  

PubMed Central

Sentence comprehension involves timely computing different types of relations between its verbs and noun arguments, such as morphosyntactic, semantic, and thematic relations. Here, we used EEG technique to investigate the potential differences in thematic role computing and lexical-semantic relatedness processing during on-line sentence comprehension, and the interaction between these two types of processes. Mandarin Chinese sentences were used as materials. The basic structure of those sentences is “Noun+Verb+‘le’+a two-character word”, with the Noun being the initial argument. The verb disambiguates the initial argument as an agent or a patient. Meanwhile, the initial argument and the verb are highly or lowly semantically related. The ERPs at the verbs revealed that: relative to the agent condition, the patient condition evoked a larger N400 only when the argument and verb were lowly semantically related; however, relative to the high-relatedness condition, the low-relatedness condition elicited a larger N400 regardless of the thematic relation; although both thematic role variation and semantic relatedness variation elicited N400 effects, the N400 effect elicited by the former was broadly distributed and reached maximum over the frontal electrodes, and the N400 effect elicited by the latter had a posterior distribution. In addition, the brain oscillations results showed that, although thematic role variation (patient vs. agent) induced power decreases around the beta frequency band (15–30 Hz), semantic relatedness variation (low-relatedness vs. high-relatedness) induced power increases in the theta frequency band (4–7 Hz). These results suggested that, in the sentence context, thematic role computing is modulated by the semantic relatedness between the verb and its argument; semantic relatedness processing, however, is in some degree independent from the thematic relations. Moreover, our results indicated that, during on-line sentence comprehension, thematic role computing and semantic relatedness processing are mediated by distinct neural systems. PMID:24755643

Li, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Haiyan; Lu, Yong

2014-01-01

406

Assessment of the Pseudo Geostationary Lightning Mapper Products at the Spring Program and Summer Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 2010, the de facto Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) demonstration product has been the Pseudo-Geostationary Lightning Mapper (PGLM) product suite. Originally prepared for the Hazardous Weather Testbed's Spring Program (specifically the Experimental Warning Program) when only four ground-based lightning mapping arrays were available, the effort now spans collaborations with several institutions and eight collaborative networks. For 2013, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center and NOAA's National Severe Storms Laboratory have worked to collaborate with each network to obtain data in real-time. This has gone into producing the SPoRT variant of the PGLM that was demonstrated in AWIPS II for the 2013 Spring Program. Alongside the PGLM products, the SPoRT / Meteorological Development Laboratory's total lightning tracking tool also was evaluated to assess not just another visualization of future GLM data but how to best extract more information while in the operational environment. Specifically, this tool addressed the leading request by forecasters during evaluations; provide a time series trend of total lightning in real-time. In addition to the Spring Program, SPoRT is providing the PGLM "mosaic" to the Aviation Weather Center (AWC) and Storm Prediction Center. This is the same as what is used at the Hazardous Weather Testbed, but combines all available networks into one display for use at the national centers. This year, the mosaic was evaluated during the AWC's Summer Experiment. An important distinction between this and the Spring Program is that the Summer Experiment focuses on the national center perspective and not at the local forecast office level. Specifically, the Summer Experiment focuses on aviation needs and concerns and brings together operational forecaster, developers, and FAA representatives. This presentation will focus on the evaluation of SPoRT's pseudo-GLM products in these separate test beds. The emphasis will be on how future GLM observations can support operations at both the local and national scale and how the PGLM was used in combination with other lightning data sets. Evaluations for the PGLM were quite favorable with forecasters appreciating the high temporal resolution, the ability to look for rapid increases in lightning activity ahead of severe weather, as well as situational awareness for where convection is firing and for flight routing.

Stano, Geoffrey T.; Calhoun, Kristin K.; Terborg, Amanda M.

2014-01-01

407

Geologic Features on Titan's Surface as Revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper is one of the prime investigations to explore Titan's surface from orbit. Because of its almost opaque atmosphere, microwave remote sensing contributes uniquely to that investigation. The Titan Radar Mapper operates as a passive radiometer, scatterometer, altimeter, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). We review the diversity of geologic features revealed using SAR during four fly-bys (Ta: October 2004, T3: February 2005, T7: September 2005, and T8: October 2005) and their context. Early SAR images from Ta and T3 reveal that Titan is very geologically complex (see Elachi et al., 2005, Science 13, 970-4). A variety of landforms and surface units were characterized morphologically and mapped, based on brightness variations, general planform shape and texture. Significant differences were seen in the geology between the Ta swath (centered at ~ 50N, 80W) and the T3 swath (centered at ~ 30N, 70W). The units in the Ta swath appear relatively young and no impact craters could be unambiguously identified. A variety of features which we argue to be cryovolcanic in origin were seen, including extensive flows, paterae, and a circular feature (Ganesa Macula) interpreted as a volcanic dome. We interpret radar-bright braided and sinuous channels and associated deposits to be fluvial in origin. Five distinct units were mapped in Ta, including a dark mottled unit that may represent the presence of surface liquids. The T3 swath displayed many of the same units seen in Ta, except for cryovolcanic features which are absent or indistinct. Among the new features in T3 are a large impact (440 km diameter) basin, a smaller (80 km diameter) crater, and dark lineated streaks, nicknamed "cat scratches" that are thought to be aeolian in origin. The dominant unit in T3 is a bright mottled unit that may contain ubiquitous small (less than 10 km across) topographic features. Groups of material that appear to be hills are more common in the T3 data than Ta. Based on the first two swaths (Ta and T3) we expect significant variations in the types and distribution of geologic features in the T7 and T8 data. The T8 swath will cover the landing site of the Huygens probe, providing a larger geologic context for the high-resolution near-infrared images obtained during the descent of the Huygens probe.

