Science.gov

Sample records for landsat-5 thematic mapper

  1. Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper outgassing effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.L.; Micijevic, E.

    2004-01-01

    A periodic 3% to 5% variation in detector response affecting both image and internal calibrator (IC) data has been observed in bands 5 and 7 of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper. The source for this variation is thought to be an interference effect due to buildup of an ice-like contaminant film on a ZnSe window, covered with an antireflective coating (ARC), of the cooled dewar containing these detectors. Periodic warming of the dewar is required in order to remove the contaminant and restore detector response to an uncontaminated level. These effects in the IC data have been characterized over four individual outgassing cycles using thin-film models to estimate transmittance of the window/ARC and ARC/contaminant film stack throughout the instrument lifetime. Based on the results obtained from this modeling, a lookup table procedure has been implemented that provides correction factors to improve the calibration accuracy of bands 5 and 7 by approximately 5%.

  2. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  3. Thematic Mapper. Volume 1: Calibration report flight model, LANDSAT 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, R. C.; Lansing, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The calibration of the Flight 1 Model Thematic Mapper is discussed. Spectral response, scan profile, coherent noise, line spread profiles and white light leaks, square wave response, radiometric calibration, and commands and telemetry are specifically addressed.

  4. Analyst variability in labeling of unsupervised classifications. [test sites for Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgwire, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    Analyst variability in the labeling of unsupervised classifications is tested for Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image products covering two test sites in southern California. The accuracy of results are tested using samples from a photo interpreted base map of the area. The significance of differences between analysts is indicated by comparing Kappa statistics derived from error matrices. Analyst variability is found to be statistically significant in most cases. Certain analysts provided consistently better results for a given study area or degree of training. This work demonstrates the potential influence of analyst bias on what would otherwise seem to be a fairly objective method and suggests that controls for this subjectivity should be factored into experimental designs.

  5. Fire effects in the northern Chihuahuan Desert derived from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper spectral indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joseph D.; Swint, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Fire effects on desert ecosystems may be long-lasting based on ecological impact of fire in these environments which potentially is detected from multispectral sensors. To assess this, we analyzed changes in spectral characteristics from 1986 to 2010 of pixels associated with the location of fires that occurred between 1986 and 1999 in Big Bend National Park, USA, located in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data, we derived spectral indices including the simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), and normalized burn ratio (NBR) from 1989, 1999, and 2010 from the TM data and compared changes in spectral index values for sites with and without observed fire. We found that the NDVI and SAVI had significantly different values over the time for burned sites of different fire sizes. When differences of the spectral indices were calculated from each time period, time since fire was correlated with the SR and NBR indices. These results showed that large fires potentially had a persistent and long-term change in vegetation cover and soil characteristics which were detected by the extraordinary long-data collection period of the Landsat-5 TM sensor.

  6. Updated radiometric calibration for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper reflective bands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Thome, K.J.; Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Malla, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been the workhorse of the Landsat system. Launched in 1984, it continues collecting data through the time frame of this paper. Thus, it provides an invaluable link to the past history of the land features of the Earth's surface, and it becomes imperative to provide an accurate radiometric calibration of the reflective bands to the user community. Previous calibration has been based on information obtained from prelaunch, the onboard calibrator, vicarious calibration attempts, and cross-calibration with Landsat-7. Currently, additional data sources are available to improve this calibration. Specifically, improvements in vicarious calibration methods and development of the use of pseudoinvariant sites for trending provide two additional independent calibration sources. The use of these additional estimates has resulted in a consistent calibration approach that ties together all of the available calibration data sources. Results from this analysis indicate a simple exponential, or a constant model may be used for all bands throughout the lifetime of Landsat-5 TM. Where previously time constants for the exponential models were approximately one year, the updated model has significantly longer time constants in bands 1-3. In contrast, bands 4, 5, and 7 are shown to be best modeled by a constant. The models proposed in this paper indicate calibration knowledge of 5% or better early in life, decreasing to nearly 2% later in life. These models have been implemented at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) and are the default calibration used for all Landsat TM data now distributed through EROS. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  7. Development of landsat-5 thematic mapper internal calibrator gain and offset table

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.; Markham, B.L.; Haque, Md. O.

    2008-01-01

    The National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) has been the primary processing system for Landsat data since U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) started archiving Landsat data. NLAPS converts raw satellite data into radiometrically and geometrically calibrated products. NLAPS has historically used the Internal Calibrator (IC) to calibrate the reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), even though the lamps in the IC were less stable than the TM detectors, as evidenced by vicarious calibration results. In 2003, a major effort was made to model the actual TM gain change and to update NLAPS to use this model rather than the unstable IC data for radiometric calibration. The model coefficients were revised in 2007 to reflect greater understanding of the changes in the TM responsivity. While the calibration updates are important to users with recently processed data, the processing system no longer calculates the original IC gain or offset. For specific applications, it is useful to have a record of the gain and offset actually applied to the older data. Thus, the NLAPS calibration database was used to generate estimated daily values for the radiometric gain and offset that might have been applied to TM data. This paper discusses the need for and generation of the NLAPSIC gain and offset tables. A companion paper covers the application of and errors associated with using these tables.

  8. Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borgeson, W.T.; Batson, R.M.; Kieffer, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The geometric accuracy of the Landsat Thematic Mappers was assessed by a linear least-square comparison of the positions of conspicuous ground features in digital images with their geographic locations as determined from 1:24 000-scale maps. For a Landsat-5 image, the single-dimension standard deviations of the standard digital product, and of this image with additional linear corrections, are 11.2 and 10.3 m, respectively (0.4 pixel). An F-test showed that skew and affine distortion corrections are not significant. At this level of accuracy, the granularity of the digital image and the probable inaccuracy of the 1:24 000 maps began to affect the precision of the comparison. The tested image, even with a moderate accuracy loss in the digital-to-graphic conversion, meets National Horizontal Map Accuracy standards for scales of 1:100 000 and smaller. Two Landsat-4 images, obtained with the Multispectral Scanner on and off, and processed by an interim software system, contain significant skew and affine distortions. -Authors

  9. Effects of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus radiometric and geometric calibrations and corrections on landscape characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, James E.; Helder, Dennis; Morfitt, Ron; Choate, Michael J.; Merchant, James W.; Bulley, Henry

    2001-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments onboard Landsats 4 and 5 provide high-quality imagery appropriate for many different applications, including land cover mapping, landscape ecology, and change detection. Precise calibration was considered to be critical to the success of the Landsat 7 mission and, thus, issues of calibration were given high priority during the development of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Data sets from the Landsat 5 TM are not routinely corrected for a number of radiometric and geometric artifacts, including memory effect, gain/bias, and interfocal plane misalignment. In the current investigation, the effects of correcting vs. not correcting these factors were investigated for several applications. Gain/bias calibrations were found to have a greater impact on most applications than did memory effect calibrations. Correcting interfocal plane offsets was found to have a moderate effect on applications. On June 2, 1999, Landsats 5 and 7 data were acquired nearly simultaneously over a study site in the Niobrara, NE area. Field radiometer data acquired at that site were used to facilitate crosscalibrations of Landsats 5 and 7 data. Current findings and results from previous investigations indicate that the internal calibrator of Landsat 5 TM tracked instrument gain well until 1988. After this, the internal calibrator diverged from the data derived from vicarious calibrations. Results from this study also indicate very good agreement between prelaunch measurements and vicarious calibration data for all Landsat 7 reflective bands except Band 4. Values are within about 3.5% of each other, except for Band 4, which differs by 10%. Coefficient of variation (CV) values derived from selected targets in the imagery were also analyzed. The Niobrara Landsat 7 imagery was found to have lower CV values than Landsat 5 data, implying that lower levels of noise characterize Landsat 7 data than current Landsat 5 data. It was also found that following

  10. A definitive calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper anchored to the Landsat-7 radiometric scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; Ruggles, T.A.; Landry, R.; Ahern, F.J.; Higgs, N.J.; Barsi, J.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Thome, K.J.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, Frank Don

    2004-01-01

    A coordinated effort on the part of several agencies has led to the specification of a definitive radiometric calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) for its lifetime since launch in 1984. The time-dependent calibration record for Landsat-5 TM has been placed on the same radiometric scale as the Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+). It has been implemented in the National Landsat Archive Production Systems (NLAPS) in use in North America. This paper documents the results of this collaborative effort and the specifications for the related calibration processing algorithms. The specifications include (i) anchoring of the Landsat-5 TM calibration record to the Landsat-7 ETM+ absolute radiometric calibration, (ii) new time-dependent calibration processing equations and procedures applicable to raw Landsat-5 TM data, and (iii) algorithms for recalibration computations applicable to some of the existing processed datasets in the North American context. The cross-calibration between Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ was achieved using image pairs from the tandem-orbit configuration period that was programmed early in the Laridsat-7 mission. The time-dependent calibration for Landsat-5 TM is based on a detailed trend analysis of data from the on-board internal calibrator. The new lifetime radiometric calibration record for Landsat-5 will overcome problems with earlier product generation owing to inadequate maintenance and documentation of the calibration over time and will facilitate the quantitative examination of a continuous, near-global dataset at 30-m scale that spans almost two decades.

  11. Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Kieffer, H. H.; Borgeson, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    The geometric accuracy (GA) and errors in imagery by Landsat-4 and -5 were examined using data from regions with a minimal topography. A least-squares comparison was made between ground truth digitized photographs and TM data for prominent features displayed on a 1:24,000 map. The algorithms used for the transformation of the Landsat data to a Cartesian system are provided. Landsat-5 images had a calculated error of 11.2 m (0.4 pixel) and could not be improved with skew and affine-distortion corrections. However, the digitized images, including road tracks, were considered detailed enough for standard 1:50,000 maps. Landsat-5 imagery, when fully corrected, was consistently superior to Landsat-4 data.

  12. Surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. [for radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Quinn J.

    1991-01-01

    Absolute reflectance-based radiometric calibrations of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) are improved with the inclusion of a method to invert optical-depth measurements to obtain aerosol-particle size distributions, and a non-Lambertian surface reflectance model. The inverted size distributions can predict radiances varying from the previously assumed jungian distributions by as much as 5 percent, though the reduction in the estimated error is less than one percent. Comparison with measured diffuse-to-global ratios show that neither distribution consistently predicts the ratio accurately, and this is shown to be a large contributor to calibration uncertainties. An empirical model for the surface reflectance of White Sands, using a two-degree polynomial fit as a function of scattering angle, was employed. The model reduced estimated errors in radiance predictions by up to one percent. Satellite calibrations dating from October, 1984 were reprocessed using the improved methods and linear estimations of satellite counts per unit radiance versus time since launch were determined which showed a decrease over time for the first four bands.

  13. Detection of tamarisk defoliation by the northern tamarisk beetle based on multitemporal Landsat 5 thematic mapper imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meng, Ran; Dennison, Philip E.; Jamison, Levi R.; van Riper, Charles, III; Nager, Pamela; Hultine, Kevin R.; Bean, Dan W.; Dudley, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The spread of tamarisk (Tamarix spp., also known as saltcedar) is a significant ecological disturbance in western North America and has long been targeted for control, leading to the importation of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) as a biological control agent. Following its initial release along the Colorado River near Moab, Utah in 2004, the beetle has successfully established and defoliated tamarisk across much of the upper Colorado River Basin. However, the spatial distribution and seasonal timing of defoliation are complex and difficult to quantify over large areas. To address this challenge, we tested and compared two remote sensing approaches to mapping tamarisk defoliation: Disturbance Index (DI) and a decision tree method called Random Forest (RF). Based on multitemporal Landsat 5 TM imagery for 2006-2010, changes in DI and defoliation probability from RF were calculated to detect tamarisk defoliation along the banks of Green, Colorado, Dolores and San Juan rivers within the Colorado Plateau area. Defoliation mapping accuracy was assessed based on field surveys partitioned into 10 km sections of river and on regions of interest created for continuous riparian vegetation. The DI method detected 3711 ha of defoliated area in 2007, 7350 ha in 2008, 10,457 ha in 2009 and 5898 ha in 2010. The RF method detected much smaller areas of defoliation but proved to have higher accuracy, as demonstrated by accuracy assessment and sensitivity analysis, with 784 ha in 2007, 960 ha in 2008, 934 ha in 2009, and 1008 ha in 2010. Results indicate that remote sensing approaches are likely to be useful for studying spatiotemporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation as the tamarisk leaf beetle spreads throughout the western United States.

  14. A comparative study of infrared radiance measurements by an ER-2 based radiometer and the LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper (TM-6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Philip D.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Kinne, Stefan

    1990-01-01

    Infrared radiance measurements were acquired from a radiometer on the NASA ER-2 during a coincident LANDSAT 5 overpass on 28 Oct. 1986 as part of the FIRE Cirrus IFO in the vicinity of Lake Michigan. A comparative study is made to infer microphysical properties of the cirrus cloud field. Radiances are derived from the image by convolving the ER-2 radiometer's effective field of view along the flight path. A multistream radiative transfer model is used to account for the differences in spectral bandwidths, 10.40 to 12.50 microns for the LANDSAT band and 9.90 to 10.87 microns for the radiometer.

  15. Thematic mapper data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settle, M.; Chavez, P.; Kieffer, H. H.; Everett, J. R.; Kahle, A. B.; Kitcho, C. A.; Milton, N. M.; Mouat, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The geological applications of remote sensing technology are discussed, with emphasis given to the analysis of data from the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument onboard the Landsat 4 satellite. The flight history and design characteristics of the Landsat 4/TM are reviewed, and some difficulties endountered in the interpretation of raw TM data are discussed, including: the volume of data; residual noise; detector-to-detector striping; and spatial misregistration between measurements. Preliminary results of several geological, lithological, geobotanical mapping experiments are presented as examples of the geological applications of the TM, and some areas for improving the guality of TM imagery are identified.

  16. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper Calibration Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helder, Dennis; Malla. Rimy; Mettler, Cory; Markham, Brian; Micijevic, Esad

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5, which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the Thematic Mapper-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988 through 1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations, a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert PICS, were developed. Results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all the reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this work have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  17. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper calibration update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Mettler, Cory J.; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5 which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the TM-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988-1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations (a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert site) were developed. The results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime, with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this paper have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  18. Intraband radiometric performance of the Landsat Thematic Mappers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Cook, D.A.; Eliason, E.M.; Eliason, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    Radiometric characteristics have been examined of the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers (TMs) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. This analysis is based on radiometrically and geometrically raw (B-type) data of both uniform (flat-field) and high-contrast scenes. Subscenes selected for uniform radiance were used to characterized subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. Although the general performance of the Thematic Mappers is excellent, various anomalies that have a magnitude of a few digital levels (DN) or less are quantified. -from Authors

  19. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper interband registration and noise characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Hlavka, C. A.; Card, D. H.; Buis, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments aboard the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 spacecraft have provided the first digital imagery of the earth's surface with a resolution sufficient to distinguish cultural features easily. The present paper provides a description of the results of studies designed to investigate the band-to-band registration, geodetic registration to a map base, and periodic noise. In the eight TM scenes analyzed, the band-to-band registration accuracy was high even before correction, and the correction for the shift between focal planes brought all bands into registration according to tight specifications.

  20. Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

  1. Enhanced rock discrimination using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The application of TM data to rock discrimination is discussed. Sixteen specific terrains derived from geologic maps are examined on TM images of the Arabian shield obtained on Apr. 14, 1984; visual enhancement procedures are applied to the images. The rock types observed in the test site are described; the major sedimentary formations in the test area are laterite and sandstone. The data reveal that the layered rocks in the outcrop consist of a variety of metamorphosed volcanics, metamorphosed sediments, and amphibolite, and the intrusive complex is composed of several classes of mafic and acidic rocks.

  2. Thematic Mapper Spectral Dimensionality and Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data, simulated from field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of a variety of agricultural crops and a wide range of soils, are analyzed to determine their dispersion in the six space defined by the reflective TM bands (i.e., excluding the thermal band). While similar analyses of MSS data from agricultural scenes show that the vast majority of the MSS data occupy a single plane, the simulated TM data primarily occupy three dimensions, defining two intersecting planes and a zone of transition between the two. Viewing the plane of Vegetation head on provides a projection comparable to the single plane of MSS data. The Plane of Soils and transition zone represent new information made available largely as a result of the longer infrared bands included in the Thematic Mapper. A transformation, named the Thematic Mapper Tasseled Cap, is presented which rotates the TM data such that the described data structure is most readily accessible to view.

  3. Thematic Mapper thermal infrared calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, J. R.; Volchok, W. J.

    1985-09-01

    TM band 6 data from Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 are analyzed by correcting the observed radiance for the spectral characteristics of the sensor, along with atmospheric propagation parameters derived from LOWTRAN models. The resultant surface radiance values or surface temperatures are compared to surface temperatures derived from underflight and ground truth data. Correlation of these data indicate that significant systematic error is evident in the satellite-derived surface temperatures. Evaluation of the expected error introduced by the LOWTRAN modeling technique results in compensation of some of this systematic error. The remaining error indicates that the satellite internal calibration, specifically the sensor gain, corrections are not completely compensating for gain shifts.

  4. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  5. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Philip N.; Palmer, James M.

    1986-01-01

    A list of personnel who have contributed to the program is provided. Sixteen publications and presentations are also listed. A preprint summarizing five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations of the solar reflective bands of the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper is presented. The 23 band calibrations made on the five dates show a 2.5% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean. A preprint is also presented that discusses the reflectance-based results of the above preprint. It proceeds to analyze and present results of a second, independent calibration method based on radiance measurements from a helicopter. Radiative transfer through the atmosphere, model atmospheres, the calibration methodology used at White Sands and the results of a sensitivity analysis of the reflectance-based approach is also discussed.

  6. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Radiometric measurements were taken on the morning of the LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper overpass. The sky was cloud free and the sites were dry. Barnes multiband radiometer data were collected for a 4 x 4 pixel area and two fractional pixel areas of slightly higher and lower reflectances than the larger area. Helicopter color photography was obtained of all the ground areas. This photography will allow a detailed reflectance map of the 4 x 4 pixel are to be made and registered to the TM imagery to an accuracy of better than half a pixel. Spectropolarimeter data were also collected of the 4 x 4 pixel area from the helicopter. In addition, ground based solar radiometer data were collected to provide spectral extinction optical thickness valves. The radiative transfer theory used in the development of the Herman code which was used in predicting the TM entrance pupil spectral radiances from the ground based measurements is described.

  7. Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Metzler, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Progress during the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan-ERIM's and 5 image data quality assessment program for the thematic mapper is described. Analyses of LANDSAT 5 TM radiometric characteristics were performed. Effects which had earlier been found in LANDSAT 4 TM data were found to be present in LANDSAT 5 data as well, including: (1) scan direction related signal droop; (2) scan correlated level shifts; and (3) low frequency coherent noise. Coincident LANDSAT 4 and 5 raw TM data were analyzed, and band by band relationships between the two sensors were derived. Earlier efforts which developed an information theoretic measure of multispectral information content were continued, comparing TM and MSS information content.

  8. Thematic Mapper: Design through flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT 4 and 5, launched in 1982 and 1984, not only carried the Thematic Mapper, but were redesigned to handle the increased data rates associated with it, and to communicate that data to Earth via geosynchronous orbiting Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). The TM development program is summarized. A brief historical perspective is presented of the evolution of design requirements and hardware development. The basic performance parameters that serve as sensor design guidelines are presented.

  9. Thematic mapper critical elements breadboard program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dale, C. H., Jr.; Engel, J. L.; Harney, E. D.

    1976-01-01

    A 40.6 cm bidirectional scan mirror assembly, a scan line corrector and a silicon photodiode array with integral preamplifier input stages were designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate performance consistent with requirements of the Hughes thematic mapper system. The measured performance met or exceeded the original design goals in all cases with the qualification that well defined and well understood deficiencies in the design of the photodiode array package will require the prescribed corrections before flight use.

