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1

Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper outgassing effects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A periodic 3% to 5% variation in detector response affecting both image and internal calibrator (IC) data has been observed in bands 5 and 7 of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper. The source for this variation is thought to be an interference effect due to buildup of an ice-like contaminant film on a ZnSe window, covered with an antireflective coating (ARC), of the cooled dewar containing these detectors. Periodic warming of the dewar is required in order to remove the contaminant and restore detector response to an uncontaminated level. These effects in the IC data have been characterized over four individual outgassing cycles using thin-film models to estimate transmittance of the window/ARC and ARC/contaminant film stack throughout the instrument lifetime. Based on the results obtained from this modeling, a lookup table procedure has been implemented that provides correction factors to improve the calibration accuracy of bands 5 and 7 by approximately 5%.

Helder, D. L.; Micijevic, E.

2004-01-01

2

Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

Chander, G.; Markham, B. L.; Barsi, J. A.

2007-01-01

3

Improved outgassing models for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) detectors of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands 5 and 7 are maintained on cryogenic temperatures to minimize thermal noise and allow adequate detection of scene energy. Over the instrument's lifetime, gain oscillations are observed in these bands that are caused by an ice-like contaminant that gradually builds up on the window of a dewar that houses these bands' detectors. This process of icing, an effect of material outgassing in space, is detected and characterized through observations of Internal Calibrator (IC) data. Analyses of IC data indicated three to five percent uncertainty in absolute gain estimates due to this icing phenomenon. The thin-film interference lifetime models implemented in the image product generation systems at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) successfully remove up to 80 percent of the icing effects for the image acquisition period from the satellite's launch in 1984 until 2001; however, their correction ability was found to be much lower for the time thereafter. This study concentrates on improving the estimates of the contaminant film growth rate and the associated change in the period of gain oscillations. The goal is to provide model parameters with the potential to correct 70 to 80 percent of gain uncertainties caused by outgassing effects in L5 TM bands 5 and 7 over the instrument's entire lifetime. ?? 2007 IEEE.

Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.; Hayes, R. W.

2007-01-01

4

Radiometrie recalibration procedure for landsat-5 thematic mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Landsat-5 (L5) satellite was launched on March 01, 1984, with a design life of three years. Incredibly, the L5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has collected data for 23 years. Over this time, the detectors have aged, and its radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data; however, users with data that were processed prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing Level 1 (L1) products without having to purchase reprocessed data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The accuracy of the recalibration is dependent on the knowledge of the prior calibration applied to the data. The ""Work Order" file, included with standard National Land Archive Production System (NLAFS) data products, gives parameters that define the applied calibration. These are the Internal Calibrator (IC) calibration parameters or the default prelaunch calibration, if there were problems with the IC calibration. This paper details the recalibration procedure for data processed using IC, in which users have the Work Order file. ?? 2001 IEEE.

Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.; Hayes, R. W.; Barsi, J. A.

2008-01-01

5

Thematic Mapper. Volume 1: Calibration report flight model, LANDSAT 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calibration of the Flight 1 Model Thematic Mapper is discussed. Spectral response, scan profile, coherent noise, line spread profiles and white light leaks, square wave response, radiometric calibration, and commands and telemetry are specifically addressed.

Cooley, R. C.; Lansing, J. C.

1984-01-01

6

Irradiance-based cross-calibration of Landsat5 and Landsat7 Thematic Mapper sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 2 June 1999 Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 passed over north-central Nebraska collecting Thematic Mapper (TM) data for essentially the same spatial location, with an acquisition time differing by less than 20 min. At the Niobrara Nature Preserve, Nebraska site, two multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSRs), a Cimel sunphotometer, a Microtops sunphotometer, and an ASD-FR spectroradiometer were used to take ground-based

S. E. Black; D. L. Helder; S. J. Schiller

2003-01-01

7

Fire effects in the northern Chihuahuan Desert derived from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper spectral indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire effects on desert ecosystems may be long-lasting based on ecological impact of fire in these environments which potentially is detected from multispectral sensors. To assess this, we analyzed changes in spectral characteristics from 1986 to 2010 of pixels associated with the location of fires that occurred between 1986 and 1999 in Big Bend National Park, USA, located in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data, we derived spectral indices including the simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), and normalized burn ratio (NBR) from 1989, 1999, and 2010 from the TM data and compared changes in spectral index values for sites with and without observed fire. We found that the NDVI and SAVI had significantly different values over the time for burned sites of different fire sizes. When differences of the spectral indices were calculated from each time period, time since fire was correlated with the SR and NBR indices. These results showed that large fires potentially had a persistent and long-term change in vegetation cover and soil characteristics which were detected by the extraordinary long-data collection period of the Landsat-5 TM sensor.

White, Joseph D.; Swint, Pamela

2014-01-01

8

Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geometric accuracy of the Landsat Thematic Mappers was assessed by a linear least-square comparison of the positions of conspicuous ground features in digital images with their geographic locations as determined from 1:24 000-scale maps. For a Landsat-5 image, the single-dimension standard deviations of the standard digital product, and of this image with additional linear corrections, are 11.2 and 10.3 m, respectively (0.4 pixel). An F-test showed that skew and affine distortion corrections are not significant. At this level of accuracy, the granularity of the digital image and the probable inaccuracy of the 1:24 000 maps began to affect the precision of the comparison. The tested image, even with a moderate accuracy loss in the digital-to-graphic conversion, meets National Horizontal Map Accuracy standards for scales of 1:100 000 and smaller. Two Landsat-4 images, obtained with the Multispectral Scanner on and off, and processed by an interim software system, contain significant skew and affine distortions. -Authors

Borgeson, W. T.; Batson, R. M.; Kieffer, H. H.

1985-01-01

9

Surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. [for radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absolute reflectance-based radiometric calibrations of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) are improved with the inclusion of a method to invert optical-depth measurements to obtain aerosol-particle size distributions, and a non-Lambertian surface reflectance model. The inverted size distributions can predict radiances varying from the previously assumed jungian distributions by as much as 5 percent, though the reduction in the estimated error is less than one percent. Comparison with measured diffuse-to-global ratios show that neither distribution consistently predicts the ratio accurately, and this is shown to be a large contributor to calibration uncertainties. An empirical model for the surface reflectance of White Sands, using a two-degree polynomial fit as a function of scattering angle, was employed. The model reduced estimated errors in radiance predictions by up to one percent. Satellite calibrations dating from October, 1984 were reprocessed using the improved methods and linear estimations of satellite counts per unit radiance versus time since launch were determined which showed a decrease over time for the first four bands.

Hart, Quinn J.

1991-01-01

10

A comparative study of infrared radiance measurements by an ER-2 based radiometer and the LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper (TM-6)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared radiance measurements were acquired from a radiometer on the NASA ER-2 during a coincident LANDSAT 5 overpass on 28 Oct. 1986 as part of the FIRE Cirrus IFO in the vicinity of Lake Michigan. A comparative study is made to infer microphysical properties of the cirrus cloud field. Radiances are derived from the image by convolving the ER-2 radiometer's effective field of view along the flight path. A multistream radiative transfer model is used to account for the differences in spectral bandwidths, 10.40 to 12.50 microns for the LANDSAT band and 9.90 to 10.87 microns for the radiometer.

Hammer, Philip D.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Kinne, Stefan

1990-01-01

11

Measurement of Thematic Mapper data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper data from Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 were examined for band-to-band registration, absolute geodetic registration, periodic noise and spatial resolution. Between focal planes, appreciable misregistrations existed in early data products but were corrected in later data products. The analysis of absolute geodetic registration used only system-corrected data because ground control point-corrected data were unavailable. Geodetic registration errors averaged only 9.7 pixels, less than expected for system-corrected data. Periodic noise at four spatial frequencies was observed in Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data by using Fourier analysis on small areas over water. Magnitudes of periodic noise components were consistent within a scene. The modulation transfer function was determined for two Landsat-4 scenes. The effective instantaneous field of view was 40.8 meters in one case, and 48.6 meters in the other.

Wrigley, R. C.; Hlavka, C. A.; Card, D. H.; Buis, J. S.; Schowengerdt, R. A.

1985-01-01

12

Intraband radiometric performance of the Landsat Thematic Mappers.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiometric characteristics have been examined of the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers (TMs) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. This analysis is based on radiometrically and geometrically raw (B-type) data of both uniform (flat-field) and high-contrast scenes. Subscenes selected for uniform radiance were used to characterized subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. Although the general performance of the Thematic Mappers is excellent, various anomalies that have a magnitude of a few digital levels (DN) or less are quantified. -from Authors

Kieffer, H. H.; Cook, D. A.; Eliason, E. M.; Eliason, P. T.

1985-01-01

13

Thematic Mapper Research in the Earth Sciences: Tectonic Evaluation of the Nubian Shield of Northeastern Sudan/Southeastern Egypt Using Thematic Mapper Imagery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary ma...

1986-01-01

14

Evaluation of Thematic Mapper interband registration and noise characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments aboard the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 spacecraft have provided the first digital imagery of the earth's surface with a resolution sufficient to distinguish cultural features easily. The present paper provides a description of the results of studies designed to investigate the band-to-band registration, geodetic registration to a map base, and periodic noise. In the eight TM scenes analyzed, the band-to-band registration accuracy was high even before correction, and the correction for the shift between focal planes brought all bands into registration according to tight specifications.

Wrigley, R. C.; Hlavka, C. A.; Card, D. H.; Buis, J. S.

1985-01-01

15

Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

2010-01-01

16

Thematic Mapper spectral dimensionality and data structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper data, simulated from field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of a variety of agricultural crops and a wide range of soils, are analyzed to determine their dispersion in the six space defined by the reflective TM bands (i.e., excluding the thermal band). While similar analyses of MSS data from agricultural scenes show that the vast majority of the MSS data occupy a single plane, the simulated TM data primarily occupy three dimensions, defining two intersecting planes and a zone of transition between the two. Viewing the plane of Vegetation head on provides a projection comparable to the single plane of MSS data. The Plane of Soils and transition zone represent new information made available largely as a result of the longer infrared bands included in the Thematic Mapper. A transformation, named the Thematic Mapper Tasseled Cap, is presented which rotates the TM data such that the described data structure is most readily accessible to view.

Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

1984-01-01

17

Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A list of personnel who have contributed to the program is provided. Sixteen publications and presentations are also listed. A preprint summarizing five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations of the solar reflective bands of the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper is presented. The 23 band calibrations made on the five dates show a 2.5% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean. A preprint is also presented that discusses the reflectance-based results of the above preprint. It proceeds to analyze and present results of a second, independent calibration method based on radiance measurements from a helicopter. Radiative transfer through the atmosphere, model atmospheres, the calibration methodology used at White Sands and the results of a sensitivity analysis of the reflectance-based approach is also discussed.

Slater, Philip N.; Palmer, James M.

1986-01-01

18

An Assessment of Bison Habitat in the Mills\\/Mink Lakes Area, Northwest Territories, Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data were used to classify and map wood bison (Bison bison athabascue) habitat in an area of 3383.5 km2 in the vicinity of Mills and Mink lakes, Northwest Territories. Digital image analysis techniques were used to enhance and classify satellite data acquired 31 August 1986 to determine the distribution and extent of forage habitats. Visual interpretation

STEVEN B. MATTHEWS

1991-01-01

19

Forestry information content of Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an initial investigation of the spectroradiometric data structure and information content of Thematic Mapper (TM) data for some Canadian forest-cover types. The Dryden-Lac Seul region in western Ontario is an important commercial and tourist area containing mainly boreal forest. A LANDSAT-4 TM scene of this region was analysed in conjunction with a considerable amount of ancillary data.

D. N. H. HORLER; F. J. AHERN

1986-01-01

20

Thematic Mapper: Design through flight evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT 4 and 5, launched in 1982 and 1984, not only carried the Thematic Mapper, but were redesigned to handle the increased data rates associated with it, and to communicate that data to Earth via geosynchronous orbiting Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). The TM development program is summarized. A brief historical perspective is presented of the evolution of design requirements and hardware development. The basic performance parameters that serve as sensor design guidelines are presented.

1984-01-01

21

Evaluation of corn/soybeans separability using Thematic Mapper and Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multitemporal Thematic Mapper, Thematic Mapper Simulator, and detailed ground truth data were collected for a 9- by 11-km sample segment in Webster County, IA, in the summer of 1982. Three dates were acquired each with Thematic Mapper Simulator (June 7, June 23, and July 31) and Thematic Mapper (August 2, September 3, and October 21). The Thematic Mapper Simulator data were converted to equivalent TM count values using TM and TMS calibration data and model based estimates of atmospheric effects. The July 31, TMS image was compared to the August 2, TM image to verify the conversion process. A quantitative measure of proportion estimation variance (Fisher information) was used to evaluate the corn/soybeans separability for each TM band as a function of time during the growing season. The additional bands in the middle infrared allowed corn and soybeans to be separated much earlier than was possible with the visible and near-infrared bands alone. Using the TM and TMS data, temporal profiles of the TM principal components were developed. The greenness and brightness exhibited behavior similar to MSS greenness and brightness for corn and soybeans.

Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Shen, S. S.; Sorensen, C. T.; Carnes, J. G.

1984-01-01

22

Information content comparison of Thematic Mapper, multispectral scanner and airborne Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that on August 12, 1983 a test of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System in conjunction with the operation of Landsat 4 provided both Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data over Central California. In addition, on August 12, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) acquired Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) data with the high altitude U-2 aircraft. Attention is given to the procedures and results of a study which is currently being conducted at ARC to take full advantage of the data collected on August 12, 1983. Use is made of a series of degradations which should provide a very close approximation of TM and MSS data.

Buis, J. S.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D. A.; Wrigley, R. C.

1984-01-01

23

Thematic mapper studies band correlation analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral data representative of thematic mapper candidate bands 1 and 3 to 7 were obtained by selecting appropriate combinations of bands from the JSC 24 channel multispectral scanner. Of all the bands assigned, only candidate bands 4 (.74 mu to .80 mu) and 5 (.80 mu to .91 mu) showed consistently high intercorrelation from region to region and time to time. This extremely high correlation persisted when looking at the composite data set in a multitemporal, multilocation domain. The GISS investigations lend positive confirmation to the hypothesis, that TM bands 4 and 5 are redundant.

Ungar, S. G.; Kiang, R.

1976-01-01

24

Thematic mapper studies of Andean volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective was to identify all the active volcanoes in the Andean region of Bolivia. Morphological features of the Tata Sabaya volcano, Bolivia, were studied with the thematic mapper. Details include marginal levees on lava and pyroclastic flows, and summit crater structure. Valley glacier moraine deposits, not easily identified on the multispectral band scanner, were also unambiguous, and provide useful marker horizons on large volcanic edifices which were built up in preglacial times but which were active subsequently. With such high resolution imagery, it is not only possible to identify potentially active volcanoes, but also to use standard photogeological interpretation to outline the history of individual volcanoes.

Francis, P. W.

1986-01-01

25

Lithologic mapping using Landsat thematic mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM), with its new near infrared bands centered at 1.65 ?m and 2.20 ?m and spatial resolution of 30 m has been used to distinguish rocks containing minerals having ferric-iron absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared and Al-O- and CO3 absorption bands in the 2.1-2.4 ?m regions. On the basis of characteristic absorption bands, digitally processed TM data were used to differentiate vegetated from non-vegetated areas, limonitic from nonlimonitic rocks, rocks containing minerals having absorption bands in the near-infrared region from rocks lacking infrared absorption bands. Specific minerals were detected in both the humid eastern and semi-arid western United States. The absorption bands in the near-infrared region were used to detect kaolinite in open-pit exposures of a kaolin mining district near Macon, Georgia; calcium carbonate in the back sands along the east coast of Floridia; and kaolinite, alunite, jarosite, sericite and gypsum in natural exposures near Boulder City, Nevada. These results show that the additional spectral bands in the near-infrared region and increased spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper provide a valuable tool for distinguishing several significant geologic materials not distinguishable from space using previous imaging systems. They also show that TM data can be successfully used in a variety of geologic environments.

Podwysocki, M. H.; Salisbury, J. W.; Jones, O. D.; Mimms, D. L.

1983-01-01

26

Thematic mapper image quality - Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on images analyzed so far, the band to band registration accuracy of the thematic mapper is very good. For bands within the same focal plane, the mean misregistrations are well within the specification, 0.2 pixels. For bands between the cooled and uncooled focal planes, there is a consistent mean misregistration of 0.5 pixels along-scan and 0.2-0.3 pixels across-scan. It exceeds the permitted 0.3 pixels for registration of bands between focal planes. If the mean misregistrations were removed by the data processing software, an analysis of the standard deviation of the misregistration indicates all band combinations would meet the registration specifications except for those including the thermal band. Analysis of the periodic noise in one image indicates a noise component in band 1 with a spatial frequency equivalent to 3.2 pixels in the along-scan direction.

Wrigley, R. C.; Card, D. H.; Hlavka, C. A.; Likens, W. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

1983-01-01

27

Thematic Mapper image quality: Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on images analyzed so far, the band to band registration accuracy of the thematic mapper is very good. For bands within the same focal plane, the mean misregistrations are well within the specification, 0.2 pixels. For bands between the cooled and uncooled focal planes, there is a consistent mean misregistration of 0.5 pixels along-scan and 0.2-0.3 pixels across-scan. It exceeds the permitted 0.3 pixels for registration of bands between focal planes. If the mean misregistrations were removed by the data processing software, an analysis of the standard deviation of the misregistration indicates all band combinations would meet the registration specifications except for those including the thermal band. Analysis of the periodic noise in one image indicates a noise component in band 1 with a spatial frequency equivalent to 3.2 pixels in the along-scan direction.

Wrigley, R. C.; Card, D. H.; Hlavka, C. A.; Likens, W. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

1983-01-01

28

Thematic Mapper research in the earth sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.

Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke

1989-01-01

29

Scrounge data processing film products for the thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on the format of the film product and type of film used for the LANDSAT-4 scrounge processed thematic mapper data is presented. Image gray scale, annotation field, and general layout are described.

1983-01-01

30

Vegetation and Soils Information Contained in Transformed Thematic Mapper Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) Tasseled Cap data transformation method for reorienting TM data such that vegetation and soils information can be more easily extracted, displayed, and understood is outlined. The transformation applied as to any temperate...

E. P. Crist R. Laurin R. C. Cicone

1986-01-01

31

Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combinations of Thematic Mapper (TM) bands that best distinguish basalts of the Brooks Range ophiolites were determined. Geochemical analyses, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE), are being done in order to study the significance of TM spectral variations that were observed within some of the sampled rock units. An image of the topography of the western Brooks Range and Colville Basin was constructed. Elevation data for the rest of Northern Alaska are being acquired to expand the area covered by the topography image. Two balanced cross sections (one along the eastern margin, the other along the western margin of the Brooks Range) are being constructed, using the techniques of fault-bend and fault-propagation folding. These are being used to obtain regional shortening estimates for the Brooks Range in an attempt to constrain tectonic models for the evolution of Northern Alaska. The TM data are being used to confirm reconnaissance maps and to obtain structural data where no maps exist. Along with the TM data, digital topography, seismic reflection profiles, and magnetic and gravity surveys are examined to better understand the evolution of the Colville Basin, north of the Brooks Range.

Bird, J. M.

1986-01-01

32

LITHOLOGIC MAPPING USING LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The paper is in abstract form. It discusses the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM), with its new near infrared bands centered at 1. 65 mu m and 2. 20 mu m and spatial resolution of 30 m, which has been used to distinguish rocks containing minerals having ferric-iron absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared and Al-O and CO//3 absorption bands in the 2. 1-2. 4 mu m regions. On the basis of characteristic absorption bands, digitally processed TM data were used to differentiate vegetated from non-vegetated areas, limonitic from nonlimonitic rocks, rocks containing minerals having absorption bands in the near-infrared region from rocks lacking the infrared absorption bands. Specific minerals were detected in both the humid eastern and semi-arid western United States. The absorption bands in the near-infrared region were used to detect kaolinite in open-pit exposures of a kaolin mining district near Macon, Georgia; calcium carbonate in the beach sands along the east coast of Florida; and kaolinite, alunite, jarosite, sericite and gypsum in natural exposures near Boulder City, Nevada.

Podwysocki, M. H.; Salisbury, J. W.; Jones, O. D.; Mimms, D. L.

1983-01-01

33

History of Remote Sensing: Landsat's Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Landsat Thematic Mapper is a multispectral imaging sensor added to Landsats 4 and later. This site uses text, photographs, tables, and diagrams to explain how the Thematic Mapper works and the advantages of sensing radiation in wavelengths other than those normally visible to the human eye. It is part of NASA's Remote Sensing Tutorial and links to the rest of the tutorial are provided.

34

Comparison of satellite and Airborne Thematic Mapper data for estimating inland water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to compare satellite Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data with Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) data, for the detection of the trophic status of water masses. Study area is the Lake Iseo, one of the most important freshwater basin in northern Italy, located in the sub-alpine ecoregion. In accordance with the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) the Iseo waters are defined as meso-eutrophic. Airborne Daedalus ATM AADS-1268 data were acquired on 14th July 1992 and Landsat-5 TM data on 1st September 1992. Multi-temporal comparison required adjustment of scene radiance due to atmospheric variations. To achieve this an integrally image-based method was employed. Airborne and satellite data were used to estimate turbidity, chlorophyll and suspended sediment load, by means of chromaticity analysis. Processing of thermal images for lake surface temperature determination was also addressed. The results confirmed previous knowledge on the trophic state of Lake Iseo, in agreement with traditional investigations. Remotely data were able to separate chromaticity of the waters, discriminating different turbidity patterns distribution and emphasizing the behavior of shallower waters infected by macrophytes.

Giardino, Claudia; Brivio, Pietro A.; Zilioli, Eugenio

1997-12-01

35

Landsat-4 thematic mapper and thematic mapper simulator data for a porphyry copper deposit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft thematic mapper (TM) data were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the Landsat-4 thematic mapper for geologic mapping and detection of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona. The data allow a comparison between aircraft TV simulator data and the Landsat-4 TM satellite data which possess similar spectral bands. A color rationcomposite of 30-m pixels was resampled, in order to clearly define a number of hydroxyl bearing minerals, (kaolinite, sericite, white mica), pyrite and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals. The iron oxide minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.45 and 0.85 micron regions of the spectrum, and the hydrous minerals are characterized by an absorption in the 2.2 micron region. The position of the spectral bands allow the TM to identify regions of hydrothermal alteration without resorting to a data processing algorithm. The comparison of the aircraft and Landsat-4 TM data showed considerable agreement, and confirmed the utility of TM data for identifying hydrothermal alteration zones. Samples of some color TM images are provided.

Abrams, M. J.

1984-01-01

36

Coral reef change detection using Landsats 5 and 7: a case study using Carysfort Reef in the Florida Keys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite data allow for the relatively quick assessment of benthic habitats and can be used for change-detection studies. Landsats 5 and 7, with the Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors, respectively, provide the longest time series of satellite observations available for coastal researchers. From 1984 to the present, TM (for U.S.) and ETM+ (worldwide), images are

D. Palandro; S. Andrefouet; F. E. Muller-Karger; P. Dustan

2001-01-01

37

Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

1986-01-01

38

An Analysis of LANDSAT4 Thematic Mapper Geometric Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data of Washington, DC, Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine geometric integrity and conformity of the data to known Earth surface geometry. Several tests were performed. Intraband correlation and interband registration were investigated. No problems were observed in the intraband analysis, and aside from indications of slight misregistration between bands of the primary

Richard E. Walker; Albert L. Zobrist; Nevin A. Bryant; Boris Gohkman; Steven Z. Friedman; Thomas L. Lpgan

1984-01-01

39

Suppression des Aerosols sur l'Imagerie Landsat Thematic Mapper (Suppression of Aerosols on Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A numerical count (DN) correction was carried out in each spectral band of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper after estimating the abundance of aerosols covering each pixel by the 4th parameter of the tasseled cap transformations. The corrected DN is calculated usin...

J. Lavreau

1991-01-01

40

Mapas Tematicos Utilizando Dados Do Sensor Thematic Mapper Do Satelite LANDSAT (Thematic Mapping Utilizing Data from the Thematic Mapper Sensor of the Landsat Satellite).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology for the elaboration of thematic maps in the scale 1:100,000 is developed. Techniques of digital processing and visual analysis of remote sensing images were used. The Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT satellite was employed and the selected are...

L. Antoniodeandrade

1986-01-01

41

Analysis and Integration of Geological, TM/Landsat 5 and Geophysical Data for Geological Mapping and Mineral Prospecting in the Irajai Area (Northeast Brazil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Geological, Thematic Mapper (TM)/LANDSAT-5 and geophysical data were analyzed and integrated to assess their contribution to the improvement of methodologies for geological mapping and mineral prospecting in semiarid terrain, such as the Brazilian Northea...

S. M. P. Dasilva

1991-01-01

42

Automated vegetation classification using Thematic Mapper Simulation data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of Thematic Mapper Simulation (TMS) data. One of the objectives of the study was related to an evaluation of the usefulness of the Thematic Mapper's (TM) improved spatial resolution and spectral coverage. The study was undertaken as part of a preparation for the efficient incorporation of Landsat 4 data into ongoing technology development in remote sensing. The study included an application of automated Landsat vegetation classification technology to TMS data. Results of comparing TMS data to Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data were found to indicate that all field definition, crop type discrimination, and subsequent proportion estimation may be greatly increased with the availability of TM data.

Nedelman, K. S.; Cate, R. B.; Bizzell, R. M.

1983-01-01

43

Agricultural land-cover discrimination using thematic mapper spectral bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multispectral scanner system data simulating the thematic mapper (TM) of LANDSAT-4 were analysed for an area near Gedney Hill, Lincolnshire, U.K. The data were found to have a three-dimensional statistical structure similar to that for the LANDSAT-4 TM of parts of the United States. Divergence analysis indicates that the optimal choice of bands for cover discrimination should include one band

JOHN R. G. TOWNSHEND

1984-01-01

44

Study of Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data for natural resource assessment and land cover information, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. In most cases, substantially more information was derived from TM data than from MSS data. The test areas included Washington, D.C. and prairie regions of South Dakota and Kansas.

Sadowski, F. G.; Haas, R. H.; Sturdevant, J. A.; Anderson, W. H.; Seevers, P. M.; Feuquay, J. W.; Balick, L. K.; Waltz, F. A.; Lauer, D. T.

1984-01-01

45

INTRABAND RADIOMETRIC PERFORMANCE OF THE LANDSAT 4 THEMATIC MAPPER.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This preliminary report examines those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. Analysis is based largely on radiometrically raw (B type) data of three daytime and two nighttime scenes; in most scenes, a set of 512 lines were examined on an individual-detector basis. Subscenes selected for uniform-radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems.

Kieffer, Hugh, H.; Eliason, Eric, M.; Chavez, Jr. , Pat, S.

1985-01-01

46

A comparative evaluation of simulated SPOT, Thematic Mapper, and simulated Thematic Mapper data in a western ecozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral information content was quantitatively measured for simulated SPOT, Thematic Mapper, and simulated Thematic Mapper data acquired over Santa Cruz County, California. Two techniques were employed: spectral separability summarized through optimal wave band evaluation, and histogram cluster analysis. Using data from the three sources it is shown that three spectral bands can provide separability nearly as high as six bands provide, if the three bands are optimally chosen for the cover type. Analysis of the Santa Cruz scene emphasizes the importance of TM bands 1 and 5 in particular. The three bands of the SPOT scanner are shown to provide sufficient separability for cover types within the study area. The higher spatial resolution data (20 meters) provided by SPOT contain more distinct distributions than data from the other sources studied. Techniques should be developed to exploit this additional information.

Buis, J. S.

1984-01-01

47

Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

1986-01-01

48

An analysis LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper geometric properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT Thematic Mapper P-data of Washington, D. C., Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA are analyzed to determine magnitudes and causes of error in the geometric conformity of the data to known Earth surface geometry. Several tests of data geometry are performed. Intraband and interband correlation and registration are investigated, exclusive of map based ground truth. The magnitudes and statistical trends of pixel offsets between a single band's mirror scans (due to processing procedures) are computed, and the inter-band integrity of registration is analyzed. A line to line correlation analysis is included.

Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gokhman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

1984-01-01

49

Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectral coverage characteristics of the two thematic mapper instruments were determined by analyses of spectral measurements of the optics, filters, and detectors. The following results are presented: (1) band 2 and 3 flatness was slightly below specification, and band 7 flatness was below specification; (2) band 5 upper-band edge was higher than specifications; (3) band 2 band edges were shifted upward about 9 nm relative to nominal; and (4) band 4, 5, and 7 lower band edges were 16 to 18 nm higher then nominal.

Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

1984-01-01

50

Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

1992-01-01

51

Thematic Mapper image quality - Registration, noise, and resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat-4 satellite has two new imaging radiometers, including the redesigned Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and the Thematic Mapper (TM). The present investigation is concerned with an assessment of TM image quality on the basis of a study of band-to-band registration, periodic noise, and spatial resolution. In the TM images analyzed, the band-to-band registration accuracy of the instrument is very good. A few imperfections were found. Once a stable misregistration is removed, the TM should also meet its registration specifications between focal planes. Spatial resolution analyses in terms of MTF were performed in comparison modes. The forward and backward scans were shown to have virtually identical MTFs.

Wrigley, R. C.; Card, D. H.; Hlavka, C. A.; Hall, J. R.; Mertz, F. C.; Archwamety, C.; Schowengerdt, R. A.

1984-01-01

52

Cropland measurement using Thematic Mapper data and radiometric model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To halt erosion and desertification, it is necessary to quantify resources that are affected. Necessary information includes inventory of croplands and desert areas as they change over time. Several studies indicate the value of remote sensor data as input to inventories. In this study, the radiometric modeling of spectral characteristics of soil and vegetation provides the theoretical basis for the remote sensing approach. Use of Landsat Thematic Mapper images allows measurement of croplands in Saudi Arabia, demonstrating the capability of the approach. The inventory techniques and remote sensing approach presented are potentially useful in developing countries.

Lyon, John G.; Khuwaiter, I. H. S.

1989-01-01

53

Registering Thematic Mapper imagery to digital elevation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems encountered when attempting to register Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to U.S. geological survey digital elevation models (DEMs) are examined. It is shown that TM and DEM data are not available in the same map projection, necessitating geometric transformation of one of the data type, that the TM data are not accurately located in their nominal projection, and that TM data have higher resolution than most DEM data, but oversampling the DEM data to TM resolution introduces systematic noise. Further work needed in this area is discussed.

Frew, J.

1984-01-01

54

A prospectus for Thematic Mapper research in the Earth sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth science applications of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery are discussed. Prospective research themes are defined in a general sense in relation to the technical measurement capabilities of the TM and the various types of Earth information that can potentially be derived from multispectral TM imagery. An overview of the system developed to acquire and reduce TM data is presented. The technical capabilities of this system are presented in detail. The orbital performance of the TM sensor is described, based upon the analysis of LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data collected to date.

1984-01-01

55

Demonstration of angular anisotropy in the output of Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a dependence of TM output (proportional to scene radiance in a manner which will be discussed) upon season, upon cover type and upon view angle. The existence of a significant systematic variation across uniform scenes in p-type (radiometrically and geometrically pre-processed) data is demonstrated. Present pre-processing does remove the effects and the problem must be addressed because the effects are large. While this is in no way attributable to any shortcomings in the thematic mapper, it is an effect which is sufficiently important to warrant more study, with a view to developing suitable pre-processing correction algorithms.

Duggin, M. J. (principal investigator); Lindsay, J.; Piwinski, D. J.; Schoch, L. B.

1984-01-01

56

Remote sensing of coastal wetlands biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral data, simulating thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 are gathered in salt and brackish marshes using a hand-held radiometer. Simple regression models are developed equating spectral radiance indices with total live biomass for S. alterniflora in a salt marsh and for a variety of plant species in a brackish marsh. Models are then tested using an independent set of data and compared to harvest estimates of biomass. In the salt marsh, biomass estimates from spectral data are similar to harvest biomass estimates during most of the growing season. Estimates of annual net aerial primary productivity calculated from spectral data are within 21% of production estimated from harvest data. During August, biomass estimates from spectral data in the brackish marsh are similar to biomass estimated by harvesting techniques. At other times during the growing season, spectral data estimates of biomass are not always comparable to harvest biomass estimates. Reasonable estimates of wetlands biomass are possible during the peak of the growing season (August) using spectral data similar to thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 gathered with hand-held radiometers.

Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.

1985-01-01

57

LANDSAT4 MSS And Thematic Mapper Data Quality And Information Content Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic Mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation

Paul E. Anuta; Luis A. Bartolucci; M. Ellen Dean; D. Fabian Lozano; Eeick Malaret; Clare D. McGillem; Jose A Valdes; Carlos R. Valenzuela

1984-01-01

58

Data Processing For The Determination Of Pigments And Suspended Solids From Thematic Mapper Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

DATA PROCESSING The use of Thematic Mapper data for determination of chlorophyll and suspended solids in fresh water is shown. Data processing, an atmospheric correction model and a multiple regression model for chlorophyll A presented here. It is shown that it is possible to use Thematic Mapper data as a source for chlorophyll A mapping in f resh-water bodies. The

W. Mauser; K Schneider

1988-01-01

59

The Thematic Mapper Tasseled Cap - A preliminary formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transformation is described which rotates Thematic Mapper data (excluding the thermal band) in a manner analogous to that used in the MSS Tasseled Cap Transformation, thus providing a direct view of the planes of data dispersion and a direct association of spectral features with physical scene characteristics. This TM Tasseled Cap Transformation includes MSS-equivalent Grenness and Brightness features, as well as at least one additional important feature. The new feature, tentatively termed 'Wetness', offers promise of enhanced ability to assess soil conditions, monitor vegetative development, and delineate cover classes. Relationships between scene characteristics and spectral variation in the transformed data space are discussed based on both simulated and actual TM data.

Crist, E. P.

1983-01-01

60

LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power spectrum (PS) analysis technique was used to compare thematic mapper (TM) A and P-tape data for a Washington, DC scene in two orthogonal directions, along scan and along track. The resulting effective modulation transfer functions (MTF) between the A and P data are repeatable from area to area and consistent with theoretical expectations. The average x-direction (along scan) MTF calculated with the PS technique is compared to the MTF of the cubic convolution resampling function used to create P data from A data. The two curves are nearly identical, indicating that the major factor affecting the image quality of P data relative to A data is the cubic convolution resampling.

Schowengerdt, R. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

61

Edge discrimination as applied to Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of suitable edge discrimination techniques and their application to image segmentation is reported. From an analysis of Thematic Mapper Simulator data, it is concluded that segmentation by automated edge discrimination is a valuable technique which can be used in the development of per-field classifiers. A Laplacian convolution operator appears to be the most cost-effective high-pass filter. Spatial frequency domain filtering is more versatile in its ability to enhance different edge types. A simple global gray value threshold can produce good edge discrimination from an enhanced image which may be improved by using a local thresholding technique. A gap-fill postprocessing technique is necessary for useful segmentation. Gradient and other directionally dependent techniques are unsuitable for segmentation.

Hall, J. R.; Mertz, F. C.; Bauer, E. H.

1983-01-01

62

Analysis of forest structure using thematic mapper simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure information has been explored by principal components and feature selection techniques. In a survey of forest structural properties conducted for 123 field sites of the Sequoia National Park, the canopy closure could be well estimated (r = 0.62 to 0.69) by a variety of channel bands and band ratios, without reference to the forest type. Estimation of the basal area was less successful (r = 0.51 or less) on the average, but could be improved for certain forest types when data were stratified by floristic composition. To achieve such a stratification, individual sites were ordinated by a detrended correspondence analysis based on the canopy of dominant species. The analysis of forest structure in the Sequoia data suggests that total basal area can be best predicted in stands of lower density, and in younger even-aged managed stands.

Peterson, D. L.; Westman, W. E.; Brass, J. A.; Stephenson, N. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Spanner, M. A.

1986-01-01

63

Classifying northern forests using Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper Simulator data were collected over a 23,200 hectare forested area near Baxter State Park in north-central Maine. Photointerpreted ground reference information was used to drive a stratified random sampling procedure for waveband discriminant analyses and to generate training statistics and test pixel accuracies. Stepwise discriminant analyses indicated that the following bands best differentiated the thirteen level II - III cover types (in order of entry): near infrared (0.77 to 0.90 micron), blue (0.46 0.52 micron), first middle infrared (1.53 to 1.73 microns), second middle infrared (2.06 to 2.33 microsn), red (0.63 to 0.69 micron), thermal (10.32 to 12.33 microns). Classification accuracies peaked at 58 percent for thirteen level II-III land-cover classes and at 65 percent for ten level II classes.

Nelson, R. F.; Latty, R. S.; Mott, G.