Lopes, R. M.; Stofan, E.; Elachi, C.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Mitchell, K. L.; Ori, G. G.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L.; Wall, S.; Wood, C.

2005-12-01

408

Star sensor/mapper with a self deployable, high-attenuation light shade for SAS-B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A star sensor/mapper to determine positional data for the small astronomy satellites was tested to detect stars of plus 4 visual magnitude. It utilizes two information channels with memory so that it can be used with a low-data-rate telemetry system. One channel yields star amplitude information; the other yields the time of star occurrence as the star passes across an N-slit reticle/photomultiplier detector system. Some of the features of the star sensor/mapper are its low weight of 6.5 pounds, low power consumption of 0.4 watt, bandwidth switching to match the satellite spin rate, optical equalization of sensitivity over the 5-by-10 deg field of view, and self-deployable sunshade. The attitude determination accuracy is 3 arc minutes. This is determined by such parameters as the reticle configuration, optical train, and telemetry readout. The optical and electronic design of the star sensor/mapper, its expansion capabilities, and its features are discussed.

Schenkel, F. W.; Finkel, A.

1972-01-01

409

European Space Agency (ESA) Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive Bulk-Processing: processor improvements and data quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat program is a joint United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enterprise for Earth Observation (EO), that represents the world's longest running system of satellites for moderate-resolution optical remote sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe through the ESA ground stations over the last 40 years, in co-operation with USGS and NASA. A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor has been developed. This enhanced processor aligns the historical Landsat products to the highest quality standards that can be achieved with the current knowledge of the instruments. The updated processor is mainly based on the USGS algorithm; however the ESA processor has some different features that are detailed in this paper. Using this upgraded processor, ESA is currently performing for the first time a bulk-processing of its entire Landsat series MSS/TM/ETM+ historical archive to make all products available to users. Current achievements include the processing and online distribution of approximately 290 000 new Landsat 5 TM high-quality products acquired at the Kiruna ground station between 1983 and 2011. The Landsat 5 TM bulk-processed products are made available for direct download after registration at: https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/pi-community/apply for-data/fast-registration. The remainder of the ESA's Landsat data, dating back more than 40 years, will gradually become available for all users during the course of 2014. The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk-processing, and an overview on the data quality on a subset of the Landsat 5 TM data are herein presented.

Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Ferrara, R.; Fischer, P.; Galli, L.; Hoersch, B.; Hopkins, S.; Jackson, J.; Lavender, S.; Mica, S.; Northrop, A.; Paciucci, A.; Paul, F.; Pinori, S.; Saunier, S.

2014-09-01

410

Reconciliation of Disparate Earth Observation Thematic Data through Semantics Driven Middleware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing demand for digital databases of topographic and thematic information for a multitude of applications in environmental management, and also in data integration and efficient updating of other spatially oriented data. These thematic datasets are highly heterogeneous in syntax, structure and semantics as they are produced and provided by a variety of agencies having different definitions, standards and applications of the data. In this paper we focus on the semantic heterogeneity in thematic information sources, as it has been widely recognized that semantic conflicts are responsible for the most serious data heterogeneity problems hindering the efficient interoperability between heterogeneous information sources. In particular, we focus on the semantic heterogeneities present in the land cover classification schemes corresponding to the North America Land cover characterization data. We propose a framework (Semantics Enabled Thematic data Integration (SETI)) that describes in depth the methodology involved in the reconciliation of such semantic conflicts by adopting the emerging semantic web technologies. Ontologies were developed for the classification schemes and a shared ontology approach for integration of the application level Ontologies is described. A semantics driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been developed in Java that implements the SETI framework for the integration of disparate thematic data sources. We employ Description Logics (DL) based reasoning on the terminological knowledgebase developed for the land cover characterization which enables querying and retrieval that goes beyond just keyword based searches.

Durbha, S. S.; King, R. L.; Ling, Y.; Younan, N. H.; Shah, V. P.

2006-12-01

411

An Initial Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data for the Discrimination of Agricultural, Forested Wetlands, and Urban Land Cover. [Poinsett County, Arkansas; and Reelfoot Lake and Union City, Tennessee  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities of TM data for discriminating land covers within three particular cultural and ecological realms was assessed. The agricultural investigation in Poinsett County, Arkansas illustrates that TM data can successfully be used to discriminate a variety of crop cover types within the study area. The single-date TM classification produced results that were significantly better than those developed from multitemporal MSS data. For the Reelfoot Lake area of Tennessee TM data, processed using unsupervised signature development techniques, produced a detailed classification of forested wetlands with excellent accuracy. Even in a small city of approximately 15,000 people (Union City, Tennessee). TM data can successfully be used to spectrally distinguish specific urban classes. Furthermore, the principal components analysis evaluation of the data shows that through photointerpretation, it is possible to distinguish individual buildings and roof responses with the TM.

