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1

Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper outgassing effects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A periodic 3% to 5% variation in detector response affecting both image and internal calibrator (IC) data has been observed in bands 5 and 7 of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper. The source for this variation is thought to be an interference effect due to buildup of an ice-like contaminant film on a ZnSe window, covered with an antireflective coating (ARC), of the cooled dewar containing these detectors. Periodic warming of the dewar is required in order to remove the contaminant and restore detector response to an uncontaminated level. These effects in the IC data have been characterized over four individual outgassing cycles using thin-film models to estimate transmittance of the window/ARC and ARC/contaminant film stack throughout the instrument lifetime. Based on the results obtained from this modeling, a lookup table procedure has been implemented that provides correction factors to improve the calibration accuracy of bands 5 and 7 by approximately 5%.

Helder, D.L.; Micijevic, E.

2004-01-01

2

Improved outgassing models for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) detectors of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands 5 and 7 are maintained on cryogenic temperatures to minimize thermal noise and allow adequate detection of scene energy. Over the instrument's lifetime, gain oscillations are observed in these bands that are caused by an ice-like contaminant that gradually builds up on the window of a dewar that houses these bands' detectors. This process of icing, an effect of material outgassing in space, is detected and characterized through observations of Internal Calibrator (IC) data. Analyses of IC data indicated three to five percent uncertainty in absolute gain estimates due to this icing phenomenon. The thin-film interference lifetime models implemented in the image product generation systems at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) successfully remove up to 80 percent of the icing effects for the image acquisition period from the satellite's launch in 1984 until 2001; however, their correction ability was found to be much lower for the time thereafter. This study concentrates on improving the estimates of the contaminant film growth rate and the associated change in the period of gain oscillations. The goal is to provide model parameters with the potential to correct 70 to 80 percent of gain uncertainties caused by outgassing effects in L5 TM bands 5 and 7 over the instrument's entire lifetime. ?? 2007 IEEE.

Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.; Hayes, R.W.

2007-01-01

3

Improved outgassing models for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) detectors of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands 5 and 7 are maintained on cryogenic temperatures to minimize thermal noise and allow adequate detection of scene energy. Over the instrument's lifetime, gain oscillations are observed in these bands that are caused by an ice-like contaminant that gradually builds up on the window of a dewar that houses these bands' detectors. This process of icing, an effect of material outgassing in space, is detected and characterized through observations of Internal Calibrator (IC) data. Analyses of IC data indicated three to five percent uncertainty in absolute gain estimates due to this icing phenomenon. The thin-film interference lifetime models implemented in the image product generation systems at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) successfully remove up to 80 percent of the icing effects for the image acquisition period from the satellite's launch in 1984 until 2001; however, their correction ability was found to be much lower for the time thereafter. This study concentrates on improving the estimates of the contaminant film growth rate and the associated change in the period of gain oscillations. The goal is to provide model parameters with the potential to correct 70 to 80 percent of gain uncertainties caused by outgassing effects in L5 TM bands 5 and 7 over the instrument's entire lifetime. ?? 2007 IEEE.

Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.; Hayes, R.W.

2008-01-01

4

Thematic Mapper. Volume 1: Calibration report flight model, LANDSAT 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calibration of the Flight 1 Model Thematic Mapper is discussed. Spectral response, scan profile, coherent noise, line spread profiles and white light leaks, square wave response, radiometric calibration, and commands and telemetry are specifically addressed.

Cooley, R. C.; Lansing, J. C.

1984-01-01

5

Capabilities of Landsat5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data in regional mapping and characterization of inland valley agroecosystems in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrated the capabilities of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data in regional mapping and characterization of inland valley (valley bottoms plus valley slopes or fringes) agroecosystems. A methodology was developed involving image enhancement, display and digitizing, as well as image and Geographical Information System (GIS) manipulation techniques for rapid studies of inland valley characteristics over large areas. A case

P. S. Thenkabail; C. Nolte

1996-01-01

6

Fire effects in the northern Chihuahuan Desert derived from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper spectral indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire effects on desert ecosystems may be long-lasting based on ecological impact of fire in these environments which potentially is detected from multispectral sensors. To assess this, we analyzed changes in spectral characteristics from 1986 to 2010 of pixels associated with the location of fires that occurred between 1986 and 1999 in Big Bend National Park, USA, located in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data, we derived spectral indices including the simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), and normalized burn ratio (NBR) from 1989, 1999, and 2010 from the TM data and compared changes in spectral index values for sites with and without observed fire. We found that the NDVI and SAVI had significantly different values over the time for burned sites of different fire sizes. When differences of the spectral indices were calculated from each time period, time since fire was correlated with the SR and NBR indices. These results showed that large fires potentially had a persistent and long-term change in vegetation cover and soil characteristics which were detected by the extraordinary long-data collection period of the Landsat-5 TM sensor.

White, Joseph D.; Swint, Pamela

2014-01-01

7

Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geometric accuracy of the Landsat Thematic Mappers was assessed by a linear least-square comparison of the positions of conspicuous ground features in digital images with their geographic locations as determined from 1:24 000-scale maps. For a Landsat-5 image, the single-dimension standard deviations of the standard digital product, and of this image with additional linear corrections, are 11.2 and 10.3 m, respectively (0.4 pixel). An F-test showed that skew and affine distortion corrections are not significant. At this level of accuracy, the granularity of the digital image and the probable inaccuracy of the 1:24 000 maps began to affect the precision of the comparison. The tested image, even with a moderate accuracy loss in the digital-to-graphic conversion, meets National Horizontal Map Accuracy standards for scales of 1:100 000 and smaller. Two Landsat-4 images, obtained with the Multispectral Scanner on and off, and processed by an interim software system, contain significant skew and affine distortions. -Authors

Borgeson, W.T.; Batson, R.M.; Kieffer, H.H.

1985-01-01

8

Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 thematic mapper band 6 historical performance and calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, the Landsat-4 and -5 Thematic Mappers (TM) are the backbone of an extensive archive of moderate resolution Earth imagery. However, these sensors and their data products were not subjected to the type of intensive monitoring that has been part of the Landsat-7 system since its launch in 1999. With Landsat-4's 11 year and Landsat-5's 20+ year data record, there is a need to understand the historical behavior of the instruments in order to verify the scientific integrity of the archive and processed products. Performance indicators of the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands have recently been extracted from a processing system database allowing for a more complete study of thermal band characteristics and calibration than was previously possible. The database records responses to the internal calibration system, instrument temperatures and applied gains and offsets for each band for every scene processed through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS). Analysis of this database has allowed for greater understanding of the calibration and improvement in the processing system. This paper will cover the trends in the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands, the effect of the changes seen in the trends, and how these trends affect the use of the thermal data.

Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Higgs, N.

2005-01-01

9

A definitive calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper anchored to the Landsat-7 radiometric scale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A coordinated effort on the part of several agencies has led to the specification of a definitive radiometric calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) for its lifetime since launch in 1984. The time-dependent calibration record for Landsat-5 TM has been placed on the same radiometric scale as the Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+). It has been implemented in the National Landsat Archive Production Systems (NLAPS) in use in North America. This paper documents the results of this collaborative effort and the specifications for the related calibration processing algorithms. The specifications include (i) anchoring of the Landsat-5 TM calibration record to the Landsat-7 ETM+ absolute radiometric calibration, (ii) new time-dependent calibration processing equations and procedures applicable to raw Landsat-5 TM data, and (iii) algorithms for recalibration computations applicable to some of the existing processed datasets in the North American context. The cross-calibration between Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ was achieved using image pairs from the tandem-orbit configuration period that was programmed early in the Laridsat-7 mission. The time-dependent calibration for Landsat-5 TM is based on a detailed trend analysis of data from the on-board internal calibrator. The new lifetime radiometric calibration record for Landsat-5 will overcome problems with earlier product generation owing to inadequate maintenance and documentation of the calibration over time and will facilitate the quantitative examination of a continuous, near-global dataset at 30-m scale that spans almost two decades.

Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; Ruggles, T.A.; Landry, R.; Ahern, F.J.; Higgs, N.J.; Barsi, J.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Thome, K.J.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, F.D.

2004-01-01

10

Performance of several Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) image classification methods for crop extent estimates in an irrigation district  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agricultural land cover in a 263 km2 irrigation district was classified utilizing two Landsat 5 TM scenes. Manual and automatic selection of training areas for the classification of two single subscenes and a combined multitemporal subscene result in several differently classified images. The extent of each land cover class was first estimated by area frame sampling and further expansion

P. M. BARBOSA; M. A. CASTERAD; J. HERRERO

1996-01-01

11

Detection of tamarisk defoliation by the northern tamarisk beetle based on multitemporal Landsat 5 thematic mapper imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spread of tamarisk (Tamarix spp., also known as saltcedar) is a significant ecological disturbance in western North America and has long been targeted for control, leading to the importation of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) as a biological control agent. Following its initial release along the Colorado River near Moab, Utah in 2004, the beetle has successfully established and defoliated tamarisk across much of the upper Colorado River Basin. However, the spatial distribution and seasonal timing of defoliation are complex and difficult to quantify over large areas. To address this challenge, we tested and compared two remote sensing approaches to mapping tamarisk defoliation: Disturbance Index (DI) and a decision tree method called Random Forest (RF). Based on multitemporal Landsat 5 TM imagery for 2006-2010, changes in DI and defoliation probability from RF were calculated to detect tamarisk defoliation along the banks of Green, Colorado, Dolores and San Juan rivers within the Colorado Plateau area. Defoliation mapping accuracy was assessed based on field surveys partitioned into 10 km sections of river and on regions of interest created for continuous riparian vegetation. The DI method detected 3711 ha of defoliated area in 2007, 7350 ha in 2008, 10,457 ha in 2009 and 5898 ha in 2010. The RF method detected much smaller areas of defoliation but proved to have higher accuracy, as demonstrated by accuracy assessment and sensitivity analysis, with 784 ha in 2007, 960 ha in 2008, 934 ha in 2009, and 1008 ha in 2010. Results indicate that remote sensing approaches are likely to be useful for studying spatiotemporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation as the tamarisk leaf beetle spreads throughout the western United States.

Meng, Ran; Dennison, Philip E.; Jamison, Levi R.; van Riper, Charles, III; Nager, Pamela; Hultine, Kevin R.; Bean, Dan W.; Dudley, Tom

2012-01-01

12

A comparative study of infrared radiance measurements by an ER-2 based radiometer and the LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper (TM-6)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared radiance measurements were acquired from a radiometer on the NASA ER-2 during a coincident LANDSAT 5 overpass on 28 Oct. 1986 as part of the FIRE Cirrus IFO in the vicinity of Lake Michigan. A comparative study is made to infer microphysical properties of the cirrus cloud field. Radiances are derived from the image by convolving the ER-2 radiometer's effective field of view along the flight path. A multistream radiative transfer model is used to account for the differences in spectral bandwidths, 10.40 to 12.50 microns for the LANDSAT band and 9.90 to 10.87 microns for the radiometer.

Hammer, Philip D.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Kinne, Stefan

1990-01-01

13

Measurement of Thematic Mapper data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper data from Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 were examined for band-to-band registration, absolute geodetic registration, periodic noise and spatial resolution. Between focal planes, appreciable misregistrations existed in early data products but were corrected in later data products. The analysis of absolute geodetic registration used only system-corrected data because ground control point-corrected data were unavailable. Geodetic registration errors averaged only 9.7 pixels, less than expected for system-corrected data. Periodic noise at four spatial frequencies was observed in Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data by using Fourier analysis on small areas over water. Magnitudes of periodic noise components were consistent within a scene. The modulation transfer function was determined for two Landsat-4 scenes. The effective instantaneous field of view was 40.8 meters in one case, and 48.6 meters in the other.

Wrigley, R. C.; Hlavka, C. A.; Card, D. H.; Buis, J. S.; Schowengerdt, R. A.

1985-01-01

14

Thematic mapper design parameter investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulated multispectral data sets used in the Thematic Mapper design parameter investigation are analyzed. The sets were produced by processing high-resolution digital multispectral data through models of the various Thematic Mapper configurations and then through three resampling techniques as a simulation of ground processing. Emphasis is placed on classification processing and analysis of results.

Colby, C. P., Jr.; Wheeler, S. G.; Miller, W.

1978-01-01

15

Thematic Mapper geometric correction processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thematic Mapper Image Processing System is described from the point of view of geometric correction. The system performance requirements are discussed, and the Landsat-D flight segment is described. The ground processing and overall geometric system performance is addressed. Those aspects of the Thematic Mapper Image Processing System that differ significantly from those of the MSS System are emphasized.

Beyer, E. P.

1984-01-01

16

Thematic mapper design parameter investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study simulated the multispectral data sets to be expected from three different Thematic Mapper configurations, and the ground processing of these data sets by three different resampling techniques. The simulated data sets were then evaluated by processing them for multispectral classification, and the Thematic Mapper configuration, and resampling technique which provided the best classification accuracy were identified.

Colby, C. P., Jr.; Wheeler, S. G.

1978-01-01

17

Mapping burns and natural reforestation using thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing techniques are specially suitable to detect and to map areas affected by forest fires. In this work, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data has been used to study a number of forest fires that occurred in the province of Valencia (Spain) and to monitor the vegetation regeneration over burnt areas.A reference area (non?burnt forest) was established to assess

M. J. López García; V. Caselles

1991-01-01

18

Intraband radiometric performance of the Landsat Thematic Mappers.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiometric characteristics have been examined of the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers (TMs) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. This analysis is based on radiometrically and geometrically raw (B-type) data of both uniform (flat-field) and high-contrast scenes. Subscenes selected for uniform radiance were used to characterized subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. Although the general performance of the Thematic Mappers is excellent, various anomalies that have a magnitude of a few digital levels (DN) or less are quantified. -from Authors

Kieffer, H.H.; Cook, D.A.; Eliason, E.M.; Eliason, P.T.

1985-01-01

19

Landsat Thematic Mapper image-derived MTF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program conducted by NASA has the objective to quantify the performance of the Thematic Mapper (TM) on the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 spacecraft. The interest in the spatial resolution performance of the TM is partly related to the decrease of the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) from 80 m for the MSS to 30 m for the TM. Studies related to the preflight line spread function (LSF), square wave response (SWR), and theoretical component modeling of the TM system modulation transfer function (MTF) have been conducted. However, the need remains to estimate the MTF of the complete system. The present paper is concerned with investigations related to this task. Attention is given to three approaches for measuring the MTF of the TM system from imagery.

Schowengerdt, R. A.; Archwamety, C.; Wrigley, R. C.

1985-01-01

20

Geometric correction of Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat-4 was launched on July 16, 1982, while the launch of Landsat-5 took place on March 1, 1984. The earth-observing instruments employed were the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), which has flown since 1972 on Landsat satellites, and the Thematic Mapper (TM). The TM provides improved spatial radiance and spectral resolution. The improved capabilities of the TM, the use of different scanning mechanisms relative to the MSS, and the use of a new spacecraft with different mechanical operating characteristics led to a significant challenge in processing the TM and MSS data. The current paper has mainly the objective to present recent results which can provide information regarding the quality of processing as measured against specifications. The results obtained so far for the Thematic Mapper Image Processing System (TIPS), though limited, are found to be quite encouraging as far as the geometric processing of the TM is concerned.

Beyer, E. P.; Brooks, J.; Salomonson, V. V.

1985-01-01

21

Systematic and random variations in Thematic Mapper digital radiance data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies are reported of the systematic and random variations in digital radiance data obtained by the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers over an agricultural crop area which was apparently uniform and cloud-free. Systematic variations appeared to be time-dependent and bandpass-dependent. The predominant effect seemed to be random variations, which appeared to be in keeping with those expected from prior investigations. It is suggested that uncorrected variations will provide a limitation on the nonphotointerpretative analysis of images.

Duggin, M. J.; Sakhavat, H.; Lindsay, J.

1985-01-01

22

Evaluation of Thematic Mapper interband registration and noise characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments aboard the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 spacecraft have provided the first digital imagery of the earth's surface with a resolution sufficient to distinguish cultural features easily. The present paper provides a description of the results of studies designed to investigate the band-to-band registration, geodetic registration to a map base, and periodic noise. In the eight TM scenes analyzed, the band-to-band registration accuracy was high even before correction, and the correction for the shift between focal planes brought all bands into registration according to tight specifications.

Wrigley, R. C.; Hlavka, C. A.; Card, D. H.; Buis, J. S.

1985-01-01

23

Enhanced rock discrimination using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of TM data to rock discrimination is discussed. Sixteen specific terrains derived from geologic maps are examined on TM images of the Arabian shield obtained on Apr. 14, 1984; visual enhancement procedures are applied to the images. The rock types observed in the test site are described; the major sedimentary formations in the test area are laterite and sandstone. The data reveal that the layered rocks in the outcrop consist of a variety of metamorphosed volcanics, metamorphosed sediments, and amphibolite, and the intrusive complex is composed of several classes of mafic and acidic rocks.

Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Marcell, R. F.

1985-01-01

24

Thematic Mapper Spectral Dimensionality and Data Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper data, simulated from field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of a variety of agricultural crops and a wide range of soils, are analyzed to determine their dispersion in the six space defined by the reflective TM bands (i.e., excluding the thermal band). While similar analyses of MSS data from agricultural scenes show that the vast majority of the MSS data occupy a single plane, the simulated TM data primarily occupy three dimensions, defining two intersecting planes and a zone of transition between the two. Viewing the plane of Vegetation head on provides a projection comparable to the single plane of MSS data. The Plane of Soils and transition zone represent new information made available largely as a result of the longer infrared bands included in the Thematic Mapper. A transformation, named the Thematic Mapper Tasseled Cap, is presented which rotates the TM data such that the described data structure is most readily accessible to view.

Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

1984-01-01

25

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress during the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan-ERIM's and 5 image data quality assessment program for the thematic mapper is described. Analyses of LANDSAT 5 TM radiometric characteristics were performed. Effects which had earlier been found in LANDSAT 4 TM data were found to be present in LANDSAT 5 data as well, including: (1) scan direction related signal droop; (2) scan correlated level shifts; and (3) low frequency coherent noise. Coincident LANDSAT 4 and 5 raw TM data were analyzed, and band by band relationships between the two sensors were derived. Earlier efforts which developed an information theoretic measure of multispectral information content were continued, comparing TM and MSS information content.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

26

Thematic Mapper: Design through flight evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT 4 and 5, launched in 1982 and 1984, not only carried the Thematic Mapper, but were redesigned to handle the increased data rates associated with it, and to communicate that data to Earth via geosynchronous orbiting Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). The TM development program is summarized. A brief historical perspective is presented of the evolution of design requirements and hardware development. The basic performance parameters that serve as sensor design guidelines are presented.

1984-01-01

27

Forestry information content of Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an initial investigation of the spectroradiometric data structure and information content of Thematic Mapper (TM) data for some Canadian forest-cover types. The Dryden-Lac Seul region in western Ontario is an important commercial and tourist area containing mainly boreal forest. A LANDSAT-4 TM scene of this region was analysed in conjunction with a considerable amount of ancillary data.

D. N. H. HORLER; F. J. AHERN

1986-01-01

28

Evaluation of corn/soybeans separability using Thematic Mapper and Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multitemporal Thematic Mapper, Thematic Mapper Simulator, and detailed ground truth data were collected for a 9- by 11-km sample segment in Webster County, IA, in the summer of 1982. Three dates were acquired each with Thematic Mapper Simulator (June 7, June 23, and July 31) and Thematic Mapper (August 2, September 3, and October 21). The Thematic Mapper Simulator data were converted to equivalent TM count values using TM and TMS calibration data and model based estimates of atmospheric effects. The July 31, TMS image was compared to the August 2, TM image to verify the conversion process. A quantitative measure of proportion estimation variance (Fisher information) was used to evaluate the corn/soybeans separability for each TM band as a function of time during the growing season. The additional bands in the middle infrared allowed corn and soybeans to be separated much earlier than was possible with the visible and near-infrared bands alone. Using the TM and TMS data, temporal profiles of the TM principal components were developed. The greenness and brightness exhibited behavior similar to MSS greenness and brightness for corn and soybeans.

Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Shen, S. S.; Sorensen, C. T.; Carnes, J. G.

1984-01-01

29

Information content comparison of Thematic Mapper, multispectral scanner and airborne Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that on August 12, 1983 a test of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System in conjunction with the operation of Landsat 4 provided both Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data over Central California. In addition, on August 12, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) acquired Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) data with the high altitude U-2 aircraft. Attention is given to the procedures and results of a study which is currently being conducted at ARC to take full advantage of the data collected on August 12, 1983. Use is made of a series of degradations which should provide a very close approximation of TM and MSS data.

Buis, J. S.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D. A.; Wrigley, R. C.

1984-01-01

30

Stability of landsat-4 thematic mapper outgassing models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oscillations in radiometric gains of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands in Landsat-4 (L4) and Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mappers (TMs) are observed through an analysis of detector responses to the Internal Calibrator (IC) pulses. The oscillations are believed to be caused by an interference effect due to a contaminant film buildup on the window of the cryogenically cooled dewar that houses these detectors. This process of contamination, referred to as outgassing effects, has been well characterized using an optical thin-film model that relates detector responses to the accumulated film thickness and its growth rate. The current models for L4 TM are based on average detector responses to the second brightest IC lamp and have been derived from three data sets acquired during different times throughout the instrument's lifetime. Unlike in L5 TM outgassing characterization, it was found that the L4 TM responses to all three IC lamps can be used to provide accurate characterization and correction for outgassing effects. The analysis of single detector responses revealed an up to five percent difference in the estimated oscillating periods and also indicated a gradual variation of contaminant growth rate over the focal plane.

Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.

2006-01-01

31

Operational MTF for Landsat Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) represents significant improvements in spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution over the older Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). For the last three years, NASA has conducted the Landsat Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) program to quantify the performance of the TM on the Landsat-4 and 5 spacecraft. As part of this program, analysis of the TM imagery to extract the overall system modulation transfer function (MTF) has been performed. In this paper, the San Mateo Bridge in San Francisco is described as a target for calculation of the line spread function and MTF. The analysis of two TM scenes, one from 12/31/82 and one from 8/12/83, yielded effective-instantaneous-field-of-views (EIFOVs) of 40.8 meters and 48.6 meters, respectively. These values are compared with the 33.8 meter EIFOV predicted by component modelling of the TM sensor, and the differences discussed.

Schowengerdt, R.; Archwamety, C.; Wrigley, R. C.

1985-01-01

32

MTF Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program to measure the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) modulation transfer function (MTF) is described. Measurement of a satellite sensor's MTF requires the use of a calibrated ground target, i.e., the spatial radiance distribution of the target must be known to a resolution at least four to five times greater than that of the system under test. A small reflective mirror or a dark light linear pattern such as line or edge, and relatively high resolution underflight imagery are used to calibrate the target. A technique that utilizes an analytical model for the scene spatial frequency power spectrum will be investigated as an alternative to calibration of the scene. The test sites and analysis techniques are also described.

Schowengerdt, R.

1984-01-01

33

Thematic mapper studies of central Andean volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of false color composite images covering the volcanic cordillera was written. Each image is 45 km (1536 x 1536 pixels) and was constructed using bands 7, 4, and 2 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Approximately 100 images were prepared to date. A set of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images was used in conjunction with the TM hardcopy to compile a computer data base of all volcanic structure in the Central Andean province. Over 500 individual structures were identified. About 75 major volcanoes were identified as active, or potentially active. A pilot study was begun combining Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data with TM for a test area in north Chile and Bolivia.

Francis, Peter W.

1987-01-01

34

Thematic Mapper research in the earth sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.

Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke

1989-01-01

35

Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) images were used to produce improved geologic maps of the ophiolites of the Brooks Range, and to recognize regional-scale structures that might affect the spatial distribution of the ophiolites. From the TM data, significant information was obtained concerning the distribution of rock types and structures that could not easily be acquired with conventional geologic studies. The information obtained from the TM data, in combination with other geologic data, is being used to further the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range. Results of the work in the Maiyumerak Mountains area are used to illustrate the information being obtained with the LANDSAT TM data, and the way that the information is being integrated with other geologic data.

Bird, John M.

1987-01-01

36

Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress under the LANDSAT-4 and 5 Image Data Quality Assessment program for the Thematic Mapper is described. An initial screening of LANDSAT-5 data is performed. Tools are developed to allow access to TIPS-format data. Analysis of scan direction related signal droop is resumed with detailed analysis of nighttime data. A new mathematical model is developed to describe the effect. Coherent noise of a lower frequency than previously reported is discovered and analyzed. Coincident LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS data are analyzed to improve understanding of radiometric relationships between similar wavebands in the two sensors.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

37

History of Remote Sensing: Landsat's Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Landsat Thematic Mapper is a multispectral imaging sensor added to Landsats 4 and later. This site uses text, photographs, tables, and diagrams to explain how the Thematic Mapper works and the advantages of sensing radiation in wavelengths other than those normally visible to the human eye. It is part of NASA's Remote Sensing Tutorial and links to the rest of the tutorial are provided.

38

Outgassing models for Landsat-4 thematic mapper short wave infrared bands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detector responses to the Internal Calibrator (IC) pulses in the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) have been observed to follow an oscillatory behavior. This phenomenon is present only in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands and has been observed throughout the lifetime of the instrument, which was launched in July 1982 and imaged the Earth's surface until late 1993. These periodic changes in amplitude, which can be as large as 7.5 percent, are known as outgassing effects and are believed to be due to optical interference caused by a gradual buildup of an ice-like material on the window of the cryogenically cooled dewar containing the SWIR detectors. Similar outgassing effects in the Landsat-5 TM have been characterized using an optical thin-film model that relates detector behavior to the ice film growth rate, which was found to gradually decrease with time. A similar approach, which takes into consideration the different operational history of the instrument, has been applied in this study to three closely sampled data sets acquired throughout the lifetime of the Landsat-4 TM. Although Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers are essentially identical instruments, data generated from analyses of outgassing effects indicate subtle, but important, differences between the two. The estimated lifetime model could improve radiometric accuracy by as much as five percent.

Micijevic, E.; Helder, D.L.

2005-01-01

39

Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

Bird, John M.

1988-01-01

40

Landsat-4 thematic mapper and thematic mapper simulator data for a porphyry copper deposit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft thematic mapper (TM) data were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the Landsat-4 thematic mapper for geologic mapping and detection of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona. The data allow a comparison between aircraft TV simulator data and the Landsat-4 TM satellite data which possess similar spectral bands. A color rationcomposite of 30-m pixels was resampled, in order to clearly define a number of hydroxyl bearing minerals, (kaolinite, sericite, white mica), pyrite and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals. The iron oxide minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.45 and 0.85 micron regions of the spectrum, and the hydrous minerals are characterized by an absorption in the 2.2 micron region. The position of the spectral bands allow the TM to identify regions of hydrothermal alteration without resorting to a data processing algorithm. The comparison of the aircraft and Landsat-4 TM data showed considerable agreement, and confirmed the utility of TM data for identifying hydrothermal alteration zones. Samples of some color TM images are provided.

Abrams, M. J.

1984-01-01

41

An overview of the thematic mapper geometric correction system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geometric accuracy specifications for LANDSAT 4 are reviewed and the processing concepts which form the basis of NASA's thematic mapper geometric correction system are summarized for both the flight and ground segments. The flight segment includes the thematic mapper instrument, attitude measurement devices, attitude control, and ephemeris processing. For geometric correction the ground segment uses mirror scan correction data, payload correction data, and control point information to determine where TM detector samples fall on output map projection systems. Then the raw imagery is reformatted and resampled to produce image samples on a selected output projection grid system.

Beyer, E. P.

1983-01-01

42

Comparison of outgassing models for the landsat thematic mapper sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Thematic Mapper (TM) is a multi-spectral electro-optical sensor featured onboard both the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) satellites. TM sensors have seven spectral bands with center wavelengths of approximately 0.49, 0.56, 0.66, 0.83, 1.65, 11.5 and 2.21 ??m, respectively. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) bands are located on the primary focal plane (PFP), and two short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands and the thermal infrared (TIR) band are located on the cold focal plane (CFP). The CFP bands are maintained at cryogenic temperatures of about 91 K, to reduce thermal noise effects. Due to the cold temperature, an ice film accumulates on the CFP dewar window, which introduces oscillations in SWIR and an exponential decay in TIR band responses. This process is usually monitored and characterized by the detector responses to the internal calibrator (IC) lamps and the blackbody. The ice contamination on the dewar window is an effect of the sensor outgassing in a vacuum of the space environment. Outgassing models have been developed, which are based on the thin-film optical interference phenomenon. They provide the coefficients for correction for outgassing effects for the entire mission's lifetime. While the L4 TM ceased imaging in August 1993, the L5 TM continues to operate even after more than 23 years in orbit. The process of outgassing in L5 TM is still occurring, though at a much lower rate than during early years of mission. Although the L4 and L5 TM sensors are essentially identical, they exhibit slightly different responses to the outgassing effects. The work presented in the paper summarizes the results of modeling outgassing effects in each of the sensors and provides a detailed analysis of differences among the estimated modeling parameters. For both sensors, water ice was confirmed as a reasonable candidate for contaminant material, the contaminant growth rate was found to be gradually decreasing with the time since launch, and the indications exist that some film may remain after the CFP warm-up procedures, which are periodically initiated to remove accumulated contamination. The observed difference between the models could be contributed to differences in the operational history for the sensors, the content and amount of contaminant impurities, the sensor spectral filter responses, and the internal calibrator systems.

Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.

2007-01-01

43

Characterisation of glacier facies with the Airborne Thematic Mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present preliminary work using multispectral imagery from the Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) to build a classification scheme for surface zones of arctic glaciers and icecaps constrained by recently collected data. Previous studies of snow spectral response indicates that the ATM's spectral and spatial resolution will allow for sensitivity in measuring the important but elusive firn line. In design,

A. Pope; G. Rees

2010-01-01

44

Thematic Mapper. Volume 2: Flight model preshipment review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The various systems of the Thematic Mapper are reviewed and a comparison of measured and specified performance is given. Test methodologies are described. The specific instrument systems discussed include the power supply assembly, scan mirror, electronics module, focal plane assembly, radiometer, and radiation cooler.