  10. Image mapping with the Thematic Mapper.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals principally with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image maps as published by the US Geological Survey (USGS). Landsat data have certain characteristics that make them suitable for conversion into image maps. These characteristics involve 1) spatial resolution, 2) geometric fidelity, and 3) spectral response. This paper analyzes the three mentioned characteristics and discusses the processes involved in producing TM image maps.-from Author

  11. Evaluation of corn/soybeans separability using Thematic Mapper and Thematic Mapper Simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Shen, S. S.; Sorensen, C. T.; Carnes, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Multitemporal Thematic Mapper, Thematic Mapper Simulator, and detailed ground truth data were collected for a 9- by 11-km sample segment in Webster County, IA, in the summer of 1982. Three dates were acquired each with Thematic Mapper Simulator (June 7, June 23, and July 31) and Thematic Mapper (August 2, September 3, and October 21). The Thematic Mapper Simulator data were converted to equivalent TM count values using TM and TMS calibration data and model based estimates of atmospheric effects. The July 31, TMS image was compared to the August 2, TM image to verify the conversion process. A quantitative measure of proportion estimation variance (Fisher information) was used to evaluate the corn/soybeans separability for each TM band as a function of time during the growing season. The additional bands in the middle infrared allowed corn and soybeans to be separated much earlier than was possible with the visible and near-infrared bands alone. Using the TM and TMS data, temporal profiles of the TM principal components were developed. The greenness and brightness exhibited behavior similar to MSS greenness and brightness for corn and soybeans.

  12. Thematic Mapper bandpass solar exoatmospheric irradiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    Based on solar irradiance data published by Neckel and Labs (1984) and Iqbal (1983), the solar exoatmospheric irradiances for Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been calculated. Results vary by up to 1 percent from previous published values, which were based on the earlier data of Neckel and Labs. For TM bands 5 and 7, integrated solar exoatmospheric irradiances have also been recalculated using solar irradiance data published by Labs and Neckel (1968), Arvesen et al. (1969), and Iqbal (1983). These irradiances vary by up to 6 percent from previously published results, which were based on data published by Thekaekara (1972).

  13. Thematic mapper studies band correlation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, S. G.; Kiang, R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral data representative of thematic mapper candidate bands 1 and 3 to 7 were obtained by selecting appropriate combinations of bands from the JSC 24 channel multispectral scanner. Of all the bands assigned, only candidate bands 4 (.74 mu to .80 mu) and 5 (.80 mu to .91 mu) showed consistently high intercorrelation from region to region and time to time. This extremely high correlation persisted when looking at the composite data set in a multitemporal, multilocation domain. The GISS investigations lend positive confirmation to the hypothesis, that TM bands 4 and 5 are redundant.

  14. Thematic mapper studies of Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective was to identify all the active volcanoes in the Andean region of Bolivia. Morphological features of the Tata Sabaya volcano, Bolivia, were studied with the thematic mapper. Details include marginal levees on lava and pyroclastic flows, and summit crater structure. Valley glacier moraine deposits, not easily identified on the multispectral band scanner, were also unambiguous, and provide useful marker horizons on large volcanic edifices which were built up in preglacial times but which were active subsequently. With such high resolution imagery, it is not only possible to identify potentially active volcanoes, but also to use standard photogeological interpretation to outline the history of individual volcanoes.

  15. Lithologic mapping using Landsat thematic mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Salisbury, J.W.; Jones, O.D.; Mimms, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM), with its new near infrared bands centered at 1.65 μm and 2.20 μm and spatial resolution of 30 m has been used to distinguish rocks containing minerals having ferric-iron absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared and Al-O- and CO3 absorption bands in the 2.1-2.4 μm regions. On the basis of characteristic absorption bands, digitally processed TM data were used to differentiate vegetated from non-vegetated areas, limonitic from nonlimonitic rocks, rocks containing minerals having absorption bands in the near-infrared region from rocks lacking infrared absorption bands. Specific minerals were detected in both the humid eastern and semi-arid western United States. The absorption bands in the near-infrared region were used to detect kaolinite in open-pit exposures of a kaolin mining district near Macon, Georgia; calcium carbonate in the back sands along the east coast of Floridia; and kaolinite, alunite, jarosite, sericite and gypsum in natural exposures near Boulder City, Nevada. These results show that the additional spectral bands in the near-infrared region and increased spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper provide a valuable tool for distinguishing several significant geologic materials not distinguishable from space using previous imaging systems. They also show that TM data can be successfully used in a variety of geologic environments.

  16. Landsat-D thematic mapper simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, G. F.; Tilton, E. L., III

    1982-01-01

    The design and testing program for the airborne Landsat-D thematic-mapper simulator (TMS) is summarized. The TMS is intended to provide data similar enough to those expected from Landsat-D to facilitate the development of data-processing software. The design process comprised mainly modifications on the existing MSS-simulator fiber optics, dichroics, and detectors to provide 7-channel coverage of the 0.45-12.3-micron range at 60-deg angle of view, corresponding to a 418-element, 13.8-km-wide ground swath. The TMS is carried on a Lear 23 aircraft operating at 750 km/h and 12-m altitude and equipped with a 15.2-cm aerial mapping camera and a ground-updated inertial navigational system. Agricultural, forestry, and geological trial applications are reviewed, and some sample results are given. The significant improvements predicted for the Landsat-D thematic mapper (relative to the Landsat MSS) are seen as confirmed, with the possible exception of the 120-m-resolution version of channel 7.

  17. MTF Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R.

    1984-01-01

    A research program to measure the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) modulation transfer function (MTF) is described. Measurement of a satellite sensor's MTF requires the use of a calibrated ground target, i.e., the spatial radiance distribution of the target must be known to a resolution at least four to five times greater than that of the system under test. A small reflective mirror or a dark light linear pattern such as line or edge, and relatively high resolution underflight imagery are used to calibrate the target. A technique that utilizes an analytical model for the scene spatial frequency power spectrum will be investigated as an alternative to calibration of the scene. The test sites and analysis techniques are also described.

  18. Thematic mapper studies of central Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    A series of false color composite images covering the volcanic cordillera was written. Each image is 45 km (1536 x 1536 pixels) and was constructed using bands 7, 4, and 2 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Approximately 100 images were prepared to date. A set of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images was used in conjunction with the TM hardcopy to compile a computer data base of all volcanic structure in the Central Andean province. Over 500 individual structures were identified. About 75 major volcanoes were identified as active, or potentially active. A pilot study was begun combining Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data with TM for a test area in north Chile and Bolivia.

  19. Thematic Mapper research in the earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke

    1989-01-01

    This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.

  20. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1987-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) images were used to produce improved geologic maps of the ophiolites of the Brooks Range, and to recognize regional-scale structures that might affect the spatial distribution of the ophiolites. From the TM data, significant information was obtained concerning the distribution of rock types and structures that could not easily be acquired with conventional geologic studies. The information obtained from the TM data, in combination with other geologic data, is being used to further the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range. Results of the work in the Maiyumerak Mountains area are used to illustrate the information being obtained with the LANDSAT TM data, and the way that the information is being integrated with other geologic data.

  1. Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Metzler, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Progress under the LANDSAT-4 and 5 Image Data Quality Assessment program for the Thematic Mapper is described. An initial screening of LANDSAT-5 data is performed. Tools are developed to allow access to TIPS-format data. Analysis of scan direction related signal droop is resumed with detailed analysis of nighttime data. A new mathematical model is developed to describe the effect. Coherent noise of a lower frequency than previously reported is discovered and analyzed. Coincident LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS data are analyzed to improve understanding of radiometric relationships between similar wavebands in the two sensors.

  2. Scrounge data processing film products for the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Information on the format of the film product and type of film used for the LANDSAT-4 scrounge processed thematic mapper data is presented. Image gray scale, annotation field, and general layout are described.

  3. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

  4. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The combinations of Thematic Mapper (TM) bands that best distinguish basalts of the Brooks Range ophiolites were determined. Geochemical analyses, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE), are being done in order to study the significance of TM spectral variations that were observed within some of the sampled rock units. An image of the topography of the western Brooks Range and Colville Basin was constructed. Elevation data for the rest of Northern Alaska are being acquired to expand the area covered by the topography image. Two balanced cross sections (one along the eastern margin, the other along the western margin of the Brooks Range) are being constructed, using the techniques of fault-bend and fault-propagation folding. These are being used to obtain regional shortening estimates for the Brooks Range in an attempt to constrain tectonic models for the evolution of Northern Alaska. The TM data are being used to confirm reconnaissance maps and to obtain structural data where no maps exist. Along with the TM data, digital topography, seismic reflection profiles, and magnetic and gravity surveys are examined to better understand the evolution of the Colville Basin, north of the Brooks Range.

  5. Snow reflectance from Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1984-01-01

    In California 75 percent of the agricultural water supply comes from the melting Sierra Nevada snowpack. Basin-wide spectral albedo measurements from the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) could be used to better forecast the timing of the spring runoff, because these data can be combined with solar radiation calculations to estimate the net radiation balance. The TM is better-suited for this purpose than the Multispectral Scanner because of its larger dynamic range. Saturation still occurs in bands 1-4, but is severe only in TM1 (0.45-0.52 micron). Snow reflectance in TM2 (0.43-0.61 micron) is typical of the visible wavelength region, where reflectance is almost insensitive to crystal size but sensitive to contamination. TM4 (0.78-0.90 micron) allows estimation of effective optical grain size and thereby spectral extension throughout the near-infrared. TM5 (1.57-1.78 microns) can discriminate clouds from snow.

  6. Information extraction from thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1983-01-01

    The improvements introduced in spectral, spatial, and ratiometric capabilities through installation of the thematic mapper (TM) on the Landsat-4 spacecraft are described. The TM optical sensors scan in the visible (0.45-0.52, 0.52-0.60, and 0.63-0.69 micron), near-IR (0.76-0.90 micron), middle-IR (1.55-1.75 micron), and thermal IR (10.4-12.5 microns). The reflectances of vegetation and the differences in chlorophyll absorption by various plants are discerned more accurately than with the MSS, while the effects of land surface obscuration by water vapor are reduced. The blue-green band upgrades water measurements for bathymetry, reef, and atoll mapping, and the middle-IR increases sensitivity to leaf water content. The field-of-view is a 30 x 30 m square, one-fifth that of the MSS. Results from sample surveys of forested wetlands in Tennessee and agricultural land use patterns are presented.

  7. Comparison of satellite and Airborne Thematic Mapper data for estimating inland water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Claudia; Brivio, Pietro A.; Zilioli, Eugenio

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare satellite Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data with Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) data, for the detection of the trophic status of water masses. Study area is the Lake Iseo, one of the most important freshwater basin in northern Italy, located in the sub-alpine ecoregion. In accordance with the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) the Iseo waters are defined as meso-eutrophic. Airborne Daedalus ATM AADS-1268 data were acquired on 14th July 1992 and Landsat-5 TM data on 1st September 1992. Multi-temporal comparison required adjustment of scene radiance due to atmospheric variations. To achieve this an integrally image-based method was employed. Airborne and satellite data were used to estimate turbidity, chlorophyll and suspended sediment load, by means of chromaticity analysis. Processing of thermal images for lake surface temperature determination was also addressed. The results confirmed previous knowledge on the trophic state of Lake Iseo, in agreement with traditional investigations. Remotely data were able to separate chromaticity of the waters, discriminating different turbidity patterns distribution and emphasizing the behavior of shallower waters infected by macrophytes.

  8. Landsat-4 thematic mapper and thematic mapper simulator data for a porphyry copper deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft thematic mapper (TM) data were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the Landsat-4 thematic mapper for geologic mapping and detection of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona. The data allow a comparison between aircraft TV simulator data and the Landsat-4 TM satellite data which possess similar spectral bands. A color rationcomposite of 30-m pixels was resampled, in order to clearly define a number of hydroxyl bearing minerals, (kaolinite, sericite, white mica), pyrite and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals. The iron oxide minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.45 and 0.85 micron regions of the spectrum, and the hydrous minerals are characterized by an absorption in the 2.2 micron region. The position of the spectral bands allow the TM to identify regions of hydrothermal alteration without resorting to a data processing algorithm. The comparison of the aircraft and Landsat-4 TM data showed considerable agreement, and confirmed the utility of TM data for identifying hydrothermal alteration zones. Samples of some color TM images are provided.

  9. Comparison of outgassing models for the landsat thematic mapper sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) is a multi-spectral electro-optical sensor featured onboard both the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) satellites. TM sensors have seven spectral bands with center wavelengths of approximately 0.49, 0.56, 0.66, 0.83, 1.65, 11.5 and 2.21 ??m, respectively. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) bands are located on the primary focal plane (PFP), and two short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands and the thermal infrared (TIR) band are located on the cold focal plane (CFP). The CFP bands are maintained at cryogenic temperatures of about 91 K, to reduce thermal noise effects. Due to the cold temperature, an ice film accumulates on the CFP dewar window, which introduces oscillations in SWIR and an exponential decay in TIR band responses. This process is usually monitored and characterized by the detector responses to the internal calibrator (IC) lamps and the blackbody. The ice contamination on the dewar window is an effect of the sensor outgassing in a vacuum of the space environment. Outgassing models have been developed, which are based on the thin-film optical interference phenomenon. They provide the coefficients for correction for outgassing effects for the entire mission's lifetime. While the L4 TM ceased imaging in August 1993, the L5 TM continues to operate even after more than 23 years in orbit. The process of outgassing in L5 TM is still occurring, though at a much lower rate than during early years of mission. Although the L4 and L5 TM sensors are essentially identical, they exhibit slightly different responses to the outgassing effects. The work presented in the paper summarizes the results of modeling outgassing effects in each of the sensors and provides a detailed analysis of differences among the estimated modeling parameters. For both sensors, water ice was confirmed as a reasonable candidate for contaminant material, the contaminant growth rate was found to be gradually decreasing with the time since launch, and the indications exist that

  10. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The eleventh quarterly report on Spectroradiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper (Contract NAS5-27832) discusses calibrations made at White Sands on 24 May 1985. An attempt is made to standardize test results. Critical values used in the final steps of the data reduction and the comparison of the results of the pre-flight and internal calibration (IC) data are summarized.

  11. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.

    1983-01-01

    The results of an analysis that relates thematic mapper (TM) saturation level to ground reflectance, calendar date, latitude, and atmospheric condition is provided. A revised version of the preprint included with the last quarterly report is also provided for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing.

  12. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, J. (Principal Investigator); Slater, P.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an analysis that relates TM saturation level to ground reflectance, calendar date, latitude, and atmospheric conditions are reported. The determination of the spectral reflectance at the entrance pupil of the LANDSAT 4 pupil of the thematic mapper is described.

  13. Thematic Mapper. Volume 2: Flight model preshipment review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The various systems of the Thematic Mapper are reviewed and a comparison of measured and specified performance is given. Test methodologies are described. The specific instrument systems discussed include the power supply assembly, scan mirror, electronics module, focal plane assembly, radiometer, and radiation cooler.

  14. Landsat 4 and 5 status and results from Thematic Mapper data analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-1, 2, and 3 have functioned successfully well beyond their design lifetimes of one year and provided a very sizable collection of data. On July 16, 1982 with the successful launch of Landsat-4, a second generation of Landsat satellites was introduced. Landsat-4 continues to make available the observational services which had been provided by the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) on Landsats 1-3. In addition, the new satellite is provided with an improved observational capability which is based on a utilization of the Thematic Mapper (TM). The system status (March 1984) of Landsat-4 is considered along with an evaluation of the MSS, and a description of the design and performance of the TM. Attention is also given to the satellite Landsat-5, which was launched successfully on March 1, 1984, taking into account design modifications leading to improved performance and some scenes provided by the new spacecraft.

  15. Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Progress during ERIM's tenth quarter of effort under the LANDSAT-4 and 5 Image Data Quality Assessment program for the Thematic Mapper is described. Coincident LANDSAT-4 and 5 fully corrected (CCT-PT) TM data are analyzed in more detail and revised band-by-band relationships between the two sensors derived. An analysis technique employing the matching of cumulative distributions is developed and used and is believed to offer advantages over the histogram matching procedure currently used to produce LANDSAT data. Multiplicative factors ranging from 0.987 to 1.145 and offsets ranging from -2.7 to -6.2 video quantum levels are required to cause LANDSAT-5 data to match LANDSAT-4 data values. Evidence of low level clipping is found in TM Bands 5 and 7 of LANDSAT-5 but not LANDSAT-4. Analysis of the information content of LANDSAT TM and MSS data is continued. Components of information loss are identified and quantified and the effects of coarsened quantization are explored.

  16. LANDSAT 4 investigations of thematic mapper and multispectral scanner applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Initial data screening, data handling and program testing were completed on the four-band Detroit scene and the seven-band northeast Arkansas scene. Data were received in early December for one primary eastern test site (Washington, D.C.) and one secondary eastern test site (Allegheny National Forest). A comprehensive digital data base was built for a portion of the Black Hills test site and is composed of historic LANDSAT MSS data; elevation, slope, and aspect data; land cover data; geologic data; thematic mapper simulator data; and digitized high altitude aircraft data. The thematic mapper and multispectral scanner data of the Washington area were resampled at 25 and 50 meters respectively, with map projection to UTM grid.

  17. LANDSAT D to test thematic mapper, inaugurate operational system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    NASA will launch the Landsat D spacecraft on July 9, 1982 aboard a new, up-rated Delta 3920 expendable launch vehicle. LANDSAT D will incorporate two highly sophisticated sensors; the flight proven multispectral scanner; and a new instrument expected to advance considerably the remote sensing capabilities of Earth resources satellites. The new sensor, the thematic mapper, provides data in seven spectral (light) bands with greatly improved spectral, spatial and radiometric resolution.

  18. INTRABAND RADIOMETRIC PERFORMANCE OF THE LANDSAT 4 THEMATIC MAPPER.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Hugh H.; Eliason, Eric M.; Chavez, Pat S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This preliminary report examines those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. Analysis is based largely on radiometrically raw (B type) data of three daytime and two nighttime scenes; in most scenes, a set of 512 lines were examined on an individual-detector basis. Subscenes selected for uniform-radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems.

  19. Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

  20. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A main problem encountered in radiometric calibration of satellite image data is correcting for atmospheric effects. Without this correction, an image digital number (DN) cannot be converted to a surface reflectance value. In this paper the accuracy of a calibration procedure, which includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, is tested. Two simple methods, a stand-alone and an in situ sky radiance measurement technique, were used to derive the HAZE DN values for each of the six reflectance Thematic Mapper (TM) bands. The DNs of two Landsat TM images of Phoenix, Arizona were converted to surface reflectances. -from Author

  1. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral coverage characteristics of the two thematic mapper instruments were determined by analyses of spectral measurements of the optics, filters, and detectors. The following results are presented: (1) band 2 and 3 flatness was slightly below specification, and band 7 flatness was below specification; (2) band 5 upper-band edge was higher than specifications; (3) band 2 band edges were shifted upward about 9 nm relative to nominal; and (4) band 4, 5, and 7 lower band edges were 16 to 18 nm higher then nominal.

  2. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  3. Cropland measurement using Thematic Mapper data and radiometric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, John G.; Khuwaiter, I. H. S.

    1989-01-01

    To halt erosion and desertification, it is necessary to quantify resources that are affected. Necessary information includes inventory of croplands and desert areas as they change over time. Several studies indicate the value of remote sensor data as input to inventories. In this study, the radiometric modeling of spectral characteristics of soil and vegetation provides the theoretical basis for the remote sensing approach. Use of Landsat Thematic Mapper images allows measurement of croplands in Saudi Arabia, demonstrating the capability of the approach. The inventory techniques and remote sensing approach presented are potentially useful in developing countries.

  4. An Analysis LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Geometric Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gokhman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper P-data of Washington, D. C., Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA are analyzed to determine magnitudes and causes of error in the geometric conformity of the data to known Earth surface geometry. Several tests of data geometry are performed. Intraband and interband correlation and registration are investigated, exclusive of map based ground truth. The magnitudes and statistical trends of pixel offsets between a single band's mirror scans (due to processing procedures) are computed, and the inter-band integrity of registration is analyzed. A line to line correlation analysis is included.

  5. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, R.G., JR. )

    1992-04-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions. 17 refs.

  6. A prospectus for Thematic Mapper research in the Earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Earth science applications of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery are discussed. Prospective research themes are defined in a general sense in relation to the technical measurement capabilities of the TM and the various types of Earth information that can potentially be derived from multispectral TM imagery. An overview of the system developed to acquire and reduce TM data is presented. The technical capabilities of this system are presented in detail. The orbital performance of the TM sensor is described, based upon the analysis of LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data collected to date.

  7. Demonstration of angular anisotropy in the output of Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggin, M. J. (Principal Investigator); Lindsay, J.; Piwinski, D. J.; Schoch, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    There is a dependence of TM output (proportional to scene radiance in a manner which will be discussed) upon season, upon cover type and upon view angle. The existence of a significant systematic variation across uniform scenes in p-type (radiometrically and geometrically pre-processed) data is demonstrated. Present pre-processing does remove the effects and the problem must be addressed because the effects are large. While this is in no way attributable to any shortcomings in the thematic mapper, it is an effect which is sufficiently important to warrant more study, with a view to developing suitable pre-processing correction algorithms.