Quattrochi, D. A.

1985-01-01

412

Interface control document between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Department of Interior EROS Data Center (EDC) for LANDSAT-D. Thematic mapper high resolution 241 mm film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 241 mm photographic product produced by the Goddard Space Flight Center Data Management System for LANDSAT-D is described. Film type and format, image dimensions, frame ID, gray scale, resolution patterns, registration marks, etc. are addressed.

1982-01-01

413

Non-Polar Lunar Hydroxyl and Water Using the Moon Mineralogy Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Towards the late stages of differentiation of the early lunar magma ocean, the remaining KREEP layer would have been enriched with thorium, water, hydroxyl, and other incompatible materials. Therefore, locations that show high concentrations of thorium and hydroxyl/water may indicate assimilation of or interaction with KREEP. Using results from the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer (LP-GRS), we selected thorium anomalies on the Moon in an effort to detect KREEP-rich material using hyperspectral imagery. Four sites were chosen: Lassell Crater (15 S, 8 W), Hansteen Alpha (15 S, 50 W), Gruithuisen Domes (36 N, 40 W), and the Compton-Belkovich Thorium Anomaly (61 N, 100 E). Three of these sites are non-mare volcanic features within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane, while Compton-Belkovich is located on the lunar farside. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) hyperspectral imager was used to analyze the composition of these locations. The spectra gathered from the volcanic domes all show pronounced absorptions at ~2.8 ?m, indicating hydroxyl or water. This is significant for two reasons: (1) the strong absorption of hydroxyl/water shown at each of these volcanic features supports the hypothesis that the lunar mantle is more hydrous than previously thought; and (2) it suggests that KREEP may lie, possibly as uncoupled pods, beneath the anorthositic highlands near Compton-Belkovich as well as beneath other areas outside the previously defined Procellarum KREEP Terrane.

Standart, D. L.; Hurtado, J. M.

2012-12-01

414

Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture Radar images of Titan's surface during four fly-bys during the mission's first year. These images show that Titan's surface is very complex geologically, showing evidence of major planetary geologic processes, including cryovolcanism. This paper discusses the variety of cryovolcanic features identified from SAR images, their possible origin, and their geologic context. The features which we identify as cryovolcanic in origin include a large (180 km diameter) volcanic construct (dome or shield), several extensive flows, and three calderas which appear to be the source of flows. The composition of the cryomagma on Titan is still unknown, but constraints on rheological properties can be estimated using flow thickness. Rheological properties of one flow were estimated and appear inconsistent with ammonia-water slurries, and possibly more consistent with ammonia-water-methanol slurries. The extent of cryovolcanism on Titan is still not known, as only a small fraction of the surface has been imaged at sufficient resolution. Energetic considerations suggest that cryovolcanism may have been a dominant process in the resurfacing of Titan.

Lopes, R. M. C.; Mitchell, K. L.; Stofan, E. R.; Lunine, J. I.; Lorenz, R.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R. L.; Wood, C. A.; Wall, S. D.; Robshaw, L. E.; Fortes, A. D.; Neish, C. D.; Radebaugh, J.; Reffet, E.; Ostro, S. J.; Elachi, C.; Allison, M. D.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Boubin, G.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M. A.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D. O.; Ori, G.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L. E.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L. A.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R. D.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H. A.

2007-02-01

415

High Impact Weather Forecasts and Warnings with the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. A major advancement over the current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Science Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop cal/val performance monitoring tools and new applications using the GLM alone, in conjunction with other instruments, and merged or blended integrated observing system products combining satellite, radar, in-situ and numerical models. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William; Mach, Douglas M.

2011-01-01

416

Optical maturity variation in lunar spectra as measured by Moon Mineralogy Mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High spectral and spatial resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument on Chandrayaan-1 are used to investigate in detail changes in the optical properties of lunar materials accompanying space weathering. Three spectral parameters were developed and used to quantify spectral effects commonly thought to be associated with increasing optical maturity: an increase in spectral slope ("reddening"), a decrease in albedo ("darkening"), and loss of spectral contrast (decrease in absorption band depth). Small regions of study were defined that sample the ejecta deposits of small fresh craters that contain relatively crystalline (immature) material that grade into local background (mature) soils. Selected craters are small enough that they can be assumed to be of constant composition and thus are useful for evaluating trends in optical maturity. Color composites were also used to identify the most immature material in a region and show that maturity trends can also be identified using regional soil trends. The high resolution M3 data are well suited to quantifying the spectral changes that accompany space weathering and are able to capture subtle spectral variations in maturity trends. However, the spectral changes that occur as a function of maturity were observed to be dependent on local composition. Given the complexity of space weathering processes, this was not unexpected but poses challenges for absolute measures of optical maturity across diverse lunar terrains. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Nettles, J.W.; Staid, M.; Besse, S.; Boardman, J.; Clark, R.N.; Dhingra, D.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Pieters, C.M.; Taylor, L.A.

