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Sample records for landsat-5 thematic mapper

  1. Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper outgassing effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.L.; Micijevic, E.

    2004-01-01

    A periodic 3% to 5% variation in detector response affecting both image and internal calibrator (IC) data has been observed in bands 5 and 7 of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper. The source for this variation is thought to be an interference effect due to buildup of an ice-like contaminant film on a ZnSe window, covered with an antireflective coating (ARC), of the cooled dewar containing these detectors. Periodic warming of the dewar is required in order to remove the contaminant and restore detector response to an uncontaminated level. These effects in the IC data have been characterized over four individual outgassing cycles using thin-film models to estimate transmittance of the window/ARC and ARC/contaminant film stack throughout the instrument lifetime. Based on the results obtained from this modeling, a lookup table procedure has been implemented that provides correction factors to improve the calibration accuracy of bands 5 and 7 by approximately 5%.

  2. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  3. Improved outgassing models for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.; Hayes, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) detectors of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands 5 and 7 are maintained on cryogenic temperatures to minimize thermal noise and allow adequate detection of scene energy. Over the instrument's lifetime, gain oscillations are observed in these bands that are caused by an ice-like contaminant that gradually builds up on the window of a dewar that houses these bands' detectors. This process of icing, an effect of material outgassing in space, is detected and characterized through observations of Internal Calibrator (IC) data. Analyses of IC data indicated three to five percent uncertainty in absolute gain estimates due to this icing phenomenon. The thin-film interference lifetime models implemented in the image product generation systems at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) successfully remove up to 80 percent of the icing effects for the image acquisition period from the satellite's launch in 1984 until 2001; however, their correction ability was found to be much lower for the time thereafter. This study concentrates on improving the estimates of the contaminant film growth rate and the associated change in the period of gain oscillations. The goal is to provide model parameters with the potential to correct 70 to 80 percent of gain uncertainties caused by outgassing effects in L5 TM bands 5 and 7 over the instrument's entire lifetime. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  4. Improved outgassing models for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.; Hayes, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) detectors of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands 5 and 7 are maintained on cryogenic temperatures to minimize thermal noise and allow adequate detection of scene energy. Over the instrument's lifetime, gain oscillations are observed in these bands that are caused by an ice-like contaminant that gradually builds up on the window of a dewar that houses these bands' detectors. This process of icing, an effect of material outgassing in space, is detected and characterized through observations of Internal Calibrator (IC) data. Analyses of IC data indicated three to five percent uncertainty in absolute gain estimates due to this icing phenomenon. The thin-film interference lifetime models implemented in the image product generation systems at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) successfully remove up to 80 percent of the icing effects for the image acquisition period from the satellite's launch in 1984 until 2001; however, their correction ability was found to be much lower for the time thereafter. This study concentrates on improving the estimates of the contaminant film growth rate and the associated change in the period of gain oscillations. The goal is to provide model parameters with the potential to correct 70 to 80 percent of gain uncertainties caused by outgassing effects in L5 TM bands 5 and 7 over the instrument's entire lifetime. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  5. Thematic Mapper. Volume 1: Calibration report flight model, LANDSAT 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, R. C.; Lansing, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The calibration of the Flight 1 Model Thematic Mapper is discussed. Spectral response, scan profile, coherent noise, line spread profiles and white light leaks, square wave response, radiometric calibration, and commands and telemetry are specifically addressed.

  6. Thematic Mapper Image Processing System - Geometric correction performance for Landsat-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, J.

    1985-01-01

    Geometric correction performance data are presented for the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper and the Thematic Mapper Image Processing System. Temporal registration and geodetic rectification results are displayed in the form of 90 percent errors. Both error estimation and direct measurements demonstrate that the instrument and system meet performance requirements.

  7. Characterization and Comparison of LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Engineering analyses of Thematic Mapper (TM) image data have been conducted, giving particular attention to the radiometric characterization of the sensor. While the data in general were found to be excellent, anomalies do exist in the data from both LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 TM. A summary is provided of the LANDSAT-5 TM image data. Recent analyses of LANDSAT-5 TM data and comparisons of the radiometry of the two sensors are emphasized. One of the specific topics covered is within-line droop, a phenomenon whereby the signal levels of the sensor change systematically during the active scan. Attention is also given to scan-correlated level shifts, an effect which raises or lowers the signal level of all pixels in a scan line or set of scan lines. A comparison of LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 radiometric corrections is also discussed.

  8. Characterization and comparison of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzler, M. D.; Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    Engineering analyses of Thematic Mapper (TM) image data have been conducted, giving particular attention to the radiometric characterization of the sensor. While the data in general were found to be excellent, anomalies do exist in the data from both Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 TM. A summary is provided of the Landsat-4 TM image data. The present paper concentrates, however, on recent analyses of Landsat-5 TM data and comparisons of the radiometry of the two sensors. One of the specific topics covered is within-line droop, a phenomenon whereby the signal levels of the sensor change systematically during the active scan. Attention is also given to scan-correlated level shifts, an effect which raises or lowers the signal level of all pixels in a scan line or set of scan lines. A comparison of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 radiometric corrections is also discussed.

  9. Analyst variability in labeling of unsupervised classifications. [test sites for Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgwire, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    Analyst variability in the labeling of unsupervised classifications is tested for Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image products covering two test sites in southern California. The accuracy of results are tested using samples from a photo interpreted base map of the area. The significance of differences between analysts is indicated by comparing Kappa statistics derived from error matrices. Analyst variability is found to be statistically significant in most cases. Certain analysts provided consistently better results for a given study area or degree of training. This work demonstrates the potential influence of analyst bias on what would otherwise seem to be a fairly objective method and suggests that controls for this subjectivity should be factored into experimental designs.

  10. Fire effects in the northern Chihuahuan Desert derived from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper spectral indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joseph D.; Swint, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Fire effects on desert ecosystems may be long-lasting based on ecological impact of fire in these environments which potentially is detected from multispectral sensors. To assess this, we analyzed changes in spectral characteristics from 1986 to 2010 of pixels associated with the location of fires that occurred between 1986 and 1999 in Big Bend National Park, USA, located in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data, we derived spectral indices including the simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), and normalized burn ratio (NBR) from 1989, 1999, and 2010 from the TM data and compared changes in spectral index values for sites with and without observed fire. We found that the NDVI and SAVI had significantly different values over the time for burned sites of different fire sizes. When differences of the spectral indices were calculated from each time period, time since fire was correlated with the SR and NBR indices. These results showed that large fires potentially had a persistent and long-term change in vegetation cover and soil characteristics which were detected by the extraordinary long-data collection period of the Landsat-5 TM sensor.

  11. Development of landsat-5 thematic mapper internal calibrator gain and offset table

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.; Markham, B.L.; Haque, Md. O.

    2008-01-01

    The National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) has been the primary processing system for Landsat data since U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) started archiving Landsat data. NLAPS converts raw satellite data into radiometrically and geometrically calibrated products. NLAPS has historically used the Internal Calibrator (IC) to calibrate the reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), even though the lamps in the IC were less stable than the TM detectors, as evidenced by vicarious calibration results. In 2003, a major effort was made to model the actual TM gain change and to update NLAPS to use this model rather than the unstable IC data for radiometric calibration. The model coefficients were revised in 2007 to reflect greater understanding of the changes in the TM responsivity. While the calibration updates are important to users with recently processed data, the processing system no longer calculates the original IC gain or offset. For specific applications, it is useful to have a record of the gain and offset actually applied to the older data. Thus, the NLAPS calibration database was used to generate estimated daily values for the radiometric gain and offset that might have been applied to TM data. This paper discusses the need for and generation of the NLAPSIC gain and offset tables. A companion paper covers the application of and errors associated with using these tables.

  12. Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 thematic mapper band 6 historical performance and calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Higgs, N.

    2005-01-01

    Launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, the Landsat-4 and -5 Thematic Mappers (TM) are the backbone of an extensive archive of moderate resolution Earth imagery. However, these sensors and their data products were not subjected to the type of intensive monitoring that has been part of the Landsat-7 system since its launch in 1999. With Landsat-4's 11 year and Landsat-5's 20+ year data record, there is a need to understand the historical behavior of the instruments in order to verify the scientific integrity of the archive and processed products. Performance indicators of the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands have recently been extracted from a processing system database allowing for a more complete study of thermal band characteristics and calibration than was previously possible. The database records responses to the internal calibration system, instrument temperatures and applied gains and offsets for each band for every scene processed through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS). Analysis of this database has allowed for greater understanding of the calibration and improvement in the processing system. This paper will cover the trends in the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands, the effect of the changes seen in the trends, and how these trends affect the use of the thermal data.

  13. Effects of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus radiometric and geometric calibrations and corrections on landscape characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, James E.; Helder, Dennis; Morfitt, Ron; Choate, Michael J.; Merchant, James W.; Bulley, Henry

    2001-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments onboard Landsats 4 and 5 provide high-quality imagery appropriate for many different applications, including land cover mapping, landscape ecology, and change detection. Precise calibration was considered to be critical to the success of the Landsat 7 mission and, thus, issues of calibration were given high priority during the development of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Data sets from the Landsat 5 TM are not routinely corrected for a number of radiometric and geometric artifacts, including memory effect, gain/bias, and interfocal plane misalignment. In the current investigation, the effects of correcting vs. not correcting these factors were investigated for several applications. Gain/bias calibrations were found to have a greater impact on most applications than did memory effect calibrations. Correcting interfocal plane offsets was found to have a moderate effect on applications. On June 2, 1999, Landsats 5 and 7 data were acquired nearly simultaneously over a study site in the Niobrara, NE area. Field radiometer data acquired at that site were used to facilitate crosscalibrations of Landsats 5 and 7 data. Current findings and results from previous investigations indicate that the internal calibrator of Landsat 5 TM tracked instrument gain well until 1988. After this, the internal calibrator diverged from the data derived from vicarious calibrations. Results from this study also indicate very good agreement between prelaunch measurements and vicarious calibration data for all Landsat 7 reflective bands except Band 4. Values are within about 3.5% of each other, except for Band 4, which differs by 10%. Coefficient of variation (CV) values derived from selected targets in the imagery were also analyzed. The Niobrara Landsat 7 imagery was found to have lower CV values than Landsat 5 data, implying that lower levels of noise characterize Landsat 7 data than current Landsat 5 data. It was also found that following radiometric normalization, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) imagery and classification products of Landsats 5 and 7 were very similar. This implies that data from the two sensors can be used to measure and monitor the same landscape phenomena and that Landsats 5 and 7 data can be used interchangeably with proper caution. In addition, it was found that difference imagery produced using Landsat 7 ETM+ data are of excellent quality.

  14. A definitive calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper anchored to the Landsat-7 radiometric scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; Ruggles, T.A.; Landry, R.; Ahern, F.J.; Higgs, N.J.; Barsi, J.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Thome, K.J.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, Frank Don

    2004-01-01

    A coordinated effort on the part of several agencies has led to the specification of a definitive radiometric calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) for its lifetime since launch in 1984. The time-dependent calibration record for Landsat-5 TM has been placed on the same radiometric scale as the Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+). It has been implemented in the National Landsat Archive Production Systems (NLAPS) in use in North America. This paper documents the results of this collaborative effort and the specifications for the related calibration processing algorithms. The specifications include (i) anchoring of the Landsat-5 TM calibration record to the Landsat-7 ETM+ absolute radiometric calibration, (ii) new time-dependent calibration processing equations and procedures applicable to raw Landsat-5 TM data, and (iii) algorithms for recalibration computations applicable to some of the existing processed datasets in the North American context. The cross-calibration between Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ was achieved using image pairs from the tandem-orbit configuration period that was programmed early in the Laridsat-7 mission. The time-dependent calibration for Landsat-5 TM is based on a detailed trend analysis of data from the on-board internal calibrator. The new lifetime radiometric calibration record for Landsat-5 will overcome problems with earlier product generation owing to inadequate maintenance and documentation of the calibration over time and will facilitate the quantitative examination of a continuous, near-global dataset at 30-m scale that spans almost two decades.

  15. Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Kieffer, H. H.; Borgeson, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    The geometric accuracy (GA) and errors in imagery by Landsat-4 and -5 were examined using data from regions with a minimal topography. A least-squares comparison was made between ground truth digitized photographs and TM data for prominent features displayed on a 1:24,000 map. The algorithms used for the transformation of the Landsat data to a Cartesian system are provided. Landsat-5 images had a calculated error of 11.2 m (0.4 pixel) and could not be improved with skew and affine-distortion corrections. However, the digitized images, including road tracks, were considered detailed enough for standard 1:50,000 maps. Landsat-5 imagery, when fully corrected, was consistently superior to Landsat-4 data.

  16. Surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. [for radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Quinn J.

    1991-01-01

    Absolute reflectance-based radiometric calibrations of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) are improved with the inclusion of a method to invert optical-depth measurements to obtain aerosol-particle size distributions, and a non-Lambertian surface reflectance model. The inverted size distributions can predict radiances varying from the previously assumed jungian distributions by as much as 5 percent, though the reduction in the estimated error is less than one percent. Comparison with measured diffuse-to-global ratios show that neither distribution consistently predicts the ratio accurately, and this is shown to be a large contributor to calibration uncertainties. An empirical model for the surface reflectance of White Sands, using a two-degree polynomial fit as a function of scattering angle, was employed. The model reduced estimated errors in radiance predictions by up to one percent. Satellite calibrations dating from October, 1984 were reprocessed using the improved methods and linear estimations of satellite counts per unit radiance versus time since launch were determined which showed a decrease over time for the first four bands.

  17. The geometric properties of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data and their conformity to Landsat-4 data and to earth's surface geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Gokham, B.; Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    The geometry of two TIPS processed Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper scenes was analyzed and compared with that of SCROUNGE processed Landsat-4 data. Swath-to-swath and band-to-band registration of Washington, DC, and northeastern Iowa scenes was found to be similar to or better than that of Landsat-4 data. Results indicate a high degree of geometric conformity between the images produced by the different systems. The geometric conformity of the TIPS processed images to the Space Oblique Mercator projection, however, proved to be less accurate than the targeted processing error of 15 meters.

  18. Detection of tamarisk defoliation by the northern tamarisk beetle based on multitemporal Landsat 5 thematic mapper imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meng, Ran; Dennison, Philip E.; Jamison, Levi R.; van Riper, Charles, III; Nager, Pamela; Hultine, Kevin R.; Bean, Dan W.; Dudley, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The spread of tamarisk (Tamarix spp., also known as saltcedar) is a significant ecological disturbance in western North America and has long been targeted for control, leading to the importation of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) as a biological control agent. Following its initial release along the Colorado River near Moab, Utah in 2004, the beetle has successfully established and defoliated tamarisk across much of the upper Colorado River Basin. However, the spatial distribution and seasonal timing of defoliation are complex and difficult to quantify over large areas. To address this challenge, we tested and compared two remote sensing approaches to mapping tamarisk defoliation: Disturbance Index (DI) and a decision tree method called Random Forest (RF). Based on multitemporal Landsat 5 TM imagery for 2006-2010, changes in DI and defoliation probability from RF were calculated to detect tamarisk defoliation along the banks of Green, Colorado, Dolores and San Juan rivers within the Colorado Plateau area. Defoliation mapping accuracy was assessed based on field surveys partitioned into 10 km sections of river and on regions of interest created for continuous riparian vegetation. The DI method detected 3711 ha of defoliated area in 2007, 7350 ha in 2008, 10,457 ha in 2009 and 5898 ha in 2010. The RF method detected much smaller areas of defoliation but proved to have higher accuracy, as demonstrated by accuracy assessment and sensitivity analysis, with 784 ha in 2007, 960 ha in 2008, 934 ha in 2009, and 1008 ha in 2010. Results indicate that remote sensing approaches are likely to be useful for studying spatiotemporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation as the tamarisk leaf beetle spreads throughout the western United States.

  19. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper Calibration Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helder, Dennis; Malla. Rimy; Mettler, Cory; Markham, Brian; Micijevic, Esad

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5, which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the Thematic Mapper-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988 through 1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations, a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert PICS, were developed. Results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all the reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this work have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  20. Thematic mapper design parameter investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colby, C. P., Jr.; Wheeler, S. G.

    1978-01-01

    This study simulated the multispectral data sets to be expected from three different Thematic Mapper configurations, and the ground processing of these data sets by three different resampling techniques. The simulated data sets were then evaluated by processing them for multispectral classification, and the Thematic Mapper configuration, and resampling technique which provided the best classification accuracy were identified.

  1. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper calibration update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Mettler, Cory J.; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5 which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the TM-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988-1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations (a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert site) were developed. The results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime, with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this paper have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  2. Landsat Thematic Mapper image-derived MTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R. A.; Archwamety, C.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Landsat Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program conducted by NASA has the objective to quantify the performance of the Thematic Mapper (TM) on the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 spacecraft. The interest in the spatial resolution performance of the TM is partly related to the decrease of the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) from 80 m for the MSS to 30 m for the TM. Studies related to the preflight line spread function (LSF), square wave response (SWR), and theoretical component modeling of the TM system modulation transfer function (MTF) have been conducted. However, the need remains to estimate the MTF of the complete system. The present paper is concerned with investigations related to this task. Attention is given to three approaches for measuring the MTF of the TM system from imagery.

  3. Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

  4. Enhanced rock discrimination using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The application of TM data to rock discrimination is discussed. Sixteen specific terrains derived from geologic maps are examined on TM images of the Arabian shield obtained on Apr. 14, 1984; visual enhancement procedures are applied to the images. The rock types observed in the test site are described; the major sedimentary formations in the test area are laterite and sandstone. The data reveal that the layered rocks in the outcrop consist of a variety of metamorphosed volcanics, metamorphosed sediments, and amphibolite, and the intrusive complex is composed of several classes of mafic and acidic rocks.

  5. Thematic Mapper Spectral Dimensionality and Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data, simulated from field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of a variety of agricultural crops and a wide range of soils, are analyzed to determine their dispersion in the six space defined by the reflective TM bands (i.e., excluding the thermal band). While similar analyses of MSS data from agricultural scenes show that the vast majority of the MSS data occupy a single plane, the simulated TM data primarily occupy three dimensions, defining two intersecting planes and a zone of transition between the two. Viewing the plane of Vegetation head on provides a projection comparable to the single plane of MSS data. The Plane of Soils and transition zone represent new information made available largely as a result of the longer infrared bands included in the Thematic Mapper. A transformation, named the Thematic Mapper Tasseled Cap, is presented which rotates the TM data such that the described data structure is most readily accessible to view.

  6. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  7. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Radiometric measurements were taken on the morning of the LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper overpass. The sky was cloud free and the sites were dry. Barnes multiband radiometer data were collected for a 4 x 4 pixel area and two fractional pixel areas of slightly higher and lower reflectances than the larger area. Helicopter color photography was obtained of all the ground areas. This photography will allow a detailed reflectance map of the 4 x 4 pixel are to be made and registered to the TM imagery to an accuracy of better than half a pixel. Spectropolarimeter data were also collected of the 4 x 4 pixel area from the helicopter. In addition, ground based solar radiometer data were collected to provide spectral extinction optical thickness valves. The radiative transfer theory used in the development of the Herman code which was used in predicting the TM entrance pupil spectral radiances from the ground based measurements is described.

  8. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Philip N.; Palmer, James M.

    1986-01-01

    A list of personnel who have contributed to the program is provided. Sixteen publications and presentations are also listed. A preprint summarizing five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations of the solar reflective bands of the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper is presented. The 23 band calibrations made on the five dates show a 2.5% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean. A preprint is also presented that discusses the reflectance-based results of the above preprint. It proceeds to analyze and present results of a second, independent calibration method based on radiance measurements from a helicopter. Radiative transfer through the atmosphere, model atmospheres, the calibration methodology used at White Sands and the results of a sensitivity analysis of the reflectance-based approach is also discussed.

  9. Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Metzler, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Progress during the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan-ERIM's and 5 image data quality assessment program for the thematic mapper is described. Analyses of LANDSAT 5 TM radiometric characteristics were performed. Effects which had earlier been found in LANDSAT 4 TM data were found to be present in LANDSAT 5 data as well, including: (1) scan direction related signal droop; (2) scan correlated level shifts; and (3) low frequency coherent noise. Coincident LANDSAT 4 and 5 raw TM data were analyzed, and band by band relationships between the two sensors were derived. Earlier efforts which developed an information theoretic measure of multispectral information content were continued, comparing TM and MSS information content.

  10. Thematic mapper critical elements breadboard program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dale, C. H., Jr.; Engel, J. L.; Harney, E. D.

    1976-01-01

    A 40.6 cm bidirectional scan mirror assembly, a scan line corrector and a silicon photodiode array with integral preamplifier input stages were designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate performance consistent with requirements of the Hughes thematic mapper system. The measured performance met or exceeded the original design goals in all cases with the qualification that well defined and well understood deficiencies in the design of the photodiode array package will require the prescribed corrections before flight use.

  11. Thematic Mapper: Design through flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT 4 and 5, launched in 1982 and 1984, not only carried the Thematic Mapper, but were redesigned to handle the increased data rates associated with it, and to communicate that data to Earth via geosynchronous orbiting Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). The TM development program is summarized. A brief historical perspective is presented of the evolution of design requirements and hardware development. The basic performance parameters that serve as sensor design guidelines are presented.

  12. Evaluation of corn/soybeans separability using Thematic Mapper and Thematic Mapper Simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Shen, S. S.; Sorensen, C. T.; Carnes, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Multitemporal Thematic Mapper, Thematic Mapper Simulator, and detailed ground truth data were collected for a 9- by 11-km sample segment in Webster County, IA, in the summer of 1982. Three dates were acquired each with Thematic Mapper Simulator (June 7, June 23, and July 31) and Thematic Mapper (August 2, September 3, and October 21). The Thematic Mapper Simulator data were converted to equivalent TM count values using TM and TMS calibration data and model based estimates of atmospheric effects. The July 31, TMS image was compared to the August 2, TM image to verify the conversion process. A quantitative measure of proportion estimation variance (Fisher information) was used to evaluate the corn/soybeans separability for each TM band as a function of time during the growing season. The additional bands in the middle infrared allowed corn and soybeans to be separated much earlier than was possible with the visible and near-infrared bands alone. Using the TM and TMS data, temporal profiles of the TM principal components were developed. The greenness and brightness exhibited behavior similar to MSS greenness and brightness for corn and soybeans.

  13. Thematic mapper studies of Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective was to identify all the active volcanoes in the Andean region of Bolivia. Morphological features of the Tata Sabaya volcano, Bolivia, were studied with the thematic mapper. Details include marginal levees on lava and pyroclastic flows, and summit crater structure. Valley glacier moraine deposits, not easily identified on the multispectral band scanner, were also unambiguous, and provide useful marker horizons on large volcanic edifices which were built up in preglacial times but which were active subsequently. With such high resolution imagery, it is not only possible to identify potentially active volcanoes, but also to use standard photogeological interpretation to outline the history of individual volcanoes.

  14. Stability of landsat-4 thematic mapper outgassing models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.

    2006-01-01

    Oscillations in radiometric gains of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands in Landsat-4 (L4) and Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mappers (TMs) are observed through an analysis of detector responses to the Internal Calibrator (IC) pulses. The oscillations are believed to be caused by an interference effect due to a contaminant film buildup on the window of the cryogenically cooled dewar that houses these detectors. This process of contamination, referred to as outgassing effects, has been well characterized using an optical thin-film model that relates detector responses to the accumulated film thickness and its growth rate. The current models for L4 TM are based on average detector responses to the second brightest IC lamp and have been derived from three data sets acquired during different times throughout the instrument's lifetime. Unlike in L5 TM outgassing characterization, it was found that the L4 TM responses to all three IC lamps can be used to provide accurate characterization and correction for outgassing effects. The analysis of single detector responses revealed an up to five percent difference in the estimated oscillating periods and also indicated a gradual variation of contaminant growth rate over the focal plane.

  15. Thematic mapper studies of central Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    A series of false color composite images covering the volcanic cordillera was written. Each image is 45 km (1536 x 1536 pixels) and was constructed using bands 7, 4, and 2 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Approximately 100 images were prepared to date. A set of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images was used in conjunction with the TM hardcopy to compile a computer data base of all volcanic structure in the Central Andean province. Over 500 individual structures were identified. About 75 major volcanoes were identified as active, or potentially active. A pilot study was begun combining Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data with TM for a test area in north Chile and Bolivia.

  16. Thematic Mapper research in the earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke

    1989-01-01

    This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.

  17. MTF Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R.

    1984-01-01

    A research program to measure the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) modulation transfer function (MTF) is described. Measurement of a satellite sensor's MTF requires the use of a calibrated ground target, i.e., the spatial radiance distribution of the target must be known to a resolution at least four to five times greater than that of the system under test. A small reflective mirror or a dark light linear pattern such as line or edge, and relatively high resolution underflight imagery are used to calibrate the target. A technique that utilizes an analytical model for the scene spatial frequency power spectrum will be investigated as an alternative to calibration of the scene. The test sites and analysis techniques are also described.

  18. Operational MTF for Landsat Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R.; Archwamety, C.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) represents significant improvements in spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution over the older Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). For the last three years, NASA has conducted the Landsat Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) program to quantify the performance of the TM on the Landsat-4 and 5 spacecraft. As part of this program, analysis of the TM imagery to extract the overall system modulation transfer function (MTF) has been performed. In this paper, the San Mateo Bridge in San Francisco is described as a target for calculation of the line spread function and MTF. The analysis of two TM scenes, one from 12/31/82 and one from 8/12/83, yielded effective-instantaneous-field-of-views (EIFOVs) of 40.8 meters and 48.6 meters, respectively. These values are compared with the 33.8 meter EIFOV predicted by component modelling of the TM sensor, and the differences discussed.

  19. Snow Reflectance from LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1984-01-01

    In California 75% of the agricultural water supply comes from the melting Sierra Nevada snowpack. Basin-wide albedo measurements from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper could be used to better forecast the timing of the spring runoff, because these data can be combined with solar radiation calculations to estimate the net radiation budget. The TM is better-suited for this purpose than the MSS because of its large dynamic range. Saturation still occurs in bands 1-4, but is severe only in band 1. Differentiation of snow optical grain size is possible with TM band 4 through a moderately clear atmosphere. The TM band 5 can discriminate clouds from snow, and the combination of bands 2 and 5 appears best for snow mapping.

  20. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1987-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) images were used to produce improved geologic maps of the ophiolites of the Brooks Range, and to recognize regional-scale structures that might affect the spatial distribution of the ophiolites. From the TM data, significant information was obtained concerning the distribution of rock types and structures that could not easily be acquired with conventional geologic studies. The information obtained from the TM data, in combination with other geologic data, is being used to further the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range. Results of the work in the Maiyumerak Mountains area are used to illustrate the information being obtained with the LANDSAT TM data, and the way that the information is being integrated with other geologic data.

  1. Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Metzler, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Progress under the LANDSAT-4 and 5 Image Data Quality Assessment program for the Thematic Mapper is described. An initial screening of LANDSAT-5 data is performed. Tools are developed to allow access to TIPS-format data. Analysis of scan direction related signal droop is resumed with detailed analysis of nighttime data. A new mathematical model is developed to describe the effect. Coherent noise of a lower frequency than previously reported is discovered and analyzed. Coincident LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS data are analyzed to improve understanding of radiometric relationships between similar wavebands in the two sensors.

  2. The Landsat thematic mapper World Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, R. W.; Masuoka, P. M.; Stuart, L.

    1985-01-01

    A World Data Base of potential thematic mapper (TM) scenes was developed to aid in acquisition planning. The World Data Base contains geopolitical, geographic and economic regions along with a format that enables users to find the satellite day, sun angle and cloud cover probability for any month of the year. Scenes that have been acquired by TM and have an average cloud cover of 30 percent of less from July 1982 when TM was launched until the Landsat system was taken over by NOAA in September 1984 are also in the World Data Base. Processed data are referenced in maps and data bases at EROS Data Center; however, a large number of acquistions have never been processed and therefore are not accessible. The World Data Base enables the rapid location of scenes and areas with the least effort making it invaluable in TM scheduling. Users of TM data can use the World Data Base to determine if scenes of interest have been acquired, the acquisition date, and if scenes have been processed to computer-compatible tape (CCT). These uses of the World Data Base make it a valuable tool in the acquisition and location of TM scenes.

  3. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

  4. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The combinations of Thematic Mapper (TM) bands that best distinguish basalts of the Brooks Range ophiolites were determined. Geochemical analyses, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE), are being done in order to study the significance of TM spectral variations that were observed within some of the sampled rock units. An image of the topography of the western Brooks Range and Colville Basin was constructed. Elevation data for the rest of Northern Alaska are being acquired to expand the area covered by the topography image. Two balanced cross sections (one along the eastern margin, the other along the western margin of the Brooks Range) are being constructed, using the techniques of fault-bend and fault-propagation folding. These are being used to obtain regional shortening estimates for the Brooks Range in an attempt to constrain tectonic models for the evolution of Northern Alaska. The TM data are being used to confirm reconnaissance maps and to obtain structural data where no maps exist. Along with the TM data, digital topography, seismic reflection profiles, and magnetic and gravity surveys are examined to better understand the evolution of the Colville Basin, north of the Brooks Range.

  5. Snow reflectance from Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1984-01-01

    In California 75 percent of the agricultural water supply comes from the melting Sierra Nevada snowpack. Basin-wide spectral albedo measurements from the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) could be used to better forecast the timing of the spring runoff, because these data can be combined with solar radiation calculations to estimate the net radiation balance. The TM is better-suited for this purpose than the Multispectral Scanner because of its larger dynamic range. Saturation still occurs in bands 1-4, but is severe only in TM1 (0.45-0.52 micron). Snow reflectance in TM2 (0.43-0.61 micron) is typical of the visible wavelength region, where reflectance is almost insensitive to crystal size but sensitive to contamination. TM4 (0.78-0.90 micron) allows estimation of effective optical grain size and thereby spectral extension throughout the near-infrared. TM5 (1.57-1.78 microns) can discriminate clouds from snow.

  6. Scrounge data processing film products for the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Information on the format of the film product and type of film used for the LANDSAT-4 scrounge processed thematic mapper data is presented. Image gray scale, annotation field, and general layout are described.

  7. Outgassing models for Landsat-4 thematic mapper short wave infrared bands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, E.; Helder, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Detector responses to the Internal Calibrator (IC) pulses in the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) have been observed to follow an oscillatory behavior. This phenomenon is present only in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands and has been observed throughout the lifetime of the instrument, which was launched in July 1982 and imaged the Earth's surface until late 1993. These periodic changes in amplitude, which can be as large as 7.5 percent, are known as outgassing effects and are believed to be due to optical interference caused by a gradual buildup of an ice-like material on the window of the cryogenically cooled dewar containing the SWIR detectors. Similar outgassing effects in the Landsat-5 TM have been characterized using an optical thin-film model that relates detector behavior to the ice film growth rate, which was found to gradually decrease with time. A similar approach, which takes into consideration the different operational history of the instrument, has been applied in this study to three closely sampled data sets acquired throughout the lifetime of the Landsat-4 TM. Although Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers are essentially identical instruments, data generated from analyses of outgassing effects indicate subtle, but important, differences between the two. The estimated lifetime model could improve radiometric accuracy by as much as five percent.

  8. Landsat-4 thematic mapper and thematic mapper simulator data for a porphyry copper deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft thematic mapper (TM) data were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the Landsat-4 thematic mapper for geologic mapping and detection of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona. The data allow a comparison between aircraft TV simulator data and the Landsat-4 TM satellite data which possess similar spectral bands. A color rationcomposite of 30-m pixels was resampled, in order to clearly define a number of hydroxyl bearing minerals, (kaolinite, sericite, white mica), pyrite and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals. The iron oxide minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.45 and 0.85 micron regions of the spectrum, and the hydrous minerals are characterized by an absorption in the 2.2 micron region. The position of the spectral bands allow the TM to identify regions of hydrothermal alteration without resorting to a data processing algorithm. The comparison of the aircraft and Landsat-4 TM data showed considerable agreement, and confirmed the utility of TM data for identifying hydrothermal alteration zones. Samples of some color TM images are provided.

  9. An overview of the thematic mapper geometric correction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Geometric accuracy specifications for LANDSAT 4 are reviewed and the processing concepts which form the basis of NASA's thematic mapper geometric correction system are summarized for both the flight and ground segments. The flight segment includes the thematic mapper instrument, attitude measurement devices, attitude control, and ephemeris processing. For geometric correction the ground segment uses mirror scan correction data, payload correction data, and control point information to determine where TM detector samples fall on output map projection systems. Then the raw imagery is reformatted and resampled to produce image samples on a selected output projection grid system.

  10. Comparison of outgassing models for the landsat thematic mapper sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) is a multi-spectral electro-optical sensor featured onboard both the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) satellites. TM sensors have seven spectral bands with center wavelengths of approximately 0.49, 0.56, 0.66, 0.83, 1.65, 11.5 and 2.21 ??m, respectively. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) bands are located on the primary focal plane (PFP), and two short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands and the thermal infrared (TIR) band are located on the cold focal plane (CFP). The CFP bands are maintained at cryogenic temperatures of about 91 K, to reduce thermal noise effects. Due to the cold temperature, an ice film accumulates on the CFP dewar window, which introduces oscillations in SWIR and an exponential decay in TIR band responses. This process is usually monitored and characterized by the detector responses to the internal calibrator (IC) lamps and the blackbody. The ice contamination on the dewar window is an effect of the sensor outgassing in a vacuum of the space environment. Outgassing models have been developed, which are based on the thin-film optical interference phenomenon. They provide the coefficients for correction for outgassing effects for the entire mission's lifetime. While the L4 TM ceased imaging in August 1993, the L5 TM continues to operate even after more than 23 years in orbit. The process of outgassing in L5 TM is still occurring, though at a much lower rate than during early years of mission. Although the L4 and L5 TM sensors are essentially identical, they exhibit slightly different responses to the outgassing effects. The work presented in the paper summarizes the results of modeling outgassing effects in each of the sensors and provides a detailed analysis of differences among the estimated modeling parameters. For both sensors, water ice was confirmed as a reasonable candidate for contaminant material, the contaminant growth rate was found to be gradually decreasing with the time since launch, and the indications exist that some film may remain after the CFP warm-up procedures, which are periodically initiated to remove accumulated contamination. The observed difference between the models could be contributed to differences in the operational history for the sensors, the content and amount of contaminant impurities, the sensor spectral filter responses, and the internal calibrator systems.

  11. Thematic Mapper. Volume 2: Flight model preshipment review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The various systems of the Thematic Mapper are reviewed and a comparison of measured and specified performance is given. Test methodologies are described. The specific instrument systems discussed include the power supply assembly, scan mirror, electronics module, focal plane assembly, radiometer, and radiation cooler.

  12. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.

    1983-01-01

    The results of an analysis that relates thematic mapper (TM) saturation level to ground reflectance, calendar date, latitude, and atmospheric condition is provided. A revised version of the preprint included with the last quarterly report is also provided for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing.

  13. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The eleventh quarterly report on Spectroradiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper (Contract NAS5-27832) discusses calibrations made at White Sands on 24 May 1985. An attempt is made to standardize test results. Critical values used in the final steps of the data reduction and the comparison of the results of the pre-flight and internal calibration (IC) data are summarized.

  14. Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Progress during ERIM's tenth quarter of effort under the LANDSAT-4 and 5 Image Data Quality Assessment program for the Thematic Mapper is described. Coincident LANDSAT-4 and 5 fully corrected (CCT-PT) TM data are analyzed in more detail and revised band-by-band relationships between the two sensors derived. An analysis technique employing the matching of cumulative distributions is developed and used and is believed to offer advantages over the histogram matching procedure currently used to produce LANDSAT data. Multiplicative factors ranging from 0.987 to 1.145 and offsets ranging from -2.7 to -6.2 video quantum levels are required to cause LANDSAT-5 data to match LANDSAT-4 data values. Evidence of low level clipping is found in TM Bands 5 and 7 of LANDSAT-5 but not LANDSAT-4. Analysis of the information content of LANDSAT TM and MSS data is continued. Components of information loss are identified and quantified and the effects of coarsened quantization are explored.

  15. LANDSAT D to test thematic mapper, inaugurate operational system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    NASA will launch the Landsat D spacecraft on July 9, 1982 aboard a new, up-rated Delta 3920 expendable launch vehicle. LANDSAT D will incorporate two highly sophisticated sensors; the flight proven multispectral scanner; and a new instrument expected to advance considerably the remote sensing capabilities of Earth resources satellites. The new sensor, the thematic mapper, provides data in seven spectral (light) bands with greatly improved spectral, spatial and radiometric resolution.

  16. Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

  17. A prospectus for Thematic Mapper research in the Earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Earth science applications of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery are discussed. Prospective research themes are defined in a general sense in relation to the technical measurement capabilities of the TM and the various types of Earth information that can potentially be derived from multispectral TM imagery. An overview of the system developed to acquire and reduce TM data is presented. The technical capabilities of this system are presented in detail. The orbital performance of the TM sensor is described, based upon the analysis of LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data collected to date.

  18. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  19. Thematic Mapper image quality - Registration, noise, and resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Card, D. H.; Hlavka, C. A.; Hall, J. R.; Mertz, F. C.; Archwamety, C.; Schowengerdt, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The Landsat-4 satellite has two new imaging radiometers, including the redesigned Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and the Thematic Mapper (TM). The present investigation is concerned with an assessment of TM image quality on the basis of a study of band-to-band registration, periodic noise, and spatial resolution. In the TM images analyzed, the band-to-band registration accuracy of the instrument is very good. A few imperfections were found. Once a stable misregistration is removed, the TM should also meet its registration specifications between focal planes. Spatial resolution analyses in terms of MTF were performed in comparison modes. The forward and backward scans were shown to have virtually identical MTFs.

  20. Registering Thematic Mapper imagery to digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frew, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problems encountered when attempting to register Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to U.S. geological survey digital elevation models (DEMs) are examined. It is shown that TM and DEM data are not available in the same map projection, necessitating geometric transformation of one of the data type, that the TM data are not accurately located in their nominal projection, and that TM data have higher resolution than most DEM data, but oversampling the DEM data to TM resolution introduces systematic noise. Further work needed in this area is discussed.

  1. An Analysis LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Geometric Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gokhman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper P-data of Washington, D. C., Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA are analyzed to determine magnitudes and causes of error in the geometric conformity of the data to known Earth surface geometry. Several tests of data geometry are performed. Intraband and interband correlation and registration are investigated, exclusive of map based ground truth. The magnitudes and statistical trends of pixel offsets between a single band's mirror scans (due to processing procedures) are computed, and the inter-band integrity of registration is analyzed. A line to line correlation analysis is included.

  2. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A main problem encountered in radiometric calibration of satellite image data is correcting for atmospheric effects. Without this correction, an image digital number (DN) cannot be converted to a surface reflectance value. In this paper the accuracy of a calibration procedure, which includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, is tested. Two simple methods, a stand-alone and an in situ sky radiance measurement technique, were used to derive the HAZE DN values for each of the six reflectance Thematic Mapper (TM) bands. The DNs of two Landsat TM images of Phoenix, Arizona were converted to surface reflectances. -from Author

  3. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, R.G., JR. )

    1992-04-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions. 17 refs.

  4. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral coverage characteristics of the two thematic mapper instruments were determined by analyses of spectral measurements of the optics, filters, and detectors. The following results are presented: (1) band 2 and 3 flatness was slightly below specification, and band 7 flatness was below specification; (2) band 5 upper-band edge was higher than specifications; (3) band 2 band edges were shifted upward about 9 nm relative to nominal; and (4) band 4, 5, and 7 lower band edges were 16 to 18 nm higher then nominal.

  5. Remote sensing of coastal wetlands biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral data, simulating thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 are gathered in salt and brackish marshes using a hand-held radiometer. Simple regression models are developed equating spectral radiance indices with total live biomass for S. alterniflora in a salt marsh and for a variety of plant species in a brackish marsh. Models are then tested using an independent set of data and compared to harvest estimates of biomass. In the salt marsh, biomass estimates from spectral data are similar to harvest biomass estimates during most of the growing season. Estimates of annual net aerial primary productivity calculated from spectral data are within 21% of production estimated from harvest data. During August, biomass estimates from spectral data in the brackish marsh are similar to biomass estimated by harvesting techniques. At other times during the growing season, spectral data estimates of biomass are not always comparable to harvest biomass estimates. Reasonable estimates of wetlands biomass are possible during the peak of the growing season (August) using spectral data similar to thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 gathered with hand-held radiometers.

  6. Contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data to geologic exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The increased number of carefully selected narrow spectral bands and the increased spatial resolution of thematic mapper data over previously available satellite data contribute greatly to geologic exploration, both by providing spectral information that permits lithologic differentiation and recognition of alteration and spatial information that reveals structure. As vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases relative to the value of the spatial component of the data. However, even in vegetated areas, the greater spectral breadth and discrimination of TM data permits improved recognition and mapping of spatial elements of the terrain. As our understanding of the spectral manifestations of the responses of soils and vegetation to unusual chemical environments increases, the value of spectral components of TM data to exploration will greatly improve in covered areas.

  7. Hydrological planning studies using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Mulligan, P. J.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    NASA, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is evaluating the capabilities of Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for environmental and hydrological applications. Attention is given to the results of studies conducted at the Clinton River Basin in Michigan and the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. In the former, the evaluation conducted was for the band combinations: (1) 2, 3, and 4; (2) 3, 4, and 5; (3) 3, 4, 5, and 6; and (4) all seven bands. In the latter case, Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and TM data were classified for combinations (1), (3) and (4). Wetland classification accuracy for the 7-band TM data in this study was found to be 9 percent higher than with MSS data, allowing more reliable and accurate monitoring.

  8. Analysis of forest structure using thematic mapper simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Westman, W. E.; Brass, J. A.; Stephenson, N. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Spanner, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure information has been explored by principal components and feature selection techniques. In a survey of forest structural properties conducted for 123 field sites of the Sequoia National Park, the canopy closure could be well estimated (r = 0.62 to 0.69) by a variety of channel bands and band ratios, without reference to the forest type. Estimation of the basal area was less successful (r = 0.51 or less) on the average, but could be improved for certain forest types when data were stratified by floristic composition. To achieve such a stratification, individual sites were ordinated by a detrended correspondence analysis based on the canopy of dominant species. The analysis of forest structure in the Sequoia data suggests that total basal area can be best predicted in stands of lower density, and in younger even-aged managed stands.

  9. Thematic mapper - An overview of spectral band registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudenstein, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) is a high-resolution radiometer designed for earth resources classification and mapping. The TM employs multispectral scanning in a near polar orbit to sweep a 185-km swath. Data are obtained through a combination of spacecraft motion and the sweeping action of the scan mirror. These data are transmitted either directly to ground stations around the world or through a relay to the central data processing facility at White Sands, NM. Seven spectral passbands are employed, and applications include coastal water mapping, soil vegetation differentiation, biomass surveys, water body delineation, vegetation moisture measurement, plant heat stress management, and hydrothermal mapping. Attention is given to the scan mirror assembly, scan nonlinearities, the characterization and compensation of scan profiles, experimental performance, and a procedure for midscan correction.