  8. Registering Thematic Mapper imagery to digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frew, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problems encountered when attempting to register Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to U.S. geological survey digital elevation models (DEMs) are examined. It is shown that TM and DEM data are not available in the same map projection, necessitating geometric transformation of one of the data type, that the TM data are not accurately located in their nominal projection, and that TM data have higher resolution than most DEM data, but oversampling the DEM data to TM resolution introduces systematic noise. Further work needed in this area is discussed.

  9. A comparative study of the thematic mapper and Landsat spectral bands from field measurement data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Henderson, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    Principal component and factor analysis techniques were applied to the spectral data collected over 27 field plots of various crops under varying agronomic conditions. The spectral data was integrated over the proposed thematic mapper bands and Landsat MSS spectral bands. The results were examined to compare the discrimination power of the thematic mapper. Previously announced in STAR as N81-33549

  10. Analysis of forest structure using thematic mapper simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Westman, W. E.; Brass, J. A.; Stephenson, N. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Spanner, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure information has been explored by principal components and feature selection techniques. In a survey of forest structural properties conducted for 123 field sites of the Sequoia National Park, the canopy closure could be well estimated (r = 0.62 to 0.69) by a variety of channel bands and band ratios, without reference to the forest type. Estimation of the basal area was less successful (r = 0.51 or less) on the average, but could be improved for certain forest types when data were stratified by floristic composition. To achieve such a stratification, individual sites were ordinated by a detrended correspondence analysis based on the canopy of dominant species. The analysis of forest structure in the Sequoia data suggests that total basal area can be best predicted in stands of lower density, and in younger even-aged managed stands.

  11. Hydrological planning studies using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Mulligan, P. J.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    NASA, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is evaluating the capabilities of Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for environmental and hydrological applications. Attention is given to the results of studies conducted at the Clinton River Basin in Michigan and the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. In the former, the evaluation conducted was for the band combinations: (1) 2, 3, and 4; (2) 3, 4, and 5; (3) 3, 4, 5, and 6; and (4) all seven bands. In the latter case, Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and TM data were classified for combinations (1), (3) and (4). Wetland classification accuracy for the 7-band TM data in this study was found to be 9 percent higher than with MSS data, allowing more reliable and accurate monitoring.

  12. Landsat-4 thematic mapper (TM) for cold environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Salomonson, V. V.; Mckim, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    Landsat-4 was launched into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit on July 16, 1982. It is the largest and most complex of NASA's earth resources satellites. Landsat-4's instrument payload includes two remote sensors. The Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (MSS) is an electro-optical scanning radiometer with four spectral bands in the visible and near infrared, which was also carried aboard Landsats 1, 2, and 3. The second sensor, the Thematic Mapper (TM), represents a more advanced remote sensing instrument than the MSS. It uses a scanning mirror assembly to collect data from a 15.4 deg angle on both forward and reverse scans. It is pointed out that the improved spatial, spectral, and radiometric characteristics of TM have significant implications for satellite remote sensing in cold environments. The expected improvements are discussed, giving attention to snow, ice, water, soil, and land cover.

  13. Contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data to geologic exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The increased number of carefully selected narrow spectral bands and the increased spatial resolution of thematic mapper data over previously available satellite data contribute greatly to geologic exploration, both by providing spectral information that permits lithologic differentiation and recognition of alteration and spatial information that reveals structure. As vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases relative to the value of the spatial component of the data. However, even in vegetated areas, the greater spectral breadth and discrimination of TM data permits improved recognition and mapping of spatial elements of the terrain. As our understanding of the spectral manifestations of the responses of soils and vegetation to unusual chemical environments increases, the value of spectral components of TM data to exploration will greatly improve in covered areas.

  14. LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A power spectrum (PS) analysis technique was used to compare thematic mapper (TM) A and P-tape data for a Washington, DC scene in two orthogonal directions, along scan and along track. The resulting effective modulation transfer functions (MTF) between the A and P data are repeatable from area to area and consistent with theoretical expectations. The average x-direction (along scan) MTF calculated with the PS technique is compared to the MTF of the cubic convolution resampling function used to create P data from A data. The two curves are nearly identical, indicating that the major factor affecting the image quality of P data relative to A data is the cubic convolution resampling.

  15. Estimating forest productivity with Thematic Mapper and biogeographical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Elizabeth A.; Iverson, Louis R.; Graham, Robin L.

    1989-01-01

    Spectral data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) on three forest exosystems (the southern Illinois, the Great Smoky Mountains regions in Tennessee and North Carolina, and the central Adirondack Mountains in New York) were used in conjunction with ground-collected measures of forest productivity and such information as the area's slope, aspect, elevation, and soil and vegetation types, to develop models of regional forest productivity. It is shown that the models developed may be used to estimate the productivity of a region with a high degree of confidence, but that the reliability of single-pixel estimates is poor. The characteristics of a given ecosystem determine which spectral values are most closely related to forest productivity. Thus, mid-IR, NIR, and visible bands are most significant in Illinois and New York, while the thermal band is relatively more important in the Smokies.

  16. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT thematic mapper sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Data collected on the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-4 backup thematic mapper instruments, the protoflight (TM/PF) and flight (TM/F) models, respectively, are presented and analyzed. Tests were conducted on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with two sets of spectral specifications: band-by-band spectral coverage and channel-by-channel within-band spectral matching. Spectral coverage specifications were placed on: (1) band edges--points at 50% of peak response, (2) band edge slopes--steepness of rise and fall-off of response, (3) spectral flatness--evenness of response between edges, and (4) spurious system response--ratio of out-of-band response to in-band response. Compliance with the spectral coverage specifications was determined by analysis of spectral measurements on the individual components contributing to the overall spectral response: filters, detectors, and optical surfaces.

  17. In-flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values into an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels at the entrance pupil of the TM in four of the TM spectral bands are determined. These levels are compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration is extended to all 16 detectors in each of the three bands.

  18. Waveband evaluation of proposed thematic mapper in forest cover classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latty, R. S.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation of the characteristics of multispectral scanner data relative to forest cover type mapping, using NASA's NS-001 multispectral scanner to simulate the proposed Thematic Mapper (TM). The objectives were to determine: (1) the optimum number of wavebands to utilize in computer classifications of TM data; (2) which channel combinations provide the highest expected classification accuracy; and (3) the relative merit of each channel in the context of the cover classes examined. Transformed divergence was used as a measure of statistical distance between spectral class densities associated with each of twelve cover classes. The maximum overall mean pair-wise transformed divergence was used as the basis for evaluating all possible waveband combinations available for use in computer-assisted forest cover classifications.

  19. Thematic Mapper Image Production in the Engineering Checkout Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, D.; Lyon, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data processing during LANDSAT 4's first year was performed on an engineering evaluation basis. Fully corrected products were created for some 282 scenes during this period using software and systems based upon the intended full production systems to become operational following the evaluation period. The engineering systems included substantial software and procedures for assessing spacecraft, instrument and ground processing algorithmic behavior. The data systems are described in terms of performance objectives, processing organization and data flow, quality assurance measurements and achievement of goals. The a priori implementation of TM radiometric and geometric corrections is described. Changes to processing suggested by or implemented on the basis of on-orbit data analysis are discussed. Spacecraft, instrument and algorithmic performance are evaluated.

  20. Analysis of conifer forest regeneration using Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorella, Maria; Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to evaluate young conifer stands in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Regression and correlation analyses were used to describe the relationships between TM band values and age of young Douglas-fir stands (2 to 35 years old). Spectral data from well regenerated Douglas-fir stands were compared to those of poorly regenerated conifer stands. TM bands 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 were inversely correlated with the age (r greater than or equal to -0.80) of well regenerated Douglas-fir stands. Overall, the 'structural index' (TM 4/5 ratio) had the highest correlation to age of Douglas-fir stands (r = 0.96). Poorly regenerated stands were spectrally distinct from well regenerated Douglas-fir stands after the stands reached an age of approximately 15 years.

  1. Classification of corn and soybeans using multitemporal Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The multitemporal classification approach based on the greenness profile derived from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral bands has proved successful in effectively separating and identifying corn, soybean, and other ground cover classes. Features derived from these profiles have been shown to carry virtually all the information contained in the original data and, in addition, have been shown to be stable over a large geographic area of the United States. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the same features derived from multitemporal Thematic Mapper (TM) data would also prove effective in separating these two crop types, and, in fact, if algorithms developed for MSS could be directly applied to TM. It is shown that this is indeed the case. In addition, because of greater spatial and spectral resolution, the accuracy of TM classifications is better than in MSS.

  2. Thematic Mapper simulator research for forest resource mapping in the Clearwater National Forest, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.; Spanner, M. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ulliman, J. J.; Brockhaus, J.

    1984-01-01

    Per-pixel maximum likelihood digital classification and photo interpretation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) composited images for a managed conifer forest were used to evaluate both land cover and forest structure characteristics. TMS channels 4, 7, 5 and 3, which were found to be optimal for forest vegetation analysis, used the full range of the Thematic Mapper's spectral capability. Photo interpretation results indicate that a false color composite from TMS channels 4, 7, and 2 provided the highest accuracies; the combination of improved spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of the Thematic Mapper yielded greater sensitivity to forest structural characteristics.

  3. The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was acquired over central California in August, 1983 and used to simulate Thematic Mapper data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field center pixels) showed better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

  4. APPLICATION OF MULTI-DATE LANDSAT 5 TIM IMAGERY FOR WETLAND IDENTIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery was evaluated for the identification and monitoring of potential jurisdictional wetlands located in the states of Maryland and Delaware. A wetland map prepared from single-date TM imagery was compared to a hybrid map develope...

  5. Resource and environmental surveys from space with the thematic mapper in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The selection of observation of vegetation is the primary optimization objective of the thematic mapper. The following are aspects of plans for the thematic mapper: (1) to include an appropriately modified first generation MSS in the thematic mapper mission; (2) to provide assured coverage for a minimum of six years to give agencies and other users an opportunity to justify the necessary commitment of resources for the transition into a completely valid operational phase; (3) to provide for global, direct data read-out, without the necessity for on-board data storage or dependence on foreign receiving stations; (4) to recognize the operational character of the thematic mapper after successful completion of its experimental evaluation; and (5) to combine future experimental packages with compatible orbits as part of the operational LANDSAT follow-on payloads.

  6. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Images of the Andes as a Classroom Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Fox, Andrew N.

    1990-01-01

    Described is the use of Thematic Mapper images in undergraduate geology instruction. The work of the Andes Project at Cornell University is discussed. Digitally enhanced illustrations of landforms in the Andes mountains of South America are provided. (CW)

  7. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part C: Subsystem data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Reference lists are provided to acceptance data for each of the major subsystems of the thematic mapper. Configuration reports, lists and copies of all failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

  8. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 3, Part 2: Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper is discussed as well as the atmospheric, radiometric, and geometric accuracy and correction of data obtained with this sensor. Methods are given for assessing TM band to band registration.

  9. INPE LANDSAT-D thematic mapper computer compatible tape format specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Desouza, R. C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The format of the computer compatible tapes (CCT) which contain Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery data acquired from the LANDSAT D and D Prime satellites by the INSTITUTO DE PERSQUISAS ESPACIALS (CNPq-INPE/BRAZIL) is defined.

  10. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part G: Miscellaneous system data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Functional and design data from various thematic mapper subsystems are presented. Coarse focus, modulation transfer function, and shim requirements are addressed along with spectral matching and spatial coverage tests.

  11. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The results of analyses of Thematic Mapper (TM) images acquired on July 8 and October 28, 1984, and of a check of the calibration of the 1.22-m integrating sphere at Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) are described. The results obtained from the in-flight calibration attempts disagree with the pre-flight calibrations for bands 2 and 4. Considerable effort was expended in an attempt to explain the disagreement. The difficult point to explain is that the difference between the radiances predicted by the radiative transfer code (the code radiances) and the radiances predicted by the preflight calibration (the pre-flight radiances) fluctuate with spectral band. Because the spectral quantities measured at White Sands show little change with spectral band, these fluctuations are not anticipated. Analyses of other targets at White Sands such as clouds, cloud shadows, and water surfaces tend to support the pre-flight and internal calibrator calibrations. The source of the disagreement has not been identified. It could be due to: (1) a computational error in the data reduction; (2) an incorrect assumption in the input to the radiative transfer code; or (3) incorrect operation of the field equipment.

  12. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper Thermal Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Gibbons, D. E.; Martucci, L. M.; Foote, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of satellite-acquired data is essential for quantitative scientific studies, as well as for a variety of image-processing applications. This paper describes a multiyear, on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Band 6 conducted at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Numerous Landsat TM scenes acquired and analyzed included day and night coverages at several geographical locations over several seasons. Concurrent with Landsat overpasses, thermal field and local meteorological (surface and radiosonde) measurements were collected. At-satellite (uncorrected) radiances and temperatures for water and nonwater land cover were compared to ground truth (GT) measurements after making adjustments for atmospheric (using LOWTRAN), mixed-pixel, and emissivity effects. Results indicate that, for both water and nonwater features, TM Band 6 average corrected temperature determinations using local radiosonde data to adjust for atmospheric effects, and using appropriate emissivities, are within 1.0 C of GT temperature values. Temperatures of water pixels derived from uncorrected TM Band 6 data varied roughly between 1 and 3 C of ground truth values for water temperatures ranging between 4 and 24 C. Moreover, corrections using nonlocal and noncoincident radiosonde data resulted in errors as large as 12 C. Corrections using the U.S. Standard Atmosphere gave temperature values within 1 to 2 C of GT. The average uncertainty for field instruments was + or - 0.2 C; average uncertainty for Landsat TM corrected temperature determinations was + or - 0.4 C.

  13. An analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper geometric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gohkman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data of Washington, DC, Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine geometric integrity and conformity of the data to known earth surface geometry. Several tests were performed. Intraband correlation and interband registration were investigated. No problems were observed in the intraband analysis, and aside from indications of slight misregistration between bands of the primary versus bands of the secondary focal planes, interband registration was well within the specified tolerances. A substantial number of ground control points were found and used to check the images' conformity to the Space Oblique Mercator (SOM) projection of their respective areas. The means of the residual offsets, which included nonprocessing related measurement errors, were close to the one pixel level in the two scenes examined. The Harrisburg scene residual mean was 28.38 m (0.95 pixels) with a standard deviation of 19.82 m (0.66 pixels), while the mean and standard deviation for the Salton Sea scene were 40.46 (1.35 pixels) and 30.57 m (1.02 pixels), respectively. Overall, the data were judged to be a high geometric quality with errors close to those targeted by the TM sensor design specifications.

  14. A Preliminary Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis was performed to characterize the radiometry of three Thematic Mapper (TM) digital products of a scene of Arkansas. The three digital products examined were the NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product. The frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band were examined on a series of image subsets from the full scene. The results are presented from one 1024 x 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. Bands 1, 2 and 5 of the sample area are presented. The subsets were extracted from the three digital data products to cover the same geographic area. This analysis provides the first step towards a full appraisal of the TM radiometry being performed as part of the ESA/CEC contribution to the NASA/LIDQA program.

  15. Systematic and random variations in digital Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggin, M. J. (Principal Investigator); Sakhavat, H.

    1985-01-01

    Radiance recorded by any remote sensing instrument will contain noise which will consist of both systematic and random variations. Systematic variations may be due to sun-target-sensor geometry, atmospheric conditions, and the interaction of the spectral characteristics of the sensor with those of upwelling radiance. Random variations in the data may be caused by variations in the nature and in the heterogeneity of the ground cover, by variations in atmospheric transmission, and by the interaction of these variations with the sensing device. It is important to be aware of the extent of random and systematic errors in recorded radiance data across ostensibly uniform ground areas in order to assess the impact on quantative image analysis procedures for both the single date and the multidate cases. It is the intention here to examine the systematic and the random variations in digital radiance data recorded in each band by the thematic mapper over crop areas which are ostensibly uniform and which are free from visible cloud.

  16. Volcanology from space - Using Landsat thematic mapper data in the central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.; Mcallister, R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Landsat thematic mapper to identify potentially active Andean volcanos and to study the history of individual volcanos is discussed. A thematic mapper image of the 6150-m-high Socompa volcano is presented and it is noted that TM data have played a valuable role in tracking debris streams in the avalanche derived from the different parts of the original volcanic edifice. The consequences of Landsat commercialization are considered.

  17. Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, C. M.; Gowda, P. H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Xiao, X.

    2009-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts’ ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater models to evaluate economic feasibility for various crop rotations systems and irrigation management practices. In this study, we used a novel approach to derive an irrigated area map covering a 4-county area (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties) in the northwest region of the Texas High Plains from a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on August 13, 2008. The spectral band ratios and vegetation indices were used to define threshold value for the irrigated pixels. The hierarchical rule-based decision tree classification algorithm was employed to delineate final irrigated class. Ground truth data collected for accuracy assessment included land cover type, irrigation practices and their geographic locations using a global positioning system. Accuracy assessment of the irrigated area map indicated that we achieved an overall mapping accuracy of 96% with omission and commission errors at 9% and 8%, respectively, which are mainly due to clouds and shadows of clouds. Irrigated acreages of summer crops derived from the TM image closely matched with that from agricultural statistical reports for the 4-county area. At present, a spring image is being processed to identify irrigated area planted with winter wheat in the study area. The combined irrigated area map will be used in the comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes.

  18. Evaluation of thematic mapper data for natural resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, R.H.; Waltz, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) date for natural resource assessment, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. Substantially more information was derived from TM data than from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. Greater resolution of TM data aided in locating roads, small stock ponds, and many other land features that could be used as landmarks. The improved spatial resolution of TM data also permitted more efficient visual interpretations of land use, better identification of resource types, and improved assessment of ecological status of natural vegetation. TM data also provided a new source of spectral information that was useful for natural resource assessment. New mid-infrared spectral bands, TM band 5 and band 7, aided in distinguishing water resources, wetland vegetation resources, and other important terrain features. The added information was useful for both manual interpretation and digital data classification of vegetation resources and land features. Results from the analyses of both TM and TM simulator (TMS) spectral data suggest that the coefficient of variation for major land cover types is generally less for TM data than for MSS data taken from the same area. This reduction in variance should contribute to an improved multispectral analysis, contributing new information about vegetation in natural ecosystems. Although the amount of new information in TM bands 5 and 7 is mall, it is unique in that the same information cannot be derived from four-band Landsat MSS spectral data.

  19. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The reduction of the data measured on July 8, 1984 at White Sands, New Mexico is summarized. The radiance incident at the entrance pupil of the LANDSAT 5 sensors have been computed for bands 1 to 4. When these are compared to the digital counts of the TM image, the ground based calibration for this sensor will be given. The image was received from Goddard SFC and is presently being analyzed.

  20. Simulation of Thematic Mapper performance as a function of sensor scanning parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. H.; Shah, N. J.; Schmidt, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The investigation and results of the Thematic Mapper Instrument Performance Study are described. The Thematic Mapper is the advanced multispectral scanner initially planned for the Earth Observation Satellite and now planned for LANDSAT D. The use of existing digital airborne scanner data obtained with the Modular Multispectral Scanner (M2S) at Bendix provided an opportunity to simulate the effects of variation of design parameters of the Thematic Mapper. Analysis and processing of this data on the Bendix Multispectral Data Analysis System were used to empirically determine categorization performance on data generated with variations of the sampling period and scan overlap parameters of the Thematic Mapper. The Bendix M2S data, with a 2.5 milliradian instantaneous field of view and a spatial resolution (pixel size) of 10-m from 13,000 ft altitude, allowed a direct simulation of Thematic Mapper data with a 30-m resolution. The flight data chosen were obtained on 30 June 1973 over agricultural test sites in Indiana.

  1. Use of TMS/TM data for mapping of forest decline damage in the northeastern United States. [Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing systems were used to monitor forest decline damage suspected of being due to air pollution. Field activities and aircraft overflights were centered on montane spruce/fir forest sites. Using aircraft data acquired with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) during the growing season, extensive areas of forest decline damage were accurately mapped. Seven levels of decline damage are discrininated and mapped and the levels of discriminated damage agree well (rsq-0.94) with visual assessment conducted on the ground. New areas of high damage were discovered. A band ratio (TM5/TM4) is most useful in discriminating and quantifying the various levels of forest decline damage.

  2. Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

  3. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 2: Sensor system study. [thematic mapper for earth resources application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.

  4. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Ackleson, S. G.; Hardisky, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    On 31 March 1983, the University of Delaware's Center for Remote Sensing initiated a study to evaluate the spatial, radiometric and spectral performance of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper for coastal and estuarine studies. The investigation was supported by Contract NAS5-27580 from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The research was divided into three major subprojects: (1) a comparison of LANDSAT TM to MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay; (2) remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation - a radiative transfer approach; and (3) remote sensing of coastal wetland biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands.