2011-01-01

417

Basis and methods of NASA airborne topographic mapper lidar surveys for coastal studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of airborne laser altimetry for surveys of coastal topography, and describes the methods used in the acquisition and processing of NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) surveys that cover much of the conterminous US coastline. This form of remote sensing, also known as "topographic lidar", has undergone extremely rapid development during the last two decades, and has the potential to contribute within a wide range of coastal scientific investigations. Various airborne laser surveying (ALS) applications that are relevant to coastal studies are being pursued by researchers in a range of Earth science disciplines. Examples include the mapping of "bald earth" land surfaces below even moderately dense vegetation in studies of geologic framework and hydrology, and determination of the vegetation canopy structure, a key variable in mapping wildlife habitats. ALS has also proven to be an excellent method for the regional mapping of geomorphic change along barrier island beaches and other sandy coasts due to storms or long-term sedimentary processes. Coastal scientists are adopting ALS as a basic method in the study of an array of additional coastal topics. ALS can provide useful information in the analysis of shoreline change, the prediction and assessment of landslides along seacliffs and headlands, examination of subsidence causing coastal land loss, and in predicting storm surge and tsunami inundation.

Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

2002-01-01

418

Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture Radar images of Titan's surface during four fly-bys during the mission's first year. These images show that Titan's surface is very complex geologically, showing evidence of major planetary geologic processes, including cryovolcanism. This paper discusses the variety of cryovolcanic features identified from SAR images, their possible origin, and their geologic context. The features which we identify as cryovolcanic in origin include a large (180 km diameter) volcanic construct (dome or shield), several extensive flows, and three calderas which appear to be the source of flows. The composition of the cryomagma on Titan is still unknown, but constraints on rheological properties can be estimated using flow thickness. Rheological properties of one flow were estimated and appear inconsistent with ammonia-water slurries, and possibly more consistent with ammonia-water-methanol slurries. The extent of cryovolcanism on Titan is still not known, as only a small fraction of the surface has been imaged at sufficient resolution. Energetic considerations suggest that cryovolcanism may have been a dominant process in the resurfacing of Titan. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc.

Lopes, R.M.C.; Mitchell, K.L.; Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Wall, S.D.; Robshaw, L.E.; Fortes, A.D.; Neish, C.D.; Radebaugh, J.; Reffet, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Elachi, C.; Allison, M.D.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Boubin, G.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M.A.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.O.; Ori, G.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.E.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L.A.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.D.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.A.

2007-01-01

419

Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Nampa, Idaho 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Approximately 18 people attended this year's mappers meeting, and many more submitted abstracts and maps in absentia. The meeting was held on the campus of Northwest Nazarene University (NNU), and was graciously hosted by NNU's School of Health and Science. Planetary mapper Dr. Jim Zimbelman is an alumnus of NNU, and he was pivotal in organizing the meeting at this location. Oral and poster presentations were given on Friday, June 30. Drs. Bill Bonnichsen and Marty Godchaux led field excursions on July 1 and 2. USGS Astrogeology Team Chief Scientist Lisa Gaddis led the meeting with a brief discussion of the status of the planetary mapping program at USGS, and a more detailed description of the Lunar Mapping Program. She indicated that there is now a functioning website (http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/PlanetaryMapping/Lunar/) which shows which lunar quadrangles are available to be mapped. Like other USGS-published maps, proposals to complete a lunar geologic map must be submitted to the regular Planetary Geology & Geophysics (PGG) program for peer review. Jim Skinner (USGS) later presented the progress of the 1:2.5M-scale map of the lunar Copernicus quadrangle, and demonstrated the wide range of data that are available to support these maps. Gaddis and Skinner encouraged the community to submit proposals for generating lunar geologic maps, and reminded us that, as for all planetary maps, the project must be science-driven. Venus mapper Jim Zimbelman of the Smithsonian Institution (SI) presented the progress for his V-15 and V-16 quadrangles; Vicki Hansen (University of Minnesota Duluth) showed her preliminary work on V-45. Zimbelman addressed an issue that has been plaguing the community: 'delinquent Venus mappers'. In short, there were a number of Venus maps funded in the early 1990s under the Venus Data Analysis Program (VDAP). Unfortunately, funding for this program was cut before many Venus maps could be completed, resulting in about 10 Venus maps that were initially assigned but have shown little or no progress in many years. Zimbelman announced that he was not going to be able to complete quadrangle V-27 that he was assigned under VDAP, and was therefore returning that quadrangle to the community; he invited people to propose to PGG to map this quadrangle. Dave Williams of Arizona State University (ASU) reported on the progress of his global Io map. His mapping team recently received the completed, controlled global mosaic (using Voyager and Galileo images) from the USGS; this will be the basemap for their geologic mapping. Furthermore, the three team members (Laszlo Keszthelyi, David Crown and Dave Williams) have calibrated their individual mapping techniques by each mapping the same region for comparison. Thomas Doggett (ASU) showed progress on the global Europa map that was awarded to Ron Greeley. There was some consternation expressed on the methodology for determining relative ages of the lineaments; it was suggested that Vicki Hansen contact Patricio Figueredo (Exxon) directly, because Figueredo is the one who has been developing the lineament mapping techniques. Mars remains the most popular planet to map. Kevin Williams (SI) and Corey Fortezzo (SI) presented progress on their 1:500K maps in the Margaritifer Terra region of Mars. Jim Zimbelman described his 1:1M Medusae Fossae map, which is nearing completion. Peter Mouginis-Mark (University of Hawai'i) reported progress on his 1:200K maps of Tooting crater and of the Olympus Mons summit caldera. Jim Skinner discussed the progress of his and Ken Herkenhoff?s (USGS) map (1:500K) on the Olympia Cavi region of Mars? north pole, and Eric Kolb (USGS) presented work that he and Ken Tanaka (USGS) are completing on the Martian south pole. David Crown of the Planetary Science Institute (PSI) reported on numerous 1:500K and 1:1M maps in the Hellas and Hesperia regions of Mars. Frank Chuang (PSI) discussed progress on mapping the Deuteronilus Mensae reg