1982-01-01

45

Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

1986-01-01

46

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress during ERIM's tenth quarter of effort under the LANDSAT-4 and 5 Image Data Quality Assessment program for the Thematic Mapper is described. Coincident LANDSAT-4 and 5 fully corrected (CCT-PT) TM data are analyzed in more detail and revised band-by-band relationships between the two sensors derived. An analysis technique employing the matching of cumulative distributions is developed and used and is believed to offer advantages over the histogram matching procedure currently used to produce LANDSAT data. Multiplicative factors ranging from 0.987 to 1.145 and offsets ranging from -2.7 to -6.2 video quantum levels are required to cause LANDSAT-5 data to match LANDSAT-4 data values. Evidence of low level clipping is found in TM Bands 5 and 7 of LANDSAT-5 but not LANDSAT-4. Analysis of the information content of LANDSAT TM and MSS data is continued. Components of information loss are identified and quantified and the effects of coarsened quantization are explored.

Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (principal investigators)

1985-01-01

47

Feature selection methodologies using simulated Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation is concerned with the determination of the intrinsic dimensionality of a simulated Thematic Mapper data set. In addition, the effectiveness and sensitivity of 'standard' statistics separability measures (i.e., transformed divergence) is evaluated in comparison to eigenvectors for identifying the optimum subset of the original Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) bands for classifying the various cover types. TMS data were collected on May 2, 1979 by NASA's NS001 aircraft multispectral scanner over a bottomland forested area in South Carolina near the city of Camden. It is found that the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a covariance matrix from a multispectral scanner system (MSS) data set can be obtained without having to actually transform the data.

Dean, M. E.; Hoffer, R. M.

1983-01-01

48

Agricultural land-cover discrimination using thematic mapper spectral bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multispectral scanner system data simulating the thematic mapper (TM) of LANDSAT-4 were analysed for an area near Gedney Hill, Lincolnshire, U.K. The data were found to have a three-dimensional statistical structure similar to that for the LANDSAT-4 TM of parts of the United States. Divergence analysis indicates that the optimal choice of bands for cover discrimination should include one band

JOHN R. G. TOWNSHEND

1984-01-01

49

INTRABAND RADIOMETRIC PERFORMANCE OF THE LANDSAT 4 THEMATIC MAPPER.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This preliminary report examines those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. Analysis is based largely on radiometrically raw (B type) data of three daytime and two nighttime scenes; in most scenes, a set of 512 lines were examined on an individual-detector basis. Subscenes selected for uniform-radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems.

Kieffer, Hugh H.; Eliason, Eric M.; Chavez, Pat S., Jr.

1985-01-01

50

Study of Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Data Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data for natural resource assessment and land cover information, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. In most cases, substantially more information was derived from TM data than from MSS data. The test areas included Washington, D.C. and prairie regions of South Dakota and Kansas.

Sadowski, F. G.; Haas, R. H.; Sturdevant, J. A.; Anderson, W. H.; Seevers, P. M.; Feuquay, J. W.; Balick, L. K.; Waltz, F. A.; Lauer, D. T.

1984-01-01

51

A comparative evaluation of simulated SPOT, Thematic Mapper, and simulated Thematic Mapper data in a western ecozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral information content was quantitatively measured for simulated SPOT, Thematic Mapper, and simulated Thematic Mapper data acquired over Santa Cruz County, California. Two techniques were employed: spectral separability summarized through optimal wave band evaluation, and histogram cluster analysis. Using data from the three sources it is shown that three spectral bands can provide separability nearly as high as six bands provide, if the three bands are optimally chosen for the cover type. Analysis of the Santa Cruz scene emphasizes the importance of TM bands 1 and 5 in particular. The three bands of the SPOT scanner are shown to provide sufficient separability for cover types within the study area. The higher spatial resolution data (20 meters) provided by SPOT contain more distinct distributions than data from the other sources studied. Techniques should be developed to exploit this additional information.

Buis, J. S.

1984-01-01

52

Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

1986-01-01

53

Characterisation of glacier facies with the Airborne Thematic Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present preliminary work using multispectral imagery from the Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) to build a classification scheme for surface zones of arctic glaciers and icecaps constrained by recently collected data. Previous studies of snow spectral response indicates that the ATM’s spectral and spatial resolution will allow for sensitivity in measuring the important but elusive firn line. In design, the ATM is similar to Landsat’s Enhanced Thematic Mapper but with key improvements to spatial (potential submeter vs. 30 m) and spectral (a near infrared band 0.91-1.05 ?m) resolution. Published studies have used Landsat imagery and methods such as spectral band ratios, normalized indices, thresholding, principle component analysis, unsupervised classifications, supervised classification, and spectral mixing analysis to classify glacier surfaces. This research builds on these promising techniques with the application of new ATM data and potentially the integration of associated surface elevation data where appropriate with the goal of successfully and reliably identifying the extent of major glacier facies. Compounding the already problematic issue of snow facies distinction, most published classification schemes suffer from a lack of reliable ground-truth to confirm identification of glacier facies based solely on remotely sensed data. Therefore, in addition to previously collected ATM data, associated fieldwork to Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard was conducted during August 2010. The work presented here uses the collected in situ surface reflectance data to inform interpretation of ISODATA classification schemes, will provide end member points for spectral mixing studies, and gives a starting point from which to develop useful analysis strategies for remote imagery. This research will lead to a reliable method for glacier facies identification using the Airborne Thematic Mapper and hopefully a similar method for the related Landsat ETM+. In the future, accurate facies measurement will hopefully provide an effective mass balance proxy which facilitates global glacier monitoring, mass balance studies, water resource availability, and quantification of the largely uncertain contribution of small glaciers and icecaps to global sea level rise.

Pope, A.; Rees, G.

2010-12-01

54

A prospectus for Thematic Mapper research in the Earth sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth science applications of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery are discussed. Prospective research themes are defined in a general sense in relation to the technical measurement capabilities of the TM and the various types of Earth information that can potentially be derived from multispectral TM imagery. An overview of the system developed to acquire and reduce TM data is presented. The technical capabilities of this system are presented in detail. The orbital performance of the TM sensor is described, based upon the analysis of LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data collected to date.

1984-01-01

55

Evaluation of Landsat Thematic Mapper for vegetated alluvium soils information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper data acquired over Mississippi County, Arkansas, on August 22, 1982, were evaluated whether TM provides information that could be used for soil association maps and if soil properties (variability within vegetated fields) can be detected with the new bands on TM. It was found that TM data - especially the mid-IR and thermal bands - show the capability for separating vegetated soil landscapes on a broad basis. Analysis at the field level with a crop growing indicates that TM, with its additional and narrower bands and improved spatial resolution is influenced by within-field variability due to soils.

Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Houston, A. G.; Pitts, D. E.

1983-01-01

56

Registering Thematic Mapper imagery to digital elevation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems encountered when attempting to register Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to U.S. geological survey digital elevation models (DEMs) are examined. It is shown that TM and DEM data are not available in the same map projection, necessitating geometric transformation of one of the data type, that the TM data are not accurately located in their nominal projection, and that TM data have higher resolution than most DEM data, but oversampling the DEM data to TM resolution introduces systematic noise. Further work needed in this area is discussed.

Frew, J.

1984-01-01

57

Classification of corn and soybeans using multitemporal Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multitemporal classification approach based on the greenness profile derived from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral bands has proved successful in effectively separating and identifying corn, soybean, and other ground cover classes. Features derived from these profiles have been shown to carry virtually all the information contained in the original data and, in addition, have been shown to be stable over a large geographic area of the United States. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the same features derived from multitemporal Thematic Mapper (TM) data would also prove effective in separating these two crop types, and, in fact, if algorithms developed for MSS could be directly applied to TM. It is shown that this is indeed the case. In addition, because of greater spatial and spectral resolution, the accuracy of TM classifications is better than in MSS.

Badhwar, G. D.

1984-01-01

58

Contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data to geologic exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increased number of carefully selected narrow spectral bands and the increased spatial resolution of thematic mapper data over previously available satellite data contribute greatly to geologic exploration, both by providing spectral information that permits lithologic differentiation and recognition of alteration and spatial information that reveals structure. As vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases relative to the value of the spatial component of the data. However, even in vegetated areas, the greater spectral breadth and discrimination of TM data permits improved recognition and mapping of spatial elements of the terrain. As our understanding of the spectral manifestations of the responses of soils and vegetation to unusual chemical environments increases, the value of spectral components of TM data to exploration will greatly improve in covered areas.

Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

1983-01-01

59

LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power spectrum (PS) analysis technique was used to compare thematic mapper (TM) A and P-tape data for a Washington, DC scene in two orthogonal directions, along scan and along track. The resulting effective modulation transfer functions (MTF) between the A and P data are repeatable from area to area and consistent with theoretical expectations. The average x-direction (along scan) MTF calculated with the PS technique is compared to the MTF of the cubic convolution resampling function used to create P data from A data. The two curves are nearly identical, indicating that the major factor affecting the image quality of P data relative to A data is the cubic convolution resampling.

Schowengerdt, R. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

60

Analysis of forest structure using thematic mapper simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure information has been explored by principal components and feature selection techniques. In a survey of forest structural properties conducted for 123 field sites of the Sequoia National Park, the canopy closure could be well estimated (r = 0.62 to 0.69) by a variety of channel bands and band ratios, without reference to the forest type. Estimation of the basal area was less successful (r = 0.51 or less) on the average, but could be improved for certain forest types when data were stratified by floristic composition. To achieve such a stratification, individual sites were ordinated by a detrended correspondence analysis based on the canopy of dominant species. The analysis of forest structure in the Sequoia data suggests that total basal area can be best predicted in stands of lower density, and in younger even-aged managed stands.

Peterson, D. L.; Westman, W. E.; Brass, J. A.; Stephenson, N. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Spanner, M. A.

1986-01-01

61

Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT thematic mapper sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data collected on the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-4 backup thematic mapper instruments, the protoflight (TM/PF) and flight (TM/F) models, respectively, are presented and analyzed. Tests were conducted on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with two sets of spectral specifications: band-by-band spectral coverage and channel-by-channel within-band spectral matching. Spectral coverage specifications were placed on: (1) band edges--points at 50% of peak response, (2) band edge slopes--steepness of rise and fall-off of response, (3) spectral flatness--evenness of response between edges, and (4) spurious system response--ratio of out-of-band response to in-band response. Compliance with the spectral coverage specifications was determined by analysis of spectral measurements on the individual components contributing to the overall spectral response: filters, detectors, and optical surfaces.

Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

1983-01-01

62

Edge discrimination as applied to Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of suitable edge discrimination techniques and their application to image segmentation is reported. From an analysis of Thematic Mapper Simulator data, it is concluded that segmentation by automated edge discrimination is a valuable technique which can be used in the development of per-field classifiers. A Laplacian convolution operator appears to be the most cost-effective high-pass filter. Spatial frequency domain filtering is more versatile in its ability to enhance different edge types. A simple global gray value threshold can produce good edge discrimination from an enhanced image which may be improved by using a local thresholding technique. A gap-fill postprocessing technique is necessary for useful segmentation. Gradient and other directionally dependent techniques are unsuitable for segmentation.

Hall, J. R.; Mertz, F. C.; Bauer, E. H.

1983-01-01

63

APPLICATION OF MULTI-DATE LANDSAT 5 TIM IMAGERY FOR WETLAND IDENTIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery was evaluated for the identification and monitoring of potential jurisdictional wetlands located in the states of Maryland and Delaware. A wetland map prepared from single-date TM imagery was compared to a hybrid map develope...

64

The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was acquired over central California in August, 1983 and used to simulate Thematic Mapper data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field center pixels) showed better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

1984-01-01

65

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of experiments were initiated to determine the feasibility of using thematic mapper spectral data to estimate wetlands biomass. The experiments were conducted using hand-held radiometers simulating thematic mapper wavebands 3, 4 and 5. Spectral radiance data were collected from the ground and from a low altitude aircraft in an attempt to gain some insight into the potential utility of actual thematic mapper data for biomass estimation in wetland plant communities. In addition, radiative transfer models describing volume reflectance of eight water column containing submerged aquatic vegetation were refined.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

66

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part C: Subsystem data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reference lists are provided to acceptance data for each of the major subsystems of the thematic mapper. Configuration reports, lists and copies of all failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

1982-01-01

67

INPE LANDSAT-D thematic mapper computer compatible tape format specification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The format of the computer compatible tapes (CCT) which contain Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery data acquired from the LANDSAT D and D Prime satellites by the INSTITUTO DE PERSQUISAS ESPACIALS (CNPq-INPE/BRAZIL) is defined.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Desouza, R. C. M.

1982-01-01

68

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part G: Miscellaneous system data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Functional and design data from various thematic mapper subsystems are presented. Coarse focus, modulation transfer function, and shim requirements are addressed along with spectral matching and spatial coverage tests.

1982-01-01

69

Spectral mapping of Alaskan ophiolites using Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ophiolites are sections of oceanic lithosphere that have been exposed by thrusting in mountain belts. Thematic Mapper three-band color composites have been used to differentiate the main rock types of the ophiolites of the western Brooks Range, Alaska, and to map mineralogic variations produced by processes that affect oceanic lithosphere, such as mantle partial melting, hydration of ultramafic rock, formation of cumulate layers, and hydrothermal alteration and metamorphism of basalt. Scaled composites of TM Bands 7, 3, 1 and 5, 4, 2, and 3, 2, 1, displayed in red, green, and blue are most useful for visually differentiating rocks of the ophiolites. Ternary diagrams of digital number values are used to evaluate color variations observed in the three-band composites. Geologic maps, interpreted from TM images and reconnaissance field studies, are presented for the Asik Mountain, Maiyumerak Mountains, Avan Hills, and Misheguk Mountain ophiolites. The mapping results are being used to guide additional studies of the tectonics of the Brooks Range ophiolites.

Harding, David J.; Wirth, Karl R.; Bird, John M.

1989-01-01

70

Preliminary Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Image Data Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper (TM) data from Mississippi County, Arkansas, and Webster County, Iowa, were examined for the purpose of evaluating the image data quality of the TM which was launched on board the LANDSAT-4 spacecraft. Preliminary clustering and principal component analysis indicates that the middle infrared and thermal infrared data of TM appear to add significant information over that of the near IR and visible bands of the multispectral scanner data. Moreover, the higher spatial resolution of TM appears to provide better definition of the edges and the within variability of agricultural fields. The geometric performance of TM data, without ground control correction, was found to exceed expectations. The modulation transfer function for the 1.65 m band was found to agree with prelaunch specifications when the effects of the GSFC cubic convolution and the atmosphere were removed. The band to band registration for the bands within the noncooled focal plane was found to be better than specified. However, the middle infrared and thermal infrared, which are on a separate cooled focal plane were found to be misregistered and were significantly worse than prelaunch specifications.

Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Pitts, D. E.; Bizzell, R. M.; Yao, S.; Sorensen, C.; Reyna, E.; Carnes, J. G.

1984-01-01

71

LANDSAT-D thematic mapper simulation using aircraft multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation of imagery from the upcoming LANDSAT-D thematic mapper was accomplished by using selected channels of 24-channels aircraft multispectral scanner data. The purpose was to simulate thematic mapper 30-meter resolution imagery and compare its spectral quality with the original aircraft MSS data and determine changes in thematic classification accuracy for the simulated imagery. The original resolution of approximately 7.5 meters IFOV and simulated resolution of 15, 30, and 60 meters were used to indicate the trend of spectral quality and classification accuracy. The study was based in a 6.5 square kilometer area of urban Los Angeles having a diversity of land use.

Clark, J.; Bryant, N. A.

1977-01-01

72

Simulation of Thematic Mapper performance as a function of sensor scanning parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation and results of the Thematic Mapper Instrument Performance Study are described. The Thematic Mapper is the advanced multispectral scanner initially planned for the Earth Observation Satellite and now planned for LANDSAT D. The use of existing digital airborne scanner data obtained with the Modular Multispectral Scanner (M2S) at Bendix provided an opportunity to simulate the effects of variation of design parameters of the Thematic Mapper. Analysis and processing of this data on the Bendix Multispectral Data Analysis System were used to empirically determine categorization performance on data generated with variations of the sampling period and scan overlap parameters of the Thematic Mapper. The Bendix M2S data, with a 2.5 milliradian instantaneous field of view and a spatial resolution (pixel size) of 10-m from 13,000 ft altitude, allowed a direct simulation of Thematic Mapper data with a 30-m resolution. The flight data chosen were obtained on 30 June 1973 over agricultural test sites in Indiana.

Johnson, R. H.; Shah, N. J.; Schmidt, N. F.

1975-01-01

73

Use of TMS/TM data for mapping of forest decline damage in the northeastern United States. [Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing systems were used to monitor forest decline damage suspected of being due to air pollution. Field activities and aircraft overflights were centered on montane spruce/fir forest sites. Using aircraft data acquired with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) during the growing season, extensive areas of forest decline damage were accurately mapped. Seven levels of decline damage are discrininated and mapped and the levels of discriminated damage agree well (rsq-0.94) with visual assessment conducted on the ground. New areas of high damage were discovered. A band ratio (TM5/TM4) is most useful in discriminating and quantifying the various levels of forest decline damage.

Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.

1986-01-01

74

The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was used to simulate TM data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field-center pixels) show better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

1984-01-01

75

Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 2: Sensor system study. [thematic mapper for earth resources application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.

1974-01-01

76

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 31 March 1983, the University of Delaware's Center for Remote Sensing initiated a study to evaluate the spatial, radiometric and spectral performance of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper for coastal and estuarine studies. The investigation was supported by Contract NAS5-27580 from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The research was divided into three major subprojects: (1) a comparison of LANDSAT TM to MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay; (2) remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation - a radiative transfer approach; and (3) remote sensing of coastal wetland biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands.

Klemas, V.; Ackleson, S. G.; Hardisky, M. A.

1985-01-01

77

Detection and Classification of Muskox Habitat on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using Landsat Thematic Mapper data for mapping muskox summer habitat was tested on northern Banks Island, Northwest Territories. Digital image enhancement and classification techniques were examined to determine if summer foraging habitats could be detected and mapped using Thematic Mapper imagery. Interpretations of the Satellite data were verified in the field during the summers of 1988 and

ROBERT S. FERGUSON

1991-01-01

78

Land cover mapping in an agricultural setting using multiseasonal Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiseasonal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data set consisting of five image dates from a single year was used to characterize agricultural and related land cover in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon. Image registration was accomplished using an automated ground control point selection program. Radiometric normalization was performed using a semiautomated approach based on the identification of

Doug R Oetter; Warren B Cohen; Mercedes Berterretche; Thomas K Maiersperger; Robert E Kennedy

2001-01-01

79

APPLICATIONS OF RESOURCE SELECTION MODELING USING UNCLASSIFIED LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are often used for generating predictor variables for wildlife or plant resource selection models, and in producing maps of subsequent predicted values from the resulting models. Land cover class is often used as a possible covariate, if a land cover map derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper or other imagery is available for the study area of

WALLACE P. ERICKSON; RYAN NIELSON; ROBERT SKINNER; BEVERLY SKINNER; E. Tudor

80

Tropical secondary forest regrowth in the Amazon: age, area and change estimation with Thematic Mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of estimating the area, age and changes of tropical secondary forest regrowth from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). Sites of mature forest, agriculture, pasture, pasture with remnant trees, and stands of secondary forest regrowth from 2 to 19 years of age were surveyed in two study areas near Manaus, Amazonas,

M. K. STEININGER

1996-01-01

81

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part B: System data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures and results are presented for performance and systems integration tests of flight model-1 thematic mapper. Aspects considered cover electronic module integration, radiometric calibration, spectral matching, spatial coverage, radiometric calibration of the calibrator, coherent noise, dynamic square wave response, band to band registration, geometric accuracy, and self induced vibration. Thermal vacuum tests, EMI/EMS, and mass properties are included. Liens are summarized.

1982-01-01

82

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part B: Subsystem data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summarized performance data are presented for the following major subsystems of the thematic mapper: the focal plane assembly, the radiative cooler, the radiative cooler door assembly, the top optical assembly, and the telescope assembly. Reference lists of the configurations status and of nonconforming material reports, failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

1982-01-01

83

LAND COVER MAPPING IN AN AGRICULTURAL SETTING USING MULTISEASONAL THEMATIC MAPPER DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

A multiseasonal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data set consisting of five image dates from a single year was used to characterize agricultural and related land cover in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon. Image registration was accomplished using an automated grou...

84

An Application of Landsat5TM Image Data for Water Quality Mapping in Lake Beysehir, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this study was to investigate spatial patterns in water quality in Lake Beysehir, which is the largest freshwater\\u000a reservoir in Turkey, by using Landsat-5TM (Thematic Mapper) data and ground surveys. Suspended sediment (SS), turbidity, Secchi\\u000a disk depth (SDD), and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) data were collected from 40 sampling stations in August, 2006. Spatial patterns\\u000a in these parameters

Bilgehan Nas; Semih Ekercin; Hakan Karabörk; Ali Berktay; David J. Mulla

2010-01-01

85

A comparison between the first four thematic mapper reflective bands and other satellite sensor systems for vegetational monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first four Landsat-D thematic mapper sensors were evaluated and compared to the RBV and MSS sensors from Landsats-1, 2, and 3, Colvocoresses' proposed 'operational Landsat' three band system, and the French SPOT three band system using simulation/integration techniques and in situ collected spectral reflectance data. Sensors were evaluated by their ability to discriminate vegetation biomass, chlorophyll concentration, and leaf water content. The thematic mapper and SPOT bands were superior in a spectral resolution context to the other three sensor systems for vegetational applications. Significant improvements are expected for vegetational analyses from Landsat-D thematic mapper and SPOT imagery over MSS and RBV imagery.

Tucker, C. J.

1978-01-01

86

Characterizating western juniper expansion via a fusion of Landsat 5 thematic mapper and LiDAR data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Juniper encroachment into shrub steppe and grassland systems is one of the most prominent changes occurring in rangelands of western North America. Most studies on juniper change are conducted over small areas, although encroachment is occurring across large regions. Development of image-based met...

87

490 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 4, NO. 3, JULY 2007 Revised Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper  

E-print Network

), National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS), offset, radiance, reflectance, relative spectral response and currently processes TM data through the National Land Archive Pro- duction System (NLAPS). Most users order the first eight years of the mission (1984­1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values

Frank, Thomas D.

88

ABSTRACT: This paper demonstrates how satellite image data [e.g., from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM)], in conjunction with  

E-print Network

(TM)], in conjunction with an urban growth model and simple runoff calculations, can be used sensing; storm water management; surface water hydrology; urban sprawl; water use planning.) Carlson, Toby N., 2004. Analysis and Prediction of Surface Runoff in an Urban- izing Watershed Using Satellite

Thompson, Anne

89

Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

1986-01-01

90

Landsat-D thematic mapper simulation in an urban area using aircraft multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation of imagery from the Landsat-D thematic mapper was conducted in order to determine its usefulness for urban land-use classification. Aircraft 24-channel multispectral scanner imagery of the Los Angeles area at 7.5-m resolution was processed digitally by means of matrix averaging and image smoothing techniques to simulate the 30-m resolution of the thematic mapper. Mean and standard deviation statistics of training sites for resolutions of 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 m were used to generate final classification maps. Plots of relative standard deviation showed that for larger training sites, as the resolution decreased, the distribution range of density values also decreased, while plots of relative classification accuracies showed that as resolution decreased, classification accuracies for three levels of standard deviation increased. A point of diminishing returns was indicated, however, confirming the utility of the resolution intended for Landsat-D.

Clark, J.

1979-01-01

91

Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1988-01-01

92

Thematic mapper protoflight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part A: Multiplexer data, book 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the final performance tests of the thematic mapper flight model multiplexer at ambient temperature are presented. Results cover the power supply, the input buffer, and the A/D threshold for bands 1 through 4.

1982-01-01

93

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part D: Focal plane assembly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data obtained for the Band 1 thematic mapper flight full band assembly (P/N 50797) are summarized. The data were collected from half band, post amplifier, and full band acceptance test data records.

1982-01-01

94

Assessing forest decline in coniferous forests of Vermont using NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the potential of measuring\\/mapping forest decline in spruce-fir forests using airborne NS-001 Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data. Using field instruments, it was found that ratios of 1.65\\/1.23 and 1 65\\/083 ?m reflectance discriminated between spruce samples of low and high damage sites. Using TMS data, 1.65\\/1.23 and 1 65\\/0.83 ?m band ratios were found to be strongly

J. E. VOGELMANN; B. N. ROCK

1986-01-01

95

Study of Spectral/Radiometric Characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for Land Use Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation conducted in support of the LANDSAT 4/5 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program is discussed. Results of engineering analyses of radiometric, spatial, spectral, and geometric properties of the Thematic Mapper systems are summarized; major emphasis is placed on the radiometric analysis. Details of the analyses are presented in appendices, which contain three of the eight technical papers produced during this investigation; these three, together, describe the major activities and results of the investigation.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D. (principal investigator)

1985-01-01

96

GEODETIC ACCURACY OF LANDSAT 4 MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER AND THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

EROS Data Center is evaluating the geodetic accuracy of Landsat-4 data from both the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) processing systems. Geodetic accuracy is a measure of the precision of Landsat data registration to the Earth's figure. This paper describes a geodetic accuracy assessment of several MSS and TM scenes, based on the geodetic referencing information supplied on a standard Landsat 4 computer compatible tape.

Thormodsgard, J.M.; DeVries, D.J.

1985-01-01

97

LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for thematic mapping (TM) bands 3, 4, 5 and 7 is reliably estimated with the San Mateo Bridge target in the 12/31/82 scene. These results are to be compared with those from the 8/12/83 scene. Bands 1, 2 and 6 are to be analyzed with a different target possessing greater contrast. This may be possible with the underflight data comparison currently underway. The registration of this data to the TM image of 8/12/83 for a region arround the Stockton sewage pond east of San Francisco has begun. This particular approach has the advantage that the full two-dimensional MFT will be measured instead of the MFT in only one azimuth as reported.

Schowengerdt, R. (principal investigator)

1985-01-01

98

Landsat-D thematic mapper simulation using aircraft multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation of imagery from the upcoming Landsat-D Thematic Mapper was accomplished by using selected channels of aircraft 24-channel multispectral scanner data. The purpose was to simulate Thematic Mapper 30-meter resolution imagery, to compare its spectral quality with the original aircraft MSS data, and to determine changes in thematic classification accuracy for the simulated imagery. The original resolution of approximately 7.5 meters IFOV and simulated resolution of 15, 30, and 60 meters were used to indicate the trend of spectral quality and classification accuracy. The study was based in a 6.5 square kilometer area of urban Los Angeles having a diversity of land use. The original imagery was reduced in resolution by two related methods: pixel matrix averaging, and matrix smoothing with a unity box filter, followed by matrix averaging. Thematic land use classification using training sites and a Bayesian maximum-likelihood algorithm was performed at three levels of standard deviation - 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 sigma. Plots of relative standard deviation showed that for larger training sites with a normal distribution of data, as the resolution decreased, the distribution range of density values decreased. Also, the classification accuracies for three levels of standard deviation increased as resolution decreased. However, the indication is that a point of diminishing returns had been reached, and 30 meters IFOV should be the best for multispectral classification of urban scenes.

Clark, J.; Bryant, N. A.

1977-01-01

99

Atmospheric modeling related to Thematic Mapper scan geometry. [atmospheric effects on satellite-borne photography of LANDSAT D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation study was carried out to characterize atmospheric effects in LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper data. In particular, the objective was to determine if any differences would result from using a linear vs. a conical scanning geometry. Insight also was gained about the overall effect of the atmosphere on Thematic Mapper signals, together with the effects of time of day. An added analysis was made of the geometric potential for direct specular reflections (sun glint). The ERIM multispectral system simulation model was used to compute inband Thematic Mapper radiances, taking into account sensor, atmospheric, and surface characteristics. Separate analyses were carried out for the thermal band and seven bands defined in the reflective spectral region. Reflective-region radiances were computed for 40 deg N, 0 deg, and 40 deg S latitudes; June, Mar., and Dec. days; and 9:30 and 11:00 AM solar times for both linear and conical scan modes. Also, accurate simulations of solar and viewing geometries throughout Thematic Mapper orbits were made. It is shown that the atmosphere plays an important role in determining Thematic Mapper radiances, with atmospheric path radiance being the major component of total radiances for short wavelengths and decreasing in importance as wavelength increases. Path radiance is shown to depend heavily on the direct radiation scattering angle and on haze content. Scan-angle-dependent variations were shown to be substantial, especially for the short-wavelength bands.

Malila, W. A.; Gleason, J. M.; Cicone, R. C.

1976-01-01

100

Development of thematic mapper vegetative indices for assessing biomass in corn, soybeans and wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral transformations that utilize thematic mapper (TM) bands were found to be highly related to various agronomic parameters such as leaf area index, percent ground cover, total fresh biomass, and plant moisture for corn, soybeans, and wheat. It was found that different spectral transformations are necessary in order to obtain the maximum predictability for each agronomic variable. The TM bands in the water absorption region (1.55 micrometers to 1.75 micrometer and 2.08 micrometer 2.35 micrometer) appear to provide information concerning the water condition of the canopy.

Gardner, B. R.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Blad, B. L. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

101

Geobotanical determination of aggregate source material using Airborne Thematic Mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible use of vegetation to discriminate parent materials for suitability as aggregate source material is examined. Airborne Thematic Mapper data of two test sites representing potential alluvial and residual source areas in central California were analyzed. It is found that the most useful images were composites that included principal components bands and a Perpendicular Vegetation Index band. The image processing demarcated species compositional differences which characterized a shale site and revealed differences in an alluvial site caused by moisture stress due to aggregate size and sorting.