1984-01-01

64

Classification of corn and soybeans using multitemporal Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multitemporal classification approach based on the greenness profile derived from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral bands has proved successful in effectively separating and identifying corn, soybean, and other ground cover classes. Features derived from these profiles have been shown to carry virtually all the information contained in the original data and, in addition, have been shown to be stable over a large geographic area of the United States. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the same features derived from multitemporal Thematic Mapper (TM) data would also prove effective in separating these two crop types, and, in fact, if algorithms developed for MSS could be directly applied to TM. It is shown that this is indeed the case. In addition, because of greater spatial and spectral resolution, the accuracy of TM classifications is better than in MSS.

Badhwar, G. D.

1984-01-01

65

Analysis of conifer forest regeneration using Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to evaluate young conifer stands in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Regression and correlation analyses were used to describe the relationships between TM band values and age of young Douglas-fir stands (2 to 35 years old). Spectral data from well regenerated Douglas-fir stands were compared to those of poorly regenerated conifer stands. TM bands 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 were inversely correlated with the age (r greater than or equal to -0.80) of well regenerated Douglas-fir stands. Overall, the 'structural index' (TM 4/5 ratio) had the highest correlation to age of Douglas-fir stands (r = 0.96). Poorly regenerated stands were spectrally distinct from well regenerated Douglas-fir stands after the stands reached an age of approximately 15 years.

Fiorella, Maria; Ripple, William J.

1995-01-01

66

Contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data to geologic exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increased number of carefully selected narrow spectral bands and the increased spatial resolution of thematic mapper data over previously available satellite data contribute greatly to geologic exploration, both by providing spectral information that permits lithologic differentiation and recognition of alteration and spatial information that reveals structure. As vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases relative to the value of the spatial component of the data. However, even in vegetated areas, the greater spectral breadth and discrimination of TM data permits improved recognition and mapping of spatial elements of the terrain. As our understanding of the spectral manifestations of the responses of soils and vegetation to unusual chemical environments increases, the value of spectral components of TM data to exploration will greatly improve in covered areas.

Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

1983-01-01

67

Hydrological planning studies using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is evaluating the capabilities of Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for environmental and hydrological applications. Attention is given to the results of studies conducted at the Clinton River Basin in Michigan and the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. In the former, the evaluation conducted was for the band combinations: (1) 2, 3, and 4; (2) 3, 4, and 5; (3) 3, 4, 5, and 6; and (4) all seven bands. In the latter case, Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and TM data were classified for combinations (1), (3) and (4). Wetland classification accuracy for the 7-band TM data in this study was found to be 9 percent higher than with MSS data, allowing more reliable and accurate monitoring.

Gervin, J. C.; Mulligan, P. J.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

1984-01-01

68

Thematic mapper - An overview of spectral band registration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thematic Mapper (TM) is a high-resolution radiometer designed for earth resources classification and mapping. The TM employs multispectral scanning in a near polar orbit to sweep a 185-km swath. Data are obtained through a combination of spacecraft motion and the sweeping action of the scan mirror. These data are transmitted either directly to ground stations around the world or through a relay to the central data processing facility at White Sands, NM. Seven spectral passbands are employed, and applications include coastal water mapping, soil vegetation differentiation, biomass surveys, water body delineation, vegetation moisture measurement, plant heat stress management, and hydrothermal mapping. Attention is given to the scan mirror assembly, scan nonlinearities, the characterization and compensation of scan profiles, experimental performance, and a procedure for midscan correction.

Freudenstein, W. H.

1981-01-01

69

APPLICATION OF MULTI-DATE LANDSAT 5 TIM IMAGERY FOR WETLAND IDENTIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery was evaluated for the identification and monitoring of potential jurisdictional wetlands located in the states of Maryland and Delaware. A wetland map prepared from single-date TM imagery was compared to a hybrid map develope...

70

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of experiments were initiated to determine the feasibility of using thematic mapper spectral data to estimate wetlands biomass. The experiments were conducted using hand-held radiometers simulating thematic mapper wavebands 3, 4 and 5. Spectral radiance data were collected from the ground and from a low altitude aircraft in an attempt to gain some insight into the potential utility of actual thematic mapper data for biomass estimation in wetland plant communities. In addition, radiative transfer models describing volume reflectance of eight water column containing submerged aquatic vegetation were refined.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

71

The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was acquired over central California in August, 1983 and used to simulate Thematic Mapper data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field center pixels) showed better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

1984-01-01

72

Thematic Mapper simulator research for forest resource mapping in the Clearwater National Forest, Idaho  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Per-pixel maximum likelihood digital classification and photo interpretation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) composited images for a managed conifer forest were used to evaluate both land cover and forest structure characteristics. TMS channels 4, 7, 5 and 3, which were found to be optimal for forest vegetation analysis, used the full range of the Thematic Mapper's spectral capability. Photo interpretation results indicate that a false color composite from TMS channels 4, 7, and 2 provided the highest accuracies; the combination of improved spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of the Thematic Mapper yielded greater sensitivity to forest structural characteristics.

Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.; Spanner, M. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ulliman, J. J.; Brockhaus, J.

1984-01-01

73

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part C: Subsystem data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reference lists are provided to acceptance data for each of the major subsystems of the thematic mapper. Configuration reports, lists and copies of all failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

1982-01-01

74

INPE LANDSAT-D thematic mapper computer compatible tape format specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The format of the computer compatible tapes (CCT) which contain Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery data acquired from the LANDSAT D and D Prime satellites by the INSTITUTO DE PERSQUISAS ESPACIALS (CNPq-INPE/BRAZIL) is defined.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Desouza, R. C. M.

1982-01-01

75

Resource and environmental surveys from space with the thematic mapper in the 1980's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of observation of vegetation is the primary optimization objective of the thematic mapper. The following are aspects of plans for the thematic mapper: (1) to include an appropriately modified first generation MSS in the thematic mapper mission; (2) to provide assured coverage for a minimum of six years to give agencies and other users an opportunity to justify the necessary commitment of resources for the transition into a completely valid operational phase; (3) to provide for global, direct data read-out, without the necessity for on-board data storage or dependence on foreign receiving stations; (4) to recognize the operational character of the thematic mapper after successful completion of its experimental evaluation; and (5) to combine future experimental packages with compatible orbits as part of the operational LANDSAT follow-on payloads.

1976-01-01

76

LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 3, part 2: Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper is discussed as well as the atmospheric, radiometric, and geometric accuracy and correction of data obtained with this sensor. Methods are given for assessing TM band to band registration.

Barker, J. L. (editor)

1985-01-01

77

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part G: Miscellaneous system data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Functional and design data from various thematic mapper subsystems are presented. Coarse focus, modulation transfer function, and shim requirements are addressed along with spectral matching and spatial coverage tests.

1982-01-01

78

An analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper geometric properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data of Washington, DC, Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine geometric integrity and conformity of the data to known earth surface geometry. Several tests were performed. Intraband correlation and interband registration were investigated. No problems were observed in the intraband analysis, and aside from indications of slight misregistration between bands of the primary versus bands of the secondary focal planes, interband registration was well within the specified tolerances. A substantial number of ground control points were found and used to check the images' conformity to the Space Oblique Mercator (SOM) projection of their respective areas. The means of the residual offsets, which included nonprocessing related measurement errors, were close to the one pixel level in the two scenes examined. The Harrisburg scene residual mean was 28.38 m (0.95 pixels) with a standard deviation of 19.82 m (0.66 pixels), while the mean and standard deviation for the Salton Sea scene were 40.46 (1.35 pixels) and 30.57 m (1.02 pixels), respectively. Overall, the data were judged to be a high geometric quality with errors close to those targeted by the TM sensor design specifications.

Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gohkman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

1984-01-01

79

A preliminary analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper radiometric performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis was performed to characterize the radiometry of three Thematic Mapper (TM) digital products of a scene of Arkansas. The three digital products examined were the NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product. The frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band were examined on a series of image subsets from the full scene. The results are presented from one 1024 x 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. Bands 1, 2 and 5 of the sample area are presented. The subsets were extracted from the three digital data products to cover the same geographic area. This analysis provides the first step towards a full appraisal of the TM radiometry being performed as part of the ESA/CEC contribution to the NASA/LIDQA program.

Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

1984-01-01

80

Preliminary evaluation of Thematic Mapper image data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper (TM) data from Mississippi County, Arkansas, and Webster County, Iowa, were examined for the purpose of evaluating the image data quality of the TM which was launched on board the LANDSAT-4 spacecraft. Preliminary clustering and principal component analysis indicates that the middle infrared and thermal infrared data of TM appear to add significant information over that of the near IR and visible bands of the multispectral scanner data. Moreover, the higher spatial resolution of TM appears to provide better definition of the edges and the within variability of agricultural fields. The geometric performance of TM data, without ground control correction, was found to exceed expectations. The modulation transfer function for the 1.65 m band was found to agree with prelaunch specifications when the effects of the GSFC cubic convolution and the atmosphere were removed. The band to band registration for the bands within the noncooled focal plane was found to be better than specified. However, the middle infrared and thermal infrared, which are on a separate cooled focal plane were found to be misregistered and were significantly worse than prelaunch specifications.

Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Pitts, D. E.; Bizzell, R. M.; Yao, S.; Sorensen, C.; Reyna, E.; Carnes, J. G.

1984-01-01

81

Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 2: Sensor system study. [thematic mapper for earth resources application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.

1974-01-01

82

The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was used to simulate TM data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field-center pixels) show better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

1984-01-01

83

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 31 March 1983, the University of Delaware's Center for Remote Sensing initiated a study to evaluate the spatial, radiometric and spectral performance of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper for coastal and estuarine studies. The investigation was supported by Contract NAS5-27580 from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The research was divided into three major subprojects: (1) a comparison of LANDSAT TM to MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay; (2) remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation - a radiative transfer approach; and (3) remote sensing of coastal wetland biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands.

Klemas, V.; Ackleson, S. G.; Hardisky, M. A.

1985-01-01

84

The use of linear feature detection to investigate Thematic Mapper data performance and processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometric and radiometric characteristics of thematic mapper data through analysis of linear features in the data are investigated. The particular aspects considered are: (1) thematic mapper ground IFUV; (2) radiometric contrast between linear features and background; (3) precision of system geometric correction; (4) band-to-band registration; and (5) potential utility of TM data for linear feature detection especially as compared to MSS data. It is shown that TM data may be used to estimate TM pixel size illustrate band: band mis-registration.

Gurney, C. M.

1985-01-01

85

Water quality monitoring in estuarine waters using the Landsat Thematic Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the impacts of rural and urban development on southwestern Australian estuaries, and the general isolation of these water bodies, there is a need to develop water quality monitoring systems that are both repetitive and cost-effective. The literature suggests that Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) has spectral and spatial characteristics that are suited to monitoring small coastal water bodies. This

P. Lavery; C. Pattiaratchi; A. Wyllie; P. Hick

1993-01-01

86

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part C: System data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Failure reports for flight model-1 of the thematic mapper are summarized showing the symptom and cause of failure as well as the corrective action taken. Each report is keyed to the major subsystem against which the failure occurred. Requests for deviation/waiver are listed by number, description, and current status. Copies of engineering proposals are included.

1982-01-01

87

Using the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Tasseled Cap Transformation to Extract Shoreline (March 2003)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semiautomated method for objectively interpreting and extracting the land-water interface has been devised and used successfully to generate multiple shoreline data for the test States of Louisiana and Delaware. The method is based on the application of tasseled cap transformation coefficients derived by the EROS Data Center for Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Data, and is used in conjunction

Joseph W. Scott; Laurence R. Moore; William M. Harris; Matthew D. Reed

88

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part A: System data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of vibration, acoustical noise, and thermal vacuum are described as well as tests studies of EMI/EMC and mass properties conducted for thematic mapper systems integration. Liens are summarized and the engineering change proposal status is presented. Requests for deviation/waiver are included along with failure and nonforming material reports.

1982-01-01

89

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part B: Subsystem data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summarized performance data are presented for the following major subsystems of the thematic mapper: the focal plane assembly, the radiative cooler, the radiative cooler door assembly, the top optical assembly, and the telescope assembly. Reference lists of the configurations status and of nonconforming material reports, failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

1982-01-01

90

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part E: Electronics module data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests to verify the as-designed performance of all circuits within the thematic mapper electronics module unit are described. Specifically, the tests involved the evaluation of the scan line corrector driver, shutter drivers function, cal lamp controller function, post amplifier function, command decoder verification unit, and the temperature and actuator controllers function.

1982-01-01

91

Information content of data from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress of an investigation to quantify the increased information content of thematic mapper (TM) data as compared to that from the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) is reported. Two night infrared images were examined and compared with Heat Capacity Mapping Mission data.

Price, J. C.

1983-01-01

92

LAND COVER MAPPING IN AN AGRICULTURAL SETTING USING MULTISEASONAL THEMATIC MAPPER DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

A multiseasonal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data set consisting of five image dates from a single year was used to characterize agricultural and related land cover in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon. Image registration was accomplished using an automated grou...

93

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part C: Power supply data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acceptance test data package for the thematic mapper flight model power supply was reviewed and the data compared to the relevant specification. The power supply was found to be within specification. Final test data for outut voltage regulation and ripple, efficiency, over and undervoltage protection, telemetry, impedances, turn-on requirements, and input current limits are presented.

1982-01-01

94

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part B: System data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures and results are presented for performance and systems integration tests of flight model-1 thematic mapper. Aspects considered cover electronic module integration, radiometric calibration, spectral matching, spatial coverage, radiometric calibration of the calibrator, coherent noise, dynamic square wave response, band to band registration, geometric accuracy, and self induced vibration. Thermal vacuum tests, EMI/EMS, and mass properties are included. Liens are summarized.

1982-01-01

95

Monitoring changing position of coastlines using Thematic Mapper imagery, an example from the Nile Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastline movement due to erosion and deposition is a major concern for coastal zone management. Very dynamic coastlines, such as sections of the Nile Delta coast, pose considerable hazards to human use and development, and rapid, replicable techniques are required to update coastline maps of these areas and monitor rates of movement. The synoptic capability of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery

Kevin White; Hesham M El Asmar

1999-01-01

96

Land cover mapping in an agricultural setting using multiseasonal Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiseasonal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data set consisting of five image dates from a single year was used to characterize agricultural and related land cover in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon. Image registration was accomplished using an automated ground control point selection program. Radiometric normalization was performed using a semiautomated approach based on the identification of

Doug R Oetter; Warren B Cohen; Mercedes Berterretche; Thomas K Maiersperger; Robert E Kennedy

2001-01-01

97

Landsat thematic mapper studies of land cover spatial variability related to hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) provides increased spatial, spectral, and radiometric capability relative to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). Visual inspection of TM imagery confirms this. Land cover detail is evident that would be of use in watershed management and planning activities. Specific studies have been conducted in Georgia, West Virginia, Michigan and Maryland to compare MSS and

S. Wharton; J. Ormsby; V. Salomonson; P. Mulligan

1984-01-01

98

Validation of three land cover maps utilizing Space Shuttle photography and Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronaut acquired photography (AAP) can be used as a quantitative reference source in land cover map validation. Three land cover maps were selected for validation with AAP and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM): (1) United States Geological Survey Level II, (2) International Geosphere Biosphere Programme DISCover and (3) Olson Global Ecosystem. The area validated extended from California to Louisiana, encompassing all of the southwestern United States (Figure 8). At one hundred and sixteen sample points randomly distributed across the southwestern United States, the dominant type of vegetation was established using Landsat Thematic Mapper data for comparison to astronaut acquired photography. Photointerpretation and a supervised classification algorithm were applied to assess the dominant type of vegetation at sample points savanna, evergreen needle leaf forest, shrubland, grassland, or a cropland/vegetation mosaic. The comparison of results from Thematic Mapper and astronaut acquired photography were accomplished via confusion matrices, a Khat and Z statistic. The results showed that there was almost no significant difference between utilizing Thematic Mapper data versus astronaut acquired photography as a source of reference data for map validation. The only significant difference occurred when using the classified Thematic Mapper imagery as a reference data source. When that reference source was used, this resulted in the largest number of misclassified land cover classes. Based on these results, several recommendations were made to streamline the efficiency of the Johnson Space Center photographic astronaut-training program. These recommendations include a web-based form to standardize and prioritize photographic requests, case of interpretation maps, and additional ancillary images hot-linked to the locational software used to identify areas of interest. These recommendations will not only increase efficiency but also improve the accuracy with which astronauts acquire photography in the future.

Gebelein, Jennifer Lynn

99

Landsat-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic Mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and numerous supervised classifiers on data from Iowa and Illinois. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out on data from the Des Moines, IA area to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes.

Anuta, P. E.; Bartolucci, L. A.; Dean, M. E.; Lozano, D. F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J. A.; Valenzuela, C. R.

1984-01-01

100

LANDSAT-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and supervised classifiers on test data. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes. A temperature-mapping experiment was carried out for a cooling pond to test the quality of thermal-band calibration. Overall TM data quality is very good. The MSS data are noisier than previous LANDSAT results.

Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

1984-01-01

101

Table Rock Lake Water-Clarity Assessment Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Satellite Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water quality of Table Rock Lake in southwestern Missouri is assessed using Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data. A pilot study uses multidate satellite image scenes in conjunction with physical measurements of secchi disk transparency collected by the Lakes of Missouri Volunteer Program to construct a regression model used to estimate water clarity. The natural log of secchi disk transparency is the dependent variable in the regression and the independent variables are Thematic Mapper band 1 (blue) reflectance and a ratio of the band 1 and band 3 (red) reflectance. The regression model can be used to reliably predict water clarity anywhere within the lake. A pixel-level lake map of predicted water clarity or computed trophic state can be produced from the model output. Information derived from this model can be used by water-resource managers to assess water quality and evaluate effects of changes in the watershed on water quality.

Krizanich, Gary W.; Finn, Michael P.

2009-01-01

102

Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data  

SciTech Connect

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data. 26 references.

Westman, W.E.; Price, C.V.

1988-09-01

103

Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1988-01-01

104

Initial Analysis of Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper Data for the Classification of Agricultural, Forested Wetland, and Urban Land Covers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of ag...

D. A. Quattrochi J. E. Anderson D. P. Brannon C. L. Hill

1982-01-01

105

LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for thematic mapping (TM) bands 3, 4, 5 and 7 is reliably estimated with the San Mateo Bridge target in the 12/31/82 scene. These results are to be compared with those from the 8/12/83 scene. Bands 1, 2 and 6 are to be analyzed with a different target possessing greater contrast. This may be possible with the underflight data comparison currently underway. The registration of this data to the TM image of 8/12/83 for a region arround the Stockton sewage pond east of San Francisco has begun. This particular approach has the advantage that the full two-dimensional MFT will be measured instead of the MFT in only one azimuth as reported.

Schowengerdt, R. (principal investigator)

1985-01-01

106

GEODETIC ACCURACY OF LANDSAT 4 MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER AND THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

EROS Data Center is evaluating the geodetic accuracy of Landsat-4 data from both the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) processing systems. Geodetic accuracy is a measure of the precision of Landsat data registration to the Earth's figure. This paper describes a geodetic accuracy assessment of several MSS and TM scenes, based on the geodetic referencing information supplied on a standard Landsat 4 computer compatible tape.

Thormodsgard, J. M.; DeVries, D. J.

1985-01-01

107

Study of Spectral/Radiometric Characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for Land Use Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation conducted in support of the LANDSAT 4/5 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program is discussed. Results of engineering analyses of radiometric, spatial, spectral, and geometric properties of the Thematic Mapper systems are summarized; major emphasis is placed on the radiometric analysis. Details of the analyses are presented in appendices, which contain three of the eight technical papers produced during this investigation; these three, together, describe the major activities and results of the investigation.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D. (principal investigator)

1985-01-01

108

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect different wetland plant canopies have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands is examined. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. Biomass estimates computed from spectral data were most similar to biomass estimates determined from harvest data when models developed for a specific canopy were used. Precise determination of regression coefficients for each canopy type and modeling changes in the coefficients with various combinations of canopy types are being tested. The multispectral band scanner vegetation index estimates are very similar to the vegetation index estimates.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

109

Comparison of existing digital image analysis systems for the analysis of Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most existing image analysis systems were designed with the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner in mind, leaving open the question of whether or not these systems could adequately process Thematic Mapper data. In this report, both hardware and software systems have been evaluated for compatibility with TM data. Lack of spectral analysis capability was not found to be a problem, though techniques for spatial filtering and texture varied. Computer processing speed and data storage of currently existing mini-computer based systems may be less than adequate. Upgrading to more powerful hardware may be required for many TM applications.

Likens, W. C.; Wrigley, R. C.

1984-01-01

110

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect different wetland plant canopies have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands is studied. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. The spectral biomass estimate of a broadleaf canopy is most similar to the harvest biomass estimate when a broadleaf canopy radiance model is used. All major wetland vegetation species can be identified through TM imagery. Simple regression models are developed equating the vegetation index and the infrared index with biomass. The spectral radiance index largely agreed with harvest biomass estimates.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

111

A spectral haze diagnostic feature for normalizing Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of atmospheric haze on Thematic Mapper data, transformed to TM Tasseled Cap features, are illustrated by means of simulation. A spectral feature by which the amount of atmospheric haze may be inferred is derived and described for both simulated and actual TM data. Results presented for two actual TM scenes illustrate the diagnostic feature's sensitivity to changes in haze level as well as its insensitivity to scene-class-related variability. The method by which such a diagnostic feature might be incorporated into a haze normalization procedure is also discussed.

Crist, E. P.

1985-01-01

112

Feature selection and information content of thematic mapper simulator data for a forested environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feature selection and the information content of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data are investigated for a forested region in northern Idaho. The optimal TMS channels for forest structural characteristics are determined, and the capability of TMS data to describe the structural variability within a forest stand is evaluated. The comparative performance of TMS and MSS data to discriminate forest structural factors using per-pixel maximum likelihood classification is examined, and four optimal TMS channels are classified in order to ascertain if the full complement of TM channels provide higher accuracies than the four optimal ones.

Spanner, M. A.; Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.

1983-01-01

113

Feature selection and the information content of Thematic Mapper simulator data for forest structural assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is made of the information content of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the case of a forested region, in order to determine the sensitivity of such data to forest crown closure and tree size class. Principal components analysis and Monte Carlo simulation indicated that channels 4, 7, 5 and 3 were optimal for four-channel forest structure analysis. As the number of channels supplied to the Monte Carlo feature selection routine increased, classification accuracy increased. The greatest sensitivity to the forest structural parameters, which included succession within clearcuts as well as crown closure and size class, was obtained from the 7-channel TMS data.

Spanner, M. A.; Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.

1984-01-01

114

The use of thematic mapper simulator calibration data for assessment of data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In flight calibration data collected from the thematic mapper simulator (TMS) were used to assess the quality of Earth scan data. The following results are indicated: (1) based on limited samples, individual TMS channels have noise which varies from channel to channel, but remains constant within a channel; (2) short term variations of more than 5% in the average values of calibration source responses indicate problems; and (3) absolute radiometric calibration is unlikely to be meaningful in a temporal sense due to single point calibration methods used.

Forman, M. L.

1980-01-01

115

Development of thematic mapper vegetative indices for assessing biomass in corn, soybeans and wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral transformations that utilize thematic mapper (TM) bands were found to be highly related to various agronomic parameters such as leaf area index, percent ground cover, total fresh biomass, and plant moisture for corn, soybeans, and wheat. It was found that different spectral transformations are necessary in order to obtain the maximum predictability for each agronomic variable. The TM bands in the water absorption region (1.55 micrometers to 1.75 micrometer and 2.08 micrometer 2.35 micrometer) appear to provide information concerning the water condition of the canopy.

Gardner, B. R.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Blad, B. L. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

116

Spectral signature of alpine snow cover from the Landsat Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In rugged terrain, snow in the shadows can appear darker than soil or vegetation in the sunlight, making it difficult to interpret satellite data images of rugged terrains. This paper discusses methods for using Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT data for automatic analyses of alpine snow cover. Typical spectral signatures of the Landsat TM are analyzed for a range of snow types, atmospheric profiles, and topographic illumination conditions. A number of TM images of Sierra Nevada are analyzed to distinguish several classes of snow from other surface covers.

Dozier, Jeff

1989-01-01

117

Geobotanical determination of aggregate source material using Airborne Thematic Mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible use of vegetation to discriminate parent materials for suitability as aggregate source material is examined. Airborne Thematic Mapper data of two test sites representing potential alluvial and residual source areas in central California were analyzed. It is found that the most useful images were composites that included principal components bands and a Perpendicular Vegetation Index band. The image processing demarcated species compositional differences which characterized a shale site and revealed differences in an alluvial site caused by moisture stress due to aggregate size and sorting.

Minor, Timothy; Mouat, David; Myers, Jeff

1988-01-01

118

Thematic Mapper laser profile resolution of Holocene Lake limit, Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The limit of Great Salt Lake's maximum expansion onto the floor of the Great Salt Lake Desert during Holocene time is marked by a break in slope which is clearly depicted in terrain models which merge Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner data and Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) laser profile data. Mean elevations of APTS-coincident TM pixels are strongly correlated with reflectance in TM Bands 5 and 7 when and where sufficient moisture contrasts among terrain components are high. TM-APTS models and field surveys place the highest Holocene standing water at an elavation of 4221 ft (1286.7 m).

Merola, John A.; Currey, Donald R.; Ridd, Merrill K.

1989-01-01

119

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR THEIR GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC ACCURACIES.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes results of some preliminary analyses of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data for the NASA Landsat Image Quality Analysis program. The work is being done under interagency agreement S-12407-C between the U. S. Geological Survey and NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. Landsat-4 TM scenes for Washington, D. C. Macon, Georgia (40050-15333, September 4, 1982) and Cape Canaveral, Florida have been examined to determine their geometric and radiometric accuracy. In addition, parts of these scenes are also being analyzed to determine the ability to identify specific rock types with the added near-infrared TM bands.

Podwysoki, M. H.; Falcone, N.; Bender, L. U.; Jones, O. D.

1985-01-01

120

Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

Price, Kevin Paul

1987-01-01

121

Landsat D Thematic Mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To characterize and quantify the performance of the Landsat thematic mapper (TM), techniques for dimensionality reduction by linear transformation have been studied and evaluated and the accuracy of the correction of geometric errors in TM images analyzed. Theoretical evaluations and comparisons for existing methods for the design of linear transformation for dimensionality reduction are presented. These methods include the discrete Karhunen Loeve (KL) expansion, Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA), Thematic Mapper (TM)-Tasseled Cap Linear Transformation and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). A unified approach to these design problems is presented in which each method involves optimizing an objective function with respect to the linear transformation matrix. From these studies, four modified methods are proposed. They are referred to as the Space Variant Linear Transformation, the KL Transform-MDA hybrid method, and the First and Second Version of the Weighted MDA method. The modifications involve the assignment of weights to classes to achieve improvements in the class conditional probability of error for classes with high weights. Experimental evaluations of the existing and proposed methods have been performed using the six reflective bands of the TM data. It is shown that in terms of probability of classification error and the percentage of the cumulative eigenvalues, the six reflective bands of the TM data require only a three dimensional feature space. It is shown experimentally as well that for the proposed methods, the classes with high weights have improvements in class conditional probability of error estimates as expected.

Ford, G. E.

1986-01-01

122

Revised Landsat-5 TM Radiometrie Calibration Procedures and Postcalibration Dynamic Ranges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective May 5, 2003, Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) will be radiometrically calibrated using a new procedure and revised calibration parameters. This change will improve absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Users will need to use new parameters to convert the calibrated data products to radiance. The new procedure for the reflective bands (1-5,7) is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration curve for the instrument derived from the instrument's internal calibrator, cross-calibration with the ETM+, and vicarious measurements. The thermal band will continue to be calibrated using the internal calibrator. Further updates to improve the relative detector-to-detector calibration and thermal band calibration are being investigated, as is the calibration of the Landsat-4 (L4) TM.

Chander, G.; Markham, B.

2003-01-01

123

Water quality monitoring by thematic mapper in coastal environments. A performance analysis of local biooptical algorithms and atmospheric correction procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor's ability to monitor localized phenomena associated with anthropogenic pollution in coastal waters has been investigated with reference to experimental data collected on a test site in the Gulf of Naples. In situ measurements yielded the biooptical algorithms for chlorophyll and sediment retrieval as well as an optical model for the computation of the subsurface reflectance

S. Tassan; M. R. dAlcala

1993-01-01

124

Estimation of fuel moisture content from multitemporal analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper reflectance data: applications in fire danger assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper was to deé ne indices based on reè ectance measurements performed by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor for estimating water content of live Mediterranean fuels for é re danger estimation. Seven Landsat TM images were processed and correlated with fuel moisture content (FMC) of several live species of Mediterranean grassland and shrubland. Raw bands

E. Chuvieco; D. Riaño; I. Aguado; D. Cocero

2002-01-01

125

Modeling energy flow and nutrient cycling in natural semiarid grassland ecosystems with the aid of thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy flow and nutrient cycling were modeled as affected by herbivory on selected intensive sites along gradients of precipitation and soils, validating the model output by monitoring selected parameters with data derived from the Thematic Mapper (TM). Herbivore production was modeled along the gradient of soils and herbivory, and validated with data derived from TM in a spatial data base.

Lewis, James K.

1987-01-01

126

Accuracy Assessment of 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper Derived Land Cover for the Upper San Pedro Watershed (U.S./Mexico).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del...

W. G. Kepner S. M. Skirvin S. E. Drake J. K. Maingi S. E. Marsh

2000-01-01

127

Investigating the use of Landsat thematic mapper data for estimation of forest leaf area index in southern Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims at investigating the use of Landsat thematic mapper (TM) for mapping leaf area index (LAI) in coniferous and deciduous forests in southern Sweden. LAI has been estimated in the field with optical measurements, allometric equations, and litter-trap data, and empirical relationships between LAI estimates and satellite-measured reflectances have been analysed. Several common vegetation indices and multiple regressions

L. Eklundh; H. Eriksson; J. Ardö; P. Pilesjö

2003-01-01

128

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part B: Scan mirror assembly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the thematic mapper scan mirror assembly (SMA) acceptance test are presented. Documentation includes: (1) a list of the acceptance test discrepancies; (2) flight 1 SMA test data book; (3) flight 1 SMA environmental report; (4) the configuration verification index; (5) the flight 1 SMA test failure reports; (6) the flight 1 data tapes log; and (7) the requests for deviation/waivers.

1982-01-01

129

Thematic mapper protoflight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part A: Multiplexer data book 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Final performance test data for the thematic mapper flight model multiplexer are presented in tables. Aspects covered include A/D thresholds for bands 5, 6, and 7; cross talk; the thermistor; bilevel commands signal parameters; A/D threshold ambient, voltage margin low bus; serial data and bit clock parameters; and the wire check. Tests were conducted at ambient temperature.

1982-01-01

130

LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix D: Thematic mapper Computer Compatible Tape (CCT-AT/PT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The format of computer compatible tapes which contain LANDSAT 4 and D Prime thematic mapper data is defined. A complete specification of the CCT-AT (radiometric corrections applied and geometric matrices appended) and the CCT-PT (radiometric and geometric corrections) data formats is provided.

Ahmed, H.

1981-01-01

131

A hybrid approach to urban land use\\/cover mapping using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid method that incorporates the advantages of supervised and unsupervised approaches as well as hard and soft classifications was proposed for mapping the land use\\/cover of the Atlanta metropolitan area using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. The unsupervised ISODATA clustering method was initially used to segment the image into a large number of clusters of pixels.

C. P. Lo; Jinmu Choi

2004-01-01

132

Remote sensing of coastal wetlands biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands. [Lewes, Delaware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral data, simulating thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 were gathered in salt and brackish marshes using a hand-held radiometer. Simple regression models were developed equating spectral radiance indicies with total live biomass for S. alterniflora in a salt marsh and for a variety of plant species in a brackish marsh. Models were then tested and compared to harvest estimates of biomass. In the salt marsh, biomass estimates from spectral data were similar to harvest biomass estimates during most of the growing season. Estimates of annual net aerial primary productivity calculated from spectral data were within 21% of production estimated from harvest data. During August, biomass estimates from spectral data in the brackish marsh were similar to biomass estimated by harvesting techniques but not always comparable at other times in the growing season.

Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.

1985-01-01

133

Landsat Thematic Mapper observations of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing with the Landsat Thematic Mapper of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes between 18 and 27 deg S revealed, for the first time, the presence of 28 breached volcanic cones and 11 major volcanic debris avalanche deposits, several of which cover areas in excess of 100 sq km. It is concluded that such avalanche deposits are normal products of the evolution of large composite volcanoes, comparable with lava and pyroclastic flow deposits. A statistical survey of 578 composite volcanoes in the same area indicated that a majority of cones which achieve edifice heights between 2000 and 3000 m may undergo sector collapse. The paper describes morphological criteria for identifying breached composite cones and volcanic debris avalanches using orbital images.

Francis, P. W.; Wells, G. L.

1988-01-01

134

Neuro-classification of multi-type Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neural networks have been successful in image classification and have shown potential for classifying remotely sensed data. This paper presents classifications of multitype Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data using neural networks. The Landsat TM Image for March 23, 1987 with accompanying ground observation data for a study area In Miami County, Indiana, U.S.A. was utilized to assess recognition of crop residues. Principal components and spectral ratio transformations were performed on the TM data. In addition, a layer of the geographic information system (GIS) for the study site was incorporated to generate GIS-enhanced TM data. This paper discusses (1) the performance of neuro-classification on each type of data, (2) how neural networks recognized each type of data as a new image and (3) comparisons of the results for each type of data obtained using neural networks, maximum likelihood, and minimum distance classifiers.

Zhuang, Xin; Engel, Bernard A.; Fernandez, R. N.; Johannsen, Chris J.

1991-01-01

135

Application of thematic mapper-type data over a porphyry-molybdenum deposit in Colorado  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of thematic mapper data as a source of geologically useful information for mountainous areas of varying vegetation density. Much of the processing was done in an a priori manner without prior ground-based information. This approach resulted in a successfull mapping of the alteration associated with the Mt. Emmons molybdenum ore body as well as several other hydrothermal systems. Supervised classification produced a vegetation map at least as accurate as the mapping done for the environmental impact statement. Principal components were used to map zones of general, subtle alteration and to separate hematitically stained rock from staining associated with hydrothermal activity. Decorrelation color composites were found to be useful field mapping aids, easily delineating many lithologies and vegetation classes of interest. The factors restricting the interpretability and computer manipulation of the data are examined.

Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

1983-01-01

136

Measurement of the Landsat Thematic Mapper modulation transfer function using an array of point sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a method for measuring the Thematic Mapper (TM) imaging system point spread function (PSF) using TM imagery or a specially constructed target consisting of a two-dimensional array of approximate point sources of known dimensions and radiometric qualities. The target allows 16 separate point sources to be imaged simultaneously by the TM. The point sources were carefully placed on the ground so that their relative positions were known. Owing to sample-scene phasing, each imaged point source exhibits a different amount of blur in the digital image. The target pixels may then be recombined according to their known relative positions to form a single, sampled, nonaliased imaging system PSF. The modulation transfer function is then obtained as the modulus of the discrete Fourier transform of the PSF.

Rauchmiller, Robert F., Jr.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

1988-01-01

137

Assessment of Thematic Mapper band-to-band registration by the block correlation method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral radiometer makes it susceptible to band-to-band misregistration. To estimate band-to-band misregistration a block correlation method is employed. This method is chosen over other possible techniques (band differencing and flickering) because quantitative results are produced. The method correlates rectangular blocks of pixels from one band against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band. The block pairs are shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient for each shift position is computed. The displacement corresponding to the maximum correlation is taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. Subpixel shifts are estimated by a bi-quadratic interpolation of the correlation values surrounding the maximum correlation. To obtain statistical summaries for each band combination post processing of the block correlation results performed. The method results in estimates of registration error that are consistent with expectations.

Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

1984-01-01

138

The utility of Thematic Mapper sensor characteristics for surface mine monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The employment of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data for surface coal mine inventory and inspection applications has been extensively investigated. However, in spite of encouraging research results, MSS data have not gained wide acceptance for surface mine monitoring operations. This situation is partly related to MSS spatial resolution (80 m), which is considered insufficient for detailed surface mine inspection. The Thematic Mapper (TM) employed on the Landsat-4 and 5 satellites provides an improved resolution (30 m) and other refinements which are expected to enhance the usefulness of TM data relative to MSS data. The present paper reports research which was conducted to assess the usefulness of actual TM data and to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of individual sensor characteristics to data utility for surface mine monitoring. The obtained results demonstrate that the TM spatial resolution can be of immediate benefit for certain applications such as surface mine monitoring.

Irons, J. R.; Kennard, R. L.

1984-01-01

139

Land cover map of Great Britain. An automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

SciTech Connect

The Land Cover Map of Great Britain was produced using supervised maximum-likelihood classifications of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. By combining summer and winter data, classification accuracies were substantially improved over single-data analyses. The map, bosed on a 25-m grid, records 25 cover types, consisting of sea and inland water, beaches and bare ground, developed and arable land, and 18 types of semi-natural vegetation. General cover is recorded at a field-by-field scale, while key landscape features, with strong spectral signatures, show patterns down to a minimum mappable unit of 0.125 ha. Comparisons with independent ground reference data showed correspondences which varied between 67 percent and 89 percent depending on the level of detail at which comparisons were made.