  5. The Use of Linear Feature Detection to Investigate Thematic Mapper Data Performance and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurney, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    The geometric and radiometric characteristics of thematic mapper data through analysis of linear features in the data are investigated. The particular aspects considered are: (1) thematic mapper ground IFUV; (2) radiometric contrast between linear features and background; (3) precision of system geometric correction; (4) band-to-band registration; and (5) potential utility of TM data for linear feature detection especially as compared to MSS data. It is shown that TM data may be used to estimate TM pixel size illustrate band: band mis-registration.

  6. Use of calibration targets in the measurement of 2.22-micron mineral absorption features in Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.

    1987-01-01

    A mineral absorption index (MAI) has been developed to separate leaf water and mineral absorption in the 2.22-micron Thematic Mapper band. The MAI uses three baselines to estimate and subtract the absorption attributable to vegetation. Digital number data from calibration targets devoid of vegetation are used to establish the positions of the baselines in Thematic Mapper data.

  7. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  8. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part B: System data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Procedures and results are presented for performance and systems integration tests of flight model-1 thematic mapper. Aspects considered cover electronic module integration, radiometric calibration, spectral matching, spatial coverage, radiometric calibration of the calibrator, coherent noise, dynamic square wave response, band to band registration, geometric accuracy, and self induced vibration. Thermal vacuum tests, EMI/EMS, and mass properties are included. Liens are summarized.

  9. Registration of a synthetic aperture radar image to Thematic Mapper imagery for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S.; Gilbert, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple Thematic Mapper multitemporal acquisitions from Landsat and one synthetic-aperture radar acquisition from Seasat have been precisely registered using Johnson Space Center registration processors. The registered images have been output in the Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The procedure to accomplish such disparate data processing tasks and the registration accuracy evaluation are discussed.

  10. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part E: Electronics module data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Tests to verify the as-designed performance of all circuits within the thematic mapper electronics module unit are described. Specifically, the tests involved the evaluation of the scan line corrector driver, shutter drivers function, cal lamp controller function, post amplifier function, command decoder verification unit, and the temperature and actuator controllers function.

  11. LAND COVER MAPPING IN AN AGRICULTURAL SETTING USING MULTISEASONAL THEMATIC MAPPER DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multiseasonal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data set consisting of five image dates from a single year was used to characterize agricultural and related land cover in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon. Image registration was accomplished using an automated grou...

  12. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part C: Power supply data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The acceptance test data package for the thematic mapper flight model power supply was reviewed and the data compared to the relevant specification. The power supply was found to be within specification. Final test data for outut voltage regulation and ripple, efficiency, over and undervoltage protection, telemetry, impedances, turn-on requirements, and input current limits are presented.

  13. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part C: System data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Failure reports for flight model-1 of the thematic mapper are summarized showing the symptom and cause of failure as well as the corrective action taken. Each report is keyed to the major subsystem against which the failure occurred. Requests for deviation/waiver are listed by number, description, and current status. Copies of engineering proposals are included.

  14. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part A: System data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of vibration, acoustical noise, and thermal vacuum are described as well as tests studies of EMI/EMC and mass properties conducted for thematic mapper systems integration. Liens are summarized and the engineering change proposal status is presented. Requests for deviation/waiver are included along with failure and nonforming material reports.

  15. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part B: Subsystem data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Summarized performance data are presented for the following major subsystems of the thematic mapper: the focal plane assembly, the radiative cooler, the radiative cooler door assembly, the top optical assembly, and the telescope assembly. Reference lists of the configurations status and of nonconforming material reports, failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

  16. Characterizating western juniper expansion via a fusion of Landsat 5 thematic mapper and LiDAR data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniper encroachment into shrub steppe and grassland systems is one of the most prominent changes occurring in rangelands of western North America. Most studies on juniper change are conducted over small areas, although encroachment is occurring across large regions. Development of image-based met...

  17. Analysis of thematic mapper simulator data collected over eastern North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The results of the analysis of aircraft-acquired thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data, collected to investigate the utility of thematic mapper data in crop area and land cover estimates, are discussed. Results of the analysis indicate that the seven-channel TMS data are capable of delineating the 13 crop types included in the study to an overall pixel classification accuracy of 80.97% correct, with relative efficiencies for four crop types examined between 1.62 and 26.61. Both supervised and unsupervised spectral signature development techniques were evaluated. The unsupervised methods proved to be inferior (based on analysis of variance) for the majority of crop types considered. Given the ground truth data set used for spectral signature development as well as evaluation of performance, it is possible to demonstrate which signature development technique would produce the highest percent correct classification for each crop type.

  18. LANDSAT-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and supervised classifiers on test data. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes. A temperature-mapping experiment was carried out for a cooling pond to test the quality of thermal-band calibration. Overall TM data quality is very good. The MSS data are noisier than previous LANDSAT results.

  19. Landsat-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Bartolucci, L. A.; Dean, M. E.; Lozano, D. F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J. A.; Valenzuela, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic Mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and numerous supervised classifiers on data from Iowa and Illinois. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out on data from the Des Moines, IA area to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes.

  20. The use of linear feature detection to investigate thematic mapper data performance and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurney, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    The geometric and radiometric characteristics of thematic mapper data through analysis of linear features in the data are investigated. The particular aspects considered are: (1) thematic mapper ground IFOV; (2) radiometric contrast between linear features and background; (3) precision of system geometric correction; (4) band-to-band registration; and (5) potential utility of TM data for linear feature detection especially as compared to MSS data. It is shown that TM data may be used to estimate TM pixel size and to illustrate band-band mis-registration. Further, the geometry and radiometry of the data are sufficiently precise to allow accurate estimation of the widths of linear features. In optimum conditions features one quarter of a pixel in width may be accurately measured. These results have considerable potential for applications for hydrological and topographic mapping.

  1. Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

  2. Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1988-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data.

  3. LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for thematic mapping (TM) bands 3, 4, 5 and 7 is reliably estimated with the San Mateo Bridge target in the 12/31/82 scene. These results are to be compared with those from the 8/12/83 scene. Bands 1, 2 and 6 are to be analyzed with a different target possessing greater contrast. This may be possible with the underflight data comparison currently underway. The registration of this data to the TM image of 8/12/83 for a region arround the Stockton sewage pond east of San Francisco has begun. This particular approach has the advantage that the full two-dimensional MFT will be measured instead of the MFT in only one azimuth as reported.

  4. Thematic mapper protoflight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part A: Multiplexer data, book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Data from the final performance tests of the thematic mapper flight model multiplexer at ambient temperature are presented. Results cover the power supply, the input buffer, and the A/D threshold for bands 1 through 4.

  5. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part D: Focal plane assembly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The data obtained for the Band 1 thematic mapper flight full band assembly (P/N 50797) are summarized. The data were collected from half band, post amplifier, and full band acceptance test data records.

  6. GEODETIC ACCURACY OF LANDSAT 4 MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER AND THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thormodsgard, June M.; DeVries, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    EROS Data Center is evaluating the geodetic accuracy of Landsat-4 data from both the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) processing systems. Geodetic accuracy is a measure of the precision of Landsat data registration to the Earth's figure. This paper describes a geodetic accuracy assessment of several MSS and TM scenes, based on the geodetic referencing information supplied on a standard Landsat 4 computer compatible tape.

  7. Study of Spectral/Radiometric Characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for Land Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Metzler, M. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    An investigation conducted in support of the LANDSAT 4/5 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program is discussed. Results of engineering analyses of radiometric, spatial, spectral, and geometric properties of the Thematic Mapper systems are summarized; major emphasis is placed on the radiometric analysis. Details of the analyses are presented in appendices, which contain three of the eight technical papers produced during this investigation; these three, together, describe the major activities and results of the investigation.

  8. In-orbit measurements of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper dynamic disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudey, J., Jr.; Schulman, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes Landsat-4 sensors, spacecraft disturbances, and the methodology used to correct Thematic Mapper (TM) images. The discussion includes system requirements, mathematical modeling, in-orbit angular motion measurement, Fast Fourier Transformer (FFT) data analysis, and scan system correction. Emphasis is given to the cause and effect of the electromechanical disturbances beginning with the scan mirror and its interaction and sensitivity to externally and self-generated disturbances. Ground-testing results are compared with those obtained in orbit.

  9. Feature selection and the information content of Thematic Mapper simulator data for forest structural assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, M. A.; Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An assessment is made of the information content of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the case of a forested region, in order to determine the sensitivity of such data to forest crown closure and tree size class. Principal components analysis and Monte Carlo simulation indicated that channels 4, 7, 5 and 3 were optimal for four-channel forest structure analysis. As the number of channels supplied to the Monte Carlo feature selection routine increased, classification accuracy increased. The greatest sensitivity to the forest structural parameters, which included succession within clearcuts as well as crown closure and size class, was obtained from the 7-channel TMS data.

  10. Time-delay-and-integration charge coupled devices /CCDs/ applied to the Thematic Mapper. [onboard Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. L.; Mccann, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    The visible focal plane of the Thematic Mapper, the next generation sensor system for application to earth resource survey, uses complex hybrid assembly techniques to interface silicon photodiodes to JFET preamplifiers. This complexity can be ameliorated by the use of a 20-channel time-delay-and-integration (TDI) CCD with nine stages of integration per channel. By going to a CCD array operating in a TDI mode, over 700 individual op amps can be replaced with only 48 op amps. Smooth spectral response and 70% quantum efficiency have been provided by using doped tin oxide gates over the imaging region.

  11. Thematic Mapper laser profile resolution of Holocene Lake limit, Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, John A.; Currey, Donald R.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1989-01-01

    The limit of Great Salt Lake's maximum expansion onto the floor of the Great Salt Lake Desert during Holocene time is marked by a break in slope which is clearly depicted in terrain models which merge Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner data and Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) laser profile data. Mean elevations of APTS-coincident TM pixels are strongly correlated with reflectance in TM Bands 5 and 7 when and where sufficient moisture contrasts among terrain components are high. TM-APTS models and field surveys place the highest Holocene standing water at an elavation of 4221 ft (1286.7 m).

  12. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The effect different wetland plant canopies have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands is studied. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. The spectral biomass estimate of a broadleaf canopy is most similar to the harvest biomass estimate when a broadleaf canopy radiance model is used. All major wetland vegetation species can be identified through TM imagery. Simple regression models are developed equating the vegetation index and the infrared index with biomass. The spectral radiance index largely agreed with harvest biomass estimates.

  13. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The effect different wetland plant canopies have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands is examined. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. Biomass estimates computed from spectral data were most similar to biomass estimates determined from harvest data when models developed for a specific canopy were used. Precise determination of regression coefficients for each canopy type and modeling changes in the coefficients with various combinations of canopy types are being tested. The multispectral band scanner vegetation index estimates are very similar to the vegetation index estimates.

  14. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR THEIR GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC ACCURACIES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysoki, M.H.; Falcone, N.; Bender, L.U.; Jones, O.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes results of some preliminary analyses of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data for the NASA Landsat Image Quality Analysis program. The work is being done under interagency agreement S-12407-C between the U. S. Geological Survey and NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. Landsat-4 TM scenes for Washington, D. C. Macon, Georgia (40050-15333, September 4, 1982) and Cape Canaveral, Florida have been examined to determine their geometric and radiometric accuracy. In addition, parts of these scenes are also being analyzed to determine the ability to identify specific rock types with the added near-infrared TM bands.

  15. Comparison of existing digital image analysis systems for the analysis of Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, W. C.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Most existing image analysis systems were designed with the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner in mind, leaving open the question of whether or not these systems could adequately process Thematic Mapper data. In this report, both hardware and software systems have been evaluated for compatibility with TM data. Lack of spectral analysis capability was not found to be a problem, though techniques for spatial filtering and texture varied. Computer processing speed and data storage of currently existing mini-computer based systems may be less than adequate. Upgrading to more powerful hardware may be required for many TM applications.

  16. Spectral signature of alpine snow cover from the Landsat Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    In rugged terrain, snow in the shadows can appear darker than soil or vegetation in the sunlight, making it difficult to interpret satellite data images of rugged terrains. This paper discusses methods for using Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT data for automatic analyses of alpine snow cover. Typical spectral signatures of the Landsat TM are analyzed for a range of snow types, atmospheric profiles, and topographic illumination conditions. A number of TM images of Sierra Nevada are analyzed to distinguish several classes of snow from other surface covers.

  17. Lithologic mixing in a modern foreland basin: Evidence from Landsat thematic mapper images

    SciTech Connect

    Damanti, J.F. )

    1990-09-01

    Reflectance spectra of synorogenic sediments accumulating in a modern foreland basin indicate that alluvial-fan sediment changes composition as drainage networks expand through tilted strata. The spectral signatures of several sediment mixtures can be used to identify zones of lithologic mixing and to infer erosional unroofing sequences and drainage development in a modern foreland region. A practical graphic analysis of sediment mixing was developed for digital Landsat thematic mapper data. This technique determines the relative proportions of end-member compositions in a binary sediment mixture. Vegetation effects on the spectral response of rock and sediment can also be evaluated.

  18. The Use of Linear Feature Detection to Investigate Thematic Mapper Data Performance and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurney, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Geometric and radiometric characteristics of Thematic Mapper data are investigated through analysis of linear features in the data. A linear feature is defined as two close, parallel and opposite edges. Examples in remotely sensed data are such features as rivers and roads. The geometric and radiometric precision TM data is sufficient to allow accurate measurement of linear feature widths. Results also confirm a 28.5m ground IFOV as specified prior to launch. The increase dimensionality of the TM data as compared with MSS data allows the possibility of independent verification of results by using data from several bands.

  19. Geologic results of the TMS survey over Mt. Emmons, Colorado. [Thematic Mapper Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    In 1981, NASA conducted with an American company a cooperative study, involving the use of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data. The study was concerned with an area near Crested Butte, Colorado, which contains a known, but unmined, major molybdenum deposit. Detailed ground observations in the Mt. Emmons area demonstrated that the imagery was extremely effective for detection of geologically significant features. The imagery specifically delineated areas of ferric iron staining, seritization, and hornfelized rock. Attention is given to data acquisition and data processing, field work in 1982 and in 1983, the integration of gravity data, and costs.

  20. Atmospheric modeling related to Thematic Mapper scan geometry. [atmospheric effects on satellite-borne photography of LANDSAT D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Gleason, J. M.; Cicone, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A simulation study was carried out to characterize atmospheric effects in LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper data. In particular, the objective was to determine if any differences would result from using a linear vs. a conical scanning geometry. Insight also was gained about the overall effect of the atmosphere on Thematic Mapper signals, together with the effects of time of day. An added analysis was made of the geometric potential for direct specular reflections (sun glint). The ERIM multispectral system simulation model was used to compute inband Thematic Mapper radiances, taking into account sensor, atmospheric, and surface characteristics. Separate analyses were carried out for the thermal band and seven bands defined in the reflective spectral region. Reflective-region radiances were computed for 40 deg N, 0 deg, and 40 deg S latitudes; June, Mar., and Dec. days; and 9:30 and 11:00 AM solar times for both linear and conical scan modes. Also, accurate simulations of solar and viewing geometries throughout Thematic Mapper orbits were made. It is shown that the atmosphere plays an important role in determining Thematic Mapper radiances, with atmospheric path radiance being the major component of total radiances for short wavelengths and decreasing in importance as wavelength increases. Path radiance is shown to depend heavily on the direct radiation scattering angle and on haze content. Scan-angle-dependent variations were shown to be substantial, especially for the short-wavelength bands.

  1. Application of thematic mapper imagery to oil exploration in Austin Chalk, central Gulf Coast basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, W.M.

    1988-02-01

    One of the newest major oil plays in the Gulf Coast basin, the Austin Chalk reportedly produces in three belts: an updip belt, where production is from fractured chalk in structurally high positions along faults above 7000 ft; a shallow downdip belt, where the chalk is uniformly saturated with oil from 7000 to 9000 ft; and a deeper downdip belt saturated with gas and condensate below 9000 ft. The updip fields usually occur on the southeastern, upthrown side of the Luling, Mexia, and Charlotte fault zones. Production is from fractures that connect the relatively sparse matrix pores with more permeable fracture systems. The fractures resulted from regional extensional stress during the opening of the Gulf Coast basin on the divergent margin of the North American plate during the Laramide orogeny. The fractures are more common in the more brittle chalk than in the overlying Navarro and underlying Eagle Ford shales, which are less brittle. The oil in the updip traps in the chalk may have been generated in place downdip, and migrated updip along the extension fractures into the updip traps during or after the Laramide orogeny. A fairway of previously unmapped updip faults and drag folds has been mapped using Thematic Mapper imagery and seismic, structural, and resistivity maps near the Nixon field, Burleson County, Texas. This fairway, prospective for oil from the Austin Chalk, contains wells reported to produce from the Austin Chalk which lie along lineaments and linear features on the Thematic Mapper imagery and faults in the seismic and structure maps.

  2. Status of the Landsat thematic mapper and multispectral scanner archive conversion system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Darla J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) manages the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive. This archive includes Landsat thematic mapper (TM) multispectral scanner (MSS) data acquired since 1972. The Landsat archive is an important resource to global change research. To ensure long-term availability of Landsat data from the archive, the EDC specified requirements for a Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Archive Conversion System (TMACS) that would preserve the data by transcribing it to a more durable medium. In addition to media conversion, hardware and software was installed at EDC in July 1992. In December 1992, the EDC began converting Landsat MSS data from high-density, open reel instrumentation tapes to digital cassette tapes. Almost 320,000 MSS images acquired since 1979 and more than 200,000 TM images acquired since 1982 will be converted to the new medium during the next 3 years. During the media conversion process, several high-density tapes have exhibited severe binder degradation. Even though these tapes have been stored in environmentally controlled conditions, hydrolysis has occurred, resulting in "sticky oxide shed". Using a thermostatically controlled oven built at EDC, tape "baking" has been 100 percent successful and actually improves the quality of some images.

  3. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto: Evidence from Landsat thematic mapper images

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, G.; Greeley, R.; Christensen, P.R. ); Smith, M.O.; Adams, J.B. )

    1990-09-10

    Spatial variations in sand composition were mapped on a regional scale in a terrestrial sand sea, the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico. Mesoscale mapping on a satellite image base allowed quantitative interpretation of the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. The results were used to interpret the Quaternary geologic history of the tectonically active region at the mouth of the Colorado River. Landsat thematic mapper multispectral images were used to predict the abundance of different mineralogies of sand grains in a mixed aeolian terrain. A spectral mixing model separated the effects of vegetation and topographically induced shading and shadow from the effects produced by different mineral and rock types. Compositions determined remotely agreed well with samples from selected areas within the spectral limitations of the thematic mapper. A simple discrimination capability for active versus inactive sand surfaces is demonstrated based upon differences in the percentage of low-albedo accessory grains occurring on dormant aeolian surfaces. A technique for discriminating between low-albedo materials and macroscopic shade is implemented by combing thermal images with the results of the spectral mixing model. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations over large areas that were not readily apparent in the field.

  4. Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin Paul

    1987-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

  5. Landsat thematic mapper (TM) soil variability analysis over Webster County, Iowa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Pitts, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data acquired June 7, June 23, and July 31, 1982, and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data acquired August 2, September 3, and October 21, 1982, over Webster County, Iowa, were examined for within-field soil effects on corn and soybean spectral signatures. It was found that patterns displayed on various computer-generated map products were in close agreement with the detailed soil survey of the area. The difference in spectral values appears to be due to a combination of subtle soil properties and crop growth patterns resulting from the different soil properties. Bands 4 (0.76-.90 micron), 5 (1.55-1.75 micron), and 7 (2.08-2.35 micron) were found to be responding to the within-field soil variability even with increasing ground cover. While these results are preliminary, they do indicate that the soil influence on the vegetation is being detected by TM and should provide improved information relating to crop and soil properties.

  6. Assessing the accuracy of Landsat Thematic Mapper classification using double sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhan, M.A.; Reich, R.M.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Double sampling was used to provide a cost efficient estimate of the accuracy of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) classification map of a scene located in the Rocky Moutnain National Park, Colorado. In the first phase, 200 sample points were randomly selected to assess the accuracy between Landsat TM data and aerial photography. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic were 49.5% and 32.5%, respectively. In the second phase, 25 sample points identified in the first phase were selected using stratified random sampling and located in the field. This information was used to correct for misclassification errors associated with the first phase samples. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic increased to 59.6% and 45.6%, respectively.Double sampling was used to provide a cost efficient estimate of the accuracy of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) classification map of a scene located in the Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. In the first phase, 200 sample points were randomly selected to assess the accuracy between Landsat TM data and aerial photography. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic were 49.5 per cent and 32.5 per cent, respectively. In the second phase, 25 sample points identified in the first phase were selected using stratified random sampling and located in the field. This information was used to correct for misclassification errors associated with the first phase samples. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic increased to 59.6 per cent and 45.6 per cent, respectively.