Minor, Timothy; Mouat, David; Myers, Jeff

1988-01-01

102

Feature selection and information content of thematic mapper simulator data for a forested environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feature selection and the information content of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data are investigated for a forested region in northern Idaho. The optimal TMS channels for forest structural characteristics are determined, and the capability of TMS data to describe the structural variability within a forest stand is evaluated. The comparative performance of TMS and MSS data to discriminate forest structural factors using per-pixel maximum likelihood classification is examined, and four optimal TMS channels are classified in order to ascertain if the full complement of TM channels provide higher accuracies than the four optimal ones.

Spanner, M. A.; Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.

1983-01-01

103

Feature selection and the information content of Thematic Mapper simulator data for forest structural assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is made of the information content of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the case of a forested region, in order to determine the sensitivity of such data to forest crown closure and tree size class. Principal components analysis and Monte Carlo simulation indicated that channels 4, 7, 5 and 3 were optimal for four-channel forest structure analysis. As the number of channels supplied to the Monte Carlo feature selection routine increased, classification accuracy increased. The greatest sensitivity to the forest structural parameters, which included succession within clearcuts as well as crown closure and size class, was obtained from the 7-channel TMS data.

Spanner, M. A.; Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.

1984-01-01

104

Comparison of existing digital image analysis systems for the analysis of Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most existing image analysis systems were designed with the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner in mind, leaving open the question of whether or not these systems could adequately process Thematic Mapper data. In this report, both hardware and software systems have been evaluated for compatibility with TM data. Lack of spectral analysis capability was not found to be a problem, though techniques for spatial filtering and texture varied. Computer processing speed and data storage of currently existing mini-computer based systems may be less than adequate. Upgrading to more powerful hardware may be required for many TM applications.

Likens, W. C.; Wrigley, R. C.

1984-01-01

105

Time-delay-and-integration charge coupled devices /CCDs/ applied to the Thematic Mapper. [onboard Landsat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The visible focal plane of the Thematic Mapper, the next generation sensor system for application to earth resource survey, uses complex hybrid assembly techniques to interface silicon photodiodes to JFET preamplifiers. This complexity can be ameliorated by the use of a 20-channel time-delay-and-integration (TDI) CCD with nine stages of integration per channel. By going to a CCD array operating in a TDI mode, over 700 individual op amps can be replaced with only 48 op amps. Smooth spectral response and 70% quantum efficiency have been provided by using doped tin oxide gates over the imaging region.

Thompson, L. L.; Mccann, D. H.

1978-01-01

106

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect different wetland plant canopies have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands is examined. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. Biomass estimates computed from spectral data were most similar to biomass estimates determined from harvest data when models developed for a specific canopy were used. Precise determination of regression coefficients for each canopy type and modeling changes in the coefficients with various combinations of canopy types are being tested. The multispectral band scanner vegetation index estimates are very similar to the vegetation index estimates.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

107

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect different wetland plant canopies have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands is studied. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. The spectral biomass estimate of a broadleaf canopy is most similar to the harvest biomass estimate when a broadleaf canopy radiance model is used. All major wetland vegetation species can be identified through TM imagery. Simple regression models are developed equating the vegetation index and the infrared index with biomass. The spectral radiance index largely agreed with harvest biomass estimates.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

108

Landsat D Thematic Mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To characterize and quantify the performance of the Landsat thematic mapper (TM), techniques for dimensionality reduction by linear transformation have been studied and evaluated and the accuracy of the correction of geometric errors in TM images analyzed. Theoretical evaluations and comparisons for existing methods for the design of linear transformation for dimensionality reduction are presented. These methods include the discrete Karhunen Loeve (KL) expansion, Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA), Thematic Mapper (TM)-Tasseled Cap Linear Transformation and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). A unified approach to these design problems is presented in which each method involves optimizing an objective function with respect to the linear transformation matrix. From these studies, four modified methods are proposed. They are referred to as the Space Variant Linear Transformation, the KL Transform-MDA hybrid method, and the First and Second Version of the Weighted MDA method. The modifications involve the assignment of weights to classes to achieve improvements in the class conditional probability of error for classes with high weights. Experimental evaluations of the existing and proposed methods have been performed using the six reflective bands of the TM data. It is shown that in terms of probability of classification error and the percentage of the cumulative eigenvalues, the six reflective bands of the TM data require only a three dimensional feature space. It is shown experimentally as well that for the proposed methods, the classes with high weights have improvements in class conditional probability of error estimates as expected.

Ford, G. E.

1986-01-01

109

Assessing the accuracy of Landsat Thematic Mapper classification using double sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Double sampling was used to provide a cost efficient estimate of the accuracy of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) classification map of a scene located in the Rocky Moutnain National Park, Colorado. In the first phase, 200 sample points were randomly selected to assess the accuracy between Landsat TM data and aerial photography. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic were 49.5% and 32.5%, respectively. In the second phase, 25 sample points identified in the first phase were selected using stratified random sampling and located in the field. This information was used to correct for misclassification errors associated with the first phase samples. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic increased to 59.6% and 45.6%, respectively.Double sampling was used to provide a cost efficient estimate of the accuracy of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) classification map of a scene located in the Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. In the first phase, 200 sample points were randomly selected to assess the accuracy between Landsat TM data and aerial photography. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic were 49.5 per cent and 32.5 per cent, respectively. In the second phase, 25 sample points identified in the first phase were selected using stratified random sampling and located in the field. This information was used to correct for misclassification errors associated with the first phase samples. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic increased to 59.6 per cent and 45.6 per cent, respectively.

Kalkhan, M.A.; Reich, R.M.; Stohlgren, T.J.

1998-01-01

110

Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

Price, Kevin Paul

1987-01-01

111

Status of the Landsat thematic mapper and multispectral scanner archive conversion system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) manages the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive. This archive includes Landsat thematic mapper (TM) multispectral scanner (MSS) data acquired since 1972. The Landsat archive is an important resource to global change research. To ensure long-term availability of Landsat data from the archive, the EDC specified requirements for a Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Archive Conversion System (TMACS) that would preserve the data by transcribing it to a more durable medium. In addition to media conversion, hardware and software was installed at EDC in July 1992. In December 1992, the EDC began converting Landsat MSS data from high-density, open reel instrumentation tapes to digital cassette tapes. Almost 320,000 MSS images acquired since 1979 and more than 200,000 TM images acquired since 1982 will be converted to the new medium during the next 3 years. During the media conversion process, several high-density tapes have exhibited severe binder degradation. Even though these tapes have been stored in environmentally controlled conditions, hydrolysis has occurred, resulting in "sticky oxide shed". Using a thermostatically controlled oven built at EDC, tape "baking" has been 100 percent successful and actually improves the quality of some images.

Werner, Darla J.

1993-01-01

112

LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix D: Thematic mapper Computer Compatible Tape (CCT-AT/PT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The format of computer compatible tapes which contain LANDSAT 4 and D Prime thematic mapper data is defined. A complete specification of the CCT-AT (radiometric corrections applied and geometric matrices appended) and the CCT-PT (radiometric and geometric corrections) data formats is provided.

Ahmed, H.

1981-01-01

113

Modeling energy flow and nutrient cycling in natural semiarid grassland ecosystems with the aid of thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy flow and nutrient cycling were modeled as affected by herbivory on selected intensive sites along gradients of precipitation and soils, validating the model output by monitoring selected parameters with data derived from the Thematic Mapper (TM). Herbivore production was modeled along the gradient of soils and herbivory, and validated with data derived from TM in a spatial data base.

Lewis, James K.

1987-01-01

114

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part B: Scan mirror assembly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the thematic mapper scan mirror assembly (SMA) acceptance test are presented. Documentation includes: (1) a list of the acceptance test discrepancies; (2) flight 1 SMA test data book; (3) flight 1 SMA environmental report; (4) the configuration verification index; (5) the flight 1 SMA test failure reports; (6) the flight 1 data tapes log; and (7) the requests for deviation/waivers.

1982-01-01

115

Thematic mapper protoflight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part A: Multiplexer data book 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Final performance test data for the thematic mapper flight model multiplexer are presented in tables. Aspects covered include A/D thresholds for bands 5, 6, and 7; cross talk; the thermistor; bilevel commands signal parameters; A/D threshold ambient, voltage margin low bus; serial data and bit clock parameters; and the wire check. Tests were conducted at ambient temperature.

1982-01-01

116

The utility of Thematic Mapper sensor characteristics for surface mine monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The employment of Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data for surface coal mine inventory and inspection applications has been extensively investigated. However, in spite of encouraging research results, MSS data have not gained wide acceptance for surface mine monitoring operations. This situation is partly related to MSS spatial resolution (80 m), which is considered insufficient for detailed surface mine inspection. The Thematic Mapper (TM) employed on the Landsat-4 and 5 satellites provides an improved resolution (30 m) and other refinements which are expected to enhance the usefulness of TM data relative to MSS data. The present paper reports research which was conducted to assess the usefulness of actual TM data and to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of individual sensor characteristics to data utility for surface mine monitoring. The obtained results demonstrate that the TM spatial resolution can be of immediate benefit for certain applications such as surface mine monitoring.

Irons, J. R.; Kennard, R. L.

1984-01-01

117

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the thematic mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The previous characterization of scan-related low-frequency noise was confirmed and extended through analysis of reflective-band data from another nighttime acquisition. Amplitude and phase relationships of the level shifts were determined for each detector in each of free full frames. Analysis of scan-direction-related signal droop effects in nighttime data from the reflective bands was begun with encouraging initial observations. Also, an effort to characterize high-frequency noise in the reflective bands through Fourier analysis of nighttime data was initiated. Recommendations are made relative to the choice of radiometric calibration constants in the thematic mapper image processing system for the routine processing of TM data. Non-linear (piece-wise linear) calibration curves are recommended.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

118

Digital to analog conversion and visual evaluation of Thematic Mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Landsat D Image Data Quality Analysis Program, the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center (EDC) developed procedures to optimize the visual information content of Thematic Mapper data and evaluate the resulting photographic products by visual interpretation. A digital-to-analog transfer function was developed which would properly place the digital values on the most useable portion of a film response curve. Individual black-and-white transparencies generated using the resulting look-up tables were utilized in the production of color-composite images with varying band combinations. Four experienced photointerpreters ranked 2-cm-diameter (0. 75 inch) chips of selected image features of each band combination for ease of interpretability. A nonparametric rank-order test determined the significance of interpreter preference for the band combinations.

McCord, James R.; Binnie, Douglas R.; Seevers, Paul M.

1985-01-01

119

Geometric and radiometric characterization of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper and multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geometrically raw image of Washington, D.C. was acquired and radiometrically corrected. The data show little of the detector stripping common in earlier MSS images. The radiometrically corrected data have uniform means and standard deviations for the detectors in each band; however, the data for different detectors utilize a different pattern of DN levels, resulting in ubiquitous stripping of 1 DN amplitude. Band-to-band registration was assessed using color composites and small area correlation techniques. The spectral equivalency of the first four bands of the thematic mapper with the four bands of the MSS is being examined. Geometric analysis of the Washington, D.C. scene have started and a generalized routine for examining the contents of the label files and nonvideo data files was implemented. Several discrepancies from the documentation are described. Night scenes and daytime ocean scenes required for radiometric purposes were identified and the data ordered.

Kieffer, H. H. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

120

Interpretation of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data for forest surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data were evaluated by interpreting film and digital products and statistical data for selected forest cover types in California. Significant results were: (1) TM color image products should contain a spectral band in the visible (bands 1, 2, or 3), near infrared (band 4), and middle infrared (band 5) regions for maximizing the interpretability of vegetation types; (2) TM color composites should contain band 4 in all cases even at the expense of excluding band 5; and (3) MSS color composites were more interpretable than all TM color composites for certain cover types and for all cover types when band 4 was excluded from the TM composite.

Benson, A. S.; Degloria, S. D.

1985-01-01

121

Mapping surface energy balance components by combining landsat thematic mapper and ground-based meteorological data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface energy balance components were evaluated by combining satellite-based spectral data with on-site measurements of solar irradiance, air temperature, wind speed, and vapor pressure. Maps of latent heat flux density (??E) and net radiant flux density (Rn) were produced using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data for three dates: 23 July 1985, 5 April 1986, and 24 June 1986. On each date, a Bowen-ratio apparatus, located in a vegetated field, was used to measure ??E and Rn at a point within the field. Estimates of ??E and Rn were also obtained using radiometers aboard an aircraft flown at 150 m above ground level. The TM-based estimates differed from the Bowen-ratio and aircraft-based estimates by less than 12 % over mature fields of cotton, wheat, and alfalfa, where ??E and Rn ranged from 400 to 700 Wm-2. ?? 1989.

Moran, M.S.; Jackson, R. D.; Raymond, L.H.; Gay, L.W.; Slater, P.N.

1989-01-01

122

Remote sensing of soils in the eastern Palouse region with Landsat Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soils of the Palouse region of eastern Washington State were investigated using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band ratios to discriminate areas where erosion has caused paleosols to be exposed. Ratioed data were clustered and plotted to show soil lines which could be subdivided into various levels of organic matter and iron oxides. Successfully classified scenes of a summer fallow (bare soil) field were obtained with band ratios 1/4, 3/4, and 5/4 to map organic carbon and 3/4, 5/4, and 5/3 for the iron/carbon ratio indicator of erosion. Regression models were made with 5/4 data and organic carbon and 5/3 data and the iron/carbon ratio. Based on this analysis, 21 percent of the test field soils are exposed or nearly exposed paleosols.

Frazier, B. E.; Cheng, Yaan

1989-01-01

123

Study of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities in support of thematic mapper "A'-tape analysis, field work in the Cement-Velma, Oklahoma areas, and continued interpretation and assessment of imagery of various test sites are reported. The objectives of the A-tape analysis are: (1) to examine the radiometric loss of data quality introduced by resampling to P-tape format; (2) to seek a better distriping of the image by replacing the NASA matching of radiometry to on-board calibration data with an EarthSat matching of the histograms for each of the sixteen detectors, processing separately for forward and backward scanner sweeps; and (3) to produce an image with improved appearance and improved radiometeric qualities.

1983-01-01

124

Radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner. [of Thematic Mapper Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absolute radiometric calibration of the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator reflective channels was examined based on laboratory tests and in-flight comparisons to ground measurements. The NS001 data are calibrated in-flight by reference to the NS001 internal integrating sphere source. This source's power supply or monitoring circuitry exhibited greater instability in-flight during 1988-1989 than in the laboratory. Extrapolating laboratory behavior to in-flight data resulted in 7-20 percent radiance errors relative to ground measurements and atmospheric modeling. Assuming constancy in the source's output between laboraotry and in-flight resulted in generally smaller errors. Upgrades to the source's power supply and monitoring circuitry in 1990 improved its in-flight stability, though in-flight ground reflectance based calibration tests have not yet been performed.

Markham, Brian L.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Gellman, David I.; Slater, Philip N.

1991-01-01

125

Geodetic Accuracy of LANDSAT 4 Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conclusive statements concerning the geodetic accuracy of LANDSAT 4 data, based on such a small sampling of scenes, is impossible. However, the results provide a few interesting observations. For example, LANDSAT 4 multispectral band scanner (MSS) system corrected errors were larger than were expected based on the knowledge of the geometric accuracy of the data from LANDSAT 2 and 3. Also, the thematic mapper (TM) system corrected scenes were more accurate than the MSS scenes by a factor of three. As the spacecraft platform for these two sensors is the same, this result cannot be explained, but a comparison of concurrently acquired MSS and TM data might clarify this situation. Finally, the single MSS ground control point (GCP) corrected product evaluated had good geodetic accuracy considering the poor distribution of the two GCP's applied in the registration.

Thormodsgard, J. M.; Devries, D. J.

1985-01-01

126

Digital to Analog Conversion and Visual Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Landsat D Image Data Quality Analysis Program, the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center (EDC) developed procedures to optimize the visual information content of Thematic Mapper data and evaluate the resulting photographic products by visual interpretation. A digital-to-analog transfer function was developed which would properly place the digital values on the most useable portion of a film response curve. Individual black-and-white transparencies generated using the resulting look-up tables were utilized in the production of color-composite images with varying band combinations. Four experienced photointerpreters ranked 2-cm-diameter (0. 75 inch) chips of selected image features of each band combination for ease of interpretability. A nonparametric rank-order test determined the significance of interpreter preference for the band combinations.

McCord, James R.; Binnie, Douglas R.; Seevers, Paul M.

1985-01-01

127

Improved classification of small-scale urban watersheds using thematic mapper simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of Landsat MSS classification methods in the case of small, highly urbanized hydrological basins containing complex land-use patterns is limited, and is plagued by misclassifications due to the spectral response similarity of many dissimilar surfaces. Landsat MSS data for the Conley Creek basin near Atlanta, Georgia, have been compared to thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data obtained on the same day by aircraft. The TMS data were able to alleviate many of the recurring patterns associated with MSS data, through bandwidth optimization, an increase of the number of spectral bands to seven, and an improvement of ground resolution to 30 m. The TMS is thereby able to detect small water bodies, powerline rights-of-way, and even individual buildings.

Owe, M.; Ormsby, J. P.

1984-01-01

128

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT 5 TM data were analyzed. Effects which were found earlier and quantified in LANDSAT 4 TM data were quantified for LANDSAT-5 data as well, including: scan-direction-related signal droop and scan correlated level shifts. Coincident LANDSAT 4 and 5 fully corrected (CCT-PT) TM data were analyzed, and band-by-band relationships between the two sensors were derived in terms of both signal counts and radiance.

Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (principal investigators)

1985-01-01

129

The GSFC Mark-2 three band hand-held radiometer. [thematic mapper for ground truth data collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self-contained, portable, hand-radiometer designed for field usage was constructed and tested. The device, consisting of a hand-held probe containing three sensors and a strap supported electronic module, weighs 4 1/2 kilograms. It is powered by flashlight and transistor radio batteries, utilizes two silicon and one lead sulfide detectors, has three liquid crystal displays, sample and hold radiometric sampling, and its spectral configuration corresponds to LANDSAT-D's thematic mapper bands. The device was designed to support thematic mapper ground-truth data collection efforts and to facilitate 'in situ' ground-based remote sensing studies of natural materials. Prototype instruments were extensively tested under laboratory and field conditions with excellent results.

Tucker, C. J.; Jones, W. H.; Kley, W. A.; Sundstrom, G. J.

1980-01-01

130

Application of Thematic Mapper data to corn and soybean development stage estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model, utilizing direct relationship between remotely sensed spectral data and the development stage of both corn and soybeans has been proposed and published previously (Badhwar and Henderson, 1981; and Henderson and Badhwar, 1984). This model was developed using data acquired by instruments mounted on trucks over field plots of corn and soybeans as well as satellite data from Landsat. In all cases, the data was analyzed in the spectral bands equivalent to the four bands of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). In this study the same model has been applied to corn and soybeans using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data combined with simulated TM data to provide a multitemporal data set in TM band intervals. All data (five total acquisitions) were acquired over a test site in Webster County, Iowa from June to October 1982. The use of TM data for determining development state is as accurate as with Landsat MSS and field plot data in MSS bands. The maximum deviation of 0.6 development stage for corn and 0.8 development stage for soybeans is well within the uncertainty with which a field can be estimated with procedures used by observers on the ground in 1982.

Badhwar, G. D.; Henderson, K. E.

1985-01-01

131

A preliminary evaluation of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data for their geometric and radiometric accuracies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some LANDSAT thematic mapper data collected over the eastern United States were analyzed for their whole scene geometric accuracy, band to band registration and radiometric accuracy. Band ratio images were created for a part of one scene in order to assess the capability of mapping geologic units with contrasting spectral properties. Systematic errors were found in the geometric accuracy of whole scenes, part of which were attributable to the film writing device used to record the images to film. Band to band registration showed that bands 1 through 4 were registered to within one pixel. Likewise, bands 5 and 7 also were registered to within one pixel. However, bands 5 and 7 were misregistered with bands 1 through 4 by 1 to 2 pixels. Band 6 was misregistered by 4 pixels to bands 1 through 4. Radiometric analysis indicated two kinds of banding, a modulo-16 stripping and an alternate light dark group of 16 scanlines. A color ratio composite image consisting of TM band ratios 3/4, 5/2, and 5/7 showed limonitic clay rich soils, limonitic clay poor soils, and nonlimonitic materials as distinctly different colors on the image.

Podwysocki, M. H.; Bender, L. U.; Falcone, N.; Jones, O. D.

1983-01-01

132

Blocking reduction of Landsat Thematic Mapper JPEG browse images using optimal PSNR estimated spectra adaptive postfiltering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two representative sample images of Band 4 of the Landsat Thematic Mapper are compressed with the JPEG algorithm at 8:1, 16:1 and 24:1 Compression Ratios for experimental browsing purposes. We then apply the Optimal PSNR Estimated Spectra Adaptive Postfiltering (ESAP) algorithm to reduce the DCT blocking distortion. ESAP reduces the blocking distortion while preserving most of the image's edge information by adaptively postfiltering the decoded image using the block's spectral information already obtainable from each block's DCT coefficients. The algorithm iteratively applied a one dimensional log-sigmoid weighting function to the separable interpolated local block estimated spectra of the decoded image until it converges to the optimal PSNR with respect to the original using a 2-D steepest ascent search. Convergence is obtained in a few iterations for integer parameters. The optimal logsig parameters are transmitted to the decoder as a negligible byte of overhead data. A unique maxima is guaranteed due to the 2-D asymptotic exponential overshoot shape of the surface generated by the algorithm. ESAP is based on a DFT analysis of the DCT basis functions. It is implemented with pixel-by-pixel spatially adaptive separable FIR postfilters. PSNR objective improvements between 0.4 to 0.8 dB are shown together with their corresponding optimal PSNR adaptive postfiltered images.

Linares, Irving; Mersereau, Russell M.; Smith, Mark J. T.

1994-01-01

133

Mapping of serpentinites in the Eastern Desert of Egypt by using Landsat thematic mapper data  

SciTech Connect

Serpentinites in the Eastern Desert of Egypt were mapped from Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data by using procedures that take advantage of the distinctive spectral reflectance of these rocks caused by the abundance of antigorite, lizardite, clinochrysotile, and magnetite. The method employs a threshold classifier based on three reflectance ratios: (1) band 5/7 for estimating the abundance of hydroxyl-bearing phases, (2) band 5/1 for magnetite content, and (3) the calculated value of reflectance for band 4, based on a linear interpolation between bands 3 and 5, divided by the observed band-4 reflectance. The third ratio was used to identify rocks in iron-bearing aluminosilicates and thereby to distinguish mafic rocks containing substantial amounts of magnetite and hydroxyl-bearing phases from serpentinites. The method was first successfully tested over the Meatiq dome and Wadi Ghadir areas, where serpentinites and ophiolitic melanges dominated by serpentinites have been mapped during the course of field work. A TM-based map was then generated; the map covered about 60,000 km/sup 2/ in the Eastern Desert. Results demonstrate that TM data can be used with reliability to distinguish serpentinites from surrounding rocks in arid regions and to generate detailed maps over wide regions by using quantitative, reproducible mapping criteria. Possibilities for locating suture zones over the less well known parts of arid continents are clear.

Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R.E.; Sturchio, N.C.

1986-12-01

134

Thematic mapper data quality and performance assessment in renewable resource/agricultural remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A "quick look" investigation of the initial LANDSAT-4, thematic mapper (TM) scene received from Goddard Space Flight Center was performed to gain early insight into the characteristics of TM data. The initial scene, containing only the first four bands of the seven bands recorded by the TM, was acquired over the Detroit, Michigan, area on July 20, 1982. It yielded abundant information for scientific investigation. A wide variety of studies were conducted to assess all aspects of TM data. They ranged from manual analyses of image products to detect obvious optical, electronic, or mechanical defects to detailed machine analyses of the digital data content for evaluation of spectral separability of vegetative/nonvegetative classes. These studies were applied to several segments extracted from the full scene. No attempt was made to perform end-to-end statistical evaluations. However, the output of these studies do identify a degree of positive performance from the TM and its potential for advancing state-of-the-art crop inventory and condition assessment technology.

Erickson, J. D.; Macdonald, R. B. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

135

Forest fire hazard rating assessment in peat swamp forest using Landsat thematic mapper image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are one of the major causes of the deforestation of tropical peat swamps in Malaysia. One way of trying to identify which peat swamp forests are vulnerable to forest fire is to develop a forest fire risk index. The objectives of this study were to develop both a fuel-type map and a forest fire hazard rating assessment for the peat swamp forests. The study was conducted in a peat swamp forest located at Batu Enam, Penor/Kuantan District of Pahang. This area suffered a severe forest fire on 12 March 1998 which degraded the peat swamp area. Digitally processed Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite image were integrated with geographic information layer of fuel type, roads and canal layer to derive a fire hazard rating map of the area. Using the superior spectral and temporal resolution of a Landsat TM, five fire hazard rating classifications were defined. A forest fire hazard rating map was produced showing that 49% of the area was 'low' fire hazard rating, 23% was 'high', 17% was 'moderate', 10% was 'extreme' and 1% was 'null'. Peat lands within 150 meters of roads and of a canal were identified as having an 'extreme' fire hazard rating. Both the fire hazard rating map and the forest fire hazard rating assessment can be used in future forest fire management planning.

Razali, Sheriza M.; Nuruddin, A. Ainuddin; Malek, Ismail A.; Patah, Norizan A.

2010-05-01

136

Evaluation of Thematic Mapper for detecting soil properties under grassland vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of Thematic Mapper data acquired November 15, 1982, over a vegetated site located in the East Texas Timberlands and Claypan area of Texas has indicated that montmorillonitic clay textured soils can be separated from soils with different textures. The difference of TM band 4 (0.76-0.90 micron) and band 7 (2.08-2.35 microns) had an agreement of 55.8 percent with the USDA soil survey for upland clay soils. This compared to 55.9-percent agreement when all six bands (excluding the thermal) were used. The disagreement occurred at the boundary lines as defined by the USDA soil survey and the spectral data. This result is considered to be fairly good, considering the difficulty in placement of soil boundaries by the soil scientist in the field. While the exact influence on the vegetation, and thus the spectral response observed by TM, is not understood at this time, it appears that TM band 7 is responding to the type of mineralogy of the soil and that soil properties important to the plant can be detected using TM.

Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

1984-01-01

137

The use of landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus for mapping leafy spurge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge) is an invasive weed that is a major problem in much of the Upper Great Plains region, including parts of Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming. Infestations in North Dakota alone have had a serious economic impact, estimated at $87 million annually in 1991, to the state's wildlife, tourism, and agricultural economy. Leafy spurge degrades prairie and badland ecosystems by displacing native grasses and forbs. It is a major threat to protected ecosystems in many national parks, national wild lands, and state recreational areas in the region. This study explores the use of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (Landsat) imagery and derived products as a management tool for mapping leafy spurge in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in southwestern North Dakota. An unsupervised clustering approach was used to map leafy spurge classes and resulted in overall classification accuracies of approximately 63%. The uses of Landsat imagery did not provide the accuracy required for detailed mapping of small patches of the weed. However, it demonstrated the potential for mapping broad-scale (regional) leafy spurge occurrence. This paper offers recommendations on the suitability of Landsat imagery as a tool for use by resource managers to map and monitor leafy spurge populations over large areas.

Mladinich, C.S.; Bustos, M.R.; Stitt, S.; Root, R.; Brown, K.; Anderson, G.L.; Hager, S.

2006-01-01

138

A geobotanical investigation based on linear discriminant and profile analyses of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the application of linear discriminant and profile analyses to detailed investigation of an airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) image collected over a geobotanical test site. The test site was located on the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and remote sensing data collection coincided with the onset of leaf senescence in the regional deciduous flora. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that sites overlying soil geochemical anomalies were distinguishable from background sites by the reflectance and thermal emittance of the tree canopy imaged in the airborne TMS data. The correlation of individual bands with the linear discriminant function suggested that the TMS thermal Channel 7 (10.32-12.33 microns) contributed most, while TMS Bands 2 (0.53-0.60 microns), 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), and 5 (1.53-1.73 microns) contributed somewhat more modestly to the separation of anomalous and background sites imaged by the TMS. The observed changes in canopy reflectance and thermal emittance of the deciduous flora overlying geochemically anomalous areas are consistent with the biophysical changes which are known or presumed to occur as a result of injury induced in metal-stressed vegetation.

Schwaller, Mathew R.

1987-01-01

139

New structural and stratigraphic insights for northwestern Pakistan from field and Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The remote Waziristan region of northwestern Pakistan includes outcrops of the India-Asia suture zone. The excellent exposure of the Waziristan ophiolite and associated sedimentary lithosomes and their inaccessibility made the use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data desirable in this study. Landsat TM data were used to create a spectral ratio image of bands 3/4, 5/4, and 7/5, displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively, and a principal component analysis image of bands 4, 5, and 7 (RGB). These images were interpreted in the context of available geologic maps, limited field work, and biostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic, and radiometric data. They were used to create a coherent geologic map of Waziristan and cross section of the area that document five tectonic units in the region and provide a new and more detailed tectonic history for the region. The lowest unit is comprised of Indian shelf sediments that were thrust under the Waziristan ophiolite. The ophiolite has been tectonically shuffled and consists of two separate tectonic units. The top thrust sheet is a nappe comprised of distal Triassic to Lower Cretaceous Neotethyan sediments that were underthrust during the Late Cretaceous by the ophiolite riding on Indian shelf strata. The uppermost unit contains unconformable Tertiary and younger strata. The thrust sheets show that the Waziristan ophiolite was obducted during Late Cretaceous time and imply that the Paleocene and Eocene deformation represents collision of India with the Kabul block and/or Asia.

Robinson, J.; Beck, R.; Gnos, E.; Vincent, R.K.