Gregg, Tracy K. P., (Edited By); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Saunders, R. Stephen

2006-01-01

420

The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and the Global Observing System for Total Lightning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product latency of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. The GLM will help address the National Weather Service requirement for total lightning observations globally to support warning decision-making and forecast services. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS national centers, forecast offices, and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in 2016. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.; Buechler, D.; Carey, L.; Chronis, T.; Mach, D.; Bateman, M.; Peterson, H.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; Stano, G. T.; Bitzer, P. M.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Cummins, K. L.

2014-01-01

421

Compositional diversity and geologic insights of the Aristarchus crater from Moon Mineralogy Mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) acquired high spatial and spectral resolution data of the Aristarchus Plateau with 140 m/pixel in 85 spectral bands from 0.43 to 3.0 m. The data were collected as radiance and converted to reflectance using the observational constraints and a solar spectrum scaled to the Moon-Sun distance. Summary spectral parameters for the area of mafic silicate 1 and 2 m bands were calculated from the M3 data and used to map the distribution of key units that were then analyzed in detail with the spectral data. This analysis focuses on five key compositional units in the region. (1) The central peaks are shown to be strongly enriched in feldspar and are likely from the upper plagioclase-rich crust of the Moon. (2) The impact melt is compositionally diverse with clear signatures of feldspathic crust, olivine, and glass. (3) The crater walls and ejecta show a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and evidence for massive breccia blocks. (4) Olivine, strongly concentrated on the rim, wall, and exterior of the southeastern quadrant of the crater, is commonly associated the impact melt. (5) There are at least two types of glass deposits observed: pyroclastic glass and impact glass. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Mustard, J. F.; Pieters, C. M.; Isaacson, P. J.; Head, J. W.; Besse, S.; Clark, R. N.; Klima, R. L.; Petro, N. E.; Staid, M. I.; Sunshine, J. M.; Runyon, C. J.; Tompkins, S.

2011-01-01

422

Post-launch performance evaluation of the OMPS Nadir Mapper and Nadir Profiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) represents the latest generation of polar-orbiting satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The first in the JPSS series of satellites, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft was launched in November 2011 to bridge the gap between the current Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the future JPSS-1. The Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) is a suite of hyperspectral instruments onboard the Suomi NPP spacecraft designed to continue atmospheric ozone records through both atmospheric profiles and global distribution mapping. OMPS will also be included on the future JPSS payloads. In order to properly extend measurements from previous ozone instruments, including the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument on POES, proper OMPS calibration is necessary. In this study, the postlaunch performance of the OMPS Nadir Mapper (NM) and Nadir Profiler (NP) are evaluated through their Sensor Data Records (SDRs), which validates their end-to-end calibration. This is achieved through stability monitoring and intercomparison.

Grotenhuis, Michael G.; Wu, Xiangqian; Flynn, Larry; Beach, Eric; Niu, Jianguo; Yu, Wei

2014-09-01

423

Inversion and classification studies of live-site production-level MetalMapper data sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper illustrates the discrimination performance of a set of advanced models at an actual UXO live site. The suite of methods, which combines the orthonormalized volume magnetic source (ONVMS) model, a data-preprocessing technique based on joint diagonalization (JD), and differential evolution (DE) minimization, among others, was tested at the former Camp Beale in California. The data for the study were collected independently by two UXO production teams from Parsons and CH2M HILL using the MetalMapper (MM) sensor in cued mode; each set of data was also processed independently. Initially all data were inverted using a multi-target version of the combined ONVMS-DE algorithm, which provided intrinsic parameters (the total ONVMS amplitudes) that were then used to perform classification after having been inspected by an expert. Classification of the Parsons data was conducted by a Sky Research production team using a fingerprinting approach; analysis of the CH2M HILL data was performed by a Sky/Dartmouth R&D team using unsupervised clustering. During the classification stage the analysts requested the ground truth for selected anomalies typical of the different clusters; this was then used to classify them using a probability function. This paper reviews the data inversion, processing, and discrimination schemes involving the advanced EMI methods and presents the classification results obtained for both the CH2M HILL and the Parsons data. Independent scoring by the Institute for Defense Analyses reveals superb all-around classification performance.