  10. Waveband evaluation of proposed thematic mapper in forest cover classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latty, R. S.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation of the characteristics of multispectral scanner data relative to forest cover type mapping, using NASA's NS-001 multispectral scanner to simulate the proposed Thematic Mapper (TM). The objectives were to determine: (1) the optimum number of wavebands to utilize in computer classifications of TM data; (2) which channel combinations provide the highest expected classification accuracy; and (3) the relative merit of each channel in the context of the cover classes examined. Transformed divergence was used as a measure of statistical distance between spectral class densities associated with each of twelve cover classes. The maximum overall mean pair-wise transformed divergence was used as the basis for evaluating all possible waveband combinations available for use in computer-assisted forest cover classifications.

  11. Thematic Mapper Image Production in the Engineering Checkout Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, D.; Lyon, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data processing during LANDSAT 4's first year was performed on an engineering evaluation basis. Fully corrected products were created for some 282 scenes during this period using software and systems based upon the intended full production systems to become operational following the evaluation period. The engineering systems included substantial software and procedures for assessing spacecraft, instrument and ground processing algorithmic behavior. The data systems are described in terms of performance objectives, processing organization and data flow, quality assurance measurements and achievement of goals. The a priori implementation of TM radiometric and geometric corrections is described. Changes to processing suggested by or implemented on the basis of on-orbit data analysis are discussed. Spacecraft, instrument and algorithmic performance are evaluated.

  12. Analysis of conifer forest regeneration using Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorella, Maria; Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to evaluate young conifer stands in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Regression and correlation analyses were used to describe the relationships between TM band values and age of young Douglas-fir stands (2 to 35 years old). Spectral data from well regenerated Douglas-fir stands were compared to those of poorly regenerated conifer stands. TM bands 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 were inversely correlated with the age (r greater than or equal to -0.80) of well regenerated Douglas-fir stands. Overall, the 'structural index' (TM 4/5 ratio) had the highest correlation to age of Douglas-fir stands (r = 0.96). Poorly regenerated stands were spectrally distinct from well regenerated Douglas-fir stands after the stands reached an age of approximately 15 years.

  13. LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A power spectrum (PS) analysis technique was used to compare thematic mapper (TM) A and P-tape data for a Washington, DC scene in two orthogonal directions, along scan and along track. The resulting effective modulation transfer functions (MTF) between the A and P data are repeatable from area to area and consistent with theoretical expectations. The average x-direction (along scan) MTF calculated with the PS technique is compared to the MTF of the cubic convolution resampling function used to create P data from A data. The two curves are nearly identical, indicating that the major factor affecting the image quality of P data relative to A data is the cubic convolution resampling.

  14. Classification of corn and soybeans using multitemporal Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The multitemporal classification approach based on the greenness profile derived from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral bands has proved successful in effectively separating and identifying corn, soybean, and other ground cover classes. Features derived from these profiles have been shown to carry virtually all the information contained in the original data and, in addition, have been shown to be stable over a large geographic area of the United States. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the same features derived from multitemporal Thematic Mapper (TM) data would also prove effective in separating these two crop types, and, in fact, if algorithms developed for MSS could be directly applied to TM. It is shown that this is indeed the case. In addition, because of greater spatial and spectral resolution, the accuracy of TM classifications is better than in MSS.

  15. Landsat Thematic Mapper geodetic accuracy - Implications for geocoded map compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.; Walker, R. E.; Gokhmann, B.

    1985-01-01

    The geodetic accuracy and geometric fidelity of corrected thematic mapper (TM) imagery are evaluated. The positional accuracy requirements for the TM are for a single band to within 0.5 pixels of true earth-surface locations at any point over 90 percent of the image and for interband registration to within 0.3 pixel tolerance over 90 percent of the data. Landsat 4 and 5 TM data are analyzed to investigate: (1) single band geometric integrity, (2) 30 m resolution interband registration; (3) image to image conformity; (4) image to ground conformity; and (5) image projective geometry conformity to a mapped earth geometry. The procedures used to study these characteristics are described. The data reveal that Landsat TM digital data met or exceed map accuracy standards for horizontal control.

  16. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT thematic mapper sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Data collected on the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-4 backup thematic mapper instruments, the protoflight (TM/PF) and flight (TM/F) models, respectively, are presented and analyzed. Tests were conducted on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with two sets of spectral specifications: band-by-band spectral coverage and channel-by-channel within-band spectral matching. Spectral coverage specifications were placed on: (1) band edges--points at 50% of peak response, (2) band edge slopes--steepness of rise and fall-off of response, (3) spectral flatness--evenness of response between edges, and (4) spurious system response--ratio of out-of-band response to in-band response. Compliance with the spectral coverage specifications was determined by analysis of spectral measurements on the individual components contributing to the overall spectral response: filters, detectors, and optical surfaces.

  17. Thematic Mapper simulator research for forest resource mapping in the Clearwater National Forest, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.; Spanner, M. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ulliman, J. J.; Brockhaus, J.

    1984-01-01

    Per-pixel maximum likelihood digital classification and photo interpretation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) composited images for a managed conifer forest were used to evaluate both land cover and forest structure characteristics. TMS channels 4, 7, 5 and 3, which were found to be optimal for forest vegetation analysis, used the full range of the Thematic Mapper's spectral capability. Photo interpretation results indicate that a false color composite from TMS channels 4, 7, and 2 provided the highest accuracies; the combination of improved spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of the Thematic Mapper yielded greater sensitivity to forest structural characteristics.

  18. The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was acquired over central California in August, 1983 and used to simulate Thematic Mapper data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field center pixels) showed better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

  19. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments were initiated to determine the feasibility of using thematic mapper spectral data to estimate wetlands biomass. The experiments were conducted using hand-held radiometers simulating thematic mapper wavebands 3, 4 and 5. Spectral radiance data were collected from the ground and from a low altitude aircraft in an attempt to gain some insight into the potential utility of actual thematic mapper data for biomass estimation in wetland plant communities. In addition, radiative transfer models describing volume reflectance of eight water column containing submerged aquatic vegetation were refined.

  20. APPLICATION OF MULTI-DATE LANDSAT 5 TIM IMAGERY FOR WETLAND IDENTIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery was evaluated for the identification and monitoring of potential jurisdictional wetlands located in the states of Maryland and Delaware. A wetland map prepared from single-date TM imagery was compared to a hybrid map develope...

  1. Systematic and random variations in digital Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggin, M. J. (Principal Investigator); Sakhavat, H.

    1985-01-01

    Radiance recorded by any remote sensing instrument will contain noise which will consist of both systematic and random variations. Systematic variations may be due to sun-target-sensor geometry, atmospheric conditions, and the interaction of the spectral characteristics of the sensor with those of upwelling radiance. Random variations in the data may be caused by variations in the nature and in the heterogeneity of the ground cover, by variations in atmospheric transmission, and by the interaction of these variations with the sensing device. It is important to be aware of the extent of random and systematic errors in recorded radiance data across ostensibly uniform ground areas in order to assess the impact on quantative image analysis procedures for both the single date and the multidate cases. It is the intention here to examine the systematic and the random variations in digital radiance data recorded in each band by the thematic mapper over crop areas which are ostensibly uniform and which are free from visible cloud.

  2. A Preliminary Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis was performed to characterize the radiometry of three Thematic Mapper (TM) digital products of a scene of Arkansas. The three digital products examined were the NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product. The frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band were examined on a series of image subsets from the full scene. The results are presented from one 1024 x 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. Bands 1, 2 and 5 of the sample area are presented. The subsets were extracted from the three digital data products to cover the same geographic area. This analysis provides the first step towards a full appraisal of the TM radiometry being performed as part of the ESA/CEC contribution to the NASA/LIDQA program.

  3. An analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper geometric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gohkman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data of Washington, DC, Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine geometric integrity and conformity of the data to known earth surface geometry. Several tests were performed. Intraband correlation and interband registration were investigated. No problems were observed in the intraband analysis, and aside from indications of slight misregistration between bands of the primary versus bands of the secondary focal planes, interband registration was well within the specified tolerances. A substantial number of ground control points were found and used to check the images' conformity to the Space Oblique Mercator (SOM) projection of their respective areas. The means of the residual offsets, which included nonprocessing related measurement errors, were close to the one pixel level in the two scenes examined. The Harrisburg scene residual mean was 28.38 m (0.95 pixels) with a standard deviation of 19.82 m (0.66 pixels), while the mean and standard deviation for the Salton Sea scene were 40.46 (1.35 pixels) and 30.57 m (1.02 pixels), respectively. Overall, the data were judged to be a high geometric quality with errors close to those targeted by the TM sensor design specifications.

  4. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The results of analyses of Thematic Mapper (TM) images acquired on July 8 and October 28, 1984, and of a check of the calibration of the 1.22-m integrating sphere at Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) are described. The results obtained from the in-flight calibration attempts disagree with the pre-flight calibrations for bands 2 and 4. Considerable effort was expended in an attempt to explain the disagreement. The difficult point to explain is that the difference between the radiances predicted by the radiative transfer code (the code radiances) and the radiances predicted by the preflight calibration (the pre-flight radiances) fluctuate with spectral band. Because the spectral quantities measured at White Sands show little change with spectral band, these fluctuations are not anticipated. Analyses of other targets at White Sands such as clouds, cloud shadows, and water surfaces tend to support the pre-flight and internal calibrator calibrations. The source of the disagreement has not been identified. It could be due to: (1) a computational error in the data reduction; (2) an incorrect assumption in the input to the radiative transfer code; or (3) incorrect operation of the field equipment.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Image Data Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Pitts, D. E.; Bizzell, R. M.; Yao, S.; Sorensen, C.; Reyna, E.; Carnes, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper (TM) data from Mississippi County, Arkansas, and Webster County, Iowa, were examined for the purpose of evaluating the image data quality of the TM which was launched on board the LANDSAT-4 spacecraft. Preliminary clustering and principal component analysis indicates that the middle infrared and thermal infrared data of TM appear to add significant information over that of the near IR and visible bands of the multispectral scanner data. Moreover, the higher spatial resolution of TM appears to provide better definition of the edges and the within variability of agricultural fields. The geometric performance of TM data, without ground control correction, was found to exceed expectations. The modulation transfer function for the 1.65 m band was found to agree with prelaunch specifications when the effects of the GSFC cubic convolution and the atmosphere were removed. The band to band registration for the bands within the noncooled focal plane was found to be better than specified. However, the middle infrared and thermal infrared, which are on a separate cooled focal plane were found to be misregistered and were significantly worse than prelaunch specifications.

  6. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Images of the Andes as a Classroom Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Fox, Andrew N.

    1990-01-01

    Described is the use of Thematic Mapper images in undergraduate geology instruction. The work of the Andes Project at Cornell University is discussed. Digitally enhanced illustrations of landforms in the Andes mountains of South America are provided. (CW)

  7. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part C: Subsystem data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Reference lists are provided to acceptance data for each of the major subsystems of the thematic mapper. Configuration reports, lists and copies of all failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

  8. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 3, Part 2: Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper is discussed as well as the atmospheric, radiometric, and geometric accuracy and correction of data obtained with this sensor. Methods are given for assessing TM band to band registration.

  9. INPE LANDSAT-D thematic mapper computer compatible tape format specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Desouza, R. C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The format of the computer compatible tapes (CCT) which contain Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery data acquired from the LANDSAT D and D Prime satellites by the INSTITUTO DE PERSQUISAS ESPACIALS (CNPq-INPE/BRAZIL) is defined.

  10. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part G: Miscellaneous system data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Functional and design data from various thematic mapper subsystems are presented. Coarse focus, modulation transfer function, and shim requirements are addressed along with spectral matching and spatial coverage tests.

  11. Resource and environmental surveys from space with the thematic mapper in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The selection of observation of vegetation is the primary optimization objective of the thematic mapper. The following are aspects of plans for the thematic mapper: (1) to include an appropriately modified first generation MSS in the thematic mapper mission; (2) to provide assured coverage for a minimum of six years to give agencies and other users an opportunity to justify the necessary commitment of resources for the transition into a completely valid operational phase; (3) to provide for global, direct data read-out, without the necessity for on-board data storage or dependence on foreign receiving stations; (4) to recognize the operational character of the thematic mapper after successful completion of its experimental evaluation; and (5) to combine future experimental packages with compatible orbits as part of the operational LANDSAT follow-on payloads.

  12. Volcanology from space - Using Landsat thematic mapper data in the central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.; Mcallister, R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Landsat thematic mapper to identify potentially active Andean volcanos and to study the history of individual volcanos is discussed. A thematic mapper image of the 6150-m-high Socompa volcano is presented and it is noted that TM data have played a valuable role in tracking debris streams in the avalanche derived from the different parts of the original volcanic edifice. The consequences of Landsat commercialization are considered.

  13. Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, C. M.; Gowda, P. H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Xiao, X.

    2009-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts’ ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater models to evaluate economic feasibility for various crop rotations systems and irrigation management practices. In this study, we used a novel approach to derive an irrigated area map covering a 4-county area (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties) in the northwest region of the Texas High Plains from a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on August 13, 2008. The spectral band ratios and vegetation indices were used to define threshold value for the irrigated pixels. The hierarchical rule-based decision tree classification algorithm was employed to delineate final irrigated class. Ground truth data collected for accuracy assessment included land cover type, irrigation practices and their geographic locations using a global positioning system. Accuracy assessment of the irrigated area map indicated that we achieved an overall mapping accuracy of 96% with omission and commission errors at 9% and 8%, respectively, which are mainly due to clouds and shadows of clouds. Irrigated acreages of summer crops derived from the TM image closely matched with that from agricultural statistical reports for the 4-county area. At present, a spring image is being processed to identify irrigated area planted with winter wheat in the study area. The combined irrigated area map will be used in the comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes.

  14. Use of TMS/TM data for mapping of forest decline damage in the northeastern United States. [Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing systems were used to monitor forest decline damage suspected of being due to air pollution. Field activities and aircraft overflights were centered on montane spruce/fir forest sites. Using aircraft data acquired with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) during the growing season, extensive areas of forest decline damage were accurately mapped. Seven levels of decline damage are discrininated and mapped and the levels of discriminated damage agree well (rsq-0.94) with visual assessment conducted on the ground. New areas of high damage were discovered. A band ratio (TM5/TM4) is most useful in discriminating and quantifying the various levels of forest decline damage.

  15. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Ackleson, S. G.; Hardisky, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    On 31 March 1983, the University of Delaware's Center for Remote Sensing initiated a study to evaluate the spatial, radiometric and spectral performance of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper for coastal and estuarine studies. The investigation was supported by Contract NAS5-27580 from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The research was divided into three major subprojects: (1) a comparison of LANDSAT TM to MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay; (2) remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation - a radiative transfer approach; and (3) remote sensing of coastal wetland biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands.

  16. Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

  17. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 2: Sensor system study. [thematic mapper for earth resources application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.

  18. Use of calibration targets in the measurement of 2.22-micron mineral absorption features in Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.

    1987-01-01

    A mineral absorption index (MAI) has been developed to separate leaf water and mineral absorption in the 2.22-micron Thematic Mapper band. The MAI uses three baselines to estimate and subtract the absorption attributable to vegetation. Digital number data from calibration targets devoid of vegetation are used to establish the positions of the baselines in Thematic Mapper data.

  19. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  20. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part B: System data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Procedures and results are presented for performance and systems integration tests of flight model-1 thematic mapper. Aspects considered cover electronic module integration, radiometric calibration, spectral matching, spatial coverage, radiometric calibration of the calibrator, coherent noise, dynamic square wave response, band to band registration, geometric accuracy, and self induced vibration. Thermal vacuum tests, EMI/EMS, and mass properties are included. Liens are summarized.

  1. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part A: System data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of vibration, acoustical noise, and thermal vacuum are described as well as tests studies of EMI/EMC and mass properties conducted for thematic mapper systems integration. Liens are summarized and the engineering change proposal status is presented. Requests for deviation/waiver are included along with failure and nonforming material reports.

  2. Information content of data from the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous data acquisition by the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper and the multispectral scanner permits the comparison of the two types of image data with respect to engineering performance and data applications. Progress in the evaluation of information content of matching scenes in agricultural areas is briefly reported.

  3. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part E: Electronics module data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Tests to verify the as-designed performance of all circuits within the thematic mapper electronics module unit are described. Specifically, the tests involved the evaluation of the scan line corrector driver, shutter drivers function, cal lamp controller function, post amplifier function, command decoder verification unit, and the temperature and actuator controllers function.

  4. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part C: System data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Failure reports for flight model-1 of the thematic mapper are summarized showing the symptom and cause of failure as well as the corrective action taken. Each report is keyed to the major subsystem against which the failure occurred. Requests for deviation/waiver are listed by number, description, and current status. Copies of engineering proposals are included.

  5. LAND COVER MAPPING IN AN AGRICULTURAL SETTING USING MULTISEASONAL THEMATIC MAPPER DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multiseasonal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data set consisting of five image dates from a single year was used to characterize agricultural and related land cover in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon. Image registration was accomplished using an automated grou...

  6. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part B: Subsystem data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Summarized performance data are presented for the following major subsystems of the thematic mapper: the focal plane assembly, the radiative cooler, the radiative cooler door assembly, the top optical assembly, and the telescope assembly. Reference lists of the configurations status and of nonconforming material reports, failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

  7. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part C: Power supply data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The acceptance test data package for the thematic mapper flight model power supply was reviewed and the data compared to the relevant specification. The power supply was found to be within specification. Final test data for outut voltage regulation and ripple, efficiency, over and undervoltage protection, telemetry, impedances, turn-on requirements, and input current limits are presented.

  8. Validation of three land cover maps utilizing Space Shuttle photography and Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebelein, Jennifer Lynn

    Astronaut acquired photography (AAP) can be used as a quantitative reference source in land cover map validation. Three land cover maps were selected for validation with AAP and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM): (1) United States Geological Survey Level II, (2) International Geosphere Biosphere Programme DISCover and (3) Olson Global Ecosystem. The area validated extended from California to Louisiana, encompassing all of the southwestern United States (Figure 8). At one hundred and sixteen sample points randomly distributed across the southwestern United States, the dominant type of vegetation was established using Landsat Thematic Mapper data for comparison to astronaut acquired photography. Photointerpretation and a supervised classification algorithm were applied to assess the dominant type of vegetation at sample points savanna, evergreen needle leaf forest, shrubland, grassland, or a cropland/vegetation mosaic. The comparison of results from Thematic Mapper and astronaut acquired photography were accomplished via confusion matrices, a Khat and Z statistic. The results showed that there was almost no significant difference between utilizing Thematic Mapper data versus astronaut acquired photography as a source of reference data for map validation. The only significant difference occurred when using the classified Thematic Mapper imagery as a reference data source. When that reference source was used, this resulted in the largest number of misclassified land cover classes. Based on these results, several recommendations were made to streamline the efficiency of the Johnson Space Center photographic astronaut-training program. These recommendations include a web-based form to standardize and prioritize photographic requests, case of interpretation maps, and additional ancillary images hot-linked to the locational software used to identify areas of interest. These recommendations will not only increase efficiency but also improve the accuracy with which astronauts acquire photography in the future.

  9. Characterizating western juniper expansion via a fusion of Landsat 5 thematic mapper and LiDAR data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniper encroachment into shrub steppe and grassland systems is one of the most prominent changes occurring in rangelands of western North America. Most studies on juniper change are conducted over small areas, although encroachment is occurring across large regions. Development of image-based met...

  10. Analysis of thematic mapper simulator data collected over eastern North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The results of the analysis of aircraft-acquired thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data, collected to investigate the utility of thematic mapper data in crop area and land cover estimates, are discussed. Results of the analysis indicate that the seven-channel TMS data are capable of delineating the 13 crop types included in the study to an overall pixel classification accuracy of 80.97% correct, with relative efficiencies for four crop types examined between 1.62 and 26.61. Both supervised and unsupervised spectral signature development techniques were evaluated. The unsupervised methods proved to be inferior (based on analysis of variance) for the majority of crop types considered. Given the ground truth data set used for spectral signature development as well as evaluation of performance, it is possible to demonstrate which signature development technique would produce the highest percent correct classification for each crop type.

  11. Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1988-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data.

  12. Landsat-D thematic mapper simulation in an urban area using aircraft multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J.

    1979-01-01

    A simulation of imagery from the Landsat-D thematic mapper was conducted in order to determine its usefulness for urban land-use classification. Aircraft 24-channel multispectral scanner imagery of the Los Angeles area at 7.5-m resolution was processed digitally by means of matrix averaging and image smoothing techniques to simulate the 30-m resolution of the thematic mapper. Mean and standard deviation statistics of training sites for resolutions of 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 m were used to generate final classification maps. Plots of relative standard deviation showed that for larger training sites, as the resolution decreased, the distribution range of density values also decreased, while plots of relative classification accuracies showed that as resolution decreased, classification accuracies for three levels of standard deviation increased. A point of diminishing returns was indicated, however, confirming the utility of the resolution intended for Landsat-D.

  13. Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-08-01

    Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

  14. Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

  15. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral thematic mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    The main emphasis of the research was to determine what effect different wetland plant canopies would have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. Biomass estimates computed from spectral data were most similar to biomass estimates determined from harvest data when models developed for a specific canopy were used. In other words, the spectral biomass estimate of a broadleaf canopy was most similar to the harvest biomass estimate when a broadleaf canopy radiance model was used. Work is continuing to more precisely determine regression coefficients for each canopy type and to model the change in the coefficients with various combinations of canopy types. Researchers suspect that textural and spatial considerations can be used to identify canopy types and improve biomass estimates from Thematic Mapper data.

  16. Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, W.E.; Price, C.V.

    1988-09-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data. 26 references.

  17. LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for thematic mapping (TM) bands 3, 4, 5 and 7 is reliably estimated with the San Mateo Bridge target in the 12/31/82 scene. These results are to be compared with those from the 8/12/83 scene. Bands 1, 2 and 6 are to be analyzed with a different target possessing greater contrast. This may be possible with the underflight data comparison currently underway. The registration of this data to the TM image of 8/12/83 for a region arround the Stockton sewage pond east of San Francisco has begun. This particular approach has the advantage that the full two-dimensional MFT will be measured instead of the MFT in only one azimuth as reported.

  18. Study of Spectral/Radiometric Characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for Land Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Metzler, M. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    An investigation conducted in support of the LANDSAT 4/5 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program is discussed. Results of engineering analyses of radiometric, spatial, spectral, and geometric properties of the Thematic Mapper systems are summarized; major emphasis is placed on the radiometric analysis. Details of the analyses are presented in appendices, which contain three of the eight technical papers produced during this investigation; these three, together, describe the major activities and results of the investigation.

  19. GEODETIC ACCURACY OF LANDSAT 4 MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER AND THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thormodsgard, June M.; DeVries, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    EROS Data Center is evaluating the geodetic accuracy of Landsat-4 data from both the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) processing systems. Geodetic accuracy is a measure of the precision of Landsat data registration to the Earth's figure. This paper describes a geodetic accuracy assessment of several MSS and TM scenes, based on the geodetic referencing information supplied on a standard Landsat 4 computer compatible tape.

  20. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part D: Focal plane assembly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The data obtained for the Band 1 thematic mapper flight full band assembly (P/N 50797) are summarized. The data were collected from half band, post amplifier, and full band acceptance test data records.

  1. Thematic mapper protoflight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part A: Multiplexer data, book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Data from the final performance tests of the thematic mapper flight model multiplexer at ambient temperature are presented. Results cover the power supply, the input buffer, and the A/D threshold for bands 1 through 4.

  2. Landsat-D thematic mapper simulation using aircraft multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J.; Bryant, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    A simulation of imagery from the upcoming Landsat-D Thematic Mapper was accomplished by using selected channels of aircraft 24-channel multispectral scanner data. The purpose was to simulate Thematic Mapper 30-meter resolution imagery, to compare its spectral quality with the original aircraft MSS data, and to determine changes in thematic classification accuracy for the simulated imagery. The original resolution of approximately 7.5 meters IFOV and simulated resolution of 15, 30, and 60 meters were used to indicate the trend of spectral quality and classification accuracy. The study was based in a 6.5 square kilometer area of urban Los Angeles having a diversity of land use. The original imagery was reduced in resolution by two related methods: pixel matrix averaging, and matrix smoothing with a unity box filter, followed by matrix averaging. Thematic land use classification using training sites and a Bayesian maximum-likelihood algorithm was performed at three levels of standard deviation - 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 sigma. Plots of relative standard deviation showed that for larger training sites with a normal distribution of data, as the resolution decreased, the distribution range of density values decreased. Also, the classification accuracies for three levels of standard deviation increased as resolution decreased. However, the indication is that a point of diminishing returns had been reached, and 30 meters IFOV should be the best for multispectral classification of urban scenes.

  3. Thematic Mapper laser profile resolution of Holocene Lake limit, Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, John A.; Currey, Donald R.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1989-01-01

    The limit of Great Salt Lake's maximum expansion onto the floor of the Great Salt Lake Desert during Holocene time is marked by a break in slope which is clearly depicted in terrain models which merge Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner data and Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) laser profile data. Mean elevations of APTS-coincident TM pixels are strongly correlated with reflectance in TM Bands 5 and 7 when and where sufficient moisture contrasts among terrain components are high. TM-APTS models and field surveys place the highest Holocene standing water at an elavation of 4221 ft (1286.7 m).

  4. Geologic results of the TMS survey over Mt. Emmons, Colorado. [Thematic Mapper Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    In 1981, NASA conducted with an American company a cooperative study, involving the use of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data. The study was concerned with an area near Crested Butte, Colorado, which contains a known, but unmined, major molybdenum deposit. Detailed ground observations in the Mt. Emmons area demonstrated that the imagery was extremely effective for detection of geologically significant features. The imagery specifically delineated areas of ferric iron staining, seritization, and hornfelized rock. Attention is given to data acquisition and data processing, field work in 1982 and in 1983, the integration of gravity data, and costs.

  5. Feature selection and the information content of Thematic Mapper simulator data for forest structural assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, M. A.; Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An assessment is made of the information content of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the case of a forested region, in order to determine the sensitivity of such data to forest crown closure and tree size class. Principal components analysis and Monte Carlo simulation indicated that channels 4, 7, 5 and 3 were optimal for four-channel forest structure analysis. As the number of channels supplied to the Monte Carlo feature selection routine increased, classification accuracy increased. The greatest sensitivity to the forest structural parameters, which included succession within clearcuts as well as crown closure and size class, was obtained from the 7-channel TMS data.

  6. Using the Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper tasseled cap transformation to extract shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.W., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A semiautomated method for objectively interpreting and extracting the land-water interface has been devised and used successfully to generate multiple shoreline data for the test States of Louisiana and Delaware. The method is based on the application of tasseled cap transformation coefficients derived by the EROS Data Center for Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Data, and is used in conjunction with ERDAS Imagine software. Shoreline data obtained using this method are cost effective compared with conventional mapping methods for State, regional, and national coastline applications. Attempts to attribute vector shoreline data with orthometric elevation values derived from tide observation stations, however, proved unsuccessful.

  7. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The effect different wetland plant canopies have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands is studied. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. The spectral biomass estimate of a broadleaf canopy is most similar to the harvest biomass estimate when a broadleaf canopy radiance model is used. All major wetland vegetation species can be identified through TM imagery. Simple regression models are developed equating the vegetation index and the infrared index with biomass. The spectral radiance index largely agreed with harvest biomass estimates.

  8. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The effect different wetland plant canopies have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands is examined. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. Biomass estimates computed from spectral data were most similar to biomass estimates determined from harvest data when models developed for a specific canopy were used. Precise determination of regression coefficients for each canopy type and modeling changes in the coefficients with various combinations of canopy types are being tested. The multispectral band scanner vegetation index estimates are very similar to the vegetation index estimates.

  9. Atmospheric modeling related to Thematic Mapper scan geometry. [atmospheric effects on satellite-borne photography of LANDSAT D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Gleason, J. M.; Cicone, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A simulation study was carried out to characterize atmospheric effects in LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper data. In particular, the objective was to determine if any differences would result from using a linear vs. a conical scanning geometry. Insight also was gained about the overall effect of the atmosphere on Thematic Mapper signals, together with the effects of time of day. An added analysis was made of the geometric potential for direct specular reflections (sun glint). The ERIM multispectral system simulation model was used to compute inband Thematic Mapper radiances, taking into account sensor, atmospheric, and surface characteristics. Separate analyses were carried out for the thermal band and seven bands defined in the reflective spectral region. Reflective-region radiances were computed for 40 deg N, 0 deg, and 40 deg S latitudes; June, Mar., and Dec. days; and 9:30 and 11:00 AM solar times for both linear and conical scan modes. Also, accurate simulations of solar and viewing geometries throughout Thematic Mapper orbits were made. It is shown that the atmosphere plays an important role in determining Thematic Mapper radiances, with atmospheric path radiance being the major component of total radiances for short wavelengths and decreasing in importance as wavelength increases. Path radiance is shown to depend heavily on the direct radiation scattering angle and on haze content. Scan-angle-dependent variations were shown to be substantial, especially for the short-wavelength bands.

  10. Landsat D Thematic Mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    To characterize and quantify the performance of the Landsat thematic mapper (TM), techniques for dimensionality reduction by linear transformation have been studied and evaluated and the accuracy of the correction of geometric errors in TM images analyzed. Theoretical evaluations and comparisons for existing methods for the design of linear transformation for dimensionality reduction are presented. These methods include the discrete Karhunen Loeve (KL) expansion, Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA), Thematic Mapper (TM)-Tasseled Cap Linear Transformation and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). A unified approach to these design problems is presented in which each method involves optimizing an objective function with respect to the linear transformation matrix. From these studies, four modified methods are proposed. They are referred to as the Space Variant Linear Transformation, the KL Transform-MDA hybrid method, and the First and Second Version of the Weighted MDA method. The modifications involve the assignment of weights to classes to achieve improvements in the class conditional probability of error for classes with high weights. Experimental evaluations of the existing and proposed methods have been performed using the six reflective bands of the TM data. It is shown that in terms of probability of classification error and the percentage of the cumulative eigenvalues, the six reflective bands of the TM data require only a three dimensional feature space. It is shown experimentally as well that for the proposed methods, the classes with high weights have improvements in class conditional probability of error estimates as expected.

  11. Application of thematic mapper imagery to oil exploration in Austin Chalk, central Gulf Coast basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, W.M.

    1988-02-01

    One of the newest major oil plays in the Gulf Coast basin, the Austin Chalk reportedly produces in three belts: an updip belt, where production is from fractured chalk in structurally high positions along faults above 7000 ft; a shallow downdip belt, where the chalk is uniformly saturated with oil from 7000 to 9000 ft; and a deeper downdip belt saturated with gas and condensate below 9000 ft. The updip fields usually occur on the southeastern, upthrown side of the Luling, Mexia, and Charlotte fault zones. Production is from fractures that connect the relatively sparse matrix pores with more permeable fracture systems. The fractures resulted from regional extensional stress during the opening of the Gulf Coast basin on the divergent margin of the North American plate during the Laramide orogeny. The fractures are more common in the more brittle chalk than in the overlying Navarro and underlying Eagle Ford shales, which are less brittle. The oil in the updip traps in the chalk may have been generated in place downdip, and migrated updip along the extension fractures into the updip traps during or after the Laramide orogeny. A fairway of previously unmapped updip faults and drag folds has been mapped using Thematic Mapper imagery and seismic, structural, and resistivity maps near the Nixon field, Burleson County, Texas. This fairway, prospective for oil from the Austin Chalk, contains wells reported to produce from the Austin Chalk which lie along lineaments and linear features on the Thematic Mapper imagery and faults in the seismic and structure maps.

  12. Assessing the accuracy of Landsat Thematic Mapper classification using double sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhan, M.A.; Reich, R.M.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Double sampling was used to provide a cost efficient estimate of the accuracy of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) classification map of a scene located in the Rocky Moutnain National Park, Colorado. In the first phase, 200 sample points were randomly selected to assess the accuracy between Landsat TM data and aerial photography. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic were 49.5% and 32.5%, respectively. In the second phase, 25 sample points identified in the first phase were selected using stratified random sampling and located in the field. This information was used to correct for misclassification errors associated with the first phase samples. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic increased to 59.6% and 45.6%, respectively.Double sampling was used to provide a cost efficient estimate of the accuracy of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) classification map of a scene located in the Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. In the first phase, 200 sample points were randomly selected to assess the accuracy between Landsat TM data and aerial photography. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic were 49.5 per cent and 32.5 per cent, respectively. In the second phase, 25 sample points identified in the first phase were selected using stratified random sampling and located in the field. This information was used to correct for misclassification errors associated with the first phase samples. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic increased to 59.6 per cent and 45.6 per cent, respectively.

  13. Landsat thematic mapper (TM) soil variability analysis over Webster County, Iowa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Pitts, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data acquired June 7, June 23, and July 31, 1982, and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data acquired August 2, September 3, and October 21, 1982, over Webster County, Iowa, were examined for within-field soil effects on corn and soybean spectral signatures. It was found that patterns displayed on various computer-generated map products were in close agreement with the detailed soil survey of the area. The difference in spectral values appears to be due to a combination of subtle soil properties and crop growth patterns resulting from the different soil properties. Bands 4 (0.76-.90 micron), 5 (1.55-1.75 micron), and 7 (2.08-2.35 micron) were found to be responding to the within-field soil variability even with increasing ground cover. While these results are preliminary, they do indicate that the soil influence on the vegetation is being detected by TM and should provide improved information relating to crop and soil properties.

  14. Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin Paul

    1987-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

  15. Landsat-5 bumper-mode geometric correction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, J.C.; Choate, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scan mirror was switched from its primary operating mode to a backup mode in early 2002 in order to overcome internal synchronization problems arising from long-term wear of the scan mirror mechanism. The backup bumper mode of operation removes the constraints on scan start and stop angles enforced in the primary scan angle monitor operating mode, requiring additional geometric calibration effort to monitor the active scan angles. It also eliminates scan timing telemetry used to correct the TM scan geometry. These differences require changes to the geometric correction algorithms used to process TM data. A mathematical model of the scan mirror's behavior when operating in bumper mode was developed. This model includes a set of key timing parameters that characterize the time-varying behavior of the scan mirror bumpers. To simplify the implementation of the bumper-mode model, the bumper timing parameters were recast in terms of the calibration and telemetry data items used to process normal TM imagery. The resulting geometric performance, evaluated over 18 months of bumper-mode operations, though slightly reduced from that achievable in the primary operating mode, is still within the Landsat specifications when the data are processed with the most up-to-date calibration parameters.

  16. Revised Landsat-5 TM Radiometrie Calibration Procedures and Postcalibration Dynamic Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.

    2003-01-01

    Effective May 5, 2003, Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) will be radiometrically calibrated using a new procedure and revised calibration parameters. This change will improve absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Users will need to use new parameters to convert the calibrated data products to radiance. The new procedure for the reflective bands (1-5,7) is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration curve for the instrument derived from the instrument's internal calibrator, cross-calibration with the ETM+, and vicarious measurements. The thermal band will continue to be calibrated using the internal calibrator. Further updates to improve the relative detector-to-detector calibration and thermal band calibration are being investigated, as is the calibration of the Landsat-4 (L4) TM.

  17. Digital to analog conversion and visual evaluation of Thematic Mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCord, James R.; Binnie, Douglas R.; Seevers, Paul M.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Landsat D Image Data Quality Analysis Program, the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center (EDC) developed procedures to optimize the visual information content of Thematic Mapper data and evaluate the resulting photographic products by visual interpretation. A digital-to-analog transfer function was developed which would properly place the digital values on the most useable portion of a film response curve. Individual black-and-white transparencies generated using the resulting look-up tables were utilized in the production of color-composite images with varying band combinations. Four experienced photointerpreters ranked 2-cm-diameter (0. 75 inch) chips of selected image features of each band combination for ease of interpretability. A nonparametric rank-order test determined the significance of interpreter preference for the band combinations.

  18. Geometric and radiometric characterization of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper and multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, H. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A geometrically raw image of Washington, D.C. was acquired and radiometrically corrected. The data show little of the detector stripping common in earlier MSS images. The radiometrically corrected data have uniform means and standard deviations for the detectors in each band; however, the data for different detectors utilize a different pattern of DN levels, resulting in ubiquitous stripping of 1 DN amplitude. Band-to-band registration was assessed using color composites and small area correlation techniques. The spectral equivalency of the first four bands of the thematic mapper with the four bands of the MSS is being examined. Geometric analysis of the Washington, D.C. scene have started and a generalized routine for examining the contents of the label files and nonvideo data files was implemented. Several discrepancies from the documentation are described. Night scenes and daytime ocean scenes required for radiometric purposes were identified and the data ordered.

  19. Application of thematic mapper-type data over a porphyry-molybdenum deposit in Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of thematic mapper data as a source of geologically useful information for mountainous areas of varying vegetation density. Much of the processing was done in an a priori manner without prior ground-based information. This approach resulted in a successfull mapping of the alteration associated with the Mt. Emmons molybdenum ore body as well as several other hydrothermal systems. Supervised classification produced a vegetation map at least as accurate as the mapping done for the environmental impact statement. Principal components were used to map zones of general, subtle alteration and to separate hematitically stained rock from staining associated with hydrothermal activity. Decorrelation color composites were found to be useful field mapping aids, easily delineating many lithologies and vegetation classes of interest. The factors restricting the interpretability and computer manipulation of the data are examined.

  20. The utility of Thematic Mapper sensor characteristics for surface mine monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, J. R.; Kennard, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The employment of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data for surface coal mine inventory and inspection applications has been extensively investigated. However, in spite of encouraging research results, MSS data have not gained wide acceptance for surface mine monitoring operations. This situation is partly related to MSS spatial resolution (80 m), which is considered insufficient for detailed surface mine inspection. The Thematic Mapper (TM) employed on the Landsat-4 and 5 satellites provides an improved resolution (30 m) and other refinements which are expected to enhance the usefulness of TM data relative to MSS data. The present paper reports research which was conducted to assess the usefulness of actual TM data and to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of individual sensor characteristics to data utility for surface mine monitoring. The obtained results demonstrate that the TM spatial resolution can be of immediate benefit for certain applications such as surface mine monitoring.

  1. Mapping surface energy balance components by combining landsat thematic mapper and ground-based meteorological data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, M.S.; Jackson, R. D.; Raymond, L.H.; Gay, L.W.; Slater, P.N.

    1989-01-01

    Surface energy balance components were evaluated by combining satellite-based spectral data with on-site measurements of solar irradiance, air temperature, wind speed, and vapor pressure. Maps of latent heat flux density (??E) and net radiant flux density (Rn) were produced using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data for three dates: 23 July 1985, 5 April 1986, and 24 June 1986. On each date, a Bowen-ratio apparatus, located in a vegetated field, was used to measure ??E and Rn at a point within the field. Estimates of ??E and Rn were also obtained using radiometers aboard an aircraft flown at 150 m above ground level. The TM-based estimates differed from the Bowen-ratio and aircraft-based estimates by less than 12 % over mature fields of cotton, wheat, and alfalfa, where ??E and Rn ranged from 400 to 700 Wm-2. ?? 1989.

  2. Remote Sensing of Coastal Wetlands Biomass Using Thematic Mapper Wavebands. [Lewes, Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral data, simulating thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 were gathered in salt and brackish marshes using a hand-held radiometer. Simple regression models were developed equating spectral radiance indicies with total live biomass for S. alterniflora in a salt marsh and for a variety of plant species in a brackish marsh. Models were then tested and compared to harvest estimates of biomass. In the salt marsh, biomass estimates from spectral data were similar to harvest biomass estimates during most of the growing season. Estimates of annual net aerial primary productivity calculated from spectral data were within 21% of production estimated from harvest data. During August, biomass estimates from spectral data in the brackish marsh were similar to biomass estimated by harvesting techniques but not always comparable at other times in the growing season.

  3. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for mapping forest, agricultural and soil resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S.; Benson, A.; Dummer, K.; Fakhoury, E.

    1985-01-01

    Color composite TM film products which include TM5, TM4, and a visible band (TM1, TM2, or TM3) are superior to composites which exclude TM4 for discriminating most forest and agricultural cover types and estimating area proportions for inventory and sampling purposes. Clustering a subset of TM data results in a spectral class map which groups diverse forest cover types into spectrally and ecologically similar areas suitable for use as a stratification base in traditional forest inventory practices. Analysis of simulated Thematic Mapper data indicate that the location and number of TM spectral bands are suitable for detecting differences in major soil properties and characterizing soil spectral curve form and magnitude.

  4. Information content of data from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS). [Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Software was constructed to reformat data to band interlevel format and analysis software was developed in an effort to quantify the increased information content (statistical variability within a data set) of thematic mapper data as compared to that from the LANDSAT 4 multispectral band scanner. Computer runs were carried out for several subareas from a data set acquired simultaneously by TM and MSS over a test area in northeast Arkansas, one of the most agriculturally diverse sea areas in the country. The 6 visible-near IR channels of the TM provide more information than the 4 channels of the MSS. A rough estimate of 20 bits per pixel for TM, and 10 bits per pixel for the MSS was computed for these subareas. These numbers are to be revised downward when allowance is made for noise in the data.

  5. Improved classification of small-scale urban watersheds using thematic mapper simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.; Ormsby, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of Landsat MSS classification methods in the case of small, highly urbanized hydrological basins containing complex land-use patterns is limited, and is plagued by misclassifications due to the spectral response similarity of many dissimilar surfaces. Landsat MSS data for the Conley Creek basin near Atlanta, Georgia, have been compared to thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data obtained on the same day by aircraft. The TMS data were able to alleviate many of the recurring patterns associated with MSS data, through bandwidth optimization, an increase of the number of spectral bands to seven, and an improvement of ground resolution to 30 m. The TMS is thereby able to detect small water bodies, powerline rights-of-way, and even individual buildings.

  6. Separation of vegetation and rock signatures in Thematic Mapper and polarimetric SAR images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.; Smith, Milton O.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for separating classes of surface roughness and vegetation in semiarid regions using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Thematic Mapper data is developed. Polarimetric SAR data may be used to separate areas with less than 10 percent vegetation cover where one suite of model inversions may be applicable for derivation of surface roughness. In more vegetated regions, visible/near-infrared data provide a mechanism for determining the relative contribution of vegetation to multiple scattering in the SAR data. Thus, the synergistic use of the two data sets provides a more complete characterization of surface units and cover. This result is critical when trying to monitor dielectric constant variations related to changes in moisture content of soil and vegetation cover in arid to semiarid regions. A strategy for automating a procedure for measurement of surface roughness is proposed.

  7. Radiometric calibration and processing procedure for reflective bands on LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiometric subsystem of NASA's LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor is described. Special emphasis is placed on the internal calibrator (IC) pulse shapes and timing cycle. The procedures for the absolute radiometric calibration of the TM channels with a 122-centimeter integrating sphere and the transfer of radiometric calibration from the channels to the IC are reviewed. The use of the IC to calibrate TM data in the ground processing system consists of pulse integration, pulse averaging, IC state identification, linear regression analysis, and histogram equalization. An overview of the SCROUNGE-era (before August 1983) method is presented. Procedural differences between SCROUNGE and the TIPS-era (after July 1983) and the implications of these differences are discussed.