  7. Landsat D Thematic Mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    To characterize and quantify the performance of the Landsat thematic mapper (TM), techniques for dimensionality reduction by linear transformation have been studied and evaluated and the accuracy of the correction of geometric errors in TM images analyzed. Theoretical evaluations and comparisons for existing methods for the design of linear transformation for dimensionality reduction are presented. These methods include the discrete Karhunen Loeve (KL) expansion, Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA), Thematic Mapper (TM)-Tasseled Cap Linear Transformation and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). A unified approach to these design problems is presented in which each method involves optimizing an objective function with respect to the linear transformation matrix. From these studies, four modified methods are proposed. They are referred to as the Space Variant Linear Transformation, the KL Transform-MDA hybrid method, and the First and Second Version of the Weighted MDA method. The modifications involve the assignment of weights to classes to achieve improvements in the class conditional probability of error for classes with high weights. Experimental evaluations of the existing and proposed methods have been performed using the six reflective bands of the TM data. It is shown that in terms of probability of classification error and the percentage of the cumulative eigenvalues, the six reflective bands of the TM data require only a three dimensional feature space. It is shown experimentally as well that for the proposed methods, the classes with high weights have improvements in class conditional probability of error estimates as expected.

  8. Landsat-5 bumper-mode geometric correction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, J.C.; Choate, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scan mirror was switched from its primary operating mode to a backup mode in early 2002 in order to overcome internal synchronization problems arising from long-term wear of the scan mirror mechanism. The backup bumper mode of operation removes the constraints on scan start and stop angles enforced in the primary scan angle monitor operating mode, requiring additional geometric calibration effort to monitor the active scan angles. It also eliminates scan timing telemetry used to correct the TM scan geometry. These differences require changes to the geometric correction algorithms used to process TM data. A mathematical model of the scan mirror's behavior when operating in bumper mode was developed. This model includes a set of key timing parameters that characterize the time-varying behavior of the scan mirror bumpers. To simplify the implementation of the bumper-mode model, the bumper timing parameters were recast in terms of the calibration and telemetry data items used to process normal TM imagery. The resulting geometric performance, evaluated over 18 months of bumper-mode operations, though slightly reduced from that achievable in the primary operating mode, is still within the Landsat specifications when the data are processed with the most up-to-date calibration parameters.

  9. Revised Landsat-5 TM Radiometrie Calibration Procedures and Postcalibration Dynamic Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.

    2003-01-01

    Effective May 5, 2003, Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) will be radiometrically calibrated using a new procedure and revised calibration parameters. This change will improve absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Users will need to use new parameters to convert the calibrated data products to radiance. The new procedure for the reflective bands (1-5,7) is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration curve for the instrument derived from the instrument's internal calibrator, cross-calibration with the ETM+, and vicarious measurements. The thermal band will continue to be calibrated using the internal calibrator. Further updates to improve the relative detector-to-detector calibration and thermal band calibration are being investigated, as is the calibration of the Landsat-4 (L4) TM.

  10. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part B: Scan mirror assembly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Data from the thematic mapper scan mirror assembly (SMA) acceptance test are presented. Documentation includes: (1) a list of the acceptance test discrepancies; (2) flight 1 SMA test data book; (3) flight 1 SMA environmental report; (4) the configuration verification index; (5) the flight 1 SMA test failure reports; (6) the flight 1 data tapes log; and (7) the requests for deviation/waivers.

  11. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix D: Thematic mapper Computer Compatible Tape (CCT-AT/PT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, H.

    1981-01-01

    The format of computer compatible tapes which contain LANDSAT 4 and D Prime thematic mapper data is defined. A complete specification of the CCT-AT (radiometric corrections applied and geometric matrices appended) and the CCT-PT (radiometric and geometric corrections) data formats is provided.

  12. Modeling energy flow and nutrient cycling in natural semiarid grassland ecosystems with the aid of thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Energy flow and nutrient cycling were modeled as affected by herbivory on selected intensive sites along gradients of precipitation and soils, validating the model output by monitoring selected parameters with data derived from the Thematic Mapper (TM). Herbivore production was modeled along the gradient of soils and herbivory, and validated with data derived from TM in a spatial data base.

  13. Thematic mapper protoflight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part A: Multiplexer data book 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Final performance test data for the thematic mapper flight model multiplexer are presented in tables. Aspects covered include A/D thresholds for bands 5, 6, and 7; cross talk; the thermistor; bilevel commands signal parameters; A/D threshold ambient, voltage margin low bus; serial data and bit clock parameters; and the wire check. Tests were conducted at ambient temperature.

  14. Application of thematic mapper-type data over a porphyry-molybdenum deposit in Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of thematic mapper data as a source of geologically useful information for mountainous areas of varying vegetation density. Much of the processing was done in an a priori manner without prior ground-based information. This approach resulted in a successfull mapping of the alteration associated with the Mt. Emmons molybdenum ore body as well as several other hydrothermal systems. Supervised classification produced a vegetation map at least as accurate as the mapping done for the environmental impact statement. Principal components were used to map zones of general, subtle alteration and to separate hematitically stained rock from staining associated with hydrothermal activity. Decorrelation color composites were found to be useful field mapping aids, easily delineating many lithologies and vegetation classes of interest. The factors restricting the interpretability and computer manipulation of the data are examined.

  15. Estimating biogeochemical fluxes across sagebrush-steppe landscapes with Thematic Mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiners, W. A.; Strong, L. L.; Matson, P. A.; Burke, I. C.; Ojima, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data were coupled to an ecosystem simulation model to simulate variation in nitrogen mineralization over time and space in a sagebrush steppe. This system of data inputs and calculations provides estimates of ecosystem properties including rates of biogeochemical processes over extensive and complex landscapes, and under changing management and climatic conditions. The landscape surface was divided into three sagebrush ecosystem types plus one other class consisting of nonsagebrush vegetation. This classification presented a complex mosaic of ecosystem types that shifted markedly in composition from one end of the 933-sq km study area to the other. Annual N-mineralization rates ranged from 5 to 25 kg N/ha among the three sagebrush types. The most active type comprised 42 percent of the entire area but contributed 60 percent to the nitrogen mineralization throughout the landscape.

  16. Digital to Analog Conversion and Visual Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCord, James R.; Binnie, Douglas R.; Seevers, Paul M.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Landsat D Image Data Quality Analysis Program, the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center (EDC) developed procedures to optimize the visual information content of Thematic Mapper data and evaluate the resulting photographic products by visual interpretation. A digital-to-analog transfer function was developed which would properly place the digital values on the most useable portion of a film response curve. Individual black-and-white transparencies generated using the resulting look-up tables were utilized in the production of color-composite images with varying band combinations. Four experienced photointerpreters ranked 2-cm-diameter (0. 75 inch) chips of selected image features of each band combination for ease of interpretability. A nonparametric rank-order test determined the significance of interpreter preference for the band combinations.

  17. Digital to analog conversion and visual evaluation of Thematic Mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCord, James R.; Binnie, Douglas R.; Seevers, Paul M.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Landsat D Image Data Quality Analysis Program, the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center (EDC) developed procedures to optimize the visual information content of Thematic Mapper data and evaluate the resulting photographic products by visual interpretation. A digital-to-analog transfer function was developed which would properly place the digital values on the most useable portion of a film response curve. Individual black-and-white transparencies generated using the resulting look-up tables were utilized in the production of color-composite images with varying band combinations. Four experienced photointerpreters ranked 2-cm-diameter (0. 75 inch) chips of selected image features of each band combination for ease of interpretability. A nonparametric rank-order test determined the significance of interpreter preference for the band combinations.

  18. Assessment of Thematic Mapper Band-to-band Registration by the Block Correlation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The design of the Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral radiometer makes it susceptible to band-to-band misregistration. To estimate band-to-band misregistration a block correlation method is employed. This method is chosen over other possible techniques (band differencing and flickering) because quantitative results are produced. The method correlates rectangular blocks of pixels from one band against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band. The block pairs are shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient for each shift position is computed. The displacement corresponding to the maximum correlation is taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. Subpixel shifts are estimated by a bi-quadratic interpolation of the correlation values surrounding the maximum correlation. To obtain statistical summaries for each band combination post processing of the block correlation results performed. The method results in estimates of registration error that are consistent with expectations.

  19. Cloud-shadow suppression technique for enhancement of Airborne Thematic Mapper imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, L.J.; Moore, J.M. )

    1993-08-01

    Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) data are often degraded by the shadows from clouds above the aircraft during the flight. The spectral information in cloud-shadowed areas is reduced but not totally lost because the reflected energy of diffuse illumination (sky light) reaches the sensors from the shadowed ground despite obstruction of direct solar radiation. The thermal band image is almost unaffected by the temporary change of radiation caused by clouds. An enhancement technique for cloud-shadow suppression has been developed based on differencing, RGB-HSI-RGB transformation, and thermal band modulation. The method suppresses cloud shadows with topographic shading retained; spectral information is retrieved and enhanced. The result is a nearly normal color composite with full topographic expression but without cloud shadows. Such a color composite is easy to interpret for geological structures and lithologies. 6 refs.

  20. Improved classification of small-scale urban watersheds using thematic mapper simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.; Ormsby, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of Landsat MSS classification methods in the case of small, highly urbanized hydrological basins containing complex land-use patterns is limited, and is plagued by misclassifications due to the spectral response similarity of many dissimilar surfaces. Landsat MSS data for the Conley Creek basin near Atlanta, Georgia, have been compared to thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data obtained on the same day by aircraft. The TMS data were able to alleviate many of the recurring patterns associated with MSS data, through bandwidth optimization, an increase of the number of spectral bands to seven, and an improvement of ground resolution to 30 m. The TMS is thereby able to detect small water bodies, powerline rights-of-way, and even individual buildings.

  1. Mapping thermal maturity in the Chainman shale, near Eureka, Nevada, with Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Jones, O.D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between measurements of organic matter (OM) maturity and laboratory measurements of visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance, and if Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images could be used to map maturity. The maturity of Mississippian Chainman Shale samples collected in east-central Nevada and west-central Utah was determined by using vitrinite reflectance and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. TM 4/TM 5 values correspond well to vitrinite reflectance and hydrogen index variations, and therefore this ratio was used to evaluate a TM image of the Eureka, Nevada, area for mapping thermal maturity differences in the Chainman Shale. -from Authors

  2. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for mapping forest, agricultural and soil resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S.; Benson, A.; Dummer, K.; Fakhoury, E.

    1985-01-01

    Color composite TM film products which include TM5, TM4, and a visible band (TM1, TM2, or TM3) are superior to composites which exclude TM4 for discriminating most forest and agricultural cover types and estimating area proportions for inventory and sampling purposes. Clustering a subset of TM data results in a spectral class map which groups diverse forest cover types into spectrally and ecologically similar areas suitable for use as a stratification base in traditional forest inventory practices. Analysis of simulated Thematic Mapper data indicate that the location and number of TM spectral bands are suitable for detecting differences in major soil properties and characterizing soil spectral curve form and magnitude.

  3. Remote sensing of soils in the eastern Palouse region with Landsat Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, B. E.; Cheng, Yaan

    1989-01-01

    Soils of the Palouse region of eastern Washington State were investigated using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band ratios to discriminate areas where erosion has caused paleosols to be exposed. Ratioed data were clustered and plotted to show soil lines which could be subdivided into various levels of organic matter and iron oxides. Successfully classified scenes of a summer fallow (bare soil) field were obtained with band ratios 1/4, 3/4, and 5/4 to map organic carbon and 3/4, 5/4, and 5/3 for the iron/carbon ratio indicator of erosion. Regression models were made with 5/4 data and organic carbon and 5/3 data and the iron/carbon ratio. Based on this analysis, 21 percent of the test field soils are exposed or nearly exposed paleosols.

  4. Landsat Thematic Mapper observations of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.; Wells, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    Remote sensing with the Landsat Thematic Mapper of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes between 18 and 27 deg S revealed, for the first time, the presence of 28 breached volcanic cones and 11 major volcanic debris avalanche deposits, several of which cover areas in excess of 100 sq km. It is concluded that such avalanche deposits are normal products of the evolution of large composite volcanoes, comparable with lava and pyroclastic flow deposits. A statistical survey of 578 composite volcanoes in the same area indicated that a majority of cones which achieve edifice heights between 2000 and 3000 m may undergo sector collapse. The paper describes morphological criteria for identifying breached composite cones and volcanic debris avalanches using orbital images.

  5. Geometric and radiometric characterization of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper and multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, H. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A geometrically raw image of Washington, D.C. was acquired and radiometrically corrected. The data show little of the detector stripping common in earlier MSS images. The radiometrically corrected data have uniform means and standard deviations for the detectors in each band; however, the data for different detectors utilize a different pattern of DN levels, resulting in ubiquitous stripping of 1 DN amplitude. Band-to-band registration was assessed using color composites and small area correlation techniques. The spectral equivalency of the first four bands of the thematic mapper with the four bands of the MSS is being examined. Geometric analysis of the Washington, D.C. scene have started and a generalized routine for examining the contents of the label files and nonvideo data files was implemented. Several discrepancies from the documentation are described. Night scenes and daytime ocean scenes required for radiometric purposes were identified and the data ordered.

  6. Regional analysis of tertiary volcanic Calderas (western U.S.) using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, David M.; Taranik, James V.

    1989-01-01

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery of the Basin and Range province of southern Nevada was analyzed to identify and map volcanic rock assemblages at three Tertiary calderas. It was found that the longer-wavelength visible and the NIR TM Bands 3, 5, and 7 provide more effective lithologic discrimination than the shorter-wavelength bands, due partly to deeper penetration of the longer-wavelength bands, resulting in more lithologically driven radiances. Shorter-wavelength TM Bands 1 and 2 are affected more by surficial weathering products including desert varnish which may or may not provide an indirect link to lithologic identity. Guidelines for lithologic analysis of volcanic terrains using Landsat TM imagery are outlined.

  7. An Analysis of the High Frequency Vibrations in Early Thematic Mapper Scenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, J.; Larduinat, E.

    1985-01-01

    The motion of the mirrors in the thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) instruments, and the motion of other devices, such as the TDRSS antenna drive, and solar array drives onboard LANDSAT-4 cause vibrations to propagate through the spacecraft. These vibrations as well as nonlinearities in the scanning motion of the TM mirror can cause the TM detectors to point away from their nominal positions. Two computer programs, JITTER and SCDFT, were developed as part of the LANDSAT-D Assessment System (LAS), Products and Procedures Analysis (PAPA) program to evaluate the potential effect of high frequency vibrations on the final TM image. The maximum overlap and underlap which were observed for early TM scenes are well within specifications for the ground processing system. The cross scan and scan high frequency vibrations are also within the specifications cited for the flight system.

  8. An Analysis of the High Frequency Vibrations in Early Thematic Mapper Scenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, J.; Larduinat, E.

    1984-01-01

    The potential effects of high frequency vibrations on the final Thematic Mapper (TM) image are evaluated for 26 scenes. The angular displacements of the TM detectors from their nominal pointing directions as measured by the TM Angular Displacement Sensor (ADS) and the spacecraft Dry Rotor Inertial Reference Unit (DRIRU) give data on the along scan and cross scan high frequency vibrations present in each scan of a scene. These measurements are to find the maximum overlap and underlap between successive scans, and to analyze the spectrum of the high frequency vibrations acting on the detectors. The Fourier spectrum of the along scan and cross scan vibrations for each scene also evaluated. The spectra of the scenes examined indicate that the high frequency vibrations arise primarily from the motion of the TM and MSS mirrors, and that their amplitudes are well within expected ranges.

  9. Preliminary spectral and geologic analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Alley, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) image of the Wind River Basin area in Wyoming is currently under analysis for stratigraphic and structural mapping and for assessment of spectral and spatial characteristics using visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. To estimate the equivalent Lambertian surface reflectance, TM radiance data were calibrated to remove atmospheric and instrumental effects. Reflectance measurements for homogeneous natural and cultural targets were acquired about one year after data acquisition. Calibration data obtained during the analysis were used to calculate new gains and offsets to improve scanner response for earth science applications. It is shown that the principal component images calculated from the TM data were the result of linear transformations of ground reflectance. In images prepared from this transform, the separation of spectral classes was independent of systematic atmospheric and instrumental factors. Several examples of the processed images are provided.

  10. Comparison of Wyoming land cover types derived from the Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite with climate variables

    SciTech Connect

    Driese, K.L.; Reiners, W.A.

    1995-06-01

    As part of the Gap Analysis Program (National Biological survey) the land cover of Wyoming was mapped into 46 classes using the Landsat Thematic Mapper Satellite. This map was subsequently analyzed using a geographic information system (GIS) to calculate the amount of each type present in the state and to characterize each of the 46 types in terms of annual precipitation, minimum and maximum mean monthly temperature, growing degree days and elevation. Simple GCM-based climate change scenarios (changes in temperature and precipitation) were examined in relation to these characterizations. Results indicate that Wyoming types occupy overlapping climatic {open_quotes}envelopes{close_quotes} and possible climate change resulting from increased greenhouse gasses could result in significant changes in the Wyoming landscape.

  11. Neuro-classification of multi-type Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuang, Xin; Engel, Bernard A.; Fernandez, R. N.; Johannsen, Chris J.

    1991-01-01

    Neural networks have been successful in image classification and have shown potential for classifying remotely sensed data. This paper presents classifications of multitype Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data using neural networks. The Landsat TM Image for March 23, 1987 with accompanying ground observation data for a study area In Miami County, Indiana, U.S.A. was utilized to assess recognition of crop residues. Principal components and spectral ratio transformations were performed on the TM data. In addition, a layer of the geographic information system (GIS) for the study site was incorporated to generate GIS-enhanced TM data. This paper discusses (1) the performance of neuro-classification on each type of data, (2) how neural networks recognized each type of data as a new image and (3) comparisons of the results for each type of data obtained using neural networks, maximum likelihood, and minimum distance classifiers.

  12. Thematic Mapper Data Quality and Performance Assessment in Renewable Resources/agriculture/remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of the early thematic mapper (TM) data indicate the TM sensor and associated ground processing are performing equal to the high expectations and within advertised specifications. The overall TM system with improved resolution, together with additional and more optimumly placed spectral bands shows much promise for benefits in future analysis activities. By selecting man-made features of known dimensions (e.g., highways, airfields, buildings, and isolated water bodies), an assessment was made of the TM performance relative to the specified 30-meter (98-foot) resolution. The increase of spatial resolution of TM (30 m) over MSS (80 M) appears to be significant not only in resolving spectrally distinct classes that were previously undefinable but also in distinguishing within-field variability. An Important result of the early TM evaluation and pre-TM analyses was the development of an integrated system to receive LANDSAT-4 TM (as well as MSS) data and analyze the data via various approaches.

  13. Radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner. [of Thematic Mapper Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Gellman, David I.; Slater, Philip N.

    1991-01-01

    The absolute radiometric calibration of the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator reflective channels was examined based on laboratory tests and in-flight comparisons to ground measurements. The NS001 data are calibrated in-flight by reference to the NS001 internal integrating sphere source. This source's power supply or monitoring circuitry exhibited greater instability in-flight during 1988-1989 than in the laboratory. Extrapolating laboratory behavior to in-flight data resulted in 7-20 percent radiance errors relative to ground measurements and atmospheric modeling. Assuming constancy in the source's output between laboraotry and in-flight resulted in generally smaller errors. Upgrades to the source's power supply and monitoring circuitry in 1990 improved its in-flight stability, though in-flight ground reflectance based calibration tests have not yet been performed.

  14. Radiometric calibration and processing procedure for reflective bands on LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiometric subsystem of NASA's LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor is described. Special emphasis is placed on the internal calibrator (IC) pulse shapes and timing cycle. The procedures for the absolute radiometric calibration of the TM channels with a 122-centimeter integrating sphere and the transfer of radiometric calibration from the channels to the IC are reviewed. The use of the IC to calibrate TM data in the ground processing system consists of pulse integration, pulse averaging, IC state identification, linear regression analysis, and histogram equalization. An overview of the SCROUNGE-era (before August 1983) method is presented. Procedural differences between SCROUNGE and the TIPS-era (after July 1983) and the implications of these differences are discussed.