Shubitidze, F.; Fernández, J. P.; Miller, J.; Keranen, J.; Barrowes, B. E.; Bijamov, A.

2012-06-01

424

Thematic Design: My Story is Better When Your Story is Better  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What does a well-designed thematic workshop look like? Walking into a presentation at a convention center or at a NASA center, one might see formal and informal educators receiving space science content from knowledgeable science experts, actively participating in topic-related activities, questioning, collaborating, and investigating, connecting topics and content to their education needs, and having fun. But what is really going on, and what did it take to get to this point-the point of delivery. This is an opportunity to share experience and knowledge pertaining to designing and conducting space science thematic workshops and trainings. It is an attempt to describe the thematic approach to space science education that has been demonstrated in Solar System Exploration Education Forum workshops over many years and to articulate the best practices pertain-ing to designing and presenting those workshops.

Tobola, Kay; Allen, Jaclyn

2011-01-01

425

Spatial and thematic assessment of object-based forest stand delineation using an OFA-matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The delineation and classification of forest stands is a crucial aspect of forest management. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) can be used to produce detailed maps of forest stands from either orthophotos or very high resolution satellite imagery. However, measures are then required for evaluating and quantifying both the spatial and thematic accuracy of the OBIA output. In this paper we present an approach for delineating forest stands and a new Object Fate Analysis (OFA) matrix for accuracy assessment. A two-level object-based orthophoto analysis was first carried out to delineate stands on the Dehesa Boyal public land in central Spain (Avila Province). Two structural features were first created for use in class modelling, enabling good differentiation between stands: a relational tree cover cluster feature, and an arithmetic ratio shadow/tree feature. We then extended the OFA comparison approach with an OFA-matrix to enable concurrent validation of thematic and spatial accuracies. Its diagonal shows the proportion of spatial and thematic coincidence between a reference data and the corresponding classification. New parameters for Spatial Thematic Loyalty (STL), Spatial Thematic Loyalty Overall (STLOVERALL) and Maximal Interfering Object (MIO) are introduced to summarise the OFA-matrix accuracy assessment. A stands map generated by OBIA (classification data) was compared with a map of the same area produced from photo interpretation and field data (reference data). In our example the OFA-matrix results indicate good spatial and thematic accuracies (>65%) for all stand classes except for the shrub stands (31.8%), and a good STLOVERALL (69.8%). The OFA-matrix has therefore been shown to be a valid tool for OBIA accuracy assessment.

Hernando, A.; Tiede, D.; Albrecht, F.; Lang, S.

2012-10-01

426

Remotely sensing data and thematic mapping for sustainable developing in Sperchios river basin (Central Greece)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Policy and decision making in the context of sustainable development requires rapid, effective and efficient access to and integration of appropriate current information from a wide range of sources, including land cover changes information derived from remotely sensed data. Geomorphic factors, such as altitude, slope, aspect and lithology presented in the area comprise the main parameters, including the climate, influencing the distribution of land cover. The use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) allows further spatial analysis of the data derived from remotely sensed images and digital terrain spatial models, and analysis of the impact of land cover change on regional sustainable development. The remotely sensing data used in this study was Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ images. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Selective Principal Component Analysis (SPCA) techniques were applied to detect land cover change and especially vegetation changes from multitemporal satellite data. The area under study is the basin of River Sperchios, which covers an area of some 1.780 km2, is approximately 60-80 km long, 20-30 km wide with its southern and western flanks characterized by high elevations and steep slopes, whilst its northern flank presents lower elevations and more gently slopes. The conclusions obtained show that extensive land cover changes has occurred in the last decades as a result of both natural forces and human activities, which has in turn impacted on the regional sustainable development. The results thus provide very useful information to local government for decision making and policy planning.