  8. Cloud-shadow suppression technique for enhancement of Airborne Thematic Mapper imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, L.J.; Moore, J.M. )

    1993-08-01

    Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) data are often degraded by the shadows from clouds above the aircraft during the flight. The spectral information in cloud-shadowed areas is reduced but not totally lost because the reflected energy of diffuse illumination (sky light) reaches the sensors from the shadowed ground despite obstruction of direct solar radiation. The thermal band image is almost unaffected by the temporary change of radiation caused by clouds. An enhancement technique for cloud-shadow suppression has been developed based on differencing, RGB-HSI-RGB transformation, and thermal band modulation. The method suppresses cloud shadows with topographic shading retained; spectral information is retrieved and enhanced. The result is a nearly normal color composite with full topographic expression but without cloud shadows. Such a color composite is easy to interpret for geological structures and lithologies. 6 refs.

  9. Thematic Mapper Data Quality and Performance Assessment in Renewable Resources/agriculture/remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of the early thematic mapper (TM) data indicate the TM sensor and associated ground processing are performing equal to the high expectations and within advertised specifications. The overall TM system with improved resolution, together with additional and more optimumly placed spectral bands shows much promise for benefits in future analysis activities. By selecting man-made features of known dimensions (e.g., highways, airfields, buildings, and isolated water bodies), an assessment was made of the TM performance relative to the specified 30-meter (98-foot) resolution. The increase of spatial resolution of TM (30 m) over MSS (80 M) appears to be significant not only in resolving spectrally distinct classes that were previously undefinable but also in distinguishing within-field variability. An Important result of the early TM evaluation and pre-TM analyses was the development of an integrated system to receive LANDSAT-4 TM (as well as MSS) data and analyze the data via various approaches.

  10. Assessment of Thematic Mapper Band-to-band Registration by the Block Correlation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The design of the Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral radiometer makes it susceptible to band-to-band misregistration. To estimate band-to-band misregistration a block correlation method is employed. This method is chosen over other possible techniques (band differencing and flickering) because quantitative results are produced. The method correlates rectangular blocks of pixels from one band against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band. The block pairs are shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient for each shift position is computed. The displacement corresponding to the maximum correlation is taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. Subpixel shifts are estimated by a bi-quadratic interpolation of the correlation values surrounding the maximum correlation. To obtain statistical summaries for each band combination post processing of the block correlation results performed. The method results in estimates of registration error that are consistent with expectations.

  11. An Analysis of the High Frequency Vibrations in Early Thematic Mapper Scenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, J.; Larduinat, E.

    1985-01-01

    The motion of the mirrors in the thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) instruments, and the motion of other devices, such as the TDRSS antenna drive, and solar array drives onboard LANDSAT-4 cause vibrations to propagate through the spacecraft. These vibrations as well as nonlinearities in the scanning motion of the TM mirror can cause the TM detectors to point away from their nominal positions. Two computer programs, JITTER and SCDFT, were developed as part of the LANDSAT-D Assessment System (LAS), Products and Procedures Analysis (PAPA) program to evaluate the potential effect of high frequency vibrations on the final TM image. The maximum overlap and underlap which were observed for early TM scenes are well within specifications for the ground processing system. The cross scan and scan high frequency vibrations are also within the specifications cited for the flight system.

  12. Mapping thermal maturity in the Chainman shale, near Eureka, Nevada, with Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Jones, O.D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between measurements of organic matter (OM) maturity and laboratory measurements of visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance, and if Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images could be used to map maturity. The maturity of Mississippian Chainman Shale samples collected in east-central Nevada and west-central Utah was determined by using vitrinite reflectance and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. TM 4/TM 5 values correspond well to vitrinite reflectance and hydrogen index variations, and therefore this ratio was used to evaluate a TM image of the Eureka, Nevada, area for mapping thermal maturity differences in the Chainman Shale. -from Authors

  13. Neuro-classification of multi-type Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuang, Xin; Engel, Bernard A.; Fernandez, R. N.; Johannsen, Chris J.

    1991-01-01

    Neural networks have been successful in image classification and have shown potential for classifying remotely sensed data. This paper presents classifications of multitype Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data using neural networks. The Landsat TM Image for March 23, 1987 with accompanying ground observation data for a study area In Miami County, Indiana, U.S.A. was utilized to assess recognition of crop residues. Principal components and spectral ratio transformations were performed on the TM data. In addition, a layer of the geographic information system (GIS) for the study site was incorporated to generate GIS-enhanced TM data. This paper discusses (1) the performance of neuro-classification on each type of data, (2) how neural networks recognized each type of data as a new image and (3) comparisons of the results for each type of data obtained using neural networks, maximum likelihood, and minimum distance classifiers.

  14. Using Landsat thematic mapper data for structural analysis of Slick Hills area, southwest Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, S.J.; Morgan, K.M. )

    1987-02-01

    In this study, the authors used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to identify structural lineaments in the high deformed Slick Hills area of southwestern Oklahoma. These low-lying hills represent a sequence of Cambrian-Ordovician rocks (primarily carbonates) that were intensely folded and faulted during the Pennsylvanian and Early Permian. Their analysis of landsat TM computer-generated images (scale, 1:70,000) revealed two major lineament orientations from rose diagram plots. One set of lineaments trends N30{degree}-60{degree}W and is associated with left-lateral, thrust, and high-angle reverse faults. These faults, as well as fold axes and fracture patterns, dominate the study area and are well documented in the literature.

  15. Land cover map of Great Britain. An automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, R.M.; Groom, G.B.; Jones, A.R.

    1994-05-01

    The Land Cover Map of Great Britain was produced using supervised maximum-likelihood classifications of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. By combining summer and winter data, classification accuracies were substantially improved over single-data analyses. The map, bosed on a 25-m grid, records 25 cover types, consisting of sea and inland water, beaches and bare ground, developed and arable land, and 18 types of semi-natural vegetation. General cover is recorded at a field-by-field scale, while key landscape features, with strong spectral signatures, show patterns down to a minimum mappable unit of 0.125 ha. Comparisons with independent ground reference data showed correspondences which varied between 67 percent and 89 percent depending on the level of detail at which comparisons were made.

  16. Remote sensing of soils in the eastern Palouse region with Landsat Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, B. E.; Cheng, Yaan

    1989-01-01

    Soils of the Palouse region of eastern Washington State were investigated using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band ratios to discriminate areas where erosion has caused paleosols to be exposed. Ratioed data were clustered and plotted to show soil lines which could be subdivided into various levels of organic matter and iron oxides. Successfully classified scenes of a summer fallow (bare soil) field were obtained with band ratios 1/4, 3/4, and 5/4 to map organic carbon and 3/4, 5/4, and 5/3 for the iron/carbon ratio indicator of erosion. Regression models were made with 5/4 data and organic carbon and 5/3 data and the iron/carbon ratio. Based on this analysis, 21 percent of the test field soils are exposed or nearly exposed paleosols.

  17. Tectonics and volcanism in central Mexico - A Landsat Thematic Mapper perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. A.; Harrison, C. G. A.

    1989-01-01

    Digitally enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images were used to map neotectonic deformation in central Mexico. This region has been studied for decades using a variety of geological and geophysical techniques, but synoptic mapping of neotectonic activity and major fault zones there, and an evaluation of their regional relationship to the character and location of volcanism were not previously possible until the application of synoptic, high resolution satellite imagery. Interpretation of the TM images shows that the tectonic deformation is closely linked in time and space to the dominantly calc-alkaline volcanics of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB). The eruptive style and distribution of the volcanics is clearly related to the deformation resulting from relative motions of three large crustal blocks south of the MVB. Therefore, zones of weakness within the crust of central Mexico, which may be inherited from earlier episodes of deformation, are a principal factor controlling the oblique orientation of the MVB relative to the Acapulco Trench.

  18. Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the thematic mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Metzler, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    The previous characterization of scan-related low-frequency noise was confirmed and extended through analysis of reflective-band data from another nighttime acquisition. Amplitude and phase relationships of the level shifts were determined for each detector in each of free full frames. Analysis of scan-direction-related signal droop effects in nighttime data from the reflective bands was begun with encouraging initial observations. Also, an effort to characterize high-frequency noise in the reflective bands through Fourier analysis of nighttime data was initiated. Recommendations are made relative to the choice of radiometric calibration constants in the thematic mapper image processing system for the routine processing of TM data. Non-linear (piece-wise linear) calibration curves are recommended.

  19. Study of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Activities in support of thematic mapper "A'-tape analysis, field work in the Cement-Velma, Oklahoma areas, and continued interpretation and assessment of imagery of various test sites are reported. The objectives of the A-tape analysis are: (1) to examine the radiometric loss of data quality introduced by resampling to P-tape format; (2) to seek a better distriping of the image by replacing the NASA matching of radiometry to on-board calibration data with an EarthSat matching of the histograms for each of the sixteen detectors, processing separately for forward and backward scanner sweeps; and (3) to produce an image with improved appearance and improved radiometeric qualities.

  20. Measurement of the Landsat Thematic Mapper modulation transfer function using an array of point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauchmiller, Robert F., Jr.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring the Thematic Mapper (TM) imaging system point spread function (PSF) using TM imagery or a specially constructed target consisting of a two-dimensional array of approximate point sources of known dimensions and radiometric qualities. The target allows 16 separate point sources to be imaged simultaneously by the TM. The point sources were carefully placed on the ground so that their relative positions were known. Owing to sample-scene phasing, each imaged point source exhibits a different amount of blur in the digital image. The target pixels may then be recombined according to their known relative positions to form a single, sampled, nonaliased imaging system PSF. The modulation transfer function is then obtained as the modulus of the discrete Fourier transform of the PSF.

  1. Estimating biogeochemical fluxes across sagebrush-steppe landscapes with Thematic Mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiners, W. A.; Strong, L. L.; Matson, P. A.; Burke, I. C.; Ojima, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data were coupled to an ecosystem simulation model to simulate variation in nitrogen mineralization over time and space in a sagebrush steppe. This system of data inputs and calculations provides estimates of ecosystem properties including rates of biogeochemical processes over extensive and complex landscapes, and under changing management and climatic conditions. The landscape surface was divided into three sagebrush ecosystem types plus one other class consisting of nonsagebrush vegetation. This classification presented a complex mosaic of ecosystem types that shifted markedly in composition from one end of the 933-sq km study area to the other. Annual N-mineralization rates ranged from 5 to 25 kg N/ha among the three sagebrush types. The most active type comprised 42 percent of the entire area but contributed 60 percent to the nitrogen mineralization throughout the landscape.

  2. Landsat Thematic Mapper observations of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.; Wells, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    Remote sensing with the Landsat Thematic Mapper of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes between 18 and 27 deg S revealed, for the first time, the presence of 28 breached volcanic cones and 11 major volcanic debris avalanche deposits, several of which cover areas in excess of 100 sq km. It is concluded that such avalanche deposits are normal products of the evolution of large composite volcanoes, comparable with lava and pyroclastic flow deposits. A statistical survey of 578 composite volcanoes in the same area indicated that a majority of cones which achieve edifice heights between 2000 and 3000 m may undergo sector collapse. The paper describes morphological criteria for identifying breached composite cones and volcanic debris avalanches using orbital images.

  3. Modeling energy flow and nutrient cycling in natural semiarid grassland ecosystems with the aid of thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Energy flow and nutrient cycling were modeled as affected by herbivory on selected intensive sites along gradients of precipitation and soils, validating the model output by monitoring selected parameters with data derived from the Thematic Mapper (TM). Herbivore production was modeled along the gradient of soils and herbivory, and validated with data derived from TM in a spatial data base.

  4. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix D: Thematic mapper Computer Compatible Tape (CCT-AT/PT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, H.

    1981-01-01

    The format of computer compatible tapes which contain LANDSAT 4 and D Prime thematic mapper data is defined. A complete specification of the CCT-AT (radiometric corrections applied and geometric matrices appended) and the CCT-PT (radiometric and geometric corrections) data formats is provided.

  5. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part B: Scan mirror assembly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Data from the thematic mapper scan mirror assembly (SMA) acceptance test are presented. Documentation includes: (1) a list of the acceptance test discrepancies; (2) flight 1 SMA test data book; (3) flight 1 SMA environmental report; (4) the configuration verification index; (5) the flight 1 SMA test failure reports; (6) the flight 1 data tapes log; and (7) the requests for deviation/waivers.

  6. Thematic mapper protoflight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part A: Multiplexer data book 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Final performance test data for the thematic mapper flight model multiplexer are presented in tables. Aspects covered include A/D thresholds for bands 5, 6, and 7; cross talk; the thermistor; bilevel commands signal parameters; A/D threshold ambient, voltage margin low bus; serial data and bit clock parameters; and the wire check. Tests were conducted at ambient temperature.

  7. Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT 5 TM data were analyzed. Effects which were found earlier and quantified in LANDSAT 4 TM data were quantified for LANDSAT-5 data as well, including: scan-direction-related signal droop and scan correlated level shifts. Coincident LANDSAT 4 and 5 fully corrected (CCT-PT) TM data were analyzed, and band-by-band relationships between the two sensors were derived in terms of both signal counts and radiance.

  8. The Use of Thematic Mapper Data for Land Cover Discrimination: Preliminary Results from the UK Satmap Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, M. J.; Baker, J. R.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Gayler, J. E.; Hardy, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    In assessing the accuracy of classification techniques for Thematic Mapper data the consistency of the detector-to-detector response is critical. Preliminary studies were undertaken, therefore, to assess the significance of this factor for the TM. The overall structure of the band relationships can be examined by principal component analysis. In order to examine the utility of the Thematic Mapper data more carefully, six different land cover classes approximately Anderson level 1 were selected. These included an area of water from the sediment-laden Mississippi, woodland, agricultural land and urban land. A plume class was also selected which includes the plume of smoke emanating from the power station and drifting over the Mississippi river.

  9. The GSFC Mark-2 three band hand-held radiometer. [thematic mapper for ground truth data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Jones, W. H.; Kley, W. A.; Sundstrom, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    A self-contained, portable, hand-radiometer designed for field usage was constructed and tested. The device, consisting of a hand-held probe containing three sensors and a strap supported electronic module, weighs 4 1/2 kilograms. It is powered by flashlight and transistor radio batteries, utilizes two silicon and one lead sulfide detectors, has three liquid crystal displays, sample and hold radiometric sampling, and its spectral configuration corresponds to LANDSAT-D's thematic mapper bands. The device was designed to support thematic mapper ground-truth data collection efforts and to facilitate 'in situ' ground-based remote sensing studies of natural materials. Prototype instruments were extensively tested under laboratory and field conditions with excellent results.

  10. New structural and stratigraphic insights for northwestern Pakistan from field and Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, J.; Beck, R.; Gnos, E.; Vincent, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The remote Waziristan region of northwestern Pakistan includes outcrops of the India-Asia suture zone. The excellent exposure of the Waziristan ophiolite and associated sedimentary lithosomes and their inaccessibility made the use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data desirable in this study. Landsat TM data were used to create a spectral ratio image of bands 3/4, 5/4, and 7/5, displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively, and a principal component analysis image of bands 4, 5, and 7 (RGB). These images were interpreted in the context of available geologic maps, limited field work, and biostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic, and radiometric data. They were used to create a coherent geologic map of Waziristan and cross section of the area that document five tectonic units in the region and provide a new and more detailed tectonic history for the region. The lowest unit is comprised of Indian shelf sediments that were thrust under the Waziristan ophiolite. The ophiolite has been tectonically shuffled and consists of two separate tectonic units. The top thrust sheet is a nappe comprised of distal Triassic to Lower Cretaceous Neotethyan sediments that were underthrust during the Late Cretaceous by the ophiolite riding on Indian shelf strata. The uppermost unit contains unconformable Tertiary and younger strata. The thrust sheets show that the Waziristan ophiolite was obducted during Late Cretaceous time and imply that the Paleocene and Eocene deformation represents collision of India with the Kabul block and/or Asia.

  11. A preliminary evaluation of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data for their geometric and radiometric accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Bender, L. U.; Falcone, N.; Jones, O. D.

    1983-01-01

    Some LANDSAT thematic mapper data collected over the eastern United States were analyzed for their whole scene geometric accuracy, band to band registration and radiometric accuracy. Band ratio images were created for a part of one scene in order to assess the capability of mapping geologic units with contrasting spectral properties. Systematic errors were found in the geometric accuracy of whole scenes, part of which were attributable to the film writing device used to record the images to film. Band to band registration showed that bands 1 through 4 were registered to within one pixel. Likewise, bands 5 and 7 also were registered to within one pixel. However, bands 5 and 7 were misregistered with bands 1 through 4 by 1 to 2 pixels. Band 6 was misregistered by 4 pixels to bands 1 through 4. Radiometric analysis indicated two kinds of banding, a modulo-16 stripping and an alternate light dark group of 16 scanlines. A color ratio composite image consisting of TM band ratios 3/4, 5/2, and 5/7 showed limonitic clay rich soils, limonitic clay poor soils, and nonlimonitic materials as distinctly different colors on the image.

  12. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper for detecting soil properties under grassland vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of Thematic Mapper data acquired November 15, 1982, over a vegetated site located in the East Texas Timberlands and Claypan area of Texas has indicated that montmorillonitic clay textured soils can be separated from soils with different textures. The difference of TM band 4 (0.76-0.90 micron) and band 7 (2.08-2.35 microns) had an agreement of 55.8 percent with the USDA soil survey for upland clay soils. This compared to 55.9-percent agreement when all six bands (excluding the thermal) were used. The disagreement occurred at the boundary lines as defined by the USDA soil survey and the spectral data. This result is considered to be fairly good, considering the difficulty in placement of soil boundaries by the soil scientist in the field. While the exact influence on the vegetation, and thus the spectral response observed by TM, is not understood at this time, it appears that TM band 7 is responding to the type of mineralogy of the soil and that soil properties important to the plant can be detected using TM.

  13. Extracting spectral contrast in Landsat Thematic Mapper image data using selective principal component analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S., Jr.; Kwarteng, A.Y.

    1989-01-01

    A challenge encountered with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data, which includes data from size reflective spectral bands, is displaying as much information as possible in a three-image set for color compositing or digital analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the six TM bands simultaneously is often used to address this problem. However, two problems that can be encountered using the PCA method are that information of interest might be mathematically mapped to one of the unused components and that a color composite can be difficult to interpret. "Selective' PCA can be used to minimize both of these problems. The spectral contrast among several spectral regions was mapped for a northern Arizona site using Landsat TM data. Field investigations determined that most of the spectral contrast seen in this area was due to one of the following: the amount of iron and hematite in the soils and rocks, vegetation differences, standing and running water, or the presence of gypsum, which has a higher moisture retention capability than do the surrounding soils and rocks. -from Authors

  14. Blocking reduction of Landsat Thematic Mapper JPEG browse images using optimal PSNR estimated spectra adaptive postfiltering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linares, Irving; Mersereau, Russell M.; Smith, Mark J. T.

    1994-01-01

    Two representative sample images of Band 4 of the Landsat Thematic Mapper are compressed with the JPEG algorithm at 8:1, 16:1 and 24:1 Compression Ratios for experimental browsing purposes. We then apply the Optimal PSNR Estimated Spectra Adaptive Postfiltering (ESAP) algorithm to reduce the DCT blocking distortion. ESAP reduces the blocking distortion while preserving most of the image's edge information by adaptively postfiltering the decoded image using the block's spectral information already obtainable from each block's DCT coefficients. The algorithm iteratively applied a one dimensional log-sigmoid weighting function to the separable interpolated local block estimated spectra of the decoded image until it converges to the optimal PSNR with respect to the original using a 2-D steepest ascent search. Convergence is obtained in a few iterations for integer parameters. The optimal logsig parameters are transmitted to the decoder as a negligible byte of overhead data. A unique maxima is guaranteed due to the 2-D asymptotic exponential overshoot shape of the surface generated by the algorithm. ESAP is based on a DFT analysis of the DCT basis functions. It is implemented with pixel-by-pixel spatially adaptive separable FIR postfilters. PSNR objective improvements between 0.4 to 0.8 dB are shown together with their corresponding optimal PSNR adaptive postfiltered images.

  15. Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paylor, E. D.; Abrams, M. J.; Conel, J. E.; Kahle, A. B.; Lang, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of the project was to evaluate LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data in the context of geologic applications. This involved a quantitative assessment of the data quality including the spatial and spectral characteristics realized by the instrument. Three test sites were selected for the study: (1) Silver Bell, Arizona; (2) Death Valley, California; and (3) Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming. Conclusions include: (1) Artificial and natural targets can be used to atmospherically calibrate TM data and investigate scanner radiometry, atmospheric parameters, and construction of atmospheric Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF's), (2) No significant radiometric degradation occurs in TM data as a result of SCROUNGE processing; however, the data exhibit narrow digital number (DN) distributiosn suggesting that the configuration of the instrument is not optimal for each science applications, (30 Increased spatial resolution, 1:24,000 enlargement capability, and good geometric fidelity of TM data allow accurate photogeologic/geomorphic mapping, including relative age dating of alluvial fans, measurement of structural and bedding attitudes, and construction of such things as structural cross sections and stratigraphic columns. (4) TM bands 5 and 7 are particularly useful for geologic applications because they span a region of the spectrum not previously sampled by multispectral scanner data and are important for characterizing clay and carbonate materials.

  16. Relationship of Thematic Mapper simulator data to leaf area index of temperate coniferous forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Spanner, Michael A.; Running, Steven W.; Teuber, Kurt B.

    1987-01-01

    Regional relationships between remote sensing data and the leaf area index (LAI) of coniferous forests were analyzed using data acquired by an Airborne Thematic Mapper. Eighteen coniferous forest stands with a range of projected leaf area index of 0.6-16.1 were sampled from an environmental gradient in moisture and temperature across west-central Oregon. Spectral radiance measurements to account for atmospheric effects were acquired above the canopies from a radiometer mounted on a helicopter. A strong positive relationship was observed between LAI of closed canopy forest stands and the ratio of near-infrared and red spectral bands. A linear regression based on LAI explained 83 percent of the variation in the ratio of the atmospherically corrected bands. A log-linear equation fit the asymptotic characteristic of the relationship better, explaining 91 percent of the variance. The positive relationship is explained by a strong asymptotic inverse relationship between LAI and red radiation and a relatively flat response between LAI and near-infrared radiation.

  17. A geobotanical investigation based on linear discriminant and profile analyses of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, Mathew R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of linear discriminant and profile analyses to detailed investigation of an airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) image collected over a geobotanical test site. The test site was located on the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and remote sensing data collection coincided with the onset of leaf senescence in the regional deciduous flora. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that sites overlying soil geochemical anomalies were distinguishable from background sites by the reflectance and thermal emittance of the tree canopy imaged in the airborne TMS data. The correlation of individual bands with the linear discriminant function suggested that the TMS thermal Channel 7 (10.32-12.33 microns) contributed most, while TMS Bands 2 (0.53-0.60 microns), 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), and 5 (1.53-1.73 microns) contributed somewhat more modestly to the separation of anomalous and background sites imaged by the TMS. The observed changes in canopy reflectance and thermal emittance of the deciduous flora overlying geochemically anomalous areas are consistent with the biophysical changes which are known or presumed to occur as a result of injury induced in metal-stressed vegetation.

  18. Analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data for classification of forest stands in Baldwin County, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer-implemented classification has been derived from Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data acquired over Baldwin County, Alabama on January 15, 1983. One set of spectral signatures was developed from the data by utilizing a 3x3 pixel sliding window approach. An analysis of the classification produced from this technique identified forested areas. Additional information regarding only the forested areas. Additional information regarding only the forested areas was extracted by employing a pixel-by-pixel signature development program which derived spectral statistics only for pixels within the forested land covers. The spectral statistics from both approaches were integrated and the data classified. This classification was evaluated by comparing the spectral classes produced from the data against corresponding ground verification polygons. This iterative data analysis technique resulted in an overall classification accuracy of 88.4 percent correct for slash pine, young pine, loblolly pine, natural pine, and mixed hardwood-pine. An accuracy assessment matrix has been produced for the classification.

  19. Application of Landsat Thematic Mapper data for coastal thermal plume analysis at Diablo Canyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, D. E.; Wukelic, G. E.; Leighton, J. P.; Doyle, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal data to derive absolute temperature distributions in coastal waters that receive cooling effluent from a power plant is demonstrated. Landsat TM band 6 (thermal) data acquired on June 18, 1986, for the Diablo Canyon power plant in California were compared to ground truth temperatures measured at the same time. Higher-resolution band 5 (reflectance) data were used to locate power plant discharge and intake positions and identify locations of thermal pixels containing only water, no land. Local radiosonde measurements, used in LOWTRAN 6 adjustments for atmospheric effects, produced corrected ocean surface radiances that, when converted to temperatures, gave values within approximately 0.6 C of ground truth. A contour plot was produced that compared power plant plume temperatures with those of the ocean and coastal environment. It is concluded that Landsat can provide good estimates of absolute temperatures of the coastal power plant thermal plume. Moreover, quantitative information on ambient ocean surface temperature conditions (e.g., upwelling) may enhance interpretation of numerical model prediction.

  20. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    SciTech Connect

    Price, K.P. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-09-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. Correlation analysis showed that TM Band 4 (near infrared) accounted for 78% of the variability in percent trees (r=[minus] 0.88). In multiple regression, percent trees, total soil loss, and percent total nonliving cover together accounted for nearly 70% of the variability in TM Bands 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain the apparent accelerated rate of pinyon-juniper spread in the western United States. These include removal of natural plant competition by livestock overgrazing, reduction of wildfires, climatic change, and reinvasion of sites cleared of trees by 19th century settlers.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the landsat-4 thematic mapper data for mineral exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Power, M.S.; Jones, O.D.

    1985-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data recorded over an arid terrain were analyzed to determine the applicability of using of TM data for identifying and mapping hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Clays, micas, and other minerals bearing the OH anion in specific crystal lattice positions have absorption bands in the 2.2-??m region (TM channel 7, TM7) and commonly lack features in the 1.6-??m region (TM5). Channel ratios TM5/TM7, TM5/TM4, and TM3/TM1 were combined into a color-ratio-composite (CRC) image and used to distinguish hydrothermally altered rocks, unaltered rocks, and vegetation. These distinctions are made possible by using the TM5 and TM7, channels which are not available in the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). Digital masking was used to eliminate ambiguities due to water and shadows. However, some ambiguities in identification resulted between altered volcanic rocks and unaltered sedimentary deposits that contained clays, carbonates, and gypsum, and between altered volcanic rocks and volcanic tuffs diagenetically altered to zeolites. However, compared to MSS data, TM data should greatly improve the ability to map hydrothermally altered rocks in arid terrains. ?? 1985.

  2. Leaf water stress detection utilizing thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 in soybean plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Schutt, J. B.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

    1983-01-01

    The total and diffuse radiance responses of Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns), and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) to water stress in a soybean canopy are compared. Polarization measurements were used to separate the total from the diffuse reflectance; the reflectances were compared statistically at a variety of look angles at 15 min intervals from about 09.00 until 14.00 hrs EST. The results suggest that remotely sensed data collected in the photographic infrared region (TM4) are sensitive to leaf water stress in a 100 percent canopy cover of soybeans, and that TM3 is less sensitive than TM4 for detection of reversible foliar water stress. The mean values of TM5 reflectance data show similar trends to TM4. The primary implication of this study is that remote sensing of water stress in green plant canopies is possible in TM4 from ground-based observations primarily through the indirect link of leaf geometry.

  3. Data compression experiments with LANDSAT thematic mapper and Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1989-01-01

    A case study is presented where an image segmentation based compression technique is applied to LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. The compression technique, called Spatially Constrained Clustering (SCC), can be regarded as an adaptive vector quantization approach. The SCC can be applied to either single or multiple spectral bands of image data. The segmented image resulting from SCC is encoded in small rectangular blocks, with the codebook varying from block to block. Lossless compression potential (LDP) of sample TM and CZCS images are evaluated. For the TM test image, the LCP is 2.79. For the CZCS test image the LCP is 1.89, even though when only a cloud-free section of the image is considered the LCP increases to 3.48. Examples of compressed images are shown at several compression ratios ranging from 4 to 15. In the case of TM data, the compressed data are classified using the Bayes' classifier. The results show an improvement in the similarity between the classification results and ground truth when compressed data are used, thus showing that compression is, in fact, a useful first step in the analysis.

  4. Aboveground Biomass Estimation in a Tidal Brackish Marsh Using Simulated Thematic Mapper Spectral Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M.; Klemas, V.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral radiance data were collected from the ground and from a low altitude aircraft in an attempt to gain some insight into the potential utility of actual Thematic Mapper data for biomass estimation in wetland plant communities. No attempt was made to distinguish individual plant species within brackish marsh plant associations. Rather, it was decided to lump plant species with similar canopy morphologies and then estimate from spectral radiance data the biomass of the group. The rationale for such an approach is that plants with a similar morphology will produce a similar reflecting or absorping surface (i.e., canopy) for incoming electromagnetic radiation. Variations in observed reflectance from different plant communities with a similar canopy morphology are more likely to be a result of biomass differences than a result of differences in canopy architecture. If the hypothesis that plants with a similar morphology exhibit similar reflectance characteristics is true, then biomass can be estimated based on a model for the dominant plant morphology within a plant association and the need for species discrimination has effectively been eliminated.

  5. Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data from Wind River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Geronsin, R.L.; Merry, M.C.

    1984-07-01

    Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data are limited by MSS spatial resolution (80 m or 262 ft) and bandwidth selection. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data have greatly enhanced spatial resolution (30 m or 98 ft) and TM operates in spectral bands suited to geologic interpretation. To compare the two systems, three images center over the Wind River basin of Wyoming were obtained. Two were TM images - a false color composite (FCC) and a natural color composite (NCC) - and the third was an MSS image. A systematic analysis of drainage, landforms, geologic structure, gross lithologic characteristics, lineaments, and curvilinears was performed on the three images. Drainage density and landform distinction were greatly enhanced on the TM images. Geologic features such as faults, strike and dip, folds, and lithologic characteristics are often difficult to distinguish on the MSS image but are readily apparent on the TM images. The lineament-curvilinear analysis of the MSS image showed longer but less distinct linear features. In comparison, the TM images allowed interpretation of shorter but more distinct linear elements, providing a more accurate delineation of the actual dimensions of the geologic features which these lineaments are thought to represent. An analysis of the oil production present in the study area showed 75% of the surface productive structures were delineated on the TM images, whereas only the most obvious structures were visible on the MSS image.

  6. Evaluation and interpretation of Thematic Mapper ratios in equations for estimating corn growth parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dardner, B. R.; Blad, B. L.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    Reflectance and agronomic Thematic Mapper (TM) data were analyzed to determine possible data transformations for evaluating several plant parameters of corn. Three transformation forms were used: the ratio of two TM bands, logarithms of two-band ratios, and normalized differences of two bands. Normalized differences and logarithms of two-band ratios responsed similarly in the equations for estimating the plant growth parameters evaluated in this study. Two-term equations were required to obtain the maximum predictability of percent ground cover, canopy moisture content, and total wet phytomass. Standard error of estimate values were 15-26 percent lower for two-term estimates of these parameters than for one-term estimates. The terms log(TM4/TM2) and (TM4/TM5) produced the maximum predictability for leaf area and dry green leaf weight, respectively. The middle infrared bands TM5 and TM7 are essential for maximizing predictability for all measured plant parameters except leaf area index. The estimating models were evaluated over bare soil to discriminate between equations which are statistically similar. Qualitative interpretations of the resulting prediction equations are consistent with general agronomic and remote sensing theory.

  7. Application of Thematic Mapper data to corn and soybean development stage estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Henderson, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    A model, utilizing direct relationship between remotely sensed spectral data and the development stage of both corn and soybeans has been proposed and published previously (Badhwar and Henderson, 1981; and Henderson and Badhwar, 1984). This model was developed using data acquired by instruments mounted on trucks over field plots of corn and soybeans as well as satellite data from Landsat. In all cases, the data was analyzed in the spectral bands equivalent to the four bands of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). In this study the same model has been applied to corn and soybeans using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data combined with simulated TM data to provide a multitemporal data set in TM band intervals. All data (five total acquisitions) were acquired over a test site in Webster County, Iowa from June to October 1982. The use of TM data for determining development state is as accurate as with Landsat MSS and field plot data in MSS bands. The maximum deviation of 0.6 development stage for corn and 0.8 development stage for soybeans is well within the uncertainty with which a field can be estimated with procedures used by observers on the ground in 1982.

  8. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin P.

    1993-01-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

  9. Geobotanical information contained in Landsat Thematic Mapper images covering southern Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Arvidson, R.; Sultan, M.; Guinness, E.

    1986-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected in the late summer, fall, and winter of 1982 over forested bedrocks in southeastern Missouri were used in conjunction with forest surveys, field work, aerial photographs, and laboratory analyses to evaluate multispectral and seasonal information from visible and reflected IR data. The forested bedrock included granites, rhyolites, carbonates, and sandstones. High reflectance in band 4 (760-900 nm) in the summer scene corresponds to regions of xeric forest type. The fact that the xeric regions tend to develop flat-topped canopies, as opposed to irregular canopy surfaces of the wetter mesic areas, may partially control the TM response in bands 4, 5 (155-175 nm) and 7 (208-235 nm). The xeric regions correlated with soils having poor water retention capabilities, such as rhyolites and certain carbonate rocks with nonporous residum layers. An opposite relationship between xeric and mesic forest biomass was noted, if the commonly used TM band ratio 4/3 was used as a surrogate biomass measure. The high band 4 response over xeric forests gives anomalously high biomass estimates.

  10. Radiometric analysis of the longwave infrared channel of the Thematic Mapper on LANDSAT 4 and 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schott, John R.; Volchok, William J.; Biegel, Joseph D.

    1986-01-01

    The first objective was to evaluate the postlaunch radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) band 6 data. The second objective was to determine to what extent surface temperatures could be computed from the TM and 6 data using atmospheric propagation models. To accomplish this, ground truth data were compared to a single TM-4 band 6 data set. This comparison indicated satisfactory agreement over a narrow temperature range. The atmospheric propagation model (modified LOWTRAN 5A) was used to predict surface temperature values based on the radiance at the spacecraft. The aircraft data were calibrated using a multi-altitude profile calibration technique which had been extensively tested in previous studies. This aircraft calibration permitted measurement of surface temperatures based on the radiance reaching the aircraft. When these temperature values are evaluated, an error in the satellite's ability to predict surface temperatures can be estimated. This study indicated that by carefully accounting for various sensor calibration and atmospheric propagation effects, and expected error (1 standard deviation) in surface temperature would be 0.9 K. This assumes no error in surface emissivity and no sampling error due to target location. These results indicate that the satellite calibration is within nominal limits to within this study's ability to measure error.

  11. Thematic mapper data quality and performance assessment in renewable resource/agricultural remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Macdonald, R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A "quick look" investigation of the initial LANDSAT-4, thematic mapper (TM) scene received from Goddard Space Flight Center was performed to gain early insight into the characteristics of TM data. The initial scene, containing only the first four bands of the seven bands recorded by the TM, was acquired over the Detroit, Michigan, area on July 20, 1982. It yielded abundant information for scientific investigation. A wide variety of studies were conducted to assess all aspects of TM data. They ranged from manual analyses of image products to detect obvious optical, electronic, or mechanical defects to detailed machine analyses of the digital data content for evaluation of spectral separability of vegetative/nonvegetative classes. These studies were applied to several segments extracted from the full scene. No attempt was made to perform end-to-end statistical evaluations. However, the output of these studies do identify a degree of positive performance from the TM and its potential for advancing state-of-the-art crop inventory and condition assessment technology.

  12. Multiple dipole eddies in the Alaska Coastal Current detected with Landsat thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlnas, Kristina; Royer, Thomas C.; George, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen dipole eddies, including five large, well-formed ones, three second-generation eddies, and two double eddies, were observed in the Alaska Coastal Current near Kayak Island in one single scene of the Landsat thematic mapper (TM) on April 22, l985. The digital Landsat TM satellite data were computer analyzed to extract details in the near coastal circulation in the northern Gulf of Alaska. Enhancement techniques were applied to the visible and thermal IR bands. The features are evident only in the visible bands because of the ability of these bands to detect the distribution of sediments in the near surface. These eddies did not have a significant thermal signature.The sources of these sediments are the glacial streams found throughout the Gulf of Alaska coast. Eddies of this configuration and frequency have never been observed here previously. However, the oceanographic and meteorological conditions are typical for this time of year. These eddies should be important to the cross-shelf mixing processes in the Alaska Coastal Current and are an indicator that the flow here can be unstable at certain times of the year.

  13. A preliminary comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT-1 HRV multispectral data for estimating coniferous forest volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, W. J.; Wang, S.; Isaacson, D. L.; Paine, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Digital Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT high-resolution visible (HRV) images of coniferous forest canopies were compared in their relationship to forest wood volume using correlation and regression analyses. Significant inverse relationships were found between softwood volume and the spectral bands from both sensors (P less than 0.01). The highest correlations were between the log of softwood volume and the near-infrared bands.

  14. LANDSAT 4 investigations of Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner applications. [Drum Mountains, Utah and Tonopath, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Structural and stratigraphic characteristics of the Drum Mountains in Utah were obtained using LANDSAT 5 TM data that were digitally enhanced using band ratioing, principal components analysis, and spatial filtering techniques. Color ratioing composite images proved most useful for distinguishing between and identifying exposure of hyroxly bearing hydrothermally altered inclusive rocks and bleached contact metamorphic rocks dominated by calc-silicate mineral assemblages. The amount and detail of geologic information interpreted from TM images is more significant than that from MSS and in geologic maps. Enhanced LANDSAT 5 TM data also identified and mapped hydrothermal alteration and distinguished between altered and unaltered limonitic assemblages in the Tonopath, Nevada quadrangle.

  15. Structural mapping and analysis of a Madagascar Precambrian shear zone using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kilmer, D.S.; Duncan, I.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Recently, the west coast of Madagascar has become a frontier region for petroleum exploration. Major structures in the Precambrian shield of Madagascar may have a strong control on the development of sedimentary basins, as has been documented in the Morondava basin. The 2.5-3.0+ Ga shield of Madagascar is an amphibolite- to granulite-grade metamorphic gneiss terrain, intruded by anorthosites and 550-Ma granites and pegmatites. Landsat Thematic Mapper data provides a cost-effective method for regional-scale structural mapping of this poorly known terrain. A five-component linear mixing model has been used to enhance the lithologic information in this six-band data. Lithologic component images thus produced utilize the full geologic spectral range of the data. A preliminary structural geologic map compiled from the component images has greater detail than existing maps at 1:100,000 scale, to which it has been compared. The Ankafotra-Saririaky shear zone has been identified as a north-northeast-trending, 15- to 20-km-wide region of appressed folds, attenuated layering, and subparallel faults on the western side of the shield. Two anorthosite massifs that occur within this shear zone have the structural characteristics of boudins in a ductile matrix. The shear deformed a preexisting terrain of poly-phase folding, characterized by tight folds and complex fold interference structures displayed by basins and domes on a scale of 10 km. Enhanced remote sensing data can be used to characterize the nature and mechanism of shear deformation in such zones.

  16. Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefiting hydrocarbon exploration.

  17. Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefitting hydrocarbon exploration.

  18. Intra-annual NDVI validation of the Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Groeneveld, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone of the extensive archive of moderate-resolution Earth imagery. Even after more than 24 years of service, the L5 TM is still operational. Given the longevity of the satellite, the detectors have aged and the sensor's radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters in the National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS) have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations in 2003 and 2007 have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data. This letter uses the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a metric to evaluate the radiometric calibration. The calibration change has improved absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic radiometry and will provide the basis for continued long-term studies of the Earth's land surfaces.

  19. Pre-Launch Noise Characterization of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM Plus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedelty, J. A.; Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.; Seiferth, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    A noise characterization of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument was performed as part of a near-real time performance assessment and health monitoring program. Perl'ormance data for the integrated Landsat-7 spacecraft and ETM+ were collected before, during, and after the spacecraft thermal vacuum testing program at the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) facilities in Valley Forge, PA. The Landsat-7 spacecraft and ETM+ instrument were successfully launched on April 15, 1999. The spacecraft and ETM+ are now nearing the end of the on orbit engineering checkout phase, and Landsat-7 is expected to be declared operational on or about July 15, 1999. A preliminary post-launch noise characterization was performed and compared with the pre-launch characterization. In general the overall noise levels in the ETM+ are at or below the specification levels. Coherent noise is seen in most bands, but is only operationally significant when imaging in (he panchromatic band (band 8). This coherent noise has an amplitude as high as approximately 3 DN (peak-to-peak, high gain) at the Nyquist rate of 104 kHz, and causes the noise levels in panchromatic band images at times to exceed the total noise specification by up to approximately 10%. However, this 104 kHz noise is now much weaker than it was prior to the successful repair of the ETM+ power supplies that was completed in May 1998. Weak and stable coherent noise at approximately 5 kHz is seen in all bands in the prime focal plane (bands 1-4 and 8) with the prime (side A) electronics. Very strong coherent noise at approximately 20 kHz is seen in a few detectors of bands 1 and 8, but this noise is almost entirely in the turn-around region between scans when the ETM+ is not imaging the Earth. Strong coherent noise was seen in 2 detectors of band 5 during some of the pre-launch testing; however, this noise seems to be temperature dependent, and has not been seen in the current on orbit environment. Strong 91 kHz coherent noise was observed in the redundant (side B) panchromatic band data after the completion of spacecraft thermal vacuum testing. The cause of this coherent noise was identified as a failed capacitor that was replaced prior to launch, and this noise has not been seen on orbit.

  20. Glacial lake monitoring in the Karakoram Range using historical Landsat Thematic Mapper archive (1982 - 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J. Y. H.; Kelly, R. E. J.; Evans, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Glacierized regions are one of the most dynamic land surface environments on the planet (Evans and Delaney, In Press). They are susceptible to various types of natural hazards such as landslides, glacier avalanches, and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF). GLOF events are increasingly common and present catastrophic flood hazards, the causes of which are sensitive to climate change in complex high mountain topography (IPCC, 2013). Inundation and debris flows from GLOF events have repeatedly caused significant infrastructure damages and loss of human lives in the high mountain regions of the world (Huggel et al, 2002). The research is designed to develop methods for the consistent detection of glacier lakes formation during the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) era (1982 - present), to quantify the frequency of glacier lake development and estimate lake volume using Landsat imagery and digital elevation model (DEM) data. Landsat TM scenes are used to identify glacier lakes in the Shimshal and Shaksgam valley, particularly the development of Lake Virjeab in year 2000 and Kyagar Lake in 1998. A simple thresholding technique using Landsat TM infrared bands, along with object-based segmentation approaches are used to isolate lake extent. Lake volume is extracted by intersecting the lake extent with the DEM surface. Based on previous studies and DEM characterization in the region, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM is preferred over Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) GDEM due to higher accuracy. Calculated errors in SRTM height estimates are 5.81 m compared with 8.34 m for ASTER. SRTM data are preferred because the DEM measurements were made over short duration making the DEM internally consistent. Lake volume derived from the Landsat TM imagery and DEM are incorporated into a simple GLOF model identified by Clague and Matthews (1973) to estimate the potential peak discharge (Qmax) of a GLOF event. We compare the simple Qmax estimates with those from a more complex model of lake outflow time-varying discharge using the approach developed by Ng et al. (2007).