2000-01-01

140

Geobotanical information contained in Landsat Thematic Mapper images covering southern Missouri  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected in the late summer, fall, and winter of 1982 over forested bedrocks in southeastern Missouri were used in conjunction with forest surveys, field work, aerial photographs, and laboratory analyses to evaluate multispectral and seasonal information from visible and reflected IR data. The forested bedrock included granites, rhyolites, carbonates, and sandstones. High reflectance in band 4 (760-900 nm) in the summer scene corresponds to regions of xeric forest type. The fact that the xeric regions tend to develop flat-topped canopies, as opposed to irregular canopy surfaces of the wetter mesic areas, may partially control the TM response in bands 4, 5 (155-175 nm) and 7 (208-235 nm). The xeric regions correlated with soils having poor water retention capabilities, such as rhyolites and certain carbonate rocks with nonporous residum layers. An opposite relationship between xeric and mesic forest biomass was noted, if the commonly used TM band ratio 4/3 was used as a surrogate biomass measure. The high band 4 response over xeric forests gives anomalously high biomass estimates.

Green, G.; Arvidson, R.; Sultan, M.; Guinness, E.

1986-01-01

141

Preliminary evaluation of the landsat-4 thematic mapper data for mineral exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data recorded over an arid terrain were analyzed to determine the applicability of using of TM data for identifying and mapping hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Clays, micas, and other minerals bearing the OH anion in specific crystal lattice positions have absorption bands in the 2.2-??m region (TM channel 7, TM7) and commonly lack features in the 1.6-??m region (TM5). Channel ratios TM5/TM7, TM5/TM4, and TM3/TM1 were combined into a color-ratio-composite (CRC) image and used to distinguish hydrothermally altered rocks, unaltered rocks, and vegetation. These distinctions are made possible by using the TM5 and TM7, channels which are not available in the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). Digital masking was used to eliminate ambiguities due to water and shadows. However, some ambiguities in identification resulted between altered volcanic rocks and unaltered sedimentary deposits that contained clays, carbonates, and gypsum, and between altered volcanic rocks and volcanic tuffs diagenetically altered to zeolites. However, compared to MSS data, TM data should greatly improve the ability to map hydrothermally altered rocks in arid terrains. ?? 1985.

Podwysocki, M.H.; Power, M.S.; Jones, O.D.

1985-01-01

142

Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

Price, Kevin P.

1993-01-01

143

Evaluation and interpretation of Thematic Mapper ratios in equations for estimating corn growth parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectance and agronomic Thematic Mapper (TM) data were analyzed to determine possible data transformations for evaluating several plant parameters of corn. Three transformation forms were used: the ratio of two TM bands, logarithms of two-band ratios, and normalized differences of two bands. Normalized differences and logarithms of two-band ratios responsed similarly in the equations for estimating the plant growth parameters evaluated in this study. Two-term equations were required to obtain the maximum predictability of percent ground cover, canopy moisture content, and total wet phytomass. Standard error of estimate values were 15-26 percent lower for two-term estimates of these parameters than for one-term estimates. The terms log(TM4/TM2) and (TM4/TM5) produced the maximum predictability for leaf area and dry green leaf weight, respectively. The middle infrared bands TM5 and TM7 are essential for maximizing predictability for all measured plant parameters except leaf area index. The estimating models were evaluated over bare soil to discriminate between equations which are statistically similar. Qualitative interpretations of the resulting prediction equations are consistent with general agronomic and remote sensing theory.

Dardner, B. R.; Blad, B. L.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

1985-01-01

144

Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objective of the project was to evaluate LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data in the context of geologic applications. This involved a quantitative assessment of the data quality including the spatial and spectral characteristics realized by the instrument. Three test sites were selected for the study: (1) Silver Bell, Arizona; (2) Death Valley, California; and (3) Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming. Conclusions include: (1) Artificial and natural targets can be used to atmospherically calibrate TM data and investigate scanner radiometry, atmospheric parameters, and construction of atmospheric Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF's), (2) No significant radiometric degradation occurs in TM data as a result of SCROUNGE processing; however, the data exhibit narrow digital number (DN) distributiosn suggesting that the configuration of the instrument is not optimal for each science applications, (30 Increased spatial resolution, 1:24,000 enlargement capability, and good geometric fidelity of TM data allow accurate photogeologic/geomorphic mapping, including relative age dating of alluvial fans, measurement of structural and bedding attitudes, and construction of such things as structural cross sections and stratigraphic columns. (4) TM bands 5 and 7 are particularly useful for geologic applications because they span a region of the spectrum not previously sampled by multispectral scanner data and are important for characterizing clay and carbonate materials.

Paylor, E. D.; Abrams, M. J.; Conel, J. E.; Kahle, A. B.; Lang, H. R.

1985-01-01

145

Extracting spectral contrast in Landsat Thematic Mapper image data using selective principal component analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A challenge encountered with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data, which includes data from size reflective spectral bands, is displaying as much information as possible in a three-image set for color compositing or digital analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the six TM bands simultaneously is often used to address this problem. However, two problems that can be encountered using the PCA method are that information of interest might be mathematically mapped to one of the unused components and that a color composite can be difficult to interpret. "Selective' PCA can be used to minimize both of these problems. The spectral contrast among several spectral regions was mapped for a northern Arizona site using Landsat TM data. Field investigations determined that most of the spectral contrast seen in this area was due to one of the following: the amount of iron and hematite in the soils and rocks, vegetation differences, standing and running water, or the presence of gypsum, which has a higher moisture retention capability than do the surrounding soils and rocks. -from Authors

Chavez, P.S., Jr.; Kwarteng, A.Y.

1989-01-01

146

Data compression experiments with LANDSAT thematic mapper and Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A case study is presented where an image segmentation based compression technique is applied to LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. The compression technique, called Spatially Constrained Clustering (SCC), can be regarded as an adaptive vector quantization approach. The SCC can be applied to either single or multiple spectral bands of image data. The segmented image resulting from SCC is encoded in small rectangular blocks, with the codebook varying from block to block. Lossless compression potential (LDP) of sample TM and CZCS images are evaluated. For the TM test image, the LCP is 2.79. For the CZCS test image the LCP is 1.89, even though when only a cloud-free section of the image is considered the LCP increases to 3.48. Examples of compressed images are shown at several compression ratios ranging from 4 to 15. In the case of TM data, the compressed data are classified using the Bayes' classifier. The results show an improvement in the similarity between the classification results and ground truth when compressed data are used, thus showing that compression is, in fact, a useful first step in the analysis.

Tilton, James C.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

1989-01-01

147

Recent data quality and earth science results from the landsat thematic mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) provides high-quality observations for earth science studies in regional and global resources assessments. A considerable body of research results shows that TM data can meet geodetic requirements for map products of 1:100,000 scale and smaller. As a coordinate reference system for multiple data sets or indicating where changes have occurred, TM image data may be useful at larger scales up to 1:24,000. For multispectral radiometric studies of earth surface features, TM data provide band-to-band registration for the seven bands extending from 0.45 to 12.5 micrometers of at least 0.3 pixel and often to 0.1 pixel accuracies. Although several scanning and electronic effects have been observed in TM data, the relative radiometry for the bands monitoring reflected solar radiation has limits of uncertainty of less than 1 percent. The uncertainty in the absolute radiometry of the TM system must still be considered to be near 10 percent of full scale, and therefore the uncertainty in bidirectional reflectance values should not exceed 6 percent. A group of 31 investigation teams are in the initial period of analyzing TM data for a wide variety of studies in the earth sciences. Early exemplary results show TM data to be quite useful in geologically related studies such as regional, tectonic, and volcanic processes, mapping landforms and assessing surficial characteristics of glaciers. Other investigations are just beginning to accumulate results related to properties of the hydrosphere, biosphere, and animal habitats.

Salomonson, Vincent V.; Barker, John L.

148

Identification of landslides in clay terrains using Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) multispectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The slopes of the Cotswolds Escarpment in the United Kingdom are mantled by extensive landslide deposits, including both relict and active features. These landslides pose a significant threat to engineering projects and have been the focus of research into the use of airborne remote sensing data sets for landslide mapping. Due to the availability of extensive ground investigation data, a test site was chosen on the slopes of the Cotswolds Escarpment above the village of Broadway, Worcestershire, United Kingdom. Daedalus Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) imagery was subsequently acquired by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to provide high-resolution multispectral imagery of the Broadway site. This paper assesses the textural enhancement of ATM imagery as an image processing technique for landslide mapping at the Broadway site. Results of three kernel based textural measures, variance, mean euclidean distance (MEUC) and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) entropy are presented. Problems encountered during textural analysis, associated with the presence of dense woodland within the project area, are discussed and a solution using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is described. Landslide features in clay dominated terrains can be identified through textural enhancement of airborne multispectral imagery. The kernel based textural measures tested in the current study were all able to enhance areas of slope instability within ATM imagery. Additionally, results from supervised classification of the combined texture-principal component dataset show that texture based image classification can accurately classify landslide regions and that by including a Principal Component image, woodland and landslide classes can be differentiated successfully during the classification process.

Whitworth, Malcolm; Giles, David; Murphy, William

2002-01-01

149

Structural mapping and analysis of a Madagascar Precambrian shear zone using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the west coast of Madagascar has become a frontier region for petroleum exploration. Major structures in the Precambrian shield of Madagascar may have a strong control on the development of sedimentary basins, as has been documented in the Morondava basin. The 2.5-3.0+ Ga shield of Madagascar is an amphibolite- to granulite-grade metamorphic gneiss terrain, intruded by anorthosites and 550-Ma granites and pegmatites. Landsat Thematic Mapper data provides a cost-effective method for regional-scale structural mapping of this poorly known terrain. A five-component linear mixing model has been used to enhance the lithologic information in this six-band data. Lithologic component images thus produced utilize the full geologic spectral range of the data. A preliminary structural geologic map compiled from the component images has greater detail than existing maps at 1:100,000 scale, to which it has been compared. The Ankafotra-Saririaky shear zone has been identified as a north-northeast-trending, 15- to 20-km-wide region of appressed folds, attenuated layering, and subparallel faults on the western side of the shield. Two anorthosite massifs that occur within this shear zone have the structural characteristics of boudins in a ductile matrix. The shear deformed a preexisting terrain of poly-phase folding, characterized by tight folds and complex fold interference structures displayed by basins and domes on a scale of 10 km. Enhanced remote sensing data can be used to characterize the nature and mechanism of shear deformation in such zones.

Kilmer, D.S.; Duncan, I.J. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

1990-05-01

150

Intra-annual NDVI validation of the Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone of the extensive archive of moderate-resolution Earth imagery. Even after more than 24 years of service, the L5 TM is still operational. Given the longevity of the satellite, the detectors have aged and the sensor's radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters in the National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS) have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations in 2003 and 2007 have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data. This letter uses the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a metric to evaluate the radiometric calibration. The calibration change has improved absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic radiometry and will provide the basis for continued long-term studies of the Earth's land surfaces.

Chander, G.; Groeneveld, D.P.

2009-01-01

151

EVALUATION OF LOW-SUN ILLUMINATED LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR MAPPING HYDROTHERMALLY ALTERED ROCKS IN SOUTHERN NEVADA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of southern Nevada collected under conditions of low-angle solar illumination were digitally processed to identify hydroxyl-bearing minerals commonly associated with hydrothermal alteration in volcanic terrains. Digital masking procedures were used to exclude shadow areas and vegetation and thus to produce a CRC image suitable for testing the new TM bands as a means to map hydrothermally altered rocks. Field examination of a masked CRC image revealed that several different types of altered rocks displayed hues associated with spectral characteristics common to hydroxyl-bearing minerals. Several types of unaltered rocks also displayed similar hues.

Podwysocki, Melvin H.; Power, Marty S.; Salisbury, Jack; Jones, O.D.

1984-01-01

152

Application of the Landsat Thematic Mapper to the identification of potentially active volcanoes in the Central Andes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic study of the potentially active volcanoes in the Central Andes (14 deg S to 28 deg S) was carried out on the basis of Landsat Thematic Mapper images which provided consistent coverage of the area. More than 60 major volcanoes were identified as potentially active, as compared to 16 that are listed in the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Casertano, 1963; Hantke and Parodi, 1966). Most of these volcanoes are large (up to 6000 m in height) composite cones. Some of them could threaten nearby settlements, especially those in southern Peru, where the volcanoes rise above deep canyons with settlements along them.

Francis, P. W.; De Silva, S. L.

1989-01-01

153

Pre-Launch Noise Characterization of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM Plus)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A noise characterization of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument was performed as part of a near-real time performance assessment and health monitoring program. Perl'ormance data for the integrated Landsat-7 spacecraft and ETM+ were collected before, during, and after the spacecraft thermal vacuum testing program at the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) facilities in Valley Forge, PA. The Landsat-7 spacecraft and ETM+ instrument were successfully launched on April 15, 1999. The spacecraft and ETM+ are now nearing the end of the on orbit engineering checkout phase, and Landsat-7 is expected to be declared operational on or about July 15, 1999. A preliminary post-launch noise characterization was performed and compared with the pre-launch characterization. In general the overall noise levels in the ETM+ are at or below the specification levels. Coherent noise is seen in most bands, but is only operationally significant when imaging in (he panchromatic band (band 8). This coherent noise has an amplitude as high as approximately 3 DN (peak-to-peak, high gain) at the Nyquist rate of 104 kHz, and causes the noise levels in panchromatic band images at times to exceed the total noise specification by up to approximately 10%. However, this 104 kHz noise is now much weaker than it was prior to the successful repair of the ETM+ power supplies that was completed in May 1998. Weak and stable coherent noise at approximately 5 kHz is seen in all bands in the prime focal plane (bands 1-4 and 8) with the prime (side A) electronics. Very strong coherent noise at approximately 20 kHz is seen in a few detectors of bands 1 and 8, but this noise is almost entirely in the turn-around region between scans when the ETM+ is not imaging the Earth. Strong coherent noise was seen in 2 detectors of band 5 during some of the pre-launch testing; however, this noise seems to be temperature dependent, and has not been seen in the current on orbit environment. Strong 91 kHz coherent noise was observed in the redundant (side B) panchromatic band data after the completion of spacecraft thermal vacuum testing. The cause of this coherent noise was identified as a failed capacitor that was replaced prior to launch, and this noise has not been seen on orbit.

Pedelty, J. A.; Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.; Seiferth, J. C.

1999-01-01

154

An evaluation of the first four LANDSAT-D thematic mapper reflective sensors for monitoring vegetation: A comparison with other satellite sensor systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first four LANDSAT-D thematic mapper sensors were evaluated and compared to: the return beam vidicon (RBV) and multispectral scanners (MSS) sensors from LANDSATS 1, 2, and 3; Colvocoresses' proposed 'operational LANDSAT' three band system; and the French SPOT three band system using simulation/intergration techniques and in situ collected spectral reflectance data. Sensors were evaluated by their ability to discriminate vegetation biomass, chlorophyll concentration, and leaf water content. The thematic mapper and SPOT bands were found to be superior in a spectral resolution context to the other three sensor systems for vegetational applications. Significant improvements are expected for most vegetational analyses from LANDSAT-D thematic mapper and SPOT imagery over MSS and RBV imagery.

Tucker, C. J.

1978-01-01

155

Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

1982-01-01

156

Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Extremadura region of western Spain, Ag, Pb, Zn, and Sn deposits occur in the pieces of late Hercynian granitic plutons and near the pluton contacts in late Proterozoic slate and metagraywacke that have been regionally metamorphosed to the green schist facies. The plutons generally are well exposed and have distinctive geomorphological expression and vegetation; poor exposures of the metasedimentary host rocks and extensive cultivation, however, make delineation of the contact aureoles difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been used to distinguish soil developed on the contact metamorphic rocks from soil formed on the stratigraphically equivalent slate-metagraywacke sequence. The mineral constituents of these soils are similar, except that muscovite is more common in the contact metamorphic soil; carbonaceous material is common in both soils. Contact metamorphic soil have lower reflectance, especially in the 1.6-micrometers wavelength region (TM 5), and weaker Al-OH, Mg-OH, and Fe3+ absorption features than do spectra of the slate-metagraywacke soil. The low-reflectance and subdued absorption features exhibited by the contact metamorphic soil spectra are attributed to the high absorption coefficient f the carbonaceous material caused by heating during emplacement of the granitic plutons. These spectral differences are evident in a TM 4/3, 4/5, 3/1 color-composite image. Initially, this image was used to outline the contact aureoles, but digital classification of the TM data was necessary for generating internally consistent maps of the distribution of the exposed contact metamorphic soil. In an August 1984, TM scene of the Caceras area, the plowed, vegetation-free fields were identified by their low TM 4/3 values. Then, ranges of TM 4/5 and 3/1 values were determine for selected plower fields within and outside the contact aureoles; TM 5 produced results similar to TM 4/5. Field evaluation, supported by X-ray diffraction and petrographic studies, confirmed the presence of more extensive aureoles than shown in published geologic maps; few misclassified areas were noted. Additional plowed fields consisting of exposed contact metamorphic soil were mapped digitally in an August 1985 TM scene. Subsequently, this approach was used to map two 1-km-wide linear zones of contact metamorphosed rock and oil in the San Nicolas-Sn-W Mine area, which is located approximated 125 km southeast of the Caceras study area. Exposures of granite in the San Nicolas area are limited to a few unaltered granitic dikes in the mine and a small exposure of unaltered pegmatite-bearing granite in a quarry about 1.5 km west of the mine. The present of coarsely crystalline biotite and beryl in the granite in the quarry and of contact metamorphosed slate up to 2.5 km from the nearest granite exposure suggest that only the apical part of a pluton is exposed in the quarry and that a larger, shallowly buried body is probably present. These results indicate that potential application of TM image analysis to mineral exploration in lithologically similar areas that are cultivated in spite of poor rock exposures.

Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

1987-01-01

157

AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1997 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)  

EPA Science Inventory

High-Resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del Medio Ambiente y el Bes...

158

Feasibility of sea ice typing with synthetic aperture radar (SAR): Merging of Landsat thematic mapper and ERS 1 SAR satellite imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

ERS 1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) images were acquired for the same area in the Beaufort Sea, April 16 and 18, 1992. The two image pairs were colocated to the same grid (25-m resolution), and a supervised ice type classification was performed on the TM images in order to classify ice free, nilas, gray ice,

Konrad Steffen; John Heinrichs

1994-01-01

159

An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper data for the classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Anderson, J. E.; Brannon, D. P.; Hill, C. L.

1982-01-01

160

Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Performance as Applied to Hydrocarbon Exploration. [Ontario, Canada; Cement, Oklahoma; and Death Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role data from the first three LANDSAT satellites have in geologic exploration and their current level of acceptance is reviewed and the advantages of LANDSAT 4 TM data over MSS data are discussed. Specially enhanced Thematic Mapper imager can make a very significant contribution to the oil and gas and mineral exploration industries. The TM's increased spatial resolution enables the production of larger scale imagery, which greatly increases the amount of geomorphic and structural information interpretable. TM's greater spectral resolution, combined with the smaller, more homogeneous pixels, should enable a far greater confidence in mapping lithologies and detecting geobotanical anomalies from space. The results from its applications to hydrocarbon and mineral exploration promise to bring the majority of the geologic exploration community into that final stage of acceptance and routine application of the satellite data.

Everett, J. R.; Sheffield, C.; Dykstra, J.

1985-01-01

161

A statistical evaluation of the advantages of Landsat Thematic Mapper data in comparison to Multispectral Scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 16, 1982, the second decade of land remote sensing from space was inaugurated with the successful launch of Landsat-4. This satellite carries the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and a new sensor, the Thematic Mapper (TM). The TM represents the result of an effort in which all of the major improvements in remote-sensing capability were simultaneously integrated into one system. An experiment was developed and conducted to quantify the effect of each TM sensor parameter on classification accuracy. This paper discusses the experimental design and summarizes the results obtained using TM data acquired over the Washington, DC area on November 2, 1982. Attention is given to a study site/data description, the experimental design, photointerpretation and digitization, spectral simulation, radiometric simulation, and spatial simulation.

Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Markham, B. L.; Nelson, R. F.; Toll, D. L.; Latty, R. S.; Stauffer, M. L.

1984-01-01

162

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of training statistics for the 30 meter resolution simulated thematic mapper MSS data was generated based on land use/land cover classes. In addition to this supervised data set, a nonsupervised multicluster block of training statistics is being defined in order to compare the classification results and evaluate the effect of the different training selection methods on classification performance. Two test data sets, defined using a stratified sampling procedure incorporating a grid system with dimensions of 50 lines by 50 columns, and another set based on an analyst supervised set of test fields were used to evaluate the classifications of the TMS data. The supervised training data set generated training statistics, and a per point Gaussian maximum likelihood classification of the 1979 TMS data was obtained. The August 1980 MSS data was radiometrically adjusted. The SAR data was redigitized and the SAR imagery was qualitatively analyzed.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

1981-01-01

163

DISCRIMINATION OF ALTERED BASALTIC ROCKS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES BY ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat Thematic Mapper image data were analyzed to determine their ability to discriminate red cone basalts from gray flow basalts and sedimentary country rocks for three volcanic fields in the southwestern United States. Analyses of all of the possible three-band combinations of the six nonthermal bands indicate that the combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 best discriminates among these materials. The color-composite image of these three bands unambiguously discriminates 89 percent of the mapped red volcanic cones in the three volcanic fields. Mineralogic and chemical analyses of collected samples indicate that discrimination is facilitated by the presence of hematite as a major mineral phase in the red cone basalts (hematite is only a minor mineral phase in the gray flow basalts and red sedimentary rocks).

Davis, Philip A.; Berlin, Graydon L.; Chavez, Pat S.

1987-01-01

164

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques. [south carolina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A literature review on radar and spectral band information was conducted and a NC-130 mission was flown carrying the NS001 scanner system which basically corresponds to the channel configuration of the proposed thematic mapper. Aerial photography and other reference data were obtained for the study site, an area approximately 290 sq miles in north central South Carolina. A cover type map was prepared and methods were devised for reformatting and geometrically correcting MSS CRT data. Arrangements were made to obtain LANDSAT data for dates approximating the NC-130 mission. Because of the waveband employed to obtain SEASAT radar data, it was decided to determine if X-band (2.40 cm to 3.75 cm wavelength) imagery is available.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

165

Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

1987-01-01

166

Improvement in absolute calibration accuracy of Landsat-5 TM with Landsat-7 ETM+ data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ability to detect and quantify changes in the Earth's environment depends on satellites sensors that can provide calibrated, consistent measurements of Earth's surface features through time. A critical step in this process is to put image data from subsequent generations of sensors onto a common radiometric scale. To evaluate Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper's (TM) utility in this role, image pairs from the L5 TM and Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors were compared. This approach involves comparison of surface observations based on image statistics from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. The results indicate a significant improvement in the consistency of L5 TM data with respect to L7 ETM+ data, achieved using a revised Look-Up-Table (LUT) procedure as opposed to the historical Internal Calibrator (IC) procedure previously used in the L5 TM product generation system. The average percent difference in reflectance estimates obtained from the L5 TM agree with those from the L7 ETM+ in the Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) bands to within four percent and in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands to within six percent.

Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Micijevic, E.; Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.

2005-01-01

167

Processing multi temporal Thematic Mapper data for mapping the submarine shelf of the Island Kerkennah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gulf of Gabes in Tunisia is unique among Mediterranean coastal environments by shallow water extension and tide amplitude. Kerkennah islands, located in this this gulf, are characterized by a -10 m isobath few kilometers away from the shoreline and by a lithology composition dominated by smooth rocks (sandstone and mio-plocene clay). These features, combined with a sea level rise and an active subsidence, constitute major risk factors. Islands vulnerability is increased by sebkha (salted low lands) extension which accounts now for 45% of the total area. Thus assessing the littoral sea depth change is a key issue for risk monitoring. Our study relies on the 30 years archive of Landsat 5 TM sensor managed by GSFC/NASA. The depth assessment has been carried out by an empiric method based on TM1 channel which has the better water penetration properties (up to 25 m). We focused on summer period and selected images from July 1986, August 1987, June 2003 and July 2009. After a first step of data preprocessing to ensure data homogeneity, we produced sub-aquatic morphology change maps. The observed features (submarine channels enlargement, cells sinking) are consistent with the hypothesis of the ebb tide as the process leading phenomenon.

Katlane, Rim; Berges, Jean-Claude; Beltrando, Gérard; Zargouni, Fouad

2014-05-01

168

Lithologic mapping of mafic intrusions in East Greenland using Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The East Greenland Tertiary Igneous Province contains a variety of intrusive and extrusive rock types. The Skaergaard complex is the most well known of the intrusive centers. Landsat thematic mapping (TM) was used in conjunction with field spectrometer data to map these mafic intrusions. These intrusions are of interest as possible precious metal ore deposits. They are spectrally distinct from the surrounding Precambrian gneisses. However, subpixel contamination by snow, oxide surface coatings, lichen cover and severe topography limit the discrimination of lithologic units within the gabbro. Imagery of the Skaergaard and surrounding vicinity, and image processing and enhancement techniques are presented. Student theses and other publications resulting from this work are also listed.

Naslund, H. Richard; Birnie, R. W.; Parr, J. T.

1989-01-01

169

Comparison of the spectral information content of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Resurs-01 NDVI data for vegetation discrimination and monitoring in central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Resurs-01 satellite data now being made commercially available are bridging the gap between NOAA AVHRR and Landsat TM with a resolution in visible and near-infrared bands of 170 meters and a re-imaging capability of about four days at the equator. The combination of the mid-range ground resolution and the high repeat cycle gives data sets ideal for vegetation mapping and monitoring in scales ranging from 1:250,000 to 1:2,000,000. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has become the primary tool for accurate description of continental land cover and can be calculated both, from the channels of the Landsat Thematic Mapper and from the Resurs-01 MSU-SK instrument. The primary objective of this study was to compare the spectral information content of the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Resurs-01 MSU-SK NDVI data for an agricultural landscape of Central Italy.

Marchetti, Marco; Ricotta, Carlo

1997-01-01

170

Lake Water Quality Assessment From Landsat Thematic Mapper Data Using Neural Network: An Approach to Optimal Band Combination Selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concern about water quality in inland water bodies such as lakes and reservoirs has been increasing. Owing to the complexity associated with field collection of water quality samples and subsequent laboratory analyses, scientists and researchers have employed remote sensing techniques for water quality information retrieval. Due to the limitations of linear regression methods, many researchers have employed the artificial neural network (ANN) technique to decorrelate satellite data in order to assess water quality. In this paper, we propose a method that establishes the output sensitivity toward changes in the individual input reflectance channels while modeling water quality from remote sensing data collected by Landsat thematic mapper (TM). From the sensitivity, a hypothesis about the importance of each band can be made and used as a guideline to select appropriate input variables (band combination) for ANN models based on the principle of parsimony for water quality retrieval. The approach is illustrated through a case study of Beaver Reservoir in Arkansas, USA. The results of the case study are highly promising and validate the input selection procedure outlined in this paper. The results indicate that this approach could significantly reduce the effort and computational time required to develop an ANN water quality model.

Sudheer, K. P.; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Garg, Vijay

2006-12-01

171

Assessing forest damage in high-elevation coniferous forests in Vermont and New Hampshire using Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study evaluates the potential of measuring/mapping forest damage in spruce-fir forests in the Green Mountains of Vermont and White Mountains of New Hampshire using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. The TM 1.65/0.83-micron (TM5/4) and 2.22/0.83-micron (TM7/4) band ratios were found to correlate well with ground-based measurements of forest damage (a measure of percentage foliar loss) at 11 spruce-fir stands located on Camels Hump, a mountain in northern Vermont. Images using 0.56 and 1.65-micron bands with 1.65/0.83-micron band ratios indicated locations of heavy conifer forest damage. Both 1.65/0.83 and 2.22/0.83-micron band ratios were used to quantify levels of conifer forest damage among individual mountains throughout many of the Green and White Mountains. Damage was found to be consistently higher for the Green than the White Mountains.

Vogelmann, James E.; Rock, Barrett N.

1988-01-01

172

Washburne anticline delta structure: model based on integration of thematic mapper, seismic, and well-log data  

SciTech Connect

The Washburne anticline located in western Arkansas is a prominent, thrust-related structure at the leading edge of the Ouachita orogenic belt. Previously interpreted as a complexly thrust-faulted anticline, the feature has been reinterpreted as a delta or triangle structure based on integration of surface mapping from thematic mapper (TM) data with subsurface interpretation of seismic and well-log cross sections. The northern limb of the Washburne anticline consists of a relatively unfaulted, steeply north-dipping sheet above a major north-dipping backthrust. The southern limb consists of several steeply south-dipping imbricate thrust sheets that form a duplex zone in the center of the delta structure. Seismic and well-log interpretations indicate the presence of the imbrication in the duplex zone, but poor seismic resolution within the structure made interpretation of the back thrust difficult. Surface mapping from TM imagery indicates the presence of the back thrust and the extent and geometry of the delta structure. Imbricate thrust sheets and horses also crop out, and their geometry is a guide to interpretation of subsurface data sets. The new model of the Washburne anticline as a delta structure has aided in subsurface-data analysis and has resulted in a better understanding of trap geometry and distribution. This study also demonstrates the application of detailed surface mapping from satellite remote-sensing data to prospect-scale analysis.

Dodge, R.L.; Keeling, M.L.; Cassiani, D.H.