  15. Mapping surface energy balance components by combining landsat thematic mapper and ground-based meteorological data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, M.S.; Jackson, R. D.; Raymond, L.H.; Gay, L.W.; Slater, P.N.

    1989-01-01

    Surface energy balance components were evaluated by combining satellite-based spectral data with on-site measurements of solar irradiance, air temperature, wind speed, and vapor pressure. Maps of latent heat flux density (??E) and net radiant flux density (Rn) were produced using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data for three dates: 23 July 1985, 5 April 1986, and 24 June 1986. On each date, a Bowen-ratio apparatus, located in a vegetated field, was used to measure ??E and Rn at a point within the field. Estimates of ??E and Rn were also obtained using radiometers aboard an aircraft flown at 150 m above ground level. The TM-based estimates differed from the Bowen-ratio and aircraft-based estimates by less than 12 % over mature fields of cotton, wheat, and alfalfa, where ??E and Rn ranged from 400 to 700 Wm-2. ?? 1989.

  16. Interpretation of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data for forest surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, A. S.; Degloria, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data were evaluated by interpreting film and digital products and statistical data for selected forest cover types in California. Significant results were: (1) TM color image products should contain a spectral band in the visible (bands 1, 2, or 3), near infrared (band 4), and middle infrared (band 5) regions for maximizing the interpretability of vegetation types; (2) TM color composites should contain band 4 in all cases even at the expense of excluding band 5; and (3) MSS color composites were more interpretable than all TM color composites for certain cover types and for all cover types when band 4 was excluded from the TM composite.

  17. Information content of data from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS). [Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Software was constructed to reformat data to band interlevel format and analysis software was developed in an effort to quantify the increased information content (statistical variability within a data set) of thematic mapper data as compared to that from the LANDSAT 4 multispectral band scanner. Computer runs were carried out for several subareas from a data set acquired simultaneously by TM and MSS over a test area in northeast Arkansas, one of the most agriculturally diverse sea areas in the country. The 6 visible-near IR channels of the TM provide more information than the 4 channels of the MSS. A rough estimate of 20 bits per pixel for TM, and 10 bits per pixel for the MSS was computed for these subareas. These numbers are to be revised downward when allowance is made for noise in the data.

  18. Land cover map of Great Britain. An automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, R.M.; Groom, G.B.; Jones, A.R.

    1994-05-01

    The Land Cover Map of Great Britain was produced using supervised maximum-likelihood classifications of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. By combining summer and winter data, classification accuracies were substantially improved over single-data analyses. The map, bosed on a 25-m grid, records 25 cover types, consisting of sea and inland water, beaches and bare ground, developed and arable land, and 18 types of semi-natural vegetation. General cover is recorded at a field-by-field scale, while key landscape features, with strong spectral signatures, show patterns down to a minimum mappable unit of 0.125 ha. Comparisons with independent ground reference data showed correspondences which varied between 67 percent and 89 percent depending on the level of detail at which comparisons were made.

  19. Evaluation of atmospheric particulate concentrations derived from analysis of ratio Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, W. H.; Mausel, P. W.; Zhou, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    An approach for atmospheric particulate concentration evaluation above urban areas using ratio Thematic Mapper (TM) data is discussed. October 25, 1982 TM data over Chicago, IL are analyzed using TM band ratios of 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, and 1/6 and particulate concentration estimates derived from TM ratios are tested over low reflective turbid water sites and highly reflective concrete highways. From analysis of the data it is evident that for water, the pattern of increasing particulate concentration is associated with decreasing ratio values in all band combinations used. Over concrete features, the TM band 1/4 ratio values follow the predicted pattern, while the TM band 1/6 has ratios which are reversed from anticipated values.

  20. Measurement of the Landsat Thematic Mapper modulation transfer function using an array of point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauchmiller, Robert F., Jr.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring the Thematic Mapper (TM) imaging system point spread function (PSF) using TM imagery or a specially constructed target consisting of a two-dimensional array of approximate point sources of known dimensions and radiometric qualities. The target allows 16 separate point sources to be imaged simultaneously by the TM. The point sources were carefully placed on the ground so that their relative positions were known. Owing to sample-scene phasing, each imaged point source exhibits a different amount of blur in the digital image. The target pixels may then be recombined according to their known relative positions to form a single, sampled, nonaliased imaging system PSF. The modulation transfer function is then obtained as the modulus of the discrete Fourier transform of the PSF.

  1. The Use of Thematic Mapper Data for Land Cover Discrimination: Preliminary Results from the UK Satmap Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, M. J.; Baker, J. R.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Gayler, J. E.; Hardy, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    In assessing the accuracy of classification techniques for Thematic Mapper data the consistency of the detector-to-detector response is critical. Preliminary studies were undertaken, therefore, to assess the significance of this factor for the TM. The overall structure of the band relationships can be examined by principal component analysis. In order to examine the utility of the Thematic Mapper data more carefully, six different land cover classes approximately Anderson level 1 were selected. These included an area of water from the sediment-laden Mississippi, woodland, agricultural land and urban land. A plume class was also selected which includes the plume of smoke emanating from the power station and drifting over the Mississippi river.

  2. The GSFC Mark-2 three band hand-held radiometer. [thematic mapper for ground truth data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Jones, W. H.; Kley, W. A.; Sundstrom, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    A self-contained, portable, hand-radiometer designed for field usage was constructed and tested. The device, consisting of a hand-held probe containing three sensors and a strap supported electronic module, weighs 4 1/2 kilograms. It is powered by flashlight and transistor radio batteries, utilizes two silicon and one lead sulfide detectors, has three liquid crystal displays, sample and hold radiometric sampling, and its spectral configuration corresponds to LANDSAT-D's thematic mapper bands. The device was designed to support thematic mapper ground-truth data collection efforts and to facilitate 'in situ' ground-based remote sensing studies of natural materials. Prototype instruments were extensively tested under laboratory and field conditions with excellent results.

  3. A preliminary comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT-1 HRV multispectral data for estimating coniferous forest volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, W. J.; Wang, S.; Isaacson, D. L.; Paine, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Digital Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT high-resolution visible (HRV) images of coniferous forest canopies were compared in their relationship to forest wood volume using correlation and regression analyses. Significant inverse relationships were found between softwood volume and the spectral bands from both sensors (P less than 0.01). The highest correlations were between the log of softwood volume and the near-infrared bands.

  4. Leaf water stress detection utilizing thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 in soybean plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, B. N.; Schutt, J. B.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

    1983-01-01

    The total and diffuse radiance responses of Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns), and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) to water stress in a soybean canopy are compared. Polarization measurements were used to separate the total from the diffuse reflectance; the reflectances were compared statistically at a variety of look angles at 15 min intervals from about 09.00 until 14.00 hrs EST. The results suggest that remotely sensed data collected in the photographic infrared region (TM4) are sensitive to leaf water stress in a 100 percent canopy cover of soybeans, and that TM3 is less sensitive than TM4 for detection of reversible foliar water stress. The mean values of TM5 reflectance data show similar trends to TM4. The primary implication of this study is that remote sensing of water stress in green plant canopies is possible in TM4 from ground-based observations primarily through the indirect link of leaf geometry.

  5. Application of permutation to lossless compression of multispectral thematic mapper images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnavut, Ziya; Narumalani, Sunil

    1996-12-01

    The goal of data compression is to find shorter representations for any given data. In a data storage application, this s done in order to save storage space on an auxiliary device or, in the case of a communication scenario, to increase channel throughput. Because remotely sensed data require tremendous amounts of transmission and storage space, it is essential to find good algorithms that utilize the spatial and spectral characteristics of these data to compress them. A new technique is presented that uses a spectral and spatial correlation to create orderly data for the compression of multispectral remote sensing data, such as those acquired by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor system. The method described simply compresses one of the bands using the standard Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) compression, and then orders the next band's data with respect to the previous sorting permutation. Then, the move-to-front coding technique is used to lower the source entropy before actually encoding the data. Owing to the correlation between visible bands of TM images, it was observed that this method yields tremendous gain on these brands (on an average 0.3 to 0.5 bits/pixel compared with lossless JPEG) and can be successfully used for multispectral images where the spectral distances between bands are close.

  6. New structural and stratigraphic insights for northwestern Pakistan from field and Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, J.; Beck, R.; Gnos, E.; Vincent, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The remote Waziristan region of northwestern Pakistan includes outcrops of the India-Asia suture zone. The excellent exposure of the Waziristan ophiolite and associated sedimentary lithosomes and their inaccessibility made the use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data desirable in this study. Landsat TM data were used to create a spectral ratio image of bands 3/4, 5/4, and 7/5, displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively, and a principal component analysis image of bands 4, 5, and 7 (RGB). These images were interpreted in the context of available geologic maps, limited field work, and biostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic, and radiometric data. They were used to create a coherent geologic map of Waziristan and cross section of the area that document five tectonic units in the region and provide a new and more detailed tectonic history for the region. The lowest unit is comprised of Indian shelf sediments that were thrust under the Waziristan ophiolite. The ophiolite has been tectonically shuffled and consists of two separate tectonic units. The top thrust sheet is a nappe comprised of distal Triassic to Lower Cretaceous Neotethyan sediments that were underthrust during the Late Cretaceous by the ophiolite riding on Indian shelf strata. The uppermost unit contains unconformable Tertiary and younger strata. The thrust sheets show that the Waziristan ophiolite was obducted during Late Cretaceous time and imply that the Paleocene and Eocene deformation represents collision of India with the Kabul block and/or Asia.

  7. Aboveground Biomass Estimation in a Tidal Brackish Marsh Using Simulated Thematic Mapper Spectral Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M.; Klemas, V.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral radiance data were collected from the ground and from a low altitude aircraft in an attempt to gain some insight into the potential utility of actual Thematic Mapper data for biomass estimation in wetland plant communities. No attempt was made to distinguish individual plant species within brackish marsh plant associations. Rather, it was decided to lump plant species with similar canopy morphologies and then estimate from spectral radiance data the biomass of the group. The rationale for such an approach is that plants with a similar morphology will produce a similar reflecting or absorping surface (i.e., canopy) for incoming electromagnetic radiation. Variations in observed reflectance from different plant communities with a similar canopy morphology are more likely to be a result of biomass differences than a result of differences in canopy architecture. If the hypothesis that plants with a similar morphology exhibit similar reflectance characteristics is true, then biomass can be estimated based on a model for the dominant plant morphology within a plant association and the need for species discrimination has effectively been eliminated.

  8. Relationship of Thematic Mapper simulator data to leaf area index of temperate coniferous forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Spanner, Michael A.; Running, Steven W.; Teuber, Kurt B.

    1987-01-01

    Regional relationships between remote sensing data and the leaf area index (LAI) of coniferous forests were analyzed using data acquired by an Airborne Thematic Mapper. Eighteen coniferous forest stands with a range of projected leaf area index of 0.6-16.1 were sampled from an environmental gradient in moisture and temperature across west-central Oregon. Spectral radiance measurements to account for atmospheric effects were acquired above the canopies from a radiometer mounted on a helicopter. A strong positive relationship was observed between LAI of closed canopy forest stands and the ratio of near-infrared and red spectral bands. A linear regression based on LAI explained 83 percent of the variation in the ratio of the atmospherically corrected bands. A log-linear equation fit the asymptotic characteristic of the relationship better, explaining 91 percent of the variance. The positive relationship is explained by a strong asymptotic inverse relationship between LAI and red radiation and a relatively flat response between LAI and near-infrared radiation.

  9. Evaluation and interpretation of Thematic Mapper ratios in equations for estimating corn growth parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dardner, B. R.; Blad, B. L.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    Reflectance and agronomic Thematic Mapper (TM) data were analyzed to determine possible data transformations for evaluating several plant parameters of corn. Three transformation forms were used: the ratio of two TM bands, logarithms of two-band ratios, and normalized differences of two bands. Normalized differences and logarithms of two-band ratios responsed similarly in the equations for estimating the plant growth parameters evaluated in this study. Two-term equations were required to obtain the maximum predictability of percent ground cover, canopy moisture content, and total wet phytomass. Standard error of estimate values were 15-26 percent lower for two-term estimates of these parameters than for one-term estimates. The terms log(TM4/TM2) and (TM4/TM5) produced the maximum predictability for leaf area and dry green leaf weight, respectively. The middle infrared bands TM5 and TM7 are essential for maximizing predictability for all measured plant parameters except leaf area index. The estimating models were evaluated over bare soil to discriminate between equations which are statistically similar. Qualitative interpretations of the resulting prediction equations are consistent with general agronomic and remote sensing theory.

  10. Sea ice feature and type identification in merged ERS-1 SAR and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, K.; Heinrichs, J.; Maslanik, J.; Key, J.

    1993-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and ERS-1 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) C band images were acquired for the same area in the Beaufort Sea, 18 Apr. 1992. The two images were co-located to the same grid (25 m resolution) and supervised classification was performed on the TM channel 3 scene in order to classify open water, nilas, grey ice, first year ice, and multiyear ice. Comparison of the LANDSAT classification and the corresponding dB values from the SAR scene showed that, under the given circumstances (high surface winds), open water/nilas/grey ice as defined by a single ice category by the SAR classifier could not be distinguished from first year ice. Surface roughening due to wind appears to be a major problem for the SAR classifier, as the range of the dB values is large enough to overlap all the other ice categories. Additional information, such as surface wind speed is necessary to overcome part of this problem.

  11. Extracting spectral contrast in Landsat Thematic Mapper image data using selective principal component analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S., Jr.; Kwarteng, A.Y.

    1989-01-01

    A challenge encountered with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data, which includes data from size reflective spectral bands, is displaying as much information as possible in a three-image set for color compositing or digital analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the six TM bands simultaneously is often used to address this problem. However, two problems that can be encountered using the PCA method are that information of interest might be mathematically mapped to one of the unused components and that a color composite can be difficult to interpret. "Selective' PCA can be used to minimize both of these problems. The spectral contrast among several spectral regions was mapped for a northern Arizona site using Landsat TM data. Field investigations determined that most of the spectral contrast seen in this area was due to one of the following: the amount of iron and hematite in the soils and rocks, vegetation differences, standing and running water, or the presence of gypsum, which has a higher moisture retention capability than do the surrounding soils and rocks. -from Authors

  12. Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data from Wind River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Geronsin, R.L.; Merry, M.C.

    1984-07-01

    Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data are limited by MSS spatial resolution (80 m or 262 ft) and bandwidth selection. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data have greatly enhanced spatial resolution (30 m or 98 ft) and TM operates in spectral bands suited to geologic interpretation. To compare the two systems, three images center over the Wind River basin of Wyoming were obtained. Two were TM images - a false color composite (FCC) and a natural color composite (NCC) - and the third was an MSS image. A systematic analysis of drainage, landforms, geologic structure, gross lithologic characteristics, lineaments, and curvilinears was performed on the three images. Drainage density and landform distinction were greatly enhanced on the TM images. Geologic features such as faults, strike and dip, folds, and lithologic characteristics are often difficult to distinguish on the MSS image but are readily apparent on the TM images. The lineament-curvilinear analysis of the MSS image showed longer but less distinct linear features. In comparison, the TM images allowed interpretation of shorter but more distinct linear elements, providing a more accurate delineation of the actual dimensions of the geologic features which these lineaments are thought to represent. An analysis of the oil production present in the study area showed 75% of the surface productive structures were delineated on the TM images, whereas only the most obvious structures were visible on the MSS image.

  13. Application of Landsat Thematic Mapper data for coastal thermal plume analysis at Diablo Canyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbons, D. E.; Wukelic, G. E.; Leighton, J. P.; Doyle, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal data to derive absolute temperature distributions in coastal waters that receive cooling effluent from a power plant is demonstrated. Landsat TM band 6 (thermal) data acquired on June 18, 1986, for the Diablo Canyon power plant in California were compared to ground truth temperatures measured at the same time. Higher-resolution band 5 (reflectance) data were used to locate power plant discharge and intake positions and identify locations of thermal pixels containing only water, no land. Local radiosonde measurements, used in LOWTRAN 6 adjustments for atmospheric effects, produced corrected ocean surface radiances that, when converted to temperatures, gave values within approximately 0.6 C of ground truth. A contour plot was produced that compared power plant plume temperatures with those of the ocean and coastal environment. It is concluded that Landsat can provide good estimates of absolute temperatures of the coastal power plant thermal plume. Moreover, quantitative information on ambient ocean surface temperature conditions (e.g., upwelling) may enhance interpretation of numerical model prediction.

  14. Water quality monitoring using Landsat Themate Mapper data with empirical algorithms in Chagan Lake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kaishan; Wang, Zongming; Blackwell, John; Zhang, Bai; Li, Fang; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Jiang, Guangjia

    2011-01-01

    Lake Chagan represents a complex situation of major optical constituents and emergent spectral signals for remote sensing analysis of water quality in the Songnen Plain. As such it provides a good test of the combined radiometric correction methods developed for optical remote sensing data to monitor water quality. Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data and in situ water samples collected concurrently with satellite overpass were used for the analysis, in which four important water quality parameters are considered: chlorophyll-a, turbidity, total dissolved organic matter, and total phosphorus in surface water. Both empirical regressions and neural networks were established to analyze the relationship between the concentrations of these four water parameters and the satellite radiance signals. It is found that the neural network model performed at better accuracy than empirical regressions with TM visible and near-infrared bands as spectral variables. The relative root mean square error (RMSE) for the neural network was < 10%, while the RMSE for the regressions was less than 25% in general. Future work is needed on establishing the dynamic characteristic of Chagan Lake water quality with TM or other optical remote sensing data. The algorithms developed in this study need to be further tested and refined with multidate imagery data

  15. Radiometric analysis of the longwave infrared channel of the Thematic Mapper on LANDSAT 4 and 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schott, John R.; Volchok, William J.; Biegel, Joseph D.

    1986-01-01

    The first objective was to evaluate the postlaunch radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) band 6 data. The second objective was to determine to what extent surface temperatures could be computed from the TM and 6 data using atmospheric propagation models. To accomplish this, ground truth data were compared to a single TM-4 band 6 data set. This comparison indicated satisfactory agreement over a narrow temperature range. The atmospheric propagation model (modified LOWTRAN 5A) was used to predict surface temperature values based on the radiance at the spacecraft. The aircraft data were calibrated using a multi-altitude profile calibration technique which had been extensively tested in previous studies. This aircraft calibration permitted measurement of surface temperatures based on the radiance reaching the aircraft. When these temperature values are evaluated, an error in the satellite's ability to predict surface temperatures can be estimated. This study indicated that by carefully accounting for various sensor calibration and atmospheric propagation effects, and expected error (1 standard deviation) in surface temperature would be 0.9 K. This assumes no error in surface emissivity and no sampling error due to target location. These results indicate that the satellite calibration is within nominal limits to within this study's ability to measure error.

  16. Analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data for classification of forest stands in Baldwin County, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer-implemented classification has been derived from Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data acquired over Baldwin County, Alabama on January 15, 1983. One set of spectral signatures was developed from the data by utilizing a 3x3 pixel sliding window approach. An analysis of the classification produced from this technique identified forested areas. Additional information regarding only the forested areas. Additional information regarding only the forested areas was extracted by employing a pixel-by-pixel signature development program which derived spectral statistics only for pixels within the forested land covers. The spectral statistics from both approaches were integrated and the data classified. This classification was evaluated by comparing the spectral classes produced from the data against corresponding ground verification polygons. This iterative data analysis technique resulted in an overall classification accuracy of 88.4 percent correct for slash pine, young pine, loblolly pine, natural pine, and mixed hardwood-pine. An accuracy assessment matrix has been produced for the classification.

  17. Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paylor, E. D.; Abrams, M. J.; Conel, J. E.; Kahle, A. B.; Lang, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of the project was to evaluate LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data in the context of geologic applications. This involved a quantitative assessment of the data quality including the spatial and spectral characteristics realized by the instrument. Three test sites were selected for the study: (1) Silver Bell, Arizona; (2) Death Valley, California; and (3) Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming. Conclusions include: (1) Artificial and natural targets can be used to atmospherically calibrate TM data and investigate scanner radiometry, atmospheric parameters, and construction of atmospheric Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF's), (2) No significant radiometric degradation occurs in TM data as a result of SCROUNGE processing; however, the data exhibit narrow digital number (DN) distributiosn suggesting that the configuration of the instrument is not optimal for each science applications, (30 Increased spatial resolution, 1:24,000 enlargement capability, and good geometric fidelity of TM data allow accurate photogeologic/geomorphic mapping, including relative age dating of alluvial fans, measurement of structural and bedding attitudes, and construction of such things as structural cross sections and stratigraphic columns. (4) TM bands 5 and 7 are particularly useful for geologic applications because they span a region of the spectrum not previously sampled by multispectral scanner data and are important for characterizing clay and carbonate materials.