  1. Application of the Landsat Thematic Mapper to the identification of potentially active volcanoes in the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.; De Silva, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study of the potentially active volcanoes in the Central Andes (14 deg S to 28 deg S) was carried out on the basis of Landsat Thematic Mapper images which provided consistent coverage of the area. More than 60 major volcanoes were identified as potentially active, as compared to 16 that are listed in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Casertano, 1963; Hantke and Parodi, 1966). Most of these volcanoes are large (up to 6000 m in height) composite cones. Some of them could threaten nearby settlements, especially those in southern Peru, where the volcanoes rise above deep canyons with settlements along them.

  2. Statistical analysis of Thematic Mapper Simulator data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types in southwest Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Weinstock, K. J.; Mouat, D. A.; Card, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types based on vegetative cover characteristics is addressed in this research. A methodology for accomplishing this evaluation utilizing univariate and multivariate techniques is presented. TMS data acquired with a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral scanner were integrated with vegetation and geologic information for subsequent statistical analyses, which included a chi-square test, an analysis of variance, stepwise discriminant analysis, and Duncan's multiple range test. Results indicate that ultramafic rock types are spectrally separable from nonultramafics based on vegetative cover through the use of statistical analyses.

  3. Radiometric calibration of the reflective bands of NS001-Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and modular multispectral radiometers (MMR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Wood, Frank M., Jr.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.

    1988-01-01

    The NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator scanner (TMS) and several modular multispectral radiometers (MMRs) are among the primary instruments used in the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE). The NS001 has a continuously variable gain setting. Calibration of the NS001 data is influenced by drift in the dark current level of up to six counts during a mirror scan at typical gain settings. The MMR instruments are being used in their 1 deg FOV configuration on the helicopter and 15 deg FOV on the ground.

  4. An Initial Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data for the Discrimination of Agricultural, Forested Wetland, and Urban Land Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for the discrimination of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers is conducted using a scene of data collected over Arkansas and Tennessee. A classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is compared with a classification of TM data for the same area. Results from this comparative analysis show that the multitemporal MSS classification produced an overall accuracy of 80.91% while the TM classification yields an overall classification accuracy of 97.06% correct.

  5. Change Detection Analysis in Urban and Suburban Areas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper data: Case of Huntsville, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Dana; Fahsi, A.; Steinfeld S.; Coleman, T.

    1998-01-01

    Two Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, from July 1984 and July 1992, were used to identify land use/cover changes in the urban and suburban fringe of the city of Huntsville, Alabama. Image difference was the technique used to quantify the change between the two dates. The eight-year period showed a 16% change, mainly from agricultural lands to urban areas generated by the settlement of industrial, commercial, and residential areas. Visual analysis of the change map (i.e., difference image) supported this phenomenon by showing that most changes were occurring in the vicinity of the major roads and highways across the city.

  6. A preliminary comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT-1 HRV multispectral data for estimating coniferous forest volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, William J.; Wang, S.; Isaacson, Dennis L.; Paine, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    Digital Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Satellite Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) High Resolution Visible (HRV) images of coniferous forest canopies were compared in their relationship to forest wood volume using correlation and regression analyses. Significant inverse relationships were found between softwood volume and the spectral bands from both sensors (P less than 0.01). The highest correlations were between the log of softwood volume and the near-infrared bands (HRV band 3, r = -0.89; TM band 4, r = -0.83).

  7. EVALUATION OF LOW-SUN ILLUMINATED LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR MAPPING HYDROTHERMALLY ALTERED ROCKS IN SOUTHERN NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, Melvin H.; Power, Marty S.; Salisbury, Jack; Jones, O.D.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of southern Nevada collected under conditions of low-angle solar illumination were digitally processed to identify hydroxyl-bearing minerals commonly associated with hydrothermal alteration in volcanic terrains. Digital masking procedures were used to exclude shadow areas and vegetation and thus to produce a CRC image suitable for testing the new TM bands as a means to map hydrothermally altered rocks. Field examination of a masked CRC image revealed that several different types of altered rocks displayed hues associated with spectral characteristics common to hydroxyl-bearing minerals. Several types of unaltered rocks also displayed similar hues.

  8. Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications: Objectives, accomplishments, conclusions, and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation are to quantify the performance of the Thematic Mapper, as manifested by the quality of its image data, in order to suggest improvements in data production and to assess the effects of the data quality on its utility for land resources applications. Analyses of radiometric, spatial, spectral, and geometric effects, with primary emphasis on radiometric effects are included. This effort is part of the LANDSAT 4/5 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) program sponsored by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  9. LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MFT) evaluation. [California and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The techniques used in the two-image comparison of TM data and 7-meter aerial data acquired over San Francisco on August 12, 1983 during LANDSAT 4 operation were refined. Analysis of one area is complete and reported herein; analysis of a second area is in progress. A large test target for measurement of the LANDSAT 5 MTF at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico was constructed.

  10. An evaluation of the first four LANDSAT-D thematic mapper reflective sensors for monitoring vegetation: A comparison with other satellite sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    The first four LANDSAT-D thematic mapper sensors were evaluated and compared to: the return beam vidicon (RBV) and multispectral scanners (MSS) sensors from LANDSATS 1, 2, and 3; Colvocoresses' proposed 'operational LANDSAT' three band system; and the French SPOT three band system using simulation/intergration techniques and in situ collected spectral reflectance data. Sensors were evaluated by their ability to discriminate vegetation biomass, chlorophyll concentration, and leaf water content. The thematic mapper and SPOT bands were found to be superior in a spectral resolution context to the other three sensor systems for vegetational applications. Significant improvements are expected for most vegetational analyses from LANDSAT-D thematic mapper and SPOT imagery over MSS and RBV imagery.

  11. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

  12. Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the Extremadura region of western Spain, Ag, Pb, Zn, and Sn deposits occur in the pieces of late Hercynian granitic plutons and near the pluton contacts in late Proterozoic slate and metagraywacke that have been regionally metamorphosed to the green schist facies. The plutons generally are well exposed and have distinctive geomorphological expression and vegetation; poor exposures of the metasedimentary host rocks and extensive cultivation, however, make delineation of the contact aureoles difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been used to distinguish soil developed on the contact metamorphic rocks from soil formed on the stratigraphically equivalent slate-metagraywacke sequence. The mineral constituents of these soils are similar, except that muscovite is more common in the contact metamorphic soil; carbonaceous material is common in both soils. Contact metamorphic soil have lower reflectance, especially in the 1.6-micrometers wavelength region (TM 5), and weaker Al-OH, Mg-OH, and Fe3+ absorption features than do spectra of the slate-metagraywacke soil. The low-reflectance and subdued absorption features exhibited by the contact metamorphic soil spectra are attributed to the high absorption coefficient f the carbonaceous material caused by heating during emplacement of the granitic plutons. These spectral differences are evident in a TM 4/3, 4/5, 3/1 color-composite image. Initially, this image was used to outline the contact aureoles, but digital classification of the TM data was necessary for generating internally consistent maps of the distribution of the exposed contact metamorphic soil. In an August 1984, TM scene of the Caceras area, the plowed, vegetation-free fields were identified by their low TM 4/3 values. Then, ranges of TM 4/5 and 3/1 values were determine for selected plower fields within and outside the contact aureoles; TM 5 produced results similar to TM 4/5. Field evaluation, supported by X-ray diffraction and petrographic studies, confirmed the presence of more extensive aureoles than shown in published geologic maps; few misclassified areas were noted. Additional plowed fields consisting of exposed contact metamorphic soil were mapped digitally in an August 1985 TM scene. Subsequently, this approach was used to map two 1-km-wide linear zones of contact metamorphosed rock and oil in the San Nicolas-Sn-W Mine area, which is located approximated 125 km southeast of the Caceras study area. Exposures of granite in the San Nicolas area are limited to a few unaltered granitic dikes in the mine and a small exposure of unaltered pegmatite-bearing granite in a quarry about 1.5 km west of the mine. The present of coarsely crystalline biotite and beryl in the granite in the quarry and of contact metamorphosed slate up to 2.5 km from the nearest granite exposure suggest that only the apical part of a pluton is exposed in the quarry and that a larger, shallowly buried body is probably present. These results indicate that potential application of TM image analysis to mineral exploration in lithologically similar areas that are cultivated in spite of poor rock exposures.

  13. Multi-Temporal Land Cover Analysis in the Mid-Willamette Basin, Oregon: Assessment of Riparian Forest Canopy Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, R. J.; Taylor, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    The 11,500 sq. mi. Willamette Basin is home to 70% of Oregon’s population and is associated with an extensive post-settlement history of land cover modification. Existing assessments estimate that between 30 and 44% of riparian zones have been subject to anthropogenic disturbances, which in turn have negatively impacted TMDL levels for temperature and sediment loading (Oregon DEQ, 2009). As such, riparian forest restoration is cited as one of the primary management objectives needed to improve habitat quality. This study involves a regional multi-temporal land cover analysis utilizing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery and supervised image classification to document changes in canopy cover (Landsat acquisition years 2000 and 2009). The rectangular study site is oriented north-south and extends from Yamhill to Eugene, occupying a 3,133 sq. mi. footprint that captures the dynamic landuse interface between urban centers, lowland riparian habitats, and Oregon Coast Range forests. Landsat 5 TM data for the study site were acquired via the USGS Global Visualization Viewer with multispectral imagery including 6 reflected bands suited for quantifying broad-scale land cover regimes, including vegetation. Classification training sites for water, forest, and agricultural land-cover categories were selected to accurately represent within-class spectral variability. A supervised classification scheme was employed to compare training signatures against the six reflective bands in each image year. A maximum likelihood algorithm was utilized to delineate land-cover classes with overlapping spectral signatures. Other processing techniques included radiometric normalization of brightness values, and derivation of NDVI and Tasseled Cap vegetative indices. Final classification accuracy was assessed by randomly assigning 100 spatially distributed point samples per class and comparing each to available ground truth. Two distinct landuse domains were delineated within the study area and separately analyzed to provide increased classification accuracy. The Oregon Coast Range domain, characterized by steeper slopes and timber management, transitions into a lower-gradient valley-agriculture subregion. Preliminary land-cover analyses reveal a 6% and 2.5% decline in canopy cover for the Coast Range and valley-agriculture domains, respectively. Results from this study have implications for monitoring riparian vegetation, which is essential for healthy streams and native fish habitats. This remote sensing survey produces regional land cover information suited for a wide spectrum of applications, including land management, landscape metric analyses and watershed planning.

  14. A Preliminary Comparison of the Information Content of Data from the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner. [Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The thematic mapper (TM) on LANDSAT 4, acquires 6 spectral channels at 30 meter resolution as well as a thermal IR channel at 120 meter resolution. Because both MSS and TM can acquire data simultaneously, the advantages and disadvantages of the two instruments can be directly compared. The information content of the two instruments is compared for areas in a representative agricultural region. Although the parameter information does not equate in an obvious way to the value or utility of the data, it provides a basis for physical interpretation. By focusing on the redundancy of the digital data, the estimation of information content suggests possibilities for algorithms dealing with subsets of the image data, as well as transformations which reduce the total volume of data to be analyzed. To the degree that a satisfactory description by a reduced data set is possible, there exist implications both for design of future satellite instruments and for analysis procedures.

  15. Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

  16. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    A set of training statistics for the 30 meter resolution simulated thematic mapper MSS data was generated based on land use/land cover classes. In addition to this supervised data set, a nonsupervised multicluster block of training statistics is being defined in order to compare the classification results and evaluate the effect of the different training selection methods on classification performance. Two test data sets, defined using a stratified sampling procedure incorporating a grid system with dimensions of 50 lines by 50 columns, and another set based on an analyst supervised set of test fields were used to evaluate the classifications of the TMS data. The supervised training data set generated training statistics, and a per point Gaussian maximum likelihood classification of the 1979 TMS data was obtained. The August 1980 MSS data was radiometrically adjusted. The SAR data was redigitized and the SAR imagery was qualitatively analyzed.

  17. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Performance as Applied to Hydrocarbon Exploration. [Ontario, Canada; Cement, Oklahoma; and Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Sheffield, C.; Dykstra, J.

    1985-01-01

    The role data from the first three LANDSAT satellites have in geologic exploration and their current level of acceptance is reviewed and the advantages of LANDSAT 4 TM data over MSS data are discussed. Specially enhanced Thematic Mapper imager can make a very significant contribution to the oil and gas and mineral exploration industries. The TM's increased spatial resolution enables the production of larger scale imagery, which greatly increases the amount of geomorphic and structural information interpretable. TM's greater spectral resolution, combined with the smaller, more homogeneous pixels, should enable a far greater confidence in mapping lithologies and detecting geobotanical anomalies from space. The results from its applications to hydrocarbon and mineral exploration promise to bring the majority of the geologic exploration community into that final stage of acceptance and routine application of the satellite data.

  18. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques. [south carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A literature review on radar and spectral band information was conducted and a NC-130 mission was flown carrying the NS001 scanner system which basically corresponds to the channel configuration of the proposed thematic mapper. Aerial photography and other reference data were obtained for the study site, an area approximately 290 sq miles in north central South Carolina. A cover type map was prepared and methods were devised for reformatting and geometrically correcting MSS CRT data. Arrangements were made to obtain LANDSAT data for dates approximating the NC-130 mission. Because of the waveband employed to obtain SEASAT radar data, it was decided to determine if X-band (2.40 cm to 3.75 cm wavelength) imagery is available.

  19. DISCRIMINATION OF ALTERED BASALTIC ROCKS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES BY ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Berlin, Graydon L.; Chavez, Pat S.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper image data were analyzed to determine their ability to discriminate red cone basalts from gray flow basalts and sedimentary country rocks for three volcanic fields in the southwestern United States. Analyses of all of the possible three-band combinations of the six nonthermal bands indicate that the combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 best discriminates among these materials. The color-composite image of these three bands unambiguously discriminates 89 percent of the mapped red volcanic cones in the three volcanic fields. Mineralogic and chemical analyses of collected samples indicate that discrimination is facilitated by the presence of hematite as a major mineral phase in the red cone basalts (hematite is only a minor mineral phase in the gray flow basalts and red sedimentary rocks).

  20. An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper data for the classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Anderson, J. E.; Brannon, D. P.; Hill, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.

  1. An analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper P-Product internal geometry and conformity to earth surface geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.; Walker, R. E.; Gokhman, B.

    1985-01-01

    Performance requirements regarding geometric accuracy have been defined in terms of end product goals, but until recently no precise details have been given concerning the conditions under which that accuracy is to be achieved. In order to achieve higher spatial and spectral resolutions, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor was designed to image in both forward and reverse mirror sweeps in two separate focal planes. Both hardware and software have been augmented and changed during the course of the Landsat TM developments to achieve improved geometric accuracy. An investigation has been conducted to determine if the TM meets the National Map Accuracy Standards for geometric accuracy at larger scales. It was found that TM imagery, in terms of geometry, has come close to, and in some cases exceeded, its stringent specifications.

  2. Revised Radiometric Calibration Technique for LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J.; Butlin, T.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for the radiometric correction of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper data was proposed by the Canada Center for Remote Sensing. Subsequent detailed observations of raw image data, raw radiometric calibration data and background measurements extracted from the raw data stream on High Density Tape highlighted major shortcomings in the proposed method which if left uncorrected, can cause severe radiometric striping in the output product. Results are presented which correlate measurements of the DC background with variations in both image data background and calibration samples. The effect on both raw data and on data corrected using the earlier proposed technique is explained, and the correction required for these factors as a function of individual scan line number for each detector is described. It is shown how the revised technique can be incorporated into an operational environment.

  3. Results of 17 Independent Geopositional Accuracy Assessments of Earth Satellite Corporation's GeoCover Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery. Geopositional Accuracy Validation of Orthorectified Landsat TM Imagery: Northeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Charles M.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides results of an independent assessment of the geopositional accuracy of the Earth Satellite (EarthSat) Corporation's GeoCover, Orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over Northeast Asia. This imagery was purchased through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program.

  4. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1997 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-Resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del Medio Ambiente y el Bes...

  5. Improvement in absolute calibration accuracy of Landsat-5 TM with Landsat-7 ETM+ data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Micijevic, E.; Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify changes in the Earth's environment depends on satellites sensors that can provide calibrated, consistent measurements of Earth's surface features through time. A critical step in this process is to put image data from subsequent generations of sensors onto a common radiometric scale. To evaluate Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper's (TM) utility in this role, image pairs from the L5 TM and Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors were compared. This approach involves comparison of surface observations based on image statistics from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. The results indicate a significant improvement in the consistency of L5 TM data with respect to L7 ETM+ data, achieved using a revised Look-Up-Table (LUT) procedure as opposed to the historical Internal Calibrator (IC) procedure previously used in the L5 TM product generation system. The average percent difference in reflectance estimates obtained from the L5 TM agree with those from the L7 ETM+ in the Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) bands to within four percent and in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands to within six percent.

  6. Processing multi temporal Thematic Mapper data for mapping the submarine shelf of the Island Kerkennah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katlane, Rim; Berges, Jean-Claude; Beltrando, Gérard; Zargouni, Fouad

    2014-05-01

    Gulf of Gabes in Tunisia is unique among Mediterranean coastal environments by shallow water extension and tide amplitude. Kerkennah islands, located in this this gulf, are characterized by a -10 m isobath few kilometers away from the shoreline and by a lithology composition dominated by smooth rocks (sandstone and mio-plocene clay). These features, combined with a sea level rise and an active subsidence, constitute major risk factors. Islands vulnerability is increased by sebkha (salted low lands) extension which accounts now for 45% of the total area. Thus assessing the littoral sea depth change is a key issue for risk monitoring. Our study relies on the 30 years archive of Landsat 5 TM sensor managed by GSFC/NASA. The depth assessment has been carried out by an empiric method based on TM1 channel which has the better water penetration properties (up to 25 m). We focused on summer period and selected images from July 1986, August 1987, June 2003 and July 2009. After a first step of data preprocessing to ensure data homogeneity, we produced sub-aquatic morphology change maps. The observed features (submarine channels enlargement, cells sinking) are consistent with the hypothesis of the ebb tide as the process leading phenomenon.

  7. MAPPING CONTRASTING TILLAGE PRACTICES IN THE TEXAS PANHANDLE WITH LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER (TM) DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage information is crucial in environmental modeling as it has a direct impact on soil erosion and water holding capacity of agricultural soils. A remote sensing approach is promising for the rapid collection of tillage information on individual fields over large areas. In this study, six Themat...

  8. Mapping inundation in the heterogeneous floodplain wetlands of the Macquarie Marshes, using Landsat Thematic Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rachael F.; Kingsford, Richard T.; Lu, Yi; Cox, Stephen J.; Sims, Neil C.; Hunter, Simon J.

    2015-05-01

    Flood dependent aquatic ecosystems worldwide are in rapid decline with competing demands for water. In Australia, this is particularly evident in the floodplain wetlands of semi-arid regions (e.g. the Macquarie Marshes), which rely on highly variable flooding from river flows. Environmental flows mitigate the impacts of river regulation, inundating floodplains, thereby rehabilitating degraded habitats. Mapping flooding patterns is critical for environmental flow management but challenging in large heterogeneous floodplains with variable patterns of flooding and complex vegetation mosaics. We mapped inundation in the Macquarie Marshes, using Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ images (1989-2010). We classified three inundation classes: water, mixed pixels (water, vegetation, soil) and vegetation (emergent macrophytes obscuring inundation), merged to map inundated areas from not-inundated areas (dry land). We used the Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWIB2/B5), masked by the sum of bands 4, 5, and 7 (sum457), to detect water and mixed pixels. Vegetation was classified using an unsupervised classification of a composite image comprising two dates representing vegetation senescence and green growth, transformed into two contrasting vegetation indices, NDVI and NDIB7/B4. We assessed accuracy using geo-referenced oblique aerial photography, coincident with Landsat imagery for a small and large flood, producing respective overall accuracies of inundated area of 93% and 95%. Producer's and user's accuracies were also high (94-99%). Confusion among inundation classes existed but classes were spectrally distinct from one another and from dry land. Inundation class areas varied with flood size, demonstrating the variability. Inundation extent was highly variable (683-206,611 ha). Floods up to 50,000 ha were confined to the north and south wetland regions. Connectivity to the east region only occurred when flooding was greater than 51,000 ha. Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of inundation is critical for quantifying the environmental flow requirements across the suite of biota in the Ramsar-listed Macquarie Marshes.

  9. Lithologic mapping of mafic intrusions in East Greenland using Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naslund, H. Richard; Birnie, R. W.; Parr, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    The East Greenland Tertiary Igneous Province contains a variety of intrusive and extrusive rock types. The Skaergaard complex is the most well known of the intrusive centers. Landsat thematic mapping (TM) was used in conjunction with field spectrometer data to map these mafic intrusions. These intrusions are of interest as possible precious metal ore deposits. They are spectrally distinct from the surrounding Precambrian gneisses. However, subpixel contamination by snow, oxide surface coatings, lichen cover and severe topography limit the discrimination of lithologic units within the gabbro. Imagery of the Skaergaard and surrounding vicinity, and image processing and enhancement techniques are presented. Student theses and other publications resulting from this work are also listed.

  10. An evaluation of simulated Thematic Mapper data and Landsat MSS data for discriminating suburban and regional land use and land cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner, operating in the same spectral channels as the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), was used in a region east of Denver, CO, for a simulation test performed in the framework of using TM to discriminate the level I and level II classes. It is noted that at the 30-m spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) the overall discrimination for such classes as commercial/industrial land, rangeland, irrigated sod, irrigated alfalfa, and irrigated pasture was superior to that of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner, primarily due to four added spectral bands. For residential and other spectrally heterogeneous classes, however, the higher resolution of TMS resulted in increased variability within the class and a larger spectral overlap.

  11. Use of landsat thematic mapper data to identify crop types and estimate irrigated acreage, Uvalde and Medina counties, Texas, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, L.H.; McFarlane, S.I.

    1994-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to estimate that about 51,000 acres of crops were irrigated with water pumped from the Edwards aquifer in Uvalde and Medina Counties, Texas in 1991. Areas calculated for irrigated crops were 31,000 acres for Uvalde County and 20,000 acres for Medina County. Quantities of water pumped from the Edwards aquifer to irrigate crops in 1991 were estimated as 65,000 acre-feet for Uvalde County and 18,000 acre-feet for Medina County. Differences in estimates of ground water used for irrigation in the two counties were attributed primarily to greater pre- cipitation in Medina County than in Uvalde County. The total number of acres of irrigated crops estimated using Landsat TM data was about 9 percent lower in Uvalde County and about 13 percent lower in Medina County than the number of acres calculated from data reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS). The total quantity of water pumped from the Edwards aquifer in 1991 for irrigation in the two counties, about 83,000 acre- feet, was about 5 percent greater developed than the quantity calculated from data reported by the ASCS.

  12. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Supervised and cluster block training statistics were used to analyze the thematic mapper simulation MSS data (both 1979 and 1980 data sets). Cover information classes identified on SAR imagery include: hardwood, pine, mixed pine hardwood, clearcut, pasture, crops, emergent crops, bare soil, urban, and water. Preliminary analysis of the HH and HV polarized SAR data indicate a high variance associated with each information class except for water and bare soil. The large variance for most spectral classes suggests that while the means might be statistically separable, an overlap may exist between the classes which could introduce a significant classification error. The quantitative values of many cover types are much larger on the HV polarization than on the HH, thereby indicating the relative nature of the digitized data values. The mean values of the spectral classes in the areas with larger look angles are greater than the means of the same cover type in other areas having steeper look angles. Difficulty in accurately overlaying the dual polarization of the SAR data was resolved.

  13. Estimating the age of deciduous forests in northeast China with Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data acquired in different phenological seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dengqiu; Ju, Weimin; Fan, Wenyi; Gu, Zhujun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data acquired in leaf-on and leaf-off seasons to estimate stand age of Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla in northeast China. The relationships of six band reflectances, nine vegetation indices, and six texture measures with stand age were examined. Linear and multivariable regression models and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN) were employed to estimate forest age based on these variables. The results indicate that reflectance in short-wave infrared bands and wetness are more significantly correlated with stand age in the leaf-on image, while reflectance in blue and green bands and greenness are more sensitive to stand age in leaf-off image. The MLP NN model can be effectively used to retrieve the stand age; the highest coefficient of determination and minimum root mean square error values of retrieved age are 0.47 and 21.3 years for Larix gmelinii, and 0.60 and 10.1 years for Betula platyphylla, respectively. The predicted age errors increased significantly when stand ages were >100 and >50 years for Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla, respectively. Remote sensing data acquired in the leaf-on season is more suitable for estimating forest age than that acquired in the leaf-off season over the study area.

  14. Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Data for Hydrologic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed land cover classifications were performed on the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and MSS data of the Clinton River Basin (acquired on August 19, 1981, and June 28, 1980, respectively) using supervised classification techniques. Differences in interclass separability were compared to select several promising TMS band combinations, selected from the 27 covering the Clinton River Basin. The TMS data produced a more accurate and spatially contiguous classification than MSS for this study site. While the accuracy of the 4-band TM data set was as good as the 7-band, the 3-band TMS data sets were also better than the MSS. These results indicate that both the increased spectral discrimination and spatial resolution contribute to improved classification accuracy. The possibility of reducing the data analysis burden associated with large TM data volumes through effective band selection therefore appears promising. The implications of the improved classification accuracy of TMS data are important for hydrologic and economic modeling. In particular, the higher accuracies for the developed categories (residential and commercial) should improve the predictions of runoff in flood forecasting models and of flood damage for damage calculation models appreciably.

  15. Assessing forest damage in high-elevation coniferous forests in Vermont and New Hampshire using Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Rock, Barrett N.

    1988-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential of measuring/mapping forest damage in spruce-fir forests in the Green Mountains of Vermont and White Mountains of New Hampshire using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. The TM 1.65/0.83-micron (TM5/4) and 2.22/0.83-micron (TM7/4) band ratios were found to correlate well with ground-based measurements of forest damage (a measure of percentage foliar loss) at 11 spruce-fir stands located on Camels Hump, a mountain in northern Vermont. Images using 0.56 and 1.65-micron bands with 1.65/0.83-micron band ratios indicated locations of heavy conifer forest damage. Both 1.65/0.83 and 2.22/0.83-micron band ratios were used to quantify levels of conifer forest damage among individual mountains throughout many of the Green and White Mountains. Damage was found to be consistently higher for the Green than the White Mountains.

  16. Computer graphics as a tool for correlation of thematic mapper satellite and subsurface geologic data in hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, B.

    1989-03-01

    Computer technology, particularly high-speed graphics workstations, have made it possible to graphically combine and visualize large data bases and multispectral satellite data. This presentation focuses on a tool that attempts to extract information concerning spectral components of satellite data by graphically correlating raster-format satellite data with vector-format maps of surface and subsurface geologic data. Thematic mapper (TM) satellite data have been graphically correlated with topographic data and subsurface data from maps constructed using Petroleum Information (PI) data for the Patrick Draw area, southwestern Wyoming. The study area is on the eastern margin of the Rock Springs uplift and extends into the northern Washakie basin and southern Red Desert basin. Subsets of the TM satellite data were selected for a 40-km/sup 2/ area around Patrick Draw, Table Rock, and Desert Springs fields. Formation tops were extracted from the PI data base and were used to create structure contour maps of the region. Perspective plots and block diagrams were constructed to show interrelationships of surface and subsurface geologic features. Imate profiles were taken through each spectral band of TM satellite data, and cross sections were constructed along identical sections from subsurface data. The image profiling technique facilitates correlation and identification of components in satellite data that may relate to occurrence of oil and gas. Thus, graphical correlation applied in this manner may act as a useful data integration tool in the search for oil and gas prospects.

  17. The use of thematic mapper data for land cover discrimination: Preliminary results from the UK SATMaP programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, M. J.; Baker, J. R.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Gayler, J. E.; Hardy, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The principal objectives of the UK SATMaP program are to determine thematic mapper (TM) performance with particular reference to spatial resolution properties and geometric characteristics of the data. So far, analysis is restricted to images from the U.S. and concentrates on spectra and radiometric properties. The results indicate that the data are inherently three dimensional compared with the two dimensional character of MSS data. Preliminary classification results indicate the importance of the near infrared band (TM 4), at least one middle infrared band (TM 5 or TM 6) and at least one of the visible bands (preferably either TM 3 or TM 1). The thermal infrared also appears to have discriminatory ability despite its coarser spatial resolution. For band 4 the forward and reverse scans show somewhat different spectral responses in one scene but this effect is absent in the other analyzed. From examination of the histograms it would appear that the full 8-bit quantization is not being effectively utilized for all the bands.

  18. Washburne anticline delta structure: model based on integration of thematic mapper, seismic, and well-log data

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.L.; Keeling, M.L.; Cassiani, D.H.

    1989-03-01

    The Washburne anticline located in western Arkansas is a prominent, thrust-related structure at the leading edge of the Ouachita orogenic belt. Previously interpreted as a complexly thrust-faulted anticline, the feature has been reinterpreted as a delta or triangle structure based on integration of surface mapping from thematic mapper (TM) data with subsurface interpretation of seismic and well-log cross sections. The northern limb of the Washburne anticline consists of a relatively unfaulted, steeply north-dipping sheet above a major north-dipping backthrust. The southern limb consists of several steeply south-dipping imbricate thrust sheets that form a duplex zone in the center of the delta structure. Seismic and well-log interpretations indicate the presence of the imbrication in the duplex zone, but poor seismic resolution within the structure made interpretation of the back thrust difficult. Surface mapping from TM imagery indicates the presence of the back thrust and the extent and geometry of the delta structure. Imbricate thrust sheets and horses also crop out, and their geometry is a guide to interpretation of subsurface data sets. The new model of the Washburne anticline as a delta structure has aided in subsurface-data analysis and has resulted in a better understanding of trap geometry and distribution. This study also demonstrates the application of detailed surface mapping from satellite remote-sensing data to prospect-scale analysis.

  19. The time-space relationship of the data point (Pixels) of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner or the myth of simultaneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified explanation of the time space relationships among scanner pixels is presented. The examples of the multispectral scanner (MSS) on Landsats 1, 2, and 3 and the thematic mapper (TM) of Landsat D are used to describe the concept and degree of nonsimultaneity of scanning system data. The time aspects of scanner data acquisition and those parts of the MSS and TM systems related to that phenomena are addressed.

  20. Analysis of thematic mapper simulator data acquired during winter season over Pearl River, Mississippi, test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Digital processed aircraft-acquired thematic mapping simulator (TMS) data collected during the winter season over a forested site in southern Mississippi are presented to investigate the utility of TMS data for use in forest inventories and monitoring. Analyses indicated that TMS data are capable of delineating the mixed forest land cover type to an accuracy of 92.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct, respectively. The figures reflect the performance for products produced using the best subset of channels for each forest cover type. It was found that the choice of channels (subsets) has a significant effect on the accuracy of classification produced, and that the same channels are not the most desirable for all three forest types studied. Both supervised and unsupervised spectral signature development techniques are evaluated; the unsupervised methods proved unacceptable for the three forest types considered.

  1. Land cover stratification using Landsat Thematic Mapper data in Sahelian and Sudanian woodland and wooded grassland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J.

    1991-01-01

    A standard methodology for thematic mapping of natural vegetation using remotely sensed imagery and digital image processing was modified to account for the spatial and spectral properties of semi-arid landscapes, and tested in study areas in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones, Mali. A principal components transformation of registered wet and dry season Landsat TM images produced a set of synthetic spectral channels differentiating vegetation cover between seasons, and allowed areas with annual grass growth to be distinguished from areas with woody cover. The transformed data were statistically clustered and clusters were assigned to vegetation type and density categories. In a separate step, the images were manually interpreted to differentiate broad soil classes. Four statistics were compared to evaluate the accuracy of the maps based on sample points from air photos. For the relatively detailed categories initially defined, map accuracies were substandard; however, when vegetation density classes were aggregated, overall accuracy was around 90 percent, and class accuracy was greater than 80 percent for most classes. This method is suitable for stratification and inventory of woody biomass at a regional scale in semi-arid woodland and wooded grassland.

  2. Monitoring the recovery of Juncus roemerianus marsh burns with the normalized difference vegetation index and Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Sapkota, S.K.; Barnes, F.G.; Nelson, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nine atmospherically corrected Landsat Thematic Mapper images were used to generate mean normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) at 11 burn sites throughout a coastal Juncus roemerianus marsh in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Time-since-burn, the time lapse from the date of burn to the date of image collection, was related to variation in mean NDVI over time. Regression analysis showed that NDVI increased for about 300 to 400 days immediately after the burn, overshooting the typical mean NDVI of a nonburned marsh. For about another 500 to 600 days NDVI decreased until reaching a nearly constant NDVI of about 0.40. During the phase of increasing NDVI the ability to predict time-since-burn was within about ??60 days. Within the decreasing phase this dropped to about ??88 days. Examination of each burn site revealed some nonburn related influences on NDVI (e.g., seasonality). Normalization of burn NDVI by site-specific nonburn control NDVI eliminated most influences. However, differential responses at the site-specific level remained related to either storm impacts or secondary burning. At these sites, collateral data helped clarify the abnormal changes in NDVI. Accounting for these abnormalities, site-specific burn recovery trends could be broadly standardized into four general phases: Phase 1-preburn, Phase 2-initial recovery (increasing NDVI), Phase 3-late recovery (decreasing NDVI), and Phase 4-final coalescence (unchanging NDVI). Phase 2 tended to last about 300 to 500 days, Phase 3 an additional 500 to 600 days, and finally reaching Phase 4, 900 to 1,000 days after burn.

  3. BIA interpretation techniques for vegetation mapping using thematic mapper false color composites (interim report for San Carlos Reservation)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonner, W.J.; English, T.C.; Haas, R.H.; Feagan, T.R.; McKinley, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is responsible for the natural resource management of approximately 52 million acres of Trust lands in the contiguous United States. The lands are distributed in a "patchwork" fashion throughout the country. Management responsibilities on these areas include: minerals, range, timber, fish and wildlife, agricultural, cultural, and archaeological resources. In an age of decreasing natural resources and increasing natural resource values, effective multiple resource management is critical. BIA has adopted a "systems approach" to natural resource management which utilizes Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. The GIS encompasses a continuum of spatial and relational data elements, and included functional capabilities such as: data collection, data entry, data base development, data analysis, data base management, display, and report generalization. In support of database development activities, BIA and BLM/TGS conducted a cooperative effort to investigate the potential of 1:100,000 scale Thematic Mapper (TM) False Color Composites (FCCs) for providing vegetation information suitable for input to the GIS and to later be incorporated as a generalized Bureau wide land cover map. Land cover information is critical as the majority of reservations currently have no land cover information in either map or digital form. This poster outlines an approach which includes the manual interpretation of land cover using TM FCCs, the digitizing of interpreted polygons, and the editing of digital data, used upon ground truthing exercises. An efficient and cost-effective methodology for generating large area land cover information is illustrated for the Mineral Strip area on the San Carlos Indian Reservation in Arizona. Techniques which capitalize on the knowledge of the local natural resources professionals, while minimizing machine processing requirements, are suggested.

  4. Comparison of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Smith, James A.

    2004-01-01

    We compare images from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor on Landsat-7 and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument on Earth Observing One (EO-1) over a test site in Rochester, New York. The site contains a variety of features, ranging from water of varying depths, deciduous/coniferous forest, and grass fields, to urban areas. Nearly coincident cloud-free images were collected one minute apart on 25 August 2001. We also compare images of a forest site near Howland, Maine, that were collected on 7 September, 2001. We atmospherically corrected each pair of images with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) atmosphere model, using aerosol optical thickness and water vapor column density measured by in situ Cimel sun photometers within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), along with ozone density derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Earth Probe satellite. We present true-color composites from each instrument that show excellent qualitative agreement between the multispectral sensors, along with grey-scale images that demonstrate a significantly improved ALI panchromatic band. We quantitatively compare ALI and ETM+ reflectance spectra of a grassy field in Rochester and find < or equal to 6% differences in the visible/near infrared and approx. 2% differences in the short wave infrared. Spectral comparisons of forest sites in Rochester and Howland yield similar percentage agreement except for band 1, which has very low reflectance. Principal component analyses and comparison of normalized difference vegetation index histograms for each sensor indicate that the ALI is able to reproduce the information content in the ETM+ but with superior signal-to-noise performance due to its increased 12-bit quantization.

  5. Paleobasin analysis and tectonic framework development of southern Zagros basin, interpreted from Landsat 4 thematic mapper image

    SciTech Connect

    Iranpanah, A.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed lineament maps produced with the digitally enhanced Landsat 4 thematic mapper in conjunction with field data provide new information on structural relations to the southern Zagros basin. Three major parallel lineaments are from north to south, Qatar-Kazern, Razak, and Oman. These lineaments trend approximately N17/sup 0/E and subdivide the Zagros basin into northern, central, and southern segments. The study area is enclosed by the Razak and Oman lineaments. Piercement salt domes (Precambrian salt) are abundant within the southern Zagros basin, absent east of the Oman lineament, and scarce in the area west of the Razak lineament. This salt dome distribution and the N17/sup 0/E trend suggest that these lineaments are surface manifestations of boundaries of basement crustal blocks that have been reactivated periodically since the Precambrian. The northern extension of this Precambrian basin is marked by salt domes (Precambrian salt) along the Oman lineament, located in the Kerman region 400 km north of Minab. Along the eastern boundary, at the juncture of the southern Zagros basin and western Makran Ranges, the trend of fold axes changes from east-west to north-south. The western basin boundary is characterized by a gradual change in the trend of the fold axis from east-west to northwest-southeast. This study provides useful information for subsurface interpretations, which will benefit hydrocarbon exploration. The Razak and Oman lineaments enclose a highly productive area, and separate the southern Zagros basin from less productive areas to the west and from a nonproductive region to the east where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that lineaments may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of the southern Zagros basin.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: Use of Landsat Thematic Mapper Data to Assess Seasonal Rangeland Changes in the Southeast Kalahari, Botswana.

    PubMed

    RINGROSE; MUSISI-NKAMBWE; COLEMAN; NELLIS; BUSSING

    1999-01-01

    / Management problems arise in semiarid rangeland that are characterized by marked wet and dry seasons because of forage deficiencies in the dry season. These natural vegetation rangelands can sustain livestock all year long when forage and senesced grass are available into the dry season. Seasonal range condition data are required to provide a basis for pasture management to help locate dry season cover and thereby minimize overstocking and degradation. The generation of seasonal data using Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery was undertaken to assess changes in natural vegetation cover in the southern Botswana Kalahari. Visual analysis of spectral reflectance curves, the development of spectral separability indexes, and conventional classification analysis techniques were used to identify and differentiate rangeland features. Results from reflectance curves indicated that most rangeland cover types could be preferentially distinguished using mainly wet season data, especially on the longer TM wavebands, and that range feature differentiation was more problematic on darker soils than on lighter soils. Spectral separability indexes (SSIs) confirmed that range feature separation varied considerably as a function of waveband and was more effective in the wet than the dry season. The SSIs also showed that range feature differentiation in both seasons was most effective using a combination of the chlorophyll absorpance band (TM3) and two mid-infrared bands (TM5 and TM7). Wet season data were more effectively classified in terms of range features than dry season data although some class similarity was inferred across the two classified data sets. The work shows that overall trends may be generated by comparing seasonal data sets, thereby providing an overall basis for dry season decision making. However, particular problems arise within the dry season data sets probably because of spectral similarities between shadow and darkened vegetation cover, thereby implying that further work is needed. KEY WORDS: Semiarid rangelands; Botswana; Kalahari; Spectral differentiation; Seasonal change; Darkened vegetation cover PMID:9817777

  7. Spectral mixture analysis to assess post-fire vegetation regeneration using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery: Accounting for soil brightness variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veraverbeke, S.; Somers, B.; Gitas, I.; Katagis, T.; Polychronaki, A.; Goossens, R.

    2012-02-01

    Post-fire vegetation cover is a crucial parameter in rangeland management. This study aims to assess the post-fire vegetation recovery 3 years after the large 2007 Peloponnese (Greece) wildfires. Post-fire recovery landscapes typically are mixed vegetation-substrate environments which makes spectral mixture analysis (SMA) a very effective tool to derive fractional vegetation cover maps. Using a combination of field and simulation techniques this study aimed to account for the impact of background brightness variability on SMA model performance. The field data consisted out of a spectral library of in situ measured reflectance signals of vegetation and substrate and 78 line transect plots. In addition, a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scene was employed in the study. A simple SMA, in which each constituting terrain feature is represented by its mean spectral signature, a multiple endmember SMA (MESMA) and a segmented SMA, which accounts for soil brightness variations by forcing the substrate endmember choice based on ancillary data (lithological map), were applied. In the study area two main spectrally different lithological units were present: relatively bright limestone and relatively dark flysch (sand-siltstone). Although the simple SMA model resulted in reasonable regression fits for the flysch and limestones subsets separately (coefficient of determination R2 of respectively 0.67 and 0.72 between field and TM data), the performance of the regression model on the pooled dataset was considerably weaker ( R2 = 0.65). Moreover, the regression lines significantly diverged among the different subsets leading to systematic over-or underestimations of the vegetative fraction depending on the substrate type. MESMA did not solve the endmember variability issue. The MESMA model did not manage to select the proper substrate spectrum on a reliable basis due to the lack of shape differences between the flysch and limestone spectra,. The segmented SMA model which accounts for soil brightness variations minimized the variability problems. Compared to the simple SMA and MESMA models, the segmented SMA resulted in a higher overall correlation ( R2 = 0.70), its regression slope and intercept were more similar among the different substrate types and its resulting regression lines more closely resembled the expected one-one line. This paper demonstrates the improvement of a segmented approach in accounting for soil brightness variations in estimating vegetative cover using SMA. However, further research is required to evaluate the model's performance for other soil types, with other image data and at different post-fire timings.

  8. Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson, Jr.; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

    1987-01-01

    A stochastic spatial computer model addressing coastal resource problems in Lousiana is being refined and validated using thematic mapper (TM) imagery. The TM images of brackish marsh sites were processed and data were tabulated on spatial parameters from TM images of the salt marsh sites. The Fisheries Image Processing Systems (FIPS) was used to analyze the TM scene. Activities were concentrated on improving the structure of the model and developing a structure and methodology for calibrating the model with spatial-pattern data from the TM imagery.

  9. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix A: Partially processed thematic mapper High Density Tape (HDT-AT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jai, A.