Fuller, R.M.; Groom, G.B.; Jones, A.R. [Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom)

1994-05-01

140

Thematic Mapper data quality and performance assessment in renewable resources/agriculture/remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of the early thematic mapper (TM) data indicate the TM sensor and associated ground processing are performing equal to the high expectations and within advertised specifications. The overall TM system with improved resolution, together with additional and more optimumly placed spectral bands shows much promise for benefits in future analysis activities. By selecting man-made features of known dimensions (e.g., highways, airfields, buildings, and isolated water bodies), an assessment was made of the TM performance relative to the specified 30-meter (98-foot) resolution. The increase of spatial resolution of TM (30 m) over MSS (80 M) appears to be significant not only in resolving spectrally distinct classes that were previously undefinable but also in distinguishing within-field variability. An Important result of the early TM evaluation and pre-TM analyses was the development of an integrated system to receive LANDSAT-4 TM (as well as MSS) data and analyze the data via various approaches.

Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.

1985-01-01

141

Mapping thermal maturity in the Chainman shale, near Eureka, Nevada, with Landsat Thematic Mapper images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between measurements of organic matter (OM) maturity and laboratory measurements of visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance, and if Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images could be used to map maturity. The maturity of Mississippian Chainman Shale samples collected in east-central Nevada and west-central Utah was determined by using vitrinite reflectance and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. TM 4/TM 5 values correspond well to vitrinite reflectance and hydrogen index variations, and therefore this ratio was used to evaluate a TM image of the Eureka, Nevada, area for mapping thermal maturity differences in the Chainman Shale. -from Authors

Rowan, L. C.; Pawlewicz, M. J.; Jones, O. D.

1992-01-01

142

Digital to Analog Conversion and Visual Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Landsat D Image Data Quality Analysis Program, the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center (EDC) developed procedures to optimize the visual information content of Thematic Mapper data and evaluate the resulting photographic products by visual interpretation. A digital-to-analog transfer function was developed which would properly place the digital values on the most useable portion of a film response curve. Individual black-and-white transparencies generated using the resulting look-up tables were utilized in the production of color-composite images with varying band combinations. Four experienced photointerpreters ranked 2-cm-diameter (0. 75 inch) chips of selected image features of each band combination for ease of interpretability. A nonparametric rank-order test determined the significance of interpreter preference for the band combinations.

McCord, James, R.; Binnie, Douglas, R.; Seevers, Paul, M.

1985-01-01

143

Geometric and radiometric characterization of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper and multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geometrically raw image of Washington, D.C. was acquired and radiometrically corrected. The data show little of the detector stripping common in earlier MSS images. The radiometrically corrected data have uniform means and standard deviations for the detectors in each band; however, the data for different detectors utilize a different pattern of DN levels, resulting in ubiquitous stripping of 1 DN amplitude. Band-to-band registration was assessed using color composites and small area correlation techniques. The spectral equivalency of the first four bands of the thematic mapper with the four bands of the MSS is being examined. Geometric analysis of the Washington, D.C. scene have started and a generalized routine for examining the contents of the label files and nonvideo data files was implemented. Several discrepancies from the documentation are described. Night scenes and daytime ocean scenes required for radiometric purposes were identified and the data ordered.

Kieffer, H. H. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

144

Radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner. [of Thematic Mapper Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absolute radiometric calibration of the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator reflective channels was examined based on laboratory tests and in-flight comparisons to ground measurements. The NS001 data are calibrated in-flight by reference to the NS001 internal integrating sphere source. This source's power supply or monitoring circuitry exhibited greater instability in-flight during 1988-1989 than in the laboratory. Extrapolating laboratory behavior to in-flight data resulted in 7-20 percent radiance errors relative to ground measurements and atmospheric modeling. Assuming constancy in the source's output between laboraotry and in-flight resulted in generally smaller errors. Upgrades to the source's power supply and monitoring circuitry in 1990 improved its in-flight stability, though in-flight ground reflectance based calibration tests have not yet been performed.

Markham, Brian L.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Gellman, David I.; Slater, Philip N.

1991-01-01

145

The GSFC Mark-2 three band hand-held radiometer. [thematic mapper for ground truth data collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self-contained, portable, hand-radiometer designed for field usage was constructed and tested. The device, consisting of a hand-held probe containing three sensors and a strap supported electronic module, weighs 4 1/2 kilograms. It is powered by flashlight and transistor radio batteries, utilizes two silicon and one lead sulfide detectors, has three liquid crystal displays, sample and hold radiometric sampling, and its spectral configuration corresponds to LANDSAT-D's thematic mapper bands. The device was designed to support thematic mapper ground-truth data collection efforts and to facilitate 'in situ' ground-based remote sensing studies of natural materials. Prototype instruments were extensively tested under laboratory and field conditions with excellent results.

Tucker, C. J.; Jones, W. H.; Kley, W. A.; Sundstrom, G. J.

1980-01-01

146

The use of Thematic Mapper data for land cover discrimination: Preliminary results from the UK Satmap programme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In assessing the accuracy of classification techniques for Thematic Mapper data the consistency of the detector-to-detector response is critical. Preliminary studies were undertaken, therefore, to assess the significance of this factor for the TM. The overall structure of the band relationships can be examined by principal component analysis. In order to examine the utility of the Thematic Mapper data more carefully, six different land cover classes approximately Anderson level 1 were selected. These included an area of water from the sediment-laden Mississippi, woodland, agricultural land and urban land. A plume class was also selected which includes the plume of smoke emanating from the power station and drifting over the Mississippi river.

Jackson, M. J.; Baker, J. R.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Gayler, J. E.; Hardy, J. R.

1984-01-01

147

Analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data for classification of forest stands in Baldwin County, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer-implemented classification has been derived from Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data acquired over Baldwin County, Alabama on January 15, 1983. One set of spectral signatures was developed from the data by utilizing a 3x3 pixel sliding window approach. An analysis of the classification produced from this technique identified forested areas. Additional information regarding only the forested areas. Additional information regarding only the forested areas was extracted by employing a pixel-by-pixel signature development program which derived spectral statistics only for pixels within the forested land covers. The spectral statistics from both approaches were integrated and the data classified. This classification was evaluated by comparing the spectral classes produced from the data against corresponding ground verification polygons. This iterative data analysis technique resulted in an overall classification accuracy of 88.4 percent correct for slash pine, young pine, loblolly pine, natural pine, and mixed hardwood-pine. An accuracy assessment matrix has been produced for the classification.

Hill, C. L.

1984-01-01

148

Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objective of the project was to evaluate LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data in the context of geologic applications. This involved a quantitative assessment of the data quality including the spatial and spectral characteristics realized by the instrument. Three test sites were selected for the study: (1) Silver Bell, Arizona; (2) Death Valley, California; and (3) Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming. Conclusions include: (1) Artificial and natural targets can be used to atmospherically calibrate TM data and investigate scanner radiometry, atmospheric parameters, and construction of atmospheric Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF's), (2) No significant radiometric degradation occurs in TM data as a result of SCROUNGE processing; however, the data exhibit narrow digital number (DN) distributiosn suggesting that the configuration of the instrument is not optimal for each science applications, (30 Increased spatial resolution, 1:24,000 enlargement capability, and good geometric fidelity of TM data allow accurate photogeologic/geomorphic mapping, including relative age dating of alluvial fans, measurement of structural and bedding attitudes, and construction of such things as structural cross sections and stratigraphic columns. (4) TM bands 5 and 7 are particularly useful for geologic applications because they span a region of the spectrum not previously sampled by multispectral scanner data and are important for characterizing clay and carbonate materials.

Paylor, E. D.; Abrams, M. J.; Conel, J. E.; Kahle, A. B.; Lang, H. R.

1985-01-01

149

Automatic lineament extraction in a heavily vegetated region using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lineament extraction from satellite remotely sensed data has been one of the widely used applications of remote sensing in geology. In fact, recent advances in digital image processing allow such lineament extraction to be accomplished in semi-automatic to fully automatic approaches. However, satellite remotely sensed data acquired in heavily vegetated regions such as tropical rainforest, are vulnerable to higher inherent noise levels attributed to the resultant effects of scattering by clouds and adjacency effects of highly inhomogeneous vegetation cover within the pixel dimension. In this study, we examined the effects of noise levels to lineament extraction using a fully automatic approach, consisting of a combination of edge-line detection algorithms. Ancillary information from a digitized topographic map and image classification was used to discriminate between cultural and natural lineaments from the extracted lineaments. Adapting the combination of edge detection and a line-linking algorithm, we have found the optimal parameters for automatic lineament extraction of such complex areas using Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data. A noise level of 30% is the maximum threshold before artifacts are generated. It is therefore concluded that the combination of edge-based and line-linking digital image processing operations with the priori local optimal parameters is crucial in lineament feature extraction in heavily vegetated regions.

Hashim, Mazlan; Ahmad, Samsudin; Johari, Mohd Amin Md; Pour, Amin Beiranvand

2013-03-01

150

Mapping of the water quality of Lake Erken, Sweden, from imaging spectrometry and Landsat Thematic Mapper.  

PubMed

Hyperspectral data have been collected by the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) and multispectral data by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument for the purpose of mapping lake water quality. Field campaigns have been performed on Lake Erken in Sweden during the summer of 1997. Water samples have been collected and analysed in laboratory. Continuously measured variables from a boat have added a spatial dimension to the ground truth dataset. The data have been used to construct algorithms, based on remotely sensed data, for the retrieval of water quality parameters. The correlation between the continuous data and the collected CASI data has been investigated. Algorithms using both the point sampling results and the continuous data have been developed. Maps based on data from each instrument, showing the distribution of chlorophyll, are presented. Problems of having few water sampling stations, and the potential of using sub-water optics models are addressed as well. Tests were performed on MERIS bands and found useful for mapping chlorophyll and turbidity, and algorithms have been suggested for future use with MERIS. PMID:11315737

Ostlund, C; Flink, P; Strömbeck, N; Pierson, D; Lindell, T

2001-03-14

151

Tropical vegetation analysis with Landsat thematic mapper and Canadian synthetic aperture radar data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test the synergy between optical and microwave remote sensing data sets for vegetation analysis, a comparison was carried out between the results of vegetation land cover classification using multitemporal landsat thematic mapper (TM) alone, and then in conjunction with a Canadian airborne C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image gathered as part of the South American Radar Experiment (SAREX'92). These data sets cover the Tapajos National Forest area of the Brazilian Amazon (Para State). Occurring within the area are many land use and cover types, including extensive tracts of undistributed humid tropical forest, large pastures, small scale agriculture, abandoned plantations and secondary forest growth on old agricultural fields. The addition of radar backscatter and texture information (HH and VV polarizations) to optical data sets significantly increased the separability of classes. For instance, VV backscatter was much higher in areas of permanent agriculture versus those of smaller rotational fields. However, the complexity of the radar backscatter information requires sophisticated analytical capabilities that are only now in development. The synergistic use of active and passive sensors holds a broad promise of solving some of the analytical needs for the global change and carbon modeling communities that cannot be solved with optical data without intensive field validation and/or extensive multitemporal data sets.

Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Lawrence, William T.; Ahern, Francis J.

1995-01-01

152

Application of Landsat Thematic Mapper data for coastal thermal plume analysis at Diablo Canyon  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal data to derive absolute temperature distributions in coastal waters that receive cooling effluent from a power plant is demonstrated. Landsat TM band 6 (thermal) data acquired on June 18, 1986, for the Diablo Canyon power plant in California were compared to ground truth temperatures measured at the same time. Higher-resolution band 5 (reflectance) data were used to locate power plant discharge and intake positions and identify locations of thermal pixels containing only water, no land. Local radiosonde measurements, used in LOWTRAN 6 adjustments for atmospheric effects, produced corrected ocean surface radiances that, when converted to temperatures, gave values within approximately 0.6 C of ground truth. A contour plot was produced that compared power plant plume temperatures with those of the ocean and coastal environment. It is concluded that Landsat can provide good estimates of absolute temperatures of the coastal power plant thermal plume. Moreover, quantitative information on ambient ocean surface temperature conditions (e.g., upwelling) may enhance interpretation of numerical model prediction. 12 refs.

Gibbons, D.E.; Wukelic, G.E.; Leighton, J.P.; Doyle, M.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (USA); Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (USA))

1989-06-01

153

Application of Landsat Thematic Mapper data for coastal thermal plume analysis at Diablo Canyon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal data to derive absolute temperature distributions in coastal waters that receive cooling effluent from a power plant is demonstrated. Landsat TM band 6 (thermal) data acquired on June 18, 1986, for the Diablo Canyon power plant in California were compared to ground truth temperatures measured at the same time. Higher-resolution band 5 (reflectance) data were used to locate power plant discharge and intake positions and identify locations of thermal pixels containing only water, no land. Local radiosonde measurements, used in LOWTRAN 6 adjustments for atmospheric effects, produced corrected ocean surface radiances that, when converted to temperatures, gave values within approximately 0.6 C of ground truth. A contour plot was produced that compared power plant plume temperatures with those of the ocean and coastal environment. It is concluded that Landsat can provide good estimates of absolute temperatures of the coastal power plant thermal plume. Moreover, quantitative information on ambient ocean surface temperature conditions (e.g., upwelling) may enhance interpretation of numerical model prediction.

Gibbons, D. E.; Wukelic, G. E.; Leighton, J. P.; Doyle, M. J.

1989-01-01

154

Blocking reduction of Landsat Thematic Mapper JPEG browse images using optimal PSNR estimated spectra adaptive postfiltering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two representative sample images of Band 4 of the Landsat Thematic Mapper are compressed with the JPEG algorithm at 8:1, 16:1 and 24:1 Compression Ratios for experimental browsing purposes. We then apply the Optimal PSNR Estimated Spectra Adaptive Postfiltering (ESAP) algorithm to reduce the DCT blocking distortion. ESAP reduces the blocking distortion while preserving most of the image's edge information by adaptively postfiltering the decoded image using the block's spectral information already obtainable from each block's DCT coefficients. The algorithm iteratively applied a one dimensional log-sigmoid weighting function to the separable interpolated local block estimated spectra of the decoded image until it converges to the optimal PSNR with respect to the original using a 2-D steepest ascent search. Convergence is obtained in a few iterations for integer parameters. The optimal logsig parameters are transmitted to the decoder as a negligible byte of overhead data. A unique maxima is guaranteed due to the 2-D asymptotic exponential overshoot shape of the surface generated by the algorithm. ESAP is based on a DFT analysis of the DCT basis functions. It is implemented with pixel-by-pixel spatially adaptive separable FIR postfilters. PSNR objective improvements between 0.4 to 0.8 dB are shown together with their corresponding optimal PSNR adaptive postfiltered images.

Linares, Irving; Mersereau, Russell M.; Smith, Mark J. T.

1994-01-01

155

Water quality monitoring in estuarine waters using the Landsat Thematic Mapper  

SciTech Connect

Due to the impacts of rural and urban development on southwestern Australian estuaries, and the general isolation of these water bodies, there is a need to develop water quality monitoring systems that are both repetitive and cost-effective. The literature suggests that Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) has spectral and spatial characteristics that are suited to monitoring small coastal water bodies. This study examined the potential for the satellite-based TM sensor to serve as a regulator monitoring tool. Atmospherically corrected TM digital data acquired on four dates over summer 1990/91 and concurrent field measurements collected at the time of the satellite over-pass over the Peel-Harvey Estuarine System were used to obtain multitemporal, empirical algorithms for predicting pigment concentration, Secchi disk depth (SDD), and salinity. Highly significant, predictive algorithms were developed for these parameters. It is concluded that Landsat TM has the resolution and accuracy to be a potentially very useful monitoring tool. However, cloud cover and delays in data acquisition seriously diminish its usefulness for monitoring on anything less than a seasonal basis. Laboratory-based radiometric studies also indicated that Landsat TM was unlikely to be useful in determining the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton blooms in coastal waters.

Lavery, P.; Pattiaratchi, C. (Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands (Australia). Centre for Water Research); Wyllie, A.; Hick, P.

1993-12-01

156

Water quality monitoring using Landsat Themate Mapper data with empirical algorithms in Chagan Lake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Chagan represents a complex situation of major optical constituents and emergent spectral signals for remote sensing analysis of water quality in the Songnen Plain. As such it provides a good test of the combined radiometric correction methods developed for optical remote sensing data to monitor water quality. Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data and in situ water samples collected concurrently with satellite overpass were used for the analysis, in which four important water quality parameters are considered: chlorophyll-a, turbidity, total dissolved organic matter, and total phosphorus in surface water. Both empirical regressions and neural networks were established to analyze the relationship between the concentrations of these four water parameters and the satellite radiance signals. It is found that the neural network model performed at better accuracy than empirical regressions with TM visible and near-infrared bands as spectral variables. The relative root mean square error (RMSE) for the neural network was < 10%, while the RMSE for the regressions was less than 25% in general. Future work is needed on establishing the dynamic characteristic of Chagan Lake water quality with TM or other optical remote sensing data. The algorithms developed in this study need to be further tested and refined with multidate imagery data

Song, Kaishan; Wang, Zongming; Blackwell, John; Zhang, Bai; Li, Fang; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Jiang, Guangjia

2011-01-01

157

Landsat thematic mapper studies of land cover spatial variability related to hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) provides increased spatial, spectral, and radiometric capability relative to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). Visual inspection of TM imagery confirms this. Land cover detail is evident that would be of use in watershed management and planning activities. Specific studies have been conducted in Georgia, West Virginia, Michigan and Maryland to compare MSS and TM for urbanizing watersheds, wetlands, and floodplain mapping situations. These studies show that only modest improvements in classification accuracy (Anderson Level I/II) have been achieved using existing classification approaches. An attempt to identify the visibly apparent interstate highways and secondary and residential streets in TM data via conventional approaches failed due to an inability to derive separable spectral signatures. The basis for a non-parametric approach to classification is presented in which roads are identified by locating linear local minima in the greenness transformed dimension. Preliminary results indicate that such a method provides more reliable road locations than MSS or TM used singly.

Wharton, S.; Ormsby, J.; Salomonson, V.; Mulligan, P.

158

Application of Thematic Mapper data to corn and soybean development stage estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model, utilizing direct relationship between remotely sensed spectral data and the development stage of both corn and soybeans has been proposed and published previously (Badhwar and Henderson, 1981; and Henderson and Badhwar, 1984). This model was developed using data acquired by instruments mounted on trucks over field plots of corn and soybeans as well as satellite data from Landsat. In all cases, the data was analyzed in the spectral bands equivalent to the four bands of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). In this study the same model has been applied to corn and soybeans using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data combined with simulated TM data to provide a multitemporal data set in TM band intervals. All data (five total acquisitions) were acquired over a test site in Webster County, Iowa from June to October 1982. The use of TM data for determining development state is as accurate as with Landsat MSS and field plot data in MSS bands. The maximum deviation of 0.6 development stage for corn and 0.8 development stage for soybeans is well within the uncertainty with which a field can be estimated with procedures used by observers on the ground in 1982.

Badhwar, G. D.; Henderson, K. E.

1985-01-01

159

Evaluation and interpretation of Thematic Mapper ratios in equations for estimating corn growth parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectance and agronomic Thematic Mapper (TM) data were analyzed to determine possible data transformations for evaluating several plant parameters of corn. Three transformation forms were used: the ratio of two TM bands, logarithms of two-band ratios, and normalized differences of two bands. Normalized differences and logarithms of two-band ratios responsed similarly in the equations for estimating the plant growth parameters evaluated in this study. Two-term equations were required to obtain the maximum predictability of percent ground cover, canopy moisture content, and total wet phytomass. Standard error of estimate values were 15-26 percent lower for two-term estimates of these parameters than for one-term estimates. The terms log(TM4/TM2) and (TM4/TM5) produced the maximum predictability for leaf area and dry green leaf weight, respectively. The middle infrared bands TM5 and TM7 are essential for maximizing predictability for all measured plant parameters except leaf area index. The estimating models were evaluated over bare soil to discriminate between equations which are statistically similar. Qualitative interpretations of the resulting prediction equations are consistent with general agronomic and remote sensing theory.

Dardner, B. R.; Blad, B. L.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

1985-01-01

160

Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of the reflective bands on the LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the absolute radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper, as determined during pre-launch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere, are presented. Detailed results for the best calibration of the protoflight TM are given, as well as summaries of other tests performed on the sensor. The dynamic range of the TM is within a few per cent of that required in all bands, except bands 1 and 3. Three detectors failed to pass the minimum SNR specified for their respective bands: band 5, channel 3 (dead), band 2, and channels 2 and 4 (noisy or slow response). Estimates of the absolute calibration accuracy for the TM show that the detectors are typically calibrated to 5% absolute error for the reflective bands; 10% full-scale accuracy was specified. Ten tests performed to transfer the detector absolute calibration to the internal calibrator show a 5% range at full scale in the transfer calibration; however, in two cases band 5 showed a 10% and a 7% difference.

Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

1984-01-01

161

Data compression experiments with LANDSAT thematic mapper and Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A case study is presented where an image segmentation based compression technique is applied to LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. The compression technique, called Spatially Constrained Clustering (SCC), can be regarded as an adaptive vector quantization approach. The SCC can be applied to either single or multiple spectral bands of image data. The segmented image resulting from SCC is encoded in small rectangular blocks, with the codebook varying from block to block. Lossless compression potential (LDP) of sample TM and CZCS images are evaluated. For the TM test image, the LCP is 2.79. For the CZCS test image the LCP is 1.89, even though when only a cloud-free section of the image is considered the LCP increases to 3.48. Examples of compressed images are shown at several compression ratios ranging from 4 to 15. In the case of TM data, the compressed data are classified using the Bayes' classifier. The results show an improvement in the similarity between the classification results and ground truth when compressed data are used, thus showing that compression is, in fact, a useful first step in the analysis.

Tilton, James C.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

1989-01-01

162

Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data from Wind River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data are limited by MSS spatial resolution (80 m or 262 ft) and bandwidth selection. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data have greatly enhanced spatial resolution (30 m or 98 ft) and TM operates in spectral bands suited to geologic interpretation. To compare the two systems, three images center over the Wind River basin of Wyoming were obtained. Two were TM images - a false color composite (FCC) and a natural color composite (NCC) - and the third was an MSS image. A systematic analysis of drainage, landforms, geologic structure, gross lithologic characteristics, lineaments, and curvilinears was performed on the three images. Drainage density and landform distinction were greatly enhanced on the TM images. Geologic features such as faults, strike and dip, folds, and lithologic characteristics are often difficult to distinguish on the MSS image but are readily apparent on the TM images. The lineament-curvilinear analysis of the MSS image showed longer but less distinct linear features. In comparison, the TM images allowed interpretation of shorter but more distinct linear elements, providing a more accurate delineation of the actual dimensions of the geologic features which these lineaments are thought to represent. An analysis of the oil production present in the study area showed 75% of the surface productive structures were delineated on the TM images, whereas only the most obvious structures were visible on the MSS image.

Geronsin, R.L.; Merry, M.C.

1984-07-01

163

Estimating net solar radiation using Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiative transfer algorithm is combined with digital elevation and satellite reflectance data to model spatial variability in net solar radiation at fine spatial resolution. The method is applied to the tall-grass prairie of the 16 x 16 sq km FIFE site (First ISLSCP Field Experiment) of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project. Spectral reflectances as measured by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) are corrected for atmospheric and topographic effects using field measurements and accurate 30-m digital elevation data in a detailed model of atmosphere-surface interaction. The spectral reflectances are then integrated to produce estimates of surface albedo in the range 0.3-3.0 microns. This map of albedo is used in an atmospheric and topographic radiative transfer model to produce a map of net solar radiation. A map of apparent net solar radiation is also derived using only the TM reflectance data, uncorrected for topography, and the average field-measured downwelling solar irradiance. Comparison with field measurements at 10 sites on the prairie shows that the topographically derived radiation map accurately captures the spatial variability in net solar radiation, but the apparent map does not.

Dubayah, R.

1992-01-01

164

Estimating net solar radiation using Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data  

SciTech Connect

A radiative transfer algorithm is combined with digital elevation and satellite reflectance data to model spatial variability in net solar radiation at fine spatial resolution. The method is applied to the tall-grass prairie of the 16 x 16 sq km FIFE site (First ISLSCP Field Experiment) of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project. Spectral reflectances as measured by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) are corrected for atmospheric and topographic effects using field measurements and accurate 30-m digital elevation data in a detailed model of atmosphere-surface interaction. The spectral reflectances are then integrated to produce estimates of surface albedo in the range 0.3-3.0 microns. This map of albedo is used in an atmospheric and topographic radiative transfer model to produce a map of net solar radiation. A map of apparent net solar radiation is also derived using only the TM reflectance data, uncorrected for topography, and the average field-measured downwelling solar irradiance. Comparison with field measurements at 10 sites on the prairie shows that the topographically derived radiation map accurately captures the spatial variability in net solar radiation, but the apparent map does not. 29 refs.

Dubayah, R. (Maryland Univ., College Park (United States))

1992-09-01

165

A preliminary evaluation of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper data for their geometric and radiometric accuracies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some LANDSAT thematic mapper data collected over the eastern United States were analyzed for their whole scene geometric accuracy, band to band registration and radiometric accuracy. Band ratio images were created for a part of one scene in order to assess the capability of mapping geologic units with contrasting spectral properties. Systematic errors were found in the geometric accuracy of whole scenes, part of which were attributable to the film writing device used to record the images of film. Band to band registration showed that bands 1 through 4 were registered to within one pixel. Likewise, bands 5 and 7 also were registered to within one pixel. However, bands 5 and 7 were misregistered with bands 1 through 4 by 1 to 2 pixels. Band 6 was misregistered by 4 pixels to bands 1 through 4. Radiometric analysis indicated two kinds of banding, a modulo-16 stripping and an alternate light dark group of 16 scanlines. A color ratio composite image consisting of TM band ratios 3/4, 5/2, and 5/7 showed limonitic clay rich soils, limonitic clay poor soils, and nonlimonitic materials as distinctly different colors on the image.

Podwysocki, M. H.; Falcone, N.; Bender, L. U.; Jones, O. D.

1985-01-01

166

The use of landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus for mapping leafy spurge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge) is an invasive weed that is a major problem in much of the Upper Great Plains region, including parts of Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming. Infestations in North Dakota alone have had a serious economic impact, estimated at $87 million annually in 1991, to the state's wildlife, tourism, and agricultural economy. Leafy spurge degrades prairie and badland ecosystems by displacing native grasses and forbs. It is a major threat to protected ecosystems in many national parks, national wild lands, and state recreational areas in the region. This study explores the use of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (Landsat) imagery and derived products as a management tool for mapping leafy spurge in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in southwestern North Dakota. An unsupervised clustering approach was used to map leafy spurge classes and resulted in overall classification accuracies of approximately 63%. The uses of Landsat imagery did not provide the accuracy required for detailed mapping of small patches of the weed. However, it demonstrated the potential for mapping broad-scale (regional) leafy spurge occurrence. This paper offers recommendations on the suitability of Landsat imagery as a tool for use by resource managers to map and monitor leafy spurge populations over large areas.

Mladinich, C. S.; Bustos, M. R.; Stitt, S.; Root, R.; Brown, K.; Anderson, G. L.; Hager, S.

2006-01-01

167

Leaf water stress detection utilizing thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 in soybean plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total and diffuse radiance responses of Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns), and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) to water stress in a soybean canopy are compared. Polarization measurements were used to separate the total from the diffuse reflectance; the reflectances were compared statistically at a variety of look angles at 15 min intervals from about 09.00 until 14.00 hrs EST. The results suggest that remotely sensed data collected in the photographic infrared region (TM4) are sensitive to leaf water stress in a 100 percent canopy cover of soybeans, and that TM3 is less sensitive than TM4 for detection of reversible foliar water stress. The mean values of TM5 reflectance data show similar trends to TM4. The primary implication of this study is that remote sensing of water stress in green plant canopies is possible in TM4 from ground-based observations primarily through the indirect link of leaf geometry.

Holben, B. N.; Schutt, J. B.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

1983-01-01

168

Intra-annual NDVI validation of the Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone of the extensive archive of moderate-resolution Earth imagery. Even after more than 24 years of service, the L5 TM is still operational. Given the longevity of the satellite, the detectors have aged and the sensor's radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters in the National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS) have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations in 2003 and 2007 have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data. This letter uses the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a metric to evaluate the radiometric calibration. The calibration change has improved absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic radiometry and will provide the basis for continued long-term studies of the Earth's land surfaces.

Chander, G.; Groeneveld, D. P.

2009-01-01

169

Structural mapping and analysis of a Madagascar Precambrian shear zone using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the west coast of Madagascar has become a frontier region for petroleum exploration. Major structures in the Precambrian shield of Madagascar may have a strong control on the development of sedimentary basins, as has been documented in the Morondava basin. The 2.5-3.0+ Ga shield of Madagascar is an amphibolite- to granulite-grade metamorphic gneiss terrain, intruded by anorthosites and 550-Ma granites and pegmatites. Landsat Thematic Mapper data provides a cost-effective method for regional-scale structural mapping of this poorly known terrain. A five-component linear mixing model has been used to enhance the lithologic information in this six-band data. Lithologic component images thus produced utilize the full geologic spectral range of the data. A preliminary structural geologic map compiled from the component images has greater detail than existing maps at 1:100,000 scale, to which it has been compared. The Ankafotra-Saririaky shear zone has been identified as a north-northeast-trending, 15- to 20-km-wide region of appressed folds, attenuated layering, and subparallel faults on the western side of the shield. Two anorthosite massifs that occur within this shear zone have the structural characteristics of boudins in a ductile matrix. The shear deformed a preexisting terrain of poly-phase folding, characterized by tight folds and complex fold interference structures displayed by basins and domes on a scale of 10 km. Enhanced remote sensing data can be used to characterize the nature and mechanism of shear deformation in such zones.

Kilmer, D.S.; Duncan, I.J. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

1990-05-01

170

Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust  

SciTech Connect

The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefiting hydrocarbon exploration.

Miller, J.E.

1984-04-01

171

Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust  

SciTech Connect

The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefitting hydrocarbon exploration.

Miller, J.E.

1984-04-01

172

Enhancement of thematic mapper satellite images for geological mapping of the Cho Dien area, Northern Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information available from the earth science image processing package (ESIPP) software program was applied to enhance the satellite image data of the Cho Dien area, northern Vietnam. The area with dense vegetation covers is dominated by several small Zn-Pb prospects in middle Paleozoic limestone units. Interpretation of satellite image data using the digital enhancement ESIPP program, forms the prime objective of this study, which is to improve the image quality and visual interpretation of regional geology, lineament and structural geology. Thematic mapper of bands 7, 5 and 4 with the false-color composites: blue, green and red, respectively, are considered to be the most appropriate for geologic interpretation. Dark pixel correction is carried out prior to other enhancement analyses which include high-pass filtering, albedo correction, image classification, principle component analysis (PCA) and band ratios. High-pass filtering enhancement is considered to be the most suitable approach for lineament analysis. Albedo is good for differentiating lithology, and image classification is also successfully used for lineament interpretation and discrimination of lithologies but is regarded not better than high-pass filtering and albedo. PCA and ratio of band enhancements are considered not good because there are many disturbed and excavated land areas such as abandoned and current open pits in the concerned area. The result of Landsat interpretation indicate that most lineament structures developed in a roughly N-trending anticlinal structure are in NE-, E- and N-trends. Minor lineaments are in roughly NW-trend, and cross-cutting the NE- and E-trends. Interpretation from enhanced Landsat information also fits very well with field evidences. The interpreted map is slightly different from those of the previous mapping works, particularly with respect to detailed lithological boundaries.

Won-In, Krit; Charusiri, Punya

2003-06-01

173

Identification of landslides in clay terrains using Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) multispectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The slopes of the Cotswolds Escarpment in the United Kingdom are mantled by extensive landslide deposits, including both relict and active features. These landslides pose a significant threat to engineering projects and have been the focus of research into the use of airborne remote sensing data sets for landslide mapping. Due to the availability of extensive ground investigation data, a test site was chosen on the slopes of the Cotswolds Escarpment above the village of Broadway, Worcestershire, United Kingdom. Daedalus Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) imagery was subsequently acquired by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to provide high-resolution multispectral imagery of the Broadway site. This paper assesses the textural enhancement of ATM imagery as an image processing technique for landslide mapping at the Broadway site. Results of three kernel based textural measures, variance, mean euclidean distance (MEUC) and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) entropy are presented. Problems encountered during textural analysis, associated with the presence of dense woodland within the project area, are discussed and a solution using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is described. Landslide features in clay dominated terrains can be identified through textural enhancement of airborne multispectral imagery. The kernel based textural measures tested in the current study were all able to enhance areas of slope instability within ATM imagery. Additionally, results from supervised classification of the combined texture-principal component dataset show that texture based image classification can accurately classify landslide regions and that by including a Principal Component image, woodland and landslide classes can be differentiated successfully during the classification process.

Whitworth, Malcolm; Giles, David; Murphy, William

2002-01-01

174

An initial analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper data for the discrimination of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for the discrimination of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers is conducted using a scene of data collected over Arkansas and Tennessee. A classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is compared with a classification of TM data for the same area. Results from this comparative analysis show that the multitemporal MSS classification produced an overall accuracy of 80.91% while the TM classification yields an overall classification accuracy of 97.06% correct.

Quattrochi, D. A.

1984-01-01

175

A preliminary comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT-1 HRV multispectral data for estimating coniferous forest volume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Satellite Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) High Resolution Visible (HRV) images of coniferous forest canopies were compared in their relationship to forest wood volume using correlation and regression analyses. Significant inverse relationships were found between softwood volume and the spectral bands from both sensors (P less than 0.01). The highest correlations were between the log of softwood volume and the near-infrared bands (HRV band 3, r = -0.89; TM band 4, r = -0.83).

Ripple, William J.; Wang, S.; Isaacson, Dennis L.; Paine, D. P.

1995-01-01

176

Statistical analysis of Thematic Mapper Simulator data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types in southwest Oregon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types based on vegetative cover characteristics is addressed in this research. A methodology for accomplishing this evaluation utilizing univariate and multivariate techniques is presented. TMS data acquired with a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral scanner were integrated with vegetation and geologic information for subsequent statistical analyses, which included a chi-square test, an analysis of variance, stepwise discriminant analysis, and Duncan's multiple range test. Results indicate that ultramafic rock types are spectrally separable from nonultramafics based on vegetative cover through the use of statistical analyses.

Morrissey, L. A.; Weinstock, K. J.; Mouat, D. A.; Card, D. H.

1984-01-01

177

EVALUATION OF LOW-SUN ILLUMINATED LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR MAPPING HYDROTHERMALLY ALTERED ROCKS IN SOUTHERN NEVADA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of southern Nevada collected under conditions of low-angle solar illumination were digitally processed to identify hydroxyl-bearing minerals commonly associated with hydrothermal alteration in volcanic terrains. Digital masking procedures were used to exclude shadow areas and vegetation and thus to produce a CRC image suitable for testing the new TM bands as a means to map hydrothermally altered rocks. Field examination of a masked CRC image revealed that several different types of altered rocks displayed hues associated with spectral characteristics common to hydroxyl-bearing minerals. Several types of unaltered rocks also displayed similar hues.

Podwysocki, Melvin, H.; Power, Marty, S.; Salisbury, Jack; Jones, O. D.

1984-01-01

178

Radiometric calibration of the reflective bands of NS001-Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and modular multispectral radiometers (MMR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator scanner (TMS) and several modular multispectral radiometers (MMRs) are among the primary instruments used in the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE). The NS001 has a continuously variable gain setting. Calibration of the NS001 data is influenced by drift in the dark current level of up to six counts during a mirror scan at typical gain settings. The MMR instruments are being used in their 1 deg FOV configuration on the helicopter and 15 deg FOV on the ground.

Markham, Brian L.; Wood, Frank M., Jr.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.