1989-03-01

173

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supervised and cluster block training statistics were used to analyze the thematic mapper simulation MSS data (both 1979 and 1980 data sets). Cover information classes identified on SAR imagery include: hardwood, pine, mixed pine hardwood, clearcut, pasture, crops, emergent crops, bare soil, urban, and water. Preliminary analysis of the HH and HV polarized SAR data indicate a high variance associated with each information class except for water and bare soil. The large variance for most spectral classes suggests that while the means might be statistically separable, an overlap may exist between the classes which could introduce a significant classification error. The quantitative values of many cover types are much larger on the HV polarization than on the HH, thereby indicating the relative nature of the digitized data values. The mean values of the spectral classes in the areas with larger look angles are greater than the means of the same cover type in other areas having steeper look angles. Difficulty in accurately overlaying the dual polarization of the SAR data was resolved.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

1981-01-01

174

Estimating the age of deciduous forests in northeast China with Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data acquired in different phenological seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the ability of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data acquired in leaf-on and leaf-off seasons to estimate stand age of Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla in northeast China. The relationships of six band reflectances, nine vegetation indices, and six texture measures with stand age were examined. Linear and multivariable regression models and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN) were employed to estimate forest age based on these variables. The results indicate that reflectance in short-wave infrared bands and wetness are more significantly correlated with stand age in the leaf-on image, while reflectance in blue and green bands and greenness are more sensitive to stand age in leaf-off image. The MLP NN model can be effectively used to retrieve the stand age; the highest coefficient of determination and minimum root mean square error values of retrieved age are 0.47 and 21.3 years for Larix gmelinii, and 0.60 and 10.1 years for Betula platyphylla, respectively. The predicted age errors increased significantly when stand ages were >100 and >50 years for Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla, respectively. Remote sensing data acquired in the leaf-on season is more suitable for estimating forest age than that acquired in the leaf-off season over the study area.

Li, Dengqiu; Ju, Weimin; Fan, Wenyi; Gu, Zhujun

2014-01-01

175

Use of landsat thematic mapper data to identify crop types and estimate irrigated acreage, Uvalde and Medina counties, Texas, 1991  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to estimate that about 51,000 acres of crops were irrigated with water pumped from the Edwards aquifer in Uvalde and Medina Counties, Texas in 1991. Areas calculated for irrigated crops were 31,000 acres for Uvalde County and 20,000 acres for Medina County. Quantities of water pumped from the Edwards aquifer to irrigate crops in 1991 were estimated as 65,000 acre-feet for Uvalde County and 18,000 acre-feet for Medina County. Differences in estimates of ground water used for irrigation in the two counties were attributed primarily to greater pre- cipitation in Medina County than in Uvalde County. The total number of acres of irrigated crops estimated using Landsat TM data was about 9 percent lower in Uvalde County and about 13 percent lower in Medina County than the number of acres calculated from data reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS). The total quantity of water pumped from the Edwards aquifer in 1991 for irrigation in the two counties, about 83,000 acre- feet, was about 5 percent greater developed than the quantity calculated from data reported by the ASCS.

Raymond, L.H.; McFarlane, S.I.

1994-01-01

176

The use of thematic mapper data for land cover discrimination: Preliminary results from the UK SATMaP programme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal objectives of the UK SATMaP program are to determine thematic mapper (TM) performance with particular reference to spatial resolution properties and geometric characteristics of the data. So far, analysis is restricted to images from the U.S. and concentrates on spectra and radiometric properties. The results indicate that the data are inherently three dimensional compared with the two dimensional character of MSS data. Preliminary classification results indicate the importance of the near infrared band (TM 4), at least one middle infrared band (TM 5 or TM 6) and at least one of the visible bands (preferably either TM 3 or TM 1). The thermal infrared also appears to have discriminatory ability despite its coarser spatial resolution. For band 4 the forward and reverse scans show somewhat different spectral responses in one scene but this effect is absent in the other analyzed. From examination of the histograms it would appear that the full 8-bit quantization is not being effectively utilized for all the bands.

Jackson, M. J.; Baker, J. R.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Gayler, J. E.; Hardy, J. R.

1983-01-01

177

Land cover stratification using Landsat Thematic Mapper data in Sahelian and Sudanian woodland and wooded grassland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A standard methodology for thematic mapping of natural vegetation using remotely sensed imagery and digital image processing was modified to account for the spatial and spectral properties of semi-arid landscapes, and tested in study areas in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones, Mali. A principal components transformation of registered wet and dry season Landsat TM images produced a set of synthetic spectral channels differentiating vegetation cover between seasons, and allowed areas with annual grass growth to be distinguished from areas with woody cover. The transformed data were statistically clustered and clusters were assigned to vegetation type and density categories. In a separate step, the images were manually interpreted to differentiate broad soil classes. Four statistics were compared to evaluate the accuracy of the maps based on sample points from air photos. For the relatively detailed categories initially defined, map accuracies were substandard; however, when vegetation density classes were aggregated, overall accuracy was around 90 percent, and class accuracy was greater than 80 percent for most classes. This method is suitable for stratification and inventory of woody biomass at a regional scale in semi-arid woodland and wooded grassland.

Franklin, J.

1991-01-01

178

Analysis of thematic mapper simulator data acquired during winter season over Pearl River, Mississippi, test site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital processed aircraft-acquired thematic mapping simulator (TMS) data collected during the winter season over a forested site in southern Mississippi are presented to investigate the utility of TMS data for use in forest inventories and monitoring. Analyses indicated that TMS data are capable of delineating the mixed forest land cover type to an accuracy of 92.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct, respectively. The figures reflect the performance for products produced using the best subset of channels for each forest cover type. It was found that the choice of channels (subsets) has a significant effect on the accuracy of classification produced, and that the same channels are not the most desirable for all three forest types studied. Both supervised and unsupervised spectral signature development techniques are evaluated; the unsupervised methods proved unacceptable for the three forest types considered.

Anderson, J. E.; Kalcic, M. T. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

179

Use of Landsat thematic mapper data to map complex metamorphic terranes in arid areas: Meatiq Dome, Egypt  

SciTech Connect

Meatiq Dome, a metamorphic complex in the Precambrian basement of the Eastern Desert of Egypt, exhibits many of the essential features of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes, and exposes many of the Arabian-Nubian Shield rock units. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data was correlated with mineralogic, chemical, and laboratory spectral reflectance measurements for representative samples from ground truth areas. Results indicate: 1) ratio of reflectances at (1.55 to 1.75)/(2.08 to 2.35) um is sensitive to the hydroxyl group content of the rocks, 2) reflectances at 1.55-1.75 um are inversely related to rock opaque phase content, and 3) reflectances computed at 0.83 um that are lower than observed band 4 reflectance are indicative of Fe bearing rocks rich in amphibole and biotite. We applied a linear interpolation between reflectances at 0.63 to 0.69 um and 1.55 to 1.75 um to compute band 4 reflectances. Using the above findings, a new geologic map was generated that shows: 1) 11 rock units, 7 of which, were not included in the geologic maps drawn in absence of TM data, 2) refolded open folds having F1 axes trending NE-SW refolded along F2 axes trending NNW-SSE consistent with inferred directions of ophiolite transport to the northwest and regional broad open folding direction about NNW trending axes, 3) previously unidentified outcrops of massive amphibolite juxtaposed against quartzofeldspathic mylonite that may imply the presence of a previously unrecognized detachment surface and, 4) mode of emplacement of intrusive rocks.

Sultan, M.; Arvidson, R.; Sturchio, N.; Guinness, E.

1985-01-01

180

Monitoring the recovery of Juncus roemerianus marsh burns with the normalized difference vegetation index and Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nine atmospherically corrected Landsat Thematic Mapper images were used to generate mean normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) at 11 burn sites throughout a coastal Juncus roemerianus marsh in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, Florida. Time-since-burn, the time lapse from the date of burn to the date of image collection, was related to variation in mean NDVI over time. Regression analysis showed that NDVI increased for about 300 to 400 days immediately after the burn, overshooting the typical mean NDVI of a nonburned marsh. For about another 500 to 600 days NDVI decreased until reaching a nearly constant NDVI of about 0.40. During the phase of increasing NDVI the ability to predict time-since-burn was within about ??60 days. Within the decreasing phase this dropped to about ??88 days. Examination of each burn site revealed some nonburn related influences on NDVI (e.g., seasonality). Normalization of burn NDVI by site-specific nonburn control NDVI eliminated most influences. However, differential responses at the site-specific level remained related to either storm impacts or secondary burning. At these sites, collateral data helped clarify the abnormal changes in NDVI. Accounting for these abnormalities, site-specific burn recovery trends could be broadly standardized into four general phases: Phase 1-preburn, Phase 2-initial recovery (increasing NDVI), Phase 3-late recovery (decreasing NDVI), and Phase 4-final coalescence (unchanging NDVI). Phase 2 tended to last about 300 to 500 days, Phase 3 an additional 500 to 600 days, and finally reaching Phase 4, 900 to 1,000 days after burn.

Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Sapkota, S.K.; Barnes, F.G.; Nelson, G.A.

2002-01-01

181

BIA interpretation techniques for vegetation mapping using thematic mapper false color composites (interim report for San Carlos Reservation)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is responsible for the natural resource management of approximately 52 million acres of Trust lands in the contiguous United States. The lands are distributed in a "patchwork" fashion throughout the country. Management responsibilities on these areas include: minerals, range, timber, fish and wildlife, agricultural, cultural, and archaeological resources. In an age of decreasing natural resources and increasing natural resource values, effective multiple resource management is critical. BIA has adopted a "systems approach" to natural resource management which utilizes Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. The GIS encompasses a continuum of spatial and relational data elements, and included functional capabilities such as: data collection, data entry, data base development, data analysis, data base management, display, and report generalization. In support of database development activities, BIA and BLM/TGS conducted a cooperative effort to investigate the potential of 1:100,000 scale Thematic Mapper (TM) False Color Composites (FCCs) for providing vegetation information suitable for input to the GIS and to later be incorporated as a generalized Bureau wide land cover map. Land cover information is critical as the majority of reservations currently have no land cover information in either map or digital form. This poster outlines an approach which includes the manual interpretation of land cover using TM FCCs, the digitizing of interpreted polygons, and the editing of digital data, used upon ground truthing exercises. An efficient and cost-effective methodology for generating large area land cover information is illustrated for the Mineral Strip area on the San Carlos Indian Reservation in Arizona. Techniques which capitalize on the knowledge of the local natural resources professionals, while minimizing machine processing requirements, are suggested.

Bonner, W.J.; English, T.C.; Haas, R.H.; Feagan, T.R.; McKinley, R.A.

1987-01-01

182

Paleobasin analysis and tectonic framework development of southern Zagros basin, interpreted from Landsat 4 thematic mapper image  

SciTech Connect

Detailed lineament maps produced with the digitally enhanced Landsat 4 thematic mapper in conjunction with field data provide new information on structural relations to the southern Zagros basin. Three major parallel lineaments are from north to south, Qatar-Kazern, Razak, and Oman. These lineaments trend approximately N17/sup 0/E and subdivide the Zagros basin into northern, central, and southern segments. The study area is enclosed by the Razak and Oman lineaments. Piercement salt domes (Precambrian salt) are abundant within the southern Zagros basin, absent east of the Oman lineament, and scarce in the area west of the Razak lineament. This salt dome distribution and the N17/sup 0/E trend suggest that these lineaments are surface manifestations of boundaries of basement crustal blocks that have been reactivated periodically since the Precambrian. The northern extension of this Precambrian basin is marked by salt domes (Precambrian salt) along the Oman lineament, located in the Kerman region 400 km north of Minab. Along the eastern boundary, at the juncture of the southern Zagros basin and western Makran Ranges, the trend of fold axes changes from east-west to north-south. The western basin boundary is characterized by a gradual change in the trend of the fold axis from east-west to northwest-southeast. This study provides useful information for subsurface interpretations, which will benefit hydrocarbon exploration. The Razak and Oman lineaments enclose a highly productive area, and separate the southern Zagros basin from less productive areas to the west and from a nonproductive region to the east where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that lineaments may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of the southern Zagros basin.

Iranpanah, A.

1986-05-01

183

Comparison of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare images from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor on Landsat-7 and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument on Earth Observing One (EO-1) over a test site in Rochester, New York. The site contains a variety of features, ranging from water of varying depths, deciduous/coniferous forest, and grass fields, to urban areas. Nearly coincident cloud-free images were collected one minute apart on 25 August 2001. We also compare images of a forest site near Howland, Maine, that were collected on 7 September, 2001. We atmospherically corrected each pair of images with the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) atmosphere model, using aerosol optical thickness and water vapor column density measured by in situ Cimel sun photometers within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), along with ozone density derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Earth Probe satellite. We present true-color composites from each instrument that show excellent qualitative agreement between the multispectral sensors, along with grey-scale images that demonstrate a significantly improved ALI panchromatic band. We quantitatively compare ALI and ETM+ reflectance spectra of a grassy field in Rochester and find < or equal to 6% differences in the visible/near infrared and approx. 2% differences in the short wave infrared. Spectral comparisons of forest sites in Rochester and Howland yield similar percentage agreement except for band 1, which has very low reflectance. Principal component analyses and comparison of normalized difference vegetation index histograms for each sensor indicate that the ALI is able to reproduce the information content in the ETM+ but with superior signal-to-noise performance due to its increased 12-bit quantization.

Pedelty, Jeffrey A.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Smith, James A.

2004-01-01

184

Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Analyses of Chlorophyll-a Concentration and Distribution in Small Kettle Lakes, Southern Minnesota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal variability of lake water quality is well defined; however, due to costs and logistical constraints, multiple assessments of water quality are rarely obtained in Minnesota lakes. For improved resource management, an integrated assessment of whole-lake surface water quality is needed. Sequential spatial descriptions of water quality variability will facilitate characterizing physical, chemical, and biological processes in lakes and help to identify sources of external and internal nutrient loading within individual lakes. Our study focused on surface water properties in six small southern Minnesota meso-eutrophic, eutrophic, and hypereutrophic lakes. Our protocol included obtaining multiple, georeferenced in-lake and laboratory-based assays of surface water quality within 24 hours of each Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) overpass during the summer of 2001. Lake water data (including chlorophyll-a, total phosphorus, water transparency, and total suspended solids) were regressed against temporally and spatially equivalent three-by-three pixel averages of singular and combined ETM+ spectral bands. A simple linear regression of chlorophyll-a analyses from water samples and corrected ETM+ Band 2 data provided the strongest correlation (R2 = 0.96) among the available data. The chlorophyll-a concentrations from processed ETM+ data in each lake exhibit up to three orders of magnitude greater variance than those derived from water sample data. Furthermore, ETM+ results illustrate distinctive patterns of chlorophyll-a distribution among lakes of similar trophic status that are not present in water sample data. Thus, it appears ETM+ data provide better characterizations of overall chlorophyll-a concentrations and distribution relative to multiple-sample in-lake water analyses in small kettle lakes.

Hoppie, B.; Roost, B.

2004-12-01

185

Utilizing remote sensing of Thematic Mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT thematic mapper (TM) data are being used to refine and validate a stochastic spatial computer model to be applied to coastal resource management problems in Louisiana. Two major aspects of the research are: (1) the measurement of area of land (or emergent vegetation) and water and the length of the interface between land and water in TM imagery of selected coastal wetlands (sample marshes); and (2) the comparison of spatial patterns of land and water in the sample marshes of the imagery to that in marshes simulated by a computer model. In addition to activities in these two areas, the potential use of a published autocorrelation statistic is analyzed.

Browder, J. A.; May, L. N., Jr.; Rosenthal, A.; Baumann, R. H.; Gosselink, J. G.

1986-01-01

186

Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A stochastic spatial computer model addressing coastal resource problems in Lousiana is being refined and validated using thematic mapper (TM) imagery. The TM images of brackish marsh sites were processed and data were tabulated on spatial parameters from TM images of the salt marsh sites. The Fisheries Image Processing Systems (FIPS) was used to analyze the TM scene. Activities were concentrated on improving the structure of the model and developing a structure and methodology for calibrating the model with spatial-pattern data from the TM imagery.

Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson, Jr.; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

1987-01-01

187

Spectral mixture analysis to assess post-fire vegetation regeneration using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery: Accounting for soil brightness variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-fire vegetation cover is a crucial parameter in rangeland management. This study aims to assess the post-fire vegetation recovery 3 years after the large 2007 Peloponnese (Greece) wildfires. Post-fire recovery landscapes typically are mixed vegetation-substrate environments which makes spectral mixture analysis (SMA) a very effective tool to derive fractional vegetation cover maps. Using a combination of field and simulation techniques this study aimed to account for the impact of background brightness variability on SMA model performance. The field data consisted out of a spectral library of in situ measured reflectance signals of vegetation and substrate and 78 line transect plots. In addition, a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scene was employed in the study. A simple SMA, in which each constituting terrain feature is represented by its mean spectral signature, a multiple endmember SMA (MESMA) and a segmented SMA, which accounts for soil brightness variations by forcing the substrate endmember choice based on ancillary data (lithological map), were applied. In the study area two main spectrally different lithological units were present: relatively bright limestone and relatively dark flysch (sand-siltstone). Although the simple SMA model resulted in reasonable regression fits for the flysch and limestones subsets separately (coefficient of determination R2 of respectively 0.67 and 0.72 between field and TM data), the performance of the regression model on the pooled dataset was considerably weaker ( R2 = 0.65). Moreover, the regression lines significantly diverged among the different subsets leading to systematic over-or underestimations of the vegetative fraction depending on the substrate type. MESMA did not solve the endmember variability issue. The MESMA model did not manage to select the proper substrate spectrum on a reliable basis due to the lack of shape differences between the flysch and limestone spectra,. The segmented SMA model which accounts for soil brightness variations minimized the variability problems. Compared to the simple SMA and MESMA models, the segmented SMA resulted in a higher overall correlation ( R2 = 0.70), its regression slope and intercept were more similar among the different substrate types and its resulting regression lines more closely resembled the expected one-one line. This paper demonstrates the improvement of a segmented approach in accounting for soil brightness variations in estimating vegetative cover using SMA. However, further research is required to evaluate the model's performance for other soil types, with other image data and at different post-fire timings.

Veraverbeke, S.; Somers, B.; Gitas, I.; Katagis, T.; Polychronaki, A.; Goossens, R.

2012-02-01

188

A Comparison of the Fractional MODIS and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper with Ground-Based Snow Surveys in the Sierra Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow surveys were performed within 1- and 2-km2 grids during the accumulation and ablation periods in the Sierra Nevada of California in 2006, 2008, and 2009, and provide ground-truth for the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size/albedo (MODSCAG) model. In addition, LANDSAT Thematic Mapper using the TMSCAG model at a 30-m resolution was used to compare results with MODIS and the snow surveys. The availability of accurate, fractional snow covered area (fSCA) from MODIS at a 500-m resolution offers unprecedented detail on snow accumulation and melt across variable terrain. fSCA from MODIS provides the only daily basin-wide snow coverage estimation for the western United States, where snow is a dominant component of precipitation and runoff. However, MODSCAG produces the projected fractional snow cover, which does not include snow under the tree canopy. A proposed modification to the method is to divide the observed fractional snow by the canopy opening, i.e. 1.0 minus the forest fraction. A comparison of mean fSCA during the accumulation season across eight 300-m elevation bands, in the 1500-3900 m range, in the Tuolumne and Merced River basins showed that canopy with openings less than 50% obscure significant snow cover. In snow surveys performed within 1- and 2- km2 grids in forested terrain with canopy openings of 50% or less, surveys measured complete snow cover, but MODIS detected fSCA across the study area of 0.3-0.4, comparable to the vegetation gap fraction. During the onset of ablation in a forested area with canopy openings of 0.6- 0.9, snow surveys measured nearly complete snow cover, and MODIS detected a mean fSCA across a 1-km2 study area of 0.83 (range 0.4-0.9). During the ablation period, when snowcover becomes highly variable, a ground survey in an area with canopy openings of 0.4-0.6 provided a snowcover estimate of 0.5, versus 0.1 for fSCA from MODIS. When compared to the 30-m fractional fSCA from the TMSCAG model there were mixed results. When snow surveys measured complete snow cover, LANDSAT showed from 15-20% more to 9% less fSCA than MODIS. However, when snowcover was highly variable during the ablation period and ground truth showed snow cover of 0.5, LANDSAT detected a mean fSCA of 0.3 (range 0-0.9). Even though the TMSCAG model pushes the limits of the scale-dependent biases to smaller basins, and terrain with canopy openings less than 0.5, the LANDSAT analysis confirms that under-canopy snow cannot be captured directly by an optical sensor. Although forest cover introduces potential biases, using MODSCAG in basin-scale hydrologic modeling one can ignore these biases at larger scales and lighter forest cover; while in smaller forested basins, or within elevation bands, where vegetation obscures significant snow cover, adjustments are necessary for mass balance.

Rice, R.; Bales, R. C.; Kirchner, P. B.; Saksa, P. C.; Rittger, K. E.; Painter, T. H.; Dozier, J.

2010-12-01

189

Water quality assessment with simultaneous Landsat-5 TM data at Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

This study aims at determining relationships between water quality parameters and digital data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). The study area was the Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected on two dates, coincident with Landsat passages, and when different tide conditions were present at the Bay. TM Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, band ratios 1 / 3 and 2 / 3, and principal component analysis of TM Bands 1-4 were compared with in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of water samples. Some water quality parameters were very well correlated with the digital remotely sensed data, especially during high tide: for instance, iron and manganese concentrations in total suspended solids; salinity and Secchi depth; temperature and Secchi depth; temperature and total suspended solids; total suspended solids and Bands 4 and 6; Secchi depth and Bands 4 and 6; temperature and Band 6. Lower correlation coefficients, although also significant, were found for the low tide condition. No correlation was found with chlorophyll-a concentrations. TM data were shown to be adequate to analyze temperature, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, and iron and manganese contents in the total suspended solids for the polluted estuary area studied.

Braga, C.Z.F.; Setzer, A.W. (National Inst. of Space Research, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)); Lacerda, L.D. de (Federal Fluminense Univ., Niteroi (Brazil))

1993-06-01

190

Thematic mapper research in the earth sciences: Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe River Estuary, German Bight and Tidal Flats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Thematic Mapper (TM) field experiment was followed by a data analysis to determine TM capabilities for analysis of suspended matter and phytoplankton. Factor analysis showed that suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature can be retrieved as independent factors which determine the variation in the TM data over water areas. Spectral channels in the near infrared open the possibility of determining the Angstrom exponent better than for the coastal zone color scanner. The suspended matter distribution may then be calculated by the absolute radiance of channel 2 or 3 or the ratio of both. There is no indication of whether separation of chlorophyll is possible. The distribution of suspended matter and sea surface temperature can be observed with the expected fine structure. A good correlation between water depth and suspended matter distribution as found from ship data can now be analyzed for an entire area by the synoptic view of the TM scenes.

Grassl, H.; Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Brockmann, C.; Stoessel, M.

1987-01-01

191

Distribution of Potential Hydrothermally Altered Rocks in Central Colorado Derived From Landsat Thematic Mapper Data: A Geographic Information System Data Set  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the Central Colorado Mineral Resource Assessment Project, the digital image data for four Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes covering central Colorado between Wyoming and New Mexico were acquired and band ratios were calculated after masking pixels dominated by vegetation, snow, and terrain shadows. Ratio values were visually enhanced by contrast stretching, revealing only those areas with strong responses (high ratio values). A color-ratio composite mosaic was prepared for the four scenes so that the distribution of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks could be visually evaluated. To provide a more useful input to a Geographic Information System-based mineral resource assessment, the information contained in the color-ratio composite raster image mosaic was converted to vector-based polygons after thresholding to isolate the strongest ratio responses and spatial filtering to reduce vector complexity and isolate the largest occurrences of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks.

Knepper, Daniel H.

2010-01-01

192

[Retrieval of leaf area index of moso bamboo forest with Landsat Thematic Mapper image based on PROSAIL canopy radiative transfer model].  

PubMed

The PROSAIL canopy radiative transfer model was used to establish leaf area index (LAI) and canopy reflectance lookup-table for Moso bamboo forest. The combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image and this model was then used to retrieve LAI. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity of the input parameters in the PROSAIL model decreased in order of LAI >chlorophyll content (C(ab)) > leaf structure parameters (N) > mean leaf angle (ALA) > equivalent water thickness (C(w)) > dry matter content (C(m)). The most sensitive factors LAI and C(ab) were then used to construct the LAI-canopy reflectance lookup-table. The LAI estimates from the PROSAIL model had good agreement with the reference data, with the coefficient of determination (R2) reached 0.90. The root mean square error (RMSE) and relative RMSE were 0.58 and 13.0%, respectively. However, the mean LAI estimate was higher than the observed value. PMID:24380345

Gu, Cheng-yan; Du, Hua-qiang; Zhou, Guo-mo; Han, Ning; Xu, Xiao-jun; Zhao, Xiao; Sun, Xiao-yan

2013-08-01

193

Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The land-water interface of coastal marshes may influence the production of estuarine-dependent fisheries more than the area of these marshes. To test this hypothesis, a spatial model was created to explore the dynamic relationship between marshland-water interface and level of disintegration in the decaying coastal marshes of Louisiana's Barataria, Terrebonne, and Timbalier basins. Calibrating the model with Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery, a parabolic relationship was found between land-water interface and marsh disintegration. Aggregated simulation data suggest that interface in the study area will soon reach its maximum and then decline. A statistically significant positive linear relationship was found between brown shrimp catch and total interface length over the past 28 years. This relationship suggests that shrimp yields will decline when interface declines, possibly beginning about 1995.

Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

1988-01-01

194

Analysis of Thematic Mapper data for studying the suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper data were analyzed with respect to its capability for mapping the complex structure and dynamics of suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea). Three independent pieces of information were found by factor analysis of all seven TM channels: suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature. For the required atmospheric correction, the signal-to-noise ratios of Channels 5 and 7 have to be improved by averaging over 25 x 25 pixels, which also makes it possible to monitor the aerosol optical depth and aerosol type over cloud-free water surfaces. Near-surface suspended matter concentrations may be detected with an accuracy of factor less than 2 by using an algorithm derived from radiative transfer model calculation. The patchiness of suspended matter and its relation to underwater topography was analyzed with autocorrelation and cross-correlation.

Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Stoessel, M.; Brockmann, C.; Grassl, H.

1989-01-01

195

LANDSAT-5 orbit adjust maneuver report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The orbit adjust maneuvers performed to raise the LANDSAT 5 spacecraft to mission altitude, synchronize it with the required groundtrack, and properly phase the spacecraft with LANDSAT-4 to provide an 8 day full Earth coverage cycle are described. Maneuver planning and evaluation procedures, data and analysis results for all maneuvers performed to date, the frozen orbit concept, and the phasing requirement between LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 are also examined.

Hassett, P. J.; Johnson, R. L.

1984-01-01

196

Computer analysis of Landsat, Thematic Mapper imagery and existing road locations for elk habitat mapping in northern California  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed Landsat, Thermatic Mapper imagery and previously mapped, road locations to identify vegetation classes and measure elk habitat quality throughout a 350,810 hectare study area in north-central California. Computerized image classification procedures were used to identify and map 26 classes of vegetation cover and ten classes of non-vegetated land. A geographic information system was used to integrate road locations, quantify forage and cover quality ratings for vegetation types, and calculate an elk habitat quality index. Vegetation classes were aggregated into three forage quality and three cover quality ratings. Road locations were used to define corridors of low habitat quality, representing hunting pressure. Mountainous regions were dominated by conifer forest types and foothill regions were dominated by Juniper-Pine-Grass types. The valley region contained large amounts of the sage and rabbit brush types. Thirty-four percent of the western third of the study area, dominated by foothills and mountains, was classed as good habitat. By contrast the central and eastern portions of the study area, dominated by the valley region and mountains, contained a small proportion (12 percent) of the better habitats. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Fox, L. III [Department of Forestry, College of Natural Resources and Sciences, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California 95521 (United States); Burton, T.S. [State of California, The Resources Agency, Department of Fish & Game, Shasta Valley Wildlife Area, 1724 Ball Mountain Road, Montague, California 96064 (United States)

1996-03-01

197

Automated mapping of mineral groups and green vegetation from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery with an example from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral satellite data acquired by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM) sensors are being used to populate an online Geographic Information System (GIS) of the spatial occurrence of mineral groups and green vegetation across the western conterminous United States and Alaska. These geospatial data are supporting U.S. Geological Survey national-scale mineral deposit database development and other mineral resource and geoenvironmental research as a means of characterizing mineral exposures related to mined and unmined hydrothermally altered rocks and mine waste. This report introduces a new methodology for the automated analysis of Landsat TM data that has been applied to more than 180 scenes covering the western United States. A map of mineral groups and green vegetation produced using this new methodology that covers the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, and the Four Corners Region is presented. The map is provided as a layered GeoPDF and in GIS-ready digital format. TM data analysis results from other well-studied and mineralogically characterized areas with strong hydrothermal alteration and (or) supergene weathering of near-surface sulfide minerals are also shown and compared with results derived from ASTER data analysis.

Rockwell, Barnaby W.

2013-01-01

198

Utilizing remote sensing of Thematic Mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the project is to refine and validate a probabilistic spatial computer model through the analyses of thematic mapper imagery. The model is designed to determine how the interface between marshland and water changes as marshland is converted to water in a disintegrating marsh. Coastal marshland in Louisiana is disintegrating at the rate of approximately 40 sq mi a year, and an evaluation of the potential impact of this loss on the landings of estuarine-dependent fisheries is needed by fisheries managers. Understanding how marshland-water interface changes as coastal marshland is lost is essential to the process of evaluating fisheries effects, because several studies suggest that the production of estuarine-dependent fish and shellfish may be more closely related to the interface between marshland and water than to acreage of marshland. The need to address this practical problem has provided an opportunity to apply some scientifically interesting new techniques to the analyses of satellite imagery. Progress with the development of these techniques is the subject of this report.

Browder, J. A. (principal investigator); Rosenthal, A.; May, L. N., Jr.; Bauman, R. H.; Gosselink, J. G.