    1982-01-01

    One of the outputs of the data management system being developed to provide a variety of standard image products from the thematic mapper and the multispectral band scanners on LANDSAT 4, is the partially processed TM data (radiometric corrections applied and geometric correction matrices for two projections appended) which is recorded on a 28-track high density tape. Specifications are presented for the format of the recorded data as well as for the time code and the major and minor frames of the tape. Major frame types, formats, and field definitions are included.

  10. Utilizing remote sensing of Thematic Mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browder, J. A.; May, L. N., Jr.; Rosenthal, A.; Baumann, R. H.; Gosselink, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    LANDSAT thematic mapper (TM) data are being used to refine and validate a stochastic spatial computer model to be applied to coastal resource management problems in Louisiana. Two major aspects of the research are: (1) the measurement of area of land (or emergent vegetation) and water and the length of the interface between land and water in TM imagery of selected coastal wetlands (sample marshes); and (2) the comparison of spatial patterns of land and water in the sample marshes of the imagery to that in marshes simulated by a computer model. In addition to activities in these two areas, the potential use of a published autocorrelation statistic is analyzed.

  11. Neural network modeling of surface chlorophyll and sediment content in inland water from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery using multidate spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Pranab J.; Tamura, Masayuki; Oki, Kazuo; Nishimura, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of chlorophyll and suspended sediment in surface water are tow important parameters for monitoring inland water quality. In the open ocean, it is not difficult to derive empirical algorithms relating received radiances at remote sensors to concentrations of water quality parameters. However, in optically complex inland water the task is difficult due to overwhelming of spectral signature of chlorophyll by other organic components present in high concentration. Neural Networks have been successful in modeling various geophysical transfer function. In this study, NN is used to model the transfer function between chlorophyll and sediment concentrations, and above-water upwelling reflectance simulated at three Landsat Thematic Mapper visible bands form spectrometer data. The developed model could estimate chlorophyll better than conventional regression analysis. In estimating surface chlorophyll, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for neural network was found to be < 15 percent, while the same for regression was > 30 percent. In estimating suspended sediment, regression performed comparatively better than in chlorophyll estimation with an RMSE of 22 percent. The corresponding RMSE for neural network was 12 percent. Upon validation, the trained model is used to get spatial distribution of the two water quality parameters from the Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. Prior to this, the LandsatTM digital number values are converted to equivalent spectrometer-derived reflectances with a regression between these two quantities at sampling locations, thus taking into account the atmospheric effects which are often difficult to be satisfactorily quantified in inland waters.

  12. Water quality assessment with simultaneous Landsat-5 TM data at Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, C.Z.F.; Setzer, A.W. ); Lacerda, L.D. de )

    1993-06-01

    This study aims at determining relationships between water quality parameters and digital data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). The study area was the Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected on two dates, coincident with Landsat passages, and when different tide conditions were present at the Bay. TM Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, band ratios 1 / 3 and 2 / 3, and principal component analysis of TM Bands 1-4 were compared with in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of water samples. Some water quality parameters were very well correlated with the digital remotely sensed data, especially during high tide: for instance, iron and manganese concentrations in total suspended solids; salinity and Secchi depth; temperature and Secchi depth; temperature and total suspended solids; total suspended solids and Bands 4 and 6; Secchi depth and Bands 4 and 6; temperature and Band 6. Lower correlation coefficients, although also significant, were found for the low tide condition. No correlation was found with chlorophyll-a concentrations. TM data were shown to be adequate to analyze temperature, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, and iron and manganese contents in the total suspended solids for the polluted estuary area studied.

  13. Thematic mapper research in the earth sciences: Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe River Estuary, German Bight and Tidal Flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grassl, H.; Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Brockmann, C.; Stoessel, M.

    1987-01-01

    A Thematic Mapper (TM) field experiment was followed by a data analysis to determine TM capabilities for analysis of suspended matter and phytoplankton. Factor analysis showed that suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature can be retrieved as independent factors which determine the variation in the TM data over water areas. Spectral channels in the near infrared open the possibility of determining the Angstrom exponent better than for the coastal zone color scanner. The suspended matter distribution may then be calculated by the absolute radiance of channel 2 or 3 or the ratio of both. There is no indication of whether separation of chlorophyll is possible. The distribution of suspended matter and sea surface temperature can be observed with the expected fine structure. A good correlation between water depth and suspended matter distribution as found from ship data can now be analyzed for an entire area by the synoptic view of the TM scenes.

  14. Analysis of Thematic Mapper data for studying the suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Stoessel, M.; Brockmann, C.; Grassl, H.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data were analyzed with respect to its capability for mapping the complex structure and dynamics of suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea). Three independent pieces of information were found by factor analysis of all seven TM channels: suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature. For the required atmospheric correction, the signal-to-noise ratios of Channels 5 and 7 have to be improved by averaging over 25 x 25 pixels, which also makes it possible to monitor the aerosol optical depth and aerosol type over cloud-free water surfaces. Near-surface suspended matter concentrations may be detected with an accuracy of factor less than 2 by using an algorithm derived from radiative transfer model calculation. The patchiness of suspended matter and its relation to underwater topography was analyzed with autocorrelation and cross-correlation.

  15. Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Data for Hydrologic Applications. [Clinton River Basin, Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data produced a more accurate and spatially contiguous classification than MSS for the Clinton River Basin in Michigan. While the accuracy of the 4-band TMS data set was as good as the 7-band, the 3-band TMS data sets were also better than the MSS. The combination of bands selected based on the transformed divergence technique provided one band in each of the major regions of the spectrum: visible (band 3), near IR (band 4), middle IR (band 5) and thermal IR (band 7). These results should be viewed with some caution, since the data are from a TMS rather than the actual TM and the MSS data were obtained in early summer while the TMS was flown in late summer. The higher accuracies for the developed categories (residential and commercial) should improve the predictions of runoff in flood forecasting models and of flood damage for damage calculation models appreciably.

  16. Multi-temporal environmental analysis of oil field activities in south-central Oklahoma using Landsat thematic mapper, aerial photography and GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Janks, J.S.; Edwards, G.S.; Prelat, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental assessments of oil field activities, historical and present, were made using a combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper, aerial photographic and GIS information. Landsat data was used to assess vegetation health in and around the oil fields, and aerial photography was used to document historic changes. We found no evidence of vegetation damage from the oil field activities, even though many fields are located along anticlines and drain into major waterways. GIS technology, mapping roads, wells, rivers, ponds and environmentally-sensitive areas, was used to minimize environmental effects on the placement of shotpoints and receivers. When either shotpoints or receivers were found to interfere with sensitive areas, the points were moved to nearby roads or other open locations. The application of this technology resulted in minimal environmental damage and significant cost savings.

  17. Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

    1988-01-01

    The land-water interface of coastal marshes may influence the production of estuarine-dependent fisheries more than the area of these marshes. To test this hypothesis, a spatial model was created to explore the dynamic relationship between marshland-water interface and level of disintegration in the decaying coastal marshes of Louisiana's Barataria, Terrebonne, and Timbalier basins. Calibrating the model with Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery, a parabolic relationship was found between land-water interface and marsh disintegration. Aggregated simulation data suggest that interface in the study area will soon reach its maximum and then decline. A statistically significant positive linear relationship was found between brown shrimp catch and total interface length over the past 28 years. This relationship suggests that shrimp yields will decline when interface declines, possibly beginning about 1995.

  18. Distribution of Potential Hydrothermally Altered Rocks in Central Colorado Derived From Landsat Thematic Mapper Data: A Geographic Information System Data Set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Central Colorado Mineral Resource Assessment Project, the digital image data for four Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes covering central Colorado between Wyoming and New Mexico were acquired and band ratios were calculated after masking pixels dominated by vegetation, snow, and terrain shadows. Ratio values were visually enhanced by contrast stretching, revealing only those areas with strong responses (high ratio values). A color-ratio composite mosaic was prepared for the four scenes so that the distribution of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks could be visually evaluated. To provide a more useful input to a Geographic Information System-based mineral resource assessment, the information contained in the color-ratio composite raster image mosaic was converted to vector-based polygons after thresholding to isolate the strongest ratio responses and spatial filtering to reduce vector complexity and isolate the largest occurrences of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks.

  19. LANDSAT-5 orbit adjust maneuver report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassett, P. J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The orbit adjust maneuvers performed to raise the LANDSAT 5 spacecraft to mission altitude, synchronize it with the required groundtrack, and properly phase the spacecraft with LANDSAT-4 to provide an 8 day full Earth coverage cycle are described. Maneuver planning and evaluation procedures, data and analysis results for all maneuvers performed to date, the frozen orbit concept, and the phasing requirement between LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 are also examined.

  20. Remote detection of canopy water stress in coniferous forests using the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator and the thermal infrared multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Lars L.; Running, Steven W.; Riggs, George A.

    1990-01-01

    Water stress was induced in two coniferous forest stands in West Germany by severing tree sapwood. Leaf water potential, Psi(L), measurements indicated that maximum, naturally occurring levels of water stress developed in the stressed plots while control plots exhibited natural diurnal trends. Images of each site were obtained with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) 12 to 15 days after stress induction. NS001 bands 2 to 6, NS001 indices combining bands 4 and 6, and NS001 and TIMS thermal bands showed significant radiance differences between stressed and control plots when large differences in Psi(L) and relative water content (RWC) existed during the morning overflights at Munich. However, the NS001 and TIMS sensors could not detect the slightly smaller differences in Psi(L) and RWC during the Munich afternoon and Frankfurt overflights. The results suggest that routine detection of canopy water stress under operational conditions is difficult utilizing current sensor technology.

  1. Image-based terrain modeling with thematic mapper applied to resolving the limit of Holocene Lake expansion in the Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scanner records reflected solar energy from the earth's surface in six wavelength regions, or bands, and one band that records emitted energy in the thermal region, giving a total of seven bands. Useful research was extracted about terrain morphometry from remote sensing measurements and this information is used in an image-based terrain model for selected coastal geomorphic features in the Great Salt Lake Desert (GSLD). Technical developments include the incorporation of Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) data in satellite image analysis, and the production and use of 3-D surface plots of TM reflectance data. Also included in the technical developments is the analysis of the ground control point spatial distribution and its affects on geometric correction, and the terrain mapping procedure; using satellite data in a way that eliminates the need to degrade the data by resampling. The most common approach for terrain mapping with multispectral scanner data includes the techniques of pattern recognition and image classification, as opposed to direct measurement of radiance for identification of terrain features. The research approach in this investigation was based on an understanding of the characteristics of reflected light resulting from the variations in moisture and geometry related to terrain as described by the physical laws of radiative transfer. The image-based terrain model provides quantitative information about the terrain morphometry based on the physical relationship between TM data, the physical character of the GSLD, and the APTS measurements.

  2. Cross-calibration of the reflective solar bands of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus over PICS using different approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Brinkmann, Jake; Mishra, Nischal; Link, Daniel; Xiong, Xiaoxiong J.; Helder, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    Both Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) have been successfully operating for over 15 years to collect valuable measurements of the earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere. The land-viewing bands of both sensors are widely used in several scientific products such as surface reflectance, normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index etc. A synergistic use of the multi-temporal measurements from both sensors can greatly benefit the science community. Previous effort from the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) was focused on comparing the top-of-atmosphere reflectance of the two sensors over Libya 4 desert target. Uncertainties caused by the site/atmospheric BRDF, spectral response mismatch, and atmospheric water-vapor were also characterized. In parallel, an absolute calibration approach based on empirical observation was also developed for the Libya 4 site by the South Dakota State University's (SDSU) Image Processing Lab. Observations from Terra MODIS and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion were used to model the Landsat ETM+ TOA reflectance. Recently, there has been an update to the MODIS calibration algorithm, which has resulted in the newly reprocessed Collection 6 Level 1B calibrated products. Similarly, a calibration update to some ETM+ bands has also resulted in long-term improvements of its calibration accuracy. With these updates, calibration differences between the spectrally matching bands of Terra MODIS and L7 ETM+ over the Libya 4 site are evaluated using both approaches.

  3. Utilizing remote sensing of Thematic Mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browder, J. A. (Principal Investigator); Rosenthal, A.; May, L. N., Jr.; Bauman, R. H.; Gosselink, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to refine and validate a probabilistic spatial computer model through the analyses of thematic mapper imagery. The model is designed to determine how the interface between marshland and water changes as marshland is converted to water in a disintegrating marsh. Coastal marshland in Louisiana is disintegrating at the rate of approximately 40 sq mi a year, and an evaluation of the potential impact of this loss on the landings of estuarine-dependent fisheries is needed by fisheries managers. Understanding how marshland-water interface changes as coastal marshland is lost is essential to the process of evaluating fisheries effects, because several studies suggest that the production of estuarine-dependent fish and shellfish may be more closely related to the interface between marshland and water than to acreage of marshland. The need to address this practical problem has provided an opportunity to apply some scientifically interesting new techniques to the analyses of satellite imagery. Progress with the development of these techniques is the subject of this report.

  4. Anaysis of the quality of image data required by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner. [agricultural and forest cover types in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The spatial, geometric, and radiometric qualities of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were evaluated by interpreting, through visual and computer means, film and digital products for selected agricultural and forest cover types in California. Multispectral analyses employing Bayesian maximum likelihood, discrete relaxation, and unsupervised clustering algorithms were used to compare the usefulness of TM and MSS data for discriminating individual cover types. Some of the significant results are as follows: (1) for maximizing the interpretability of agricultural and forest resources, TM color composites should contain spectral bands in the visible, near-reflectance infrared, and middle-reflectance infrared regions, namely TM 4 and TM % and must contain TM 4 in all cases even at the expense of excluding TM 5; (2) using enlarged TM film products, planimetric accuracy of mapped poins was within 91 meters (RMSE east) and 117 meters (RMSE north); (3) using TM digital products, planimetric accuracy of mapped points was within 12.0 meters (RMSE east) and 13.7 meters (RMSE north); and (4) applying a contextual classification algorithm to TM data provided classification accuracies competitive with Bayesian maximum likelihood.

  5. Automated mapping of mineral groups and green vegetation from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery with an example from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM) sensors are being used to populate an online Geographic Information System (GIS) of the spatial occurrence of mineral groups and green vegetation across the western conterminous United States and Alaska. These geospatial data are supporting U.S. Geological Survey national-scale mineral deposit database development and other mineral resource and geoenvironmental research as a means of characterizing mineral exposures related to mined and unmined hydrothermally altered rocks and mine waste. This report introduces a new methodology for the automated analysis of Landsat TM data that has been applied to more than 180 scenes covering the western United States. A map of mineral groups and green vegetation produced using this new methodology that covers the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, and the Four Corners Region is presented. The map is provided as a layered GeoPDF and in GIS-ready digital format. TM data analysis results from other well-studied and mineralogically characterized areas with strong hydrothermal alteration and (or) supergene weathering of near-surface sulfide minerals are also shown and compared with results derived from ASTER data analysis.

  6. Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson, Jr.; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

    1988-01-01

    The continuing disintegration of the coastal marshes of Louisiana is one of the major environmental problems of the nation. The problem of marsh loss in Louisiana is relevant to fishery management because Louisiana leads the nation in landings of fishery products, and most of the landed species are dependent upon estuaries and their associated tidal marshes. In evaluating the potential effect of marshland loss on fisheries, the first two critical factors to consider are: whether land-water interface in actual disintegrating marshes is currently increasing or decreasing, and the magnitude of the change. In the present study, LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering specific marshes in coastal Louisiana were used to test conclusions from the Browder et al (1984) model with regard to the stage in disintegration at which maximum interface occurs; to further explore the relationship between maximum interface and the pattern of distribution of land and water suggested by the model; and to determine the direction and degree of change in land-water interface in relation to land loss in actual marshes.

  7. Cross-calibration of Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI with Aqua MODIS using PICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; Mishra, Nischal; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Helder, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) onboard the Landsat 5 (L5) has provided an unprecedented amount of earth observations for more than 25 years since its launch on March 1, 1984. The MODIS sensor onboard the Aqua satellite is a part of the afternoon constellation of spacecraft and has been successfully providing near-continuous observations of the earth's surface and atmosphere since July 2002. A synergistic use of TM and MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) measurements is immensely beneficial to the broad user community for different land cover change and global climate studies. A consistent radiometric calibration between the sensors is a prerequisite for creating high quality science products. Various pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) identified by CEOS have been widely used to monitor the on-orbit calibration consistency for a number of sensors. Near-simultaneous observations of the Saharan PICS by L5 TM and Aqua MODIS are used in this study. The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance from the spectrally matching RSB are corrected for test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), relative spectral response (RSR) mismatch, and impacts for atmospheric water-vapor, and used to estimate the long-term calibration differences between the two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard the Landsat 8 (L8) launched in February, 2013, is a follow-on mission to maintain the continuity of Landsat acquisitions. A similar cross-calibration methodology was extended to compare the spectrally matching bands of Aqua MODIS with OLI. A long-term drift is observed in bands 1 (3.7%) and 3 (1.86%) of L5 TM, which is expected to be mitigated in the next calibration coefficient update. With the exception of the SWIR-2 band (L5 TM band 7), the agreement with Aqua MODIS is seen to be within 4%. The L8 OLI and Aqua MODIS agreement is seen within 4% across all wavelengths.

  8. A procedure for radiometric recalibration of Landsat 5 TM reflective-band data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Haque, M.O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to the internal calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time, causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20%. In May 2003, the L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) were updated to use a lifetime lookup-table (LUT) gain model to radiometrically calibrate TM data instead of using scene-specific IC gains. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. The L5 TM data processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work-order report that was included in the original standard data product delivery is available. However, if users do not have the original work-order report, the IC trends can be used for recalibration. The IC trends were generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database. This paper provides the details of the recalibration procedure for the following: 1) data processed using IC where users have the work-order file; 2) data processed using IC where users do not have the work-order file; 3) data processed using prelaunch calibration parameters; and 4) data processed using the previous version of the LUT (e.g., LUT03) that was released before April 2, 2007.

  9. Mapping the invasive species, Chinese tallow, with EO1 satellite Hyperion hyperspectral image data and relating tallow occurrences to a classified Landsat Thematic Mapper land cover map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Rangoonwala, A.; Nelson, G.; Ehrlich, R.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to provide a realistic and accurate representation of the spatial distribution of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) in the Earth Observing 1 (EO1) Hyperion hyperspectral image coverage by using methods designed and tested in previous studies. We transformed, corrected, and normalized Hyperion reflectance image data into composition images with a subpixel extraction model. Composition images were related to green vegetation, senescent foliage and senescing cypress-tupelo forest, senescing Chinese tallow with red leaves ('red tallow'), and a composition image that only corresponded slightly to yellowing vegetation. These statistical and visual comparisons confirmed a successful portrayal of landscape features at the time of the Hyperion image collection. These landscape features were amalgamated in the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) pixel, thereby preventing the detection of Chinese tallow occurrences in the Landsat TM classification. With the occurrence in percentage of red tallow (as a surrogate for Chinese tallow) per pixel mapped, we were able to link dominant land covers generated with Landsat TM image data to Chinese tallow occurrences as a first step toward determining the sensitivity and susceptibility of various land covers to tallow establishment. Results suggested that the highest occurrences and widest distribution of red tallow were (1) apparent in disturbed or more open canopy woody wetland deciduous forests (including cypress-tupelo forests), upland woody land evergreen forests (dominantly pines and seedling plantations), and upland woody land deciduous and mixed forests; (2) scattered throughout the fallow fields or located along fence rows separating active and non-active cultivated and grazing fields, (3) found along levees lining the ubiquitous canals within the marsh and on the cheniers near the coastline; and (4) present within the coastal marsh located on the numerous topographic highs. ?? 2005 US Government.

  10. Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Garono, Ralph; Anderson, Becci; Robinson, Rob

    2003-10-01

    The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower generation, dredging, forestry, agriculture, channel alteration, diking, bank stabilization and floodplain development, have dramatically altered both the type and distribution of habitats along the Columbia River Estuary (CRE) and its floodplain. Along the Columbia River, tidally influenced habitats occur from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of 230 km. If we are to effectively manage the natural resources of the Columbia River ecosystem, there is a need to understand how habitats have changed because fish and wildlife populations are known to respond to changes in habitat quality and distribution. The goal of this study was to measure the amount and type of change of CRE land cover from 1992 to 2000. We performed a change analysis on two spatial data sets describing land cover along the lower portion of the estuary (Fig. 1). The 1992 data set was created by the NOAA Coastal Remote Sensing, Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) in cooperation with Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Point Adams Field Station, and State of Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR). The 2000 data set was produced by Earth Design Consultants, Inc. (EDC) and the Wetland Ecosystem Team (WET: University of Washington) as part of a larger Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) habitat mapping study. Although the image classification methodologies used to create the data sets differed, both data sets were produced by classifying Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery, making it feasible to assess land cover changes between 1992 and 2000.

  11. Snow reflectance from thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of snow reflectance in all 6 TM reflective bands (i.e., 1,2,3,4,5, and 7) using a delta Eddington model show that snow reflectance in bands 4,5, and 7 is sensitive to grain size. Efforts to interpret the surface optical grain size for the spectral extension of albedo are described. Results show the TM data include spectral channels suitable for snow/cloud discrimination and for snow albedo measurements that can be extended throughout the solar spectrum. Except for band 1, the dynamic range is large enough that saturation occurs only occasionally. The finer resolution gives much better detail on the snowcovered area and might make it possible to use textural information instead of the snowline as an index to the amount of snow melt runoff.

  12. Extending aircraft- and tower-based CO2 flux measurements to a boreal region using a Landsat thematic mapper land cover map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing M.; Leblanc, Sylvain G.; Cihlar, Josef; Desjardins, Raymond L.; MacPherson, J. Ian

    1999-07-01

    There has been an increasing need to measure the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and vegetated surfaces for large areas in order to quantify the carbon budget of the terrestrial biosphere. The boreal landscape is heterogeneous owing to different forest cover types and disturbance regimes, and regional quantification of CO2 flux is difficult without numerous species-specific flux measurements. During the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study in 1994 and 1996 the National Research Council of Canada operated a Twin Otter aircraft that measured CO2, sensible and latent heat fluxes, and other trace gases over boreal forests in Saskatchewan, Canada. A flux-unmixing method was developed to calculate flux densities for eight major cover types from the aircraft-based measurements. Using a coregistered land cover map at 30-m resolution derived from Landsat thematic mapper data, the contribution of each cover type to the CO2 flux measured by the aircraft was estimated using a contributing area (footprint) function according to the wind direction, the atmospheric stability, the horizontal distance of each pixel from the aircraft, and aircraft height. The unmixing method uses a linear inversion method with the footprint-weighted cover type fractions as the set coefficients for each segment of a flight line. In the inversion, various constraint strategies were used to confine the inversion results to minimize the effect of various sampling errors. It is shown that (1) mathematical constraint is critically important in the inversion, (2) a simple constraint toward the mean flux values is effective in producing reasonable inversion results, and (3) the inversion accuracy can be further improved when simultaneous tower measurements in the dominant cover types are used as tight constraints. With such constraints the estimated fluxes from the cover types without tower measurements appear to be reasonable. It is concluded that aircraft measurement adds to our ability to map the regional flux field using remote sensing images because (1) it allows the derivation of flux data for cover types without tower-based measurements and (2) it can be used to infer the representativeness of tower measurements for the measured cover types in the landscape.

  13. Monitoring land use changes in the Upper Ganga Basin, India by using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques on Landsat 5 TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    The Green Revolution represents one of the largest environmental changes in India over the last century. The Upper Ganga basin is experiencing rapid rates of change of land use and irrigation practices. In combination with exploitation of groundwater resources in the northern Indian plains, this causes variations in recharge and fundamentally affects surface and groundwater resources, threatening India's water supplies. In this study, we have developed a methodology to map and investigate land-use change by applying Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques on 30m resolution multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for 1984, 1998 and 2010. Firstly, an automated protocol was applied to effectively correct the images for radiometric effects and remove atmospheric interference during the pre-processing analysis of satellite images. Afterwards, maximum likelihood supervised classifications were carried out on Landsat 5 TM colour composites of 1984, 1998 and 2010 with the aid of ground truth data. Post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat images in order to map land cover changes in the Upper Ganga basin. Change vectors of NDVI and Tasseled Cap brightness, greenness and wetness of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images are compared with those values from the initial date of imagery to detect change from no change. Ground truth information and historic images were used to assess the accuracy of the classification results. We find that most of the land-use change is conversion from forest and barren land to agricultural areas. Results indicate that between 1984 and 2010 agricultural areas have increased by more than 150% while forest areas decreased by 28%. The classification accuracy is also examined. Results confirm the importance of field-based accuracy assessment to identify problems in a land-use map and to improve area estimates for each class. The results quantify the land cover change patterns in the Upper Ganga basin and demonstrate the potential of multi-temporal Landsat data to provide an accurate map and analyse changes in land use over time that can be an important input in regional land-use planning and management strategies.

  14. Land cover/use classification of Cairns, Queensland, Australia: A remote sensing study involving the conjunctive use of the airborne imaging spectrometer, the large format camera and the thematic mapper simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heric, Matthew; Cox, William; Gordon, Daniel K.

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the land cover/use classification accuracy obtainable from remotely sensed multispectral imagery, Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) images were analyzed in conjunction with Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) Large Format Camera color infrared photography and black and white aerial photography. Specific portions of the combined data set were registered and used for classification. Following this procedure, the resulting derived data was tested using an overall accuracy assessment method. Precise photogrammetric 2D-3D-2D geometric modeling techniques is not the basis for this study. Instead, the discussion exposes resultant spectral findings from the image-to-image registrations. Problems associated with the AIS-1 TMS integration are considered, and useful applications of the imagery combination are presented. More advanced methodologies for imagery integration are needed if multisystem data sets are to be utilized fully. Nevertheless, research, described herein, provides a formulation for future Earth Observation Station related multisensor studies.

  15. Neotectonic studies of northern Baja California, Mexico, with LANDSAT thematic mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery: Partitioning of dextral and extensional strain at the Pacific-North America plate boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. Meghan; Crippen, Robert E.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous studies of active faulting in southern California indicate that the San Jacinto, Elsinore, and adjacent faults west of the San Andreas fault accommodate a significant proportion of Pacific-North America relative plate motion. Because of the complex distribution of slip, little is known about the activities of these and similar structures in northern Baja California and the southward transition to the oceanic ridge transform-fault system in the Gulf of California. SPOT and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper imagery for northern Baja California was processed to optimize discrimination of lithologic and structural features. This data was used to suggest a preliminary kinematic framework for distribution of relative plate motion between 31 and 33 degrees north, in which continental borderland tectonics play an important role in partitioning of plate motion.

  16. 25 Years of Landsat 5 - Duration: 3 minutes, 34 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

  17. Cross-sensor comparisons between Landsat 5 TM and IRS-P6 AWiFS and disturbance detection using integrated Landsat and AWiFS time-series images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Chander, Gyanesh; Ji, Lei; Tolk, Brian; Huang, Chengquan; Rollins, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Routine acquisition of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was discontinued recently and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has an ongoing problem with the scan line corrector (SLC), thereby creating spatial gaps when covering images obtained during the process. Since temporal and spatial discontinuities of Landsat data are now imminent, it is therefore important to investigate other potential satellite data that can be used to replace Landsat data. We thus cross-compared two near-simultaneous images obtained from Landsat 5 TM and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS)-P6 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS), both captured on 29 May 2007 over Los Angeles, CA. TM and AWiFS reflectances were compared for the green, red, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, as well as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on manually selected polygons in homogeneous areas. All R2 values of linear regressions were found to be higher than 0.99. The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method was used to calculate the NDVI correlation between the TM and AWiFS images. The NDVI regression line derived from selected polygons passed through several invariant cluster centres of the TIC density maps and demonstrated that both the scene-dependent polygon regression method and TIC method can generate accurate radiometric normalization. A scene-independent normalization method was also used to normalize the AWiFS data. Image agreement assessment demonstrated that the scene-dependent normalization using homogeneous polygons provided slightly higher accuracy values than those obtained by the scene-independent method. Finally, the non-normalized and relatively normalized ‘Landsat-like’ AWiFS 2007 images were integrated into 1984 to 2010 Landsat time-series stacks (LTSS) for disturbance detection using the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) model. Both scene-dependent and scene-independent normalized AWiFS data sets could generate disturbance maps similar to what were generated using the LTSS data set, and their kappa coefficients were higher than 0.97. These results indicate that AWiFS can be used instead of Landsat data to detect multitemporal disturbance in the event of Landsat data discontinuity.

  18. Snow zonation on Hielo Patagónico Sur, Southern Patagonia, derived from Landsat 5 TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Hernán; Rau, Frank; Skvarca, Pedro

    2007-10-01

    Hielo Patagónico Sur (HPS), an icefield in Southern Patagonia, is the largest temperate ice mass in the southern hemisphere. Despite continued research efforts during the last decade many glaciological variables, especially mass balance, are still poorly known. This is partly because access to the icefield is difficult due to remoteness and persistent harsh weather conditions. Therefore, remote sensing appears to be a more suitable tool for the acquisition of data. In this work we present a remote sensing study of snow zonation on HPS using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data acquired on 12 March 2001. By using image processing and classification techniques, proved to be useful in other glaciated regions, we map for the first time the extent and occurrence of major snow zones on the whole HPS. We separate between two classes of ice and three classes of snow. Ice facies are classified as bare or debris (i.e. dirt) covered ice, covering 2454 km 2 and 777 km 2 respectively, or 18.4% and 5.8% of the icefield on the day of image acquisition. Snow types are classified according to spectral differences in the images, following the glacier facies concept. Two of the three snow cover types are interpreted to represent differences in snow grain size within a fairly homogeneous snow pack whereas the third one is interpreted to represent the slush zone. A first order altitudinal control on the distribution of these snow facies is evident. In addition, our results show that snow accumulation on HPS is markedly controlled by the interaction of strong west-northwest snow-bearing winds and the rough mountainous terrain. In order of decreasing altitude we find that the two snow facies and the slush facies occupy 3819 km 2, 3292 km 2 and 2295 km 2 respectively, or 28.6%, 24.6% and 17.2% of the icefield, on the day of image acquisition. Estimates of equilibrium line altitude using our results yield values of 800-900 m above sea level for the western side and 1500-1600 m above sea level for the eastern side, with an accumulation area ratio of 0.74.

  19. Contingency plans set for Landsat 5 and 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    With the Landsat 5 Earth observation satellite failing due to a rapidly degrading electronic component, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is exploring ways to alleviate a data gap if both Landsat 5 and 7 fail prior to the planned launch of Landsat 8—known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission—in 2013. USGS director Marcia McNutt told Eos that although the satellite's engineering team has "brought Landsat 5 back from death's doorstep several times over the last 27 years" during its mission—which has extended far beyond its design life—"another miracle recovery is becoming less likely." She added that the survey is looking forward to a successful launch of Landsat 8 "and to establishing a more consistent land imaging program."

  20. Using the Sonoran and Libyan Desert test sites to monitor the temporal stability of reflective solar bands for Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus and Terra moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-young; Chander, Gyanesh; Wu, Aisheng

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing imagery is effective for monitoring environmental and climatic changes because of the extent of the global coverage and long time scale of the observations. Radiometric calibration of remote sensing sensors is essential for quantitative & qualitative science and applications. Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing sensors. This paper focuses on the use of the Sonoran Desert site to monitor the radiometric stability of the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The results are compared with the widely used Libya 4 Desert site in an attempt to evaluate the suitability of the Sonoran Desert site for sensor inter-comparison and calibration stability monitoring. Since the overpass times of ETM+ and MODIS differ by about 30 minutes, the impacts due to different view geometries or test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are also presented. In general, the long-term drifts in the visible bands are relatively large compared to the drift in the near-infrared bands of both sensors. The lifetime Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance trends from both sensors over 10 years are extremely stable, changing by no more than 0.1% per year (except ETM+ Band 1 and MODIS Band 3) over the two sites used for the study. The use of a semi-empirical BRDF model can reduce the impacts due to view geometries, thus enabling a better estimate of sensor temporal drifts.

  1. VEGETATION WATER CONTENT DURING SMEX04 FROM GROUND DATA AND LANDSAT 5 THERMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimation of vegetation water content is an important issue for soil moisture retrieval by microwave sensors and other remote sensing applications. The primary contribution of this study for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2004 was to sample vegetation for the Arizona and Sonora study areas. Determi...

  2. Selecting band combinations with thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffield, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A problem arises in making color composite images because there are 210 different possible color presentations of TM three-band images. A method is given for reducing that 210 to a single choice, decided by the statistics of a scene or subscene, and taking into full account any correlations that exist between different bands. Instead of using total variance as the measure for information content of the band triplets, the ellipsoid of maximum volume is selected which discourages selection of bands with high correlation. The band triplet is obtained by computing and ranking in order the determinants of each 3 x 3 principal submatrix of the original matrix M. After selection of the best triplet, the assignment of colors is made by using the actual variances (the diagonal elements of M): green (maximum variance), red (second largest variance), blue (smallest variance).

  3. Thematic Mapper Spectral Dimensionality and Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    A simulated LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS data set, representing three crops over three growing seasons and a wide variety of soil types, was used to evaluate the structure of TM data and to compare its characteristics to those of MSS data. TM bands 2, 3, and 4, transformed to tasseled cap-like coordinates, provide an equivalent data space to MSS tasseled cap data, with greater dynamic range and no apparent loss of information resulting from the exclusion of the 0.9 to 1.1 micron region. Data from the six reflective TM bands (excluding the thermal band) primarily occupy two planes and a transition zone between them. The plane of vegetation is comparable to the MSS tasseled cap plane, while the plane of soils and transition zone provide a new dimension of information unavailable from the MSS. This added dimension offers promise of improved ability to determine the relative mix of vegetation and soil in the sensor field of view and to estimate soil moisture status. The improvement in spectral characteristics of the TM over the MSS, not to mention the greater spatial resolution, have resulted in a significant increase in the information content of the data.

  4. MTF Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R.

    1985-01-01

    The spatial radiance distribution of a ground target must be known to a resolution at least four to five times greater than that of the system under test when measuring a satellite sensor's modulation transfer function. Calibration of the target requires either the use of man-made special purpose targets with known properties, e.g., a small reflective mirror or a dark-light linear pattern such as line or edge, or use of relatively high resolution underflight imagery to calibrate an arbitrary ground scene. Both approaches are to be used, in addition a technique that utilizes an analytical model of the scene spatial frequency power spectrum is being investigated as an alternative to calibration of the scene.

  5. MTF analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R.

    1983-01-01

    The spatial radiance distribution of a ground target must be known to a resolution at least four to five times greater than that of the system under test when measuring a satellite sensor's modulation transfer function. Calibration of the target requires either the use of man-made special purpose targets with known properties, e.g., a small reflective mirror or a dark-light linear pattern such as line or edge, or use of relatively high resolution underflight imagery to calibrate an arbitrary ground scene. Both approaches are to be used in addition a technique that utilizes an analytical model for the scene spatial frequency power spectrum is being investigated as an alternative to calibration of the scene.

  6. In-flight validation and recovery of water surface temperature with Landsat-5 thermal infrared data using an automated high-altitude lake validation site at Lake Tahoe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, S.J.; Chander, G.; Barsi, J.A.; Alley, R.E.; Abtahi, A.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Markham, B.L.; Richards, R.C.; Schladow, S.G.; Helder, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    The absolute radiometric accuracy of the thermal infrared band (B6) of the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument on the Landsat-5 (L5) satellite was assessed over a period of approximately four years using data from the Lake Tahoe automated validation site (California-Nevada). The Lake Tahoe site was established in July 1999, and measurements of the skin and bulk temperature have been made approximately every 2 min from four permanently moored buoys since mid-1999. Assessment involved using a radiative transfer model to propagate surface skin temperature measurements made at the time of the L5 overpass to predict the at-sensor radiance. The predicted radiance was then convolved with the L5B6 system response function to obtain the predicted L5B6 radiance, which was then compared with the radiance measured by L5B6. Twenty-four cloud-free scenes acquired between 1999 and 2003 were used in the analysis with scene temperatures ranging between 4??C and 22??C. The results indicate LSB6 had a radiance bias of 2.5% (1.6??C) in late 1999, which gradually decreased to 0.8% (0.5??C) in mid-2002. Since that time, the bias has remained positive (predicted minus measured) and between 0.3% (0.2??C) and 1.4% (0.9??C). The cause for the cold bias (L5 radiances are lower than expected) is unresolved, but likely related to changes in instrument temperature associated with changes in instrument usage. The in situ data were then used to develop algorithms to recover the skin and bulk temperature of the water by regressing the L5B6 radiance and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) total column water data to either the skin or bulk temperature. Use of the NCEP data provides an alternative approach to the split-window approach used with instruments that have two thermal infrared bands. The results indicate the surface skin and bulk temperature can be recovered with a standard error of 0.6??C. This error is larger than errors obtained with other instruments due, in part, to the calibration bias. L5 provides the only long-duration high spatial resolution thermal infrared measurements of the land surface. If these data are to be used effectively in studies designed to monitor change, it is essential to continue to monitor instrument performance in-flight and develop quantitative algorithms for recovering surface temperature.

  7. Radiometric calibration status of Landsat-7 and Landsat-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Helder, Dennis L.; Chander, Gyanesh

    2007-10-01

    Launched in April 1999, Landsat-7 ETM+ continues to acquire data globally. The Scan Line Corrector in failure in 2003 has affected ground coverage and the recent switch to Bumper Mode operations in April 2007 has degraded the internal geometric accuracy of the data, but the radiometry has been unaffected. The best of the three on-board calibrators for the reflective bands, the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, has indicated slow changes in the ETM+, but this is believed to be due to contamination on the panel rather then instrument degradation. The Internal Calibrator lamp 2, though it has not been used regularly throughout the whole mission, indicates smaller changes than the FASC since 2003. The changes indicated by lamp 2 are only statistically significant in band 1, circa 0.3% per year, and may be lamp as opposed to instrument degradations. Regular observations of desert targets in the Saharan and Arabian deserts indicate the no change in the ETM+ reflective band response, though the uncertainty is larger and does not preclude the small changes indicated by lamp 2. The thermal band continues to be stable and well-calibrated since an offset error was corrected in late-2000. Launched in 1984, Landsat-5 TM also continues to acquire global data; though without the benefit of an on-board recorder, data can only be acquired where a ground station is within range. Historically, the calibration of the TM reflective bands has used an onboard calibration system with multiple lamps. The calibration procedure for the TM reflective bands was updated in 2003 based on the best estimate at the time, using only one of the three lamps and a cross-calibration with Landsat-7 ETM+. Since then, the Saharan desert sites have been used to validate this calibration model. Problems were found with the lamp based model of up to 13% in band 1. Using the Saharan data, a new model was developed and implemented in the US processing system in April 2007. The TM thermal band was found to have a calibration offset error of 0.092 W/m2 sr µm (0.68K at 300K) based on vicarious calibration data between 1999 and 2006. The offset error was corrected in the US processing system on April 2007 for all data acquired since April 1999.

  8. Thematic mapping of basement-related cross-strike structural discontinuities and their relationship to potential oil-bearing structures

    SciTech Connect

    Iranpanah, A. )

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports how a digitally enhanced Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper mosaic (TM) data, a hand-held color space photograph from one of the early NASA satellite missions (Gemini), and field data were used to delineate three major basement-structural discontinuities (CSDs) with the Zagros Basin of southwestern Iran. Three major subparallel CSDs are, from north to south, Kazerun-Qatar (N05{sup {degrees}W} trend), Razak (N17{degrees}E trend), and Oman (N18{degrees}E). These subparallel CSDs subdivide the Zagros Basin into northern, central, and southern sub-basins. The Razak and Oman CSD enclose a relatively nonproductive area, separating the southern Zagros sub-basin from more productive regions to the northwest and the nonproductive Makran Ranges to the southeast where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that CSD may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of sedimentary basins. The results of this investigation also prove that lineament analysis is a potentially effective method for interpreting the basement-related CSD within a basin setting.

  9. Internet protocol network mapper

    DOEpatents

    Youd, David W.; Colon III, Domingo R.; Seidl, Edward T.

    2016-02-23

    A network mapper for performing tasks on targets is provided. The mapper generates a map of a network that specifies the overall configuration of the network. The mapper inputs a procedure that defines how the network is to be mapped. The procedure specifies what, when, and in what order the tasks are to be performed. Each task specifies processing that is to be performed for a target to produce results. The procedure may also specify input parameters for a task. The mapper inputs initial targets that specify a range of network addresses to be mapped. The mapper maps the network by, for each target, executing the procedure to perform the tasks on the target. The results of the tasks represent the mapping of the network defined by the initial targets.

  10. Strategy for Mitigating Collision Between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levi, Joshua A.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Science Mission Operations project, the French space agency Centre National d tudes Spatiales, the Argentinian space agency Comisi n Nacional de Actividades Espaciales, and the United States Geological Survey all operate spacecraft in sun-synchronous frozen orbits. The orbits are planned to not place any of the spacecraft at risk of colliding with another. However, evolution of these orbits over time has com-promised the safe interaction between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constella-tion. This paper analyzes the interactions between the Landsat-5 spacecraft and the Afternoon Constellation members over a period of 6 years, describing the current risk and plan to mitigate collisions in the future.

  11. Monitoring of a rice field using landsat-5 TM and landsat-7 ETM+ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguro, Y.; Suga, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Ogawa, H.; Tsuchiya, K.

    2003-12-01

    Through the research on the application of the multi temporal data acquired with Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ to monitoring of rice field the following features are clarified Two vegetation indices NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Extended Vegetation Index) obtained from Landsat-5 TM data of 7 July 2000 and that from Landsat-7 ETM+ data of 6 July 2000 show almost the same feature proving the validity of calibration of both sensors. NDVI computed from satellite data increases corresponding to the growth of rice plants until the flowering stage while EVI further continues to increase until the fructification stage. The vegetation indices computed from the in situ survey data with a portable multispectral radiometer do not coincide with those computed from satellite data. This is because that the reflectance of the background such as soil and water is included in the satellite data.

  12. Retrieved actual ET using SEBS model from Landsat-5 TM data for irrigation area of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiqiang; Hafeez, Mohsin; Rabbani, Umair; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Ma, Yaoming

    2012-11-01

    The idea of ground-based evapotranspiration (ET) is of the most interesting for land-atmosphere interactions, such as water-saving irrigation, the performance of irrigation systems, crop water deficit, drought mitigation strategies and accurate initialization of climate prediction models especially in arid and semiarid catchments where water shortage is a critical problem. The recent year's drought in Australia and concerns about climate change has prominent the need to manage water resources more sustainably especially in the Murrumbidgee catchment which utilizes bulk water for food security and production. This paper discusses the application of a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model based on Landsat-5 TM data and field observations has been used and tested for deriving ET over Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA), located in the southwest of NSW, Australia. 16 Landsat-5 TM scenes were selected covering the time period of 2009, 2010 and 2011 for estimating the actual ET in CIA. To do the validation the used methodology, the ground-measured ET was compared to the Landsat-5 TM retrieved actual ET results for CIA. The derived ET value over CIA is much closer to the field measurement. From the remote sensing results and observations, the root mean square error (RMSE) is 0.74 and the mean APD is 7.5%. The derived satellite remote sensing values belong to reasonable range.