1988-01-01

179

Use of thematic mapper imagery to assess water quality, trophic state, and macrophyte distributions in Massachusetts lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the spring and summer of 1996, 1997, and 1998, measurements of phytoplankton- chlorophyll concentration, Secchi disk transparency, and color were made at 97 Massachusetts lakes within 24 hours of Landsat Thematic Mapper imaging of the lakes in an effort to assess water quality and trophic state. Spatial distributions of floating, emergent, and submerged macrophytes were mapped in 49 of the lakes at least once during the 3-year period. The maps were digitized and used to assign pixels in the thematic mapper images to one of four vegetation cover classes-open water, 1-50 percent floating-and-emergent-vegetation cover, 51-100 percent floating-and-emergent-vegetation cover, and submerged vegetation at any density. The field data were collected by teams of U.S. Geological Survey and Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management staff and by 76 volunteers. Side-by-side sampling by U.S. Geological Survey and volunteer field teams resulted in statistically similar chlorophyll determinations, Secchi disk readings, and temperature measurements, but concurrent color determinations were not similar, possibly due to contamination of sample bottles issued to the volunteers.Attempts to develop predictive relations between phytoplankton-chlorophyll concentration, Secchi disk transparency, lake color, dissolved organic carbon, and various combinations of thematic mapper bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 digital numbers were unsuccessful, primarily because of the extremely low concentrations of chlorophyll in the lakes studied, and also because of the highly variable dissolved organic carbon concentrations.Predictive relations were developed between Secchi disk transparency and phytoplankton-chlorophyll concentration, and between color and dissolved organic carbon concentration. Phytoplankton-chlorophyll concentration was inversely correlated with Secchi disk transparency during all three sampling periods. The relations were very similar in 1996 and 1997 and indicated that 62 to 67 percent of the variability in Secchi disk transparency could be explained by the chlorophyll concentration. Analysis of color and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in water samples collected by U.S. Geological Survey field teams in 1996-98 indicated that 91 percent of the variance in color in Massachusetts lakes can be explained by variations in dissolved organic carbon.Areas of open-water, submerged vegetation, and two surface-vegetation-cover classes predicted from Thematic Mapper images acquired in the summer of 1996 closely matched the areas observed in a set of field observations. However, the same analysis applied to a set of data acquired in the summer of 1997 resulted in somewhat less reliable predictions, and an attempt to predict 1996 vegetation-cover areas using the relations developed in the 1997 analysis was unsuccessful.

Waldron, Marcus C.; Steeves, Peter A.; Finn, John T.

2001-01-01

180

An evaluation of the first four LANDSAT-D thematic mapper reflective sensors for monitoring vegetation: A comparison with other satellite sensor systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first four LANDSAT-D thematic mapper sensors were evaluated and compared to: the return beam vidicon (RBV) and multispectral scanners (MSS) sensors from LANDSATS 1, 2, and 3; Colvocoresses' proposed 'operational LANDSAT' three band system; and the French SPOT three band system using simulation/intergration techniques and in situ collected spectral reflectance data. Sensors were evaluated by their ability to discriminate vegetation biomass, chlorophyll concentration, and leaf water content. The thematic mapper and SPOT bands were found to be superior in a spectral resolution context to the other three sensor systems for vegetational applications. Significant improvements are expected for most vegetational analyses from LANDSAT-D thematic mapper and SPOT imagery over MSS and RBV imagery.

Tucker, C. J.

1978-01-01

181

Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

1982-01-01

182

Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Extremadura region of western Spain, Ag, Pb, Zn, and Sn deposits occur in the pieces of late Hercynian granitic plutons and near the pluton contacts in late Proterozoic slate and metagraywacke that have been regionally metamorphosed to the green schist facies. The plutons generally are well exposed and have distinctive geomorphological expression and vegetation; poor exposures of the metasedimentary host rocks and extensive cultivation, however, make delineation of the contact aureoles difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been used to distinguish soil developed on the contact metamorphic rocks from soil formed on the stratigraphically equivalent slate-metagraywacke sequence. The mineral constituents of these soils are similar, except that muscovite is more common in the contact metamorphic soil; carbonaceous material is common in both soils. Contact metamorphic soil have lower reflectance, especially in the 1.6-micrometers wavelength region (TM 5), and weaker Al-OH, Mg-OH, and Fe3+ absorption features than do spectra of the slate-metagraywacke soil. The low-reflectance and subdued absorption features exhibited by the contact metamorphic soil spectra are attributed to the high absorption coefficient f the carbonaceous material caused by heating during emplacement of the granitic plutons. These spectral differences are evident in a TM 4/3, 4/5, 3/1 color-composite image. Initially, this image was used to outline the contact aureoles, but digital classification of the TM data was necessary for generating internally consistent maps of the distribution of the exposed contact metamorphic soil. In an August 1984, TM scene of the Caceras area, the plowed, vegetation-free fields were identified by their low TM 4/3 values. Then, ranges of TM 4/5 and 3/1 values were determine for selected plower fields within and outside the contact aureoles; TM 5 produced results similar to TM 4/5. Field evaluation, supported by X-ray diffraction and petrographic studies, confirmed the presence of more extensive aureoles than shown in published geologic maps; few misclassified areas were noted. Additional plowed fields consisting of exposed contact metamorphic soil were mapped digitally in an August 1985 TM scene. Subsequently, this approach was used to map two 1-km-wide linear zones of contact metamorphosed rock and oil in the San Nicolas-Sn-W Mine area, which is located approximated 125 km southeast of the Caceras study area. Exposures of granite in the San Nicolas area are limited to a few unaltered granitic dikes in the mine and a small exposure of unaltered pegmatite-bearing granite in a quarry about 1.5 km west of the mine. The present of coarsely crystalline biotite and beryl in the granite in the quarry and of contact metamorphosed slate up to 2.5 km from the nearest granite exposure suggest that only the apical part of a pluton is exposed in the quarry and that a larger, shallowly buried body is probably present. These results indicate that potential application of TM image analysis to mineral exploration in lithologically similar areas that are cultivated in spite of poor rock exposures.

Rowan, L. C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D. W.; Kingston, M. J.; Payas, A.

1987-01-01

183

Multi-Temporal Land Cover Analysis in the Mid-Willamette Basin, Oregon: Assessment of Riparian Forest Canopy Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11,500 sq. mi. Willamette Basin is home to 70% of Oregon’s population and is associated with an extensive post-settlement history of land cover modification. Existing assessments estimate that between 30 and 44% of riparian zones have been subject to anthropogenic disturbances, which in turn have negatively impacted TMDL levels for temperature and sediment loading (Oregon DEQ, 2009). As such, riparian forest restoration is cited as one of the primary management objectives needed to improve habitat quality. This study involves a regional multi-temporal land cover analysis utilizing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery and supervised image classification to document changes in canopy cover (Landsat acquisition years 2000 and 2009). The rectangular study site is oriented north-south and extends from Yamhill to Eugene, occupying a 3,133 sq. mi. footprint that captures the dynamic landuse interface between urban centers, lowland riparian habitats, and Oregon Coast Range forests. Landsat 5 TM data for the study site were acquired via the USGS Global Visualization Viewer with multispectral imagery including 6 reflected bands suited for quantifying broad-scale land cover regimes, including vegetation. Classification training sites for water, forest, and agricultural land-cover categories were selected to accurately represent within-class spectral variability. A supervised classification scheme was employed to compare training signatures against the six reflective bands in each image year. A maximum likelihood algorithm was utilized to delineate land-cover classes with overlapping spectral signatures. Other processing techniques included radiometric normalization of brightness values, and derivation of NDVI and Tasseled Cap vegetative indices. Final classification accuracy was assessed by randomly assigning 100 spatially distributed point samples per class and comparing each to available ground truth. Two distinct landuse domains were delineated within the study area and separately analyzed to provide increased classification accuracy. The Oregon Coast Range domain, characterized by steeper slopes and timber management, transitions into a lower-gradient valley-agriculture subregion. Preliminary land-cover analyses reveal a 6% and 2.5% decline in canopy cover for the Coast Range and valley-agriculture domains, respectively. Results from this study have implications for monitoring riparian vegetation, which is essential for healthy streams and native fish habitats. This remote sensing survey produces regional land cover information suited for a wide spectrum of applications, including land management, landscape metric analyses and watershed planning.

Stanley, R. J.; Taylor, S. B.

2010-12-01

184

Results of 17 Independent Geopositional Accuracy Assessments of Earth Satellite Corporation's GeoCover Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery. Geopositional Accuracy Validation of Orthorectified Landsat TM Imagery: Northeast Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides results of an independent assessment of the geopositional accuracy of the Earth Satellite (EarthSat) Corporation's GeoCover, Orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over Northeast Asia. This imagery was purchased through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program.

Smith, Charles M.

2003-01-01

185

The use of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery for analysing lithology and structure of Korucu-Dug` la area in western Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Korucu-Dugla study area ( 225km ) located in western Turkey was selected for the application of Landsat Thematic Mapper ( TM) data to geological studies. A wide variety of image processing techniques including; principal component analysis ( PC) intensity-saturation-hue transformation ( ISH), TM band ratios, and edge enhancement were applied to discriminate the lithologies and structure as well as

S. S. Nalbant; Ö. Alptekln

1995-01-01

186

AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1997 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)  

EPA Science Inventory

High-Resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del Medio Ambiente y el Bes...

187

Evaluation of Thematic Mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration. [Ontario, Canada; Cement, Oklahoma; and Death Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role data from the first three LANDSAT satellites have in geologic exploration and their current level of acceptance is reviewed and the advantages of LANDSAT 4 TM data over MSS data are discussed. Specially enhanced Thematic Mapper imager can make a very significant contribution to the oil and gas and mineral exploration industries. The TM's increased spatial resolution enables the production of larger scale imagery, which greatly increases the amount of geomorphic and structural information interpretable. TM's greater spectral resolution, combined with the smaller, more homogeneous pixels, should enable a far greater confidence in mapping lithologies and detecting geobotanical anomalies from space. The results from its applications to hydrocarbon and mineral exploration promise to bring the majority of the geologic exploration community into that final stage of acceptance and routine application of the satellite data.

Everett, J. R.; Sheffield, C.; Dykstra, J.

1985-01-01

188

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques. [south carolina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A literature review on radar and spectral band information was conducted and a NC-130 mission was flown carrying the NS001 scanner system which basically corresponds to the channel configuration of the proposed thematic mapper. Aerial photography and other reference data were obtained for the study site, an area approximately 290 sq miles in north central South Carolina. A cover type map was prepared and methods were devised for reformatting and geometrically correcting MSS CRT data. Arrangements were made to obtain LANDSAT data for dates approximating the NC-130 mission. Because of the waveband employed to obtain SEASAT radar data, it was decided to determine if X-band (2.40 cm to 3.75 cm wavelength) imagery is available.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

189

Application of the Tasseled Cap concept to simulated thematic mapper data. [transformation for MSS crop and soil imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper signal counts in the six reflective bands (i.e., excluding the thermal band) are simulated using field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of a variety of crops, crop conditions, and soil types. The Dave atmospheric model and prelaunch sensor characteristics comprise the other components of the simulation. The simulated data are found to occupy essentially three dimensions, two of which are equivalent to the MSS Tasseled Cap Greennes and Brightness features, and a third which is substantially influenced by the mid-infrared bands of the TM. This new dimension is primarily related to soil characteristics, including soil moisture. The nature and characteristics of each dimension are discussed, as are some of the expected information gains (over MSS data) resulting from the additional dimensionality of the data.

Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

1984-01-01

190

An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper data for the classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Anderson, J. E.; Brannon, D. P.; Hill, C. L.

1982-01-01

191

Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

Podwysocki, M. H.; Ehmann, W. J.; Brickey, D. W.

1987-01-01

192

Improvement in absolute calibration accuracy of Landsat-5 TM with Landsat-7 ETM+ data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ability to detect and quantify changes in the Earth's environment depends on satellites sensors that can provide calibrated, consistent measurements of Earth's surface features through time. A critical step in this process is to put image data from subsequent generations of sensors onto a common radiometric scale. To evaluate Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper's (TM) utility in this role, image pairs from the L5 TM and Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors were compared. This approach involves comparison of surface observations based on image statistics from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. The results indicate a significant improvement in the consistency of L5 TM data with respect to L7 ETM+ data, achieved using a revised Look-Up-Table (LUT) procedure as opposed to the historical Internal Calibrator (IC) procedure previously used in the L5 TM product generation system. The average percent difference in reflectance estimates obtained from the L5 TM agree with those from the L7 ETM+ in the Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) bands to within four percent and in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands to within six percent.

Chander, G.; Markham, B. L.; Micijevic, E.; Teillet, P. M.; Helder, D. L.

2005-01-01

193

25 Years of Landsat 5  

NASA Video Gallery

Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

194

Processing multi temporal Thematic Mapper data for mapping the submarine shelf of the Island Kerkennah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gulf of Gabes in Tunisia is unique among Mediterranean coastal environments by shallow water extension and tide amplitude. Kerkennah islands, located in this this gulf, are characterized by a -10 m isobath few kilometers away from the shoreline and by a lithology composition dominated by smooth rocks (sandstone and mio-plocene clay). These features, combined with a sea level rise and an active subsidence, constitute major risk factors. Islands vulnerability is increased by sebkha (salted low lands) extension which accounts now for 45% of the total area. Thus assessing the littoral sea depth change is a key issue for risk monitoring. Our study relies on the 30 years archive of Landsat 5 TM sensor managed by GSFC/NASA. The depth assessment has been carried out by an empiric method based on TM1 channel which has the better water penetration properties (up to 25 m). We focused on summer period and selected images from July 1986, August 1987, June 2003 and July 2009. After a first step of data preprocessing to ensure data homogeneity, we produced sub-aquatic morphology change maps. The observed features (submarine channels enlargement, cells sinking) are consistent with the hypothesis of the ebb tide as the process leading phenomenon.

Katlane, Rim; Berges, Jean-Claude; Beltrando, Gérard; Zargouni, Fouad

2014-05-01

195

An evaluation of simulated Thematic Mapper data and Landsat MSS data for discriminating suburban and regional land use and land cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne multispectral scanner, operating in the same spectral channels as the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), was used in a region east of Denver, CO, for a simulation test performed in the framework of using TM to discriminate the level I and level II classes. It is noted that at the 30-m spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) the overall discrimination for such classes as commercial/industrial land, rangeland, irrigated sod, irrigated alfalfa, and irrigated pasture was superior to that of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner, primarily due to four added spectral bands. For residential and other spectrally heterogeneous classes, however, the higher resolution of TMS resulted in increased variability within the class and a larger spectral overlap.

Toll, D. L.

1984-01-01

196

Three-dimensional displays for natural hazards analysis, using classified Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data and large-scale digital elevation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods are described for using Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data and digital elevation models for the display of natural hazard sites in a mountainous region of northwestern Montana, USA. Hazard zones can be easily identified on the three-dimensional images. Proximity of facilities such as highways and building locations to hazard sites can also be easily displayed. A temporal sequence of Landsat TM (or similar) satellite data sets could also be used to display landscape changes associated with dynamic natural hazard processes.

Butler, David R.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Brown, Daniel G.

1991-01-01

197

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supervised and cluster block training statistics were used to analyze the thematic mapper simulation MSS data (both 1979 and 1980 data sets). Cover information classes identified on SAR imagery include: hardwood, pine, mixed pine hardwood, clearcut, pasture, crops, emergent crops, bare soil, urban, and water. Preliminary analysis of the HH and HV polarized SAR data indicate a high variance associated with each information class except for water and bare soil. The large variance for most spectral classes suggests that while the means might be statistically separable, an overlap may exist between the classes which could introduce a significant classification error. The quantitative values of many cover types are much larger on the HV polarization than on the HH, thereby indicating the relative nature of the digitized data values. The mean values of the spectral classes in the areas with larger look angles are greater than the means of the same cover type in other areas having steeper look angles. Difficulty in accurately overlaying the dual polarization of the SAR data was resolved.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

1981-01-01

198

The use of thematic mapper data for land cover discrimination: Preliminary results from the UK SATMaP programme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal objectives of the UK SATMaP program are to determine thematic mapper (TM) performance with particular reference to spatial resolution properties and geometric characteristics of the data. So far, analysis is restricted to images from the U.S. and concentrates on spectra and radiometric properties. The results indicate that the data are inherently three dimensional compared with the two dimensional character of MSS data. Preliminary classification results indicate the importance of the near infrared band (TM 4), at least one middle infrared band (TM 5 or TM 6) and at least one of the visible bands (preferably either TM 3 or TM 1). The thermal infrared also appears to have discriminatory ability despite its coarser spatial resolution. For band 4 the forward and reverse scans show somewhat different spectral responses in one scene but this effect is absent in the other analyzed. From examination of the histograms it would appear that the full 8-bit quantization is not being effectively utilized for all the bands.

Jackson, M. J.; Baker, J. R.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Gayler, J. E.; Hardy, J. R.

1983-01-01

199

Estimating the age of deciduous forests in northeast China with Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data acquired in different phenological seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the ability of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data acquired in leaf-on and leaf-off seasons to estimate stand age of Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla in northeast China. The relationships of six band reflectances, nine vegetation indices, and six texture measures with stand age were examined. Linear and multivariable regression models and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN) were employed to estimate forest age based on these variables. The results indicate that reflectance in short-wave infrared bands and wetness are more significantly correlated with stand age in the leaf-on image, while reflectance in blue and green bands and greenness are more sensitive to stand age in leaf-off image. The MLP NN model can be effectively used to retrieve the stand age; the highest coefficient of determination and minimum root mean square error values of retrieved age are 0.47 and 21.3 years for Larix gmelinii, and 0.60 and 10.1 years for Betula platyphylla, respectively. The predicted age errors increased significantly when stand ages were >100 and >50 years for Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla, respectively. Remote sensing data acquired in the leaf-on season is more suitable for estimating forest age than that acquired in the leaf-off season over the study area.

Li, Dengqiu; Ju, Weimin; Fan, Wenyi; Gu, Zhujun

2014-01-01

200

The use of Thematic Mapper data for land cover discrimination: Preliminary results from the UK SATMaP programme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal objectives of the UK SATMaP program are to determine thematic mapper (TM) performance with particular reference to spatial resolution properties and geometric characteristics of the data. So far, analysis is restricted to images from the U.S. and concentrates on spectra and radiometric properties. The results indicate that the data are inherently three dimensional compared with the two dimensional character of MSS data. Preliminary classification results indicate the importance of the near infrared band (TM 4), at least one middle infrared band (TM 5 or TM 6) and at least one of the visible bands (preferably either TM 3 or TM 1). The thermal infrared also appears to have discriminatory ability despite its coarser spatial resolution. For band 4 the forward and reverse scans show somewhat different spectral responses in one scene but this effect is absent in the other analyzed. From examination of the histograms it would appear that the full 8 bit quantization is not being effectively utilized for all the bands.

Jackson, M. J.; Baker, J. R.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Gayler, J. E.; Hardy, J. R.

1985-01-01

201

Analysis of thematic mapper simulator data acquired during winter season over Pearl River, Mississippi, test site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital processed aircraft-acquired thematic mapping simulator (TMS) data collected during the winter season over a forested site in southern Mississippi are presented to investigate the utility of TMS data for use in forest inventories and monitoring. Analyses indicated that TMS data are capable of delineating the mixed forest land cover type to an accuracy of 92.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct, respectively. The figures reflect the performance for products produced using the best subset of channels for each forest cover type. It was found that the choice of channels (subsets) has a significant effect on the accuracy of classification produced, and that the same channels are not the most desirable for all three forest types studied. Both supervised and unsupervised spectral signature development techniques are evaluated; the unsupervised methods proved unacceptable for the three forest types considered.

Anderson, J. E.; Kalcic, M. T. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

202

Land cover stratification using Landsat Thematic Mapper data in Sahelian and Sudanian woodland and wooded grassland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A standard methodology for thematic mapping of natural vegetation using remotely sensed imagery and digital image processing was modified to account for the spatial and spectral properties of semi-arid landscapes, and tested in study areas in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones, Mali. A principal components transformation of registered wet and dry season Landsat TM images produced a set of synthetic spectral channels differentiating vegetation cover between seasons, and allowed areas with annual grass growth to be distinguished from areas with woody cover. The transformed data were statistically clustered and clusters were assigned to vegetation type and density categories. In a separate step, the images were manually interpreted to differentiate broad soil classes. Four statistics were compared to evaluate the accuracy of the maps based on sample points from air photos. For the relatively detailed categories initially defined, map accuracies were substandard; however, when vegetation density classes were aggregated, overall accuracy was around 90 percent, and class accuracy was greater than 80 percent for most classes. This method is suitable for stratification and inventory of woody biomass at a regional scale in semi-arid woodland and wooded grassland.

Franklin, J.

1991-01-01

203

Monitoring the recovery of Juncus roemerianus marsh burns with the normalized difference vegetation index and Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nine atmospherically corrected Landsat Thematic Mapper images were used to generate mean normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) at 11 burn sites throughout a coastal Juncus roemerianus marsh in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Time-since-burn, the time lapse from the date of burn to the date of image collection, was related to variation in mean NDVI over time. Regression analysis showed that NDVI increased for about 300 to 400 days immediately after the burn, overshooting the typical mean NDVI of a nonburned marsh. For about another 500 to 600 days NDVI decreased until reaching a nearly constant NDVI of about 0.40. During the phase of increasing NDVI the ability to predict time-since-burn was within about ??60 days. Within the decreasing phase this dropped to about ??88 days. Examination of each burn site revealed some nonburn related influences on NDVI (e.g., seasonality). Normalization of burn NDVI by site-specific nonburn control NDVI eliminated most influences. However, differential responses at the site-specific level remained related to either storm impacts or secondary burning. At these sites, collateral data helped clarify the abnormal changes in NDVI. Accounting for these abnormalities, site-specific burn recovery trends could be broadly standardized into four general phases: Phase 1-preburn, Phase 2-initial recovery (increasing NDVI), Phase 3-late recovery (decreasing NDVI), and Phase 4-final coalescence (unchanging NDVI). Phase 2 tended to last about 300 to 500 days, Phase 3 an additional 500 to 600 days, and finally reaching Phase 4, 900 to 1,000 days after burn.

Ramsey, III, E. W.; Sapkota, S. K.; Barnes, F. G.; Nelson, G. A.

2002-01-01

204

BIA interpretation techniques for vegetation mapping using thematic mapper false color composites (interim report for San Carlos Reservation)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is responsible for the natural resource management of approximately 52 million acres of Trust lands in the contiguous United States. The lands are distributed in a "patchwork" fashion throughout the country. Management responsibilities on these areas include: minerals, range, timber, fish and wildlife, agricultural, cultural, and archaeological resources. In an age of decreasing natural resources and increasing natural resource values, effective multiple resource management is critical. BIA has adopted a "systems approach" to natural resource management which utilizes Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. The GIS encompasses a continuum of spatial and relational data elements, and included functional capabilities such as: data collection, data entry, data base development, data analysis, data base management, display, and report generalization. In support of database development activities, BIA and BLM/TGS conducted a cooperative effort to investigate the potential of 1:100,000 scale Thematic Mapper (TM) False Color Composites (FCCs) for providing vegetation information suitable for input to the GIS and to later be incorporated as a generalized Bureau wide land cover map. Land cover information is critical as the majority of reservations currently have no land cover information in either map or digital form. This poster outlines an approach which includes the manual interpretation of land cover using TM FCCs, the digitizing of interpreted polygons, and the editing of digital data, used upon ground truthing exercises. An efficient and cost-effective methodology for generating large area land cover information is illustrated for the Mineral Strip area on the San Carlos Indian Reservation in Arizona. Techniques which capitalize on the knowledge of the local natural resources professionals, while minimizing machine processing requirements, are suggested.

Bonner, W. J.; English, T. C.; Haas, R. H.; Feagan, T. R.; McKinley, R. A.

1987-01-01

205

Comparison of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare images from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor on Landsat-7 and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument on Earth Observing One (EO-1) over a test site in Rochester, New York. The site contains a variety of features, ranging from water of varying depths, deciduous/coniferous forest, and grass fields, to urban areas. Nearly coincident cloud-free images were collected one minute apart on 25 August 2001. We also compare images of a forest site near Howland, Maine, that were collected on 7 September, 2001. We atmospherically corrected each pair of images with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) atmosphere model, using aerosol optical thickness and water vapor column density measured by in situ Cimel sun photometers within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), along with ozone density derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Earth Probe satellite. We present true-color composites from each instrument that show excellent qualitative agreement between the multispectral sensors, along with grey-scale images that demonstrate a significantly improved ALI panchromatic band. We quantitatively compare ALI and ETM+ reflectance spectra of a grassy field in Rochester and find < or equal to 6% differences in the visible/near infrared and approx. 2% differences in the short wave infrared. Spectral comparisons of forest sites in Rochester and Howland yield similar percentage agreement except for band 1, which has very low reflectance. Principal component analyses and comparison of normalized difference vegetation index histograms for each sensor indicate that the ALI is able to reproduce the information content in the ETM+ but with superior signal-to-noise performance due to its increased 12-bit quantization.

Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Smith, James A.

2004-01-01

206

Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A stochastic spatial computer model addressing coastal resource problems in Lousiana is being refined and validated using thematic mapper (TM) imagery. The TM images of brackish marsh sites were processed and data were tabulated on spatial parameters from TM images of the salt marsh sites. The Fisheries Image Processing Systems (FIPS) was used to analyze the TM scene. Activities were concentrated on improving the structure of the model and developing a structure and methodology for calibrating the model with spatial-pattern data from the TM imagery.

Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson, Jr.; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

1987-01-01

207

Utilizing remote sensing of Thematic Mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT thematic mapper (TM) data are being used to refine and validate a stochastic spatial computer model to be applied to coastal resource management problems in Louisiana. Two major aspects of the research are: (1) the measurement of area of land (or emergent vegetation) and water and the length of the interface between land and water in TM imagery of selected coastal wetlands (sample marshes); and (2) the comparison of spatial patterns of land and water in the sample marshes of the imagery to that in marshes simulated by a computer model. In addition to activities in these two areas, the potential use of a published autocorrelation statistic is analyzed.

Browder, J. A.; May, L. N., Jr.; Rosenthal, A.; Baumann, R. H.; Gosselink, J. G.

1986-01-01

208

LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix A: Partially processed thematic mapper High Density Tape (HDT-AT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the outputs of the data management system being developed to provide a variety of standard image products from the thematic mapper and the multispectral band scanners on LANDSAT 4, is the partially processed TM data (radiometric corrections applied and geometric correction matrices for two projections appended) which is recorded on a 28-track high density tape. Specifications are presented for the format of the recorded data as well as for the time code and the major and minor frames of the tape. Major frame types, formats, and field definitions are included.

Jai, A.

1982-01-01

209

Spatial and seasonal variations along the U.S.-Mexico border: An analysis with Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in global ecology has been concerned with the effect of vegetation removal in semi-arid regions including aspects such as plant succession and desertification and its impact on global change, specifically global warming. In addition, conditions along international borders often are presented as discontinuities in terms of vegetation and soil status. To better document these discontinuities in a semi-arid region, a multi-temporal study along the U.S.-Mexico border was conducted with a series of six Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images acquired over the 1992 growing season. Spatial and temporal variations across the border were analyzed with reflectance data. Spatial data was obtained from three different sampling size areas which included: the Parker Canyon grassland; the San Rafael Valley, a grassland combined with riparian areas and croplands; and the regional area along the Arizona-Sonora border including valleys and mountains, and diverse vegetation communities and soil conditions. These areas consisted of about 106 ha, 5,800 ha, and 738,000 ha, respectively, at each side of the border. Temporal data were obtained from the six TM images which were acquired in days of the year 162, 178, 194, 274, 306, and 322. Four remote sensing applications were considered for comparison studies on both sides of the border. These techniques included: (a) band comparisons, (b) albedo, derived from the discrete sensor band information, (c) vegetation indices, and (d) application of a linear mixing model. When comparing both sides of the border, significant differences were observed in most of the remote sensing techniques applied at the Parker Canyon area. Higher differences were found during the wet season with all of the applied techniques with the exception of albedo. The red band and albedo were the most important discriminants during the dry season. At the intermediate size, San Rafael Valley area, U.S.-Mexico differences followed the same pattern as Parker Canyon, but statistically, these differences were deemed insignificant. At the regional area, no differences were observed between the U.S. and Mexican side. The effect of pixel aggregation using the different remote sensing techniques and ground data from field campaigns in 1995 were also analyzed.

de Lira Reyes, Gerardo

1997-12-01

210

Water quality assessment with simultaneous Landsat-5 TM data at Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

This study aims at determining relationships between water quality parameters and digital data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). The study area was the Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected on two dates, coincident with Landsat passages, and when different tide conditions were present at the Bay. TM Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, band ratios 1 / 3 and 2 / 3, and principal component analysis of TM Bands 1-4 were compared with in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of water samples. Some water quality parameters were very well correlated with the digital remotely sensed data, especially during high tide: for instance, iron and manganese concentrations in total suspended solids; salinity and Secchi depth; temperature and Secchi depth; temperature and total suspended solids; total suspended solids and Bands 4 and 6; Secchi depth and Bands 4 and 6; temperature and Band 6. Lower correlation coefficients, although also significant, were found for the low tide condition. No correlation was found with chlorophyll-a concentrations. TM data were shown to be adequate to analyze temperature, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, and iron and manganese contents in the total suspended solids for the polluted estuary area studied.

Braga, C.Z.F.; Setzer, A.W. (National Inst. of Space Research, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)); Lacerda, L.D. de (Federal Fluminense Univ., Niteroi (Brazil))

1993-06-01

211

Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The land-water interface of coastal marshes may influence the production of estuarine-dependent fisheries more than the area of these marshes. To test this hypothesis, a spatial model was created to explore the dynamic relationship between marshland-water interface and level of disintegration in the decaying coastal marshes of Louisiana's Barataria, Terrebonne, and Timbalier basins. Calibrating the model with Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery, a parabolic relationship was found between land-water interface and marsh disintegration. Aggregated simulation data suggest that interface in the study area will soon reach its maximum and then decline. A statistically significant positive linear relationship was found between brown shrimp catch and total interface length over the past 28 years. This relationship suggests that shrimp yields will decline when interface declines, possibly beginning about 1995.

Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

1988-01-01

212

[Retrieval of leaf area index of moso bamboo forest with Landsat Thematic Mapper image based on PROSAIL canopy radiative transfer model].  

PubMed

The PROSAIL canopy radiative transfer model was used to establish leaf area index (LAI) and canopy reflectance lookup-table for Moso bamboo forest. The combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image and this model was then used to retrieve LAI. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity of the input parameters in the PROSAIL model decreased in order of LAI >chlorophyll content (C(ab)) > leaf structure parameters (N) > mean leaf angle (ALA) > equivalent water thickness (C(w)) > dry matter content (C(m)). The most sensitive factors LAI and C(ab) were then used to construct the LAI-canopy reflectance lookup-table. The LAI estimates from the PROSAIL model had good agreement with the reference data, with the coefficient of determination (R2) reached 0.90. The root mean square error (RMSE) and relative RMSE were 0.58 and 13.0%, respectively. However, the mean LAI estimate was higher than the observed value. PMID:24380345

Gu, Cheng-yan; Du, Hua-qiang; Zhou, Guo-mo; Han, Ning; Xu, Xiao-jun; Zhao, Xiao; Sun, Xiao-yan

2013-08-01

213

Preliminary assessment of airborne imaging spectrometer and airborne thematic mapper data acquired for forest decline areas in the Federal Republic of Germany  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study evaluated the utility of data collected by the high-spectral resolution airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS-2, tree mode, spectral range 0.8-2.2 microns) and the broad-band Daedalus airborne thematic mapper (ATM, spectral range 0.42-13.0 micron) in assessing forest decline damage at a predominantly Scotch pine forest in the FRG. Analysis of spectral radiance values from the ATM and raw digital number values from AIS-2 showed that higher reflectance in the near infrared was characteristic of high damage (heavy chlorosis, limited needle loss) in Scotch pine canopies. A classification image of a portion of the AIS-2 flight line agreed very well with a damage assessment map produced by standard aerial photointerpretation techniques.

Herrmann, Karin; Ammer, Ulrich; Rock, Barrett; Paley, Helen N.

1988-01-01

214

Analysis of Thematic Mapper data for studying the suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper data were analyzed with respect to its capability for mapping the complex structure and dynamics of suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea). Three independent pieces of information were found by factor analysis of all seven TM channels: suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature. For the required atmospheric correction, the signal-to-noise ratios of Channels 5 and 7 have to be improved by averaging over 25 x 25 pixels, which also makes it possible to monitor the aerosol optical depth and aerosol type over cloud-free water surfaces. Near-surface suspended matter concentrations may be detected with an accuracy of factor less than 2 by using an algorithm derived from radiative transfer model calculation. The patchiness of suspended matter and its relation to underwater topography was analyzed with autocorrelation and cross-correlation.

Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Stoessel, M.; Brockmann, C.; Grassl, H.

1989-01-01

215

Thematic mapper research in the earth sciences: Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe River Estuary, German Bight and Tidal Flats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Thematic Mapper (TM) field experiment was followed by a data analysis to determine TM capabilities for analysis of suspended matter and phytoplankton. Factor analysis showed that suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature can be retrieved as independent factors which determine the variation in the TM data over water areas. Spectral channels in the near infrared open the possibility of determining the Angstrom exponent better than for the coastal zone color scanner. The suspended matter distribution may then be calculated by the absolute radiance of channel 2 or 3 or the ratio of both. There is no indication of whether separation of chlorophyll is possible. The distribution of suspended matter and sea surface temperature can be observed with the expected fine structure. A good correlation between water depth and suspended matter distribution as found from ship data can now be analyzed for an entire area by the synoptic view of the TM scenes.

Grassl, H.; Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Brockmann, C.; Stoessel, M.

1987-01-01

216

A procedure for radiometric recalibration of Landsat 5 TM reflective-band data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to the internal calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time, causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20%. In May 2003, the L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) were updated to use a lifetime lookup-table (LUT) gain model to radiometrically calibrate TM data instead of using scene-specific IC gains. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. The L5 TM data processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work-order report that was included in the original standard data product delivery is available. However, if users do not have the original work-order report, the IC trends can be used for recalibration. The IC trends were generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database. This paper provides the details of the recalibration procedure for the following: 1) data processed using IC where users have the work-order file; 2) data processed using IC where users do not have the work-order file; 3) data processed using prelaunch calibration parameters; and 4) data processed using the previous version of the LUT (e.g., LUT03) that was released before April 2, 2007.

Chander, G.; Haque, M. O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J. A.

2010-01-01

217

Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continuing disintegration of the coastal marshes of Louisiana is one of the major environmental problems of the nation. The problem of marsh loss in Louisiana is relevant to fishery management because Louisiana leads the nation in landings of fishery products, and most of the landed species are dependent upon estuaries and their associated tidal marshes. In evaluating the potential effect of marshland loss on fisheries, the first two critical factors to consider are: whether land-water interface in actual disintegrating marshes is currently increasing or decreasing, and the magnitude of the change. In the present study, LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering specific marshes in coastal Louisiana were used to test conclusions from the Browder et al (1984) model with regard to the stage in disintegration at which maximum interface occurs; to further explore the relationship between maximum interface and the pattern of distribution of land and water suggested by the model; and to determine the direction and degree of change in land-water interface in relation to land loss in actual marshes.

Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson, Jr.; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

1988-01-01

218

Image-based terrain modeling with thematic mapper applied to resolving the limit of Holocene Lake expansion in the Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scanner records reflected solar energy from the earth's surface in six wavelength regions, or bands, and one band that records emitted energy in the thermal region, giving a total of seven bands. Useful research was extracted about terrain morphometry from remote sensing measurements and this information is used in an image-based terrain model for selected coastal geomorphic features in the Great Salt Lake Desert (GSLD). Technical developments include the incorporation of Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) data in satellite image analysis, and the production and use of 3-D surface plots of TM reflectance data. Also included in the technical developments is the analysis of the ground control point spatial distribution and its affects on geometric correction, and the terrain mapping procedure; using satellite data in a way that eliminates the need to degrade the data by resampling. The most common approach for terrain mapping with multispectral scanner data includes the techniques of pattern recognition and image classification, as opposed to direct measurement of radiance for identification of terrain features. The research approach in this investigation was based on an understanding of the characteristics of reflected light resulting from the variations in moisture and geometry related to terrain as described by the physical laws of radiative transfer. The image-based terrain model provides quantitative information about the terrain morphometry based on the physical relationship between TM data, the physical character of the GSLD, and the APTS measurements.

Merola, John A.

1989-01-01

219

Utilizing remote sensing of Thematic Mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the project is to refine and validate a probabilistic spatial computer model through the analyses of thematic mapper imagery. The model is designed to determine how the interface between marshland and water changes as marshland is converted to water in a disintegrating marsh. Coastal marshland in Louisiana is disintegrating at the rate of approximately 40 sq mi a year, and an evaluation of the potential impact of this loss on the landings of estuarine-dependent fisheries is needed by fisheries managers. Understanding how marshland-water interface changes as coastal marshland is lost is essential to the process of evaluating fisheries effects, because several studies suggest that the production of estuarine-dependent fish and shellfish may be more closely related to the interface between marshland and water than to acreage of marshland. The need to address this practical problem has provided an opportunity to apply some scientifically interesting new techniques to the analyses of satellite imagery. Progress with the development of these techniques is the subject of this report.

Browder, J. A. (principal investigator); Rosenthal, A.; May, L. N., Jr.; Bauman, R. H.; Gosselink, J. G.