1985-01-01

199

Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continuing disintegration of the coastal marshes of Louisiana is one of the major environmental problems of the nation. The problem of marsh loss in Louisiana is relevant to fishery management because Louisiana leads the nation in landings of fishery products, and most of the landed species are dependent upon estuaries and their associated tidal marshes. In evaluating the potential effect of marshland loss on fisheries, the first two critical factors to consider are: whether land-water interface in actual disintegrating marshes is currently increasing or decreasing, and the magnitude of the change. In the present study, LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering specific marshes in coastal Louisiana were used to test conclusions from the Browder et al (1984) model with regard to the stage in disintegration at which maximum interface occurs; to further explore the relationship between maximum interface and the pattern of distribution of land and water suggested by the model; and to determine the direction and degree of change in land-water interface in relation to land loss in actual marshes.

Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson, Jr.; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

1988-01-01

200

Image-based terrain modeling with thematic mapper applied to resolving the limit of Holocene Lake expansion in the Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scanner records reflected solar energy from the earth's surface in six wavelength regions, or bands, and one band that records emitted energy in the thermal region, giving a total of seven bands. Useful research was extracted about terrain morphometry from remote sensing measurements and this information is used in an image-based terrain model for selected coastal geomorphic features in the Great Salt Lake Desert (GSLD). Technical developments include the incorporation of Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) data in satellite image analysis, and the production and use of 3-D surface plots of TM reflectance data. Also included in the technical developments is the analysis of the ground control point spatial distribution and its affects on geometric correction, and the terrain mapping procedure; using satellite data in a way that eliminates the need to degrade the data by resampling. The most common approach for terrain mapping with multispectral scanner data includes the techniques of pattern recognition and image classification, as opposed to direct measurement of radiance for identification of terrain features. The research approach in this investigation was based on an understanding of the characteristics of reflected light resulting from the variations in moisture and geometry related to terrain as described by the physical laws of radiative transfer. The image-based terrain model provides quantitative information about the terrain morphometry based on the physical relationship between TM data, the physical character of the GSLD, and the APTS measurements.

Merola, John A.

1989-01-01

201

A procedure for radiometric recalibration of Landsat 5 TM reflective-band data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to the internal calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time, causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20%. In May 2003, the L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) were updated to use a lifetime lookup-table (LUT) gain model to radiometrically calibrate TM data instead of using scene-specific IC gains. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. The L5 TM data processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work-order report that was included in the original standard data product delivery is available. However, if users do not have the original work-order report, the IC trends can be used for recalibration. The IC trends were generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database. This paper provides the details of the recalibration procedure for the following: 1) data processed using IC where users have the work-order file; 2) data processed using IC where users do not have the work-order file; 3) data processed using prelaunch calibration parameters; and 4) data processed using the previous version of the LUT (e.g., LUT03) that was released before April 2, 2007.

Chander, G.; Haque, M.O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J.A.

2010-01-01

202

Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower generation, dredging, forestry, agriculture, channel alteration, diking, bank stabilization and floodplain development, have dramatically altered both the type and distribution of habitats along the Columbia River Estuary (CRE) and its floodplain. Along the Columbia River, tidally influenced habitats occur from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of 230 km. If we are to effectively manage the natural resources of the Columbia River ecosystem, there is a need to understand how habitats have changed because fish and wildlife populations are known to respond to changes in habitat quality and distribution. The goal of this study was to measure the amount and type of change of CRE land cover from 1992 to 2000. We performed a change analysis on two spatial data sets describing land cover along the lower portion of the estuary (Fig. 1). The 1992 data set was created by the NOAA Coastal Remote Sensing, Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) in cooperation with Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Point Adams Field Station, and State of Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR). The 2000 data set was produced by Earth Design Consultants, Inc. (EDC) and the Wetland Ecosystem Team (WET: University of Washington) as part of a larger Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) habitat mapping study. Although the image classification methodologies used to create the data sets differed, both data sets were produced by classifying Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery, making it feasible to assess land cover changes between 1992 and 2000.

Garono, Ralph; Anderson, Becci; Robinson, Rob

2003-10-01

203

Mapping the invasive species, Chinese tallow, with EO1 satellite Hyperion hyperspectral image data and relating tallow occurrences to a classified Landsat Thematic Mapper land cover map  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objective was to provide a realistic and accurate representation of the spatial distribution of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) in the Earth Observing 1 (EO1) Hyperion hyperspectral image coverage by using methods designed and tested in previous studies. We transformed, corrected, and normalized Hyperion reflectance image data into composition images with a subpixel extraction model. Composition images were related to green vegetation, senescent foliage and senescing cypress-tupelo forest, senescing Chinese tallow with red leaves ('red tallow'), and a composition image that only corresponded slightly to yellowing vegetation. These statistical and visual comparisons confirmed a successful portrayal of landscape features at the time of the Hyperion image collection. These landscape features were amalgamated in the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) pixel, thereby preventing the detection of Chinese tallow occurrences in the Landsat TM classification. With the occurrence in percentage of red tallow (as a surrogate for Chinese tallow) per pixel mapped, we were able to link dominant land covers generated with Landsat TM image data to Chinese tallow occurrences as a first step toward determining the sensitivity and susceptibility of various land covers to tallow establishment. Results suggested that the highest occurrences and widest distribution of red tallow were (1) apparent in disturbed or more open canopy woody wetland deciduous forests (including cypress-tupelo forests), upland woody land evergreen forests (dominantly pines and seedling plantations), and upland woody land deciduous and mixed forests; (2) scattered throughout the fallow fields or located along fence rows separating active and non-active cultivated and grazing fields, (3) found along levees lining the ubiquitous canals within the marsh and on the cheniers near the coastline; and (4) present within the coastal marsh located on the numerous topographic highs. ?? 2005 US Government.

Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Rangoonwala, A.; Nelson, G.; Ehrlich, R.

2005-01-01

204

Mapping and improving frequency, accuracy, and interpretation of land cover change: Classifying coastal Louisiana with 1990, 1993, 1996, and 1999 Landsat Thematic Mapper image data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat Thematic Mapper images and collateral data sources were used to classify the land cover of the Mermentau River Basin within the chenier coastal plain and the adjacent uplands of Louisiana, USA. Landcover classes followed that of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coastal Change Analysis Program; however, classification methods needed to be developed to meet these national standards. Our first classification was limited to the Mermentau River Basin (MRB) in southcentral Louisiana, and the years of 1990, 1993, and 1996. To overcome problems due to class spectral inseparable, spatial and spectra continuums, mixed landcovers, and abnormal transitions, we separated the coastal area into regions of commonality and applying masks to specific land mixtures. Over the three years and 14 landcover classes (aggregating the cultivated land and grassland, and water and floating vegetation classes), overall accuracies ranged from 82% to 90%. To enhance landcover change interpretation, three indicators were introduced as Location Stability, Residence stability, and Turnover. Implementing methods substantiated in the multiple date MRB classification, we spatially extended the classification to the entire Louisiana coast and temporally extended the original 1990, 1993, 1996 classifications to 1999 (Figure 1). We also advanced the operational functionality of the classification and increased the credibility of change detection results. Increased operational functionality that resulted in diminished user input was for the most part gained by implementing a classification logic based on forbidden transitions. The logic detected and corrected misclassifications and mostly alleviated the necessity of subregion separation prior to the classification. The new methods provided an improved ability for more timely detection and response to landcover impact. ?? 2005 IEEE.

Nelson, G.; Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Rangoonwala, A.

2005-01-01

205

Land cover/use classification of Cairns, Queensland, Australia: A remote sensing study involving the conjunctive use of the airborne imaging spectrometer, the large format camera and the thematic mapper simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an attempt to improve the land cover/use classification accuracy obtainable from remotely sensed multispectral imagery, Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) images were analyzed in conjunction with Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) Large Format Camera color infrared photography and black and white aerial photography. Specific portions of the combined data set were registered and used for classification. Following this procedure, the resulting derived data was tested using an overall accuracy assessment method. Precise photogrammetric 2D-3D-2D geometric modeling techniques is not the basis for this study. Instead, the discussion exposes resultant spectral findings from the image-to-image registrations. Problems associated with the AIS-1 TMS integration are considered, and useful applications of the imagery combination are presented. More advanced methodologies for imagery integration are needed if multisystem data sets are to be utilized fully. Nevertheless, research, described herein, provides a formulation for future Earth Observation Station related multisensor studies.

Heric, Matthew; Cox, William; Gordon, Daniel K.

1987-01-01

206

Neotectonic studies of northern Baja California, Mexico, with LANDSAT thematic mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery: Partitioning of dextral and extensional strain at the Pacific-North America plate boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous studies of active faulting in southern California indicate that the San Jacinto, Elsinore, and adjacent faults west of the San Andreas fault accommodate a significant proportion of Pacific-North America relative plate motion. Because of the complex distribution of slip, little is known about the activities of these and similar structures in northern Baja California and the southward transition to the oceanic ridge transform-fault system in the Gulf of California. SPOT and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper imagery for northern Baja California was processed to optimize discrimination of lithologic and structural features. This data was used to suggest a preliminary kinematic framework for distribution of relative plate motion between 31 and 33 degrees north, in which continental borderland tectonics play an important role in partitioning of plate motion.

Miller, M. Meghan; Crippen, Robert E.; Dixon, Timothy H.

1991-01-01

207

Cross-sensor comparisons between Landsat 5 TM and IRS-P6 AWiFS and disturbance detection using integrated Landsat and AWiFS time-series images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Routine acquisition of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was discontinued recently and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has an ongoing problem with the scan line corrector (SLC), thereby creating spatial gaps when covering images obtained during the process. Since temporal and spatial discontinuities of Landsat data are now imminent, it is therefore important to investigate other potential satellite data that can be used to replace Landsat data. We thus cross-compared two near-simultaneous images obtained from Landsat 5 TM and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS)-P6 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS), both captured on 29 May 2007 over Los Angeles, CA. TM and AWiFS reflectances were compared for the green, red, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, as well as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on manually selected polygons in homogeneous areas. All R2 values of linear regressions were found to be higher than 0.99. The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method was used to calculate the NDVI correlation between the TM and AWiFS images. The NDVI regression line derived from selected polygons passed through several invariant cluster centres of the TIC density maps and demonstrated that both the scene-dependent polygon regression method and TIC method can generate accurate radiometric normalization. A scene-independent normalization method was also used to normalize the AWiFS data. Image agreement assessment demonstrated that the scene-dependent normalization using homogeneous polygons provided slightly higher accuracy values than those obtained by the scene-independent method. Finally, the non-normalized and relatively normalized ‘Landsat-like’ AWiFS 2007 images were integrated into 1984 to 2010 Landsat time-series stacks (LTSS) for disturbance detection using the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) model. Both scene-dependent and scene-independent normalized AWiFS data sets could generate disturbance maps similar to what were generated using the LTSS data set, and their kappa coefficients were higher than 0.97. These results indicate that AWiFS can be used instead of Landsat data to detect multitemporal disturbance in the event of Landsat data discontinuity.

Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Chander, Gyanesh; Ji, Lei; Tolk, Brian; Huang, Chengquan; Rollins, Matthew

2013-01-01

208

25 Years of Landsat 5 - Duration: 3:34.  

NASA Video Gallery

Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

209

Using the Sonoran and Libyan Desert test sites to monitor the temporal stability of reflective solar bands for Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus and Terra moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remote sensing imagery is effective for monitoring environmental and climatic changes because of the extent of the global coverage and long time scale of the observations. Radiometric calibration of remote sensing sensors is essential for quantitative & qualitative science and applications. Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing sensors. This paper focuses on the use of the Sonoran Desert site to monitor the radiometric stability of the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The results are compared with the widely used Libya 4 Desert site in an attempt to evaluate the suitability of the Sonoran Desert site for sensor inter-comparison and calibration stability monitoring. Since the overpass times of ETM+ and MODIS differ by about 30 minutes, the impacts due to different view geometries or test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are also presented. In general, the long-term drifts in the visible bands are relatively large compared to the drift in the near-infrared bands of both sensors. The lifetime Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance trends from both sensors over 10 years are extremely stable, changing by no more than 0.1% per year (except ETM+ Band 1 and MODIS Band 3) over the two sites used for the study. The use of a semi-empirical BRDF model can reduce the impacts due to view geometries, thus enabling a better estimate of sensor temporal drifts.

Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-young; Chander, Gyanesh; Wu, Aisheng

2010-01-01

210

MTF analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial radiance distribution of a ground target must be known to a resolution at least four to five times greater than that of the system under test when measuring a satellite sensor's modulation transfer function. Calibration of the target requires either the use of man-made special purpose targets with known properties, e.g., a small reflective mirror or a dark-light linear pattern such as line or edge, or use of relatively high resolution underflight imagery to calibrate an arbitrary ground scene. Both approaches are to be used in addition a technique that utilizes an analytical model for the scene spatial frequency power spectrum is being investigated as an alternative to calibration of the scene.

Schowengerdt, R.

1983-01-01

211

MTF Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial radiance distribution of a ground target must be known to a resolution at least four to five times greater than that of the system under test when measuring a satellite sensor's modulation transfer function. Calibration of the target requires either the use of man-made special purpose targets with known properties, e.g., a small reflective mirror or a dark-light linear pattern such as line or edge, or use of relatively high resolution underflight imagery to calibrate an arbitrary ground scene. Both approaches are to be used, in addition a technique that utilizes an analytical model of the scene spatial frequency power spectrum is being investigated as an alternative to calibration of the scene.

Schowengerdt, R.

1985-01-01

212

Thematic Mapper Spectral Dimensionality and Data Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulated LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS data set, representing three crops over three growing seasons and a wide variety of soil types, was used to evaluate the structure of TM data and to compare its characteristics to those of MSS data. TM bands 2, 3, and 4, transformed to tasseled cap-like coordinates, provide an equivalent data space to MSS tasseled cap data, with greater dynamic range and no apparent loss of information resulting from the exclusion of the 0.9 to 1.1 micron region. Data from the six reflective TM bands (excluding the thermal band) primarily occupy two planes and a transition zone between them. The plane of vegetation is comparable to the MSS tasseled cap plane, while the plane of soils and transition zone provide a new dimension of information unavailable from the MSS. This added dimension offers promise of improved ability to determine the relative mix of vegetation and soil in the sensor field of view and to estimate soil moisture status. The improvement in spectral characteristics of the TM over the MSS, not to mention the greater spatial resolution, have resulted in a significant increase in the information content of the data.

Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

1985-01-01

213

Selecting band combinations with thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem arises in making color composite images because there are 210 different possible color presentations of TM three-band images. A method is given for reducing that 210 to a single choice, decided by the statistics of a scene or subscene, and taking into full account any correlations that exist between different bands. Instead of using total variance as the measure for information content of the band triplets, the ellipsoid of maximum volume is selected which discourages selection of bands with high correlation. The band triplet is obtained by computing and ranking in order the determinants of each 3 x 3 principal submatrix of the original matrix M. After selection of the best triplet, the assignment of colors is made by using the actual variances (the diagonal elements of M): green (maximum variance), red (second largest variance), blue (smallest variance).

Sheffield, C. A.

1983-01-01

214

In-flight validation and recovery of water surface temperature with Landsat-5 thermal infrared data using an automated high-altitude lake validation site at Lake Tahoe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The absolute radiometric accuracy of the thermal infrared band (B6) of the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument on the Landsat-5 (L5) satellite was assessed over a period of approximately four years using data from the Lake Tahoe automated validation site (California-Nevada). The Lake Tahoe site was established in July 1999, and measurements of the skin and bulk temperature have been made approximately every 2 min from four permanently moored buoys since mid-1999. Assessment involved using a radiative transfer model to propagate surface skin temperature measurements made at the time of the L5 overpass to predict the at-sensor radiance. The predicted radiance was then convolved with the L5B6 system response function to obtain the predicted L5B6 radiance, which was then compared with the radiance measured by L5B6. Twenty-four cloud-free scenes acquired between 1999 and 2003 were used in the analysis with scene temperatures ranging between 4??C and 22??C. The results indicate LSB6 had a radiance bias of 2.5% (1.6??C) in late 1999, which gradually decreased to 0.8% (0.5??C) in mid-2002. Since that time, the bias has remained positive (predicted minus measured) and between 0.3% (0.2??C) and 1.4% (0.9??C). The cause for the cold bias (L5 radiances are lower than expected) is unresolved, but likely related to changes in instrument temperature associated with changes in instrument usage. The in situ data were then used to develop algorithms to recover the skin and bulk temperature of the water by regressing the L5B6 radiance and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) total column water data to either the skin or bulk temperature. Use of the NCEP data provides an alternative approach to the split-window approach used with instruments that have two thermal infrared bands. The results indicate the surface skin and bulk temperature can be recovered with a standard error of 0.6??C. This error is larger than errors obtained with other instruments due, in part, to the calibration bias. L5 provides the only long-duration high spatial resolution thermal infrared measurements of the land surface. If these data are to be used effectively in studies designed to monitor change, it is essential to continue to monitor instrument performance in-flight and develop quantitative algorithms for recovering surface temperature.

Hook, S.J.; Chander, G.; Barsi, J.A.; Alley, R.E.; Abtahi, A.; Palluconi, F.D.; Markham, B.L.; Richards, R.C.; Schladow, S.G.; Helder, D.L.

2004-01-01

215

Thematic mapping of basement-related cross-strike structural discontinuities and their relationship to potential oil-bearing structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports how a digitally enhanced Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper mosaic (TM) data, a hand-held color space photograph from one of the early NASA satellite missions (Gemini), and field data were used to delineate three major basement-structural discontinuities (CSDs) with the Zagros Basin of southwestern Iran. Three major subparallel CSDs are, from north to south, Kazerun-Qatar (N05{sup {degrees}W} trend), Razak (N17{degrees}E trend), and Oman (N18{degrees}E). These subparallel CSDs subdivide the Zagros Basin into northern, central, and southern sub-basins. The Razak and Oman CSD enclose a relatively nonproductive area, separating the southern Zagros sub-basin from more productive regions to the northwest and the nonproductive Makran Ranges to the southeast where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that CSD may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of sedimentary basins. The results of this investigation also prove that lineament analysis is a potentially effective method for interpreting the basement-related CSD within a basin setting.

Iranpanah, A. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Pittsburg at Bradford, Bradford, PA (US))

1989-10-01

216

Strategy for Mitigating Collision Between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constellation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Science Mission Operations project, the French space agency Centre National d tudes Spatiales, the Argentinian space agency Comisi n Nacional de Actividades Espaciales, and the United States Geological Survey all operate spacecraft in sun-synchronous frozen orbits. The orbits are planned to not place any of the spacecraft at risk of colliding with another. However, evolution of these orbits over time has com-promised the safe interaction between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constella-tion. This paper analyzes the interactions between the Landsat-5 spacecraft and the Afternoon Constellation members over a period of 6 years, describing the current risk and plan to mitigate collisions in the future.

Levi, Joshua A.; Palmer, Eric J.

2011-01-01

217

AUTOMATED SEGMENTATION OF URBAN FEATURES FROM LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY  

E-print Network

scientific attitude. The author also wishes to thank Steven L. Schultz for the many hours of uncompensated of this work. His time has provided the author with an entirely new view of scientific writing. Appreciation

Salvaggio, Carl

218

In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

1984-01-01

219

WATERSHED CHARACTERIZATION USING LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY: BLACKFOOT RIVER, MT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a portion of a large regional project undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and water quality authorities in the States of Montana, Idaho, and Washington to identify and analyze factors which are affecting water quality in the Lake Pend Ore...

220

Geologic exploration: The contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major advantages of the TM data over that of MSS systems are increased spatial resolution and a greater number of narrow, strategically placed spectral bands. The 30 meter pixel size permits finer definition of ground features and improves reliability of the photointerpretation of geologic structure. The value of the spatial data increases relative to the value of the spectral data as soil and vegetation cover increase. In arid areas with good exposure, it is possible with careful digital processing and some inventive color compositing to produce enough spectral differentiation of rock types and thereby produce facsimiles of standard geologic maps with a minimum of field work or reference to existing maps. Hue-saturation value images are compared with geological maps of Death Valley, California, the Big Horn/Wind River Basin of Wyoming, the area around Cement, Oklahoma, and Detroit. False color composites of the Ontario region are also examined.

Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

1983-01-01

221

Thermal band characterization of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TM band 6 shutter background and the 34.7 C internal black body signal were measured over 50 day dates. Variability of the shutter background temperature was from 7 C to 11 C. For ten specific images, the digital counts of the calibration data were measured. The average pulse value of the black body peak decreased from 174 to 149 counts while the shutter background counts varied as a function of shutter temperature from 77 to 85. Relative internal gains between the four channels were calculated and compared to prelaunch values. They showed gains over 9 months of up to 5%. Frequency histograms of number of pixels vs. digital counts from a night scene were used to determine gain relative to the mean and to discern a systematic along-scan pattern in a difference between forward and reverse scan counts of up to 0.5. A corrected digital image was obtained. A temperature estimate for and area of Lake Erie of 18.5 C to 19.9 C was obtained. Local temperature records showed 21 C.

Lansing, J. C.; Barker, J. L.

1983-01-01

222

Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of the atmosphere on propagating radiation must be known in order to calibrate an in orbit sensor using ground based measurements. A set of model atmosphere parameters, applicable to the White Sands (New Mexico) area is defined with particular attention given to those parameters which are required as input to the Herman Code. The radial size distribution, refractive index, vertical distribution, and visibility of aerosols are discussed as well as the molecular absorbers in the visible and near IR wavelength which produce strong absorption lines. Solar irradiance is also considered.

Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N. (principal investigators)

1985-01-01

223

Use of Thematic Mapper for water quality assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation of simulated TM data obtained on an ER-2 aircraft at twenty-five predesignated sample sites for mapping water quality factors such as conductivity, pH, suspended solids, turbidity, temperature, and depth, is discussed. Using a multiple regression for the seven TM bands, an equation is developed for the suspended solids. TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 are used with logarithm conductivity in a multiple regression. The assessment of regression equations for a high coefficient of determination (R-squared) and statistical significance is considered. Confidence intervals about the mean regression point are calculated in order to assess the robustness of the regressions used for mapping conductivity, turbidity, and suspended solids, and by regressing random subsamples of sites and comparing the resultant range of R-squared, cross validation is conducted.

Horn, E. M.; Morrissey, L. A.

1984-01-01

224

Response of Thematic Mapper bands to plant water stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in leaf reflectance as water content decreases have been hypothesized to occur in the 1.55-1.75 and 2.08-2.35 micron wavelength regions. To evaluate this hypothesis, studies were conducted on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and oats (Avena sativa L.), which were grown in a controlled, outdoor situation. Both fully-watered control beds and water-stressed beds were periodically examined with a spectroradiometer calibrated against a reflectance reference of polytetrafluoroethylene. The observed changes correspond to those predicted by stochastic leaf models employed by other investigators (leaf reflection increases in the 1.55-1.75 micron region as leaf water content decreases). Although the percentage changes in TM bands 1-3 are nearly as great as those found in TM bands 5 and 7, the absolute values of reflectance change are much lower. It is believed that these patterns are probably characteristic of a broad range of vegetation types. In terms of phenomena detection, these patterns should be considered in any practical remote sensing sensor scenario.

Cibula, W. G.; Zetka, E. F.; Rickman, D. L.

1992-01-01

225

Preliminary Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Image Data Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements in the ability to monitor renewable resources/vegegation due to improvements in the spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of TM data were evaluated. Results presented from the first 4 months of analysis presented include: (1) geometric performance; (2) band-to-band registration; (3) modulation transfer function; and (4) crop separabililty performance. Crop separability in Webster County, Iowa and in Mississippi County, Arkansas as determined by cluster and principal components analyses is assessed.

Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.; Pitts, D. E.; Bizzell, R. M.; Yao, S.; Sorensen, C.; Reyna, E.; Carnes, J.

1985-01-01

226

Retrieved actual ET using SEBS model from Landsat-5 TM data for irrigation area of Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of ground-based evapotranspiration (ET) is of the most interesting for land-atmosphere interactions, such as water-saving irrigation, the performance of irrigation systems, crop water deficit, drought mitigation strategies and accurate initialization of climate prediction models especially in arid and semiarid catchments where water shortage is a critical problem. The recent year's drought in Australia and concerns about climate change has prominent the need to manage water resources more sustainably especially in the Murrumbidgee catchment which utilizes bulk water for food security and production. This paper discusses the application of a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model based on Landsat-5 TM data and field observations has been used and tested for deriving ET over Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA), located in the southwest of NSW, Australia. 16 Landsat-5 TM scenes were selected covering the time period of 2009, 2010 and 2011 for estimating the actual ET in CIA. To do the validation the used methodology, the ground-measured ET was compared to the Landsat-5 TM retrieved actual ET results for CIA. The derived ET value over CIA is much closer to the field measurement. From the remote sensing results and observations, the root mean square error (RMSE) is 0.74 and the mean APD is 7.5%. The derived satellite remote sensing values belong to reasonable range.

Ma, Weiqiang; Hafeez, Mohsin; Rabbani, Umair; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Ma, Yaoming

2012-11-01

227

Solar thematic maps for space weather operations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thematic maps are arrays of labels, or "themes", associated with discrete locations in space and time. Borrowing heavily from the terrestrial remote sensing discipline, a numerical technique based on Bayes' theorem captures operational expertise in the form of trained theme statistics, then uses this to automatically assign labels to solar image pixels. Ultimately, regular thematic maps of the solar corona will be generated from high-cadence, high-resolution SUVI images, the solar ultraviolet imager slated to fly on NOAA's next-generation GOES-R series of satellites starting ~2016. These thematic maps will not only provide quicker, more consistent synoptic views of the sun for space weather forecasters, but digital thematic pixel masks (e.g., coronal hole, active region, flare, etc.), necessary for a new generation of operational solar data products, will be generated. This paper presents the mathematical underpinnings of our thematic mapper, as well as some practical algorithmic considerations. Then, using images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Advanced Imaging Array (AIA) as test data, it presents results from validation experiments designed to ascertain the robustness of the technique with respect to differing expert opinions and changing solar conditions.

Rigler, E. Joshua; Hill, Steven M.; Reinard, Alysha A.; Steenburgh, Robert A.

2012-01-01

228

Solar thematic maps for space weather operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thematic maps are arrays of labels, or "themes," associated with discrete locations in space and time. Borrowing heavily from the terrestrial remote sensing discipline, a numerical technique based on Bayes' theorem captures operational expertise in the form of trained theme statistics, then uses this to automatically assign labels to solar image pixels. Ultimately, regular thematic maps of the solar corona will be generated from high-cadence, high-resolution SUVI images, the solar ultraviolet imager slated to fly on NOAA's next-generation GOES-R series of satellites starting ˜2016. These thematic maps will not only provide quicker, more consistent synoptic views of the sun for space weather forecasters, but digital thematic pixel masks (e.g., coronal hole, active region, flare, etc.), necessary for a new generation of operational solar data products, will be generated. This paper presents the mathematical underpinnings of our thematic mapper, as well as some practical algorithmic considerations. Then, using images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Advanced Imaging Array (AIA) as test data, it presents results from validation experiments designed to ascertain the robustness of the technique with respect to differing expert opinions and changing solar conditions.

Rigler, E. Joshua; Hill, Steven M.; Reinard, Alysha A.; Steenburgh, Robert A.

2012-08-01

229

Programmable Hyperspectral Imaging Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programmable hyperspectral imaging mapper (PHIMAP) is conceptual generic advanced spectral imaging system that scans swath along ground track from airplane or spacecraft in orbit. Features include spectrally agile filters and processing on focal-plane array. Provides both high spatial resolution and large number of spectral channels. Can be programmed to trade spectral resolution andspectral coverage flexibly against signal-to-noise ratio to optimize utility of image data from scenes of spectrally and spatially varying brightness.

Cutts, James A.

1992-01-01

230

Fine-scale characterization of juniper expansion via lidar data and fusion with Landsat 5 TM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Juniper encroachment into rangelands is one of the most prominent land cover changes occurring in western North America. Development of image-based methods to assess juniper encroachment over large areas is needed to identify priority areas for juniper intensive management. We fused lidar data with multi-temporal Landsat 5 TM image and detected 85% juniper expansion since 1965, which was corroborated with tree-ring data. Lidar applications for characterizing juniper encroachment phases at finer scales were also explored. Lidar point cloud data were used to separate overlapping juniper tree canopies and to estimate juniper tree height, age, density, and canopy percent cover. Fusion approaches for both pixel-level and sub-pixel juniper cover classifications were compared. Among them, a multiple regression-based approach performed best. Lidar data fused with Landsat 5 TM data produced superior results in both juniper presence/absence and sub-pixel juniper cover classifications than either one of the image sources alone. However, the improvement via the fusion was marginal (up to 6% increase) over the lidar data alone. Lidar-derived estimates can be sufficiently used alone for pixel-level and sub-pixel juniper cover classifications, but spectral data are necessary for locating juvenile junipers dispersed amongst shrubs.

Sankey, T. T.; Glenn, N. F.; Shrestha, R.; Hardegree, S. P.

2010-12-01

231

Creating Thematic Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses getting started, organizing a thematic unit, developing a unit around classroom concerns, and skills students need. Discusses creating a thematic unit in American literature focused on Henry David Thoreau. Presents a series of nine questions for teachers to ask themselves when selecting a novel for use in a thematic unit with middle or…

Mitchell, Diana; Young, Linda Payne

1997-01-01

232

Remote sensing of heat fluxes using SEBAL: Comparison between Landsat and MODIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instantaneous heat fluxes were estimated using data obtained from Landsat 5 TM (Thematic Mapper), Landsat 7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) and Terra MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) using Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model for cloud-free days. The modeled results were compared with measurements of net radiation (both incoming and outgoing short and longwave), soil, sensible and

X. Zhang; T. Berhane; M. Hill; B. Rundquist

2007-01-01

233

Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

1992-01-01

234

Scannerless terrain mapper  

SciTech Connect

NASA-Ames Research Center, in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, is developing a Scannerless Terrain Mapper (STM) for autonomous vehicle guidance through the use of virtual reality. The STM sensor is based on an innovative imaging optical radar technology that is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The sensor uses active flood-light scene illumination and an image intensified CCD camera receiver to rapidly produce and record very high quality range imagery of observed scenes. The STM is an all solid-state device (containing no moving parts) and offers significant size, performance, reliability, simplicity, and affordability advantages over other types of 3-D sensor technologies, such as scanned laser radar, stereo vision, and structured lighting. The sensor is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is very well suited for affordable application to a wide variety of military and commercial uses, including: munition guidance, target recognition, robotic vision, automated inspection, driver enhanced vision, collision avoidance, site security and monitoring, and facility surveying. This paper reviews the sensor technology, discusses NASA`s terrain mapping applications, and presents results from the initial testing of the sensor at NASA`s planetary landscape simulator.