  13. Improvement of cloud cover assessment of Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, R.; Kumar, R.; Mackie, M.

    1987-01-01

    Various methods for cloud cover assessment of Landsat TM data are compared and evaluated. A total of 3906 TM 241-mm black-and-white photo prints of different seasons and regions were assessed manually. These images were mostly in band 4 (0.76-0.90 microns) for daytime data and band 6 (10.4-12.5 microns) for nighttime data. The results of this manual assessment are compared to available automated and manual assessments, and the differences between results obtained by various methods are discussed.

  14. Quantifying Wetland Dynamics and Hydrologic Function with Landsat Thematic Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rover, J. A.; Wright, C.; Wylie, B. K.; Euliss, N. H.

    2007-12-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America spans the glaciated prairies from Alberta, Canada, to central Iowa. The region contains hundreds of thousands of wetlands that provide habitat for an estimated 50 to 80 percent of North America's waterfowl. The composition of species that use the PPR are a function of wetland water chemistry. The water chemistry is driven by wetland functional processes that determine hydrogeochemical interactions of surface water, ground water, and their connectivity to other wetlands. As wetlands cycle from drought to deluge, significant surface water fluctuations can alter water chemistry and hydroperiods, influencing the composition of wetland communities. We quantified these temporal water dynamics with Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery, spanning a 17-year period during a drought-deluge cycle. Using clustering techniques, we grouped wetlands based on their functional responses to climate and quantified the traits of each cluster. We found that wetlands receiving groundwater discharge respond very differently to climatic shifts than wetlands functioning as recharge basins. In addition, wetlands with closed basins are less dynamic than wetlands located in open basins. Accuracies of the initial classification ranged from 75 to 100 percent. This study offers the first insight into wetland dynamics at a regional scale with implications for modeling biogeochemistry and ecosystem services across the PPR. Although this method was developed in the Missouri Coteau and nearby drift plains of the PPR, we believe this technique is applicable to other regions.

  15. Geologic exploration: The contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The major advantages of the TM data over that of MSS systems are increased spatial resolution and a greater number of narrow, strategically placed spectral bands. The 30 meter pixel size permits finer definition of ground features and improves reliability of the photointerpretation of geologic structure. The value of the spatial data increases relative to the value of the spectral data as soil and vegetation cover increase. In arid areas with good exposure, it is possible with careful digital processing and some inventive color compositing to produce enough spectral differentiation of rock types and thereby produce facsimiles of standard geologic maps with a minimum of field work or reference to existing maps. Hue-saturation value images are compared with geological maps of Death Valley, California, the Big Horn/Wind River Basin of Wyoming, the area around Cement, Oklahoma, and Detroit. False color composites of the Ontario region are also examined.

  16. Simulation of landsat thematic mapper imagery using AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalman, Linda S.; Peltzer, Gerard R.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for simulating multispectral imagery (MSI) using hyperspectral imagery (HSI), and present a validation of the technique using one nearly coincident Landsat TM and AVIRIS data set. Generation of MSI from HSI supports several investigations including selection of multispectral sensor band edges, and engineering trade studies related to on-board or ground-based aggregation of HSI to simulate MSI. In addition, the utility of this technique as a potential procedure for monitoring calibration changes in spaceborne instrument is also addressed.

  17. Use of Thematic Mapper for water quality assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, E. M.; Morrissey, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of simulated TM data obtained on an ER-2 aircraft at twenty-five predesignated sample sites for mapping water quality factors such as conductivity, pH, suspended solids, turbidity, temperature, and depth, is discussed. Using a multiple regression for the seven TM bands, an equation is developed for the suspended solids. TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 are used with logarithm conductivity in a multiple regression. The assessment of regression equations for a high coefficient of determination (R-squared) and statistical significance is considered. Confidence intervals about the mean regression point are calculated in order to assess the robustness of the regressions used for mapping conductivity, turbidity, and suspended solids, and by regressing random subsamples of sites and comparing the resultant range of R-squared, cross validation is conducted.

  18. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The effects of the atmosphere on propagating radiation must be known in order to calibrate an in orbit sensor using ground based measurements. A set of model atmosphere parameters, applicable to the White Sands (New Mexico) area is defined with particular attention given to those parameters which are required as input to the Herman Code. The radial size distribution, refractive index, vertical distribution, and visibility of aerosols are discussed as well as the molecular absorbers in the visible and near IR wavelength which produce strong absorption lines. Solar irradiance is also considered.

  19. Early evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for coastal process studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H. H.; Linebaugh, G.

    1985-01-01

    Two sets of TM data taken over the ocean off the coast of the Southeastern U.S. Bight were studied for the applicability of TM data to marine environments. First, the results of applying TM and TMS data to determine chlorophyll concentration in the ocean are presented. Chlorophyll quantification in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 mg/cu m was achieved by taking the ratio of TM band-1/band-2. Second, the results of applying TM band-6 data to monitor sea surface temperature are described. A comparison of TM data with AVHRR data shows TM readings coincide with AVHRR data within a scatter of 0.5 deg C in most of the areas studied. Lastly, the results of a technique to map the water depths of coral reefs in the Great Bahama Bank are demonstrated. Depths from 0 to 20 meters were delineated using TM band-1. The classification accuracy and origins of anomalous depth points are discussed.

  20. Floodplain land cover mapping using Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerber, A. G.; Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y.-C.; Marcell, R.; Edwardo, H. A.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of land-cover classifications based on Landsat-4 TM and MSS images (obtained in August 1982) and airborne TMS images (obtained in September 1981) of the New Martinsville, West Virginia area is evaluated by comparison with ground-truth data. TM, TMS, and MSS are found to have overall mapping accuracies 80.1, 78.5, and 75.6 percent; agriculture/grass accuracies 62.0, 29.7, and 46.6 percent; and developed-area accuracies 67.2, 77.8, and 59.4 percent, respectively.

  1. Analysis methods for Thematic Mapper data of urban regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    Studies have indicated the difficulty in deriving a detailed land-use/land-cover classification for heterogeneous metropolitan areas with Landsat MSS and TM data. The major methodological issues of digital analysis which possibly have effected the results of classification are examined. In response to these methodological issues, a multichannel hierarchical clustering algorithm has been developed and tested for a more complete analysis of the data for urban areas.

  2. Thematic mapper radiomtric variability on ostensibly uniform agricultural scenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the interaction of the sensor point spread function with a heterogeneous scene consisting of elements giving rise to different spectral radiant intensities cause errors in multitemporal signatures due to fractional pixel repositioning errors. In the case of a heterogeneous scene, the repositioning accuracy between acquisitions could affect the radiometric output in any band and could affect the spectral distribution of radiance between bands. Error caused by within-band and between-band variations in radiance with time could be compounded by resampling along and between scan lines during processing. The magnitude of both error sources depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the scene.

  3. Thematic Mapper Image Processing System (TIPS) Processing Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, J.

    1984-01-01

    Radiometric and geometric correction performance is considered. A one quantum level requirement was met in all spectral bands with an occasional band 7 exception. Initial post launch calibration was accomplished. An absolute radiometric calibration is in progress including an investigation of low impact solution to scan striping. Initial and three downstream updates as well as coordination with LANDSAT D' instrument calibration are planned. Methods and problems in measuring geometric correction performance are examined with an emphasis on temporal registration, geodetic registrtion, and the modeling error budget. Planned efforts include eliminating band 2, band 5 chips; continued performance monitoring; calibration of profile, misalignment angles, and filer parameters; studying the need for seasonal geodetic control points; and improvement of the subpixel correlation technique.

  4. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

  5. Response of Thematic Mapper bands to plant water stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibula, W. G.; Zetka, E. F.; Rickman, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in leaf reflectance as water content decreases have been hypothesized to occur in the 1.55-1.75 and 2.08-2.35 micron wavelength regions. To evaluate this hypothesis, studies were conducted on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and oats (Avena sativa L.), which were grown in a controlled, outdoor situation. Both fully-watered control beds and water-stressed beds were periodically examined with a spectroradiometer calibrated against a reflectance reference of polytetrafluoroethylene. The observed changes correspond to those predicted by stochastic leaf models employed by other investigators (leaf reflection increases in the 1.55-1.75 micron region as leaf water content decreases). Although the percentage changes in TM bands 1-3 are nearly as great as those found in TM bands 5 and 7, the absolute values of reflectance change are much lower. It is believed that these patterns are probably characteristic of a broad range of vegetation types. In terms of phenomena detection, these patterns should be considered in any practical remote sensing sensor scenario.

  6. Revised radiometric calibration technique for LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J.; Butlin, T.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.

    1984-01-01

    Depending on detector number, there are random fluctuations in the background level for spectral band 1 of magnitudes ranging from 2 to 3.5 digital numbers (DN). Similar variability is observed in all the other reflective bands, but with smaller magnitude in the range 0.5 to 2.5 DN. Observations of background reference levels show that line dependent variations in raw TM image data and in the associated calibration data can be measured and corrected within an operational environment by applying simple offset corrections on a line-by-line basis. The radiometric calibration procedure defined by the Canadian Center for Remote Sensing was revised accordingly in order to prevent striping in the output product.

  7. A cumulus cloud field observed by Landsat Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Ross N.; Isaacs, Ronald G.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a spatial coherence scene model which is to be utilized to determine cloud properties from TM data is described. The observed radiances are modeled in terms of ocean and cloud spectra, the cloud fraction, and a geometric factor. Consideration is given to saturation effects and the need to constrain the model. The conjugate gradient algorithm is utilized to fit the model. A one-dimensional simulation was performed in order to evaluate the model; it is observed that the model provides good fit.

  8. WATERSHED CHARACTERIZATION USING LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY: BLACKFOOT RIVER, MT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a portion of a large regional project undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and water quality authorities in the States of Montana, Idaho, and Washington to identify and analyze factors which are affecting water quality in the Lake Pend Ore...

  9. Solar thematic maps for space weather operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigler, E. Joshua; Hill, Steven M.; Reinard, Alysha A.; Steenburgh, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Thematic maps are arrays of labels, or "themes", associated with discrete locations in space and time. Borrowing heavily from the terrestrial remote sensing discipline, a numerical technique based on Bayes' theorem captures operational expertise in the form of trained theme statistics, then uses this to automatically assign labels to solar image pixels. Ultimately, regular thematic maps of the solar corona will be generated from high-cadence, high-resolution SUVI images, the solar ultraviolet imager slated to fly on NOAA's next-generation GOES-R series of satellites starting ~2016. These thematic maps will not only provide quicker, more consistent synoptic views of the sun for space weather forecasters, but digital thematic pixel masks (e.g., coronal hole, active region, flare, etc.), necessary for a new generation of operational solar data products, will be generated. This paper presents the mathematical underpinnings of our thematic mapper, as well as some practical algorithmic considerations. Then, using images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Advanced Imaging Array (AIA) as test data, it presents results from validation experiments designed to ascertain the robustness of the technique with respect to differing expert opinions and changing solar conditions.

  10. Thematic Teaching in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughran, Sandra B.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes "thematic teaching," defined as a process of integrating and linking multiple elements of a curriculum in an ongoing exploration of many different aspects of a topic or subject. Thematic teaching is about students actively constructing their own knowledge. In classrooms where successful thematic work is in progress,…

  11. Evapotranspiration and energy balance components spatial distribution in the north region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using the SEBAL model and Landsat 5 TM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomide, Reinaldo L.; de Paula Boratto, Isa Maria

    2014-10-01

    The determination of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) values is very useful information for planning irrigation, water supply estimation, regulation of water rights and river basins hydrologic studies. Values of ETc in the North region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were estimated in this research from the multispectral images of the Landsat 5 TM by means of the model Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land- SEBAL, based on the simplified energy balance equation of a surface covered by vegetation, using a few daily surface climatological parameters (wind speed, rainfall, air temperature and relative humidity, solar radiation). The aim of this study was to estimate the regional spatial distribution of the energy balance components and evapotranspiration in the study area, covering the irrigated perimeter of Gorutuba, involving the cities of Nova Porteirinha, Janaúba, Porteirinha, Verdelândia and Pai Pedro. Thematic maps of regional evapotranspiration and energy balance components were generated from spectral analyzes of the images obtained, associated with the used weather data. The ability of SEBAL to provide the spatial variability of energy balance components, including evapotranspiration, demonstrated its sensitivity to different occupation of the soil surface vegetation, and to high data temporal and spatial resolutions data, indicating that the SEBAL model can be used in scales and operational routine for north region of Minas Gerais.

  12. Soil moisture modeling by means of Landsat-5 TM data over a Mediterranean mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, Jordi; Llorens, Pilar; Latron, Jérôme

    2010-05-01

    Soil moisture has important implications on the hydrological cycle and its monitoring is relevant for the assessment of environmental stress that affects forest and agricultural ecosystems. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing are the technologies used to model soil moisture at regional scales in a feasible way. In this study we present a preliminary estimation of the daily soil moisture, for the period 2002-2009, using a set of 30 Landsat images (22 Landsat-5 TM and 8 Landsat-7 ETM+), for several locations in the Vallcebre research catchments (42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). This area is located in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula at 1100m a.s.l., and is characterized by a sub-Mediterranean climate with marked water deficit in summer. Mean annual temperature is 9.1°C and mean annual precipitation is 862 ± 206 mm, with a mean of 90 rainy days per year. Mean annual reference evapotranspiration is 823 ± 26 mm. Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital Elevation Model, obtaining an RMSE less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994), which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009) and the land surface emissivity computed by means of the methodology proposed by Sobrino and Raissouni (2000). Soil water content has been modeled through a multiple regression analysis between soil moisture data and several vegetation indexes - NDVI, EVI, Greenness - and wetness indexes - NDWI, Wetness and the land surface temperature. In order to select the variables before performing the multiple regression analysis a model's predictors have been computed on the basis of Mallows' Cp. Models have been validated through surface soil moisture measurements obtained in 10 TDR profiles covering a wide range of soil moisture conditions in different topographic locations and over different types of vegetation: grassland, Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) and Pubescent oaks (Quercus humilis). Preliminary results show a good agreement between soil moisture multiple regression models obtained using remote sensing data and field soil moisture data. Keywords: Soil moisture, Landsat-5 TM, multiple regression analysis, Mediterranean region.

  13. Scannerless terrain mapper

    SciTech Connect

    Sackos, J.; Bradley, B.; Diegert, C.; Ma, P.; Gary, C.

    1996-09-01

    NASA-Ames Research Center, in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, is developing a Scannerless Terrain Mapper (STM) for autonomous vehicle guidance through the use of virtual reality. The STM sensor is based on an innovative imaging optical radar technology that is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The sensor uses active flood-light scene illumination and an image intensified CCD camera receiver to rapidly produce and record very high quality range imagery of observed scenes. The STM is an all solid-state device (containing no moving parts) and offers significant size, performance, reliability, simplicity, and affordability advantages over other types of 3-D sensor technologies, such as scanned laser radar, stereo vision, and structured lighting. The sensor is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is very well suited for affordable application to a wide variety of military and commercial uses, including: munition guidance, target recognition, robotic vision, automated inspection, driver enhanced vision, collision avoidance, site security and monitoring, and facility surveying. This paper reviews the sensor technology, discusses NASA`s terrain mapping applications, and presents results from the initial testing of the sensor at NASA`s planetary landscape simulator.

  14. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  15. Monitoring of defoliation in mixed-aged Eucalyptus plantations using Landsat 5-TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, B.; Verbesselt, J.; Ampe, E. M.; Sims, N.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Coppin, P.

    2010-05-01

    The amount of foliage is one of the primary physiological controls of plant functioning, which ultimately influences plant survival and growth. Repeated severe defoliation events have been linked to reduced growth rates and tree mortality in Eucalyptus forests throughout the world. Satellite remote sensing provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional ground-based assessment of forest health. In this study the potential of spectral mixture analysis for defoliation monitoring is evaluated. A novel spectral unmixing technique, referred to as weighted Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (wMESMA), was developed and successfully applied to Landsat 5 TM data acquired over a Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) plantation in southern Australia. This technique combines an iterative mixture analysis cycle allowing endmembers to vary on a per pixel basis (MESMA) and a weighting algorithm that prioritizes wavebands based on their robustness against endmember variability. Spectral mixture analysis provides an estimate of the physically interpretable canopy cover, which is not necessarily correlated with defoliation in mixed aged plantations due to natural variation in canopy cover as stands age. Results show that considerable variability in the degree of defoliation exists as well as in stand age amongst sites. In this study significantly improvement of the link between spectral unmixing and defoliation is observed by the inclusion of an age correction algorithm for the multispectral (R² no age correction = 0.55 vs. R² age correction = 0.73).

  16. Venus mapper resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    NASA program managers for the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) mission have decided to make improvements to the spacecraft's Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system that will increase its mapping resolution by one and a half times over the original design. The changes, including a doubling of the system's range bandwidth, will add a total of about $5 million to a project budgeted at $350 million. VRM is scheduled for launch toward Venus in April 1988 and will map more than 90% of the cloud-veiled planet's surface during its 8-month mission.The decision by the VRM program office at NASA headquarters in Washington was based on recommendations from the mission's project office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. When VRM was included as a new start in this year's NASA budget, the stated goals for the mission were to provide a near-global map of Venus at resolutions better than 1 km, or roughly equivalent to the resolution of the Mariner 9 mission that first revealed the geological richness of the Martian surface. The actual best radar resolution was to have been about 180 m (equivalent to an optical line-pair resolution of 360 m) attainable for more than half the surface of the planet. VRM will travel an elliptical orbit and so will only be able to map the surface for a fraction of each day. The highest resolutions will come in the equatorial regions when the spacecraft is closest to periapsis and the radar “look angles” are the greatest.

  17. THEMATIC ACCURACY OF MRLC LAND COVER FOR THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory



    One objective of the MultiResolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortium is to map general land-cover categories for the conterminous United States using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Land-cover mapping and classification accuracy assessment are complete for the e...

  18. Monitoring glacier variations in the Urubamba and Vilcabamba Mountain Ranges, Peru, using "Landsat 5" images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Wilson; Cerna, Marcos; Ordoñez, Julio; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Huggel, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The Urubamba and Vilcabamba mountain ranges are two geological structures belonging to the Andes in the southern part of Peru, which is located in the tropical region. These mountain ranges are especially located within the transition area between the Amazon region (altitudes close to 1'000 m a.s.l.) and the Andes. These mountains, with a maximum height of 6'280 m a.s.l. (Salkantay Snow Peak in the Vilcabamba range), are characterized by glaciers mainly higher than 5000 m a.s.l. Here we present a study on the evolution of the ice cover based on "Landsat 5" images from 1991 and 2011 is presented in this paper. These data are freely available from the USGS in a georeferenced format and cover a time span of more than 25 years. The glacier mapping is based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). In 1991 the Vilcabamba mountain range had 221 km2 of glacier cover, being reduced to 116.4 km2 in 2011, which represents a loss of 48%. In the Urubamba mountain range, the total glacier area was 64.9 km2 in 1991 and 29.4 km2 in 2011, representing a loss of 54.7%. It means that the glacier area was halved during the past two decades although precipitation patterns show an increase in recent years (the wet season lasts from September to April with precipitation peaks in February and March). Glacier changes in these two tropical mountain ranges also impact from an economic point of view due to small local farming common in this region (use of water from the melting glacier). Furthermore, potential glacier related hazards can pose a threat to people and infrastructure in the valleys below these glaciers, where the access routes to Machu Picchu Inca City, Peru's main tourist destination, are located too.

  19. Determination of instantaneous and daily net radiation from TM - Landsat 5 data in a subtropical watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Bernardo Barbosa; Montenegro, Susana Maria Gico Lima; da Silva, Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues; da Rocha, Humberto Ribeiro; Galvíncio, Josicleda Domiciano; de Oliveira, Leidjane Maria Maciel

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing makes it possible to identify the changes that occur on the surface of the Earth as a result of natural and/or man-made phenomena. Such changes impact on the net radiation at surface which in turn controls the Earth's climate. The present study aims to determine the impact of land use changes on net radiation at surface in a tropical watershed in Brazil, based on satellite images. The instantaneous net radiation (Rn,ins) (at the time of the satellite overpass) and the daily net radiation (Rn,24 h) were both estimated by TM - Landsat 5 images and complementary weather data. The net radiation (Rn) estimated from remote sensing data was compared to the measurements taken from two micrometeorological towers located in the study area. Most Rn,ins values were found to be between 457.4 W m-2 and 760.0 W m-2 during the months with more intense solar radiation (February, March, and November), especially in the areas with more vegetation cover (sugarcane and eucalyptus plantations and areas with woody savanna vegetation, locally called Cerradão). The months with the highest thermal and radiative contrast (June and November) were selected to show the spatial distribution of the daily (Instantaneous) Rn, which ranged from 28.0 (420) W m-2 to 98.0 (520) W m-2 in June and from 83.0 (450) W m-2 to 264.0 (800) W m-2 in November 9. The model used to calculate Rn,24 h provided values close to those taken at surface, even on days with higher cloud cover after the satellite overpass. The Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Relative Error (MRE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) associated with the Rn,24 h computations in the sugar cane plantation were 8.3 W m-2, 8.4%, and 10.4 W m-2, respectively, confirming the applicability and accuracy of the results. The Rn patterns registered on the woody savanna throughout the year differ very much from those found in cropped areas, particularly in sugar cane plots. This may cause an impact on the watershed climate.

  20. "The Outsiders": Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Chad

    This thematic curriculum unit on the adolescent novel, "The Outsiders" (S.E. Hinton) discusses issues that are relevant to students' lives and important to their future decisions. In the unit, students will discuss issues relevant to the novel and will use the novel as a bridge to analyze their own lives. The unit, with an overall theme of…

  1. Insects. Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosnell, Kathee

    This book is a captivating whole-language thematic unit about the study of insects, relating it to our understanding of the past and our hopes for using our knowledge in the present to balance the ecosystem in the future. It contains a wide variety of lesson ideas and reproducible pages designed for use with intermediate students. At its core,…

  2. Lightning mapper sensor design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Poon, C. W.; Shelton, J. C.; Laverty, N. P.; Cook, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    World-wide continuous measurement of lightning location, intensity, and time during both day and night is to be provided by the Lightning Mapper (LITMAP) instrument. A technology assessment to determine if the LITMAP requirements can be met using existing sensor and electronic technologies is presented. The baseline concept discussed in this report is a compromise among a number of opposing requirements (e.g., ground resolution versus array size; large field of view versus narrow bandpass filter). The concept provides coverage for more than 80 percent of the lightning events as based on recent above-cloud NASA/U2 lightning measurements.

  3. ICOS Atmospheric Thematic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivier, Leonard; Hazan, Lynn; Tarniewicz, Jerome; Laurent, Olivier; Yver, Camille; Laurila, Tuomas; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Ramonet, Michel; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    ICOS is a recently-launched, world-class research infrastructure dedicated to the monitoring and improved understanding of carbon sources and sinks. It consists of complementary, harmonized networks of long-term ecosystem monitoring stations focusing on Europe and adjacent regions. The ICOS networks will comprise about 40 operational atmospheric stations (measuring atmospheric composition in greenhouse gases and other core parameters), 30 ecosystem stations (measuring fluxes from ecosystems) and about 10 oceanic measurement platforms. The networks will be coordinated through a set of central facilities: three Thematic centres respectively for atmospheric, ecosystem and ocean data, and a Central analytical lab. The mission of the thematic centres are to process, validate and distribute data to end-users. ICOS will also set up a Carbon portal dedicated to easy discovery of and access to data and elaborated products such as flux maps by end users.The Atmospheric Thematic Center (ATC) has three main functions: Operate the atmospheric data processing chains, going from data transmission from stations to the routine delivery of quality checked data-stream Carry out regular measurement technology survey, analysis and enable development of new sensors and their testing Monitor the network and propose spare instruments, training, and technical assistance.

  4. The urban heat island in the city of Poznań as derived from Landsat 5 TM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majkowska, Agnieszka; Kolendowicz, Leszek; Półrolniczak, Marek; Hauke, Jan; Czernecki, Bartosz

    2016-02-01

    To study urban heat island (UHI), Landsat 5 TM data and in situ measurements of air temperature from nine points in Poznań (Poland) for the period June 2008-May 2013 were used. Based on data from measurement points located in different types of land use, the surface urban heat island (SUHI) maps were created. All available and quality-controlled Landsat 5 TM images from 15 unique days were used to obtain the characteristics of land surface temperature (LST) and UHI intensity. In addition, spatial analysis of UHI was conducted on the basis of Corine Land Cover 2006 dataset. In situ measurements at a height of 2 m above ground level show that the UHI is a common occurrence in Poznań with a mean annual intensity of 1.0 °C. The UHI intensity is greater during the warm half of the year. Moreover, results based on the remote sensing data and the Corine Land Cover 2006 indicate that the highest value of the mean LST anomalies (3.4 °C) is attained by the continuous urban fabric, while the lowest value occurs within the broad-leaved forests (-3.1 °C). To re-count from LST to the air temperature at a height of 2 m above ground level (T agl), linear and non-linear regression models were created. For both models, coefficients of determination equal about 0.80, with slightly higher value for the non-linear approach, which was applied to estimate the T agl spatial variability over the city of Poznań.

  5. MAPPING SPATIAL THEMATIC ACCURACY WITH FUZZY SETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thematic map accuracy is not spatially homogenous but variable across a landscape. Properly analyzing and representing spatial pattern and degree of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable information for using thematic maps. However, current thematic map accuracy measures (...

  6. Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natraj, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM) is an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases related to climate change and human activity.Understanding of sources and sinks of CO2 is currently limited by frequency of observations and uncertainty in vertical transport. GCPM improves this situation by making simultaneous high resolution measurements of CO2, CH4, CF, and CO in near-IR, many times per day. GCPM is able to investigate processes with time scales of minutes to hours. CO2, CH4, CF, Co selected because their combination provides information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic sources/sinks. Quasi-continuous monitoring effectively eliminates atmospheric transport uncertainties from source/sink inversion modeling. will have one instrument (GeoFTS), hosted on a commercial communications satellite, planned for two years operation. GCPM will affordably advance the understanding of observed cycle variability improving future climate projections.

  7. DATA CONTINUITY OF LANDSAT-4 TM, LANDSAT-5 TM, LANDSAT-7 TM, LANDSAT-7ETM, AND EO-1 ADVANCED ALAND IMAGER (ALI)SENSORS 1476

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1982, NASA launched Landsat 4 as part of their on-going Landsat Program. Landsat 5 was launched in 1984, and Landsat 7, the current satellite acquiring images on a global scale, was launched in 1999. In the fall of 2000, NASA launched the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) as a part of the Earth Observat...

  8. Using KML for Thematic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandvik, B.

    2008-12-01

    Thematic mapping has a long history in cartography, but the new geobrowsers tend not to focus on this aspect of geographical information representation. This talk demonstrates how Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and geobrowsers can be used for thematic mapping. Due to their huge public interest and relative accessibility, geobrowsers are potentially capable of bringing thematic maps or visualisations to a wider audience. KML is not targeted towards thematic mapping, but it is possible to use KML elements in ways that were probably not intended. Current possibilities for making proportional symbol maps, chart maps, choropleth maps and animated maps with KML will be presented. An open source Thematic Mapping Engine (TME) has been developed as a proof-of-concept. This application allows the user to make thematic maps through an easy-to-use web interface. TME provides a low-cost solution suitable for non-profits and public- benefit organisations.

  9. Area-normalized thematic views

    SciTech Connect

    Keahey, T.A.

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for dealing with a classic problem that frequently arises in visualization. Very expressive nonlinear transformations can be automatically generated to correct thematic maps so that the areas of map regions are proportional to the thematic variables assigned to them. This helps to eliminate one of the most commonly occurring visual lies that occurs in information visualization. Thematic variables are commonly used in cartography to encode additional information within the spatial layout of a map. Common examples of thematic variables are population density, pollution level and birth rate. The method is illustrated with two examples, mapping interstate speed limits and presidential election results.

  10. MAPPER: A personal computer map projection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Steven A.

    1993-01-01

    MAPPER is a set of software tools designed to let users create and manipulate map projections on a personal computer (PC). The capability exists to generate five popular map projections. These include azimuthal, cylindrical, mercator, lambert, and sinusoidal projections. Data for projections are contained in five coordinate databases at various resolutions. MAPPER is managed by a system of pull-down windows. This interface allows the user to intuitively create, view and export maps to other platforms.

  11. Evaluation of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio image for mapping lithologic differences in western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.; Bretz, R.F.; Shurr, George W.

    1979-01-01

    From analysis of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio, image, a map of the vegetation density distribution has been produced by Raines of 25,000 sq km of western South Dakota. This 5/6 ratio image is produced digitally calculating the ratios of the bands 5 and 6 of the Landsat data and then color coding these ratios in an image. Bretz and Shurr compared this vegetation density map with published and unpublished data primarily of the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Dakota Geological Survey; good correspondence is seen between this map and existing geologic maps, especially with the soils map. We believe that this Landsat ratio image can be used as a tool to refine existing maps of surficial geology and bedrock, where bedrock is exposed, and to improve mapping accuracy in areas of poor exposure common in South Dakota. In addition, this type of image could be a useful, additional tool in mapping areas that are unmapped.

  12. Paperbacks and the Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demicell, Jeanette; Cromer, Nancy

    1968-01-01

    The thematic approach to literature in which a single concept is developed through various works and genres has been greatly facilitated today by the convenience, ubiquity, and economy of the paperback book. By utilizing the paperback boom and by employing both small group and individual instruction, thematic units can be planned to meet the…

  13. Comparing Methods for Land Surface Temperature Retrieval over Heterogeneous Land Cover Using Landsat-5 TM Thermal Infrared Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windahl, E.; de Beurs, K.

    2014-12-01

    Among other applications, remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) has become critical for monitoring the surface urban heat island (SUHI) effect in cities across the world. While daily MODIS thermal infrared data is invaluable for examining changes in LST over time, the large 1 km spatial resolution makes studying the spatial patterns of LST in a heterogeneous urban environment difficult. The 120 m spatial resolution of Landsat 4-5 TM, as well the archive of data stretching back to 1982, make Landsat 4-5 TM sensors valuable resources for thermal data, especially in urban areas. However, the difficulty accurately correcting for atmospheric effects with only one thermal band, as well as the necessity for a priori knowledge of land surface emissivity (LSE), mean it is underutilized. Research to determine best practices for deriving LST from Landsat TM data given homogenous, usually vegetated land cover is relatively extensive; however, the accuracy of these methods given heterogeneous land cover is less well known, especially given Land Surface Emissivity (LSE) calculations that often rely heavily on NDVI. In order to determine the best methodology for measuring LST across heterogeneous land cover in the central United States, this study derives LST from Landsat 5 TM band 6 for Oklahoma City and the surrounding countryside on a fall and a spring date using three different methods: no atmospheric correction, the radiative transfer equation, and the mono-window algorithm. With all three methods, the common NDVI-based approach for estimating LSE is used; a fourth LST calculation with no atmospheric correction and an assumed emissivity of one is therefore included as contrast. Using regression analysis, these four LST measurements are compared to air temperatures recorded concurrently by approximately 40 Oklahoma Mesonet stations across the study area, and results are broken down by land cover type to explore potential biases or variations in accuracy.

  14. Actual evapotranspiration estimation for different land use and land cover in urban regions using Landsat 5 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjuan; Hong, Yang; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Huang, Mingbin; Vieux, Baxter; Caliskan, Semiha; Grout, Trevor

    2010-11-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is deemed critical for water resources management. Even in the same climatic and meteorological conditions, actual ET (ETa) may exhibit remarkable spatial variability across different vegetation covers, agricultural land use practices, and differing types of urban land development. The main objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the possible closure of the heat balance equation using Oklahoma's unique environmental monitoring network; and (2) to estimate ETa and determine the variation with regards to varying types of land use and land cover in urban settings. In this study, a Surface-Energy-Balance ET algorithm was implemented to estimate ETa at a higher spatial resolution using Landsat 5 satellite images while the Oklahoma Mesonet observations can be used as our ground truth data. Accuracy of the estimated ETa was assessed using latent heat flux measurements provided by AmeriFlux towers. The associated bias ratios of daily mean ETa with respect to both burn and control sites are -0.92%, and -8.86% with a correlation of 0.83 and 0.81, respectively. Additionally, estimated ETa from a water balance budget analysis and the remotely sensed ETa are cross-validated with a low bias ratio of 5.2%, and a correlation coefficient of 0.7 at the catchment scale. The lowest ETa was observed for developed urban areas and highest for open water bodies. The ETa difference is also demonstrated from two contrasting counties. The results show Garfield County (agricultural) has higher ETa values than Oklahoma County (urban) for all land cover types except open water bodies.

  15. Coral Reef Habitat Change Detection Using Landsats 5, 7 and 8: A Case Study in the Red Sea (Hurghada, Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; El-Askary, H. M.; El-Mawla, S. H. A.; El-Hattab, M. M.; El-Raey, M.

    2014-12-01

    Coral reefs suffer major deterioration and degradation due to natural and man-made impacts worldwide. Close monitoring is needed to save such vital components of our environment. Remote-sensing technology has shown its ability to monitor and survey remote areas of coral reefs. In this study, coral reef habitats in Hurghada, Egypt were examined using Landsat imageries over a 26-year period. The change detection analysis was adopted to identify the alterations in coral reef habitats between 1987 and 2013. Three images, acquired from Landsat-5 TM on August 14th 1987, Landsat-7 ETM+ on September 10th 2000, and Landsat-8 OLI on July 20th 2013, were used in the change detection analysis. Different processing techniques were applied to the three images, including but not limited to rectification, masking, water column correction, classification, and change detection statistics. The supervised classifications performed over the three scenes show five significant marine-related classes: coral, sand subtidal, sand intertidal, macro-algae, and seagrass. The change detection statistics obtained from the classified scenes of 1987 and 2000 revealed a significant increase in the macro-algae and seagrass classes (93% and 47%, respectively), accompanied by a major decline in the sand intertidal, coral, and sand subtidal classes (41%, 40%, and 37%, respectively). On the other hand, the change detection statistics obtained from the classified scenes of 2000 and 2013 revealed an increase in the sand subtidal and macro-algae classes (14% and 19%, respectively), while a major decrease in the sand intertidal, coral, and seagrass classes (49%, 46% and 74%, respectively).

  16. Study of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    Improved delineation of known oil and gas fields in southern Ontario and a spectacularly high amount of structural information on the Owl Creek, Wyoming scene were obtained from analysis of TM data. The use of hue, saturation, and value image processing techniques on a Death Valley, California scene permitted direct comparison of TM processed imagery with existing 1:250,000 scale geological maps of the area and revealed small outcrops of Tertiary volcanic material overlying Paleozoic sections. Analysis of TM data over Lawton, Oklahoma suggests that the reducing chemical environment associated with hydrocarbon seepage change ferric iron to soluble ferrous iron, allowing it to be leached. Results of the band selection algorithm show a suprising consistency, with the 1,4,5 combination selected as optimal in most cases.

  17. Processed Thematic Mapper Satellite Imagery for Selected Areas within the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohrenwend, John C.; Gray, Floyd; Miller, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The study is summarized in the Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) file OF00-309.PDF. This publication also contain satellite full-scene images of selected areas along the U.S.-Mexico border. These images are presented as high-resolution images in jpeg format (IMAGES). The folder LOCATIONS in contains TIFF images showing exact positions of easily-identified reference locations for each of the Landsat TM scenes located at least partly within the U.S. A reference location table (BDRLOCS.DOC in MS Word format) lists the latitude and longitude of each reference location with a nominal precision of 0.001 minute of arc

  18. Investigations of vegetation and soils information contained in LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Laurin, R.; Colwell, J. E.; Kauth, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    An extension of the TM tasseled cap transformation to reflectance factor data is presented, and the basic concepts underlying the tasseled cap transformations are described. The ratio of TM bands 5 and 7, and TM tasseled cap wetness, are both shown to offer promise of direct detection of available soil moisture. Some effects of organic matter and other soil characteristics or constituents on TM tasseled cap spectral response are also considered.

  19. Mapping permafrost in the boreal forest with Thematic Mapper satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Strong, L. L.; Card, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    A geographic data base incorporating Landsat TM data was used to develop and evaluate logistic discriminant functions for predicting the distribution of permafrost in a boreal forest watershed. The data base included both satellite-derived information and ancillary map data. Five permafrost classifications were developed from a stratified random sample of the data base and evaluated by comparison with a photo-interpreted permafrost map using contingency table analysis and soil temperatures recorded at sites within the watershed. A classification using a TM thermal band and a TM-derived vegetation map as independent variables yielded the highest mapping accuracy for all permafrost categories.

  20. Potentially active volcanoes of Peru - Observations using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Space Shuttle imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Silva, S. L.; Francis, P. W.

    1990-01-01

    A synoptic study of the volcanoes of southern Peru (14-17 deg S), the northernmost part of the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ 14-28 deg S) of the Andes, was conducted on the basis of Landsat TM images and color photography. The volcanoes were classified and their relative ages determined using subtle glacial-morphological features. Eight of them were postulated as potentially active. These are located in a narrow volcanic zone which probably reflects a steep dip of the Nazca plate through the zone of magma generation. The break in the trend of the volcanic arc possibly reflects the complexity of the crustal stress field above a major segment boundary in the subducting plate. There are also fields of mafic monogenetic centers in this region. In comparison with the southern part of the CVZ, the general paucity of older volcanic edifices north of 17 deg S suggested a more recent onset of volcanism, a possible result of the oblique subduction of the Nazca ridge and the consequent northward migration of its intersection with the Peru-Chile trench. This, together with the lack of any large silicic caldera systems and youthful dacite domes, suggested that there are real differences in the volcanic evolution of the two parts of the CVZ.

  1. Application of thematic mapper imagery to oil exploration in Austin Chalk, Central Gulf Coast basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    One of the newest major oil plays in the Gulf Coast basin, the Austin Chalk reportedly produces in three belts: an updip belt, where production is from fractured chalk in structurally high positions along faults above 7,000 ft; a shallow downdip belt, where the chalk is uniformly saturated with oil from 7,000 to 9,000 ft; and a deeper downdip belt saturated with gas and condensate below 9,000 ft. The updip fields usually occur on the southeastern, upthrown side of the Luling, Mexia, and Charlotte fault zones. Production is from fractures that connect the relatively sparse matrix pores with more permeable fracture systems. The fractures resulted from regional extensional stress during the opening of the Gulf Coast basin on the divergent margin of the North American plate during the Laramide orogeny. The fractures are more common in the more brittle chalk than in the overlying Navarro and underlying Eagle Ford shales, which are less brittle. The oil in the updip traps in the chalk may have been generated in place downdip, and migrated updip along the extension fractures into the updip traps during or after the Laramide orogeny.

  2. Mapping surface energy balance components by combining Landsat Thematic Mapper and ground-based meteorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, M. Susan; Jackson, Ray D.; Raymond, Lee H.; Gay, Lloyd W.; Slater, Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    Surface energy balance components were evaluated by combining satellite-based spectral data with on-site measurements of solar irradiance, air temperature, wind speed, and vapor pressure. Maps of latent heat flux density and net radiant flux density were produced using Landsat TM data for three dates. The TM-based estimates differed from Bowen-ratio and aircraft-based estimates by less than 12 percent over mature fields of cotton, wheat, and alfalfa.

  3. 3-D expression of relief in Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT P images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M. L.; Armesto, Julia; Canas, I.

    2005-04-01

    Perceptual problems of viewing topography on geoimages are caused by illumination from the southeast during data collection. This problem affects the majority of satellite images. The aim of this work is to obtain a stereoscopic effect of shaded relief in such images. Techniques available in commercial digital processing programs are used in the absence of a digital elevation model. The images used are taken by the Landsat TM and SPOT P satellites; the software used was the EASI-PACE and ACE programs (Canadian PCI Geomatics Group). The pseudoscopic effect is solved by using the first principal component obtained in a principle components analysis of the three channels, resulting from the weighted merging of the Landsat and SPOT data. The map obtained provides the observer a view with shaded relief.

  4. Introduction to Thematic Mapper investigations. Section 1: Radiometry. Section 2: Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Markham, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of papers which deal with radiometric characterization of the TM sensor is presented. Spectral characteristics are summarized. The geometric accuracy of TM are also examined. Aspects of prelaunch and post launch sensor performance, ground processing techniques, and error correction are also investigated.

  5. Evaluation of LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dykstra, J. D.; Everett, J. R.; Livaccarri, R.; Michael, R.; Richardson, G.; Prucha, S.; Russell, O.; Ruth, M.; Sheffield, C. A.; Staskowski, R.

    1984-01-01

    Work with digital data of Oklahoma, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and California demonstrate that the increased spectral refinement and spatial resolution of TM over MSS data greatly increase the value of the data to petroleum exploration in roles ranging from logistic planning to direct detection of phenomena related to microseepage of hydrocarbons. The value of the spatial content versus the spectral content of the data increases as soil and vegetation cover increase. The structural detail visible in the imagery can contribute to exploration at the prospect level. Examination of the variance/covariance matrix suggests that a combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 displays the most information for most areas.

  6. Discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using Thematic Mapper spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, Stephen D.; Bernstein, Ralph; Dizenzo, Silvano

    1986-01-01

    The availability of high quality spectral data from the current suite of earth observation satellite systems offers significant improvements in the ability to survey and monitor food and fiber production on both a local and global basis. Current research results indicate that Landsat TM data when used in either digital or analog formats achieve higher land-cover classification accuracies than MSS data using either comparable or improved spectral bands and spatial resolution. A review of these quantitative results is presented for both natural and cultivated vegetation.

  7. Deriving hourly surface energy fluxes and ET from Landsat Thematic mapper data using METRIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET) have long been recognized as playing an important role in determining exchanges of energy and mass between the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. In this study, we applied the METRIC (Mapping ET at high Resolutions with Internal Calibration) alg...

  8. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto - Evidence from Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Grady; Greeley, Ronald; Christensen, Phillip R.; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.

    1990-01-01

    Mesoscale mapping of spatial variations in sand composition of the Gran Desierto (Sonora, Mexico) was carried out on multispectral Landsat TM images of this region, making it possible to examine the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. Compositions determined from remote imagery were found to agree well with samples from selected areas. The sand populations delineated were used to describe the sediment source areas, transport paths, and deposition sites. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations aver large areas that were not readily apparent in the field data.

  9. The effect of Thematic Mapper spectral properties on land cover mapping for hydrologic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Gauthier, R. L.; Miller, J. R.; Irish, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of unsupervised land-cover classification from all seven Landsat TM bands and from six combinations of three or four bands is evaluated using images of the Clinton River Basin, a suburban watershed near Detroit. Data from aerial TMS photography, USGS topographic maps, and ground surveys are employed to determine the classification accuracy. The mapping accuracy of all seven bands is found to be significantly better (6 percent overall, 12 percent for residential areas, and 13 percent for commercial districts) than that with bands 2, 3, and 4; but almost the same accuracy is obtained by including at least one band from each major spectral region (visible, NIR, and mid-IR).