  18. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin P.

    1993-01-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

  19. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper for detecting soil properties under grassland vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of Thematic Mapper data acquired November 15, 1982, over a vegetated site located in the East Texas Timberlands and Claypan area of Texas has indicated that montmorillonitic clay textured soils can be separated from soils with different textures. The difference of TM band 4 (0.76-0.90 micron) and band 7 (2.08-2.35 microns) had an agreement of 55.8 percent with the USDA soil survey for upland clay soils. This compared to 55.9-percent agreement when all six bands (excluding the thermal) were used. The disagreement occurred at the boundary lines as defined by the USDA soil survey and the spectral data. This result is considered to be fairly good, considering the difficulty in placement of soil boundaries by the soil scientist in the field. While the exact influence on the vegetation, and thus the spectral response observed by TM, is not understood at this time, it appears that TM band 7 is responding to the type of mineralogy of the soil and that soil properties important to the plant can be detected using TM.

  20. Thematic mapper data quality and performance assessment in renewable resource/agricultural remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Macdonald, R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A "quick look" investigation of the initial LANDSAT-4, thematic mapper (TM) scene received from Goddard Space Flight Center was performed to gain early insight into the characteristics of TM data. The initial scene, containing only the first four bands of the seven bands recorded by the TM, was acquired over the Detroit, Michigan, area on July 20, 1982. It yielded abundant information for scientific investigation. A wide variety of studies were conducted to assess all aspects of TM data. They ranged from manual analyses of image products to detect obvious optical, electronic, or mechanical defects to detailed machine analyses of the digital data content for evaluation of spectral separability of vegetative/nonvegetative classes. These studies were applied to several segments extracted from the full scene. No attempt was made to perform end-to-end statistical evaluations. However, the output of these studies do identify a degree of positive performance from the TM and its potential for advancing state-of-the-art crop inventory and condition assessment technology.

  1. A geobotanical investigation based on linear discriminant and profile analyses of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, Mathew R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of linear discriminant and profile analyses to detailed investigation of an airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) image collected over a geobotanical test site. The test site was located on the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and remote sensing data collection coincided with the onset of leaf senescence in the regional deciduous flora. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that sites overlying soil geochemical anomalies were distinguishable from background sites by the reflectance and thermal emittance of the tree canopy imaged in the airborne TMS data. The correlation of individual bands with the linear discriminant function suggested that the TMS thermal Channel 7 (10.32-12.33 microns) contributed most, while TMS Bands 2 (0.53-0.60 microns), 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), and 5 (1.53-1.73 microns) contributed somewhat more modestly to the separation of anomalous and background sites imaged by the TMS. The observed changes in canopy reflectance and thermal emittance of the deciduous flora overlying geochemically anomalous areas are consistent with the biophysical changes which are known or presumed to occur as a result of injury induced in metal-stressed vegetation.

  2. Blocking reduction of Landsat Thematic Mapper JPEG browse images using optimal PSNR estimated spectra adaptive postfiltering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linares, Irving; Mersereau, Russell M.; Smith, Mark J. T.

    1994-01-01

    Two representative sample images of Band 4 of the Landsat Thematic Mapper are compressed with the JPEG algorithm at 8:1, 16:1 and 24:1 Compression Ratios for experimental browsing purposes. We then apply the Optimal PSNR Estimated Spectra Adaptive Postfiltering (ESAP) algorithm to reduce the DCT blocking distortion. ESAP reduces the blocking distortion while preserving most of the image's edge information by adaptively postfiltering the decoded image using the block's spectral information already obtainable from each block's DCT coefficients. The algorithm iteratively applied a one dimensional log-sigmoid weighting function to the separable interpolated local block estimated spectra of the decoded image until it converges to the optimal PSNR with respect to the original using a 2-D steepest ascent search. Convergence is obtained in a few iterations for integer parameters. The optimal logsig parameters are transmitted to the decoder as a negligible byte of overhead data. A unique maxima is guaranteed due to the 2-D asymptotic exponential overshoot shape of the surface generated by the algorithm. ESAP is based on a DFT analysis of the DCT basis functions. It is implemented with pixel-by-pixel spatially adaptive separable FIR postfilters. PSNR objective improvements between 0.4 to 0.8 dB are shown together with their corresponding optimal PSNR adaptive postfiltered images.

  3. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    SciTech Connect

    Price, K.P. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-09-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. Correlation analysis showed that TM Band 4 (near infrared) accounted for 78% of the variability in percent trees (r=[minus] 0.88). In multiple regression, percent trees, total soil loss, and percent total nonliving cover together accounted for nearly 70% of the variability in TM Bands 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain the apparent accelerated rate of pinyon-juniper spread in the western United States. These include removal of natural plant competition by livestock overgrazing, reduction of wildfires, climatic change, and reinvasion of sites cleared of trees by 19th century settlers.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the landsat-4 thematic mapper data for mineral exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Power, M.S.; Jones, O.D.

    1985-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data recorded over an arid terrain were analyzed to determine the applicability of using of TM data for identifying and mapping hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Clays, micas, and other minerals bearing the OH anion in specific crystal lattice positions have absorption bands in the 2.2-??m region (TM channel 7, TM7) and commonly lack features in the 1.6-??m region (TM5). Channel ratios TM5/TM7, TM5/TM4, and TM3/TM1 were combined into a color-ratio-composite (CRC) image and used to distinguish hydrothermally altered rocks, unaltered rocks, and vegetation. These distinctions are made possible by using the TM5 and TM7, channels which are not available in the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). Digital masking was used to eliminate ambiguities due to water and shadows. However, some ambiguities in identification resulted between altered volcanic rocks and unaltered sedimentary deposits that contained clays, carbonates, and gypsum, and between altered volcanic rocks and volcanic tuffs diagenetically altered to zeolites. However, compared to MSS data, TM data should greatly improve the ability to map hydrothermally altered rocks in arid terrains. ?? 1985.

  5. The use of landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus for mapping leafy spurge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mladinich, C.S.; Bustos, M.R.; Stitt, S.; Root, R.; Brown, K.; Anderson, G.L.; Hager, S.

    2006-01-01

    Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge) is an invasive weed that is a major problem in much of the Upper Great Plains region, including parts of Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming. Infestations in North Dakota alone have had a serious economic impact, estimated at $87 million annually in 1991, to the state's wildlife, tourism, and agricultural economy. Leafy spurge degrades prairie and badland ecosystems by displacing native grasses and forbs. It is a major threat to protected ecosystems in many national parks, national wild lands, and state recreational areas in the region. This study explores the use of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (Landsat) imagery and derived products as a management tool for mapping leafy spurge in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in southwestern North Dakota. An unsupervised clustering approach was used to map leafy spurge classes and resulted in overall classification accuracies of approximately 63%. The uses of Landsat imagery did not provide the accuracy required for detailed mapping of small patches of the weed. However, it demonstrated the potential for mapping broad-scale (regional) leafy spurge occurrence. This paper offers recommendations on the suitability of Landsat imagery as a tool for use by resource managers to map and monitor leafy spurge populations over large areas.

  6. A preliminary evaluation of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data for their geometric and radiometric accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Bender, L. U.; Falcone, N.; Jones, O. D.

    1983-01-01

    Some LANDSAT thematic mapper data collected over the eastern United States were analyzed for their whole scene geometric accuracy, band to band registration and radiometric accuracy. Band ratio images were created for a part of one scene in order to assess the capability of mapping geologic units with contrasting spectral properties. Systematic errors were found in the geometric accuracy of whole scenes, part of which were attributable to the film writing device used to record the images to film. Band to band registration showed that bands 1 through 4 were registered to within one pixel. Likewise, bands 5 and 7 also were registered to within one pixel. However, bands 5 and 7 were misregistered with bands 1 through 4 by 1 to 2 pixels. Band 6 was misregistered by 4 pixels to bands 1 through 4. Radiometric analysis indicated two kinds of banding, a modulo-16 stripping and an alternate light dark group of 16 scanlines. A color ratio composite image consisting of TM band ratios 3/4, 5/2, and 5/7 showed limonitic clay rich soils, limonitic clay poor soils, and nonlimonitic materials as distinctly different colors on the image.

  7. Estimating net solar radiation using Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubayah, R.

    1992-01-01

    A radiative transfer algorithm is combined with digital elevation and satellite reflectance data to model spatial variability in net solar radiation at fine spatial resolution. The method is applied to the tall-grass prairie of the 16 x 16 sq km FIFE site (First ISLSCP Field Experiment) of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project. Spectral reflectances as measured by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) are corrected for atmospheric and topographic effects using field measurements and accurate 30-m digital elevation data in a detailed model of atmosphere-surface interaction. The spectral reflectances are then integrated to produce estimates of surface albedo in the range 0.3-3.0 microns. This map of albedo is used in an atmospheric and topographic radiative transfer model to produce a map of net solar radiation. A map of apparent net solar radiation is also derived using only the TM reflectance data, uncorrected for topography, and the average field-measured downwelling solar irradiance. Comparison with field measurements at 10 sites on the prairie shows that the topographically derived radiation map accurately captures the spatial variability in net solar radiation, but the apparent map does not.

  8. Multiple dipole eddies in the Alaska Coastal Current detected with Landsat thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlnas, Kristina; Royer, Thomas C.; George, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen dipole eddies, including five large, well-formed ones, three second-generation eddies, and two double eddies, were observed in the Alaska Coastal Current near Kayak Island in one single scene of the Landsat thematic mapper (TM) on April 22, l985. The digital Landsat TM satellite data were computer analyzed to extract details in the near coastal circulation in the northern Gulf of Alaska. Enhancement techniques were applied to the visible and thermal IR bands. The features are evident only in the visible bands because of the ability of these bands to detect the distribution of sediments in the near surface. These eddies did not have a significant thermal signature.The sources of these sediments are the glacial streams found throughout the Gulf of Alaska coast. Eddies of this configuration and frequency have never been observed here previously. However, the oceanographic and meteorological conditions are typical for this time of year. These eddies should be important to the cross-shelf mixing processes in the Alaska Coastal Current and are an indicator that the flow here can be unstable at certain times of the year.

  9. Application of Thematic Mapper data to corn and soybean development stage estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Henderson, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    A model, utilizing direct relationship between remotely sensed spectral data and the development stage of both corn and soybeans has been proposed and published previously (Badhwar and Henderson, 1981; and Henderson and Badhwar, 1984). This model was developed using data acquired by instruments mounted on trucks over field plots of corn and soybeans as well as satellite data from Landsat. In all cases, the data was analyzed in the spectral bands equivalent to the four bands of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). In this study the same model has been applied to corn and soybeans using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data combined with simulated TM data to provide a multitemporal data set in TM band intervals. All data (five total acquisitions) were acquired over a test site in Webster County, Iowa from June to October 1982. The use of TM data for determining development state is as accurate as with Landsat MSS and field plot data in MSS bands. The maximum deviation of 0.6 development stage for corn and 0.8 development stage for soybeans is well within the uncertainty with which a field can be estimated with procedures used by observers on the ground in 1982.

  10. Data compression experiments with LANDSAT thematic mapper and Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1989-01-01

    A case study is presented where an image segmentation based compression technique is applied to LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. The compression technique, called Spatially Constrained Clustering (SCC), can be regarded as an adaptive vector quantization approach. The SCC can be applied to either single or multiple spectral bands of image data. The segmented image resulting from SCC is encoded in small rectangular blocks, with the codebook varying from block to block. Lossless compression potential (LDP) of sample TM and CZCS images are evaluated. For the TM test image, the LCP is 2.79. For the CZCS test image the LCP is 1.89, even though when only a cloud-free section of the image is considered the LCP increases to 3.48. Examples of compressed images are shown at several compression ratios ranging from 4 to 15. In the case of TM data, the compressed data are classified using the Bayes' classifier. The results show an improvement in the similarity between the classification results and ground truth when compressed data are used, thus showing that compression is, in fact, a useful first step in the analysis.

  11. Geobotanical information contained in Landsat Thematic Mapper images covering southern Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Arvidson, R.; Sultan, M.; Guinness, E.

    1986-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected in the late summer, fall, and winter of 1982 over forested bedrocks in southeastern Missouri were used in conjunction with forest surveys, field work, aerial photographs, and laboratory analyses to evaluate multispectral and seasonal information from visible and reflected IR data. The forested bedrock included granites, rhyolites, carbonates, and sandstones. High reflectance in band 4 (760-900 nm) in the summer scene corresponds to regions of xeric forest type. The fact that the xeric regions tend to develop flat-topped canopies, as opposed to irregular canopy surfaces of the wetter mesic areas, may partially control the TM response in bands 4, 5 (155-175 nm) and 7 (208-235 nm). The xeric regions correlated with soils having poor water retention capabilities, such as rhyolites and certain carbonate rocks with nonporous residum layers. An opposite relationship between xeric and mesic forest biomass was noted, if the commonly used TM band ratio 4/3 was used as a surrogate biomass measure. The high band 4 response over xeric forests gives anomalously high biomass estimates.

  12. LANDSAT 4 investigations of Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner applications. [Drum Mountains, Utah and Tonopath, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Structural and stratigraphic characteristics of the Drum Mountains in Utah were obtained using LANDSAT 5 TM data that were digitally enhanced using band ratioing, principal components analysis, and spatial filtering techniques. Color ratioing composite images proved most useful for distinguishing between and identifying exposure of hyroxly bearing hydrothermally altered inclusive rocks and bleached contact metamorphic rocks dominated by calc-silicate mineral assemblages. The amount and detail of geologic information interpreted from TM images is more significant than that from MSS and in geologic maps. Enhanced LANDSAT 5 TM data also identified and mapped hydrothermal alteration and distinguished between altered and unaltered limonitic assemblages in the Tonopath, Nevada quadrangle.

  13. Within-Scene Radiometric Correction Of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) Data In Canadian Production Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jennifer M.

    1986-11-01

    The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) has been using the scene-statistics approach, originally implemented in 19751 for destriping LANDSAT MSS data, for the routine correction of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) reflective band data. The 0.8% within-scene radiometric accuracy specified for Canadian production systems has been achieved for all but a small percentage of requested scenes2. A significant functionality of the processing methodology includes the correction for dark signal (DC) level shifts as a function of both detector and scan line number, by utilizing background reference level measurements available during the calibration period of each mirror scanning sequence. Additionally, forward and reverse mirror scans are treated independently. The effect of extended, bright targets such as snow, ice or clouds, is to cause a lowering of the background level by as much as 4 digital numbers (DN), with recovery times equivalent to approximately 2000 pixels. Hence, in the vicinity of the target itself, localized banding in phase with forward and reverse mirror sweeps is evident. A two-fold impact to the CCRS processing system occurs when the bright targets are at the edge of the scene, since the background reference level measured during the calibration period does not represent the offset for the imaging period of the sequence. The effects are, firstly, a more pronounced banding in those scan lines which image the bright target, and secondly, a forward/reverse banding superimposed over the entire scene, causing these scenes to fail the accuracy criterion. An automated procedure has therefore been adopted to detect when the forward/reverse banding would be outside specifications using the standard techniques. In such cases, forward and reverse mirror sweeps are then corrected with identical gain and offset correction parameters and the DC level shift corrections are applied.

  14. Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefiting hydrocarbon exploration.

  15. Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefitting hydrocarbon exploration.

  16. Structural mapping and analysis of a Madagascar Precambrian shear zone using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kilmer, D.S.; Duncan, I.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Recently, the west coast of Madagascar has become a frontier region for petroleum exploration. Major structures in the Precambrian shield of Madagascar may have a strong control on the development of sedimentary basins, as has been documented in the Morondava basin. The 2.5-3.0+ Ga shield of Madagascar is an amphibolite- to granulite-grade metamorphic gneiss terrain, intruded by anorthosites and 550-Ma granites and pegmatites. Landsat Thematic Mapper data provides a cost-effective method for regional-scale structural mapping of this poorly known terrain. A five-component linear mixing model has been used to enhance the lithologic information in this six-band data. Lithologic component images thus produced utilize the full geologic spectral range of the data. A preliminary structural geologic map compiled from the component images has greater detail than existing maps at 1:100,000 scale, to which it has been compared. The Ankafotra-Saririaky shear zone has been identified as a north-northeast-trending, 15- to 20-km-wide region of appressed folds, attenuated layering, and subparallel faults on the western side of the shield. Two anorthosite massifs that occur within this shear zone have the structural characteristics of boudins in a ductile matrix. The shear deformed a preexisting terrain of poly-phase folding, characterized by tight folds and complex fold interference structures displayed by basins and domes on a scale of 10 km. Enhanced remote sensing data can be used to characterize the nature and mechanism of shear deformation in such zones.

  17. Intra-annual NDVI validation of the Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Groeneveld, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone of the extensive archive of moderate-resolution Earth imagery. Even after more than 24 years of service, the L5 TM is still operational. Given the longevity of the satellite, the detectors have aged and the sensor's radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters in the National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS) have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations in 2003 and 2007 have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data. This letter uses the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a metric to evaluate the radiometric calibration. The calibration change has improved absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic radiometry and will provide the basis for continued long-term studies of the Earth's land surfaces.

  18. EVALUATION OF LOW-SUN ILLUMINATED LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR MAPPING HYDROTHERMALLY ALTERED ROCKS IN SOUTHERN NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, Melvin H.; Power, Marty S.; Salisbury, Jack; Jones, O.D.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of southern Nevada collected under conditions of low-angle solar illumination were digitally processed to identify hydroxyl-bearing minerals commonly associated with hydrothermal alteration in volcanic terrains. Digital masking procedures were used to exclude shadow areas and vegetation and thus to produce a CRC image suitable for testing the new TM bands as a means to map hydrothermally altered rocks. Field examination of a masked CRC image revealed that several different types of altered rocks displayed hues associated with spectral characteristics common to hydroxyl-bearing minerals. Several types of unaltered rocks also displayed similar hues.

  19. Change Detection Analysis in Urban and Suburban Areas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper data: Case of Huntsville, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Dana; Fahsi, A.; Steinfeld S.; Coleman, T.

    1998-01-01

    Two Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images, from July 1984 and July 1992, were used to identify land use/cover changes in the urban and suburban fringe of the city of Huntsville, Alabama. Image difference was the technique used to quantify the change between the two dates. The eight-year period showed a 16% change, mainly from agricultural lands to urban areas generated by the settlement of industrial, commercial, and residential areas. Visual analysis of the change map (i.e., difference image) supported this phenomenon by showing that most changes were occurring in the vicinity of the major roads and highways across the city.

  20. An Initial Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data for the Discrimination of Agricultural, Forested Wetland, and Urban Land Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for the discrimination of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers is conducted using a scene of data collected over Arkansas and Tennessee. A classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is compared with a classification of TM data for the same area. Results from this comparative analysis show that the multitemporal MSS classification produced an overall accuracy of 80.91% while the TM classification yields an overall classification accuracy of 97.06% correct.

  1. A preliminary comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT-1 HRV multispectral data for estimating coniferous forest volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, William J.; Wang, S.; Isaacson, Dennis L.; Paine, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    Digital Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Satellite Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) High Resolution Visible (HRV) images of coniferous forest canopies were compared in their relationship to forest wood volume using correlation and regression analyses. Significant inverse relationships were found between softwood volume and the spectral bands from both sensors (P less than 0.01). The highest correlations were between the log of softwood volume and the near-infrared bands (HRV band 3, r = -0.89; TM band 4, r = -0.83).

  2. Statistical analysis of Thematic Mapper Simulator data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types in southwest Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Weinstock, K. J.; Mouat, D. A.; Card, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types based on vegetative cover characteristics is addressed in this research. A methodology for accomplishing this evaluation utilizing univariate and multivariate techniques is presented. TMS data acquired with a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral scanner were integrated with vegetation and geologic information for subsequent statistical analyses, which included a chi-square test, an analysis of variance, stepwise discriminant analysis, and Duncan's multiple range test. Results indicate that ultramafic rock types are spectrally separable from nonultramafics based on vegetative cover through the use of statistical analyses.

  3. Radiometric calibration of the reflective bands of NS001-Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and modular multispectral radiometers (MMR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Wood, Frank M., Jr.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.

    1988-01-01

    The NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator scanner (TMS) and several modular multispectral radiometers (MMRs) are among the primary instruments used in the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE). The NS001 has a continuously variable gain setting. Calibration of the NS001 data is influenced by drift in the dark current level of up to six counts during a mirror scan at typical gain settings. The MMR instruments are being used in their 1 deg FOV configuration on the helicopter and 15 deg FOV on the ground.