Sackos, J.; Bradley, B.; Diegert, C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, P.; Gary, C. [NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

1996-09-01

235

Early Childhood Thematic Explorations  

E-print Network

for Ages 3-5 re: · 2.G.02a Life Science · 2.G.02b Earth Science · 2.G.02c Physical Science · 2.J.01, Technology, Health & Safety #12;2 Why Thematic Units? Why Thematic Units? · Knowledge Building re: All of quality non- fiction resources and children's literature ­ Conceptual strengthening via songs

236

Hurricane Sandy Storm Tide Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

United States Geological Survey (USGS) provides real-time map-based information from USGS storm tide sensors. The data is reflected on the Hurricane Sandy Tide Mapper. The mapper provides location information, site photos and data for storm tide and inland flooding. In addition, the data from these sensors is used to create models of the precise time the storm-tide arrived, how ocean and inland water levels changed during the storm, the depth of the storm-tide throughout the event, and how long it took for the water to recede.

237

Using KML for Thematic Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic mapping has a long history in cartography, but the new geobrowsers tend not to focus on this aspect of geographical information representation. This talk demonstrates how Keyhole Markup Language (KML) and geobrowsers can be used for thematic mapping. Due to their huge public interest and relative accessibility, geobrowsers are potentially capable of bringing thematic maps or visualisations to a

B. Sandvik

2008-01-01

238

MAPPING SPATIAL THEMATIC ACCURACY WITH FUZZY SETS  

EPA Science Inventory

Thematic map accuracy is not spatially homogenous but variable across a landscape. Properly analyzing and representing spatial pattern and degree of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable information for using thematic maps. However, current thematic map accuracy measures (...

239

ICOS Atmospheric Thematic Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICOS is a recently-launched, world-class research infrastructure dedicated to the monitoring and improved understanding of carbon sources and sinks. It consists of complementary, harmonized networks of long-term ecosystem monitoring stations focusing on Europe and adjacent regions. The ICOS networks will comprise about 40 operational atmospheric stations (measuring atmospheric composition in greenhouse gases and other core parameters), 30 ecosystem stations (measuring fluxes from ecosystems) and about 10 oceanic measurement platforms. The networks will be coordinated through a set of central facilities: three Thematic centres respectively for atmospheric, ecosystem and ocean data, and a Central analytical lab. The mission of the thematic centres are to process, validate and distribute data to end-users. ICOS will also set up a Carbon portal dedicated to easy discovery of and access to data and elaborated products such as flux maps by end users.The Atmospheric Thematic Center (ATC) has three main functions: Operate the atmospheric data processing chains, going from data transmission from stations to the routine delivery of quality checked data-stream Carry out regular measurement technology survey, analysis and enable development of new sensors and their testing Monitor the network and propose spare instruments, training, and technical assistance.

Rivier, Leonard; Hazan, Lynn; Tarniewicz, Jerome; Laurent, Olivier; Yver, Camille; Laurila, Tuomas; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Ramonet, Michel; Ciais, Philippe

2014-05-01

240

Lightning mapper sensor design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

World-wide continuous measurement of lightning location, intensity, and time during both day and night is to be provided by the Lightning Mapper (LITMAP) instrument. A technology assessment to determine if the LITMAP requirements can be met using existing sensor and electronic technologies is presented. The baseline concept discussed in this report is a compromise among a number of opposing requirements (e.g., ground resolution versus array size; large field of view versus narrow bandpass filter). The concept provides coverage for more than 80 percent of the lightning events as based on recent above-cloud NASA/U2 lightning measurements.

Eaton, L. R.; Poon, C. W.; Shelton, J. C.; Laverty, N. P.; Cook, R. D.

1983-01-01

241

DATA CONTINUITY OF LANDSAT-4 TM, LANDSAT-5 TM, LANDSAT-7 TM, LANDSAT-7ETM, AND EO-1 ADVANCED ALAND IMAGER (ALI)SENSORS 1476  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1982, NASA launched Landsat 4 as part of their on-going Landsat Program. Landsat 5 was launched in 1984, and Landsat 7, the current satellite acquiring images on a global scale, was launched in 1999. In the fall of 2000, NASA launched the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) as a part of the Earth Observat...

242

MAPPER: A personal computer map projection tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MAPPER is a set of software tools designed to let users create and manipulate map projections on a personal computer (PC). The capability exists to generate five popular map projections. These include azimuthal, cylindrical, mercator, lambert, and sinusoidal projections. Data for projections are contained in five coordinate databases at various resolutions. MAPPER is managed by a system of pull-down windows. This interface allows the user to intuitively create, view and export maps to other platforms.

Bailey, Steven A.

1993-01-01

243

Using thematic analysis in psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different

Virginia Braun; Victoria Clarke

2006-01-01

244

Evaluation of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio image for mapping lithologic differences in western South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From analysis of a color-coded Landsat 5/6 ratio, image, a map of the vegetation density distribution has been produced by Raines of 25,000 sq km of western South Dakota. This 5/6 ratio image is produced digitally calculating the ratios of the bands 5 and 6 of the Landsat data and then color coding these ratios in an image. Bretz and Shurr compared this vegetation density map with published and unpublished data primarily of the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Dakota Geological Survey; good correspondence is seen between this map and existing geologic maps, especially with the soils map. We believe that this Landsat ratio image can be used as a tool to refine existing maps of surficial geology and bedrock, where bedrock is exposed, and to improve mapping accuracy in areas of poor exposure common in South Dakota. In addition, this type of image could be a useful, additional tool in mapping areas that are unmapped.

Raines, Gary L.; Bretz, R.F.; Shurr, George W.

1979-01-01

245

Evaluation of the Radiometric Integrity of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Band 6 Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach for experimentally evaluating the radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT-4 band 6 data is described which draws on a method used to radiometrically calibrate the HCMR data which involved underflying the satellite with an infrared line scanner. By extending this technology to higher altitudes experimental radiance data suitable for radiometric calibration of the TM band 6 sensor can be generated. Repetition of this experiment can permit evaluation of long term drift in the sensor and provide a data base for evaluating atmospheric propagation models for radiation transfer. To date, efforts were concentrated on modifying the infrared line scanner to match the spectral response of the TM band 6 sensor. In addition, the LOWTRAN code corresponding to a satellite overpass of September 1982 was run to yield a plot of transmission and path radiance as a function of altitude.

Schott, J. R.

1984-01-01

246

Investigations of vegetation and soils information contained in LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extension of the TM tasseled cap transformation to reflectance factor data is presented, and the basic concepts underlying the tasseled cap transformations are described. The ratio of TM bands 5 and 7, and TM tasseled cap wetness, are both shown to offer promise of direct detection of available soil moisture. Some effects of organic matter and other soil characteristics or constituents on TM tasseled cap spectral response are also considered.

Crist, E. P.; Laurin, R.; Colwell, J. E.; Kauth, R. J.

1984-01-01

247

LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation. [San Matteo Bridge and Stockton, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of MTF analysis of imagery of the San Mateo Bridge are consistent on two TM image dates for bands 4,5, and 7. There are indications that bands 1, 2, and 3 suffer from low image contrast, and consequently low signal to noise in the derived MTFs. The two image analysis produced reasonable results along +45 deg and -45 deg azimuths in the 2-D MTF, but poor results along the 0 deg and 90 deg azimuths. The effective instantaneous field of view is given for each band, and the image contrast for water and the bridge are compared. Graphs show overall TM system MTFs.

Schowengerdt, R. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

248

Abstract Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM+) data are presented which document the thermal  

E-print Network

. By examining the composition of the short-wave infra- red (SWIR) signal emitted from the flow surface, we infer are stationary or barely moving. The second unit is characterized by much higher levels of SWIR radiance, consistent with a chan- nel-fed active flow unit. Analysis of the SWIR data con- firm

Wright, Robert

249

Response of some Thematic Mapper band ratios to variation in soil water content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bidirectional reflectance to nadir in the reflective TM bands and the 1.15-1.3-micron band was measured in the laboratory as moisture content was varied in ten soils. Stronger absorption by water in TM5 and TM7 was expected to cause ratios of other bands to TM5 and TM7 to increase with water content, but in most cases these ratios were constant or decreased at low to intermediate water content and increased only at high moisture levels. Because these ratios were found to decrease as illumination elevation angle decreased, it was suggested that increased roughness resulting from the methods of moistening and mixing the soil may have tended to counteract the expected ratio increases.

Musick, H. Brad; Pelletier, Ramona E.

1986-01-01

250

Evaluation of LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work with digital data of Oklahoma, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and California demonstrate that the increased spectral refinement and spatial resolution of TM over MSS data greatly increase the value of the data to petroleum exploration in roles ranging from logistic planning to direct detection of phenomena related to microseepage of hydrocarbons. The value of the spatial content versus the spectral content of the data increases as soil and vegetation cover increase. The structural detail visible in the imagery can contribute to exploration at the prospect level. Examination of the variance/covariance matrix suggests that a combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 displays the most information for most areas.

Dykstra, J. D.; Everett, J. R.; Livaccarri, R.; Michael, R.; Richardson, G.; Prucha, S.; Russell, O.; Ruth, M.; Sheffield, C. A.; Staskowski, R.

1984-01-01

251

A minicomputer based software system for the selection of optimal subsets of Thematic Mapper channels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software system has been developed and implemented on a minicomputer for feature selection based on two inter-dependent methods. The first is an enhancement of the traditional approach based on optimizing interclass average separabilities. The second is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of multispectral data and machine classification with subsequent estimation of classification accuracy as a function of channel subset. The two methods are mutually supportive - the first allows rapid screening whereas the second is based on the more solid theoretical foundation of maximizing classification accuracy.

Card, D. H.; Angelici, G. L.

1983-01-01

252

Mapping in the Oman ophiolite using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The level of apparent lithological discrimination possible with Landsat TM images in the Oman are discussed. It is found that by using parts of the short-wavelength IR spectrum, the discrimination revealed by the TM data is sufficiently uniform throughout the Oman ophiolite to produce lithological maps at 1:100,000 scale. Decorrelation stretching of the data produces images in which allows for the recognition of variations in gabbro composition, the identification of small acidic, gabbroic, and ultramafic intrusions, the discrimation of the uppermost mantle from the deeper mantle, the precise location of the Moho, and the delineation of gossans and areas subject to choritic-epidotic alteration.

Abrams, M. J.; Rothery, D. A.; Pontual, A.

1988-01-01

253

Geologic mapping of the Semipalatinsk region, Eastern Kazakstan, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and spot panchromatic data  

SciTech Connect

This geologic reconnaissance study centers on a 90 by 140 km area about 100 km southwest of Semipalatinsk near the east border of the Kazakstan Republic of the USSR. Semipalatinsk, a regional center for grain growing, and several other cities along the Irtysh River were originally established as fortified outposts by the Russians during the 18th and 19th centuries to contain the indigenous, nomadic Kazak herdsmen. The Kazakstan region remained largely undeveloped until after the 1917 Russian Revolution, when exploration geologists began discovering many large mineral deposits. Today, known resources include coal, copper, iron ore, lead, zinc, and barite; most of these are of national significance. These vast mineral resources have prompted development of many metallurgical and chemical industries in the republic. Despite the extensive exploration for mineral resources in this region, published geologic maps (Nalivkin, 1960; Esenov, 1971; Borovikov, 1972) are all at scales of 1:1,100,000 or smaller, and there are no detailed descriptions of the geology around Semipalatinsk in the open literature. Our preliminary examination of commercial remote-sensing, data indicated that the lithology and structure of this area are extremely varied and complex at all scales -- much more so than that portrayed on the published geologic maps. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to use commercially available remotely sensed data for the area and remotely sensed data obtained for analog study sites, as well as the sparse, sketchy information in the published literature, to better define and map the geologic units (Sheet 1), structure (Sheet 2), and drainage features (Sheet 3) of this area.

Davis, P.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Berlin, G.L. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

1992-12-31

254

Processed Thematic Mapper Satellite Imagery for Selected Areas within the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The study is summarized in the Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) file OF00-309.PDF. This publication also contain satellite full-scene images of selected areas along the U.S.-Mexico border. These images are presented as high-resolution images in jpeg format (IMAGES). The folder LOCATIONS in contains TIFF images showing exact positions of easily-identified reference locations for each of the Landsat TM scenes located at least partly within the U.S. A reference location table (BDRLOCS.DOC in MS Word format) lists the latitude and longitude of each reference location with a nominal precision of 0.001 minute of arc

Dohrenwend, John C.; Gray, Floyd; Miller, Robert J.

2000-01-01

255

Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An information theoretic measure of multispectral information content is developed and applied to a simultaneous LANDSAT TM and MSS data set. The entropy based function measures the dispersion and concentration of signal values in various data spaces, irrespective of specific class memberships. It is used to compare the information content of TM and MSS and of various subsets of TM and MSS bans, as well as tasseled cap transformations of the band values. Differences exist between the information measure results and results using variance based measures. System design information capacities and data space volumes are also compared. The results and observations presented are considered preliminary in nature since only one real and one simulated data set are analyzed.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

256

THE USE OF LANDSAT 7 ENHANCED THEMATIC MAPPER PLUS DATA FOR MAPPING LEAFY SPURGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge) is an invasive weed that is a major problem in much of the Upper Great Plains region, including parts of Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming. Infestations in North Dakota alone have had a serious economic impact, estimated at $87 million annu...

257

Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto - Evidence from Landsat Thematic Mapper images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mesoscale mapping of spatial variations in sand composition of the Gran Desierto (Sonora, Mexico) was carried out on multispectral Landsat TM images of this region, making it possible to examine the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. Compositions determined from remote imagery were found to agree well with samples from selected areas. The sand populations delineated were used to describe the sediment source areas, transport paths, and deposition sites. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations aver large areas that were not readily apparent in the field data.

Blount, Grady; Greeley, Ronald; Christensen, Phillip R.; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.

1990-01-01

258

Mapping deforestation and secondary growth in Rondonia, Brazil, using imaging radar and thematic mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excellent data on deforestation have been obtained in the tropics with the use of high-resolution optical sensors. Yet, several problems remain. Cloud cover creates data gaps that limit the possibility of complete and frequent assessments, and secondary growth is not well characterized. Active microwave sensors could complement these sensors because they operate independently of cloud cover and smoke and can

Eric Rignot; William A. Salas; David L. Skole

1997-01-01

259

Lava flow cooling estimated from Landsat Thematic Mapper infrared data - The Lonquimay eruption (Chile, 1989)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat TM data are used to measure the crust temperature and the fractional area for an active lava flow during the Lonquimay eruption. A progressive cooling of crusted lava from 250 to 170 C down a 1.5-km segment of the flow is shown. These results are obtained by solving 'dual-band' equations for the two short-wavelength infrared TM bands and by

Clive Oppenheimer

1991-01-01

260

Multitemporal Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data of the Hubbard Glacier region, southeast Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In late May 1986, the advancing Hubbard Glacier blocked the entrance to Russell Fiord near Yakutat, Alaska, creating a large ice-dammed lake. Runoff from the surrounding glaciated mountains raised the level of the lake to about 25 m above sea level by 8 October, when the ice dam failed. Remote sensing offers one method to monitor this large tidal glacier system, particularly the glacier activity that would portend the re-closure of Russell Fiord. -Authors

Walker, K.-M.; Zenone, C.

1988-01-01

261

A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

1992-01-01

262

Discriminating late volcanic differentiates commonly associated with precious metal deposits, using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magmatic differentiates emplaced late in volcanotectonic cycles (which when highly evolved commonly occur as domes, flow-dome complexes, and shallow intrusive porphyries) are typically more silicic and felsic than their earlier counterparts and exhibit unusually steep spectral curves from about 1.5 to 2.2 microns. This spectral characteristic emerges in the form of relatively high Landsat TM band 7 DN values and low 5/7 values, as well as dark-contrast or enhanced 5/7 images. These evolved late-phase differentiates are commonly associated both temporally and spatially with precious metal deposits, furnishing site-specific exploration targets as well as guides to caldera margins and other late-stage volcanotectonic structures.

Spatz, David M.; Taranik, James V.

1988-01-01

263

Mapping surface energy balance components by combining Landsat Thematic Mapper and ground-based meteorological data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface energy balance components were evaluated by combining satellite-based spectral data with on-site measurements of solar irradiance, air temperature, wind speed, and vapor pressure. Maps of latent heat flux density and net radiant flux density were produced using Landsat TM data for three dates. The TM-based estimates differed from Bowen-ratio and aircraft-based estimates by less than 12 percent over mature fields of cotton, wheat, and alfalfa.

Moran, M. Susan; Jackson, Ray D.; Raymond, Lee H.; Gay, Lloyd W.; Slater, Philip N.

1989-01-01

264

Predicting temperate conifer forest successional stage distributions with multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest succession is a fundamental ecological process which can impact the functioning of many terrestrial processes, such as water and nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration. Therefore, knowing the distribution of forest successional stages over a landscape facilitates a greater understanding of terrestrial ecosystems. One way of characterizing forest succession over the landscape is to use satellite imagery to map forest

Conghe Song; Todd A. Schroeder; Warren B. Cohen

2007-01-01

265

Statistical learning algorithms for identifying contrasting tillage practices with landsat thematic mapper data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tillage management practices have direct impact on water holding capacity, evaporation, carbon sequestration, and water quality. This study examines the feasibility of two statistical learning algorithms, such as Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), for cla...

266

Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sensitivity of Landsat TM data for detecting soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands, and the potential of the spectral data for assigning the universal soil loss equation (USLE) crop managemnent (C) factor to varying cover types within the woodlands are assessed. Results show greatly accelerated rates of soil erosion on pinyon-juniper sites. Percent cover by pinyon-juniper, total soil-loss, and total nonliving ground cover accounted for nearly 70 percent of the variability in TM channels 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion than the biotic and abiotic field variables. Satellite data were more sensitive to vegetation variation than the USLE C factor, and USLE was found to be a poor predictor of soil loss on pinyon-juniper sites. A new string-to-ground soil erosion prediction technique is introduced.

Price, Kevin P.; Ridd, Merrill K.

1991-01-01

267

Assessing forest decline in coniferous forests of Vermont using NS-001 Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study evaluates the potential of measuring/mapping forest decline in spruce-fir forests using airborne NS-001 TMS data. Using field instruments, it was found that ratios of 1.65/1.23 and 1.65/0.83-micron reflectance discriminated between spruce samples of low and high-damage sites. Using TMS data, band ratios were found to be strongly correlated with ground-based measurements of forest damage. Ratio colo-density slice images using these band ratios, and images using 0.56 and 1.65-micron bands with either of these band ratios in a false-color composite, provide accurate means of detecting, quantifying and mapping levels of forest decline.

Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.

1986-01-01

268

Landsat Thematic Mapper studies of land cover spatial variability related to hydrology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Past accomplishments involving remote sensing based land-cover analysis for hydrologic applications are reviewed. Ongoing research in exploiting the increased spatial, radiometric, and spectral capabilities afforded by the TM on Landsats 4 and 5 is considered. Specific studies to compare MSS and TM for urbanizing watersheds, wetlands, and floodplain mapping situations show that only a modest improvement in classification accuracy is achieved via statistical per pixel multispectral classifiers. The limitations of current approaches to multispectral classification are illustrated. The objectives, background, and progress in the development of an alternative analysis approach for defining inputs to urban hydrologic models using TM are discussed.

Wharton, S.; Ormsby, J.; Salomonson, V.; Mulligan, P.

1984-01-01

269

Mapping permafrost in the boreal forest with Thematic Mapper satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geographic data base incorporating Landsat TM data was used to develop and evaluate logistic discriminant functions for predicting the distribution of permafrost in a boreal forest watershed. The data base included both satellite-derived information and ancillary map data. Five permafrost classifications were developed from a stratified random sample of the data base and evaluated by comparison with a photo-interpreted permafrost map using contingency table analysis and soil temperatures recorded at sites within the watershed. A classification using a TM thermal band and a TM-derived vegetation map as independent variables yielded the highest mapping accuracy for all permafrost categories.

Morrissey, L. A.; Strong, L. L.; Card, D. H.

1986-01-01

270

LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy. [Walnut Creek Watershed, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principal components transformations was applied to a Walnut Creek, Texas subscene to reduce the dimensionality of the multispectral sensor data. This transformation was also applied to a LANDSAT 3 MSS subscene of the same area acquired in a different season and year. Results of both procedures are tabulated and allow for comparisons between TM and MSS data. The TM correlation matrix shows that visible bands 1 to 3 exhibit a high degree of correlation in the range 0.92 to 0.96. Correlation for bands 5 to 7 is 0.93. Band 4 is not highly correlated with any other band, with corrections in the range 0.13 to 0.52. The thermal band (6) is not highly correlated with other bands in the range 0.13 to 0.46. The MSS correlation matrix shows that bands 4 and 5 are highly correlated (0.96) as are bands 6 and 7 with a correlation of 0.92.

Ford, G. E. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

271

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part A: Subsystem data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance and acceptance data are presented for the multiplexer, scan mirror, power supply, mainframe/top mechanical and the aft optics, assemblies. Other major subsystems evaluated include the relay optics, the electronic module, the radiative cooler, and the cable harness. Reference lists of nonconforming materials reports, failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are also given.

1982-01-01

272

Investigation of LANDSAT follow-on thematic mapper spatial, radiometric and spectral resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Fine resolution M7 multispectral scanner data collected during the Corn Blight Watch Experiment in 1971 served as the basis for this study. Different locations and times of year were studied. Definite improvement using 30-40 meter spatial resolution over present LANDSAT 1 resolution and over 50-60 meter resolution was observed, using crop area mensuration as the measure. Simulation studies carried out to extrapolate the empirical results to a range of field size distributions confirmed this effect, showing the improvement to be most pronounced for field sizes of 1-4 hectares. Radiometric sensitivity study showed significant degradation of crop classification accuracy immediately upon relaxation from the nominally specified values of 0.5% noise equivalent reflectance. This was especially the case for data which were spectrally similar such as that collected early in the growing season and also when attempting to accomplish crop stress detection.

Nalepka, R. F. (principal investigator); Morgenstern, J. P.; Kent, E. R.; Erickson, J. D.

1976-01-01

273

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral thematic mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An area along the southeastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay was subsetted from TM imagery. The subsetted image was then enhanced and classified using an ERDAS 400 system. Results obtained were compared with a chart showing the distribution of both Zolsters marina and Rupplia martime in the Vaucluse Shores and which supports a large community of SAV. Radiative transfer models describing the irradiance reflectance of a water column containing SAV are being refined. Radiative transfer theory was used to model upwelling radiance for an orbiting sensor viewing an estuarine environment. Upwelling radiance was calculated for a clear maritime atmosphere, an optically shallow estuary of either clear or turbid water, and one of three bottom types: vegetation, sand, or mud using TM bands 1, 2, and 3 and MSS bands 4 and 5. A spectral quality index was defined similar to the equation for apparent contrast and used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of TM and MSS bands in detecting submerged vegetation.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

274

Evaluation of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat-4 image data quality was evaluated for test sites in Iowa and Illinois. Radiometric and geometric quality was tested and an applications evaluation was carried out using a cooling-pond thermal-mapping example. Geometric quality was found to be generally very good. Small errors were found in registration of the middle IR bands of the TM and the thermal IR band was found to be misregistered by one 120-meter pixel. Radiometric quality of the TM is excellent with only minor striping effects.

Bartolucci, L. A.; Dean, M. E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Anuta, P. E.; Yu, K. B.

1984-01-01

275

Geodetic Accuracy of LANDSAT-4 Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geodetic accuracy of an MSS or TM scene is assessed using a minicomputer and appropriate software, a digitizer, and an image display device. The calculated image location of a selected feature is compared with the actual image location obtained though visual inspection of the image on the display. Measurements of 15 to 20 features evenly distributed throughout the image provide an estimate of the geodetic accuracy of the scene. Tests of two system-corrected MSS scenes measured geodetic registration root-mean-square (RMS) errors of approximately 3,200 m or 57 pixels. Tests of two TM system-corrected scenes measured RMS errors of approximately 1,250 and 1,000 m, or 44 and 35 pixels, respectively. All errors were primarily translational, implying good internal scene registration of both MSS and TM data. The one MSS GCP-corrected scene which was evaluated had an RMS error of approximately 325 m or 6 pixels.

Thormodsgard, J. M.; Devries, D. J.

1984-01-01

276

Discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using Thematic Mapper spectral data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The availability of high quality spectral data from the current suite of earth observation satellite systems offers significant improvements in the ability to survey and monitor food and fiber production on both a local and global basis. Current research results indicate that Landsat TM data when used in either digital or analog formats achieve higher land-cover classification accuracies than MSS data using either comparable or improved spectral bands and spatial resolution. A review of these quantitative results is presented for both natural and cultivated vegetation.

Degloria, Stephen D.; Bernstein, Ralph; Dizenzo, Silvano

1986-01-01

277

Actual evapotranspiration estimation for different land use and land cover in urban regions using Landsat 5 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration (ET) is deemed critical for water resources management. Even in the same climatic and meteorological conditions, actual ET (ETa) may exhibit remarkable spatial variability across different vegetation covers, agricultural land use practices, and differing types of urban land development. The main objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the possible closure of the heat balance equation using Oklahoma's unique environmental monitoring network; and (2) to estimate ETa and determine the variation with regards to varying types of land use and land cover in urban settings. In this study, a Surface-Energy-Balance ET algorithm was implemented to estimate ETa at a higher spatial resolution using Landsat 5 satellite images while the Oklahoma Mesonet observations can be used as our ground truth data. Accuracy of the estimated ETa was assessed using latent heat flux measurements provided by AmeriFlux towers. The associated bias ratios of daily mean ETa with respect to both burn and control sites are -0.92%, and -8.86% with a correlation of 0.83 and 0.81, respectively. Additionally, estimated ETa from a water balance budget analysis and the remotely sensed ETa are cross-validated with a low bias ratio of 5.2%, and a correlation coefficient of 0.7 at the catchment scale. The lowest ETa was observed for developed urban areas and highest for open water bodies. The ETa difference is also demonstrated from two contrasting counties. The results show Garfield County (agricultural) has higher ETa values than Oklahoma County (urban) for all land cover types except open water bodies.

Liu, Wenjuan; Hong, Yang; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Huang, Mingbin; Vieux, Baxter; Caliskan, Semiha; Grout, Trevor

2010-11-01

278

Empirical models for estimating the suspended sediment concentration in Amazonian white water rivers using Landsat 5/TM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended sediment yield is a very important environmental indicator within Amazonian fluvial systems, especially for rivers dominated by inorganic particles, referred to as white water rivers. For vast portions of Amazonian rivers, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is measured infrequently or not at all. However, remote sensing techniques have been used to estimate water quality parameters worldwide, from which data for suspended matter is the most successfully retrieved. This paper presents empirical models for SSC retrieval in Amazonian white water rivers using reflectance data derived from Landsat 5/TM. The models use multiple regression for both the entire dataset (global model, N = 504) and for five segmented datasets (regional models) defined by general geological features of drainage basins. The models use VNIR bands, band ratios, and the SWIR band 5 as input. For the global model, the adjusted R2 is 0.76, while the adjusted R2 values for regional models vary from 0.77 to 0.89, all significant (p-value < 0.0001). The regional models are subject to the leave-one-out cross validation technique, which presents robust results. The findings show that both the average error of estimation and the standard deviation increase as the SSC range increases. Regional models were more accurate when compared with the global model, suggesting changes in optical proprieties of water sampled at different sampling stations. Results confirm the potential for the estimation of SSC from Landsat/TM historical series data for the 1980s and 1990s, for which the in situ database is scarce. Such estimates supplement the SSC temporal series, providing a more comprehensive SSC temporal series which may show environmental dynamics yet unknown.

Montanher, Otávio C.; Novo, Evlyn M. L. M.; Barbosa, Cláudio C. F.; Rennó, Camilo D.; Silva, Thiago S. F.

2014-06-01

279

Applications of statistics to thematic mapping.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two statistical problems occurring in the effort to analyze thematic maps and mapping are determining the accuracy of thematic content and comparing factors studied in thematic mapping. Statistical procedures applicable to thematic mapping involve sampling, determining accuracy, and comparing factors. A sampling procedure using an unaligned pattern within a square grid network is applicable for use with thematic maps. Sample size may be determined using the binomial distribution based upon the confidence interval to define the true mean of the population within certain limits. The confidence interval may also be used to define the upper and lower limits of the accuracy of the thematic map. - from Authors

Rosenfield, G.H.; Melley, M.L.

1980-01-01

280

Thematic Emphasis in Language Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three experiments, we investigate whether speakers tend to perseverate in the assignment of emphasis to concepts with particular thematic roles across utterances. Participants matched prime sentences involving clefts (e.g., "Het is de cowboy die hij slaat," "It is the cowboy that he is hitting") to pictures and then described unrelated…

Vernice, Mirta; Pickering, Martin J.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2012-01-01

281

THEMATIC LIMNA SYMPOSIUM SYSTEMS GENETICS  

E-print Network

THEMATIC LIMNA SYMPOSIUM SYSTEMS GENETICS OF METABOLISM Starling Hotel, Lausanne Friday 14th Aebersold Genetic variability and the quantitative proteome 12h10 Greg Barsh Genetics of color variation Aldons J. Lusis Systems genetics of lipid metabolism 14h40 Johan Auwerx Systems analysis of mitochondria

Picasso, Marco

282

Instructions for use Thematic Networks  

E-print Network

North America, Nordic Countries and Russia. 3. The host organization has to support the network (letter of indigenous peoples of the North · Logistics of the North · Arctic Virtual Learning Tools · Arctic Sustainable, and other organizations committed to higher education and research in the North #12;Thematic Networks

Tsunogai, Urumu

283

A Dose of Thematic Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the incorporation of thematic teaching into the author's Reading-Writing Workshop class. Shares a few activities from one coming-of-age unit that increased engagement and helped students generate writing topics that genuinely interested them and related to the same theme. (SG)

Gaughan, John

2003-01-01

284

Drifts exhibited by cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors and their importance to the ATSR-2 and Landsat-5 Earth observation missions.  