  10. Assessing forest decline in coniferous forests of Vermont using NS-001 Thematic Mapper Simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.

    1986-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential of measuring/mapping forest decline in spruce-fir forests using airborne NS-001 TMS data. Using field instruments, it was found that ratios of 1.65/1.23 and 1.65/0.83-micron reflectance discriminated between spruce samples of low and high-damage sites. Using TMS data, band ratios were found to be strongly correlated with ground-based measurements of forest damage. Ratio colo-density slice images using these band ratios, and images using 0.56 and 1.65-micron bands with either of these band ratios in a false-color composite, provide accurate means of detecting, quantifying and mapping levels of forest decline.

  11. Investigation of LANDSAT follow-on thematic mapper spatial, radiometric and spectral resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Morgenstern, J. P.; Kent, E. R.; Erickson, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Fine resolution M7 multispectral scanner data collected during the Corn Blight Watch Experiment in 1971 served as the basis for this study. Different locations and times of year were studied. Definite improvement using 30-40 meter spatial resolution over present LANDSAT 1 resolution and over 50-60 meter resolution was observed, using crop area mensuration as the measure. Simulation studies carried out to extrapolate the empirical results to a range of field size distributions confirmed this effect, showing the improvement to be most pronounced for field sizes of 1-4 hectares. Radiometric sensitivity study showed significant degradation of crop classification accuracy immediately upon relaxation from the nominally specified values of 0.5% noise equivalent reflectance. This was especially the case for data which were spectrally similar such as that collected early in the growing season and also when attempting to accomplish crop stress detection.

  12. Statistical learning algorithms for identifying contrasting tillage practices with landsat thematic mapper data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage management practices have direct impact on water holding capacity, evaporation, carbon sequestration, and water quality. This study examines the feasibility of two statistical learning algorithms, such as Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), for cla...

  13. Thematic Mapper Data Quality and Performance Assessment in Renewable Resources/agriculture Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    It is believed that the increased spatial resolution will provide solutions to proportion estimation error due to mixed pixels, and the increased spectral resolution will provide for the identification of important agricultural features such as crop stage, and condition. The results of analyses conducted relative to these hypothesis from sample segments extracted from the 4-band Detroit scene and the 7-band Mississippi County, Arkansas engineering test scene are described. Several studies were conducted to evaluate the geometric and radiometric performance of the TM to determine data viability for the more pertinent investigations of TM utility. In most cases this requirement was more than sufficiently satisfied. This allowed the opportunity to take advantage of detailed ground observations for several of the sample segments to assess class separability and detection of other important features with TM. The results presented regarding these TM characteristics show that not only is the increased definition of the within scene variance captured by the increased spatial and spectral resolution, but that the mid-IR bands (5 and 7) are necessary for optimum crop type classification. Both qualitative and quantitative results are presented that describe the improvements gained with the TM both relative to the MSS and on its own merit.

  14. Geologic mapping of the Semipalatinsk region, Eastern Kazakstan, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and spot panchromatic data

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Berlin, G.L.

    1992-12-31

    This geologic reconnaissance study centers on a 90 by 140 km area about 100 km southwest of Semipalatinsk near the east border of the Kazakstan Republic of the USSR. Semipalatinsk, a regional center for grain growing, and several other cities along the Irtysh River were originally established as fortified outposts by the Russians during the 18th and 19th centuries to contain the indigenous, nomadic Kazak herdsmen. The Kazakstan region remained largely undeveloped until after the 1917 Russian Revolution, when exploration geologists began discovering many large mineral deposits. Today, known resources include coal, copper, iron ore, lead, zinc, and barite; most of these are of national significance. These vast mineral resources have prompted development of many metallurgical and chemical industries in the republic. Despite the extensive exploration for mineral resources in this region, published geologic maps (Nalivkin, 1960; Esenov, 1971; Borovikov, 1972) are all at scales of 1:1,100,000 or smaller, and there are no detailed descriptions of the geology around Semipalatinsk in the open literature. Our preliminary examination of commercial remote-sensing, data indicated that the lithology and structure of this area are extremely varied and complex at all scales -- much more so than that portrayed on the published geologic maps. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to use commercially available remotely sensed data for the area and remotely sensed data obtained for analog study sites, as well as the sparse, sketchy information in the published literature, to better define and map the geologic units (Sheet 1), structure (Sheet 2), and drainage features (Sheet 3) of this area.

  15. Mapping in the Oman ophiolite using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Rothery, D. A.; Pontual, A.

    1988-01-01

    The level of apparent lithological discrimination possible with Landsat TM images in the Oman are discussed. It is found that by using parts of the short-wavelength IR spectrum, the discrimination revealed by the TM data is sufficiently uniform throughout the Oman ophiolite to produce lithological maps at 1:100,000 scale. Decorrelation stretching of the data produces images in which allows for the recognition of variations in gabbro composition, the identification of small acidic, gabbroic, and ultramafic intrusions, the discrimation of the uppermost mantle from the deeper mantle, the precise location of the Moho, and the delineation of gossans and areas subject to choritic-epidotic alteration.

  16. Spatial variation analyses of Thematic Mapper data for the identification of linear features in agricultural landscapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    A need exists for digitized information pertaining to linear features such as roads, streams, water bodies and agricultural field boundaries as component parts of a data base. For many areas where this data may not yet exist or is in need of updating, these features may be extracted from remotely sensed digital data. This paper examines two approaches for identifying linear features, one utilizing raw data and the other classified data. Each approach uses a series of data enhancement procedures including derivation of standard deviation values, principal component analysis and filtering procedures using a high-pass window matrix. Just as certain bands better classify different land covers, so too do these bands exhibit high spectral contrast by which boundaries between land covers can be delineated. A few applications for this kind of data are briefly discussed, including its potential in a Universal Soil Loss Equation Model.

  17. Discriminating late volcanic differentiates commonly associated with precious metal deposits, using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, David M.; Taranik, James V.

    1988-01-01

    The magmatic differentiates emplaced late in volcanotectonic cycles (which when highly evolved commonly occur as domes, flow-dome complexes, and shallow intrusive porphyries) are typically more silicic and felsic than their earlier counterparts and exhibit unusually steep spectral curves from about 1.5 to 2.2 microns. This spectral characteristic emerges in the form of relatively high Landsat TM band 7 DN values and low 5/7 values, as well as dark-contrast or enhanced 5/7 images. These evolved late-phase differentiates are commonly associated both temporally and spatially with precious metal deposits, furnishing site-specific exploration targets as well as guides to caldera margins and other late-stage volcanotectonic structures.

  18. A physically-based transformation of Thematic Mapper data The TM tasseled cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    In an extension of previous simulation studies, a transformation of actual TM data in the six reflective bands is described which achieves three objectives: a fundamental view of TM data structures is presented, the vast majority of data variability is concentrated in a few (three) features, and the defined features can be directly associated with physical scene characteristics. The underlying TM data structure, based on three TM scenes as well as simulated data, is described, as are the general spectral characteristics of agricultural crops and other scene classes in the transformed data space.

  19. A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

  20. Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    An information theoretic measure of multispectral information content is developed and applied to a simultaneous LANDSAT TM and MSS data set. The entropy based function measures the dispersion and concentration of signal values in various data spaces, irrespective of specific class memberships. It is used to compare the information content of TM and MSS and of various subsets of TM and MSS bans, as well as tasseled cap transformations of the band values. Differences exist between the information measure results and results using variance based measures. System design information capacities and data space volumes are also compared. The results and observations presented are considered preliminary in nature since only one real and one simulated data set are analyzed.

  1. LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation. [San Matteo Bridge and Stockton, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Results of MTF analysis of imagery of the San Mateo Bridge are consistent on two TM image dates for bands 4,5, and 7. There are indications that bands 1, 2, and 3 suffer from low image contrast, and consequently low signal to noise in the derived MTFs. The two image analysis produced reasonable results along +45 deg and -45 deg azimuths in the 2-D MTF, but poor results along the 0 deg and 90 deg azimuths. The effective instantaneous field of view is given for each band, and the image contrast for water and the bridge are compared. Graphs show overall TM system MTFs.

  2. Assessment of Thematic Mapper Band-to-band Registration by the Block Correlation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.

  3. Study of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Many scenes of particular interest have a light dusting of snow cover. The possible use of hue-saturation-intensity transformations to reduce the effect of snow cover is being investigated. A tape of the Greeley, Colorado scene was reviewed on the interactive system and image types to be produced (decorrelated 2,3,4; natural color 1,2,3,; hue separation value 5/2,5/7 eigen 1; 4,5,7 in two color combinations) were selected. In several instances, a 1,3,4 combination produces a more useful false color infrared version of TM data than the more common 2,3,4 arrangement, probably because band 1 is less highly correlated with the band 3 and 4 than is band 2. A review of spacecraft performance suggests that the standard corrections applied at GSFC are more complicated than necessary in some areas and insufficient in other cases. The image motion compensation device on the TM works so well that bow-typing effects are very small; there are differences in the radiometry of forward and backward scans that make additional calibration necessary.

  4. Assessment of Thematic Mapper band-to-band registration by the block correlation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.

  5. Response of some Thematic Mapper band ratios to variation in soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, H. Brad; Pelletier, Ramona E.

    1986-01-01

    Bidirectional reflectance to nadir in the reflective TM bands and the 1.15-1.3-micron band was measured in the laboratory as moisture content was varied in ten soils. Stronger absorption by water in TM5 and TM7 was expected to cause ratios of other bands to TM5 and TM7 to increase with water content, but in most cases these ratios were constant or decreased at low to intermediate water content and increased only at high moisture levels. Because these ratios were found to decrease as illumination elevation angle decreased, it was suggested that increased roughness resulting from the methods of moistening and mixing the soil may have tended to counteract the expected ratio increases.

  6. Response to soil moisture of spectral indexes derived from bidirectional reflectance in Thematic Mapper wavebands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, H. Brad; Pelletier, Ramona E.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance measurements of 10 soils were used to determine the relationship between soil moisture and three spectral indices: the TM5/7 ratio and the Wetness(R) and Brightness(R) features of the reflectance factor TM Tasseled Cap transformation. Response of the indices to dry mass water percentage was approximately linear for individual soils, except for Wetness(R) and Brightness(R) at high moisture content. Soil differences in the slopes of the Wetness(R)- and Brightness(R)-moisture content relationships were almost entirely eliminated by expressing water content as the percentage of water retained at 0.1 bar (10 kPa) tension (relative water content). The resultant soil lines were offset from one another by the differences in dry soil index value. Slope of the TM5/7 response was not completely normalized by expressing moisture status as relative water content, because slope appeared to vary with dry soil ratio value. Sensitivity to the effects of illumination angle was negligible for the TM5/7 ratio, somewhat greater for Wetness(R) and greatest for Brightness(R).

  7. Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the thematic mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    The change in mean signal level as a function of scan angle and scan direction was studied. The overall scan angle effect corresponded to that expected based on atmospheric modeling and scene characteristics. An initial, empirical correction model employing exponential decay was developed for reflective bands. Band 6 has a significant scan direction effect which is markedly different from that found in the reflective bands. A low frequency noise was discovered which was most pronounced in Band 1, detectors 4, 12, 10, and 8, having amplitudes of approximately 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.75 quantizing levels, respectively. This low frequency variation in mean signal amplitude was highly correlated among these four Band 1 detectors. Low frequency noise was also observed in Band 7, detector 7; band 2, detector 1; Band 3, detectors 1 and 16; and Band 5, detector 10.

  8. Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (principal investigators); Crist, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Previous characterization of scan-related low-frequency noise was extended and refined through detailed analysis of shutter calibration data on CCT-ADDS tapes and reflective-band data from nighttime acquisitions. A recommended correction procedure was identified that uses calibration shutter data both as a diagnostic and to obtain correction values. Through comparison of coincident TM and MSS data, illustrations of the added information content of TM data for agricultural applications were developed. The capability of improved spatial resolution to better define boundaries and to resolve spatial details is shown. Spectral analysis of tasseled-cap transformations of TM and MSS data shows high correlation between greenness features, greater signal range for TM, and indications that a subset of TM bands could accurately simulate MSS data, if required.

  9. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part A: Subsystem data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Performance and acceptance data are presented for the multiplexer, scan mirror, power supply, mainframe/top mechanical and the aft optics, assemblies. Other major subsystems evaluated include the relay optics, the electronic module, the radiative cooler, and the cable harness. Reference lists of nonconforming materials reports, failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are also given.

  10. Understanding and utilization of Thematic Mapper and other remotely sensed data for vegetation monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.; Metzler, M. D.; Parris, T. M.; Rice, D. P.; Sampson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The TM Tasseled Cap transformation, which provides both a 50% reduction in data volume with little or no loss of important information and spectral features with direct physical association, is presented and discussed. Using both simulated and actual TM data, some important characteristics of vegetation and soils in this feature space are described, as are the effects of solar elevation angle and atmospheric haze. A preliminary spectral haze diagnostic feature, based on only simulated data, is also examined. The characteristics of the TM thermal band are discussed, as is a demonstration of the use of TM data in energy balance studies. Some characteristics of AVHRR data are described, as are the sensitivities to scene content of several LANDSAT-MSS preprocessing techniques.

  11. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin P.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of Landsat TM data for detecting soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands, and the potential of the spectral data for assigning the universal soil loss equation (USLE) crop managemnent (C) factor to varying cover types within the woodlands are assessed. Results show greatly accelerated rates of soil erosion on pinyon-juniper sites. Percent cover by pinyon-juniper, total soil-loss, and total nonliving ground cover accounted for nearly 70 percent of the variability in TM channels 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion than the biotic and abiotic field variables. Satellite data were more sensitive to vegetation variation than the USLE C factor, and USLE was found to be a poor predictor of soil loss on pinyon-juniper sites. A new string-to-ground soil erosion prediction technique is introduced.

  12. LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy. [Walnut Creek Watershed, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Principal components transformations was applied to a Walnut Creek, Texas subscene to reduce the dimensionality of the multispectral sensor data. This transformation was also applied to a LANDSAT 3 MSS subscene of the same area acquired in a different season and year. Results of both procedures are tabulated and allow for comparisons between TM and MSS data. The TM correlation matrix shows that visible bands 1 to 3 exhibit a high degree of correlation in the range 0.92 to 0.96. Correlation for bands 5 to 7 is 0.93. Band 4 is not highly correlated with any other band, with corrections in the range 0.13 to 0.52. The thermal band (6) is not highly correlated with other bands in the range 0.13 to 0.46. The MSS correlation matrix shows that bands 4 and 5 are highly correlated (0.96) as are bands 6 and 7 with a correlation of 0.92.

  13. Landsat Thematic Mapper studies of land cover spatial variability related to hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, S.; Ormsby, J.; Salomonson, V.; Mulligan, P.

    1984-01-01

    Past accomplishments involving remote sensing based land-cover analysis for hydrologic applications are reviewed. Ongoing research in exploiting the increased spatial, radiometric, and spectral capabilities afforded by the TM on Landsats 4 and 5 is considered. Specific studies to compare MSS and TM for urbanizing watersheds, wetlands, and floodplain mapping situations show that only a modest improvement in classification accuracy is achieved via statistical per pixel multispectral classifiers. The limitations of current approaches to multispectral classification are illustrated. The objectives, background, and progress in the development of an alternative analysis approach for defining inputs to urban hydrologic models using TM are discussed.

  14. Integrating remote sensing techniques at Cuprite, Nevada: AVIRIS, Thematic Mapper, and field spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Bradley; Nash, Greg; Ridd, Merrill; Hauff, Phoebe L.; Ebel, Phil

    1992-01-01

    The Cuprite mining district in southwestern Nevada has become a test site for remote sensing studies with numerous airborne scanners and ground sensor data sets collected over the past fifteen years. Structurally, the Cuprite region can be divided into two areas with slightly different alteration and mineralogy. These zones lie on either side of a postulated low-angle structural discontinuity that strikes nearly parallel to US Route 95. Hydrothermal alternation at Cuprite was classified into three major zones: silicified, opalized, and argillized. These alteration types form a bulls-eye pattern east of the highway and are more linear on the west side of the highway making a striking contrast from the air and the imagery. Cuprite is therefore an ideal location for remote sensing research as it exhibits easily identified hydrothermal zoning, is relatively devoid of vegetation, and contains a distinctive spectrally diagnostic mineral suite including the ammonium feldspar buddingtonite, several types of alunite, different jarosites, illite, kaolinite, smectite, dickite, and opal. This present study brings a new dimension to these previous remote sensing and ground data sets compiled for Cuprite. The development of a higher resolution field spectrometer now provides the capability to combine extensive in-situ mineralogical data with a new geologic field survey and detailed Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images. The various data collection methods and the refinement of the integrated techniques are discussed.

  15. Selection of a seventh spectral band for the LANDSAT-D thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Q. A. (Principal Investigator); Nuesch, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Each of the candidate bands were examined in terms of the feasibility of gathering high quality imagery from space while taking into account solar illumination, atmospheric attenuation, and the signal/noise ratio achievable within the TM sensor constraints. For the 2.2 micron region and the thermal IR region, inband signal values were calculated from representative spectral reflectance/emittance curves and a linear discriminant analysis was employed to predict classification accuracies. Based upon the substantial improvement (from 78 t0 92%) in discriminating zones of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered zones, over a broad range of observation conditions, a 2.08-2.35 micron spectral band having a ground resolution of 30 meters was recommended.

  16. Landsat TM and ETM+ Thermal Band Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Hook, Simon J.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2006-01-01

    Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been imaging the Earth since March 1984 and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. The stability and calibration of the ETM+ has been monitored extensively since launch. Though not monitored for many years, TM now has a similar system in place to monitor stability and calibration. University teams have been evaluating the on-board calibration of the instruments through ground-based measurements since 1999. This paper considers the calibration efforts for the thermal band, Band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 instruments.

  17. Spatio-temporal contextual classification based on Markov random field model. [for thematic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    A contextural classifier based on a Markov random field model, which can utilize both spatial and temporal contexts, is investigated. Spatial and temporal neighbors are defined, and the class assignment of each pixel is assumed to be dependent only on the measurement vectors of itself and those of its spatial and temporal neighbors according to the Markov random field property. Only interpixel class dependency context is used in the classification. The joint prior probability of the classes of each pixel and its spatial and temporal neighbors are modeled by a Gibbs random field. The classification is performed in a recursive manner. Experiments with multi-temporal Thematic Mapper data show promising results.

  18. Freshman General Studies Thematic. 1973-.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Chico.

    The Freshman General Studies Thematic Program (GST) at California State University, Chico was established in 1973 to create a general education program for freshmen and to give faculty the opportunity to explore innovative teaching methods. What resulted was a 33-unit, year-long interdisciplinary course for 36 well-motivated, well-prepared…

  19. Thematic Emphasis in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernice, Mirta; Pickering, Martin J.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigate whether speakers tend to perseverate in the assignment of emphasis to concepts with particular thematic roles across utterances. Participants matched prime sentences involving clefts (e.g., "Het is de cowboy die hij slaat," "It is the cowboy that he is hitting") to pictures and then described unrelated…

  20. Applications of statistics to thematic mapping.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, G.H.; Melley, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two statistical problems occurring in the effort to analyze thematic maps and mapping are determining the accuracy of thematic content and comparing factors studied in thematic mapping. Statistical procedures applicable to thematic mapping involve sampling, determining accuracy, and comparing factors. A sampling procedure using an unaligned pattern within a square grid network is applicable for use with thematic maps. Sample size may be determined using the binomial distribution based upon the confidence interval to define the true mean of the population within certain limits. The confidence interval may also be used to define the upper and lower limits of the accuracy of the thematic map. - from Authors

  1. (abstract) The Shuttle Radar Topography Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Kobrick, Mike

    1996-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mapper (SRTM), is a cooperative project between NASA and the Defense Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense. The mission is designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m horizontal resolution and about 10 m vertical errors.

  2. Drifts exhibited by cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors and their importance to the ATSR-2 and Landsat-5 Earth observation missions.

    PubMed

    Theocharous, Evangelos

    2005-07-10

    The spectral responsivity of commercially available InSb detectors with low-pass cold filters attached to their cold shields for optimum operation in the 1.6-2.6 microm wavelength range is observed to drift slowly with time. These drifts are shown to arise because of a thin film of water-ice deposited on the cold low-pass filters mounted on the cold shields of the detectors. The temporal characteristics of these drifts are shown to strongly depend on wavelength. A model is proposed for the behavior of the water present in the Dewar vacuum, which can explain and predict the temporal characteristics of the observed drifts for all wavelengths. These observations are particularly relevant to space instruments that use cryogenically cooled IR filter radiometers for Earth observation. The temporal profile of drifts observed in missions such as Landsat-5 is identical to that observed in cryogenically cooled filtered InSb detectors during laboratory measurements. This study confirms that the deposition of a thin film of a material such as ice on the cold bandpass filters and windows is therefore the most likely source of the oscillatory drifts observed in the response of some of the channels of the ATSR-2, Landsat-4, and Landsat-5 Earth observation missions. PMID:16045204

  3. MAPPER: high-throughput maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, M. J.; de Boer, G.; ten Berge, G. F.; Jager, R.; van de Peut, T.; Peijster, J. J. M.; Slot, E.; Steenbrink, S. W. H. K.; Teepen, T. F.; van Veen, A. H. V.; Kampherbeek, B. J.

    2009-03-01

    Maskless electron beam lithography, or electron beam direct write, has been around for a long time in the semiconductor industry and was pioneered from the mid-1960s onwards. This technique has been used for mask writing applications as well as device engineering and in some cases chip manufacturing. However because of its relatively low throughput compared to optical lithography, electron beam lithography has never been the mainstream lithography technology. To extend optical lithography double patterning, as a bridging technology, and EUV lithography are currently explored. Irrespective of the technical viability of both approaches, one thing seems clear. They will be expensive [1]. MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10-20 wafers per hour. By clustering several of these columns together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV alternatives. In 2007 MAPPER obtained its Proof of Lithography milestone by exposing in its Demonstrator 45 nm half pitch structures with 110 electron beams in parallel, where all the beams where individually switched on and off [2]. In 2008 MAPPER has taken a next step in its development by building several tools. The objective of building these tools is to involve semiconductor companies to be able to verify tool performance in their own environment. To enable this, the tools will have a 300 mm wafer stage in addition to a 110-beam optics column. First exposures at 45 nm half pitch resolution have been performed and analyzed. On the same wafer it is observed that all beams print and based on analysis of 11 beams the CD for the different patterns is within 2.2 nm from target and the CD uniformity for the different patterns is better than 2.8 nm.

  4. Scanning exposures with a MAPPER multibeam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, C.; de Boer, G.; Boschker, S.; Hakkennes, E. A.; Holgate, G.; Hoving, M.; Jager, R.; Koning, J. J.; Kuiper, V.; Ma, Yue; van Mil, I. L.; Mook, H. W.; Ooms, T.; van de Peut, T.; Postma, S.; Sanderse, M.; Scheffers, P.; Slot, E.; Tudorie, A.; Valkering, A. M. C.; Venema, N.; Vergeer, N.; Weirsma, A.; Woutersen, S.; Wieland, M. J.; Kampherbeek, B. J.

    2011-04-01

    Currently, three MAPPER multi-electron beam lithography tools are operational. Two are located at customers, TSMC and LETI, and one is located at MAPPER. The tools at TSMC and LETI are used for process development. These tools each have 110 parallel electron beams and have demonstrated sub-30 nm half pitch resolution in chemically amplified resists. One important step towards the high volume tool is the capability to stitch the exposure of one electron beam to the next. The pre-alpha tool at MAPPER has been upgraded with an interferometer to enable exposures with a scanning stage and demonstrate first beam-to-beam stitching. A scan of 200 micrometers has been used to create a stitch area of 50 x 3 microns. The stitch error over all stitches was found to be below 25 nm. The electron beam position stability during the 10 seconds required for beam-to-beam stitching showed a contribution to the stitch error of 2.3 nm. The beam separation measurement, used to correct the static error, adds about 2.2 nm and the stage stability and linearity adds another 5 nm in the scan (interferometer) direction. In the perpendicular direction the stage instability gives the largest contribution to the stitch error (15 nm) due to the use of capacitive sensors. Overall, the electron beam stability and the beam position correction method work correctly and with sufficient accuracy for the high volume tool, 'Matrix'. The wafer stage for the Matrix system will incorporate full interferometer control to attain the needed positioning accuracy and stability.

  5. An investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT-5 data quality. [Palmer County, Shelby, mt; White sands, NM; Great Salt Lake, UT; San Matted Bridge and Sacramento, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Band-to-band registration, geodetic registration, interdector noise, and the modulation transfer function (MTE) are discussed for the Palmer County; TX scene. Band combinations for several LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT 5 scenes; the geodetic registration test for the Sacramento, CA area; periodic noise components in TM band 5; and grey level measurements by detector for Great Salt Lake (UT) dark water forescans and backscans are considered. Results of MTF analyses of the San Mateo Bridge and of TM high resolution and aerial Daedalus scanner imagery are consistent and appear to be repeatable. An oil-on-sand target was constructed on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The two-image analysis procedure used is summarized.

  6. Development and Application of an Annual Vegetation-Monitoring Tool in Gishwati Forest Reserve using MODIS NDVI product and Landsat-5 and 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, N. I.; Butler, K.; Fox, T.; Geddes, Q. A.; Janse van Vuuren, L.; Li, A.; Sharma, A.

    2012-12-01

    As the most densely populated country in Africa, Rwanda relies heavily on a limited supply of natural resources to sustain its agrarian economy. Population pressures, economic policy, and the aftermath of the genocide have placed particular stress on the Gishwati Forest in Rwanda's Western Province. Deforestation for agricultural purposes and fuel consumption has disrupted the local climate, soil structure, and topography, leading to increased erosion, landslides and flooding. Once 280 km2, by 1995 the Gishwati Forest was only 6 km2. The Rwandan government and international NGOs have started initiatives to reverse deforestation, which would benefit from monitoring and evaluation using remote sensing technology. This study filled the gaps in the tumultuous history of Gishwati Forest since 1982 using NASA's Earth Observing System, specifically Landsat 5 and AVHRR. In collaboration with partner organizations, we developed a robust, yet simple to use, forest monitoring tool employing MODIS NDVI product and Landsat that provide annual estimates of the forest's health.

  7. Evaluating Wetland Mapping Techniques for New Brunswick Using Landsat-5 TM, ALOS-Palsar and Radarsat-2 Dual-Polarized Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRocque, A.; Leblon, B.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; McCarty, J. L.; Mordini, M.; French, N. H. F.; Landon, A.; Woodward, R.; Huntington, T. G.; Camill, P.

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluates the use of dual-polarized (HH, HV) RADARSAT-2 C-band and ALOS-PALSAR L-band SAR images with LANDSAT-5 TM and a digital elevation model (DEM) for mapping wetland areas in New Brunswick. The resulting maps were compared to GPS field data that were collected in 2012 as well as to two wetland maps currently in use by the Province of New Brunswick, namely the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) wetland map and the forested wetland classes of the DNR forest map (called hereafter "DNR forested wetland map"). Overall the Random Forests classifier gave better classification accuracies than the maximum likelihood classifier. The comparison with the 146 wetland ground truth sites shows that 73.3% are correctly identified using the LANDSAT-5 TM classified image. For the SAR-based classified images, the number of correctly identified wetland ground truth sites is higher when the image acquired during the flooding is considered, the difference being higher with the ALOS-PALSAR images than with the RADARSAT-2 images. The number of correctly identified ground truth wetland sites is the highest when both the ALOS-PALSAR images and RADARSAT-2 images are used (98.6%). This percentage is well above the one obtained with the DNR wetland and forested wetland maps (44.5%). For both SAR-based classifications, the majority of the misidentifications are due to wetlands not being classified in the right wetland class and very few are wetland sites being classified as a non-wetland class. For the DNR maps, about half of the misclassifications are field-validated wetlands that are not mapped as wetland on the DNR maps, the remaining half are wetland sites classified in the wrong wetland class.

  8. Downscaling of Aircraft, Landsat, and MODIS-bases Land Surface Temperature Images with Support Vector Machines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High spatial resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) images are required to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) at a field scale for irrigation scheduling purposes. Satellite sensors such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can offer images at s...

  9. Satellite-assisted monitoring of vegetable crop evapotranspiration in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reflective bands of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper satellite imagery were used to facilitate the estimation of basal crop evapotranspiration (ETcb), or productive water use, in San Joaquin Valley during 2008. A ground-based digital camera measured green fractional cover (Fc) of 49 commercial fields plan...

  10. Throughput enhancement technique for MAPPER maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, M. J.; Derks, H.; Gupta, H.; van de Peut, T.; Postma, F. M.; van Veen, A. H. V.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-03-01

    MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing in combination with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. With 13,000 electron beams each delivering a current of 13nA on the wafer, a throughput of 10 wph is realized for 22nm node lithography. By clustering several of these systems together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV. The most mature and reliable electron source currently available that combines a high brightness, a high emission current and uniform emission is the dispenser cathode. For this electron source a reduced brightness of 106 A/m2SrV has been measured, with no restrictions on emission current. With this brightness however it is possible to realize a beam current of 0.3nA (@ 25nm spotsize), which is almost a factor 50 lower than the 13nA that is required for 10 wph. Three methods can be distinguished to increase the throughput: 1. Use an electron source with a 50× higher brightness 2. Increase the number of beams and lenses 50× 3. Patterned beams: Image multiple sub-beams with each projection lens MAPPER has selected option 3) 'Patterned beams' as the method to increase the beam current to 13nA. This because an electron source with a 50x higher brightness is simply not available at this time, and increasing the number of beams and lenses 50× leads to undesirable engineering issues. During the past years MAPPER has been developing the concept of 'Patterned beams'. By imaging 7×7 sub-beams per projection lens the beam current is increased to the required 13nA level. This technique will also be used to maintain throughput at 10 wph for smaller technology nodes by further increasing the number of sub-beams per projection lens. In this paper we will describe the electron optical design used to image these multiple sub-beams per lens, as well as experimental demonstration of this electron optical configuration. Also the writing strategy will be discussed, as well as the first patterning results. One of the key components for 'Patterned beams' is the beam blanker array, since each subbeam must be switched on and off individually. The design of the blanker deflectors, the circuitry, as well as experimental results of the blanker array will be shown. Finally the roadmap to further technology nodes will be discussed.

  11. Venus radar mapper attitude reference quaternion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, D. T.

    1986-01-01

    Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.

  12. Development of image mappers for hyperspectral biomedical imaging applications

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Robert T.; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2010-01-01

    A new design and fabrication method is presented for creating large-format (>100 mirror facets) image mappers for a snapshot hyperspectral biomedical imaging system called an image mapping spectrometer (IMS). To verify this approach a 250 facet image mapper with 25 multiple-tilt angles is designed for a compact IMS that groups the 25 subpupils in a 5 × 5 matrix residing within a single collecting objective's pupil. The image mapper is fabricated by precision diamond raster fly cutting using surface-shaped tools. The individual mirror facets have minimal edge eating, tilt errors of <1 mrad, and an average roughness of 5.4 nm. PMID:20357875

  13. Consistency of land surface reflectance data: presentation of a new tool and case study with Formosat-2, SPOT-4 and Landsat-5/7/8 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claverie, M.; Vermote, E.; Franch, B.; Huc, M.; Hagolle, O.; Masek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Maintaining consistent dataset of Surface Reflectance (SR) data derived from the large panel of in-orbit sensors is an important challenge to ensure long term analysis of earth observation data. Continuous validation of such SR products through comparison with a reference dataset is thus an important challenge. Validating with in situ or airborne SR data is not easy since the sensors rarely match completely the same spectral, spatial and directional characteristics of the satellite measurement. Inter-comparison between satellites sensors data appears as a valuable tool to maintain a long term consistency of the data. However, satellite data are acquired at various times of the day (i.e., variation of the atmosphere content) and within a relative large range of geometry (view and sun angles). Also, even if band-to-band spectral characteristics of optical sensors are closed, they rarely have identical spectral responses. As the results, direct comparisons without consideration of these differences are poorly suitable. In this study, we suggest a new systematic method to assess land optical SR data from high to medium resolution sensors. We used MODIS SR products (MO/YD09CMG) which benefit from a long term calibration/validation process, to assess SR from 3 sensors data: Formosat-2 (280 scenes 24x24km - 5 sites), SPOT-4 (62 scenes 120x60km - 1 site) and Landsat-5/7 (104 180x180km scenes - 50 sites). The main issue concerns the difference in term of geometry acquisition between MODIS and compared sensors data. We used the VJB model (Vermote et al. 2009, TGRS) to correct MODIS SR from BRDF effects and to simulate SR at the corresponding geometry (view and sun angles) of each pixel of the compared sensor data. The comparison is done at the CMG spatial resolution (0.05°) which ensures a constant field-of-view and negligible geometrical errors. Figure 1 displays the summary of the NIR results through APU graphs where metrics A, P and U stands for Accuracy, Precision and Uncertainty (metrics explained in Claverie et al., 2013, RSE) and allows comparison with standard Specifications (S in magenta). The results shows relatively good uncertainty taking into account that atmospheric correction differs from MODIS and the sensors data (LEDAPS for Landsat-5/7 and MACC for Formosat-2 and SPOT-4). Biases (referring to the metric A) are in many cases related to the spectral differences which are analyzed using PROSAIL radiative transfer modeling. Finally some images of Landsat-8 OLI SR (computed using the preliminary adaptation of LEDAPS for Landsat-8) are assessed using this method. Figure 1: APU graph of SR comparison between MODIS NIR (from AQUA) and Landsat-5/7, Formosat-2 and SPOT-4. A, P and U metrics are given per bin (red, green and blue line, respectively) and for the whole range (upper left text values). Magenta line refers to the MODIS SR Specification.

  14. Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

    2009-01-01

    Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing…

  15. Word Order and Thematic Structure in Mandarin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, James H.

    Recent proposals concerning the relationship between thematic structure and syntactic structure, including the idea of thematic hierarchy, when used with certain language-specific properties, offer insight into some problems concerning the Mandarin Chinese phrase structure condition (PSC). The PSC is such that the internal structure of XP contains

  16. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants

  17. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  18. Snow Water Equivalent Reanalysis Over a Scarce Data Region Via Assimilation of Snow Covered Area from Landsat 5, 7 and 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, G.; Girotto, M.; Margulis, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we apply a Bayesian methodology to reconstruct historical SWE estimates over two test watersheds in the semi-arid Andes (33°S). The approach combines climatological reanalysis forcing data, in-situ precipitation, a Land Surface Model (LSM) and a snow depletion model to generate ensembles of prior SWE for each pixel over the watersheds. The precipitation forcing data is then updated by assimilating fractional snow covered area (fSCA) from the Landsat 5, 7 and 8 satellites using an Ensemble Kalman Smoother approach, generating new precipitation fields that are then used in a posterior LSM simulation. The resulting (posterior) SWE estimates are validated using in-situ snow depth measurements surveyed during 2009 to 2013. Results show significant improvements in error statistics, including an increase in correlation, a reduction in bias and a reduction in Root Mean Square error. After assimilation the posterior fSCA temporal evolution is consistent with the remotely sensed fSCA data, showing significant differences with the original prior estimates generated in the open-loop model simulation. The framework is robust to negative and positive biases in prior precipitation, resulting in similar posterior metrics regardless of the initial bias level. The resulting SWE fields are analyzed in terms of spatial distribution and relation with physiographic characteristics. A high correlation with slope suggests that gravitational distribution mechanisms play a significant role in snow distribution over these watersheds. Despite the fact that the LSM has no gravitational redistribution algorithm, the assimilation framework was able to capture this source of variability.

  19. Spectral mixture analysis to monitor defoliation in mixed-aged Eucalyptus globulus Labill plantations in southern Australia using Landsat 5-TM and EO-1 Hyperion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, B.; Verbesselt, J.; Ampe, E. M.; Sims, N.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Coppin, P.

    2010-08-01

    Defoliation is a key parameter of forest health and is associated with reduced productivity and tree mortality. Assessing the health of forests requires regular observations over large areas. Satellite remote sensing provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional ground-based assessment of forest health, but assessing defoliation can be difficult due to mixed pixels where vegetation cover is low or fragmented. In this study we apply a novel spectral unmixing technique, referred to as weighted Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (wMESMA), to Landsat 5-TM and EO-1 Hyperion data acquired over a Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) plantation in southern Australia. This technique combines an iterative mixture analysis cycle allowing endmembers to vary on a per pixel basis (MESMA) and a weighting algorithm that prioritizes wavebands based on their robustness against endmember variability. Spectral mixture analysis provides an estimate of the physically interpretable canopy cover, which is not necessarily correlated with defoliation in mixed-aged plantations due to natural variation in canopy cover as stands age. There is considerable variability in the degree of defoliation as well as in stand age among sites and in this study we found that results were significantly improved by the inclusion of an age correction algorithm for both the multi-spectral ( R2no age correction = 0.55 vs R2age correction = 0.73 for Landsat) and hyperspectral ( R2no age correction = 0.12 vs R2age correction = 0.50 for Hyperion) image data. The improved accuracy obtained from Landsat compared to the Hyperion data illustrates the potential of applying SMA techniques for analysis of multi-spectral datasets such as MODIS and SPOT-VEGETATION.

  20. Dynamics of thematic activation in recognition testing

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Muntean, William J.; Smith, Troy A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of spreading semantic activation during a recognition test. In Experiment 1, activation spreading during testing from words that were thematic associates of unstudied critical words yielded a linear increase in false alarms to such critical words as the number of tested associates increased, regardless of whether the theme appeared during study or whether any thematic processing occurred during study at all. In Experiment 2, with the number of tested associates held constant, false alarms to critical words from unstudied themes increased linearly with the strength of association between the critical word and its tested associates, consistent with predictions of spreading activation theory. However, for studied themes, testing weaker or stronger associates yielded similar rates of such false alarms, contrary to spreading activation theory. These results suggest that test-induced thematic priming is driven by spreading activation for unstudied themes but by thematic reactivation for studied themes. PMID:20551358

  1. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY FOR PRODUCTION OF NATIONAL LAND-COVER DATA (NLCD) FROM THE LANDSAT 7 THEMATIC MAPPER SATELLITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As environmental programs within and outside the federal government continue to move away from point-based studies to larger and larger spatial (not cartographic) scale, the need for land-cover and other geographic data have become ineluctable. The national land-cover mapping pr...

  2. Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The geometric quality of the TM and MSS film products were evaluated by making selective photo measurements such as scale, linear and area determinations; and by measuring the coordinates of known features on both the film products and map products and then relating these paired observations using a standard linear least squares regression approach. Quantitative interpretation tests are described which evaluate the quality and utility of the TM film products and various band combinations for detecting and identifying important forest and agricultural features.

  3. An evaluation of thematic mapper simulator data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types in Southwest Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, K. J.; Morrissey, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Rock type identification may be assisted by the use of remote sensing of associated vegetation, particularly in areas of dense vegetative cover where surface materials are not imaged directly by the sensor. The geobotanical discrimination of ultramafic parent materials was investigated and analytical techniques for lithologic mapping and mineral exploration were developed. The utility of remotely sensed data to discriminate vegetation types associated with ultramafic parent materials in a study area in southwest Oregon were evaluated. A number of specific objectives were identified, which include: (1) establishment of the association between vegetation and rock types; (2) examination of the spectral separability of vegetation types associated with rock types; (3) determination of the contribution of each TMS band for discriminating vegetation associated with rock types and (4) comparison of analytical techniques for spectrally classifying vegetation.

  4. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The spatial characteristics of the data were evaluated. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. The potential need for some level of radiometric adjustment was evidenced by an along track band of high reflectance across different cover types in the Varian imagery. A multiple regression analysis was employed to explore the viewing angle effect on measured reflectance. Areas in the data set which appeared to have no across track stratification of cover type were identified. A program was developed which computed the average reflectance by column for each channel, over all of the scan lines in the designated areas. A regression analysis was then run using the first, second, and third degree polynomials, for each channel. An atmospheric effect as a component of the viewing angle source of variance is discussed. Cover type maps were completed and training and test field selection was initiated.

  5. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The column normalizing technique was used to adjust the data for variations in the amplitude of the signal due to look angle effects with respect to solar zenith angle along the scan lines (i.e., across columns). Evaluation of the data set containing the geometric and radiometric adjustments, indicates that the data set should be satisfactory for further processing and analysis. Software was developed for degrading the spatial resolution of the aircraft data to produce a total of four data sets for further analysis. The quality of LANDSAT 2 CCT data for the test site is good for channels four, five, and six. Channel seven was not present on the tape. The data received were reformatted and analysis of the test site area was initiated.

  6. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Training and test data sets for CAM1S from NS-001 MSS data for two dates (geometrically adjusted to 30 meter resolution) were used to evaluate wavelength band. Two sets of tapes containing digitized HH and HV polarization data were obtained. Because the SAR data on the 9 track tapes contained no meaningful data, the 7 track tapes were copied onto 9 track tapes at LARS. The LARSYS programs were modified and a program was written to reformat the digitized SAR data into a LARSYS format. The radar imagery is being qualitatively interpreted. Results are to be used to identify possible cover types, to produce a classification map to aid in the numerical evaluation classification of radar data, and to develop an interpretation key for radar imagery. The four spatial resolution data sets were analyzed. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. A flowchart of steps taken to geometrically adjust a data set from the NS-001 scanner is presented.

  7. Analysis of multispectral scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) performance (pre-launch and post-launch)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Tables and graphs show the results of the spectral, radiometric, and geometric characterization of LANDSAT 4 sensors associated with imagery and of the imagery associated with sensors and processing. Specifications for the various parameters are compared with the photoflight and flight values.

  8. Integration of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data and digitized aerial photography via an ISH transformation. [Intensity Saturation Hue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.

  9. Remote detection of geobotanical anomalies associated with hydrocarbon microseepage using thematic mapper simulator (TMS) and airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.

    1984-01-01

    An interpretation of TMS and AIS data sets collected from Lost River, West Virginia, are presented, along with a brief review of the supervised vegetation classification approach to vegetation mapping used at Lost River. A preliminary study of AIS data suggests that contiguous high-spectral resolution data from a very limited portion of the spectrum (1.2-1.5 micron) provide a greater discriminatory capability than do broad-band sensors such as the TMS covering of wider spectral range (0.45-2.35 microns).

  10. Mapping of Fugitive Dust Generation, Transport, and Deposition in the Nogales, Arizona Region Using Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Ramsey, M. S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2001-05-01

    Urban centers located along the U.S.-Mexico border represent significant sources of fugitive (airborne) dust. This dust, which can lead to adverse health effects, arises from several factors including construction activities related to land use conversion (i.e., agricultural to residential), unpaved roadways, agricultural activities, and human disturbance of the soil. Fundamental baseline data needed for modeling and monitoring of particulate generation and transport are accurate regional classification of land cover, degree of disturbance, and a metric of land cover change. Identification and delineation of fugitive dust source regions using a purely field-based approach is time and labor intensive and can lead to errors over time as land use changes. Further, restrictions on access to specific areas (such as private lands and reservations) may impede or prevent site investigations in these areas. Remotely gathered information can be used to circumvent these difficulties and provide rapid dust source region identification with quantitative area measurements required in transport models. Landsat ETM+ data was used to identify and delineate surficial materials that were either potential fugitive dust source regions or were important factors in dust transport and deposition. Using a knowledge-based system, land cover was classified into three generalized types: natural and disturbed soils (dust generation sites); asphalt, concrete, and urban materials (dust transport areas); and vegetated areas (dust deposition sites). Accuracy of the land cover classification was assessed using field verification, comparison of field and image reflectance spectra, and digital aerial orthophotographs. Results of image classification and field verification for Landsat data acquired during the winter of 2000 show a strong correlation, and will be used with data collected during the summer dry season for change detection analysis. The digital format of the classified data is optimal for input into fugitive dust transport models, and is available for use by federal, state, and municipal research and regulatory entities.