1985-01-01

220

Remote detection of canopy water stress in coniferous forests using the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator and the thermal infrared multispectral scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water stress was induced in two coniferous forest stands in West Germany by severing tree sapwood. Leaf water potential, Psi(L), measurements indicated that maximum, naturally occurring levels of water stress developed in the stressed plots while control plots exhibited natural diurnal trends. Images of each site were obtained with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) 12 to 15 days after stress induction. NS001 bands 2 to 6, NS001 indices combining bands 4 and 6, and NS001 and TIMS thermal bands showed significant radiance differences between stressed and control plots when large differences in Psi(L) and relative water content (RWC) existed during the morning overflights at Munich. However, the NS001 and TIMS sensors could not detect the slightly smaller differences in Psi(L) and RWC during the Munich afternoon and Frankfurt overflights. The results suggest that routine detection of canopy water stress under operational conditions is difficult utilizing current sensor technology.

Pierce, Lars L.; Running, Steven W.; Riggs, George A.

1990-01-01

221

Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower generation, dredging, forestry, agriculture, channel alteration, diking, bank stabilization and floodplain development, have dramatically altered both the type and distribution of habitats along the Columbia River Estuary (CRE) and its floodplain. Along the Columbia River, tidally influenced habitats occur from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of 230 km. If we are to effectively manage the natural resources of the Columbia River ecosystem, there is a need to understand how habitats have changed because fish and wildlife populations are known to respond to changes in habitat quality and distribution. The goal of this study was to measure the amount and type of change of CRE land cover from 1992 to 2000. We performed a change analysis on two spatial data sets describing land cover along the lower portion of the estuary (Fig. 1). The 1992 data set was created by the NOAA Coastal Remote Sensing, Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) in cooperation with Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Point Adams Field Station, and State of Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR). The 2000 data set was produced by Earth Design Consultants, Inc. (EDC) and the Wetland Ecosystem Team (WET: University of Washington) as part of a larger Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) habitat mapping study. Although the image classification methodologies used to create the data sets differed, both data sets were produced by classifying Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery, making it feasible to assess land cover changes between 1992 and 2000.

Garono, Ralph; Anderson, Becci; Robinson, Rob

2003-10-01

222

Feasibility of sea ice typing with synthetic aperture radar (SAR): Merging of Landsat thematic mapper and ERS 1 SAR satellite imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS) 1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) images were acquired for the same area in the Beaufort Sea, April 16 and 18, 1992. The two image pairs were colocated to the same grid (25-m resolution), and a supervised ice type classification was performed on the TM images in order to classify ice free, nilas, gray ice, gray-white ice, thin first-year ice, medium and thick first-year ice, and old ice. Comparison of the collocated SAR pixels showed that ice-free areas can only be classified under calm wind conditions (less than 3 m/s) and for surface winds greater than 10 m/s based on the backscattering coefficient alone. This is true for pack ice regions during the cold months of the year where ice-free areas are spatially limited and where the capillary waves that cause SAR backscatter are dampened by entrained ice crystals. For nilas, two distinct backscatter classes were found at -17 dB and at -10 dB. The higher backscattering coefficient is attributed to the presence of frost flowers on light nilas. Gray and gray-white ice have a backscatter signature similar to first-year ice and therefore cannot be distinguished by SAR alone. First-year and old ice can be clearly separated based on their backscattering coefficient. The performance of the Geophysical Processor System ice classifier was tested against the Landsat derived ice products. It was found that smooth first-year ice and rough first-year ice were not significantly different in the backscatter domain. Ice concentration estimates based on ERS 1 C band SAR showed an error range of 5 to 8% for high ice concentration regions, mainly due to misclassified ice-free and smooth first-year ice areas. This error is expected to increase for areas of lower ice concentration. The combination of C band SAR and TM channels 2, 4, and 6 resulted in ice typing performance with an estimated accuracy of 90% for all seven ice classes.

Steffen, Konrad; Heinrichs, John

1994-01-01

223

Performance of the GPS package on Landsat-5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat-5 spacecraft, launched in March 1984, carries an experimental Global Positioning System Package (GPSPAC) as did Landsat-4 in 1982. The primary objective of this experiment was to characterize and improve the performance of GPSPAC as an onboard navigation tool. In order to validate the accuracy of GPSPAC orbit solutions, definitive Landsat-5 ephemerides, derived from ground based tracking data, were generated and compared with GPSPAC estimates. This paper presents the results of such analysis as well as a summary of GPSPAC operation on Landsat-5. A description of the Landsat-5 spacecraft, GPSPAC and its navigation algorithms are also included.

Heuberger, H.

1984-01-01

224

Land cover/use classification of Cairns, Queensland, Australia: A remote sensing study involving the conjunctive use of the airborne imaging spectrometer, the large format camera and the thematic mapper simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an attempt to improve the land cover/use classification accuracy obtainable from remotely sensed multispectral imagery, Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) images were analyzed in conjunction with Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) Large Format Camera color infrared photography and black and white aerial photography. Specific portions of the combined data set were registered and used for classification. Following this procedure, the resulting derived data was tested using an overall accuracy assessment method. Precise photogrammetric 2D-3D-2D geometric modeling techniques is not the basis for this study. Instead, the discussion exposes resultant spectral findings from the image-to-image registrations. Problems associated with the AIS-1 TMS integration are considered, and useful applications of the imagery combination are presented. More advanced methodologies for imagery integration are needed if multisystem data sets are to be utilized fully. Nevertheless, research, described herein, provides a formulation for future Earth Observation Station related multisensor studies.

Heric, Matthew; Cox, William; Gordon, Daniel K.

1987-01-01

225

Thematic Mapper spectral dimensionality and data structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulated LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS data set, representing three crops over three growing seasons and a wide variety of soil types, was used to evaluate the structure of TM data and to compare its characteristics to those of MSS data. TM bands 2, 3, and 4, transformed to tasseled cap-like coordinates, provide an equivalent data space to MSS tasseled cap data, with greater dynamic range and no apparent loss of information resulting from the exclusion of the 0.9 to 1.1 micron region. Data from the six reflective TM bands (excluding the thermal band) primarily occupy two planes and a transition zone between them. The plane of vegetation is comparable to the MSS tasseled cap plane, while the plane of soils and transition zone provide a new dimension of information unavailable from the MSS. This added dimension offers promise of improved ability to determine the relative mix of vegetation and soil in the sensor field of view and to estimate soil moisture status. The improvement in spectral characteristics of the TM over the MSS, not to mention the greater spatial resolution, have resulted in a significant increase in the information content of the data.

Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

1985-01-01

226

Selecting band combinations with thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem arises in making color composite images because there are 210 different possible color presentations of TM three-band images. A method is given for reducing that 210 to a single choice, decided by the statistics of a scene or subscene, and taking into full account any correlations that exist between different bands. Instead of using total variance as the measure for information content of the band triplets, the ellipsoid of maximum volume is selected which discourages selection of bands with high correlation. The band triplet is obtained by computing and ranking in order the determinants of each 3 x 3 principal submatrix of the original matrix M. After selection of the best triplet, the assignment of colors is made by using the actual variances (the diagonal elements of M): green (maximum variance), red (second largest variance), blue (smallest variance).

Sheffield, C. A.

1983-01-01

227

In-flight validation and recovery of water surface temperature with Landsat-5 thermal infrared data using an automated high-altitude lake validation site at Lake Tahoe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The absolute radiometric accuracy of the thermal infrared band (B6) of the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument on the Landsat-5 (L5) satellite was assessed over a period of approximately four years using data from the Lake Tahoe automated validation site (California-Nevada). The Lake Tahoe site was established in July 1999, and measurements of the skin and bulk temperature have been made approximately every 2 min from four permanently moored buoys since mid-1999. Assessment involved using a radiative transfer model to propagate surface skin temperature measurements made at the time of the L5 overpass to predict the at-sensor radiance. The predicted radiance was then convolved with the L5B6 system response function to obtain the predicted L5B6 radiance, which was then compared with the radiance measured by L5B6. Twenty-four cloud-free scenes acquired between 1999 and 2003 were used in the analysis with scene temperatures ranging between 4??C and 22??C. The results indicate LSB6 had a radiance bias of 2.5% (1.6??C) in late 1999, which gradually decreased to 0.8% (0.5??C) in mid-2002. Since that time, the bias has remained positive (predicted minus measured) and between 0.3% (0.2??C) and 1.4% (0.9??C). The cause for the cold bias (L5 radiances are lower than expected) is unresolved, but likely related to changes in instrument temperature associated with changes in instrument usage. The in situ data were then used to develop algorithms to recover the skin and bulk temperature of the water by regressing the L5B6 radiance and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) total column water data to either the skin or bulk temperature. Use of the NCEP data provides an alternative approach to the split-window approach used with instruments that have two thermal infrared bands. The results indicate the surface skin and bulk temperature can be recovered with a standard error of 0.6??C. This error is larger than errors obtained with other instruments due, in part, to the calibration bias. L5 provides the only long-duration high spatial resolution thermal infrared measurements of the land surface. If these data are to be used effectively in studies designed to monitor change, it is essential to continue to monitor instrument performance in-flight and develop quantitative algorithms for recovering surface temperature.

Hook, S. J.; Chander, G.; Barsi, J. A.; Alley, R. E.; Abtahi, A.; Palluconi, F. D.; Markham, B. L.; Richards, R. C.; Schladow, S. G.; Helder, D. L.

2004-01-01

228

LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 Multispectral Scanner Coherent Noise Characterization and Removal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is described for characterizing the coherent noise found in LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data and a companion technique for filtering out the coherent noise. The techniques are demonstrated on LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data sets, and explanations of the noise pattern are suggested in Appendix C. A cookbook procedure for characterizing and filtering the coherent noise using special NASA/Goddard IDIMS functions is included. Also presented are analysis results from the retrofitted LANDSAT-5 MSS sensor, which shows that the coherent noise has been substantially reduced.

Tilton, James C.; Alford, William L.

1988-01-01

229

Thematic Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 articles presented in this issue of a journal on giftedness in school-age children focus on interdisciplinary thematic instruction for gifted students. "Untangling the Web of Interdisciplinary Instruction" (Susan L. Beibelman and Sandy Hall-Chiles) explains the use of a curriculum webbing model to provide structure. "Interdisciplinary…

Swartz, Eileen, Ed.

1991-01-01

230

Estimating Population Size of Pygoscelid Penguins from TM (Thematic Mapping) Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An estimate was made toward a continent wide population of penguins. The results indicate that Thematic Mapper data can be used to identify penguin rookeries due to the unique reflectance properties of guano. Strong correlations exist between nesting popu...

C. E. Olson M. R. Schwaller P. A. Dahmer

1987-01-01

231

An Integrated Method to Generate a Cloud-Free Image Automatically Based on Landsat5 Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to remove cloud and shadow completely through several (more than 2) images is considered in this paper. Based on landsat5 data, when enter several images, it can automatically find one image with the least cloud and shadow as the base image. Then mosaic with other images which are taken in different time for the same area, an image without

Ying-zhao Ma; Wei-li Jiao; Gui-zhou Wang; Teng-fei Long; Wei Wang

2010-01-01

232

Magnetic field mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field mapper locates imperfections in cadmium sulphide solar cells by detecting and displaying the variations of the normal component of the magnetic field resulting from current density variations. It can also inspect for nonuniformities in other electrically conductive materials.

Masters, R. M.; Stenger, F. J.

1969-01-01

233

Monitoring of a rice field using landsat-5 TM and landsat-7 ETM+ data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the research on the application of the multi temporal data acquired with Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ to monitoring of rice field the following features are clarified Two vegetation indices NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Extended Vegetation Index) obtained from Landsat-5 TM data of 7 July 2000 and that from Landsat-7 ETM+ data of 6 July 2000 show almost the same feature proving the validity of calibration of both sensors. NDVI computed from satellite data increases corresponding to the growth of rice plants until the flowering stage while EVI further continues to increase until the fructification stage. The vegetation indices computed from the in situ survey data with a portable multispectral radiometer do not coincide with those computed from satellite data. This is because that the reflectance of the background such as soil and water is included in the satellite data.

Oguro, Y.; Suga, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Ogawa, H.; Tsuchiya, K.

2003-12-01

234

Retrieved actual ET using SEBS model from Landsat-5 TM data for irrigation area of Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of ground-based evapotranspiration (ET) is of the most interesting for land-atmosphere interactions, such as water-saving irrigation, the performance of irrigation systems, crop water deficit, drought mitigation strategies and accurate initialization of climate prediction models especially in arid and semiarid catchments where water shortage is a critical problem. The recent year's drought in Australia and concerns about climate change has prominent the need to manage water resources more sustainably especially in the Murrumbidgee catchment which utilizes bulk water for food security and production. This paper discusses the application of a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model based on Landsat-5 TM data and field observations has been used and tested for deriving ET over Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA), located in the southwest of NSW, Australia. 16 Landsat-5 TM scenes were selected covering the time period of 2009, 2010 and 2011 for estimating the actual ET in CIA. To do the validation the used methodology, the ground-measured ET was compared to the Landsat-5 TM retrieved actual ET results for CIA. The derived ET value over CIA is much closer to the field measurement. From the remote sensing results and observations, the root mean square error (RMSE) is 0.74 and the mean APD is 7.5%. The derived satellite remote sensing values belong to reasonable range.

Ma, Weiqiang; Hafeez, Mohsin; Rabbani, Umair; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Ma, Yaoming

2012-11-01

235

Mapper user's manual  

SciTech Connect

MAPPER is a front-end program for DISSPLA from Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This Manual is a copy of LASL Program Library Write-Up J5AJ which has been revised to be consistent with the version of MAPPER installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. MAPPER is an easy-to-learn program designed to make report-quality visual aids. The user with no previous programming experience can produce presentation slides, graphs, charts, tables, and maps on both color and black and white 35-mm microfilm, Tektronix terminals, and Versatec, Applicon and CalComp plotters. MAPPER can also be used to make 35- and 16-mm color or black and white movies. MAPPER reads English language based command files that the user has generated. An interactive editor, MAPEDIT, allows Tektronix users to add features on the scope and to have the additions automatically added to the command file. A Tektronix Graphics Tablet can be used to generate MAPPER command files directly via TABLET. MAPPER can draw boxes, circles, ellipses, and complex line segments in a wide variety of line format characteristics. There are six types of label commands and twelve lettering styles to cover the spectrum of labeling requirements. Label options include manual sizing and locations, two forms of automatic sizing and location, flexible string control, label rotation, justification control, and multiple line capabilities. The user has a choice of color control through the use of different commands, and special features permit selective shading of specific areas. Symbols may be defined, located, scaled, distorted, and shaded as desired. Axes, curves and error bars may be drawn. Additional features include various logos, skipping, multilevel rotating projection ports, contouring, three types of file subroutining, movie generating commands, and FORTRAN support capabilities.

Clark, B.A.; Fischer, K.N.; Nestor, C.W.; Penny, S.K.; Dahl, D.A.

1983-11-01

236

Analysis of nonlinear internal waves observed by Landsat thematic mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we test the compatibility between the theoretical parameters of a nonlinear wave model and the quantitative information that one can deduce from satellite-derived data. The theoretical parameters are obtained by applying an inverse problem to the solution of the Cauchy problem for the Korteweg-de Vries equation. Our results are applied to the case of internal wave patterns

V. Artale; D. Levi; S. Marullo; R. Santoleri

1990-01-01

237

Use of Thematic Mapper for water quality assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation of simulated TM data obtained on an ER-2 aircraft at twenty-five predesignated sample sites for mapping water quality factors such as conductivity, pH, suspended solids, turbidity, temperature, and depth, is discussed. Using a multiple regression for the seven TM bands, an equation is developed for the suspended solids. TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 are used with logarithm conductivity in a multiple regression. The assessment of regression equations for a high coefficient of determination (R-squared) and statistical significance is considered. Confidence intervals about the mean regression point are calculated in order to assess the robustness of the regressions used for mapping conductivity, turbidity, and suspended solids, and by regressing random subsamples of sites and comparing the resultant range of R-squared, cross validation is conducted.

Horn, E. M.; Morrissey, L. A.

1984-01-01

238

In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an absolute manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM collections over White Sands, New Mexico. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels of the in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined. Tables show values for the reflectance of snow at White Sands measured by a modular 8 channel radiometer, and values for exoatmospheric irradiance within the TM passbands, calculated for the Earth-Sun distance using a solar radiometer.

Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

1983-01-01

239

In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

1984-01-01

240

A preliminary analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper radiometric performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product, and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product of a TM scene were analyzed examine the frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band. The analyses were performed on a series of image subsets from the full scence. Results are presented from one 1024 c 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. From this cursory examination of one of the first seven channel TM data sets, it would appear that the radiometric performance of the system is most satisfactory and largely meets pre-launch specifications. Problems were noted with Band 5 Detector 3 and Band 2 Detector 4. Differences were observed between forward and reverse scan detector responses both for the BT and AT products. No systematic variations were observed between odd and even detectors.

Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

1985-01-01

241

Estimation of properties of alpine snow from Landsat Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the basis of a simulation of a range of snow types and various atmospheric profiles in a variety of possible illumination conditions, it has proven possible to develop typical spectral signatures above the atmosphere over mountainous terrain. Landsat TM data of the southern Sierra Nevada are presently analyzed to distinguish several classes of snow from other surface covers. It is found that snow can be reliably mapped at all sun angles encountered in the midlatitudes, and that large surface grain sizes can be distinguished from areas where the grain size is finer at the snow surface.

Dozier, Jeff

1989-01-01

242

WATERSHED CHARACTERIZATION USING LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY: BLACKFOOT RIVER, MT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a portion of a large regional project undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and water quality authorities in the States of Montana, Idaho, and Washington to identify and analyze factors which are affecting water quality in the Lake Pend Ore...

243

Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results obtained for the absolute calibration of TM bands 2, 3, and 4 are presented. The results are based on TM image data collected simultaneously with ground and atmospheric data at White Sands, New Mexico. Also discussed are the results of a moments analysis to determine the equivalent bandpasses, effective central wavelengths and normalized responses of the TM and MSS spectral bands; the calibration of the BaSO, plate used at White Sands; and future plans.

Slater, P. N. (principal investigator); Palmer, J. M.

1983-01-01

244

Preliminary evaluation of Thematic Mapper image data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements in the ability to monitor renewable resources/vegegation due to improvements in the spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of TM data were evaluated. Results presented from the first 4 months of analysis presented include: (1) geometric performance; (2) band-to-band registration; (3) modulation transfer function; and (4) crop separabililty performance. Crop separability in Webster County, Iowa and in Mississippi County, Arkansas as determined by cluster and principal components analyses is assessed.

Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Pitts, D. E.; Bizzell, R. M.; Yao, S.; Sorensen, C.; Reyna, E.; Carnes, J.

1985-01-01

245

Geologic Exploration: The Contribution of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major advantages of the TM data over that of MSS systems are increased spatial resolution and a greater number of narrow, strategically placed spectral bands. The 30 meter pixel size permits finer definition of ground features and improves reliability...

J. R. Everett J. D. Dykstra C. A. Sheffield

1983-01-01

246

Response of Thematic Mapper bands to plant water stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in leaf reflectance as water content decreases have been hypothesized to occur in the 1.55-1.75 and 2.08-2.35 micron wavelength regions. To evaluate this hypothesis, studies were conducted on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and oats (Avena sativa L.), which were grown in a controlled, outdoor situation. Both fully-watered control beds and water-stressed beds were periodically examined with a spectroradiometer calibrated against a reflectance reference of polytetrafluoroethylene. The observed changes correspond to those predicted by stochastic leaf models employed by other investigators (leaf reflection increases in the 1.55-1.75 micron region as leaf water content decreases). Although the percentage changes in TM bands 1-3 are nearly as great as those found in TM bands 5 and 7, the absolute values of reflectance change are much lower. It is believed that these patterns are probably characteristic of a broad range of vegetation types. In terms of phenomena detection, these patterns should be considered in any practical remote sensing sensor scenario.

Cibula, W. G.; Zetka, E. F.; Rickman, D. L.

1992-01-01

247

Copernicus - Lunar Surface Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th Century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements

Shaun D. Anderson; Frank J. Redd

1993-01-01

248

Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements

Frank J. Redd; Shaun D. Anderson

1992-01-01

249

Venus mapper resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA program managers for the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) mission have decided to make improvements to the spacecraft's Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system that will increase its mapping resolution by one and a half times over the original design. The changes, including a doubling of the system's range bandwidth, will add a total of about $5 million to a project

Tony Reichhardt

1984-01-01

250

Determinação da temperatura instantânea da superfície terrestre da cidade de Maceió- Al, com base em imagens TM - Landsat 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The considered work esteem, by means of data of multispectral images of the Landsat 5 - TM, the surface temperature surface of the city of Maceió relating them with the urban mesh. The city of Maceió, in last the 30 years, it had its intensified areal growth, that is, the substitution of green areas for a built urban zone, modifying

Taciana Lima Araujo

251

Metodologia Para a Confeccao de Mapas Tematicos Utilizando Dados T.M.-LANDSAT (Methodology for the Elaboration of Thematic Maps Utilizing LANDSAT-TM Data).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology for the elaboration of thematic maps for military use in the scale of 1:100,000 is developed. Techniques of digital processing and visual analysis of remote sensing images were used. The thematic mapper sensor of the LANDSAT Satellite was em...

L. A. Deandrade

1986-01-01

252

Copernicus - Lunar Surface Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th Century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep'. Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earthased receiving system.

Anderson, Shaun D.; Redd, Frank J.

1993-02-01

253

Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

254

Scannerless terrain mapper  

SciTech Connect

NASA-Ames Research Center, in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, is developing a Scannerless Terrain Mapper (STM) for autonomous vehicle guidance through the use of virtual reality. The STM sensor is based on an innovative imaging optical radar technology that is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The sensor uses active flood-light scene illumination and an image intensified CCD camera receiver to rapidly produce and record very high quality range imagery of observed scenes. The STM is an all solid-state device (containing no moving parts) and offers significant size, performance, reliability, simplicity, and affordability advantages over other types of 3-D sensor technologies, such as scanned laser radar, stereo vision, and structured lighting. The sensor is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is very well suited for affordable application to a wide variety of military and commercial uses, including: munition guidance, target recognition, robotic vision, automated inspection, driver enhanced vision, collision avoidance, site security and monitoring, and facility surveying. This paper reviews the sensor technology, discusses NASA`s terrain mapping applications, and presents results from the initial testing of the sensor at NASA`s planetary landscape simulator.

Sackos, J.; Bradley, B.; Diegert, C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, P.; Gary, C. [NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

1996-09-01

255

Hurricane Sandy Storm Tide Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

United States Geological Survey (USGS) provides real-time map-based information from USGS storm tide sensors. The data is reflected on the Hurricane Sandy Tide Mapper. The mapper provides location information, site photos and data for storm tide and inland flooding. In addition, the data from these sensors is used to create models of the precise time the storm-tide arrived, how ocean and inland water levels changed during the storm, the depth of the storm-tide throughout the event, and how long it took for the water to recede.

256

National Wetlands Inventory Online Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) online mapper displays current geospatially referenced information on the status, extent, characteristics and functions of wetland, riparian, deepwater and related aquatic habitats for the lower 48 States, Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Saipan. Users may zoom or pan to the desired area and view availability information for map scales either less than or greater than 1:100,000, and access wetland polygons, metadata and scans, or historic wetlands information. Other layers include cities and towns, roads and highways, zip code boundaries, U.S. Geological Survey map index outlines, and others. A tutorial on how to use the mapper is provided.

257

ICOS Atmospheric Thematic Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICOS is a recently-launched, world-class research infrastructure dedicated to the monitoring and improved understanding of carbon sources and sinks. It consists of complementary, harmonized networks of long-term ecosystem monitoring stations focusing on Europe and adjacent regions. The ICOS networks will comprise about 40 operational atmospheric stations (measuring atmospheric composition in greenhouse gases and other core parameters), 30 ecosystem stations (measuring fluxes from ecosystems) and about 10 oceanic measurement platforms. The networks will be coordinated through a set of central facilities: three Thematic centres respectively for atmospheric, ecosystem and ocean data, and a Central analytical lab. The mission of the thematic centres are to process, validate and distribute data to end-users. ICOS will also set up a Carbon portal dedicated to easy discovery of and access to data and elaborated products such as flux maps by end users.The Atmospheric Thematic Center (ATC) has three main functions: Operate the atmospheric data processing chains, going from data transmission from stations to the routine delivery of quality checked data-stream Carry out regular measurement technology survey, analysis and enable development of new sensors and their testing Monitor the network and propose spare instruments, training, and technical assistance.

Rivier, Leonard; Hazan, Lynn; Tarniewicz, Jerome; Laurent, Olivier; Yver, Camille; Laurila, Tuomas; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Ramonet, Michel; Ciais, Philippe

2014-05-01

258

MAPPING SPATIAL THEMATIC ACCURACY WITH FUZZY SETS  

EPA Science Inventory

Thematic map accuracy is not spatially homogenous but variable across a landscape. Properly analyzing and representing spatial pattern and degree of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable information for using thematic maps. However, current thematic map accuracy measures (...

259

Methods for destriping Landsat Thematic Mapper images - A feasibility study for an online destriping process in the Thematic Mapper Image Processing System (TIPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for destriping TM images and results of the application of these methods to selected TM scenes with sensor and scan striping, which was not removed by the radiometric correction during the TM Archive Generation Phase in TIPS, are presented. These methods correct only for gain and offset differences between detectors over many image lines and do not consider within-line effects. The feasibility of implementing a destriping process online in TIPS is also described.

Poros, D. J.; Peterson, C. J.

1985-01-01

260

Area-normalized thematic views  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel technique for dealing with a classic problem that frequently arises in visualization. Very expressive nonlinear transformations can be automatically generated to correct thematic maps so that the areas of map regions are proportional to the thematic variables assigned to them. This helps to eliminate one of the most commonly occurring visual lies that occurs in information visualization. Thematic variables are commonly used in cartography to encode additional information within the spatial layout of a map. Common examples of thematic variables are population density, pollution level and birth rate. The method is illustrated with two examples, mapping interstate speed limits and presidential election results.

Keahey, T.A.

1998-10-01

261

Using thematic analysis in psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different

Virginia Braun; Victoria Clarke

2006-01-01

262

Empirical models for estimating the suspended sediment concentration in Amazonian white water rivers using Landsat 5/TM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended sediment yield is a very important environmental indicator within Amazonian fluvial systems, especially for rivers dominated by inorganic particles, referred to as white water rivers. For vast portions of Amazonian rivers, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is measured infrequently or not at all. However, remote sensing techniques have been used to estimate water quality parameters worldwide, from which data for suspended matter is the most successfully retrieved. This paper presents empirical models for SSC retrieval in Amazonian white water rivers using reflectance data derived from Landsat 5/TM. The models use multiple regression for both the entire dataset (global model, N = 504) and for five segmented datasets (regional models) defined by general geological features of drainage basins. The models use VNIR bands, band ratios, and the SWIR band 5 as input. For the global model, the adjusted R2 is 0.76, while the adjusted R2 values for regional models vary from 0.77 to 0.89, all significant (p-value < 0.0001). The regional models are subject to the leave-one-out cross validation technique, which presents robust results. The findings show that both the average error of estimation and the standard deviation increase as the SSC range increases. Regional models were more accurate when compared with the global model, suggesting changes in optical proprieties of water sampled at different sampling stations. Results confirm the potential for the estimation of SSC from Landsat/TM historical series data for the 1980s and 1990s, for which the in situ database is scarce. Such estimates supplement the SSC temporal series, providing a more comprehensive SSC temporal series which may show environmental dynamics yet unknown.

Montanher, Otávio C.; Novo, Evlyn M. L. M.; Barbosa, Cláudio C. F.; Rennó, Camilo D.; Silva, Thiago S. F.

2014-06-01

263

Automatic Spectral Rule-Based Preliminary Mapping of Calibrated Landsat TM and ETM+ Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on purely spectral-domain prior knowledge taken from the remote sensing (RS) literature, an original spectral (fuzzy) rule-based per-pixel classifier is proposed. Requiring no training and supervision to run, the proposed spectral rule-based system is suitable for the preliminary classification (primal sketch, in the Marr sense) of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images calibrated into planetary

Andrea Baraldi; V. Puzzolo; P. Blonda; L. Bruzzone; C. Tarantino

2006-01-01

264

Landsat Thematic Mapper studies of land cover spatial variability related to hydrology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Past accomplishments involving remote sensing based land-cover analysis for hydrologic applications are reviewed. Ongoing research in exploiting the increased spatial, radiometric, and spectral capabilities afforded by the TM on Landsats 4 and 5 is considered. Specific studies to compare MSS and TM for urbanizing watersheds, wetlands, and floodplain mapping situations show that only a modest improvement in classification accuracy is achieved via statistical per pixel multispectral classifiers. The limitations of current approaches to multispectral classification are illustrated. The objectives, background, and progress in the development of an alternative analysis approach for defining inputs to urban hydrologic models using TM are discussed.

Wharton, S.; Ormsby, J.; Salomonson, V.; Mulligan, P.

1984-01-01

265

Chlorophyll-a estimation in New Jersey's coastal waters using Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication, or enrichment, of the natural water in New Jersey's coastal waters has an adverse impact on the economic welfare of the state. Since shipboard sampling is not cost-effective for providing data on coastal'estuarine water processes and materials, satellite remote sensing, with its synoptic and repetitive coverage, is used to obtain some of the data for eutrophication-related water quality analysis.

Sima Bagheri; Rose A. Dios

1990-01-01

266

Selection of a seventh spectral band for the LANDSAT-D thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Each of the candidate bands were examined in terms of the feasibility of gathering high quality imagery from space while taking into account solar illumination, atmospheric attenuation, and the signal/noise ratio achievable within the TM sensor constraints. For the 2.2 micron region and the thermal IR region, inband signal values were calculated from representative spectral reflectance/emittance curves and a linear discriminant analysis was employed to predict classification accuracies. Based upon the substantial improvement (from 78 t0 92%) in discriminating zones of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered zones, over a broad range of observation conditions, a 2.08-2.35 micron spectral band having a ground resolution of 30 meters was recommended.

Holmes, Q. A. (principal investigator); Nuesch, D. R.

1978-01-01

267

Mapping deforestation and secondary growth in Rondonia, Brazil, using imaging radar and thematic mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excellent data on deforestation have been obtained in the tropics with the use of high-resolution optical sensors. Yet, several problems remain. Cloud cover creates data gaps that limit the possibility of complete and frequent assessments, and secondary growth is not well characterized. Active microwave sensors could complement these sensors because they operate independently of cloud cover and smoke and can

Eric Rignot; William A. Salas; David L. Skole

1997-01-01

268

Evaluation of the radiometric integrity of LANDSAT4 Thematic Mapper band 6 data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for experimentally evaluating the radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT-4 band 6 data is described which draws on a method used to radiometrically calibrate the HCMR data which involved underflying the satellite with an infrared line scanner. By extending this technology to higher altitudes experimental radiance data suitable for radiometric calibration of the TM band 6 sensor can be

J. R. Schott

1984-01-01

269

Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system. [White Sands, New Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The newly built Caste spectropolarimeters gave satisfactory performance during tests in the solar radiometer and helicopter modes. A bandwidth normalization technique based on analysis of the moments of the spectral responsivity curves was used to analyze the spectral bands of the MSS and TM subsystems of LANDSAT 4 and 5 satellites. Results include the effective wavelength, the bandpass, the wavelength limits, and the normalized responsivity for each spectral channel. Temperature coefficients for TM PF channel 6 were also derived. The moments normalization method used yields sensor parameters whose derivation is independent of source characteristics (i.e., incident solar spectral irradiance, atmospheric transmittance, or ground reflectance). The errors expected using these parameters are lower than those expected using other normalization methods.

Palmer, J. M. (principal investigator); Slater, P. N.

1984-01-01

270

Investigations of Thematic Mapper data dimensionality and features using field spectrometer data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat-4 TM and MSS data, simulated from field reflectance spectra, are used to determine the dimensionality and structure of TM data (excluding the thermal band), demonstrate the relationships between the two sensors, and derive a Tasseled Cap Transformation for TM data. The simulated TM data are found to primarily occupy three dimensions, and to be concentrated into two adjoining and orthogonal planes and a transition zone between the two. The 'Plane of Vegetation' is shown to be comparable to the MSS Tasseled Cap plane, while the 'Plane of Soils' represents new information. The potential for improved spectral estimation of the relative mix of vegegation and soil in the field of view, and for improved monitoring of soil moisture status, is demonstrated.

Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

1984-01-01

271

Estimating the leaf area index of North Central Wisconsin forests using the landsat thematic mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf area index (LAI) is an extremely important structural characteristic of vegetation because it is directly related to the exchange of energy, CO2 and mass from plant canopies at a variety of scales. Research investigating the relationship between forest LAI and satellite data for hardwood and mixed conifer-hardwood forests is lacking, however. The objective of this study was to explore

Karin S. Fassnacht; Stith T. Gower; Mark D. MacKenzie; Erik V. Nordheim; Thomas M. Lillesand

1997-01-01

272

Understanding and Utilization of Thematic Mapper and Other Remotely Sensed Data for Vegetation Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The TM Tasseled Cap transformation, which provides both a 50% reduction in data volume with little or no loss of important information and spectral features with direct physical association, is presented and discussed. Using both simulated and actual TM d...

E. P. Crist R. C. Cicone M. D. Metzler T. M. Parris D. P. Rice

1983-01-01

273

Investigations of Vegetation and Soils Information Contained in LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extension of the TM tasseled cap transformation to reflectance factor data is presented, and the basic concepts underlying the tasseled cap transformations are described. The ratio of TM bands 5 and 7, and TM tasseled cap wetness, are both shown to off...

E. Crist R. Laurin J. E. Colwell R. J. Kauth

1984-01-01

274

A Physically-Based Transformation of Thematic Mapper Data---The TM Tasseled Cap  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an extension of previous simulation studies, a transformation of actual TM data in the six reflective bands is described which achieves three objectives: a fundamental view of TM data structures is presented, the vast majority of data variability is concentrated in a few (three) features, and the defined features can be directly associated with physical scene characteristics. The underlying

Eric P. Crist; Richard C. Cicone

1984-01-01

275

Response to soil moisture of spectral indexes derived from bidirectional reflectance in Thematic Mapper wavebands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory reflectance measurements of 10 soils were used to determine the relationship between soil moisture and three spectral indices: the TM5/7 ratio and the Wetness(R) and Brightness(R) features of the reflectance factor TM Tasseled Cap transformation. Response of the indices to dry mass water percentage was approximately linear for individual soils, except for Wetness(R) and Brightness(R) at high moisture content. Soil differences in the slopes of the Wetness(R)- and Brightness(R)-moisture content relationships were almost entirely eliminated by expressing water content as the percentage of water retained at 0.1 bar (10 kPa) tension (relative water content). The resultant soil lines were offset from one another by the differences in dry soil index value. Slope of the TM5/7 response was not completely normalized by expressing moisture status as relative water content, because slope appeared to vary with dry soil ratio value. Sensitivity to the effects of illumination angle was negligible for the TM5/7 ratio, somewhat greater for Wetness(R) and greatest for Brightness(R).

Musick, H. Brad; Pelletier, Ramona E.

1988-01-01

276

Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An information theoretic measure of multispectral information content is developed and applied to a simultaneous LANDSAT TM and MSS data set. The entropy based function measures the dispersion and concentration of signal values in various data spaces, irrespective of specific class memberships. It is used to compare the information content of TM and MSS and of various subsets of TM and MSS bans, as well as tasseled cap transformations of the band values. Differences exist between the information measure results and results using variance based measures. System design information capacities and data space volumes are also compared. The results and observations presented are considered preliminary in nature since only one real and one simulated data set are analyzed.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

277

A physically-based transformation of Thematic Mapper data The TM tasseled cap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an extension of previous simulation studies, a transformation of actual TM data in the six reflective bands is described which achieves three objectives: a fundamental view of TM data structures is presented, the vast majority of data variability is concentrated in a few (three) features, and the defined features can be directly associated with physical scene characteristics. The underlying TM data structure, based on three TM scenes as well as simulated data, is described, as are the general spectral characteristics of agricultural crops and other scene classes in the transformed data space.

Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

1984-01-01

278

Effectiveness of Subpixel Analysis in Detecting and Quantifying Urban Imperviousness from Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantification of urban imperviousness using remotely sensed spectral data is next to impossible unless a spectral fraction of impervious components in an urban pixel can be detected. In this research, a multiple?signature subpixel analysis technique coupled with a layered classification approach was developed to map urban imperviousness of each pixel of an urban scene into eight 10?percent levels. The

Minhe Ji; John R. Jensen

1999-01-01

279

Knowledge-based crop classification of a Landsat Thematic Mapper image  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge-based classification method was designed to improve crop classification accuracy. Crop data of preceding years, stored in a geographical information system (GIS) were used as ancillary data. Knowledge about crop succession, determined from crop rotation schemes, was formalized by means of transition matrices. The spectral data, the data from the GIS and the knowledge represented in the transition matrix

L. L. F. Janssen; H. Middelkoop

1992-01-01

280

Understanding and utilization of Thematic Mapper and other remotely sensed data for vegetation monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TM Tasseled Cap transformation, which provides both a 50% reduction in data volume with little or no loss of important information and spectral features with direct physical association, is presented and discussed. Using both simulated and actual TM data, some important characteristics of vegetation and soils in this feature space are described, as are the effects of solar elevation angle and atmospheric haze. A preliminary spectral haze diagnostic feature, based on only simulated data, is also examined. The characteristics of the TM thermal band are discussed, as is a demonstration of the use of TM data in energy balance studies. Some characteristics of AVHRR data are described, as are the sensitivities to scene content of several LANDSAT-MSS preprocessing techniques.

Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.; Metzler, M. D.; Parris, T. M.; Rice, D. P.; Sampson, R. E.

1983-01-01

281

The effect of Thematic Mapper spectral properties on land cover mapping for hydrologic modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of unsupervised land-cover classification from all seven Landsat TM bands and from six combinations of three or four bands is evaluated using images of the Clinton River Basin, a suburban watershed near Detroit. Data from aerial TMS photography, USGS topographic maps, and ground surveys are employed to determine the classification accuracy. The mapping accuracy of all seven bands is found to be significantly better (6 percent overall, 12 percent for residential areas, and 13 percent for commercial districts) than that with bands 2, 3, and 4; but almost the same accuracy is obtained by including at least one band from each major spectral region (visible, NIR, and mid-IR).

Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Gauthier, R. L.; Miller, J. R.; Irish, R. R.

1986-01-01

282

Assessment of Thematic Mapper band-to-band registration by the block correlation method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.

Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

1985-01-01

283

Assessment of Thematic Mapper band-to-band registration by the block correlation method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.

Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

1983-01-01

284

Mapping permafrost in the boreal forest with Thematic Mapper satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geographic data base incorporating Landsat TM data was used to develop and evaluate logistic discriminant functions for predicting the distribution of permafrost in a boreal forest watershed. The data base included both satellite-derived information and ancillary map data. Five permafrost classifications were developed from a stratified random sample of the data base and evaluated by comparison with a photo-interpreted permafrost map using contingency table analysis and soil temperatures recorded at sites within the watershed. A classification using a TM thermal band and a TM-derived vegetation map as independent variables yielded the highest mapping accuracy for all permafrost categories.

Morrissey, L. A.; Strong, L. L.; Card, D. H.

1986-01-01

285

Multitemporal Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data of the Hubbard Glacier region, southeast Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In late May 1986, the advancing Hubbard Glacier blocked the entrance to Russell Fiord near Yakutat, Alaska, creating a large ice-dammed lake. Runoff from the surrounding glaciated mountains raised the level of the lake to about 25 m above sea level by 8 October, when the ice dam failed. Remote sensing offers one method to monitor this large tidal glacier system, particularly the glacier activity that would portend the re-closure of Russell Fiord. -Authors

Walker, K. -M.; Zenone, C.

1988-01-01

286

Differentiating volcanic rock assemblages using Landsat Thematic Mapper data - Influence of petrochemistry and desert varnish  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted of the composition, distribution, spectral properties, and Landsat TM influences of desert varnish from three sites in southern Nevada. It is established that the TM signatures of diverse volcanic rock assemblages primarily depend on primary petrochemical characteristics. Desert varnish is found to exert a minimal influence on TM imagery at longer wavelengths, but absorbs the higher frequency radiation of TM bands 1-3, thereby leading to high TM band 5/2 values and dark contrast on 5/2 images over units with high rock-varnish albedo difference; highly evolved volcanic deposits show steep positive spectral slopes in the TM band 5-7 region.

Spatz, D. M.; Taranik, J. V.; Hsu, L. C.

1989-01-01

287

Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous characterization of scan-related low-frequency noise was extended and refined through detailed analysis of shutter calibration data on CCT-ADDS tapes and reflective-band data from nighttime acquisitions. A recommended correction procedure was identified that uses calibration shutter data both as a diagnostic and to obtain correction values. Through comparison of coincident TM and MSS data, illustrations of the added information content of TM data for agricultural applications were developed. The capability of improved spatial resolution to better define boundaries and to resolve spatial details is shown. Spectral analysis of tasseled-cap transformations of TM and MSS data shows high correlation between greenness features, greater signal range for TM, and indications that a subset of TM bands could accurately simulate MSS data, if required.

Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (principal investigators); Crist, E. P.

1983-01-01

288

Introduction to Thematic Mapper investigations. Section 1: Radiometry. Section 2: Geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of papers which deal with radiometric characterization of the TM sensor is presented. Spectral characteristics are summarized. The geometric accuracy of TM are also examined. Aspects of prelaunch and post launch sensor performance, ground processing techniques, and error correction are also investigated.

Barker, J. L.; Markham, B. L.

1984-01-01

289

Estimating net solar radiation using Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiative transfer algorithm is combined with digital elevation and satellite reflectance data to model spatial variability in net solar radiation at fine spatial resolution. The method is applied to the tall-grass prairie of the 16 × 16 km2 FIFE site (First ISLSCP Field Experiment) of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project. Spectral reflectances as measured by the Landsat

R. Dubayah

1992-01-01

290

Estimating Net Solar Radiation Using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Digital Elevation Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiative transfer algorithm is combined with digital elevation and satellite reflectance data to model spatial variability in net solar radiation at fine spatial resolution. The method is applied to the tall-grass prairie of the 16 × 16 km2 FIFE site (First ISLSCP Field Experiment) of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project. Spectral reflectances as measured by the Landsat

R. Dubayah

1992-01-01

291

Investigation of LANDSAT follow-on thematic mapper spatial, radiometric and spectral resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Fine resolution M7 multispectral scanner data collected during the Corn Blight Watch Experiment in 1971 served as the basis for this study. Different locations and times of year were studied. Definite improvement using 30-40 meter spatial resolution over present LANDSAT 1 resolution and over 50-60 meter resolution was observed, using crop area mensuration as the measure. Simulation studies carried out to extrapolate the empirical results to a range of field size distributions confirmed this effect, showing the improvement to be most pronounced for field sizes of 1-4 hectares. Radiometric sensitivity study showed significant degradation of crop classification accuracy immediately upon relaxation from the nominally specified values of 0.5% noise equivalent reflectance. This was especially the case for data which were spectrally similar such as that collected early in the growing season and also when attempting to accomplish crop stress detection.

Nalepka, R. F. (principal investigator); Morgenstern, J. P.; Kent, E. R.; Erickson, J. D.

1976-01-01

292

LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation. [San Matteo Bridge and Stockton, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of MTF analysis of imagery of the San Mateo Bridge are consistent on two TM image dates for bands 4,5, and 7. There are indications that bands 1, 2, and 3 suffer from low image contrast, and consequently low signal to noise in the derived MTFs. The two image analysis produced reasonable results along +45 deg and -45 deg azimuths in the 2-D MTF, but poor results along the 0 deg and 90 deg azimuths. The effective instantaneous field of view is given for each band, and the image contrast for water and the bridge are compared. Graphs show overall TM system MTFs.

Schowengerdt, R. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

293

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part A: Subsystem data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance and acceptance data are presented for the multiplexer, scan mirror, power supply, mainframe/top mechanical and the aft optics, assemblies. Other major subsystems evaluated include the relay optics, the electronic module, the radiative cooler, and the cable harness. Reference lists of nonconforming materials reports, failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are also given.

1982-01-01

294

Processed Thematic Mapper Satellite Imagery for Selected Areas within the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The study is summarized in the Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) file OF00-309.PDF. This publication also contain satellite full-scene images of selected areas along the U.S.-Mexico border. These images are presented as high-resolution images in jpeg format (IMAGES). The folder LOCATIONS in contains TIFF images showing exact positions of easily-identified reference locations for each of the Landsat TM scenes located at least partly within the U.S. A reference location table (BDRLOCS.DOC in MS Word format) lists the latitude and longitude of each reference location with a nominal precision of 0.001 minute of arc

Dohrenwend, John C.; Gray, Floyd; Miller, Robert J.

2000-01-01

295

A minicomputer based software system for the selection of optimal subsets of Thematic Mapper channels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software system has been developed and implemented on a minicomputer for feature selection based on two inter-dependent methods. The first is an enhancement of the traditional approach based on optimizing interclass average separabilities. The second is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of multispectral data and machine classification with subsequent estimation of classification accuracy as a function of channel subset. The two methods are mutually supportive - the first allows rapid screening whereas the second is based on the more solid theoretical foundation of maximizing classification accuracy.

Card, D. H.; Angelici, G. L.

1983-01-01

296

Discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using Thematic Mapper spectral data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The availability of high quality spectral data from the current suite of earth observation satellite systems offers significant improvements in the ability to survey and monitor food and fiber production on both a local and global basis. Current research results indicate that Landsat TM data when used in either digital or analog formats achieve higher land-cover classification accuracies than MSS data using either comparable or improved spectral bands and spatial resolution. A review of these quantitative results is presented for both natural and cultivated vegetation.

Degloria, Stephen D.; Bernstein, Ralph; Dizenzo, Silvano

1986-01-01

297

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MINING WASTE USING LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY, CHEROKEE COUNTY, KANSAS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining wastes and tailings are present throughout much of the world and United States including the Tri-State lead and zinc mining district in southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma. These wastes and tailings are often associated with heavy metals, acid mine drainage, and other physical hazards. Many tools have been utilized and proposed for the rapid inventory and characterization

Gregory S. Vandeberg

298

Integrating remote sensing techniques at Cuprite, Nevada: AVIRIS, Thematic Mapper, and field spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cuprite mining district in southwestern Nevada has become a test site for remote sensing studies with numerous airborne scanners and ground sensor data sets collected over the past fifteen years. Structurally, the Cuprite region can be divided into two areas with slightly different alteration and mineralogy. These zones lie on either side of a postulated low-angle structural discontinuity that strikes nearly parallel to US Route 95. Hydrothermal alternation at Cuprite was classified into three major zones: silicified, opalized, and argillized. These alteration types form a bulls-eye pattern east of the highway and are more linear on the west side of the highway making a striking contrast from the air and the imagery. Cuprite is therefore an ideal location for remote sensing research as it exhibits easily identified hydrothermal zoning, is relatively devoid of vegetation, and contains a distinctive spectrally diagnostic mineral suite including the ammonium feldspar buddingtonite, several types of alunite, different jarosites, illite, kaolinite, smectite, dickite, and opal. This present study brings a new dimension to these previous remote sensing and ground data sets compiled for Cuprite. The development of a higher resolution field spectrometer now provides the capability to combine extensive in-situ mineralogical data with a new geologic field survey and detailed Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images. The various data collection methods and the refinement of the integrated techniques are discussed.

Hill, Bradley; Nash, Greg; Ridd, Merrill; Hauff, Phoebe L.; Ebel, Phil

1992-01-01

299

Mapping surface energy balance components by combining Landsat Thematic Mapper and ground-based meteorological data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface energy balance components were evaluated by combining satellite-based spectral data with on-site measurements of solar irradiance, air temperature, wind speed, and vapor pressure. Maps of latent heat flux density and net radiant flux density were produced using Landsat TM data for three dates. The TM-based estimates differed from Bowen-ratio and aircraft-based estimates by less than 12 percent over mature fields of cotton, wheat, and alfalfa.

Moran, M. Susan; Jackson, Ray D.; Raymond, Lee H.; Gay, Lloyd W.; Slater, Philip N.

1989-01-01

300

Spatio-temporal contextual classification based on Markov random field model. [for thematic mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A contextural classifier based on a Markov random field model, which can utilize both spatial and temporal contexts, is investigated. Spatial and temporal neighbors are defined, and the class assignment of each pixel is assumed to be dependent only on the measurement vectors of itself and those of its spatial and temporal neighbors according to the Markov random field property. Only interpixel class dependency context is used in the classification. The joint prior probability of the classes of each pixel and its spatial and temporal neighbors are modeled by a Gibbs random field. The classification is performed in a recursive manner. Experiments with multi-temporal Thematic Mapper data show promising results.

Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

1991-01-01

301

International Monetary Fund (IMF) Data Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IMF publishes a range of time series data on IMF lending, exchange rates and other economic and financial indicators. Manuals, guides, and other material on statistical practices at the IMF, in member countries, and of the statistical community at large are also available. The data mapper allows the user to view IMF data in a variety of ways using differing indicators.

Fund, International M.

302

Applications of statistics to thematic mapping.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two statistical problems occurring in the effort to analyze thematic maps and mapping are determining the accuracy of thematic content and comparing factors studied in thematic mapping. Statistical procedures applicable to thematic mapping involve sampling, determining accuracy, and comparing factors. A sampling procedure using an unaligned pattern within a square grid network is applicable for use with thematic maps. Sample size may be determined using the binomial distribution based upon the confidence interval to define the true mean of the population within certain limits. The confidence interval may also be used to define the upper and lower limits of the accuracy of the thematic map. - from Authors

Rosenfield, G. H.; Melley, M. L.

1980-01-01

303

Freshman General Studies Thematic. 1973-.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Freshman General Studies Thematic Program (GST) at California State University, Chico was established in 1973 to create a general education program for freshmen and to give faculty the opportunity to explore innovative teaching methods. What resulted was a 33-unit, year-long interdisciplinary course for 36 well-motivated, well-prepared…

California State Univ., Chico.

304

Descriptive Writing: A Thematic Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic unit for teaching descriptive writing is organized around 10 days of lesson plans. The unit begins by asking key questions about descriptive writing and providing information on grade level, ability level, number of lessons and length of classes, and prior knowledge students should have. It also offers a unit rationale and key…

Smith, Joanna J.

305

Thematic Relations Affect Similarity Via Commonalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the rowing theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing differences. In Experiment 1, thematic relations affected similarity more than difference, thereby producing

Sabrina Golonka; Zachary Estes

2009-01-01

306

MAPPER: high-throughput maskless lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10-20 wafers per hour. By clustering several of these systems together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly

M. J. Wieland; G. de Boer; G. F. Ten Berge; M. van Kervinck; R. Jager; J. J. M. Peijster; E. Slot; S. W. H. K. Steenbrink; T. F. Teepen; B. J. Kampherbeek

2010-01-01

307

Development and Application of an Annual Vegetation-Monitoring Tool in Gishwati Forest Reserve using MODIS NDVI product and Landsat-5 and 7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the most densely populated country in Africa, Rwanda relies heavily on a limited supply of natural resources to sustain its agrarian economy. Population pressures, economic policy, and the aftermath of the genocide have placed particular stress on the Gishwati Forest in Rwanda's Western Province. Deforestation for agricultural purposes and fuel consumption has disrupted the local climate, soil structure, and topography, leading to increased erosion, landslides and flooding. Once 280 km2, by 1995 the Gishwati Forest was only 6 km2. The Rwandan government and international NGOs have started initiatives to reverse deforestation, which would benefit from monitoring and evaluation using remote sensing technology. This study filled the gaps in the tumultuous history of Gishwati Forest since 1982 using NASA's Earth Observing System, specifically Landsat 5 and AVHRR. In collaboration with partner organizations, we developed a robust, yet simple to use, forest monitoring tool employing MODIS NDVI product and Landsat that provide annual estimates of the forest's health.

Makar, N. I.; Butler, K.; Fox, T.; Geddes, Q. A.; Janse van Vuuren, L.; Li, A.; Sharma, A.

2012-12-01

308

Deforestation in Costa Rica: A Quantitative Analysis Using Remote Sensing Imagery1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimates of forest cover and forest fragmentation are critical for developing countries such as Costa Rica, which holds four to five percent of the world's plant and bird species. We estimated forest cover for Costa Rica using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite scenes acquired between 1986 and 1991. In 1991, 29 percent (ca 14,000 km2) of the land cover

G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa; Robert C. Harriss; David L. Skole

2001-01-01

309

Spatial distribution of benthic microalgae on coral reefs determined by remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the ecological role of benthic microalgae, a highly productive component of coral reef ecosystems, requires information on their spatial distribution. The spatial extent of benthic microalgae on Heron Reef (southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia) was mapped using data from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper sensor, integrated with field measurements of sediment chlorophyll concentration and reflectance. Field-measured sediment chlorophyll concentrations,

Chris M. Roelfsema; S. R. Phinn; W. Dennison

2002-01-01

310

Phycocyanin detection from LANDSAT TM data for mapping cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithms were developed from LANDSAT 7 ETM+ data for the July 1, 2000 overpass and LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for the September 27, 2000 overpass for Path 20 Row 31 (including Toledo, OH) to measure relative phycocyanin content (PC) and turbidity in the western basin of Lake Erie. Water samples were collected from discrete hydrographic stations arranged in

Robert K. Vincent; Xiaoming Qin; R. Michael L. Mckay; Jeffrey Miner; Kevin Czajkowski; Jeffrey Savino; Thomas Bridgeman

2004-01-01

311

Assessing heterogeneity from remote sensing images: the case of desertification in southern Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 10-year series of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images was used to test the hypothesis that increasing environmental heterogeneity at the landscape scale is evidence for desertification. The proposed methodology, based on spatiotemporal statistical analysis, was implemented for a study area in the innersouthern Alentejo region of Portugal. Major findings from the study include the increasing 'greenness' of vegetation patterns and

J. Seixas

2000-01-01

312

Analysis of surface radiation budget during the summer and winter in the metropolitan area of Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of surface radiation budget is a crucial step to analyze the climate effects caused by rapid urbanization. This paper reports a study of the integration of remote sensing images and ancillary data for analyzing the spatial and temporal variations of surface radiation budget in Beijing, China. Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) images and meteorological data of Beijing metropolitan area acquired

Ji Zhou; Deyong Hu; Qihao Weng

2010-01-01

313

Fuzzy Logic Merger of Spectral and Ecological Information for Improved Montane Forest Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental data are often utilized to guide interpretation of spectral information based on context, however, these are also important in deriving vegetation maps themselves, especially where ecological information can be mapped spatially. A vegetation classification procedure is presented which combines a classification of spectral data from Landsat?5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and environmental data based on topography and fire history. These

Joseph D. White; Steven W. Running; Kevin C. Ryan; Carl C. Key

2002-01-01

314

Refractive index anisotropy in optics using a birefringence mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Areal maps of optical retardance are rapidly generated for flat, transmissive optics using a new commercial birefringence mapper. The versatility and capabilities of the mapper are evaluated for a series of parts that include laser glass samples, laser damaged glass, liquid crystal devices, birefringent crystals, and polymers. Potential users may be trained to use the instrument in less than one hour.

Sternal, Jennifer; Shafrir, Shai N.; Randi, Joseph A.; Gregg, Leslie L.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

2003-05-01

315

Consistency of land surface reflectance data: presentation of a new tool and case study with Formosat-2, SPOT-4 and Landsat-5/7/8 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining consistent dataset of Surface Reflectance (SR) data derived from the large panel of in-orbit sensors is an important challenge to ensure long term analysis of earth observation data. Continuous validation of such SR products through comparison with a reference dataset is thus an important challenge. Validating with in situ or airborne SR data is not easy since the sensors rarely match completely the same spectral, spatial and directional characteristics of the satellite measurement. Inter-comparison between satellites sensors data appears as a valuable tool to maintain a long term consistency of the data. However, satellite data are acquired at various times of the day (i.e., variation of the atmosphere content) and within a relative large range of geometry (view and sun angles). Also, even if band-to-band spectral characteristics of optical sensors are closed, they rarely have identical spectral responses. As the results, direct comparisons without consideration of these differences are poorly suitable. In this study, we suggest a new systematic method to assess land optical SR data from high to medium resolution sensors. We used MODIS SR products (MO/YD09CMG) which benefit from a long term calibration/validation process, to assess SR from 3 sensors data: Formosat-2 (280 scenes 24x24km - 5 sites), SPOT-4 (62 scenes 120x60km - 1 site) and Landsat-5/7 (104 180x180km scenes - 50 sites). The main issue concerns the difference in term of geometry acquisition between MODIS and compared sensors data. We used the VJB model (Vermote et al. 2009, TGRS) to correct MODIS SR from BRDF effects and to simulate SR at the corresponding geometry (view and sun angles) of each pixel of the compared sensor data. The comparison is done at the CMG spatial resolution (0.05°) which ensures a constant field-of-view and negligible geometrical errors. Figure 1 displays the summary of the NIR results through APU graphs where metrics A, P and U stands for Accuracy, Precision and Uncertainty (metrics explained in Claverie et al., 2013, RSE) and allows comparison with standard Specifications (S in magenta). The results shows relatively good uncertainty taking into account that atmospheric correction differs from MODIS and the sensors data (LEDAPS for Landsat-5/7 and MACC for Formosat-2 and SPOT-4). Biases (referring to the metric A) are in many cases related to the spectral differences which are analyzed using PROSAIL radiative transfer modeling. Finally some images of Landsat-8 OLI SR (computed using the preliminary adaptation of LEDAPS for Landsat-8) are assessed using this method. Figure 1: APU graph of SR comparison between MODIS NIR (from AQUA) and Landsat-5/7, Formosat-2 and SPOT-4. A, P and U metrics are given per bin (red, green and blue line, respectively) and for the whole range (upper left text values). Magenta line refers to the MODIS SR Specification.

Claverie, M.; Vermote, E.; Franch, B.; Huc, M.; Hagolle, O.; Masek, J.

2013-12-01

316

Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing…

Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

2009-01-01

317

The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

2011-01-01

318

Word Order and Thematic Structure in Mandarin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent proposals concerning the relationship between thematic structure and syntactic structure, including the idea of thematic hierarchy, when used with certain language-specific properties, offer insight into some problems concerning the Mandarin Chinese phrase structure condition (PSC). The PSC is such that the internal structure of XP contains…

Yoon, James H.

319

Landsat radiometric cross-calibration: extended analysis of tandem image data sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of an extended analysis of image data sets acquired during the tandem-orbit configuration in 1999 for the purposes of radiometric cross-calibration of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors. Earlier work focused on the tandem pair for the Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada (RVPN) site to tie down the Landsat-5 TM calibration based on the more accurate Landsat-7 ETM+ calibration. This paper describes new results based on as many as eight tandem image pairs. The additional tandem images are of vegetated areas for which little or no ground reference data were available. Increasing the number of tandem pairs yielded results for the Landsat 5 TM gain coefficients within approximately +/- 1 % of the RVPN-based results in spectral bands 1, 2, 3 and 7, and within -2 % and -4 % of the RVPN-based results for spectral bands 4 and 5, respectively.

Teillet, P. M.; Markham, Brian L.; Irish, Richard R.

2005-10-01

320

The Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) mission is sponsored by NASA to put a single spacecraft in orbit around Venus to map the surface of Venus using a synthetic aperture mapping radar. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in April 1988 using a Shuttle-Centaur G combination. The spacecraft arrives at Venus in late July 1988 and begins its mapping mission which lasts for one Venus rotation or 243 days. This paper describes the VRM mission at its present state of design. The science objectives and project constraints are described. Key features of the spacecraft system and radar system are discussed. The interplanetary and mapping orbit design are covered. Navigation strategy is explained, including trajectory maneuvers and mapping phase orbit determination. Finally, the mapping sequences to optimize planet coverage are described.

Cutting, E.; Kwok, J. H.; Mohan, S. N.

1984-01-01

321

Development of image mappers for hyperspectral biomedical imaging applications  

PubMed Central

A new design and fabrication method is presented for creating large-format (>100 mirror facets) image mappers for a snapshot hyperspectral biomedical imaging system called an image mapping spectrometer (IMS). To verify this approach a 250 facet image mapper with 25 multiple-tilt angles is designed for a compact IMS that groups the 25 subpupils in a 5 × 5 matrix residing within a single collecting objective's pupil. The image mapper is fabricated by precision diamond raster fly cutting using surface-shaped tools. The individual mirror facets have minimal edge eating, tilt errors of <1 mrad, and an average roughness of 5.4 nm.

Kester, Robert T.; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

2010-01-01

322

Thematic cartography in Tigrai Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tigre Province is in northern Ethiopia between Eritrea on the north and east, and Begemdir and Wollo on the south. The area is comprised of five main physiographic units: Danakil Depression, Escarpment, Tigre and Eritrea Plateau, Semien Mountains and the Western Lowlands. The first two drain into the closed drainage basin of Dallol whilst the other three drain into the Nilo Through the Tezeke, Mareb and Barka River. Three main rock complexes build up the prospect area. The metamorphic and intrusive rocks of the Precambrian basement, the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Sediments and Tertiary Trap Volcanics, and the Young Sedimentary and Volcanic Rocks of the Danakil Depression. The only existing geological data on this area is represented by maps assembled from different sources on very large scale. Thanks to interactive computer processing, it is becoming possible to trace, on the relief as it appears on the display unit, lithological boundaries and the faults which affect them, measuring each of their geometric characteristics. Image processing coupled with pattern recognition programs has made it possible to take into consideration landscape units combining morphological, botanical and geological signatures, and more generally to quantify the morphological elements. Satellite images (Landsat TM and Spot XS) have been processed to produce thematic maps.

Marini, A.; Melis, Maria T.

1994-12-01

323

ThemeRiver: Visualizing Thematic Changes in Large Document Collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ThemeRiver visualization depicts thematic variations over time within a large collection of documents. The thematic changes are shown in the context of a time line and corresponding external events. The focus on temporal thematic change within a context framework allows a user to discern patterns that suggest relationships or trends. For example, the sudden change of thematic strength following

Susan L. Havre; Elizabeth G. Hetzler; Paul D. Whitney; Lucy T. Nowell

2002-01-01

324

Integration of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data and digitized aerial photography via an ISH transformation. [Intensity Saturation Hue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.

Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.

1991-01-01

325

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners. [Plumas County, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A seven step procedure developed for evaluating the geometric properties of MSS and TM film produces is being implemented. Some 476 control points were selected of which 238 are being tested and edited for digitization and scaling errors. Tables show statistics established for assessing the spectral characteristics and variability, as well as the spatial resolution and radiometric sensitivity of TM data for a forest environment in an effort to determine the extent to which major forest cover type can be detected and identified on TM digital and image products. Results thus far show that the high quality obtained are more than sufficient for meeting most of the inventory objectives of the renewable resource specialist. The TM data should be extremely valuable for: (1) estimating forest cover types; (2) updating land use survey maps; and (3) determining the size and shape and location of individual forest clearings and water resources.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

326

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometric quality of TM film and digital products is evaluated by making selective photomeasurements and by measuring the coordinates of known features on both the TM products and map products. These paired observations are related using a standard linear least squares regression approach. Using regression equations and coefficients developed from 225 (TM film product) and 20 (TM digital product) control points, map coordinates of test points are predicted. The residual error vectors and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed on the east and north residual using nine image segments (blocks) as treatments. Based on the root mean square error of the 223 (TM film product) and 22 (TM digital product) test points, users of TM data expect the planimetric accuracy of mapped points to be within 91 meters and within 117 meters for the film products, and to be within 12 meters and within 14 meters for the digital products.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

327

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners. [Central Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image products and numeric data were extracted from both TM and MSS data in an effort to evaluate the quality of these data for interpreting major agricultural resources and conditions in California's Central Valley. The utility of TM data appears excellent for meeting most of the inventory objectives of the agricultural resource specialist. These data should be extremely valuable for crop type and area proportion estimation, for updating agricultural land use survey maps at 1:24,000-scale and smaller, for field boundary definition, and for determining the size and location of individual farmsteads.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

328

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometric quality of the TM and MSS film products were evaluated by making selective photo measurements such as scale, linear and area determinations; and by measuring the coordinates of known features on both the film products and map products and then relating these paired observations using a standard linear least squares regression approach. Quantitative interpretation tests are described which evaluate the quality and utility of the TM film products and various band combinations for detecting and identifying important forest and agricultural features.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

329

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three types of LANDSAT 4 film products generally accessible to the user community were analyzed and attempts were made to acquire a data set consisting of a variety of TM and MSS image products for the Sacramento and San Francisco Bay Area test sites. On request, the EDC developed an interim TM analytical film by using a leaser beam recorder to produce black and white masters from which natural and false color composites were created.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

330

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training and test data sets for CAM1S from NS-001 MSS data for two dates (geometrically adjusted to 30 meter resolution) were used to evaluate wavelength band. Two sets of tapes containing digitized HH and HV polarization data were obtained. Because the SAR data on the 9 track tapes contained no meaningful data, the 7 track tapes were copied onto 9 track tapes at LARS. The LARSYS programs were modified and a program was written to reformat the digitized SAR data into a LARSYS format. The radar imagery is being qualitatively interpreted. Results are to be used to identify possible cover types, to produce a classification map to aid in the numerical evaluation classification of radar data, and to develop an interpretation key for radar imagery. The four spatial resolution data sets were analyzed. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. A flowchart of steps taken to geometrically adjust a data set from the NS-001 scanner is presented.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

331

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY FOR PRODUCTION OF NATIONAL LAND-COVER DATA (NLCD) FROM THE LANDSAT 7 THEMATIC MAPPER SATELLITE  

EPA Science Inventory

As environmental programs within and outside the federal government continue to move away from point-based studies to larger and larger spatial (not cartographic) scale, the need for land-cover and other geographic data have become ineluctable. The national land-cover mapping pr...

332

Analysis of data acquired by Shuttle Imaging Radar SIR-A and Landsat Thematic Mapper over Baldwin County, Alabama  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seasonally compatible data collected by SIR-A and by Landsat 4 TM over the lower coastal plain in Alabama were coregistered, forming a SIR-A/TM multichannel data set with 30 m x 30 m pixel size. Spectral signature plots and histogram analysis of the data were used to observe data characteristics. Radar returns from pine forest classes correlated highly with the tree ages, suggesting the potential utility of microwave remote sensing for forest biomass estimation. As compared with the TM-only data set, the use of SIR-A/TM data set improved classification accuracy of the seven land cover types studied. In addition, the SIR-A/TM classified data support previous finding by Engheta and Elachi (1982) that microwave data appear to be correlated with differing bottomland hardwood forest vegetation as associated with varying water regimens (i.e., wet versus dry).

Wu, S.-T.

1985-01-01

333

Sensitivity of the thematic mapper enhanced wetness difference index to detect mountain pine beetle red-attack damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-attack damage caused by mountain pine beetle (Dentroctonus ponderosa Hopkins) infestation in stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in the Prince George Forest Region of British Columbia was examined using multitemporal Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery acquired in 1999, 2000, and 2001. The image data were geometrically and atmospherically corrected, and processed using the Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT) to obtain wetness indices.

Robert S. Skakun; Michael A. Wulder; Steven E. Franklin

2003-01-01

334

Changes in classification accuracy due to varying Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper provides the results of a factorial experiment designed to study the classification differences resulting from varying TM and MSS sensor resolution. Eight simulated data sets of various TM and MSS spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolutions were generated on the basis of Daedalus aircraft scanner data. It is pointed out that the current study provides more precise results than previous work, because more exact methods of data simulation with regard to the three factors were emphasized. Two methods of analysis are considered in the paper. To improve on earlier studies, efforts were made to collect an extensive amount of ground reference data. The summaries of classification accuracies for the training sites in the factorial analysis are presented in a table.

Acevedo, W.; Buis, J. S.; Wrigley, R. C.

1985-01-01

335

Early results of investigations of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner applications. [Washington, D.C.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TM digital data were evaluated for their potential to provide improved land cover information. The analyses included: (1) testing for information that may be offered by the new TM spectral bands, and (2) comparing data characteristics for equivalent spectral bands of the TM and MSS sensors. The analyses were conducted on several large samples of pixels corresponding to five broad land cover classes. Some TM spectral data are presented and evaluated as single-band, black-and-white images, and in several three-band color-composite images. Some data transformations which can be used to present TM data in a manner that is potentially more useful for analysis or display are demonstrated. These transformations enable generating hue, intensity, and saturation data space from red, green, and blue color space, as well as perspective view images.

Sadowski, F. G.; Sturdevant, J. A.; Anderson, W. H.; Seevers, P. M.; Feuquay, J. W.; Balick, L. K.; Waltz, F. A.; Lauer, D. T.

1985-01-01

336

A Landsat Thematic Mapper investigation of the geobotanical relationships in the northern spruce-fir forest, Mt. Moosilauke, New Hampshire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation, in the northern spruce-fir forest at Mt. Moosilauke, NH, indicates that Landsat TM data can be used to distinguish between and map major vegetation zones. Principal components analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the TM data; and in this simpler spectral space, it is easier to visualize the discrimination between major vegetation zones: the northern hardwoods zone, spruce-fir zone, fir zone, and alpine tundra zone. The moisture stress index highlights areas of heavy forest damage (fir waves), but does not correlate with low levels of damage in the mixed, background forest at Mt. Moosilauke. Care must be taken to avoid confusion between high-elevation climatically-stressed vegetation (normal krummholz forest) and damaged lower elevation forests, both of which have similar TM5/TM4 ratio values.

Torcoletti, Paul J.; Birnie, Richard W.

1988-01-01

337

Mapping of environs of Dharavi slums of Greater Bombay for site suitability using enhanced Landsat thematic mapper (TM) imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slums are universal and a ubiquitous part of the urban landscape. Dharavi, the biggest slum in the whole of Greater Bombay,\\u000a encompasses 4.0 sq.km. of reclaimed land with 3.50 lakh inhabitants and 75,000 hutments. Majority of the slums of Indian cities,\\u000a being structurally small with high density of dwellings and uniform building material, seldom give subtle ’spectral signature’\\u000a on the

V. Raghavswamy; N. C. Gautam; J. Krishnamurthy

1989-01-01

338

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial characteristics of the data were evaluated. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. The potential need for some level of radiometric adjustment was evidenced by an along track band of high reflectance across different cover types in the Varian imagery. A multiple regression analysis was employed to explore the viewing angle effect on measured reflectance. Areas in the data set which appeared to have no across track stratification of cover type were identified. A program was developed which computed the average reflectance by column for each channel, over all of the scan lines in the designated areas. A regression analysis was then run using the first, second, and third degree polynomials, for each channel. An atmospheric effect as a component of the viewing angle source of variance is discussed. Cover type maps were completed and training and test field selection was initiated.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

339

Mapping of Fugitive Dust Generation, Transport, and Deposition in the Nogales, Arizona Region Using Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban centers located along the U.S.-Mexico border represent significant sources of fugitive (airborne) dust. This dust, which can lead to adverse health effects, arises from several factors including construction activities related to land use conversion (i.e., agricultural to residential), unpaved roadways, agricultural activities, and human disturbance of the soil. Fundamental baseline data needed for modeling and monitoring of particulate generation and transport are accurate regional classification of land cover, degree of disturbance, and a metric of land cover change. Identification and delineation of fugitive dust source regions using a purely field-based approach is time and labor intensive and can lead to errors over time as land use changes. Further, restrictions on access to specific areas (such as private lands and reservations) may impede or prevent site investigations in these areas. Remotely gathered information can be used to circumvent these difficulties and provide rapid dust source region identification with quantitative area measurements required in transport models. Landsat ETM+ data was used to identify and delineate surficial materials that were either potential fugitive dust source regions or were important factors in dust transport and deposition. Using a knowledge-based system, land cover was classified into three generalized types: natural and disturbed soils (dust generation sites); asphalt, concrete, and urban materials (dust transport areas); and vegetated areas (dust deposition sites). Accuracy of the land cover classification was assessed using field verification, comparison of field and image reflectance spectra, and digital aerial orthophotographs. Results of image classification and field verification for Landsat data acquired during the winter of 2000 show a strong correlation, and will be used with data collected during the summer dry season for change detection analysis. The digital format of the classified data is optimal for input into fugitive dust transport models, and is available for use by federal, state, and municipal research and regulatory entities.

Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Ramsey, M. S.; Christensen, P. R.

2001-05-01

340

Analysis of multispectral scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) performance (pre-launch and post-launch)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tables and graphs show the results of the spectral, radiometric, and geometric characterization of LANDSAT 4 sensors associated with imagery and of the imagery associated with sensors and processing. Specifications for the various parameters are compared with the photoflight and flight values.

Barker, J. L.

1983-01-01

341

Comparative techniques used to evaluate Thematic Mapper data for land cover classification in Logan County, West Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several digital data processing techniques were evaluated in an effort to identify and map active/abandoned, partially reclaimed, and fully revegetated surface mine areas in the central portion of Logan County. The TM data were first subjected to various enhancement procedures, including a linear contrast stretch, principal components and canonical analysis transformations. At the same time, four general procedures were followed to produce six classifications as a means of comparing the techniques involved. Preliminary results show that various feature extraction/data reduction techniques provide classification results equal or superior to the more straightforward unsupervised clustering technique. Analyst interaction time for labelling clusters is reduced using the canonical analysis and principal components procedures, though the canonical technique has clearly produced better results to date.

Brumfield, J. O.; Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. F.