Psomiadis, Emmanouil; Parcharidis, Issaak; Stamatis, George; Foumelis, Michael

2005-10-01

427

MAppERS: a peer-produced community for emergency support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general trend in European governance tends to shift responsibilities in territorial management from national central authorities to local/regional levels and to the citizens as first actors of Civil Protection. Prevention is a long term goal that rests not only on the capacities of professional operators and volunteers, but that has to necessarily imply the involvement and awareness of the citizens over the territory they inhabit. In fact people often do not have chance to interact in the surveillance of the territory and only face risks when they have to bear impacts on their lives. Involvement of population creates more cost-effective and context-specific strategies of territorial surveillance and management. A collaborative user environment is useful for emergency response and support in the wake of disasters, feeding updated information on the ground directly to on-site responders. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a EU project (funded under programme 2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) which empowers citizens as "crowd-sourced mappers" through the development of a smart phone application able to collect GPS-localised and detailed parameters, that can then be sent from citizens to civil protection operators in a contest of geospatial response. The process of app design includes feedback from citizens, involving them in training courses on the monitoring of the territory as long term objective of raising public awareness and participation from the citizens, as actors in a networked disaster response community. The project proceeds from the design and testing of the smart phone applications (module MAppERS-V for volunteers, module MAppERS-C for citizens) according to software engineering environment (Android and Iphone SDK). Information exchange and data transfer need clearness and efficiency; thus a previous research is conducted on the cost-effectiveness of already existing practices for territorial management. Citizens and volunteers of civil protection are then involved to test applications at pilot sites. This phase takes place in parallel to a dedicated training on app functioning. The app modules are to be later re-designed according to a methodological and technical feedback gained during pilot study. Training curricula for citizens that wish to be involved in the monitoring of the territory in the long run are then to be defined so to promote territorial knowledge and awareness, give information and practical skills on smart phone technologies and specific efficient jargon to communicate hazard relevant information. Overall, a user-friendly integration with existing monitoring on-site technique prevails on a deep new architecture. A synchronized platform would allow both the protection of private data from citizens and the identification of the users in case of misuse of the information sharing. The expected results of this project are: a) an easy-to-use "human-data" input on crisis management, b) the development of a multi-module smart phone application linking trained people and headquarters c) maximised utility of peer-produced mapping (e.g. damaged points, critical hotspots), d) the development of a strategy of disaster prevention based on development of human and social resources rather than structural mitigation options.

Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

2014-05-01

428

Satellite Proving Ground for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key mission of the Satellite Proving Ground is to demonstrate new satellite observing data, products and capabilities in the operational environment to be ready on Day 1 to use the GOES-R suite of measurements. Algorithms, tools, and techniques must be tested, validated, and assessed by end users for their utility before they are finalized and incorporated into forecast operations. The GOES-R Proving Ground for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) focuses on evaluating how the infusion of the new technology, algorithms, decision aids, or tailored products integrate with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks; nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing forecasts and warning products. Additionally, the testing concept fosters operation and development staff interactions which will improve training materials and support documentation development. Real-time proxy total lightning data from regional VHF lightning mapping arrays (LMA) in Northern Alabama, Central Oklahoma, Cape Canaveral Florida, and the Washington, DC Greater Metropolitan Area are the cornerstone for the GLM Proving Ground. The proxy data will simulate the 8 km Event, Group and Flash data that will be generated by GLM. Tailored products such as total flash density at 1-2 minute intervals will be provided for display in AWIPS-2 to select NWS forecast offices and national centers such as the Storm Prediction Center. Additional temporal / spatial combinations are being investigated in coordination with operational needs and case-study proxy data and prototype visualizations may also be generated from the NASA heritage Lightning Imaging Sensor and Optical Transient Detector data. End users will provide feedback on the utility of products in their operational environment, identify use cases and spatial/temporal scales of interest, and provide feedback to the developers for adjusted or new products.

Goodman, Steven J.; Gurka, James; Bruning, E. C.; Blakeslee, J. R.; Rabin, Robert; Buechler, D.

2009-01-01

429

Lightning Jump Algorithm Development for the GOES·R Geostationary Lightning Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current work on the lightning jump algorithm to be used in GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)'s data stream is multifaceted due to the intricate interplay between the storm tracking, GLM proxy data, and the performance of the lightning jump itself. This work outlines the progress of the last year, where analysis and performance of the lightning jump algorithm with automated storm tracking and GLM proxy data were assessed using over 700 storms from North Alabama. The cases analyzed coincide with previous semi-objective work performed using total lightning mapping array (LMA) measurements in Schultz et al. (2011). Analysis shows that key components of the algorithm (flash rate and sigma thresholds) have the greatest influence on the performance of the algorithm when validating using severe storm reports. Automated objective analysis using the GLM proxy data has shown probability of detection (POD) values around 60% with false alarm rates (FAR) around 73% using similar methodology to Schultz et al. (2011). However, when applying verification methods similar to those employed by the National Weather Service, POD values increase slightly (69%) and FAR values decrease (63%). The relationship between storm tracking and lightning jump has also been tested in a real-time framework at NSSL. This system includes fully automated tracking by radar alone, real-time LMA and radar observations and the lightning jump. Results indicate that the POD is strong at 65%. However, the FAR is significantly higher than in Schultz et al. (2011) (50-80% depending on various tracking/lightning jump parameters) when using storm reports for verification. Given known issues with Storm Data, the performance of the real-time jump algorithm is also being tested with high density radar and surface observations from the NSSL Severe Hazards Analysis & Verification Experiment (SHAVE).

Schultz. E.; Schultz. C.; Chronis, T.; Stough, S.; Carey, L.; Calhoun, K.; Ortega, K.; Stano, G.; Cecil, D.; Bateman, M.; Goodman, S.