  11. Comparison of the information content of data from the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper and the multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of information contained in data from the visible and near-IR channels of LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS for five agricultural scenes shows that the TM provides a significant advance in information gathering capability as expressed in terms of bits per pixel or bits per unit area. The six reflective channels of the TM acquire 18 bits of information per pixel out of a possible 48 bits, while the four MSS channels acquire 10 bits of information per pixel out of a possible 28 bits. Thus the TM and MSS are equally efficient in gathering information (18/48 to approximately 10/28), contrary to the expected tendency toward lower efficiency as spatial resolution is improved and spectral channels are added to an observing system. The TM thermal IR data appear to be of interest mainly for mapping water bodies, which do not change temperature during the day, for assessing surface moisture, and for monitoring thermal features associated with human activity.

  12. Thermal Band Characterization of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper. [Buffalo, New York and water temperature in Lake Erie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, J. C.; Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A quick look monitor in the spacecraft control center was used to measure the TM Band 6 shutter background and the 34.7 C internal blackbody signal on over 50 dates. Comparison of relative internal gains between the four channels to prelaunch values showed changes over 9 months of up to 5%, while 512 x 512 subsections of the original 10 daytime scenes showed scene counts that ranged from 135 down to 62. A night scene of the Buffalo area was used to determine channel gain relative to the mean and to discern a systematic along scan pattern in a difference between forward and reverse scan counts of up to 0.5. A corrected digital image was produced and individual gains and offsets were calculated for the four channels. At satellite radiance was determine and noise equivalent temperature difference was calculated. The calibration data and the Buffalo scene, with the corrections and estimates of the atmospheric transmission and radiance, were used to make a temperature estimate for an area of Lake Erie of 21 C to 27 C. Local records of the temperature showed 21 C.

  13. Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners. [Plumas County, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    A seven step procedure developed for evaluating the geometric properties of MSS and TM film produces is being implemented. Some 476 control points were selected of which 238 are being tested and edited for digitization and scaling errors. Tables show statistics established for assessing the spectral characteristics and variability, as well as the spatial resolution and radiometric sensitivity of TM data for a forest environment in an effort to determine the extent to which major forest cover type can be detected and identified on TM digital and image products. Results thus far show that the high quality obtained are more than sufficient for meeting most of the inventory objectives of the renewable resource specialist. The TM data should be extremely valuable for: (1) estimating forest cover types; (2) updating land use survey maps; and (3) determining the size and shape and location of individual forest clearings and water resources.

  14. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Latty, R. S.; Dean, E.; Knowlton, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Separate holograms of horizontally (HH) and vertically (HV) polarized responses obtained by the APQ-102 side-looking radar were processed through an optical correlator and the resulting image was recorded on positive film from which black and white negative and positive prints were made. Visual comparison of the HH and HV images reveals a distinct dark band in the imagery which covers about 30% of the radar strip. Preliminary evaluaton of the flight line 1 date indicates that various features on the HH and HV images seem to have different response levels. The amount of sidelap due to the look angle between flight lines 1 and 2 is negligible. NASA mission #425 to obtain flightlines of NS-001 MSS data and supporting aerial photography was successfully flown. Flight line 3 data are of very good quality and virtually cloud-free. Results of data analysis for selection of test fields and for evaluation of waveband combination and spatial resolution are presented.

  15. Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The geometric quality of TM film and digital products is evaluated by making selective photomeasurements and by measuring the coordinates of known features on both the TM products and map products. These paired observations are related using a standard linear least squares regression approach. Using regression equations and coefficients developed from 225 (TM film product) and 20 (TM digital product) control points, map coordinates of test points are predicted. The residual error vectors and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed on the east and north residual using nine image segments (blocks) as treatments. Based on the root mean square error of the 223 (TM film product) and 22 (TM digital product) test points, users of TM data expect the planimetric accuracy of mapped points to be within 91 meters and within 117 meters for the film products, and to be within 12 meters and within 14 meters for the digital products.

  16. Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners. [Central Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Image products and numeric data were extracted from both TM and MSS data in an effort to evaluate the quality of these data for interpreting major agricultural resources and conditions in California's Central Valley. The utility of TM data appears excellent for meeting most of the inventory objectives of the agricultural resource specialist. These data should be extremely valuable for crop type and area proportion estimation, for updating agricultural land use survey maps at 1:24,000-scale and smaller, for field boundary definition, and for determining the size and location of individual farmsteads.

  17. A Landsat Thematic Mapper investigation of the geobotanical relationships in the northern spruce-fir forest, Mt. Moosilauke, New Hampshire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torcoletti, Paul J.; Birnie, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    This investigation, in the northern spruce-fir forest at Mt. Moosilauke, NH, indicates that Landsat TM data can be used to distinguish between and map major vegetation zones. Principal components analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the TM data; and in this simpler spectral space, it is easier to visualize the discrimination between major vegetation zones: the northern hardwoods zone, spruce-fir zone, fir zone, and alpine tundra zone. The moisture stress index highlights areas of heavy forest damage (fir waves), but does not correlate with low levels of damage in the mixed, background forest at Mt. Moosilauke. Care must be taken to avoid confusion between high-elevation climatically-stressed vegetation (normal krummholz forest) and damaged lower elevation forests, both of which have similar TM5/TM4 ratio values.

  18. Energy Facility Siting by Means of Environmental Modelling with LANDSAT, Thematic Mapper and Geographic Information System (GIS) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Currently based on ground and aerial surveys, the land cover data base of the Pennsylvania Power and Light Company is routinely used for modelling the effects of alternative generating plant and transmission line sites on the local and regional environment. The development of a satellite-based geographic information system would facilitate both the preparation of environmental impact statements by power companies and assessment of the data by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A cooperative project is planned to demonstrate the methodology for integrating satellite data into an existing geographic information system, d to further evaluate the ability of satellite data in modeling environmental conditions that would be applied in the preparation and assessment of environmental impact statements.

  19. Revised radiometric calibration technique for LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper data by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J.; Butlin, T.; Duff, P.; Fitzgerald, A.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of raw image data, raw radiometric calibration data, and background measurements extracted from the raw data streams on high density tape reveal major shortcomings in a technique proposed by the Canadian Center for Remote Sensing in 1982 for the radiometric correction of TM data. Results are presented which correlate measurements of the DC background with variations in both image data background and calibration samples. The effect on both raw data and data corrected using the earlier proposed technique is explained and the correction required for these factors as a function of individual scan line number for each detector is described. How the revised technique can be incorporated into an operational environment is demonstrated.

  20. Louisiana Air Quality - Using ASTER, Landsat 5, and MODIS to Assess the Impact of Sugar Cane and Marsh Burning Practices on Local Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Robert; Reahard, Ross; Robin, Chad; Zeringue, Jared

    2010-01-01

    Biomass burning is an event that occurs globally and encompasses both human-initiated and naturally-occurring fires. It is estimated that 3 billion metric tons of biomass are burned every year worldwide (Curtis 2002). Societies have used these burning techniques for cooking and heating, clearing land for agricultural use, and removing excess biomass from grazing and croplands (Levine 1991). Our study focuses on the state of Louisiana and its commonly occurring methods of sugarcane and marsh biomass burning (LSU Ag.Center 2000; Nyman and Chabreck 1995). Over the centuries, the sugarcane industry in this state has steadily grown to surpass all other agriculture commodities. To promote efficiency within this large industry, burning excess biomass takes place throughout the harvesting period (LSU Ag.Center 2000). In addition to sugarcane, Louisiana contains 30% of the total coastal marsh of the United States (LSU Ag.Center 2000). The periodic burning of such marshes is an ecologically important management tool that is practiced throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Nyman and Chabreck 1995). In most biomass burning instances, the leading by-product is particulate matter that is less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10). Through past research, this fine material has been shown to have negative health effects on surrounding populations (Boopathy2001). While burning guidelines have been set into place by the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) to reduce health effects, the guidelines are voluntary (LDAF 2000). To help quantify emission estimates, we will focus on Iberia Parish for sugarcane burning and Cameron Parish for marsh burning. Through analysis of ASTER, Landsat 5 TM, and MODIS data, our goal is to determine the amount and location of land area burned for the years 2008 and 2009 due to these practices. With emissions algorithms from Seiler and Crutzen, 1980, total acreage burned can be used to estimate emissions. This information will help to document the impact of these smoke plumes on local populations for the improvement of biomass burning policies in Louisiana.

  1. Mercury Mapper: First Look at the Innermost Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshon, B.

    2012-12-01

    Until very recently little has been known about the planet Mercury, despite its relative proximity to Earth. Mercury is difficult to observe from Earth, because it is so small and so close to the sun, and only one spacecraft had visited the planet: Mariner 10, in the mid 1970s. But now, the MESSENGER spacecraft is in orbit around Mercury, sending back high-resolution images of virtually the entire planetary surface. This provides a rare opportunity for public engagement in the exploration of a new world—a chance for non-scientists to help scientists locate, measure and describe terrain never before seen. Mercury Mapper, designed by CosmoQuest, will provide the training and toolkit needed to accomplish the task. Using thousands of images selected by the MESSENGER science team, Mercury Mapper will guide citizen scientists through the process of finding, categorizing and measuring key topographic features of interest to researchers. Mercury Mapper users will in many cases be the first people to examine these features. In this session, members of the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach team along with CosmoQuest designers involved in developing Mercury Mapper will share the many considerations and tradeoffs involved in creating a fun environment for engaging the public while also serving the interests of scientists performing original research.; ;

  2. Nitrogen Source and Loading Data for EPA Estuary Data Mapper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen source and loading data have been compiled and aggregated at the scale of estuaries and associated watersheds of the conterminous United States, using the spatial framework in EPA's Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) to provide system boundaries. Original sources of data include...

  3. Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout (LRM/LGS) program status. Topics covered include the LEXWG Lunar Observer science measurement priorities, space exploration initiative priorities, the question of why a lunar orbiting mission is attractive to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), instrument selection, major milestones, and the organization of the LRM/LGS Program Office.

  4. Yield estimation from hyperspectral imagery using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation indices (VIs) derived from remotely sensed imagery are commonly used to estimate crop yields. Spectral angle mapper (SAM) provides an alternative approach to quantifying the spectral differences among all pixels in imagery and therefore has the potential for mapping yield variability. The...

  5. Thematic Approaches to Teaching Rhetorical Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David; Sharp, Harry, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that a thematic approach to teaching criticism--based on frequent, integrated writing tasks--accommodates the constraints found in the typical undergraduate course on rhetorical criticism. Illustrates this approach with reference to two themes: Ronald Reagan's discourse and the rhetoric of war and peace. (MM)

  6. A Thematic Unit: "Le Peineta Colorada"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montas, Michele; Cannon, Luz

    2003-01-01

    This thematic unit was written by Michele Montas and Luz Cannon, middle school Spanish teachers, who were participants in a summer institute held at the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center in 2001. The institute, called "Temas Anejos: Recurring Themes in Ancient and Modern Latin America," brought together a talented group of professors.

  7. Thematic Progression Analysis in Teaching Explanation Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xueqian

    2008-01-01

    Thematic Progression theory explains textual meanings of how experiential and interpersonal meanings are organized in a linear and coherent way. Employing the rationale of T-P theory, this article analyses a lesson plan of teaching Explanation, and shows that T-P analysis can be employed in teaching writing.

  8. An Honorable Seduction: Thematic Studies in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worby, Diana Z.

    By using a thematic approach and by drawing on other disciplines for breadth, English teachers can "honorably seduce" career-oriented students into a love affair with literature and draw them back into the English curriculum. For example, a teacher's conversation with a student focusing on fathers and sons led the teacher to suggest that the

  9. Genres of Literature. Thematic Study Guides & Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withington, Janice J.

    Aimed at helping students in grades 5-8 read and enjoy more varieties of literature as well as promoting more writing, this guide offers materials which use a thematic approach to reading, writing, and literature. The guide provides reproducible and hands-on activity ideas plus bibliographies for the genres of realistic fiction, animal tales,…

  10. A Thematic Unit: "Le Peineta Colorada"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montas, Michele; Cannon, Luz

    2003-01-01

    This thematic unit was written by Michele Montas and Luz Cannon, middle school Spanish teachers, who were participants in a summer institute held at the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center in 2001. The institute, called "Temas Anejos: Recurring Themes in Ancient and Modern Latin America," brought together a talented group of professors.…

  11. An Honorable Seduction: Thematic Studies in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worby, Diana Z.

    By using a thematic approach and by drawing on other disciplines for breadth, English teachers can "honorably seduce" career-oriented students into a love affair with literature and draw them back into the English curriculum. For example, a teacher's conversation with a student focusing on fathers and sons led the teacher to suggest that the…

  12. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 18, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  13. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 7, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  14. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 30, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  15. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 4, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  16. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 16, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  17. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 9, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  18. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for November 8, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  19. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 16, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  20. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 17, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  1. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 25, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  2. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 27, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  3. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 20, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  4. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 29, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  5. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 28, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  6. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 2, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  7. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 30, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  8. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 26, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  9. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 1, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  10. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 12, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  11. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for May 6, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  12. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 19, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  13. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 29, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  14. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 19, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  15. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 7, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  16. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 29, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  17. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for May 25, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  18. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 22, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  19. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 23, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  20. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 21, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  1. Thematic Teaching: Integrating Cognitive and Affective Outcomes in Elementary Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Doris R.

    1998-01-01

    Defines thematic teaching, also known as interdisciplinary or authentic instruction, as representing cross-disciplinary programs which integrate cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes. Highlights include integrating thematic teaching into elementary school classrooms, cognitive and social learning theories, motivation, cooperative…

  2. Data and Information Exchange System for the "Reindeer Mapper" Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy; Yurchak, Boris

    2005-01-01

    During this past year, the Reindeer Mapper Intranet system has been set up on the NASA system, 8 team members have been established, a Reindeer Mapper reference list containing 696 items has been entered, 6 power point presentations have been put on line for review among team members, 304 satellite images have been catalogued (including 16 Landsat images, 288 NDVI 10-day composited images and an anomaly series- May 1998 to December 2002, and 56 SAR CEOS S A R format files), schedules and meeting dates are being shared, students at the Nordic Sami Institute are experimenting with the system for reindeer herder indigenous knowledge sharing, and an "address book" is being developed. Several documents and presentations have been translated and made available in Russian for our Russian colleagues. This has enabled our Russian partners to utilize documents and presentations for use in their research (e.g., SAR imagery comparisons with Russian GIS of specific study areas) and discussion with local colleagues.

  3. Designing the Thematic Curriculum: An All Aspects Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Curtis R.; Frantz, Nevin R.; Mooney, Marianne; Aneke, Norbert O.

    This guide focuses on two interrelated areas of developing vocational education curricula: designing a thematic curriculum and using the "all aspects of the industry" approach when creating thematic curricula. The following are among the topics discussed in the guide's eight sections: principles of the thematic curriculum and its potential to…

  4. Reading Thematically Related Texts to Develop Knowledge and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelzheiser, Lynn; Hallgren-Flynn, Laura; Connors, Margaret; Scanlon, Donna

    2014-01-01

    When literacy instruction uses books selected on the basis of thematic content, it can foster the attainment of literacy goals while developing readers' knowledge. This paper provides a rationale for the use of thematically-related texts in literacy instruction and describes some thematic units that have been a part of literacy intervention…

  5. Innovate with the CTI National Thematic Networks.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Susanne Lauber

    2014-12-01

    Winning in the global market place with brilliant innovations is the recipe for success for the Swiss economy. Indeed, Switzerland always stands out in the global rankings when it comes to innovation. Yet there is nothing as dangerous as to rest on one's laurels, and this is particularly true for R&D-based businesses. For this reason CTI, the Commission for Technology and Innovation, offers Swiss companies quick and effective access to knowledge available at Swiss public research institutions, and to international R&D programs promoting application-oriented research. Knowledge and technology transfer are promoted - via its KTT support - through National Thematic Networks (NTNs), Innovation Mentors and information platforms. The following article highlights the activities of the National Thematic Networks and invites Swiss companies and research institutes to benefit from the multiple offers and services available. PMID:26508609

  6. The eNanoMapper database for nanomaterial safety information

    PubMed Central

    Chomenidis, Charalampos; Doganis, Philip; Fadeel, Bengt; Grafström, Roland; Hardy, Barry; Hastings, Janna; Hegi, Markus; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Kochev, Nikolay; Kohonen, Pekka; Munteanu, Cristian R; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Smeets, Bart; Sopasakis, Pantelis; Tsiliki, Georgia; Vorgrimmler, David; Willighagen, Egon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: The NanoSafety Cluster, a cluster of projects funded by the European Commision, identified the need for a computational infrastructure for toxicological data management of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Ontologies, open standards, and interoperable designs were envisioned to empower a harmonized approach to European research in nanotechnology. This setting provides a number of opportunities and challenges in the representation of nanomaterials data and the integration of ENM information originating from diverse systems. Within this cluster, eNanoMapper works towards supporting the collaborative safety assessment for ENMs by creating a modular and extensible infrastructure for data sharing, data analysis, and building computational toxicology models for ENMs. Results: The eNanoMapper database solution builds on the previous experience of the consortium partners in supporting diverse data through flexible data storage, open source components and web services. We have recently described the design of the eNanoMapper prototype database along with a summary of challenges in the representation of ENM data and an extensive review of existing nano-related data models, databases, and nanomaterials-related entries in chemical and toxicogenomic databases. This paper continues with a focus on the database functionality exposed through its application programming interface (API), and its use in visualisation and modelling. Considering the preferred community practice of using spreadsheet templates, we developed a configurable spreadsheet parser facilitating user friendly data preparation and data upload. We further present a web application able to retrieve the experimental data via the API and analyze it with multiple data preprocessing and machine learning algorithms. Conclusion: We demonstrate how the eNanoMapper database is used to import and publish online ENM and assay data from several data sources, how the “representational state transfer” (REST) API enables building user friendly interfaces and graphical summaries of the data, and how these resources facilitate the modelling of reproducible quantitative structure–activity relationships for nanomaterials (NanoQSAR). PMID:26425413

  7. Airborne Topographic Mapper Calibration Procedures and Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Chreston F.; Krabill, William B.; Manizade, Serdar S.; Russell, Rob L.; Sonntag, John G.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Description of NASA Airborn Topographic Mapper (ATM) lidar calibration procedures including analysis of the accuracy and consistancy of various ATM instrument parameters and the resulting influence on topographic elevation measurements. The ATM elevations measurements from a nominal operating altitude 500 to 750 m above the ice surface was found to be: Horizontal Accuracy 74 cm, Horizontal Precision 14 cm, Vertical Accuracy 6.6 cm, Vertical Precision 3 cm.

  8. Studies of atmospheric dust from Viking IR thermal mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, T. Z.

    1993-01-01

    Following earlier work to map the dust opacity of the Mars atmosphere, a number of separate studies have been performed employing the radiometric measurements of the Viking IR Thermal Mappers. These efforts have resulted in a new perspective on the atmospheric dust distribution during the Viking Mission, as well as quantitative measures useful in the modeling of likely behavior at other times, and improved boundary conditions for circulation models of Mars. The significant findings from these studies are presented.

  9. Analysis of thematic map classification error matrices.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    The classification error matrix expresses the counts of agreement and disagreement between the classified categories and their verification. Thematic mapping experiments compare variables such as multiple photointerpretation or scales of mapping, and produce one or more classification error matrices. This paper presents a tutorial to implement a typical problem of a remotely sensed data experiment for solution by the linear model method.-from Author

  10. Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Hu, Daning; Dang, Yan; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C; Larson, Catherine A; Chan, Joyce

    2009-04-01

    Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976-2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005-2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system. PMID:21170121

  11. Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Daning; Dang, Yan; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Larson, Catherine A.; Chan, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976–2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005–2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system. PMID:21170121

  12. Analyzing thematic maps and mapping for accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two problems which exist while attempting to test the accuracy of thematic maps and mapping are: (1) evaluating the accuracy of thematic content, and (2) evaluating the effects of the variables on thematic mapping. Statistical analysis techniques are applicable to both these problems and include techniques for sampling the data and determining their accuracy. In addition, techniques for hypothesis testing, or inferential statistics, are used when comparing the effects of variables. A comprehensive and valid accuracy test of a classification project, such as thematic mapping from remotely sensed data, includes the following components of statistical analysis: (1) sample design, including the sample distribution, sample size, size of the sample unit, and sampling procedure; and (2) accuracy estimation, including estimation of the variance and confidence limits. Careful consideration must be given to the minimum sample size necessary to validate the accuracy of a given. classification category. The results of an accuracy test are presented in a contingency table sometimes called a classification error matrix. Usually the rows represent the interpretation, and the columns represent the verification. The diagonal elements represent the correct classifications. The remaining elements of the rows represent errors by commission, and the remaining elements of the columns represent the errors of omission. For tests of hypothesis that compare variables, the general practice has been to use only the diagonal elements from several related classification error matrices. These data are arranged in the form of another contingency table. The columns of the table represent the different variables being compared, such as different scales of mapping. The rows represent the blocking characteristics, such as the various categories of classification. The values in the cells of the tables might be the counts of correct classification or the binomial proportions of these counts divided by either the row totals or the column totals from the original classification error matrices. In hypothesis testing, when the results of tests of multiple sample cases prove to be significant, some form of statistical test must be used to separate any results that differ significantly from the others. In the past, many analyses of the data in this error matrix were made by comparing the relative magnitudes of the percentage of correct classifications, for either individual categories, the entire map or both. More rigorous analyses have used data transformations and (or) two-way classification analysis of variance. A more sophisticated step of data analysis techniques would be to use the entire classification error matrices using the methods of discrete multivariate analysis or of multiviariate analysis of variance.

  13. Temporal trends in earth-atmosphere system reflectance factor for sagebrush steppe vegetation communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Laurence L.

    1987-01-01

    Four consecutive Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper acquisitions were used to examine trends in earth-atmosphere system reflectance factors of sagebrush steppe vegetation communities following soil moisture recharge from snow melt. Significant differences in trends between vegetation communities correspond to known differences in the initiation and duration of active vegetation growth. Information on short-term vegetation processes are a valuable supplement to estimates of total vegetation cover which can be obtained using satellite brightness images at less frequent temporal intervals.

  14. Both associative activation and thematic extraction count, but thematic false memories are more easily rejected.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Paula; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Fernandez, Angel; Albuquerque, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyse the roles played by associative activation and thematic extraction in the explanation of false memories using the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Associative lists with two different types of critical items (CIs) were used: one, the associative CI, corresponded to the word most strongly primed by the associates in the list and another, the thematic CI, was the word that best described the theme of the list. Following three different types of encoding instructions (standard, warning or strategic), false recognition for these two types of CIs was analysed in either self-paced or speeded response recognition tests. The results showed considerable levels of false memories for both types of CIs. Even without the quality of being "good themes", associative CIs produced high levels of false recognition, which suggests that associative activation plays a prominent role in false memory formation. More interestingly, thematic CIs were more prone to be edited out, reinforcing the argument that thematic identifiability has a major role in the rejection of false memories. PMID:24304394

  15. Mapper: A distributed object-oriented database application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, Herbert; O'Reilly, John; Frogner, Bjorn

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project. The initial application involved decomposition of a large database across multiple processors to improve the speed of processing compound queries. The commercial outcome was a tourist information system with a point-to-point driving direction program called MAPPER. A distributed, object-oriented approach was used for the general design, while a spatial decomposition was used to divide the database into computationally manageable pieces. The resulting system is highly flexible with respect to both modifications and reuse.

  16. Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Unlocking the Mysteries of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyon, Cassandra

    2006-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a state-of-the-art high spectral resolution imaging spectrometer that will characterize and map the mineral composition of the Moon. The M3 instrument will be flown on Chandrayaan-I, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission to be launched in March 2008. The Moon is a cornerstone to understanding early solar system processes. M3 high-resolution compositional maps will dramatically improve our understanding about the early evolution of the terrestrial planets and will provide an assessment of lunar resources at high spatial resolution.

  17. Advanced mesospheric temperature mapper for high-latitude airglow studies.

    PubMed

    Pautet, P-D; Taylor, M J; Pendleton, W R; Zhao, Y; Yuan, T; Esplin, R; McLain, D

    2014-09-10

    Over the past 60 years, ground-based remote sensing measurements of the Earth's mesospheric temperature have been performed using the nighttime hydroxyl (OH) emission, which originates at an altitude of ∼87  km. Several types of instruments have been employed to date: spectrometers, Fabry-Perot or Michelson interferometers, scanning-radiometers, and more recently temperature mappers. Most of them measure the mesospheric temperature in a few sample directions and/or with a limited temporal resolution, restricting their research capabilities to the investigation of larger-scale perturbations such as inertial waves, tides, or planetary waves. The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) is a novel infrared digital imaging system that measures selected emission lines in the mesospheric OH (3,1) band (at ∼1.5  μm) to create intensity and temperature maps of the mesosphere around 87 km. The data are obtained with an unprecedented spatial (∼0.5  km) and temporal (typically 30″) resolution over a large 120° field of view, allowing detailed measurements of wave propagation and dissipation at the ∼87  km level, even in the presence of strong aurora or under full moon conditions. This paper describes the AMTM characteristics, compares measured temperatures with values obtained by a collocated Na lidar instrument, and presents several examples of temperature maps and nightly keogram representations to illustrate the excellent capabilities of this new instrument. PMID:25321674

  18. THEMATICS analysis for functional ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehadi, Ihsan A.

    Ion channels, as a group of integral membrane proteins, span the cell membrane forming ion-conducting pores that allow ions to traverse the hydrophobic lipid environment rapidly and selectively. The structure of the Streptomyces lividians (KcsA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis ion channel (Mscl) potassium ion channel have provided the impetus and has helped further the understanding of the structural and functional studies of these channels. The KcsA adapts the voltage-gated mechanism for opening and closing of the channel. While Mcsl represents the mechanosensitive model of the channels. However, the mechanism of the opening and closing of these channels are not fully understood. Electrostatic methods (THEMATICS) are used to locate the site where closing and opening of the channels are controlled. Two clusters of amino acid residues are identified in each of the previously mentioned active models where net charges play an important role in controlling the mechanism of the opening and closure of the ion channels.0

  19. Science Adventures with Children's Literature: A Thematic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Anthony D.

    This guide provides background information on the development and implementation of thematic units that focus on a hands-on approach, process orientation, integrated curriculum, cooperative learning, and critical thinking. Topics of the thematic units and mini-units include wild animals, dinosaurs, rainforests, the human body, earth science,…

  20. Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

  1. The Moon mineralogy mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Head, J.; Isaacson, P.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Mustard, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a NASA-supported guest instrument on ISRO's remote sensing mission to Moon, Chandrayaan-1. The M3 is an imaging spectrometer that operates from the visible into the near-infrared (0.42-3.0 ??m) where highly diagnostic mineral absorption bands occur. Over the course of the mission M3 will provide low resolution spectroscopic data for the entire lunar surface at 140 m/pixel (86 spectral channels) to be used as a base-map and high spectral resolution science data (80 m/pixel; 260 spectral channels) for 25-50% of the surface. The detailed mineral assessment of different lunar terrains provided by M3 is principal information needed for understanding the geologic evolution of the lunar crust and lays the foundation for focused future in-depth exploration of the Moon.

  2. Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radar Mapper - Design and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettengill, G. H.; Horwood, D. F.; Keller, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Radar Mapper Experiment, carried aboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft, is designed to obtain a near-global picture of the topography, meter-scale surface slopes and reflectivity of Venus. Constraints imposed by the choice of orbit limit radar coverage to a latitude band lying between 74 deg N and 61 deg S completely around the planet. In addition to the altimetry objectives, the experiment seeks an image of the radar scattering properties of the surface at oblique incidence. Sensitivity limits the imaged region to a band around the planet lying between 45 deg N and 10 deg S. Altimetric error is less than 200 m; altimetric surface 'footprint' size varies from about 10 km in diameter at a spacecraft altitude of 200 km, to 50 km at a maximum altitude of 4700 km. Imaging varies from 20 to 40 km, depending on spacecraft altitude.

  3. The Mars mapper science and mission planning tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Mapper Program (MOm) is an interactive tool for science and mission design developed for the Mars Observer Mission (MO). MOm is a function of the Planning and Sequencing Element of the MO Ground Data System. The primary users of MOm are members of the science and mission planning teams. Using MOm, the user can display digital maps of Mars in various projections and resolutions ranging from 1 to 256 pixels per degree squared. The user can overlay the maps with ground tracks of the MO spacecraft (S/C) and footprints and swaths of the various instruments on-board the S/C. Orbital and instrument geometric parameters can be computed on demand and displayed on the digital map or plotted in XY-plots. The parameter data can also be saved into files for other uses. MOm is divided into 3 major processes: Generator, Mapper, Plotter. The Generator Process is the main control which spawns all other processes. The processes communicate via sockets. At any one time, only 1 copy of MOm may operate on the system. However, up to 5 copies of each of the major processes may be invoked from the Generator. MOm is developed on the Sun SPARCStation 2GX with menu driven graphical user interface (GUI). The map window and its overlays are mouse-sensitized to permit on-demand calculations of various parameters along an orbit. The program is currently under testing and will be delivered to the MO Mission System Configuration Management for distribution to the MO community in 3/93.

  4. A Thematic Approach to Increasing Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, R. J.; Schwerin, T. G.; Witiw, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), an NSF, NASA, and NOAA supported program providing K-12 teacher professional development uses a thematic approach to frame participant inquiry. To address topics such as carbon sequestration, ocean acidification or aerosols, ESSEA online courses present participants with scenarios or contexts depicting an anomaly or perturbation to the Earth system. The courses deepen teachers content knowledge within an inquiry environment through reflection, analysis and self-discovery. Courses familiarize participants with Earth system analyses and provide a suite of techniques that can be employed to facilitate student learning, for example, through the use of Problem-based learning (PBL). Problem-based learning (PBL) is designed to "simultaneously develop both problem solving strategies and disciplinary knowledge bases and skills by placing students in the active role of problem-solvers confronted with an ill-structured problem that mirrors real-world problems. PBL models are generally characterized by the following steps: 1) the presentation of a problem to a small group of students, 2) discussion of the problem among the students which produces tentative explanations of the problem, and 3) an attempt to solve the problem. When participants work to solve ill-structured problems, they are working toward learning generalized procedures for problem solving that will transfer to new situations (University of Delaware, 1999). At the end of an ESSEA course experience, teachers are better equipped with the content and the confidence in using inquiry in the teaching of climate science.

  5. A thematic approach to system safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ekman, M.E.; Werner, P.W.; Covan, J.M.; D`Antonio, P.E.

    1997-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has refined a process for developing inherently safer system designs, based on methods used by the Laboratories to design detonation safety into nuclear weapons. The process was created when the Laboratories realized that standard engineering practices did not provide the level of safety assurance necessary for nuclear weapon operations, with their potential for catastrophic accidents. A systematic approach, which relies on mutually supportive design principles integrated through fundamental physical principles, was developed to ensure a predictably safe system response under a variety of operational and accident based stresses. Robust, safe system designs result from this thematic approach to safety, minimizing the number of safety critical features. This safety assurance process has two profound benefits: the process avoids the need to understand or limit the ultimate intensity of off normal environments and it avoids the requirement to analyze and test a bewildering and virtually infinite array of accident environment scenarios (e.g., directional threats, sequencing of environments, time races, etc.) to demonstrate conformance to all safety requirements.

  6. Children's understandings’ of obesity, a thematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fielden, Amy L.; Sillence, Elizabeth; Little, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major concern in today's society. Research suggests the inclusion of the views and understandings of a target group facilitates strategies that have better efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts and themes that make up children's understandings of the causes and consequences of obesity. Participants were selected from Reception (4–5 years old) and Year 6 (10–11 years old), and attended a school in an area of Sunderland, in North East England. Participants were separated according to age and gender, resulting in four focus groups, run across two sessions. A thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) identified overarching themes evident across all groups, suggesting the key concepts that contribute to children's understandings of obesity are “Knowledge through Education,” “Role Models,” “Fat is Bad,” and “Mixed Messages.” The implications of these findings and considerations of the methodology are discussed in full. PMID:21897830

  7. Cross-calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-5 TM with the ResourceSat-1 (IRS-P6) AWiFS and LISS-III sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Scaramuzza, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, data from multiple sensors are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. The Landsat suite of satellites has collected the longest continuous archive of multispectral data. The ResourceSat-1 Satellite (also called as IRS-P6) was launched into the polar sunsynchronous orbit on Oct 17, 2003. It carries three remote sensing sensors: the High Resolution Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-IV), Medium Resolution Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-III), and the Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS). These three sensors are used together to provide images with different resolution and coverage. To understand the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy of IRS-P6 AWiFS and LISS-III sensors, image pairs from these sensors were compared to the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ sensors. The approach involved the calibration of nearly simultaneous surface observations based on image statistics from areas observed simultaneously by the two sensors.

  8. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Third Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology, Colorado Springs, CO, April 16-19, 1984, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A photogeologic and remote sensing model of porphyry type mineral sytems is considered along with a Landsat application to development of a tectonic model for hydrocarbon exploration of Devonian shales in west-central Virginia, remote sensing and the funnel philosophy, Landsat-based tectonic and metallogenic synthesis of the southwest United States, and an evolving paradigm for computer vision. Attention is given to the neotectonics of the Tibetan plateau deduced from Landsat MSS image interpretation, remote sensing in northern Arizona, the use of an airborne laser system for vegetation inventories and geobotanical prospecting, an evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for hydrocarbon exploration in low-relief basins, and an evaluation of the information content of high spectral resolution imagery. Other topics explored are related to a major source of new radar data for exploration research, the accuracy of geologic maps produced from Landsat data, and an approach for the geometric rectification of radar imagery.

  9. Predicting taxonomic and thematic relational responding

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, J. Grayson; Heath, John

    2003-01-01

    Pairs of pictures were classified by the authors and others as related by identity (A—A), basic taxonomy (A—B), superordinate taxonomy (A—C), or by theme (A—D). Two-choice matching-to-sample trial types were composed of these same picture pairs in which the sample was common to the two stimulus pairs in each configuration and, together with the sample, each comparison exemplified one of the relations in the picture pair; that is: A(AB), A(AC), A(AD), A(BC), A(BD), and A(CD). In five experiments, for each picture pair, college students classified the relation (as taxonomic or thematic) and rated its strength (Exps 1, 3) or its similarity (Exp 4); others matched to sample the foregoing trial types only (Exps 2, 5), or they classified and rated, too (Exp 3). With exceptions, students classed most pairs as the authors did. They also collectively ordered relational strengths from (1) identity, (2) basic taxonomy, and (3) theme, to (4) superordinate taxonomy based, in part, on the similarity of sample and comparison. Subjects chose the comparisons of the more strongly related picture pairs in the matching-to-sample task on 90 percent or more of the configurations. Subjects' selections in two-choice, matching-to-sample configurations using natural stimuli may be based on existing stimulus control topographies such as those exhibited by ratings of the relations in a configuration. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:22477256

  10. HGDP and HapMap Analysis by Ancestry Mapper Reveals Local and Global Population Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Tiago R.; Casey, Jillian P.; Conroy, Judith; Regan, Regina; Fitzpatrick, Darren J.; Shah, Naisha; Sobral, João; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of human origins, migrations, and expansions is greatly enhanced by the availability of large datasets of genetic information from different populations and by the development of bioinformatic tools used to analyze the data. We present Ancestry Mapper, which we believe improves on existing methods, for the assignment of genetic ancestry to an individual and to study the relationships between local and global populations. The principle function of the method, named Ancestry Mapper, is to give each individual analyzed a genetic identifier, made up of just 51 genetic coordinates, that corresponds to its relationship to the HGDP reference population. As a consequence, the Ancestry Mapper Id (AMid) has intrinsic biological meaning and provides a tool to measure similarity between world populations. We applied Ancestry Mapper to a dataset comprised of the HGDP and HapMap data. The results show distinctions at the continental level, while simultaneously giving details at the population level. We clustered AMids of HGDP/HapMap and observe a recapitulation of human migrations: for a small number of clusters, individuals are grouped according to continental origins; for a larger number of clusters, regional and population distinctions are evident. Calculating distances between AMids allows us to infer ancestry. The number of coordinates is expandable, increasing the power of Ancestry Mapper. An R package called Ancestry Mapper is available to apply this method to any high density genomic data set. PMID:23189146

  11. Individual differences in the strength of taxonomic versus thematic relations

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about word and object meanings can be organized taxonomically (fruits, mammals, etc.) based on shared features, or thematically (eating breakfast, taking a dog for a walk, etc.) based on participation in events or scenarios. An eye-tracking study showed that both kinds of knowledge are activated during comprehension of a single spoken word, even when the listener is not required to perform any active task. The results further revealed that an individual’s relative activation of taxonomic relations compared to thematic relations predicts that individual’s tendency to favor taxonomic over thematic relations when asked to choose between them in a similarity judgment task. These results argue that individuals differ in the relative strengths of their taxonomic and thematic semantic knowledge and suggest that meaning information is organized in two parallel, complementary semantic systems. PMID:22201413

  12. ASSESSMENT OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape characteristics such as small patch size and land cover heterogeneity have been hypothesized to increase the likelihood of misclassifying pixels during thematic image classification. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence, to support these hypotheses. This...

  13. The GOES-R GeoStationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved capability for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The Geostationary Lighting Mapper (GLM) will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms (environmental data records), cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications using GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, merged with ground-based sensors, and decision aids augmented by numerical weather prediction model forecasts. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. An international field campaign planned for 2011-2012 will produce concurrent observations from a VHF lightning mapping array, Meteosat multi-band imagery, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) overpasses, and related ground and in-situ lightning and meteorological measurements in the vicinity of Sao Paulo. These data will provide a new comprehensive proxy data set for algorithm and application development.

  14. ThemeRiver: Visualizing Thematic Changes in Document Collections

    SciTech Connect

    Havre, Susan L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Whitney, Paul D.; Nowell, Lucy T.

    2002-01-01

    The ThemeRiver(TM) visualization depicts thematic variations over time within a large collection of documents. The thematic changes are shown in the context of a time line and corresponding external events. The focus on temporal thematic change within a context framework allows a user to discern patterns that suggest relationships or trends. For example, the sudden change of thematic strength following an external event may indicate a causal relationship. Such patterns are not readily accessible in other visualizations of the data. We use a river metaphor to convey several key notions. The document collection's time line, selected thematic content, and thematic strength are indicated by the river's directed flow, composition and changing width, respectively. The directed flow from left to right is interpreted as movement through time; the horizontal distance between two points on the river defines a time interval. At any point in time, the vertical distance, or width, of the river indicates the collective strength of the selected themes. Colored ''currents'' flowing within the river represent individual themes. A current's vertical distance narrows or widens to indicate a decreases or increases in the strength of the individual theme.

  15. Towards Thematic Web Services for Generic Data Visualization and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanont, T.; Basa, M.; Shibasaki, R.

    2012-07-01

    Spatial analysis packages and thematic mapping are available in a number of traditional desktop GIS. However, visualizing thematic maps through the Internet is still limited to fix contents and restrict changes of the input data. The users with limited GIS knowledge or people who do not own digital map data are normally having difficulties to create output thematic maps from generic data. In this study, we developed thematic mapping services that can be applied to non-spatial data format served through powerful map services solutions. Novice users who have no GIS software experience or have no digital base map can simply input a plain text file with location identifier field such as place name or gazetteer to generate thematic maps online. We implemented a prototype by using web service standards recommended by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) such as Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS) and Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) to provide a principle for communication and allow users to visualize spatial information as thematic maps. The system dedicates a great deal of effort to the initial study of geospatial analysis and visualization for novice users including those with no past experience using Geographic Information Systems.

  16. Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill - Landsat 5

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion at an oil well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a major oil spill. Since then, emergency response efforts have been underway to cap the leaking well system and contain the growing oil slick before it reaches wildlife refuges, fisheries, and beaches along the southern...

  17. MMR: a tool for read multi-mapper resolution

    PubMed Central

    Kahles, André; Behr, Jonas; Rätsch, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Mapping high-throughput sequencing data to a reference genome is an essential step for most analysis pipelines aiming at the computational analysis of genome and transcriptome sequencing data. Breaking ties between equally well mapping locations poses a severe problem not only during the alignment phase but also has significant impact on the results of downstream analyses. We present the multi-mapper resolution (MMR) tool that infers optimal mapping locations from the coverage density of other mapped reads. Results: Filtering alignments with MMR can significantly improve the performance of downstream analyses like transcript quantitation and differential testing. We illustrate that the accuracy (Spearman correlation) of transcript quantification increases by 15% when using reads of length 51. In addition, MMR decreases the alignment file sizes by more than 50%, and this leads to a reduced running time of the quantification tool. Our efficient implementation of the MMR algorithm is easily applicable as a post-processing step to existing alignment files in BAM format. Its complexity scales linearly with the number of alignments and requires no further inputs. Availability and implementation: Open source code and documentation are available for download at http://github.com/ratschlab/mmr. Comprehensive testing results and further information can be found at http://bioweb.me/mmr. Contact: andre.kahles@ratschlab.org or gunnar.ratsch@ratschlab.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26519503

  18. The Goes-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved storm diagnostic capability with the Advanced Baseline Imager. The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this paper we will report on new Nowcasting and storm warning applications being developed and evaluated at various NOAA Testbeds.

  19. The GOES-R Series Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), which will have just completed Critical Design Review and move forward into the construction phase of instrument development. The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (an engineering development unit and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms

  20. Torus mapper: a code for dynamical models of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binney, James; McMillan, Paul J.

    2016-02-01

    We present a freely downloadable software package for modelling the dynamics of galaxies, which we call the Torus Mapper (TM). The package is based around `torus mapping', which is a non-perturbative technique for creating orbital tori for specified values of the action integrals. Given an orbital torus and a star's position at a reference time, one can compute its position at any other time, no matter how remote. One can also compute the velocities with which the star will pass through any given point and the contribution it will make to the time-averaged density there. A system of angle-action coordinates for the given potential can be created by foliating phase space with orbital tori. Such a foliation is facilitated by the ability of TM to create tori by interpolating on a grid of tori. We summarize the advantages of using TM rather than a standard time-stepper to create orbits, and give segments of code that illustrate applications of TM in several contexts, including setting up initial conditions for an N-body simulation. We examine the precision of the orbital tori created by TM and the behaviour of the code when orbits become trapped by a resonance.