1985-01-01

342

Land Cover and Vegetation Change in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve Analyzed with Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal wetland is a major part of wetlands in the world. Land cover and vegetation mapping in a deltaic lowland environment is complicated by the rapid and significant changes of geomorphic forms. Remote sensing provides an important tool for coastal land cover classification and landscape analysis. The study site in this paper is the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve (YRDNR)

Hongliang Fang; Jun Xu

2000-01-01

343

Louisiana Air Quality - Using ASTER, Landsat 5, and MODIS to Assess the Impact of Sugar Cane and Marsh Burning Practices on Local Air Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning is an event that occurs globally and encompasses both human-initiated and naturally-occurring fires. It is estimated that 3 billion metric tons of biomass are burned every year worldwide (Curtis 2002). Societies have used these burning techniques for cooking and heating, clearing land for agricultural use, and removing excess biomass from grazing and croplands (Levine 1991). Our study focuses on the state of Louisiana and its commonly occurring methods of sugarcane and marsh biomass burning (LSU Ag.Center 2000; Nyman and Chabreck 1995). Over the centuries, the sugarcane industry in this state has steadily grown to surpass all other agriculture commodities. To promote efficiency within this large industry, burning excess biomass takes place throughout the harvesting period (LSU Ag.Center 2000). In addition to sugarcane, Louisiana contains 30% of the total coastal marsh of the United States (LSU Ag.Center 2000). The periodic burning of such marshes is an ecologically important management tool that is practiced throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Nyman and Chabreck 1995). In most biomass burning instances, the leading by-product is particulate matter that is less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10). Through past research, this fine material has been shown to have negative health effects on surrounding populations (Boopathy2001). While burning guidelines have been set into place by the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) to reduce health effects, the guidelines are voluntary (LDAF 2000). To help quantify emission estimates, we will focus on Iberia Parish for sugarcane burning and Cameron Parish for marsh burning. Through analysis of ASTER, Landsat 5 TM, and MODIS data, our goal is to determine the amount and location of land area burned for the years 2008 and 2009 due to these practices. With emissions algorithms from Seiler and Crutzen, 1980, total acreage burned can be used to estimate emissions. This information will help to document the impact of these smoke plumes on local populations for the improvement of biomass burning policies in Louisiana.

Clark, Robert; Reahard, Ross; Robin, Chad; Zeringue, Jared

2010-01-01

344

Some scientific objectives of a satellite-borne lightning mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lightning Mapper Sensor is proposed as an instrument for use on a geosynchronous satellite in the late 1980s to monitor lightning activity continuously over broad areas of the earth. The system was suggested in response to a variety of needs and the resulting data will provide important research information for such fields of geoscience as magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, atmospheric electricity, atmospheric chemistry, and storm physics. The research applications of Lightning Mapper Sensor data and related research programs are explored and sensor requirements are discussed.

Davis, M. H.; Brook, M.; Christian, H.; Heikes, B. G.; Roble, R. G.; Orville, R. E.; Vonnegut, B.; Park, C. G.

1983-01-01

345

Spanish Thematic Network on Cultural Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Thematic Network on Cultural Heritage has been recently launched to coordinate the activities related to Cultural Heritage (CH) of several groups working in the Spanish Scientific Research Council (CSIC), the largest public research organisation in Spain. The Network involves 21 leading research groups from 16 institutes. Different aspects of CH are approached including Archaeology and Architectonic Heritage, Biology, Physics, Geology and Materials Science.

Castillejo, M.; Blanco, M.-T.; Sáiz-Jiménez, C.

346

Lifelong Learning: Thematic Bibliography. 2nd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This seventh publication in the Eurydice European Unit series of thematic bibliographies draws attention to a selection of publications on the topic of lifelong learning. This annotated bibliography lists 268 books, articles, publications, and reports that have appeared since 1994. Some earlier items of published literature of special historical…

EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

347

A Thematic Approach to Regional Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An innovative, thematic approach to the teaching of African geography is offered in an attempt to modernize African regional geography, bring it in phase with the rest of the discipline, and emphasize the essential unity of the spatial viewpoint. Five themes are used as the framework for providing an integrating overview of the continent and its…

Walter, Bob J.; Bernard, Frank E.

1973-01-01

348

Critical Thinking and the Thematic Writing Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Composition instructors interested in fostering the development of their students' critical thinking skills can modify the thematic writing approach to that effect. Focusing an introductory composition course around one central theme, rather than on many, can offer students an explicit model of how knowledge, skills, and dispositions interact when…

Wilhoit, Stephen

349

New dust opacity mapping from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global dust opacity mapping for Mars has been carried forward using the approach described by Martin (1986) for Viking IR Thermal Mapper data. New maps are presented for the period from the beginning of Viking observations, until Ls 210 deg in 1979 (1.36 Mars years). This range includes the second and more extensive planet-encircling dust storm observed by Viking, known

T. Z. Martin; Mark I. Richardson

1993-01-01

350

Mercury Mapper: First Look at the Innermost Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until very recently little has been known about the planet Mercury, despite its relative proximity to Earth. Mercury is difficult to observe from Earth, because it is so small and so close to the sun, and only one spacecraft had visited the planet: Mariner 10, in the mid 1970s. But now, the MESSENGER spacecraft is in orbit around Mercury, sending back high-resolution images of virtually the entire planetary surface. This provides a rare opportunity for public engagement in the exploration of a new world—a chance for non-scientists to help scientists locate, measure and describe terrain never before seen. Mercury Mapper, designed by CosmoQuest, will provide the training and toolkit needed to accomplish the task. Using thousands of images selected by the MESSENGER science team, Mercury Mapper will guide citizen scientists through the process of finding, categorizing and measuring key topographic features of interest to researchers. Mercury Mapper users will in many cases be the first people to examine these features. In this session, members of the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach team along with CosmoQuest designers involved in developing Mercury Mapper will share the many considerations and tradeoffs involved in creating a fun environment for engaging the public while also serving the interests of scientists performing original research.; ;

Hirshon, B.

2012-12-01

351

Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radar Mapper - Design and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radar Mapper Experiment, carried aboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft, is designed to obtain a near-global picture of the topography, meter-scale surface slopes and reflectivity of Venus. Constraints imposed by the choice of orbit limit radar coverage to a latitude band lying between 74 deg N and 61 deg S completely around the planet. In addition to the altimetry

G. H. Pettengill; D. F. Horwood; C. H. Keller

1980-01-01

352

Designing the Thematic Curriculum: An All Aspects Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide focuses on two interrelated areas of developing vocational education curricula: designing a thematic curriculum and using the "all aspects of the industry" approach when creating thematic curricula. The following are among the topics discussed in the guide's eight sections: principles of the thematic curriculum and its potential to…

Finch, Curtis R.; Frantz, Nevin R.; Mooney, Marianne; Aneke, Norbert O.

353

Big Posets of Participatings and Thematic Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ways of participating in an event form a type hierarchy (poset) of relations between events and their participants. It may be specialized to arbitrary depth. A good mapping from natural language cases and prepositions into the correct deep participant roles is essential for serious NL processing tasks. We contrast conventional case-list and anti-thematic-role approaches with ordered role systems like

Fritz Lehmann; W. Balcones

1996-01-01

354

Airborne Topographic Mapper Calibration Procedures and Accuracy Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of NASA Airborn Topographic Mapper (ATM) lidar calibration procedures including analysis of the accuracy and consistancy of various ATM instrument parameters and the resulting influence on topographic elevation measurements. The ATM elevations measurements from a nominal operating altitude 500 to 750 m above the ice surface was found to be: Horizontal Accuracy 74 cm, Horizontal Precision 14 cm, Vertical Accuracy 6.6 cm, Vertical Precision 3 cm.

Martin, Chreston F.; Krabill, William B.; Manizade, Serdar S.; Russell, Rob L.; Sonntag, John G.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

2012-01-01

355

Analyzing thematic maps and mapping for accuracy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two problems which exist while attempting to test the accuracy of thematic maps and mapping are: (1) evaluating the accuracy of thematic content, and (2) evaluating the effects of the variables on thematic mapping. Statistical analysis techniques are applicable to both these problems and include techniques for sampling the data and determining their accuracy. In addition, techniques for hypothesis testing, or inferential statistics, are used when comparing the effects of variables. A comprehensive and valid accuracy test of a classification project, such as thematic mapping from remotely sensed data, includes the following components of statistical analysis: (1) sample design, including the sample distribution, sample size, size of the sample unit, and sampling procedure; and (2) accuracy estimation, including estimation of the variance and confidence limits. Careful consideration must be given to the minimum sample size necessary to validate the accuracy of a given. classification category. The results of an accuracy test are presented in a contingency table sometimes called a classification error matrix. Usually the rows represent the interpretation, and the columns represent the verification. The diagonal elements represent the correct classifications. The remaining elements of the rows represent errors by commission, and the remaining elements of the columns represent the errors of omission. For tests of hypothesis that compare variables, the general practice has been to use only the diagonal elements from several related classification error matrices. These data are arranged in the form of another contingency table. The columns of the table represent the different variables being compared, such as different scales of mapping. The rows represent the blocking characteristics, such as the various categories of classification. The values in the cells of the tables might be the counts of correct classification or the binomial proportions of these counts divided by either the row totals or the column totals from the original classification error matrices. In hypothesis testing, when the results of tests of multiple sample cases prove to be significant, some form of statistical test must be used to separate any results that differ significantly from the others. In the past, many analyses of the data in this error matrix were made by comparing the relative magnitudes of the percentage of correct classifications, for either individual categories, the entire map or both. More rigorous analyses have used data transformations and (or) two-way classification analysis of variance. A more sophisticated step of data analysis techniques would be to use the entire classification error matrices using the methods of discrete multivariate analysis or of multiviariate analysis of variance.

Rosenfield, G. H.

1982-01-01

356

Revision of the Single-Channel Algorithm for Land Surface Temperature Retrieval From Landsat Thermal-Infrared Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a revision, an update, and an extension of the generalized single-channel (SC) algorithm developed by Jimenez-Munoz and Sobrino (2003), which was particularized to the thermal-infrared (TIR) channel (band 6) located in the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. The SC algorithm relies on the concept of atmospheric functions (AFs) which are dependent on atmospheric transmissivity and upwelling and

Juan C. Jimenez-Munoz; Jordi Cristobal; JosÉ A. Sobrino; Guillem Soria; Miquel Ninyerola; Xavier Pons

2009-01-01

357

Water quality monitoring in a slightly-polluted inland water body through remote sensing — Case study of the Guanting Reservoir in Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the water quality of the Guanting Reservoir, a possible auxiliary drinking water source for Beijing.\\u000a Through a remote sensing (RS) approach and using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data, water quality retrieval models were\\u000a established and analyzed for eight common water quality variables, including algae content, turbidity, and concentrations\\u000a of chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia

Weiqi He; Shan Chen; Xuehua Liu; Jining Chen

2008-01-01

358

Land-cover classification and change analysis of Qinghai-Tibet Highway by remote sensing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing data cover large areas and can be acquired in a regular repeatable manner. Automatic land-cover classification in satellite images is an important topic and has applied in remote sensing widely. In this paper, we consider Landsat5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the Qinghai-Tibet highway of 1986 and 1994 to analyze the changes of land-cover. Statistics and artificial intelligence

Jubai An; Ling Zhou; Zifeng Yang; Hongcai Zhang

2009-01-01

359

Fires Scorch Oregon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In southwestern Oregon, the Florence Fire (north) and the Sour Biscuit Fire (south) continued to burn virtually out of control on July 21, 2002. Numerous evacuation notices have been issued for residents in the area as the fires remain difficult to control due to the steep, rugged terrain of the Klamath Mountains. This image is from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper. Credit:Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

2002-01-01

360

Children's understandings' of obesity, a thematic analysis  

PubMed Central

Childhood obesity is a major concern in today's society. Research suggests the inclusion of the views and understandings of a target group facilitates strategies that have better efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts and themes that make up children's understandings of the causes and consequences of obesity. Participants were selected from Reception (4–5 years old) and Year 6 (10–11 years old), and attended a school in an area of Sunderland, in North East England. Participants were separated according to age and gender, resulting in four focus groups, run across two sessions. A thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) identified overarching themes evident across all groups, suggesting the key concepts that contribute to children's understandings of obesity are “Knowledge through Education,” “Role Models,” “Fat is Bad,” and “Mixed Messages.” The implications of these findings and considerations of the methodology are discussed in full.

Fielden, Amy L.; Sillence, Elizabeth; Little, Linda

2011-01-01

361

Thematic Minireview Series on Circular Proteins  

PubMed Central

Circular proteins have now been discovered in all kingdoms of life and are characterized by their exceptional stability and the diversity of their biological activities, primarily in the realm of host defense functions. This thematic minireview series provides an overview of the distribution, evolution, activities, and biological synthesis of circular proteins. It also reviews approaches that biological chemists are taking to develop synthetic methods for making circular proteins in the laboratory. These approaches include solid-phase peptide synthesis based on an adaption of native chemical ligation technology and recombinant DNA approaches that are amenable to the in-cell production of cyclic peptide libraries. The thioester-mediated native chemical ligation approach mimics, to some extent, elements of the natural biosynthetic reaction, which, for disulfide-rich cyclic peptides, appears to involve asparaginyl endopeptidase-mediated processing from larger precursor proteins.

Craik, David J.; Allewell, Norma M.

2012-01-01

362

Science Adventures with Children's Literature: A Thematic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides background information on the development and implementation of thematic units that focus on a hands-on approach, process orientation, integrated curriculum, cooperative learning, and critical thinking. Topics of the thematic units and mini-units include wild animals, dinosaurs, rainforests, the human body, earth science,…

Fredericks, Anthony D.

363

The Thematic Photobook System: A Teaching Strategy for Exceptional Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Thematic Photobook System is a teaching strategy that uses an interpersonal approach to involve and encourage a child to participate in producing photobooks of specific themes to facilitate desired learning or behavioral objectives. A thematic photobook is a tool which integrates a number of educational or therapeutic photo activities focused…

Veksler, Dina; Reed, Henry; Ranish, Anna

2008-01-01

364

Discovering thematic objects in image collections and videos.  

PubMed

Given a collection of images or a short video sequence, we define a thematic object as the key object that frequently appears and is the representative of the visual contents. Successful discovery of the thematic object is helpful for object search and tagging, video summarization and understanding, etc. However, this task is challenging because 1) there lacks a priori knowledge of the thematic objects, such as their shapes, scales, locations, and times of re-occurrences, and 2) the thematic object of interest can be under severe variations in appearances due to viewpoint and lighting condition changes, scale variations, etc. Instead of using a top-down generative model to discover thematic visual patterns, we propose a novel bottom-up approach to gradually prune uncommon local visual primitives and recover the thematic objects. A multilayer candidate pruning procedure is designed to accelerate the image data mining process. Our solution can efficiently locate thematic objects of various sizes and can tolerate large appearance variations of the same thematic object. Experiments on challenging image and video data sets and comparisons with existing methods validate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:22207639

Yuan, Junsong; Zhao, Gangqiang; Fu, Yun; Li, Zhu; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K; Wu, Ying

2012-04-01

365

AMICA, Astro Mapper for Instrument Check of Attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the characteristics of a star mapper, AMICA, which could be used for determining the pointing direction of external payloads mounted on the International Space Station. AMICA, which is complementary to the GPS attitude determination system provided by the ISS, is a stand alone system able to provide both the pointing direction in the inertial reference frame with arc-sec precision at a 1 Hz rate and the angular orientation of the stellar field with slightly lower precision. The star mapper is derived from the pointing system of the UVSTAR telescope that has flown three times on the Shuttle. We present a description of the AMICA optical and electronics architecture and its functionality. We also give a summary of the key pointing/tracking results obtained during the Shuttle missions. Finally we report on simulations performed to determine the instrument expected precision and performances, including the percentage of recognized stellar fields. AMICA is presently considered for flying in support to the ASI mission SPOrt, onboard an ESA EXPA, in the early utilization of the ISS. .

Trampus, Paolo; Stalio, Roberto; Cortiglioni, Stefano

2000-01-01

366

International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, Third Thematic Conference: Remote Sensing for Exploration Geology, Colorado Springs, CO, April 16-19, 1984, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photogeologic and remote sensing model of porphyry type mineral sytems is considered along with a Landsat application to development of a tectonic model for hydrocarbon exploration of Devonian shales in west-central Virginia, remote sensing and the funnel philosophy, Landsat-based tectonic and metallogenic synthesis of the southwest United States, and an evolving paradigm for computer vision. Attention is given to the neotectonics of the Tibetan plateau deduced from Landsat MSS image interpretation, remote sensing in northern Arizona, the use of an airborne laser system for vegetation inventories and geobotanical prospecting, an evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for hydrocarbon exploration in low-relief basins, and an evaluation of the information content of high spectral resolution imagery. Other topics explored are related to a major source of new radar data for exploration research, the accuracy of geologic maps produced from Landsat data, and an approach for the geometric rectification of radar imagery.

1985-01-01

367

Predicting taxonomic and thematic relational responding  

PubMed Central

Pairs of pictures were classified by the authors and others as related by identity (A—A), basic taxonomy (A—B), superordinate taxonomy (A—C), or by theme (A—D). Two-choice matching-to-sample trial types were composed of these same picture pairs in which the sample was common to the two stimulus pairs in each configuration and, together with the sample, each comparison exemplified one of the relations in the picture pair; that is: A(AB), A(AC), A(AD), A(BC), A(BD), and A(CD). In five experiments, for each picture pair, college students classified the relation (as taxonomic or thematic) and rated its strength (Exps 1, 3) or its similarity (Exp 4); others matched to sample the foregoing trial types only (Exps 2, 5), or they classified and rated, too (Exp 3). With exceptions, students classed most pairs as the authors did. They also collectively ordered relational strengths from (1) identity, (2) basic taxonomy, and (3) theme, to (4) superordinate taxonomy based, in part, on the similarity of sample and comparison. Subjects chose the comparisons of the more strongly related picture pairs in the matching-to-sample task on 90 percent or more of the configurations. Subjects' selections in two-choice, matching-to-sample configurations using natural stimuli may be based on existing stimulus control topographies such as those exhibited by ratings of the relations in a configuration. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

Osborne, J. Grayson; Heath, John

2003-01-01

368

The Lightning Mapper Sensor for GOES-NEXT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a design overview of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS). The LMS is an instrument designed to be flown on a GOES-NEXT satellite. Its function is to detect total lightning activity within a 8 x 10 degree FOV with a 90 percent detection efficiency and with a spatial resolution of 10 km (a scale typical of convective storm cells). From the GOES 75-deg W location, the LMS will provide coverage of the continental United States and the northern portion of South America to 10-deg S latitude. It will provide data on the distribution and variability of lightning activity, and increase understanding of the underlying and interrelated phenomena (including atmospheric convection, lightning/precipitation relationships, lightning/trace-gas interactions, and the global electric circuit). The LMS will be a valuable 'nowcasting' tool providing severe storm warning and tracking information to population centers, aircraft, shipping, launch sites and forest-fire fighters.

Manlief, S. K.

1992-03-01

369

The First Confirmed SkyMapper Supernova (SMT J21413915-5643445)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of a Type Ia SN as part of the SkyMapper Transient (SMT) and Supernova Survey conducted with the 268-megapixel camera on the SkyMapper 1.3-m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory near Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia (Keller et al., 2007, PASA, 24, 1). The source was discovered at RA = 21:41:39.15, DEC = -56:43:44.5 at magnitude g = 20.1, r = 20.0 in SkyMapper images taken 2013 Oct 8.57 UT; no source was detected at this position on Sept 30 to a limiting magnitude of r = 20.6.

Scalzo, R.; Yuan, F.; Childress, M.; Tucker, B.; Schmidt, B.

2013-10-01

370

Responses of Chinese University Students to the Thematic Apperception Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Murray's original Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Cards I to XX, was administered in two sessions to 80 Chinese male and female undergraduate students at the National Taiwan Normal University. The results are compared with American averages. (Author/JH)

Han, Elizabeth Yeo-hsien

1974-01-01

371

Individual differences in the strength of taxonomic versus thematic relations  

PubMed Central

Knowledge about word and object meanings can be organized taxonomically (fruits, mammals, etc.) based on shared features, or thematically (eating breakfast, taking a dog for a walk, etc.) based on participation in events or scenarios. An eye-tracking study showed that both kinds of knowledge are activated during comprehension of a single spoken word, even when the listener is not required to perform any active task. The results further revealed that an individual’s relative activation of taxonomic relations compared to thematic relations predicts that individual’s tendency to favor taxonomic over thematic relations when asked to choose between them in a similarity judgment task. These results argue that individuals differ in the relative strengths of their taxonomic and thematic semantic knowledge and suggest that meaning information is organized in two parallel, complementary semantic systems.

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2011-01-01

372

Towards Thematic Web Services for Generic Data Visualization and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial analysis packages and thematic mapping are available in a number of traditional desktop GIS. However, visualizing thematic maps through the Internet is still limited to fix contents and restrict changes of the input data. The users with limited GIS knowledge or people who do not own digital map data are normally having difficulties to create output thematic maps from generic data. In this study, we developed thematic mapping services that can be applied to non-spatial data format served through powerful map services solutions. Novice users who have no GIS software experience or have no digital base map can simply input a plain text file with location identifier field such as place name or gazetteer to generate thematic maps online. We implemented a prototype by using web service standards recommended by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) such as Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS) and Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) to provide a principle for communication and allow users to visualize spatial information as thematic maps. The system dedicates a great deal of effort to the initial study of geospatial analysis and visualization for novice users including those with no past experience using Geographic Information Systems.

Horanont, T.; Basa, M.; Shibasaki, R.

2012-07-01

373

ThemeRiver: Visualizing Thematic Changes in Document Collections  

SciTech Connect

The ThemeRiver(TM) visualization depicts thematic variations over time within a large collection of documents. The thematic changes are shown in the context of a time line and corresponding external events. The focus on temporal thematic change within a context framework allows a user to discern patterns that suggest relationships or trends. For example, the sudden change of thematic strength following an external event may indicate a causal relationship. Such patterns are not readily accessible in other visualizations of the data. We use a river metaphor to convey several key notions. The document collection's time line, selected thematic content, and thematic strength are indicated by the river's directed flow, composition and changing width, respectively. The directed flow from left to right is interpreted as movement through time; the horizontal distance between two points on the river defines a time interval. At any point in time, the vertical distance, or width, of the river indicates the collective strength of the selected themes. Colored ''currents'' flowing within the river represent individual themes. A current's vertical distance narrows or widens to indicate a decreases or increases in the strength of the individual theme.

Havre, Susan L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Whitney, Paul D.; Nowell, Lucy T.

2002-01-01

374

Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Nampa, Idaho 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately 18 people attended this years mappers meeting, and many more submitted abstracts and maps in absentia. The meeting was held on the campus of Northwest Nazarene University (NNU), and was graciously hosted by NNUs School of Health and Science....

T. K. P. Gregg K. L. Tanaka R. S. Saunders

2006-01-01

375

Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Tucson, Arizona, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately 22 people attended this years mappers meeting, and many more submitted abstracts and maps in absentia. The 2007 meeting was held in Tucson, Arizona. Oral presentations and poster discussions took place on Thursday, June 28 and Friday, June 2...

K. L. Tanaka L. F. Bleamaster S. Saunders T. K. P. Gregg

2007-01-01

376

Xmap: A technology mapper for table-lookup field-programmable gate arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new algorithm, Xmap, for doing mapping from multi-level logic to field-programmable gate arrays based on table-lookup gates, such as those used in the Xilinx chip. The algorithm is baaed on an if-then-else DAG representation for the functions. The technology mapper differs from previous mappers in that the circuit is not decomposed into fan-out-free trees. The Xmap

Kevin Karplus

1991-01-01

377

HGDP and HapMap Analysis by Ancestry Mapper Reveals Local and Global Population Relationships  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of human origins, migrations, and expansions is greatly enhanced by the availability of large datasets of genetic information from different populations and by the development of bioinformatic tools used to analyze the data. We present Ancestry Mapper, which we believe improves on existing methods, for the assignment of genetic ancestry to an individual and to study the relationships between local and global populations. The principle function of the method, named Ancestry Mapper, is to give each individual analyzed a genetic identifier, made up of just 51 genetic coordinates, that corresponds to its relationship to the HGDP reference population. As a consequence, the Ancestry Mapper Id (AMid) has intrinsic biological meaning and provides a tool to measure similarity between world populations. We applied Ancestry Mapper to a dataset comprised of the HGDP and HapMap data. The results show distinctions at the continental level, while simultaneously giving details at the population level. We clustered AMids of HGDP/HapMap and observe a recapitulation of human migrations: for a small number of clusters, individuals are grouped according to continental origins; for a larger number of clusters, regional and population distinctions are evident. Calculating distances between AMids allows us to infer ancestry. The number of coordinates is expandable, increasing the power of Ancestry Mapper. An R package called Ancestry Mapper is available to apply this method to any high density genomic data set.

Magalhaes, Tiago R.; Casey, Jillian P.; Conroy, Judith; Regan, Regina; Fitzpatrick, Darren J.; Shah, Naisha; Sobral, Joao; Ennis, Sean

2012-01-01

378

The GOES-R GeoStationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved capability for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The Geostationary Lighting Mapper (GLM) will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms (environmental data records), cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications using GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, merged with ground-based sensors, and decision aids augmented by numerical weather prediction model forecasts. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. An international field campaign planned for 2011-2012 will produce concurrent observations from a VHF lightning mapping array, Meteosat multi-band imagery, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) overpasses, and related ground and in-situ lightning and meteorological measurements in the vicinity of Sao Paulo. These data will provide a new comprehensive proxy data set for algorithm and application development.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

2011-01-01

379

The Goes-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved storm diagnostic capability with the Advanced Baseline Imager. The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this paper we will report on new Nowcasting and storm warning applications being developed and evaluated at various NOAA Testbeds.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

2011-01-01

380

The GOES-R Series Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), which will have just completed Critical Design Review and move forward into the construction phase of instrument development. The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (an engineering development unit and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas M.

2011-01-01

381

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) of the Black Hills area, South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure, format, and quality of the LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS photographic and digital products for one scene covering the Black Hills area of South Dakota were assessed and the extent to which major resource categories can be detected and identified on various photographic products generated from a subset of TM spectral bands and from all bands of the MSS was determined. The overall spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data was found to be excellent. Agricultural fields of variable shape, size, and orientation were detected with relative ease. The addition of the short-wave infrared band (TM5) has significantly improved the ability to detect and identify crop types on single date imagery.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

382

Relating thematic mapper bands TM3, TM4, and TM5 to agronomic variables for corn, cotton, sugarbeet, soybean, sorghum, sunflower and tobacco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Red, photographic infrared, near infrared spectral data of corn, cotton, soybeans, sugar beets, sorghum, sunflowers and tobacco were collected throughout the entire growing season by using a three band handheld radiometer. Different radiance patterns were found among these crops based on their morphology, green biomass duration and leaf size. Results show near infrared radiance is a good indicator of water content in plant tissue under small scale experimental conditions.

Fan, C. J. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

383

Using Landsat Thematic Mapper records to map land cover change and the impacts of reforestation programmes in the borderlands of southeast Yunnan, China: 1990-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the new millennium, after a severe drought and destructive floods along the Yangtze River, the Chinese government implemented two large ecological rehabilitation and reforestation projects: the Natural Forest Protection Programme and the Sloping Land Conversion Programme. Using Landsat data from a decade before, during and after the inception of these programmes, we analyze their impacts along with other policies on land use, land cover change (LULCC) in southwest China. Our goal is to quantify the predominant land cover changes in four borderland counties, home to tens of thousands of ethnic minority individuals. We do this in three time stages (1990, 2000 and 2010). We use support vector machines as well as a transition matrix to monitor the land cover changes. The land cover classifications resulted in an overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for forested area and cropland of respectively 91% (2% confidence interval) and 0.87. Our results suggest that the total forested area observed increased 3% over this 20-year period, while cropland decreased slightly (0.1%). However, these changes varied over specific time periods: forested area decreased between 1990 and 2000 and then increased between 2000 and 2010. In contrast, cropland increased and then decreased. These results suggest the important impacts of reforestation programmes that have accelerated a land cover transition in this region. We also found large changes in LULC occurring around fast growing urban areas, with changes in these peri-urban zones occurring faster to the east than west. This suggests that differences in socioeconomic conditions and specific local and regional policies have influenced the rates of forest, cropland and urban net changes, disturbances and net transitions. While it appears that a combination of economic growth and forest protection in this region over the past 20 years has been fairly successful, threats like drought, other extreme weather events and land degradation remain.

Zhang, Jialong; Pham, Thi-Thanh-Hiên; Kalacska, Margaret; Turner, Sarah

2014-09-01

384

Study of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration. [Southern Ontario, Lawton, Oklahoma; Owl Creek, Wyoming; Washington, D.C.; and Death Valley California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved delineation of known oil and gas fields in southern Ontario and a spectacularly high amount of structural information on the Owl Creek, Wyoming scene were obtained from analysis of TM data. The use of hue, saturation, and value image processing techniques on a Death Valley, California scene permitted direct comparison of TM processed imagery with existing 1:250,000 scale geological maps of the area and revealed small outcrops of Tertiary volcanic material overlying Paleozoic sections. Analysis of TM data over Lawton, Oklahoma suggests that the reducing chemical environment associated with hydrocarbon seepage change ferric iron to soluble ferrous iron, allowing it to be leached. Results of the band selection algorithm show a suprising consistency, with the 1,4,5 combination selected as optimal in most cases.

Everett, J. R. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

385

Comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer data for the Cuprite mining district, Esmeralda, and Nye counties, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat TM images and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data were analyzed for the Cuprite mining district and compared to available geologic and alteration maps of the area. The TM data, with 30 m resolution and 6 broadbands, allowed discrimination of general mineral groups. Clay minerals, playa deposits, and unaltered rocks were mapped as discrete spectral units using the TM data, but specific minerals were not determined, and definition of the individual alteration zones was not possible. The GERIS, with 15 m spatial resolution and 63 spectral bands, permitted construction of complete spectra and identification of specific minerals. Detailed spectra extracted from the images provided the ability to identify the minerals alunite, kaolinite, hematite, and buddingtonite by their spectral characteristics. The GERIS data show a roughly concentrically zoned hydrothermal system. The mineralogy mapped with the aircraft system conforms to previous field and multispectral image mapping. However, identification of individual minerals and spatial display of the dominant mineralogy add information that can be used to help determine the morphology and genetic origin of the hydrothermal system.

Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Kruse, Fred A.

1989-01-01

386

Using Thematic Mapper data for change detection and sustainable use of cultivated land: a case study in the Yellow River delta, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation of cultivated land is one of China's four basic strategic policies. Timely land use monitoring is a prerequisite of cultivated land management and sustainable utilization. Using digital satellite remote sensing techniques, the intention is to develop a workable procedure for cultivated land change detection in the Yellow River delta region. Four detection methods were assessed. The assessment, in general,

G. X. Zhao; G. Lin; T. Warner

2004-01-01

387

LANDSAT 4 investigations of Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner applications. [Death Valley, California; Silver Bell Copper Mine, Arizona, and Dulles Airport near Washington, D.C.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimum index factor package was used to choose TM band for color compositing. Processing techniques were also used on TM data over several sites to: (1) reduce the amount of data that needs to be processed and analyzed by using statistical methods or by combining full-resolution products with spatially compressed products; (2) digitally process small subareas to improve the visual appearance of large-scale products or to merge different-resolution image data; and (3) evaluate and compare the information content of the different three-band combinations that can be made using the TM data. Results indicate that for some applications the added spectral information over MSS is even more important than the TM's increased spatial resolution.

Lauer, D. T. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

388

Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower

Ralph Garono; Becci Anderson; Rob Robinson

2003-01-01

389

Actual evapotranspiration estimation in a Mediterranean mountain region by means of Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS imagery and Sap Flow measurements in Pinus sylvestris forest stands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration monitoring has important implications on global and regional climate modelling, as well as in the knowledge of the hydrological cycle and in the assessment of environmental stress that affects forest and agricultural ecosystems. An increase of evapotranspiration while precipitation remains constant, or is reduced, could decrease water availability for natural and agricultural systems and human needs. Consequently, water balance methods, as the evapotranspiration modelling, have been widely used to estimate crop and forest water needs, as well as the global change effects. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute evapotranspiration at regional scales in a feasible way. Currently, the 38% of Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula) is covered by forests, and one of the most important forest species is Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) which represents the 18.4% of the area occupied by forests. The aim of this work is to model actual evapotranspiration in Pinus sylvestris forest stands, in a Mediterranean mountain region, using remote sensing data, and compare it with stand-scale sap flow measurements measured in the Vallcebre research area (42° 12' N, 1° 49' E), in the Eastern Pyrenees. To perform this study a set of 30 cloud-free TERRA-MODIS images and 10 Landsat-5 TM images of path 198 and rows 31 and 32 from June 2003 to January 2005 have been selected to perform evapotranspiration modelling in Pinus sylvestris forest stands. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected two different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily evapotranspiration, daily LST product and daily calibrated reflectances product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital Elevation Model, obtaining an RMS less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994) which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009). To compute actual evapotranspiration (AET) we have used the B-Method proposed by Jakson et al. (1977) and modified by Carlson et al. (1995) and Caselles et al. (1998), based on the energy budget, that needs as an input variables net radiation (Rn) and the difference between land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature (Ta). Air temperature has been modelled by means of multiple regression analysis and GIS interpolation using ground meteorological stations. Net radiation have been computed following two approaches based on the energy balance equation using albedo, land surface temperature, air temperature and solar radiation. Both air temperature and net radiation have been modelled at a regional scale. We have compared remote sensing daily actual evapotranspiration estimates with measured canopy transpiration. Sap flux density was measured by means of Heat dissipation sensors in 12 trees per stand, sampled according to diametric distribution, corrected to account for radial patter of sap flow using the Heat Field Deformation method and then scaled-up to stand level transpiration using tree sapwood areas. Sap flow measurements are comparable with AETd as in the Scots pine stand understorey evaporation is not significant. Measurements with sap flow technique show a mean, minimum and maximum values of AETd = 2.2, 0.6 and 3.6 mm day -1, respectively (Poyatos et al. 2005). Results show, in the case of MODIS AETd modelling, a RMSE of 1.6 mm compared with sap flo

Cristóbal, J.; Poyatos, R.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.

2009-04-01

390

Hyperspectral Soil Mapper (HYSOMA) software interface: Review and future plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellites that will routinely deliver high spectral resolution images for the entire globe (e.g. EnMAP, HISUI, HyspIRI, HypXIM, PRISMA), an increasing demand for the availability/accessibility of hyperspectral soil products is coming from the geoscience community. Indeed, many robust methods for the prediction of soil properties based on imaging spectroscopy already exist and have been successfully used for a wide range of soil mapping airborne applications. Nevertheless, these methods require expert know-how and fine-tuning, which makes them used sparingly. More developments are needed toward easy-to-access soil toolboxes as a major step toward the operational use of hyperspectral soil products for Earth's surface processes monitoring and modelling, to allow non-experienced users to obtain new information based on non-expensive software packages where repeatability of the results is an important prerequisite. In this frame, based on the EU-FP7 EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research) project and EnMAP satellite science program, higher performing soil algorithms were developed at the GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences as demonstrators for end-to-end processing chains with harmonized quality measures. The algorithms were built-in into the HYSOMA (Hyperspectral SOil MApper) software interface, providing an experimental platform for soil mapping applications of hyperspectral imagery that gives the choice of multiple algorithms for each soil parameter. The software interface focuses on fully automatic generation of semi-quantitative soil maps such as soil moisture, soil organic matter, iron oxide, clay content, and carbonate content. Additionally, a field calibration option calculates fully quantitative soil maps provided ground truth soil data are available. Implemented soil algorithms have been tested and validated using extensive in-situ ground truth data sets. The source of the HYSOMA code was developed as standalone IDL software to allow easy implementation in the hyperspectral and non-hyperspectral communities. Indeed, within the hyperspectral community, IDL language is very widely used, and for non-expert users that do not have an ENVI license, such software can be executed as a binary version using the free IDL virtual machine under various operating systems. Based on the growing interest of users in the software interface, the experimental software was adapted for public release version in 2012, and since then ~80 users of hyperspectral soil products downloaded the soil algorithms at www.gfz-potsdam.de/hysoma. The software interface was distributed for free as IDL plug-ins under the IDL-virtual machine. Up-to-now distribution of HYSOMA was based on a close source license model, for non-commercial and educational purposes. Currently, the HYSOMA is being under further development in the context of the EnMAP satellite mission, for extension and implementation in the EnMAP Box as EnSoMAP (EnMAP SOil MAPper). The EnMAP Box is a freely available, platform-independent software distributed under an open source license. In the presentation we will focus on an update of the HYSOMA software interface status and upcoming implementation in the EnMAP Box. Scientific software validation, associated publication record and users responses as well as software management and transition to open source will be discussed.

Chabrillat, Sabine; Guillaso, Stephane; Eisele, Andreas; Rogass, Christian

2014-05-01

391

GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper Performance Specifications and Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR imager/optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning. The mission objectives for the GLM are to: (1) Provide continuous, full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and nowcasting, (2) Provide early warning of tornadic activity, and (2) Accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997- present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global lightning activity. GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. The science data will consist of lightning "events", "groups", and "flashes". The algorithm is being designed to be an efficient user of the computational resources. This may include parallelization of the code and the concept of sub-dividing the GLM FOV into regions to be processed in parallel. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds (e.g., Lightning Mapping Arrays in North Alabama, Oklahoma, Central Florida, and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the prelaunch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution.