2014-01-01

430

Fast rockfall hazard assessment along a road section using the new LYNX Mobile Mapper Lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an active remote sensing technique providing high resolution point clouds of the topography. The high resolution digital elevations models (HRDEM) derived of these point clouds are an important tool for the stability analysis of slopes. The LYNX Mobile Mapper is a new TLS generation developed by Optech. Its particularity is to be mounted on a vehicle and providing a 360° high density point cloud at 200-khz measurement rate in a very short acquisition time. It is composed of two sensors improving the resolution and reducing the laser shadowing. The spatial resolution is better than 10 cm at 10 m range and at a velocity of 50 km/h and the reflectivity of the signal is around 20% at a distance of 200 m. The Lidar is also equipped with a DGPS and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which gives real time position and georeferences directly the point cloud. Thanks to its ability to provide a continuous data set from an extended area along a road, this TLS system is useful for rockfall hazard assessment. In addition, this new scanner decrease considerably the time spent in the field and the postprocessing is reduced thanks to resultant georeferenced data. Nevertheless, its application is limited to an area close to the road. The LYNX has been tested near Pontarlier (France) along roads sections affected by rockfall. Regarding to the tectonic context, the studied area is located in the Folded Jura mainly composed of limestone. The result is a very detailed point cloud with a point spacing of 4 cm. The LYNX presents detailed topography on which a structural analysis has been carried out using COLTOP-3D. It allows obtaining a full structural description along the road. In addition, kinematic tests coupled with probabilistic analysis give a susceptibility map of the road cut or natural cliffs above the road. Comparisons with field survey confirm the Lidar approach.

Dario, Carrea; Celine, Longchamp; Michel, Jaboyedoff; Marc, Choffet; Marc-Henri, Derron; Clement, Michoud; Andrea, Pedrazzini; Dario, Conforti; Michael, Leslar; William, Tompkinson

2010-05-01

431

Lithological mapping from hyperspectral data by improved use of spectral angle mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral angle mapper (SAM), as a spectral matching method, has been widely used in lithological type identification and mapping using hyperspectral data. The SAM quantifies the spectral similarity between an image pixel spectrum and a reference spectrum with known components. In most existing studies a mean reflectance spectrum has been used as the reference spectrum for a specific lithological class. However, this conventional use of SAM does not take into account the spectral variability, which is an inherent property of many rocks and is further magnified in remote sensing data acquisition process. In this study, two methods of determining reference spectra used in SAM are proposed for the improved lithological mapping. In first method the mean of spectral derivatives was combined with the mean of original spectra, i.e., the mean spectrum and the mean spectral derivative were jointly used in SAM classification, to improve the class separability. The second method is the use of multiple reference spectra in SAM to accommodate the spectral variability. The proposed methods were evaluated in lithological mapping using EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral data of two arid areas. The spectral variability and separability of the rock types under investigation were also examined and compared using spectral data alone and using both spectral data and first derivatives. The experimental results indicated that spectral variability significantly affected the identification of lithological classes with the conventional SAM method using a mean reference spectrum. The proposed methods achieved significant improvement in the accuracy of lithological mapping, outperforming the conventional use of SAM with a mean spectrum as the reference spectrum, and the matching filtering, a widely used spectral mapping method.

Zhang, Xiya; Li, Peijun

2014-09-01

432

An Intelligent Learning Diagnosis System for Web-Based Thematic Learning Platform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work proposes an intelligent learning diagnosis system that supports a Web-based thematic learning model, which aims to cultivate learners' ability of knowledge integration by giving the learners the opportunities to select the learning topics that they are interested, and gain knowledge on the specific topics by surfing on the Internet to…

Huang, Chenn-Jung; Liu, Ming-Chou; Chu, San-Shine; Cheng, Chih-Lun

2007-01-01

433

Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Society and systems  

E-print Network

Thematic note to substantiate Risø's strategy ­ impact on society Society and systems Impact on society: Sustainable energy supply Introduction Risø has for a number of years engaged in development years contribute research of a high international standard to the development of the area. Impact

434

Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Innovation activities  

E-print Network

Thematic note to substantiate Risø's strategy ­ impact on society Innovation activities Impact specializing in creating an impact from its research activities on Danish society. Owing to its wide: Competitive power as high-technology society Introduction The objective of Risø's innovation activities

435

Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Customer-driven activities  

E-print Network

Thematic note to substantiate Risø's strategy ­ impact on society Customer-driven activities Impact and embedding Risø's research in society and thereby having significant impact. To Risø, the activities provide: Competitive power as high-technology society Introduction Customer-driven activities are activities undertaken

436

Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Competence platforms and exchange of knowledge  

E-print Network

Thematic note to substantiate Risø's strategy ­ impact on society Competence platforms and exchange of knowledge Impact: Competitive power as high-technology society Introduction The basis of Risø's strategic and will have an impact on Denmark's comparative advantage as a high-technology society: o Materials

437

BRAIN AND LANGUAGE 41, 402-436 (1991) Selective Impairment of Thematic Role Assignment in  

E-print Network

BRAIN AND LANGUAGE 41, 402-436 (1991) Selective Impairment of Thematic Role Assignment in Sentence. This pattern of performance poses interesting challenges for current conceptions of the nature of language facts as well as controversy on the very nature of the facts to be explained (see Badecker & Caramazza

Caramazza, Alfonso