  4. Glacial lake monitoring in the Karakoram Range using historical Landsat Thematic Mapper archive (1982 - 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J. Y. H.; Kelly, R. E. J.; Evans, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Glacierized regions are one of the most dynamic land surface environments on the planet (Evans and Delaney, In Press). They are susceptible to various types of natural hazards such as landslides, glacier avalanches, and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF). GLOF events are increasingly common and present catastrophic flood hazards, the causes of which are sensitive to climate change in complex high mountain topography (IPCC, 2013). Inundation and debris flows from GLOF events have repeatedly caused significant infrastructure damages and loss of human lives in the high mountain regions of the world (Huggel et al, 2002). The research is designed to develop methods for the consistent detection of glacier lakes formation during the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) era (1982 - present), to quantify the frequency of glacier lake development and estimate lake volume using Landsat imagery and digital elevation model (DEM) data. Landsat TM scenes are used to identify glacier lakes in the Shimshal and Shaksgam valley, particularly the development of Lake Virjeab in year 2000 and Kyagar Lake in 1998. A simple thresholding technique using Landsat TM infrared bands, along with object-based segmentation approaches are used to isolate lake extent. Lake volume is extracted by intersecting the lake extent with the DEM surface. Based on previous studies and DEM characterization in the region, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM is preferred over Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) GDEM due to higher accuracy. Calculated errors in SRTM height estimates are 5.81 m compared with 8.34 m for ASTER. SRTM data are preferred because the DEM measurements were made over short duration making the DEM internally consistent. Lake volume derived from the Landsat TM imagery and DEM are incorporated into a simple GLOF model identified by Clague and Matthews (1973) to estimate the potential peak discharge (Qmax) of a GLOF event. We compare the simple Qmax estimates with

  5. Pre-Launch Noise Characterization of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM Plus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedelty, J. A.; Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.; Seiferth, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    A noise characterization of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument was performed as part of a near-real time performance assessment and health monitoring program. Perl'ormance data for the integrated Landsat-7 spacecraft and ETM+ were collected before, during, and after the spacecraft thermal vacuum testing program at the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) facilities in Valley Forge, PA. The Landsat-7 spacecraft and ETM+ instrument were successfully launched on April 15, 1999. The spacecraft and ETM+ are now nearing the end of the on orbit engineering checkout phase, and Landsat-7 is expected to be declared operational on or about July 15, 1999. A preliminary post-launch noise characterization was performed and compared with the pre-launch characterization. In general the overall noise levels in the ETM+ are at or below the specification levels. Coherent noise is seen in most bands, but is only operationally significant when imaging in (he panchromatic band (band 8). This coherent noise has an amplitude as high as approximately 3 DN (peak-to-peak, high gain) at the Nyquist rate of 104 kHz, and causes the noise levels in panchromatic band images at times to exceed the total noise specification by up to approximately 10%. However, this 104 kHz noise is now much weaker than it was prior to the successful repair of the ETM+ power supplies that was completed in May 1998. Weak and stable coherent noise at approximately 5 kHz is seen in all bands in the prime focal plane (bands 1-4 and 8) with the prime (side A) electronics. Very strong coherent noise at approximately 20 kHz is seen in a few detectors of bands 1 and 8, but this noise is almost entirely in the turn-around region between scans when the ETM+ is not imaging the Earth. Strong coherent noise was seen in 2 detectors of band 5 during some of the pre-launch testing; however, this noise seems to be temperature dependent, and has not been seen in the current on orbit environment. Strong

  6. LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MFT) evaluation. [California and New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The techniques used in the two-image comparison of TM data and 7-meter aerial data acquired over San Francisco on August 12, 1983 during LANDSAT 4 operation were refined. Analysis of one area is complete and reported herein; analysis of a second area is in progress. A large test target for measurement of the LANDSAT 5 MTF at the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico was constructed.

  7. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

  8. Analysis and correction of Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mapper Sensor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R.; Hanson, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures for the correction and registration and registration of Landsat TM image data are examined. The registration of Landsat-4 TM images of San Francisco to Landsat-5 TM images of the San Francisco using the interactive geometric correction program and the cross-correlation technique is described. The geometric correction program and cross-correlation results are presented. The corrections of the TM data to a map reference and to a cartographic database are discussed; geometric and cartographic analyses are applied to the registration results.

  9. Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the Extremadura region of western Spain, Ag, Pb, Zn, and Sn deposits occur in the pieces of late Hercynian granitic plutons and near the pluton contacts in late Proterozoic slate and metagraywacke that have been regionally metamorphosed to the green schist facies. The plutons generally are well exposed and have distinctive geomorphological expression and vegetation; poor exposures of the metasedimentary host rocks and extensive cultivation, however, make delineation of the contact aureoles difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been used to distinguish soil developed on the contact metamorphic rocks from soil formed on the stratigraphically equivalent slate-metagraywacke sequence. The mineral constituents of these soils are similar, except that muscovite is more common in the contact metamorphic soil; carbonaceous material is common in both soils. Contact metamorphic soil have lower reflectance, especially in the 1.6-micrometers wavelength region (TM 5), and weaker Al-OH, Mg-OH, and Fe3+ absorption features than do spectra of the slate-metagraywacke soil. The low-reflectance and subdued absorption features exhibited by the contact metamorphic soil spectra are attributed to the high absorption coefficient f the carbonaceous material caused by heating during emplacement of the granitic plutons. These spectral differences are evident in a TM 4/3, 4/5, 3/1 color-composite image. Initially, this image was used to outline the contact aureoles, but digital classification of the TM data was necessary for generating internally consistent maps of the distribution of the exposed contact metamorphic soil. In an August 1984, TM scene of the Caceras area, the plowed, vegetation-free fields were identified by their low TM 4/3 values. Then, ranges of TM 4/5 and 3/1 values were determine for selected plower fields within and outside the contact aureoles; TM 5 produced results similar to TM 4/5. Field evaluation, supported by X-ray diffraction and petrographic

  10. Preliminary results of a quantitative comparison of the spectral signatures of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS).

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodechtel, J.; Zilger, J.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    Operationally acquired Thematic Mapper and experimental MOMS-01 data are evaluated quantitatively concerning the systems spectral response and performance for geoscientific applications. Results show the two instruments to be similar in the spectral bands compared. Although the MOMS scanner has a smaller IFOV, it has a lower modulation transfer function performance for small, low contrast features as compared to Thematic Mapper. This deficiency does not only occur when MOMS was switched to the low gain mode. It is due to the CD arrays used (ITEK CCPD 1728).

  11. Multi-Temporal Land Cover Analysis in the Mid-Willamette Basin, Oregon: Assessment of Riparian Forest Canopy Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, R. J.; Taylor, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    The 11,500 sq. mi. Willamette Basin is home to 70% of Oregon’s population and is associated with an extensive post-settlement history of land cover modification. Existing assessments estimate that between 30 and 44% of riparian zones have been subject to anthropogenic disturbances, which in turn have negatively impacted TMDL levels for temperature and sediment loading (Oregon DEQ, 2009). As such, riparian forest restoration is cited as one of the primary management objectives needed to improve habitat quality. This study involves a regional multi-temporal land cover analysis utilizing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery and supervised image classification to document changes in canopy cover (Landsat acquisition years 2000 and 2009). The rectangular study site is oriented north-south and extends from Yamhill to Eugene, occupying a 3,133 sq. mi. footprint that captures the dynamic landuse interface between urban centers, lowland riparian habitats, and Oregon Coast Range forests. Landsat 5 TM data for the study site were acquired via the USGS Global Visualization Viewer with multispectral imagery including 6 reflected bands suited for quantifying broad-scale land cover regimes, including vegetation. Classification training sites for water, forest, and agricultural land-cover categories were selected to accurately represent within-class spectral variability. A supervised classification scheme was employed to compare training signatures against the six reflective bands in each image year. A maximum likelihood algorithm was utilized to delineate land-cover classes with overlapping spectral signatures. Other processing techniques included radiometric normalization of brightness values, and derivation of NDVI and Tasseled Cap vegetative indices. Final classification accuracy was assessed by randomly assigning 100 spatially distributed point samples per class and comparing each to available ground truth. Two distinct landuse domains were delineated within the

  12. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1997 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-Resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del Medio Ambiente y el Bes...

  13. Comparison of the information content of data from the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    There has been a steady increase with respect to the available capability to monitor the earth's surface from satellite platforms. Developments regarding instrumentation should now be considered in the context of the possible commercialization of space systems. The satellite data user is to select his data with many variables in mind, including cost. The present investigation provides a statistical comparison of simultaneously acquired data from the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) for five scenes acquired over agricultural areas. Simple examination of photographic products and manipulation and display of image data suggests that the utility of the TM data will be far greater than that of the MSS. However, factors of cost and frequency of observations can also be important. The approach employed in the investigation should facilitate evaluation of future remote sensing systems.

  14. An analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper P-Product internal geometry and conformity to earth surface geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.; Walker, R. E.; Gokhman, B.

    1985-01-01

    Performance requirements regarding geometric accuracy have been defined in terms of end product goals, but until recently no precise details have been given concerning the conditions under which that accuracy is to be achieved. In order to achieve higher spatial and spectral resolutions, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor was designed to image in both forward and reverse mirror sweeps in two separate focal planes. Both hardware and software have been augmented and changed during the course of the Landsat TM developments to achieve improved geometric accuracy. An investigation has been conducted to determine if the TM meets the National Map Accuracy Standards for geometric accuracy at larger scales. It was found that TM imagery, in terms of geometry, has come close to, and in some cases exceeded, its stringent specifications.

  15. Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

  16. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Performance as Applied to Hydrocarbon Exploration. [Ontario, Canada; Cement, Oklahoma; and Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Sheffield, C.; Dykstra, J.

    1985-01-01

    The role data from the first three LANDSAT satellites have in geologic exploration and their current level of acceptance is reviewed and the advantages of LANDSAT 4 TM data over MSS data are discussed. Specially enhanced Thematic Mapper imager can make a very significant contribution to the oil and gas and mineral exploration industries. The TM's increased spatial resolution enables the production of larger scale imagery, which greatly increases the amount of geomorphic and structural information interpretable. TM's greater spectral resolution, combined with the smaller, more homogeneous pixels, should enable a far greater confidence in mapping lithologies and detecting geobotanical anomalies from space. The results from its applications to hydrocarbon and mineral exploration promise to bring the majority of the geologic exploration community into that final stage of acceptance and routine application of the satellite data.

  17. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    A set of training statistics for the 30 meter resolution simulated thematic mapper MSS data was generated based on land use/land cover classes. In addition to this supervised data set, a nonsupervised multicluster block of training statistics is being defined in order to compare the classification results and evaluate the effect of the different training selection methods on classification performance. Two test data sets, defined using a stratified sampling procedure incorporating a grid system with dimensions of 50 lines by 50 columns, and another set based on an analyst supervised set of test fields were used to evaluate the classifications of the TMS data. The supervised training data set generated training statistics, and a per point Gaussian maximum likelihood classification of the 1979 TMS data was obtained. The August 1980 MSS data was radiometrically adjusted. The SAR data was redigitized and the SAR imagery was qualitatively analyzed.

  18. Comparative point-spread function calculations for the MOMS-1, Thematic Mapper and SPOT-HRV instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Nickeson, J. E.; Bodechtel, J.; Zilger, J.

    1988-01-01

    Point-spread functions (PSF) comparisons were made between the Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS-01), the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and the SPOT-HRV instruments, principally near Lake Nakuru, Kenya. The results, expressed in terms of the width of the point spread functions at the 50 percent power points as determined from the in-scene analysis show that the TM has a PSF equal to or narrower than the MOMS-01 instrument (50 to 55 for the TM versus 50 to 68 for the MOMS). The SPOT estimates of the PSF range from 36 to 40. When the MOMS results are adjusted for differences in edge scanning as compared to the TM and SPOT, they are nearer 40 in the 575 to 625 nm band.

  19. An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper data for the classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Anderson, J. E.; Brannon, D. P.; Hill, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.

  20. DISCRIMINATION OF ALTERED BASALTIC ROCKS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES BY ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Berlin, Graydon L.; Chavez, Pat S.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper image data were analyzed to determine their ability to discriminate red cone basalts from gray flow basalts and sedimentary country rocks for three volcanic fields in the southwestern United States. Analyses of all of the possible three-band combinations of the six nonthermal bands indicate that the combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 best discriminates among these materials. The color-composite image of these three bands unambiguously discriminates 89 percent of the mapped red volcanic cones in the three volcanic fields. Mineralogic and chemical analyses of collected samples indicate that discrimination is facilitated by the presence of hematite as a major mineral phase in the red cone basalts (hematite is only a minor mineral phase in the gray flow basalts and red sedimentary rocks).

  1. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques. [south carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A literature review on radar and spectral band information was conducted and a NC-130 mission was flown carrying the NS001 scanner system which basically corresponds to the channel configuration of the proposed thematic mapper. Aerial photography and other reference data were obtained for the study site, an area approximately 290 sq miles in north central South Carolina. A cover type map was prepared and methods were devised for reformatting and geometrically correcting MSS CRT data. Arrangements were made to obtain LANDSAT data for dates approximating the NC-130 mission. Because of the waveband employed to obtain SEASAT radar data, it was decided to determine if X-band (2.40 cm to 3.75 cm wavelength) imagery is available.

  2. Processing multi temporal Thematic Mapper data for mapping the submarine shelf of the Island Kerkennah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katlane, Rim; Berges, Jean-Claude; Beltrando, Gérard; Zargouni, Fouad

    2014-05-01

    Gulf of Gabes in Tunisia is unique among Mediterranean coastal environments by shallow water extension and tide amplitude. Kerkennah islands, located in this this gulf, are characterized by a -10 m isobath few kilometers away from the shoreline and by a lithology composition dominated by smooth rocks (sandstone and mio-plocene clay). These features, combined with a sea level rise and an active subsidence, constitute major risk factors. Islands vulnerability is increased by sebkha (salted low lands) extension which accounts now for 45% of the total area. Thus assessing the littoral sea depth change is a key issue for risk monitoring. Our study relies on the 30 years archive of Landsat 5 TM sensor managed by GSFC/NASA. The depth assessment has been carried out by an empiric method based on TM1 channel which has the better water penetration properties (up to 25 m). We focused on summer period and selected images from July 1986, August 1987, June 2003 and July 2009. After a first step of data preprocessing to ensure data homogeneity, we produced sub-aquatic morphology change maps. The observed features (submarine channels enlargement, cells sinking) are consistent with the hypothesis of the ebb tide as the process leading phenomenon.

  3. 25 Years of Landsat 5

    NASA Video Gallery

    Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

  4. Mapping inundation in the heterogeneous floodplain wetlands of the Macquarie Marshes, using Landsat Thematic Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rachael F.; Kingsford, Richard T.; Lu, Yi; Cox, Stephen J.; Sims, Neil C.; Hunter, Simon J.

    2015-05-01

    Flood dependent aquatic ecosystems worldwide are in rapid decline with competing demands for water. In Australia, this is particularly evident in the floodplain wetlands of semi-arid regions (e.g. the Macquarie Marshes), which rely on highly variable flooding from river flows. Environmental flows mitigate the impacts of river regulation, inundating floodplains, thereby rehabilitating degraded habitats. Mapping flooding patterns is critical for environmental flow management but challenging in large heterogeneous floodplains with variable patterns of flooding and complex vegetation mosaics. We mapped inundation in the Macquarie Marshes, using Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ images (1989-2010). We classified three inundation classes: water, mixed pixels (water, vegetation, soil) and vegetation (emergent macrophytes obscuring inundation), merged to map inundated areas from not-inundated areas (dry land). We used the Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWIB2/B5), masked by the sum of bands 4, 5, and 7 (sum457), to detect water and mixed pixels. Vegetation was classified using an unsupervised classification of a composite image comprising two dates representing vegetation senescence and green growth, transformed into two contrasting vegetation indices, NDVI and NDIB7/B4. We assessed accuracy using geo-referenced oblique aerial photography, coincident with Landsat imagery for a small and large flood, producing respective overall accuracies of inundated area of 93% and 95%. Producer's and user's accuracies were also high (94-99%). Confusion among inundation classes existed but classes were spectrally distinct from one another and from dry land. Inundation class areas varied with flood size, demonstrating the variability. Inundation extent was highly variable (683-206,611 ha). Floods up to 50,000 ha were confined to the north and south wetland regions. Connectivity to the east region only occurred when flooding was greater than 51,000 ha. Understanding the spatiotemporal

  5. Lithologic mapping of mafic intrusions in East Greenland using Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naslund, H. Richard; Birnie, R. W.; Parr, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    The East Greenland Tertiary Igneous Province contains a variety of intrusive and extrusive rock types. The Skaergaard complex is the most well known of the intrusive centers. Landsat thematic mapping (TM) was used in conjunction with field spectrometer data to map these mafic intrusions. These intrusions are of interest as possible precious metal ore deposits. They are spectrally distinct from the surrounding Precambrian gneisses. However, subpixel contamination by snow, oxide surface coatings, lichen cover and severe topography limit the discrimination of lithologic units within the gabbro. Imagery of the Skaergaard and surrounding vicinity, and image processing and enhancement techniques are presented. Student theses and other publications resulting from this work are also listed.

  6. An evaluation of simulated Thematic Mapper data and Landsat MSS data for discriminating suburban and regional land use and land cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner, operating in the same spectral channels as the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), was used in a region east of Denver, CO, for a simulation test performed in the framework of using TM to discriminate the level I and level II classes. It is noted that at the 30-m spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) the overall discrimination for such classes as commercial/industrial land, rangeland, irrigated sod, irrigated alfalfa, and irrigated pasture was superior to that of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner, primarily due to four added spectral bands. For residential and other spectrally heterogeneous classes, however, the higher resolution of TMS resulted in increased variability within the class and a larger spectral overlap.

  7. Comparison of the spectral information content of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Resurs-01 NDVI data for vegetation discrimination and monitoring in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Marco; Ricotta, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    The Resurs-01 satellite data now being made commercially available are bridging the gap between NOAA AVHRR and Landsat TM with a resolution in visible and near-infrared bands of 170 meters and a re-imaging capability of about four days at the equator. The combination of the mid-range ground resolution and the high repeat cycle gives data sets ideal for vegetation mapping and monitoring in scales ranging from 1:250,000 to 1:2,000,000. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has become the primary tool for accurate description of continental land cover and can be calculated both, from the channels of the Landsat Thematic Mapper and from the Resurs-01 MSU-SK instrument. The primary objective of this study was to compare the spectral information content of the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Resurs-01 MSU-SK NDVI data for an agricultural landscape of Central Italy.

  8. The time-space relationship of the data point (Pixels) of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner or the myth of simultaneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified explanation of the time space relationships among scanner pixels is presented. The examples of the multispectral scanner (MSS) on Landsats 1, 2, and 3 and the thematic mapper (TM) of Landsat D are used to describe the concept and degree of nonsimultaneity of scanning system data. The time aspects of scanner data acquisition and those parts of the MSS and TM systems related to that phenomena are addressed.

  9. Three-dimensional displays for natural hazards analysis, using classified Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data and large-scale digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, David R.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Brown, Daniel G.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are described for using Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data and digital elevation models for the display of natural hazard sites in a mountainous region of northwestern Montana, USA. Hazard zones can be easily identified on the three-dimensional images. Proximity of facilities such as highways and building locations to hazard sites can also be easily displayed. A temporal sequence of Landsat TM (or similar) satellite data sets could also be used to display landscape changes associated with dynamic natural hazard processes.

  10. The Use of Thematic Mapper Data for Land Cover Discrimination: Preliminary Results from the UK Satmap Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, M. J.; Baker, J. R.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Gayler, J. E.; Hardy, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The principal objectives of the UK SATMaP program are to determine thematic mapper (TM) performance with particular reference to spatial resolution properties and geometric characteristics of the data. So far, analysis is restricted to images from the U.S. and concentrates on spectra and radiometric properties. The results indicate that the data are inherently three dimensional compared with the two dimensional character of MSS data. Preliminary classification results indicate the importance of the near infrared band (TM 4), at least one middle infrared band (TM 5 or TM 6) and at least one of the visible bands (preferably either TM 3 or TM 1). The thermal infrared also appears to have discriminatory ability despite its coarser spatial resolution. For band 4 the forward and reverse scans show somewhat different spectral responses in one scene but this effect is absent in the other analyzed. From examination of the histograms it would appear that the full 8 bit quantization is not being effectively utilized for all the bands.