Mach, Douglas M.; Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Petersen, William A.; Boldi, Robert A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Bateman, Monte G.; Buchler, Dennis E.; McCaul, E. William, Jr.

2008-01-01

392

A New Measurement Capability Using the CEDAR Mesospheric Temperature Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CEDAR Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (MTM) was developed at Utah State University in 1996/7 as part of the CEDAR Phase III initiative for new research instrumentation. The MTM uses a sensitive bare CCD detector to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio ( ~100:1) images of selected emission lines in the near infrared OH (6,2) band to determine intensity and temperature perturbations induced by a wide range of atmospheric waves (periods ~10 min - ~10 hrs) with a precision of better than 2K in 3-min (or 0.5 K in 30 min). The high precision and stability of the MTM make it very well suited for long-term field measurements and extensive data sets have been obtained alongside two powerful Na lidar systems: at Ft Collins, CO (1997/98), and at the Starfire Optical Range, NM (1998/2000). These joint data sets have revealed a wealth of new information on gravity wave and tidal propagation at mesospheric heights and to date our analyses have focused on characterizing the 8-hr tide at mid-latitudes and the identification of a fall equinox transition signature associated with the penetration of stationary planetary wave energy into the upper mesosphere during the seasonal reversal of the stratospheric wind field. In this presentation we will summarize these results and will then focus on recent measurements of wave propagation (phase) and growth (amplitude) from Bear Lake Observatory, UT using an enhanced MTM capable of measuring wave signatures in the both the near infrared OH (peak altitude ~87 km) and the 02(0,1) (altitude ~94 km) emission layers. New observations using the enhanced MTM are planned as part of the NASA/NSF TIMED coordinated ground-based measurements program and the AFOSR/NSF Maui-MALT initiative.

Taylor, M. J.; Pendleton, W. R.

2001-12-01

393

Sexual Pathology and Dangerousness From a Thematic Apperception Test Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report concerns the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) protocol of a 17-year-old male patient who gave stories with a disturbing amount of sexual perversity. The stories included accounts of rape, incest, pedophilia, sadism, exhibitionism, necrophilia, and hermaphroditism. Furthermore, he showed signs of schizophrenia, which involved command hallucinations, interest in black magic, and paranoid grandiosity. The testing report described the patient

Alvin Pam; Jo-Ann Rivera

1995-01-01

394

Teaching Interdisciplinary Thematic Units in Language Arts. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Digest discusses teaching interdisciplinary thematic units in language arts, noting that such units typically integrate broad areas of knowledge, such as social studies, mathematics, or ecology with the teaching of the four major language skills: reading, writing, listening, and speaking. The Digest presents a definition and rationale for…

Ritter, Naomi

395

The REAL (Relevant, Exciting, Applicable Lessons) Project: Thematic Language Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of using a thematic intervention approach for children with language disorders. Twenty students receiving language therapy at a university speech and hearing clinic were selected as participants in this pilot study. This pilot project was entitled the REAL Project with the term REAL being an acronym…

Catt, Merrill; Neeley, Richard A.; Lovins, Shelby

2011-01-01

396

MathThematics. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"MathThematics" is a mathematics curriculum for grades 6 through 8 that combines activity-based, discovery learning with direct instruction. The textbook for each grade level has eight instructional modules, with each module focused on a theme. Open-ended questions and projects are utilized throughout the curriculum to assess problem-solving…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

2008-01-01

397

Challenging the Notion of a Thematic Preference in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two- to 4-year-olds were presented with pictures of a target item (for example, carrot), a thematic alternative (rabbit), and an taxonomic alternative (tomato). The target was identified and children were asked to choose one of the alternatives. Children revealed no preference for either alternative. (BC)

Waxman, Sandra R.; Namy, Laura L.

1997-01-01

398

Integrated Early Years Services: A Thematic Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the findings of a thematic review of research literature about integrated early years services (IEYS) [1995-2012]. Four themes are discussed: broad support for IEYS; critiques of claims about IEYS; a focus on inter-professional practice; and the challenge of evaluating IEYS. The article concludes with reflections concerning…

Wong, Sandie; Sumsion, Jennifer

2013-01-01

399

The Feasibility of the Thematic Apperception Test for Adolescent Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is an appropriate assessment tool for adolescent clients at least 12 years old. Theoretical principles of the TAT are discussed. Rationales and protocols for administration are presented. The TAT is favorably reviewed, although it is noted that there is a need for additional research to further demonstrate its…

Osborn, Cynthia J.

1996-01-01

400

Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Denmark. Country Note. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review identifies where Danish public authorities intend to take their adult education and training (AET) system, main issues in AET reform (VEU-Reform), and recommendations from reviewers. Section 1 introduces the thematic review. Section 2 presents an overview of policy issues, AET, and VEU-Reform. It lists objectives of VEU-Reform (improve…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

401

Women counsellors' experiences of personal therapy: A thematic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Following recent moves to relax the requirements for clinical mental health trainees to undergo personal therapy, this qualitative project explored the effects of personal therapy on volunteer counsellors. Method: Interviews were conducted with 19 volunteer counsellors at a women's community centre, and the data were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings: Emerging themes included the importance of personal therapy for

Karen Ciclitira; Fiona Starr; Lisa Marzano; Nicola Brunswick; Ana Costa

2012-01-01

402

Deficits in Thematic Integration Processes in Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how normal subjects and Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics integrate thematic information incrementally using syntax, lexical-semantics, and pragmatics in a simple active declarative sentence. Three priming experiments were conducted using an auditory lexical decision task in which subjects made a lexical decision on a…

Nakano, Hiroko; Blumstein, Sheila E.

2004-01-01

403

Technology Affordances for Intersubjective Learning: A Thematic Agenda for CSCL  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief survey of epistemologies of collaborative learning and forms of computer support for that learning, the study of technology affordances for intersubjective learning is proposed as a thematic agenda for CSCL. A fusion of experimental, ethnomethodological and design methodologies is proposed in support of this agenda. A working definition of intersubjective learning as joint composition of interpretations of

Daniel D. Suthers

2005-01-01

404

An Analysis of the Thematic Content of Televised Beer Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After summarizing the widespread occurrence and male orientation of television beer advertising, this paper describes a study of the thematic content of beer commercials. Two-hundred and six beer advertisements which appeared on WTBS, the USA Network, and ESPN between September 1983 and September 1985 were studied. Event-specific ads and those in…

Funkhouser, Edward

405

Assessment of Attention Deficit Disorder Using a Thematic Apperception Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention deficits and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (AD-HD) are regarded as relatively common disorders among school-age children, but the literature reveals several confounding factors with the standard assessment techniques for the disorder. Using a structured thematic apperception technique (the TEMAS Apperception Test of G.…

Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

406

Thematic Progression in a Cardiologist's Text: Context, Frames and Progression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thematic progression (TP) is examined in the text of a communication between a cardiologist and a general practitioner concerning a patient, offering a clinical diagnosis of the patient's condition. Analysis of the discourse looks at the field, tenor, and mode of the communication as a context for TP. The methods of analysis are first described,…

Salter, Robert T.

407

ITI: The Model. Integrated Thematic Instruction. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI), a model for implementing a "brain-compatible" learning environment for students and teachers using a year-long theme to organize curriculum content and skills. The book's introduction identifies six "mismemes" (or mistaken ideas) that have hindered educational reform, and proposes seven…

Kovalik, Susan; Olsen, Karen

408

Accelerating Academic Literacy for ELLs through Thematic Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper identifies a series of activities which reinforce each other and form part of a thematic unit of instruction across the content areas for English language learners (ELLs). These activities will be connected to the relevant English language proficiency (ELP) standards established at level three by the World-Class Instructional Design…

Montgomery, Joel R.

2008-01-01

409

Parks as Classrooms: Developing a Thematic Ecosystem Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of a thematic ecosystem curriculum for a K-8 school, in partnership with the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, in which park interpretation is merged with formal curricula. Notes that teachers and interpreters should work closely to develop curricula, and that interpreters must be familiar with textbooks and subject…

Cox, W. Eugene

1996-01-01

410

Multiscaling in Hydro-Meteorologic Research: Recent Results from the European MAPPER Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today scientists and engineers are faced with the challenge of modelling, predicting and controlling multiscale systems which cross scientific disciplines and where several processes acting at different scales coexist and interact. Such multidisciplinary multiscale models, when simulated in three dimensions, require large scale or even extreme scale computing capabilities. Progress in science and technology is limited by our ability to solve efficiently such problems on available distributed computing infrastructures. The MAPPER project responds to such critical needs by developing computational strategies, software and services for distributed multiscale. Hydro-meteorologic research (HMR) is one of the drivers for MAPPER to deploy services aiming at enabling the distributed execution of multiscale models. MAPPER develops tools, software and services that allow two modes (loosely coupled and tightly coupled) of multiscale computing in a user friendly and transparent way.

Schiffers, Michael

2013-04-01

411

IMPACTS OF PATCH SIZE AND LANDSCAPE HETEROGENEITY ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Impacts of Patch Size and Landscape Heterogeneity on Thematic Image Classification Accuracy. Currently, most thematic accuracy assessments of classified remotely sensed images oily account for errors between the various classes employed, at particular pixels of interest, thu...

412

Large-scale computational identification of regulatory SNPs with rSNP-MAPPER  

PubMed Central

Background The computational analysis of regulatory SNPs (rSNPs) is an essential step in the elucidation of the structure and function of regulatory networks at the cellular level. In this work we focus in particular on SNPs that potentially affect a Transcription Factor Binding Site (TFBS) to a significant extent, possibly resulting in changes to gene expression patterns or alternative splicing. The application described here is based on the MAPPER platform, a previously developed web-based system for the computational detection of TFBSs in DNA sequences. Methods rSNP-MAPPER is a computational tool that analyzes SNPs lying within predicted TFBSs and determines whether the allele substitution results in a significant change in the TFBS predictive score. The application's simple and intuitive interface supports several usage modes. For example, the user may search for potential rSNPs in the promoters of one or more genes, specified as a list of identifiers or chosen among the members of a pathway. Alternatively, the user may specify a set of SNPs to be analyzed by uploading a list of SNP identifiers or providing the coordinates of a genomic region. Finally, the user can provide two alternative sequences (wildtype and mutant), and the system will determine the location of variants to be analyzed by comparing them. Results In this paper we outline the architecture of rSNP-MAPPER, describing its intuitive and powerful user interface in detail. We then present several examples of the use of rSNP-MAPPER to reproduce and confirm experimental studies aimed at identifying regulatory SNPs in human genes, that show how rSNP-MAPPER is able to detect and characterize rSNPs with high accuracy. Results are richly annotated and can be displayed online or downloaded in a number of different formats. Conclusions rSNP-MAPPER is optimized for large scale work, allowing for the efficient annotation of thousands of SNPs, and is designed to assist in the genome-wide investigation of transcriptional regulatory networks, prioritizing potential rSNPs for subsequent experimental validation. rSNP-MAPPER is freely available at http://genome.ufl.edu/mapper/.

2012-01-01

413

The role of action representations in thematic object relations.  

PubMed

A number of studies have explored the role of associative/event-based (thematic) and categorical (taxonomic) relations in the organization of object representations. Recent evidence suggests that thematic information may be particularly important in determining relationships between manipulable artifacts. However, although sensorimotor information is on many accounts an important component of manipulable artifact representations, little is known about the role that action may play during the processing of semantic relationships (particularly thematic relationships) between multiple objects. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions relevant to object relationship processing. First, we assessed whether participants tended to favor thematic relations including action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle-corkscrew), thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle-cheese), or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle-water bottle) when choosing between them in an association judgment task with manipulable artifacts. Second, we assessed whether the underlying constructs of event relatedness, action relatedness, and categorical relatedness determined the choices that participants made. Third, we assessed the hypothesis that degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex, a region of the brain associated with the representation of action knowledge, would reduce the influence of action on the choice task. Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness were differentially predictive of healthy participants' choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region to use action relatedness in determining their choices. These data indicate that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable artifacts. PMID:24672461

Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Watson, Christine E; Jax, Steven A; Buxbaum, Laurel J

2014-01-01

414

The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series provides the continuity for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive pre-launch field campaigns. GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extends their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in late 2015. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Results from recent field campaigns and forecaster evaluations on the utility of the total lightning products will be presented.

Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Buechler, D. E.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, C. J.; Bateman, M. G.; McCaul, E., Jr.; Stano, G. T.

2012-12-01

415

The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series (GOES-R) is the next block of four satellites to follow the existing GOES constellation currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Advanced spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved cloud and moisture imagery with the 16-channel Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity continuously day and night with near-uniform storm-scale spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 s over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions in the western hemisphere. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low Earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive prelaunch field campaigns. The GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extend their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with preoperational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and checkout of GOES-R in late 2015. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas; Bailey, Jeffrey; Buechler, Dennis; Carey, Larry; Schultz, Chris; Bateman, Monte; McCaul, Eugene; Stano, Geoffrey

2013-05-01

416

Thematic content and trials effects in the size estimation of meaningful stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of size estimation have reported some inconsistent differences in responses to Harris' thematic stimuli in various subgroups of acute schizophrenics. To determine whether these inconsistencies might be due to the confounding of thematic content and sequence in these studies, a Latin-square design was employed with 36 male undergraduates. A significant Thematic Content * Trials interaction suggested that (a) inconsistencies

Milton E. Strauss

1970-01-01

417

Integrating Verbs, Situation Schemas, and Thematic Role Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linguistic and psycholinguistic theories differ with regard to the conceptual content of verbs' thematic roles. In Experiments 1 and 2, single-word priming was used to demonstrate that verbs immediately activate knowledge of typical agents (arresting-cop), patients (arresting-criminal), and instruments (stirred-spoon), but not locations (swam-ocean). Experiment 3 illustrated that verbs prime features common to their patients (manipulating-naive). Experiment 4, a cross-modal

Todd R. Ferretti; Ken McRae; Andrea Hatherell

2001-01-01

418

Idea Bank: Using Food Science as a Thematic Unit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While rethinking the math and science program for ninth- and tenth-grade high school students, the authors found that the math, English, and social studies teachers had the same goal--to maximize learning in all subject areas. To help meet this goal, they decided to apply research and writing activities (all related to the same theme) across the disciplines of science, math, language arts, and history. This article describes how food science was used as a thematic unit throughout the curriculum.

Detwiler, Darin S.

2004-10-01

419

Recent Surface Changes in Southern Greenland Outlet Glaciers from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summer 2008, NASA deployed its Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), along with other airborne science instruments, to several locations around the southern periphery of the Greenland ice sheet, with the aim of quantifying recent changes in a number of outlet glaciers. The ATM also joined with a Swansea University (United Kingdom) team in order to provide geodetic reference ties on

W. B. Krabill; J. G. Sonntag

2008-01-01

420

Multiple endmember spectral-angle-mapper (sam) analysis improves discrimination of savanna tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in within-species phenology and structure driven by factors including topography, edaphic properties, and climatic variables across the landscape present important challenges to species differentiation with remote sensing. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the classification performance of a multiple-endmember spectral angle mapper (SAM) classification approach in discriminating seven common African savanna tree species and to compare the

Moses Azong Cho; Renaud Mathieu; Pravesh Debba

2009-01-01

421

JPL flux mapper and the characterization of point focusing test bed concentrators at JPL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar Test Bed Concentrators (TBCs) are described that E-Systems installed at JPL's Edwards Test Station near Lancaster, California, for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The JPL solar flux mapper and the characterization work that has been accomplished on the test units thus far are described and the test results are provided. The characterization data has been measured using both

D. J. Starkey; W. A. Owen

1981-01-01

422

Lightning Mapper Sensor Lens Assembly S.O. 5459: Project Management Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kaiser Electro-Optics, Inc. (KEO) has developed this Project Management Plan for the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) program. KEO has integrated a team of experts in a structured program management organization to meet the needs of the LMS program. The project plan discusses KEO's approach to critical program elements including Program Management, Quality Assurance, Configuration Management, and Schedule.

Zeidler, Janet

1999-01-01

423

The OakMapper WebGIS: Improved Access to Sudden Oak Death Spatial Data1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to timely and accurate sudden oak death (SOD) location data is critical for SOD monitoring, management and research. Several websites (hereafter called the OakMapper sites) associated with sudden oak death monitoring efforts have been maintained with up-to- date SOD location information for over five years, providing information and maps of the most current spatial and attribute data on Phytophthora

K. Tuxen; M. Kelly

424

Software used with the flux mapper at the solar parabolic dish test site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dicated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attemps at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations result in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the anaysis is included in an appendix.

Miyazono, C.

1984-01-01

425

Software used with the flux mapper at the solar parabolic dish test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dicated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attemps at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations result in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the anaysis is included in an appendix.

Miyazono, C.

1984-09-01

426

Validation of a quasi real-time global aberrometer: the EyeMapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in measuring peripheral refraction rapidly and accurately has been stimulated by increasing evidence that the eye's peripheral refractive state can influence axial growth. In response to this, a new clinical instrument, the EyeMapper, was developed which performs quasi real-time global (central and peripheral) refraction measurements of the human eye. The EyeMapper is an aberrometer comprising a unique deflection system to permit an extremely rapid visual field scan. Refraction measurements are taken from -50° to +50° in 10° steps within 0.45 seconds. Multiple pupil imaging paths through the deflection system provide improved lateral and axial pupil alignment, and by rotating the instrument around its main optical axis, global power maps of the eye can be generated. Using a model eye with a pivoting and translating reflective surface to simulate the peripheral and central retina, the EyeMapper was cross-validated against a conventional aberrometer (COAS-HD, Wavefront Sciences, USA) and an autorefractor (Shin-Nippon NVision K5001, Japan). In addition, the right eyes of ten participants were measured across the horizontal visual field and in one eye, refraction measurements were performed globally. Overall, the EyeMapper showed good agreement and improved repeatability when compared to the other two instruments.

Fedtke, C.; Ehrmann, K.; Falk, D.; Holden, B.

2012-02-01

427

Cassini atmospheric chemistry mapper. Volume 1. Investigation and technical plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini Atmospheric Chemistry Mapper (ACM) enables a broad range of atmospheric science investigations for Saturn and Titan by providing high spectral and spatial resolution mapping and occultation capabilities at 3 and 5 microns. ACM can directly address the major atmospheric science objectives for Saturn and for Titan, as defined by the Announcement of Opportunity, with pivotal diagnostic measurements not accessible to any other proposed Cassini instrument. ACM determines mixing ratios for atmospheric molecules from spectral line profiles for an important and extensive volume of the atmosphere of Saturn (and Jupiter). Spatial and vertical profiles of disequilibrium species abundances define Saturn's deep atmosphere, its chemistry, and its vertical transport phenomena. ACM spectral maps provide a unique means to interpret atmospheric conditions in the deep (approximately 1000 bar) atmosphere of Saturn. Deep chemistry and vertical transport is inferred from the vertical and horizontal distribution of a series of disequilibrium species. Solar occultations provide a method to bridge the altitude range in Saturn's (and Titan's) atmosphere that is not accessible to radio science, thermal infrared, and UV spectroscopy with temperature measurements to plus or minus 2K from the analysis of molecular line ratios and to attain an high sensitivity for low-abundance chemical species in the very large column densities that may be achieved during occultations for Saturn. For Titan, ACM solar occultations yield very well resolved (1/6 scale height) vertical mixing ratios column abundances for atmospheric molecular constituents. Occultations also provide for detecting abundant species very high in the upper atmosphere, while at greater depths, detecting the isotopes of C and O, constraining the production mechanisms, and/or sources for the above species. ACM measures the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols via their opacity at 3 microns and, particularly, at 5 microns. ACM recovers spatially-resolved atmospheric temperatures in Titan's troposphere via 3- and 5-microns spectral transitions. Together, the mixing ratio profiles and the aerosol distributions are utilized to investigate the photochemistry of the stratosphere and consequent formation processes for aerosols. Finally, ring opacities, observed during solar occultations and in reflected sunlight, provide a measurement of the particle size and distribution of ring material. ACM will be the first high spectral resolution mapping spectrometer on an outer planet mission for atmospheric studies while retaining a high resolution spatial mapping capability. ACM, thus, opens an entirely new range of orbital scientific studies of the origin, physio-chemical evolution and structure of the Saturn and Titan atmospheres. ACM provides high angular resolution spectral maps, viewing nadir and near-limb thermal radiation and reflected sunlight; sounds planetary limbs, spatially resolving vertical profiles to several atmospheric scale heights; and measures solar occultations, mapping both atmospheres and rings. ACM's high spectral and spatial resolution mapping capability is achieved with a simplified Fourier Transform spectrometer with a no-moving parts, physically compact design. ACM's simplicity guarantees an inherent stability essential for reliable performance throughout the lengthy Cassini Orbiter mission.

Smith, William Hayden; Baines, Kevin Hays; Drossart, Pierre; Fegley, Bruce; Orton, Glenn; Noll, Keith; Reitsema, Harold; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

1990-01-01

428

Earth Now! Landsat Image Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This viewer lets students see near real-time images from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). When a Landsat satellite passes within range of the ground station at the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), image data are downlinked and displayed in near-real time. When no satellites are within range, the most recent pass is displayed. By viewing the moving display, students can monitor changes in the Earth's surface. An index map and information display shows the path of the satellite, indicates which satellite is currently providing the imagery, and gives the acquisition date and time. A help page and frequently-asked-questions feature are provided to explain how to use the site.

429

PharmMapper server: a web server for potential drug target identification using pharmacophore mapping approach  

PubMed Central

In silico drug target identification, which includes many distinct algorithms for finding disease genes and proteins, is the first step in the drug discovery pipeline. When the 3D structures of the targets are available, the problem of target identification is usually converted to finding the best interaction mode between the potential target candidates and small molecule probes. Pharmacophore, which is the spatial arrangement of features essential for a molecule to interact with a specific target receptor, is an alternative method for achieving this goal apart from molecular docking method. PharmMapper server is a freely accessed web server designed to identify potential target candidates for the given small molecules (drugs, natural products or other newly discovered compounds with unidentified binding targets) using pharmacophore mapping approach. PharmMapper hosts a large, in-house repertoire of pharmacophore database (namely PharmTargetDB) annotated from all the targets information in TargetBank, BindingDB, DrugBank and potential drug target database, including over 7000 receptor-based pharmacophore models (covering over 1500 drug targets information). PharmMapper automatically finds the best mapping poses of the query molecule against all the pharmacophore models in PharmTargetDB and lists the top N best-fitted hits with appropriate target annotations, as well as respective molecule’s aligned poses are presented. Benefited from the highly efficient and robust triangle hashing mapping method, PharmMapper bears high throughput ability and only costs 1 h averagely to screen the whole PharmTargetDB. The protocol was successful in finding the proper targets among the top 300 pharmacophore candidates in the retrospective benchmarking test of tamoxifen. PharmMapper is available at http://59.78.96.61/pharmmapper.

Liu, Xiaofeng; Ouyang, Sisheng; Yu, Biao; Liu, Yabo; Huang, Kai; Gong, Jiayu; Zheng, Siyuan; Li, Zhihua; Li, Honglin; Jiang, Hualiang

2010-01-01

430

Abstracts of the annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, 2001, Albuquerque, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting serves two purposes. In addition to giving mappers the opportunity to exchange ideas, experiences, victories, and problems with others, presentations are reviewed by the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GeMS) to provide input to the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Mapping Program review panel’s consideration of new proposals and progress reports that include mapping tasks. Funded mappers bring both oral presentation materials (slides or viewgraphs) and map products to post for review by GeMS and fellow mappers. Additionally, the annual meetings typically feature optional field trips offering earth analogs and parallels to planetary mapping problems. The 2001 Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, was convened by Tim Parker, Dave Senske, and Ken Tanaka and was hosted by Larry Crumpler and Jayne Aubele of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Oral presentations were given in the Museum’s Honeywell Auditorium, and maps were posted in the Sandia Room. In addition to active mappers, guests included local science teachers who had successfully competed for the right to attend and listen to the reports. It was a unique pleasure for mappers to have the opportunity to interact with and provide information to teachers responding so enthusiastically to the meeting presentation. On Sunday, June 17, Larry and Jayne conducted an optional pre-meeting field trip. The flanks of Rio Grande Rift, east and west of Albuquerque and Valles Caldera north of town presented tectonic, volcanic, and sedimentary examples of the Rift and adjoining areas analogous to observed features on Mars and Venus. The arid but volcanically and tectonically active environment of New Mexico’s rift valley enables focus on features that appear morphologically young and spectacular in satellite images and digital relief models. The theme of the trip was to see what, at orbiter resolution, "obvious" geologic features look like at lander (outcrop) scales. Trips to the top of the rift-flanking mountains (Sandia Peak, 10,600 ft) and the Valles Caldera, as well as various active spring deposits highlighted the day. After welcoming remarks from the host, Larry Crumpler, opening remarks by Tim Parker and Dave Senske and a report on mapping program status by Ken Tanaka, the mappers’ oral presentations began the morning of June 18, with a session on Venus Geologic Mapping. The afternoon continued with an exciting USGS Planetary GIS on the Web (PIGWAD) demonstration and ended with an open discussion of issues in planetary mapping. Posted maps of Venus quadrangles were viewed during the morning break. Tuesday’s Mars Geologic Mapping session began with a pep talk from Tim Parker encouraging mapping community input to the MER landing site selection committee and continued with Steve Saunders describing the potential contribution of Odyssey Mission data to the geologic mapping of Mars. A Mars map poster session was held during the morning break, and the meeting was adjourned mid-afternoon. After the mappers meeting on Tuesday, attendants were treated to a "Field trip to Mars." The Institute of Meteoritics at the University of New Mexico houses an outstanding collection of meteorites, including those that have been identified as originating from Mars. The Institute tour featured examples of most of the different lithologies exhibited by martian meteorites identified to date, as well as some of the analytical tests (scanning electron microscope) they are conducting on specimens from ALH84001. Wednesday, June 20, featured an optional post-meeting field trip to see a travertine quarry and nearby sites of travertine deposition, the Very Large Array near Socorro, and other volcanic features within the Rio Grande Rift.

edited by Parker, Timothy J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Senske, David A.

2002-01-01

431

Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.  

PubMed

We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle. PMID:22063815

Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

2011-01-01

432

Cardiac myofibroblasts: cells out of balance. A new thematic series  

PubMed Central

We are pleased to introduce a new thematic series dealing with cardiac fibrosis and its association with cardiovascular diseases. A wide variety of cardiovascular diseases are associated with cardiac fibrosis, which is now widely recognized to be not a secondary, but rather a primary contributor to cardiac dysfunction. The purpose of the current series of papers and reviews is to provide the reader with an up-to-date synopsis of the very latest research results and hypotheses that impact on cardiac fibrosis and disease.

2012-01-01

433

Abstracts of the annual meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers: June 21-22, 2002, Tempe, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The annual meeting of planetary geologic mappers allows mappers the opportunity to exchange ideas, experiences, victories, and problems. In addition, presentations are reviewed by the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) to provide input to the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Mapping Program review panel’s consideration of new proposals and progress reports that include mapping tasks. Funded mappers bring both oral presentation materials (slides or viewgraphs) and map products to post for review by GEMS and fellow mappers. Additionally, the annual meetings typically feature optional field trips that offer Earth analogs and parallels to planetary mapping problems or workshops that provide information and status of current missions. The 2002 meeting of planetary geologic mappers was held June 21-22 at the Mars Flight Facility, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. Dr. Phil Christensen graciously offered the use of the newly renovated facility, and Ms. Kelly Bender not only proved to be a courteous hostess, but also arranged a short workshop on June 23 regarding TES and THEMIS data. Approximately 30 people attended each day of the 2-day meeting, although not the same 30—some attended only on Thursday and others only on Friday. On Thursday, eight mappers gave oral presentations of Mars mapping, and an additional two presentations were presented as posters only. Eight oral presentations on Venus mapping were given on Friday, and an additional four presentations were posters only. Twelve people attended the TES/THEMIS workshop. Presentations of Ganymede mapping and Europa mapping (the latter not yet financially sponsored by PG&G mapping program) were also given on Friday. Aside from the regular presentations of maps-in-progress, there were some additional talks. Lisa Gaddis (USGS) presented a proposal seeking support for a new lunar mapping program in light of all the new data available; she made a good case that the GEMS panel discussed. Jim Skinner (USGS) gave a short presentation on free (or nearly so) software available for 3D viewing of planetary surfaces. Healthy discussions focused on the review time for some maps and the use of different styles of correlation charts observed on the presented maps. Next year’s meeting will be held June 19-20 at Brown University, Providence, RI.

edited by Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Senske, David A.

2002-01-01

434

Remote sensing as a mineral prospecting technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing and its application as an alternative technique to mineral resource exploration are reviewed. Emphasis is given here to the analysis of the three basic attributes of remote sensing, i.e., spatial attributes related to regional structural mapping, spectral attributes related to rock discrimination and seasonal attributes related to geobotanic anomalies mapping, all of which are employed in mineral exploration. Special emphasis is given to new developments of the Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT-5, principally with reference to the application of the bands 1.6 and 2.2 microns to map hydrothermally altered rocks and the band of red and blue shift to geobotanical anomalies mapping.

Meneses, P. R. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

435

Fires Scorch Oregon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In southwestern Oregon, the Florence Fire (north) and the Sour Biscuit Fire (south) continue to burn virtually out of control. Numerous evacuation notices have been issued for residents in the area as the fires remain difficult to control due to the steep, rugged terrain of the Klamath Mountains. This false-color image from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper was acquired on July 21, 2002. In the image, vegetation is green, burned areas are deep magenta, active fire is bright pink, and smoke is light blue. Credit:Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

2002-01-01

436

Remote sensing of the biological dynamics of large-scale salt evaporation ponds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical properties of salt evaporation ponds associated with Exportadora de Sal, a salt production company in Baja California Sur, Mexico, were analyzed using a combination of spectroradiometer and extracted pigment data, and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper imagery. The optical characteristics of each pond are determined by the biota, which consists of dense populations of algae and photosynthetic bacteria containing a wide variety of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments. Analysis has shown that spectral and image data can differentiate between taxonomic groups of the microbiota, detect changes in population distributions, and reveal large-scale seasonal dynamics.

Richardson, Laurie L.; Bachoon, Dave; Ingram-Willey, Vebbra; Chow, Colin C.; Weinstock, Kenneth

1992-01-01

437

Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

1991-01-01

438

Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers. Held in Washington, DC. on June 23-24, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately 30 people attended the annual Planetary Mappers Meeting. The meeting was held at the National Air and Space Museum. The discussions focused on extraterrestrial geologic studies. This document contains abstracts of the presentations.

T. K. P. Gregg K. L. Tanaka R. S. Saunders

2005-01-01

439

ForM@Ter: a solid Earth thematic pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last years, several notable initiatives have been developed to provide Solid Earth sciences with an efficient research e-infrastructure. The EPOS project (European Plate Observing System) was included in the EFSRI roadmap in 2008. The 7th European frame program funded an e-science environment such as the Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community in Europe (VERCE). GEO supports the development of the Geohazard SuperSites and Natural Laboratories portal, while the ESA SSEP project (SuperSites exploitation plateform) is developing as an Helix Nebula usecase. Meanwhile, operational use of space data for emergency management is in constant progress, within the Copernicus services. This rich activity is still leaving some gaps between the data availability and its scientific use, either for technical reasons (big data issues) or due to the need for a better support in term of expert knowledge on the data, of software availability, or of data cost. French infrastructures for data distribution are organized around National Observatory Services (in situ data), scientific services participating to the International association of geodesy data centres and wider research infrastructures such as the Réseau Sismologique et géodésique Français (RESIF) that is contributing to EPOS. The need for thematic cooperative platforms has been underlined over tha last years. In 2009, after a scientific prospective of the French national space agency (CNES) it becomes clear the urgent need to create thematic centres designed to federate the scientific community of Earth observation. Four thematic data centres are currently developing in France in the field of ocean , atmosphere, critical zone and solid Earth sciences. For Solid Earth research, the project - named ForM@Ter - was initiated at the beginning of 2012 to design, with the scientific community, the perimeter, structure and functions of such a thematic centre. It was launched by the CNES and the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), with the active participation of the National institute for geographical and forestry information (IGN). Currently, it relies on the contributions of scientists from more than 20 French Earth science laboratories. Preliminary analysis showed that a focus on the determination of the shape and movements of the Earth surface ForM@Ter : Formes et Mouvements de la Terre can federate a wide variety of scientific areas (earthquake cycle, tectonics, morphogenesis, volcanism, erosion dynamics, mantle rheology, geodesy) and offers many interfaces with other thematics, such as glaciology or snow evolution. This choice motivates the design of an ambitious data distribution scheme, including a wide variety of sources - optical imagery, SAR, GNSS, gravity, satellite altimetry data, in situ observations (inclinometers, seismometers, topometry, etc.) - as well as a wide variety of processing techniques. The challenge of the project, in the evolving context of the current and forthcoming national and international e-infrastructures, is to design a non redundant service based on interoperations with existing services, and to cope with highly complex data flows due to the granularity of the data and its associated knowledge.

Ostanciaux, Emilie; Jamet, Olivier; Mandea, Mioara; Diament, Michel

2014-05-01

440

Nature and origin of mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain and Kane Springs Wash volcanic centers, southern Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface coatings on volcanic rock assemblages that occur at select tertiary volcanic centers in southern Nevada were investigated using LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper imagery. Three project sites comprise the subject of this study: the Kane Springs Wash, Black Mountain, and Stonewall Mountain volcanic centers. LANDSAT 5 TM work scenes selected for each area are outlined along with local area geology. The nature and composition of surface coatings on the rock types within the subproject areas are determined, along with the origin of the coatings and their genetic link to host rocks, geologic interpretations are related to remote sensing units discriminated on TM imagery. Image processing was done using an ESL VAX/IDIMS image processing system, field sampling, and observation. Aerial photographs were acquired to facilitate location on the ground and to aid stratigraphic differentiation.

Taranik, J. V.; Noble, D. C.; Hsu, L. C.; Hutsinpiller, A.; Spatz, D.

1986-01-01

441

CheS-Mapper - Chemical Space Mapping and Visualization in 3D  

PubMed Central

Analyzing chemical datasets is a challenging task for scientific researchers in the field of chemoinformatics. It is important, yet difficult to understand the relationship between the structure of chemical compounds, their physico-chemical properties, and biological or toxic effects. To that respect, visualization tools can help to better comprehend the underlying correlations. Our recently developed 3D molecular viewer CheS-Mapper (Chemical Space Mapper) divides large datasets into clusters of similar compounds and consequently arranges them in 3D space, such that their spatial proximity reflects their similarity. The user can indirectly determine similarity, by selecting which features to employ in the process. The tool can use and calculate different kind of features, like structural fragments as well as quantitative chemical descriptors. These features can be highlighted within CheS-Mapper, which aids the chemist to better understand patterns and regularities and relate the observations to established scientific knowledge. As a final function, the tool can also be used to select and export specific subsets of a given dataset for further analysis.

2012-01-01

442

PepMapper: A Collaborative Web Tool for Mapping Epitopes from Affinity-Selected Peptides  

PubMed Central

Epitope mapping from affinity-selected peptides has become popular in epitope prediction, and correspondingly many Web-based tools have been developed in recent years. However, the performance of these tools varies in different circumstances. To address this problem, we employed an ensemble approach to incorporate two popular Web tools, MimoPro and Pep-3D-Search, together for taking advantages offered by both methods so as to give users more options for their specific purposes of epitope-peptide mapping. The combined operation of Union finds as many associated peptides as possible from both methods, which increases sensitivity in finding potential epitopic regions on a given antigen surface. The combined operation of Intersection achieves to some extent the mutual verification by the two methods and hence increases the likelihood of locating the genuine epitopic region on a given antigen in relation to the interacting peptides. The Consistency between Intersection and Union is an indirect sufficient condition to assess the likelihood of successful peptide-epitope mapping. On average from 27 tests, the combined operations of PepMapper outperformed either MimoPro or Pep-3D-Search alone. Therefore, PepMapper is another multipurpose mapping tool for epitope prediction from affinity-selected peptides. The Web server can be freely accessed at: http://informatics.nenu.edu.cn/PepMapper/

Chen, Wenhan; Guo, William W.; Huang, Yanxin; Ma, Zhiqiang

2012-01-01

443

PepMapper: a collaborative web tool for mapping epitopes from affinity-selected peptides.  

PubMed

Epitope mapping from affinity-selected peptides has become popular in epitope prediction, and correspondingly many Web-based tools have been developed in recent years. However, the performance of these tools varies in different circumstances. To address this problem, we employed an ensemble approach to incorporate two popular Web tools, MimoPro and Pep-3D-Search, together for taking advantages offered by both methods so as to give users more options for their specific purposes of epitope-peptide mapping. The combined operation of Union finds as many associated peptides as possible from both methods, which increases sensitivity in finding potential epitopic regions on a given antigen surface. The combined operation of Intersection achieves to some extent the mutual verification by the two methods and hence increases the likelihood of locating the genuine epitopi