PubMed

The spectral responsivity of commercially available InSb detectors with low-pass cold filters attached to their cold shields for optimum operation in the 1.6-2.6 microm wavelength range is observed to drift slowly with time. These drifts are shown to arise because of a thin film of water-ice deposited on the cold low-pass filters mounted on the cold shields of the detectors. The temporal characteristics of these drifts are shown to strongly depend on wavelength. A model is proposed for the behavior of the water present in the Dewar vacuum, which can explain and predict the temporal characteristics of the observed drifts for all wavelengths. These observations are particularly relevant to space instruments that use cryogenically cooled IR filter radiometers for Earth observation. The temporal profile of drifts observed in missions such as Landsat-5 is identical to that observed in cryogenically cooled filtered InSb detectors during laboratory measurements. This study confirms that the deposition of a thin film of a material such as ice on the cold bandpass filters and windows is therefore the most likely source of the oscillatory drifts observed in the response of some of the channels of the ATSR-2, Landsat-4, and Landsat-5 Earth observation missions. PMID:16045204

Theocharous, Evangelos

2005-07-10

285

A study of habitat fragmentation in Southeastern Brazil using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to study fragmentation of forest formations (mesophytic forest, riparian woodland and savannah vegetation (cerrado)) in a 15,774-ha study area located in the Municipal District of Botucatu in Southeastern Brazil (São Paulo State). A land use and land cover map was made from a color composition of a Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) image. The edge

Luiz Alberto Blanco Jorge; Gilberto José Garcia

1997-01-01

286

Satellite-assisted monitoring of vegetable crop evapotranspiration in California's San Joaquin Valley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reflective bands of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper satellite imagery were used to facilitate the estimation of basal crop evapotranspiration (ETcb), or productive water use, in San Joaquin Valley during 2008. A ground-based digital camera measured green fractional cover (Fc) of 49 commercial fields plan...

287

Vegetation classification by satellite image processing in a dry area of north-eastern Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

As vegetation classification on the highly diverse rangeland is an inevitable procedure in evaluating total forage resources and assessing human impact in large areas, a supervised classification was conducted by satellite image processing using geocoded bands 2, 3 and 4 of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) images, dated 13 April 1994 in the Abdal Aziz Mountain study area in northeastern

Masahiro Hirata; Naoki Kogab; Hitoshi Shinjo; Haruhiro Fujita; Gustave Gintzburger; Akira Miyazaki

2001-01-01

288

Deforestation in Costa Rica: A Quantitative Analysis Using Remote Sensing Imagery1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimates of forest cover and forest fragmentation are critical for developing countries such as Costa Rica, which holds four to five percent of the world's plant and bird species. We estimated forest cover for Costa Rica using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite scenes acquired between 1986 and 1991. In 1991, 29 percent (ca 14,000 km2) of the land cover

G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa; Robert C. Harriss; David L. Skole

2001-01-01

289

Sacramento Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows Landsat Thematic Mapper data from the shortwave infrared (TM band 5), infrared (TM band 4), and visible green (TM band 2) channels of Sacramento. The TM data was collected by Landsat 5 on the 27th of September, 1997.

Allen, Jesse; Williams, Darrel

1999-04-09

290

St. Louis Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows Landsat Thematic Mapper data from the shortwave infrared (TM band 5), infrared (TM band 4), and visible green (TM band 2) channels of St. Louis. The TM data was collected by Landsat 5 on the 18th of November, 1997.

Allen, Jesse; Williams, Darrel

1999-04-09

291

San Diego Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows Landsat Thematic Mapper data from the shortwave infrared (TM band 5), infrared (TM band 4), and visible green (TM band 2) channels of San Diego. The TM data was collected by Landsat 5 on the 12th of September, 1996.

Allen, Jesse; Williams, Darrel

1999-04-09

292

MAPPER: high-throughput maskless lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maskless electron beam lithography, or electron beam direct write, has been around for a long time in the semiconductor industry and was pioneered from the mid-1960s onwards. This technique has been used for mask writing applications as well as device engineering and in some cases chip manufacturing. However because of its relatively low throughput compared to optical lithography, electron beam lithography has never been the mainstream lithography technology. To extend optical lithography double patterning, as a bridging technology, and EUV lithography are currently explored. Irrespective of the technical viability of both approaches, one thing seems clear. They will be expensive [1]. MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10-20 wafers per hour. By clustering several of these columns together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV alternatives. In 2007 MAPPER obtained its Proof of Lithography milestone by exposing in its Demonstrator 45 nm half pitch structures with 110 electron beams in parallel, where all the beams where individually switched on and off [2]. In 2008 MAPPER has taken a next step in its development by building several tools. The objective of building these tools is to involve semiconductor companies to be able to verify tool performance in their own environment. To enable this, the tools will have a 300 mm wafer stage in addition to a 110-beam optics column. First exposures at 45 nm half pitch resolution have been performed and analyzed. On the same wafer it is observed that all beams print and based on analysis of 11 beams the CD for the different patterns is within 2.2 nm from target and the CD uniformity for the different patterns is better than 2.8 nm.

Wieland, M. J.; de Boer, G.; ten Berge, G. F.; Jager, R.; van de Peut, T.; Peijster, J. J. M.; Slot, E.; Steenbrink, S. W. H. K.; Teepen, T. F.; van Veen, A. H. V.; Kampherbeek, B. J.

2009-03-01

293

Patent-Mapper: Visualization of the geolocation of patents  

E-print Network

Patent-Mapper: Visualization of the geolocation of patents Yang Shen (Kevin) Department of Letter://www.funginstitute.berkeley.edu/sites/default/ les/PatentMapper.pdf August 5, 2013 130 Blum Hall #5580 Berkeley, CA 94720-5580 | (510) 664-4337 | www.funginstitute.berkeley.edu #12;! ! Abstract With thousands of patents emerging annually, and an approximate total of five million

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

294

Utilização de imagens orbitais do sensor TM\\/Landsat 5 para identificação e monitoramento do uso e ocupação do solo no município de Pedras Altas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has intended to achieve the classification and to monitor the elements in the Pedras Altas landscape, located in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by remote sensing and geoprocessing. Two orbitals pictures from the TM\\/Landsat 5 satellite, dated of 1985 and 2007, classified by the software Idrisi Andes, were been used in a way that the spectral answers were

Raquel Freitas Duarte

295

Venus radar mapper attitude reference quaternion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.

Lyons, D. T.

1986-01-01

296

The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

2011-01-01

297

[The analysis of consistency between HJ-1B and Landsat 5 TM for retrieving LST based on the single-channel algorithm].  

PubMed

To ascertain whether the thermal infrared image of HJ-1B which has the similar sensor parameter and setting to Landsat 5 TM6 image is applicable for retrieving the land surface temperature (LST), a comparison of retrieved LST between two types of sensors was conducted. Two scenes of thermal infrared images that came from different sensors were acquired in 5th, Apr 2009, which covered the same region in Beijing. To retrieve LST, a generalized single-channel algorithm developed by Jiménez-Muñoz and Sobrino was applied. The LST of study area for both images was thus generated. Based on the LST mapping results and corresponding statistics, an apparent trend could be observed which indicated the consistency in both LST value and its spatial distribution. Consequently, the performance of HJ-IB IRS serving as the data source for LST retrieval was assessed and illustrated in this study. Besides, a high temporal resolution as well as wide swath of the HJ-IRS data suggested its potential in application. PMID:21322224

Luo, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jing-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Jiang; Yang, Gui-Jun; Gu, Xiao-He; Yang, Hao

2010-12-01

298

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands  

E-print Network

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands: The contribution of the United Kingdom............................................................................................. 11 3. THE BIODIVERSITY OF ISLANDS INVOLVED WITH DI PROJECTS ........................................................................................... 49 6. THE DARWIN INITIATIVE'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE CBD'S ISLAND BIODIVERSITY PROGRAMME OF WORK

299

Comparative techniques used to evaluate Thematic Mapper data for land cover classification in Logan County, West Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several digital data processing techniques were evaluated in an effort to identify and map active/abandoned, partially reclaimed, and fully revegetated surface mine areas in the central portion of Logan County. The TM data were first subjected to various enhancement procedures, including a linear contrast stretch, principal components and canonical analysis transformations. At the same time, four general procedures were followed to produce six classifications as a means of comparing the techniques involved. Preliminary results show that various feature extraction/data reduction techniques provide classification results equal or superior to the more straightforward unsupervised clustering technique. Analyst interaction time for labelling clusters is reduced using the canonical analysis and principal components procedures, though the canonical technique has clearly produced better results to date.

Brumfield, J. O.; Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. F.

1985-01-01

300

Use of Landsat Thematic Mapper images in regional correlation of syntectonic strata, Colorado river extensional corridor, California and Arizona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enhanced Landsat TM images were used in conjunction with field work to investigate the regional correlation of Miocene rocks in the Colorado River extensional corridor of California and Arizona. Based on field investigations, four sequences of sedimentary and volcanic strata could be recognized in the Mohave Mountains (Arizona) and the eastern Whipple Mountains (California), which display significantly different relative volumes and organization of lithologies. The four sequences were also found to have distinctive appearances on the TM image. The recognition criteria derived from field mapping and image interpretation in the Mohave Mountains and Whipple Mountains were applied to an adjacent area in which stratigraphic affinities were less well known. The results of subsequent field work confirmed the stratigraphic and structural relations suggested by the Tm image analysis.

Beratan, K. K.; Blom, R. G.; Crippen, R. E.; Nielson, J. E.

1990-01-01

301

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three types of LANDSAT 4 film products generally accessible to the user community were analyzed and attempts were made to acquire a data set consisting of a variety of TM and MSS image products for the Sacramento and San Francisco Bay Area test sites. On request, the EDC developed an interim TM analytical film by using a leaser beam recorder to produce black and white masters from which natural and false color composites were created.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

302

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners. [Plumas County, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A seven step procedure developed for evaluating the geometric properties of MSS and TM film produces is being implemented. Some 476 control points were selected of which 238 are being tested and edited for digitization and scaling errors. Tables show statistics established for assessing the spectral characteristics and variability, as well as the spatial resolution and radiometric sensitivity of TM data for a forest environment in an effort to determine the extent to which major forest cover type can be detected and identified on TM digital and image products. Results thus far show that the high quality obtained are more than sufficient for meeting most of the inventory objectives of the renewable resource specialist. The TM data should be extremely valuable for: (1) estimating forest cover types; (2) updating land use survey maps; and (3) determining the size and shape and location of individual forest clearings and water resources.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

303

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial characteristics of the data were evaluated. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. The potential need for some level of radiometric adjustment was evidenced by an along track band of high reflectance across different cover types in the Varian imagery. A multiple regression analysis was employed to explore the viewing angle effect on measured reflectance. Areas in the data set which appeared to have no across track stratification of cover type were identified. A program was developed which computed the average reflectance by column for each channel, over all of the scan lines in the designated areas. A regression analysis was then run using the first, second, and third degree polynomials, for each channel. An atmospheric effect as a component of the viewing angle source of variance is discussed. Cover type maps were completed and training and test field selection was initiated.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

304

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To facilitate comparison between the four different spatial resolution of the NS-001 MSS data sets, a supervised approach was taken in defining training blocks for each of the different cover types. The training fields representing each cover type category were grouped and this group was clustered to determine the individual spectral classes within each cover type category which would effectively characterize the entire test site. Graphs show the variation in spectral response level with respect to distance in the across track dimension for four sampling intervals. Radar digitization procedures were developd. Flight characteristics and parameters for digitization of radar imagery are tabulated. The statement of work for phase 3 was reviewed and modifications were suggested to meet funding reduction.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

305

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training and test data sets for CAM1S from NS-001 MSS data for two dates (geometrically adjusted to 30 meter resolution) were used to evaluate wavelength band. Two sets of tapes containing digitized HH and HV polarization data were obtained. Because the SAR data on the 9 track tapes contained no meaningful data, the 7 track tapes were copied onto 9 track tapes at LARS. The LARSYS programs were modified and a program was written to reformat the digitized SAR data into a LARSYS format. The radar imagery is being qualitatively interpreted. Results are to be used to identify possible cover types, to produce a classification map to aid in the numerical evaluation classification of radar data, and to develop an interpretation key for radar imagery. The four spatial resolution data sets were analyzed. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. A flowchart of steps taken to geometrically adjust a data set from the NS-001 scanner is presented.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

306

Mapping hardwood forests through a two-stage unsupervised classification by integrating Landsat Thematic Mapper and forest inventory data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound forest management requires accurate forest maps at an appropriate scale. Forest cover data developed at a national scale may be too coarse for forest management at a local level. We demonstrated a two-stage unsupervised classification, integrating Continuous Forest Inventory (CFI) data and Landsat imageries, to classify forest types for Indiana State Forests (ISF) and 8-km surrounding areas. In the first stage, an automatic unsupervised classification assisted by CFI data was applied in ISF. In the second stage, the resultant forest cover information from the first stage was used to expand the classification area into the 8-km surrounding areas. Splitting the classification procedure into two stages made it possible to expand the classification area beyond the coverage of the CFI data. This data-aided unsupervised classification approach increased the repeatability of forest mapping. The resultant map contains five forest types: conifer, conifer-hardwood, maple, mixed hardwood, and oak-hickory forests. The overall accuracy was 81.9%, and the total disagreement was 0.176. The accuracies of conifer, conifer-hardwood, maple, mixed hardwood, and oak-hickory forests were 81.6, 63.4, 75.0, 33.3, and 90%, respectively. This forest mapping technique is suitable for automated mapping of forest areas where extensive plot data are available.

Shao, Gang; Pauli, Benjamin P.; Haulton, G. Scott; Zollner, Patrick A.; Shao, Guofan

2014-01-01

307

A Landsat Thematic Mapper investigation of the geobotanical relationships in the northern spruce-fir forest, Mt. Moosilauke, New Hampshire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation, in the northern spruce-fir forest at Mt. Moosilauke, NH, indicates that Landsat TM data can be used to distinguish between and map major vegetation zones. Principal components analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the TM data; and in this simpler spectral space, it is easier to visualize the discrimination between major vegetation zones: the northern hardwoods zone, spruce-fir zone, fir zone, and alpine tundra zone. The moisture stress index highlights areas of heavy forest damage (fir waves), but does not correlate with low levels of damage in the mixed, background forest at Mt. Moosilauke. Care must be taken to avoid confusion between high-elevation climatically-stressed vegetation (normal krummholz forest) and damaged lower elevation forests, both of which have similar TM5/TM4 ratio values.

Torcoletti, Paul J.; Birnie, Richard W.

1988-01-01

308

A COMPARISON OF LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER AND INDIAN REMOTE SENSING DATA FOR LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research focuses on comparing Landsat TM and IRS data and determining if similar classification can be achieved from datasets for certain land cover types. Supervised classification was performed using information from a combination of digital aerial photographs, a priori knowledge of the study site by the authors and existing Land Use Land Cover (LULC) maps. The

Levent Genc; Scot Smith; Griffith Charles; Francis Mc Corry

2005-01-01

309

Comparison of the information content of data from the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper and the multispectral scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of information contained in data from the visible and near-IR channels of LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS for five agricultural scenes shows that the TM provides a significant advance in information gathering capability as expressed in terms of bits per pixel or bits per unit area. The six reflective channels of the TM acquire 18 bits of information per pixel out of a possible 48 bits, while the four MSS channels acquire 10 bits of information per pixel out of a possible 28 bits. Thus the TM and MSS are equally efficient in gathering information (18/48 to approximately 10/28), contrary to the expected tendency toward lower efficiency as spatial resolution is improved and spectral channels are added to an observing system. The TM thermal IR data appear to be of interest mainly for mapping water bodies, which do not change temperature during the day, for assessing surface moisture, and for monitoring thermal features associated with human activity.

Price, J. C.

1984-01-01

310

Thermal Band Characterization of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper. [Buffalo, New York and water temperature in Lake Erie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quick look monitor in the spacecraft control center was used to measure the TM Band 6 shutter background and the 34.7 C internal blackbody signal on over 50 dates. Comparison of relative internal gains between the four channels to prelaunch values showed changes over 9 months of up to 5%, while 512 x 512 subsections of the original 10 daytime scenes showed scene counts that ranged from 135 down to 62. A night scene of the Buffalo area was used to determine channel gain relative to the mean and to discern a systematic along scan pattern in a difference between forward and reverse scan counts of up to 0.5. A corrected digital image was produced and individual gains and offsets were calculated for the four channels. At satellite radiance was determine and noise equivalent temperature difference was calculated. The calibration data and the Buffalo scene, with the corrections and estimates of the atmospheric transmission and radiance, were used to make a temperature estimate for an area of Lake Erie of 21 C to 27 C. Local records of the temperature showed 21 C.

Lansing, J. C.; Barker, J. L.

1984-01-01

311

Changes in classification accuracy due to varying Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper provides the results of a factorial experiment designed to study the classification differences resulting from varying TM and MSS sensor resolution. Eight simulated data sets of various TM and MSS spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolutions were generated on the basis of Daedalus aircraft scanner data. It is pointed out that the current study provides more precise results than previous work, because more exact methods of data simulation with regard to the three factors were emphasized. Two methods of analysis are considered in the paper. To improve on earlier studies, efforts were made to collect an extensive amount of ground reference data. The summaries of classification accuracies for the training sites in the factorial analysis are presented in a table.

Acevedo, W.; Buis, J. S.; Wrigley, R. C.

1985-01-01

312

Mapping and monitoring deforestation areas in Amazon region using semi-automatic classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The INPE's operational project (PRODES) to estimate annual gross deforestation in Amazon region based on manual analysis of 229 TM images faces several problems during the interpretation process (variable scales of different scenes, closing polygons in the interpretation maps due to complexity of deforestation pattern). Thus, the availability of results in a digital format has been restricted. This authors propose

Yosio Edemir Shimabukuro; Valdete Duarte; J. R. dos Santos; G. T. Batista

2000-01-01

313

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners. [Central Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image products and numeric data were extracted from both TM and MSS data in an effort to evaluate the quality of these data for interpreting major agricultural resources and conditions in California's Central Valley. The utility of TM data appears excellent for meeting most of the inventory objectives of the agricultural resource specialist. These data should be extremely valuable for crop type and area proportion estimation, for updating agricultural land use survey maps at 1:24,000-scale and smaller, for field boundary definition, and for determining the size and location of individual farmsteads.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

314

Analysis of multispectral scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) performance (pre-launch and post-launch)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tables and graphs show the results of the spectral, radiometric, and geometric characterization of LANDSAT 4 sensors associated with imagery and of the imagery associated with sensors and processing. Specifications for the various parameters are compared with the photoflight and flight values.

Barker, J. L.

1983-01-01

315

Thematic Mapper and field investigations at the intersection of the Death Valley and Garlock fault zones, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of processed images and detailed field investigations have provided significant information concerning the late-Pliocene and Quaternary evolution of the intersection of the Garlock and Death Valley fault zones. The imagery was used to determine patterns of sedimentation and age relationships on alluvial fans and to determine the geometry, styles of deformation, and relative ages of movements on major and minor faults in the study area. The field investigation often confirmed the inferences drawn from the images and provided additional tectonic and geomorphologic data about the Quaternary deformation of the region. All the data gathered in the course of this project support the contention that the Garlock fault zone terminates in the Avawatz Mountains and that the Death Valley fault zone continues south of the intersection for at least 50 km, forming the eastern boundary of the Mojave province.

Brady, Roland H., III; Cregan, Alan; Clayton, Jeff; Troxel, Bennie W.; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Abrams, Michael

1989-01-01

316

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Separate holograms of horizontally (HH) and vertically (HV) polarized responses obtained by the APQ-102 side-looking radar were processed through an optical correlator and the resulting image was recorded on positive film from which black and white negative and positive prints were made. Visual comparison of the HH and HV images reveals a distinct dark band in the imagery which covers about 30% of the radar strip. Preliminary evaluaton of the flight line 1 date indicates that various features on the HH and HV images seem to have different response levels. The amount of sidelap due to the look angle between flight lines 1 and 2 is negligible. NASA mission #425 to obtain flightlines of NS-001 MSS data and supporting aerial photography was successfully flown. Flight line 3 data are of very good quality and virtually cloud-free. Results of data analysis for selection of test fields and for evaluation of waveband combination and spatial resolution are presented.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator); Latty, R. S.; Dean, E.; Knowlton, D. J.

1980-01-01

317

Geodetic accuracy of LANDSAT 4 Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper data. [Washington, DC, California, Alabama, South Dakota, and Illinois  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geodetic accuracy of LANDSAT 4 data from both the MSS and TM processing systems was evaluated. The procedure was based on comparing the calculated image location, computed with the geodetic referencing algorithms, with the true image location visually located on a display device. Results of the testing of geodetic accuracy of three MSS scenes (Washington, DC, central Alabama, and Los Angeles, CA) and two TM scenes (Aberdeen, SD and Galesburg, IL) are presented. The calculated and actual image locations of the ground control points are shown. The offset between the calculated and actual image location, as well as the offset vector magnitude or pixel error, are given.

Thormodsgard, J. M.; Devries, D. J.

1985-01-01

318

Energy Facility Siting by Means of Environmental Modelling with LANDSAT, Thematic Mapper and Geographic Information System (GIS) Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently based on ground and aerial surveys, the land cover data base of the Pennsylvania Power and Light Company is routinely used for modelling the effects of alternative generating plant and transmission line sites on the local and regional environment. The development of a satellite-based geographic information system would facilitate both the preparation of environmental impact statements by power companies and assessment of the data by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A cooperative project is planned to demonstrate the methodology for integrating satellite data into an existing geographic information system, d to further evaluate the ability of satellite data in modeling environmental conditions that would be applied in the preparation and assessment of environmental impact statements.

1982-01-01

319

The GOES-R Lightning Mapper Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lightning Mapper Sensor on GOES-R builds on previous measurements of lightning from low earth orbit by the OTD (Optical Transient Detector) and LIS (Lightning Imaging Sensor) sensors. Unlike observations from low earth orbit, the GOES-R platform will allow continuous monitoring of lightning activity over the Continental United States and southern Canada, Central and South America, and portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The LMS will detect total (cloud-to-ground and intracloud) lightning at storm scale resolution (approx. 8 km) using a highly sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector array. Discrimination between lightning optical transients and a bright sunlit background scene is accomplished by employing spectral, spatial, and temporal filtering along with a background subtraction technique. The result is 24 hour detection capability of total lightning. These total lightning observations can be made available to users within about 20 seconds. Research indicates a number of ways that total lightning observations from LMS could benefit operational activities, including 1) potential increases in lead times and reduced false alarms for severe thunderstorm and tornado Warnings, 2) improved routing of &rail around thunderstorms, 3) support for spacecraft launches and landings, 4) improved ability to monitor tropical cyclone intensity, 5) ability to monitor thunderstorm intensification/weakening during radar outages or where radar coverage is poor, 6) better identification of deep convection for the initialization of numerical prediction models, 7) improved forest fire forecasts, 8) identification of convective initiation, 9) identification of heavy convective snowfall, and 10) enhanced temporal resolution of storm evolution (1 minute) than is available from radar observations. Total lightning data has been used in an operational environment since July 2003 at the Huntsville, Alabama National Weather Service office. Total lightning measurements are obtained by the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and have successfully been used in warning decisions. Every 2 minutes, total lightning counts in 2 km by 2 km horizontal, 1 km vertical grids are available to forecasters on an AWIPS (Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System) workstation. Experience with the LMA total lightning data is used to illustrate the potential use of LMS data that would be available to forecasters across the US. This abstract is for submission as a presentation to the National Weather Association Annual Meeting to be held 16-21 October 2004 in Portland, OR. This abstract will be published in the conference proceedings.

Buechler, Dennis; Christian, Hugh; Goodman, Steve

2004-01-01

320

An Honorable Seduction: Thematic Studies in Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By using a thematic approach and by drawing on other disciplines for breadth, English teachers can "honorably seduce" career-oriented students into a love affair with literature and draw them back into the English curriculum. For example, a teacher's conversation with a student focusing on fathers and sons led the teacher to suggest that the…

Worby, Diana Z.

321

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic  

E-print Network

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 13 February, Noon Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http' and their families' journey through the Forensic Service. The data has already been transcribed but needs in

Hickman, Mark

322

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic  

E-print Network

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 1 February, 2012 Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http' and their families' journey through the Forensic Service. The data has already been transcribed but needs in

Hickman, Mark

323

Thematic Cartography, Resource Paper No. 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource paper on thematic cartography is part of a series designed to supplement undergraduate geography courses. It reviews recent developments in the field and identifies problem areas which warrant future attention. Cartography is defined as both the conceptual, problem-oriented research and the technical processes of map making. It…

Muehrcke, Phillip

324

Efficient generation of area thematic maps in KML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic maps using KML and KMZ are common for point and line features, but scarce for area features. We present a method and website for generation of the thematic map KMLs based on US Census geography. By taking advantage of various preprocessing and indexing methods, thematic maps viewable in any KML compliant viewer (eg, Google Maps, Google Earth, or ArcGIS

Bruce A. Ralston; Joshua A. Streufert

2008-01-01

325

Analysis of thematic map classification error matrices.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The classification error matrix expresses the counts of agreement and disagreement between the classified categories and their verification. Thematic mapping experiments compare variables such as multiple photointerpretation or scales of mapping, and produce one or more classification error matrices. This paper presents a tutorial to implement a typical problem of a remotely sensed data experiment for solution by the linear model method.-from Author

Rosenfield, G.H.

1986-01-01

326

Data and Information Exchange System for the "Reindeer Mapper" Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During this past year, the Reindeer Mapper Intranet system has been set up on the NASA system, 8 team members have been established, a Reindeer Mapper reference list containing 696 items has been entered, 6 power point presentations have been put on line for review among team members, 304 satellite images have been catalogued (including 16 Landsat images, 288 NDVI 10-day composited images and an anomaly series- May 1998 to December 2002, and 56 SAR CEOS S A R format files), schedules and meeting dates are being shared, students at the Nordic Sami Institute are experimenting with the system for reindeer herder indigenous knowledge sharing, and an "address book" is being developed. Several documents and presentations have been translated and made available in Russian for our Russian colleagues. This has enabled our Russian partners to utilize documents and presentations for use in their research (e.g., SAR imagery comparisons with Russian GIS of specific study areas) and discussion with local colleagues.

Maynard, Nancy; Yurchak, Boris

2005-01-01

327

Airborne Topographic Mapper Calibration Procedures and Accuracy Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of NASA Airborn Topographic Mapper (ATM) lidar calibration procedures including analysis of the accuracy and consistancy of various ATM instrument parameters and the resulting influence on topographic elevation measurements. The ATM elevations measurements from a nominal operating altitude 500 to 750 m above the ice surface was found to be: Horizontal Accuracy 74 cm, Horizontal Precision 14 cm, Vertical Accuracy 6.6 cm, Vertical Precision 3 cm.

Martin, Chreston F.; Krabill, William B.; Manizade, Serdar S.; Russell, Rob L.; Sonntag, John G.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

2012-01-01

328

Fires Scorch Oregon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In southwestern Oregon, the Florence Fire (north) and the Sour Biscuit Fire (south) continued to burn virtually out of control on July 21, 2002. Numerous evacuation notices have been issued for residents in the area as the fires remain difficult to control due to the steep, rugged terrain of the Klamath Mountains. This image is from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper. Credit:Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

2002-01-01

329

Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976–2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005–2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system. PMID:21170121

Hu, Daning; Dang, Yan; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Larson, Catherine A.; Chan, Joyce

2008-01-01

330

Analyzing thematic maps and mapping for accuracy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two problems which exist while attempting to test the accuracy of thematic maps and mapping are: (1) evaluating the accuracy of thematic content, and (2) evaluating the effects of the variables on thematic mapping. Statistical analysis techniques are applicable to both these problems and include techniques for sampling the data and determining their accuracy. In addition, techniques for hypothesis testing, or inferential statistics, are used when comparing the effects of variables. A comprehensive and valid accuracy test of a classification project, such as thematic mapping from remotely sensed data, includes the following components of statistical analysis: (1) sample design, including the sample distribution, sample size, size of the sample unit, and sampling procedure; and (2) accuracy estimation, including estimation of the variance and confidence limits. Careful consideration must be given to the minimum sample size necessary to validate the accuracy of a given. classification category. The results of an accuracy test are presented in a contingency table sometimes called a classification error matrix. Usually the rows represent the interpretation, and the columns represent the verification. The diagonal elements represent the correct classifications. The remaining elements of the rows represent errors by commission, and the remaining elements of the columns represent the errors of omission. For tests of hypothesis that compare variables, the general practice has been to use only the diagonal elements from several related classification error matrices. These data are arranged in the form of another contingency table. The columns of the table represent the different variables being compared, such as different scales of mapping. The rows represent the blocking characteristics, such as the various categories of classification. The values in the cells of the tables might be the counts of correct classification or the binomial proportions of these counts divided by either the row totals or the column totals from the original classification error matrices. In hypothesis testing, when the results of tests of multiple sample cases prove to be significant, some form of statistical test must be used to separate any results that differ significantly from the others. In the past, many analyses of the data in this error matrix were made by comparing the relative magnitudes of the percentage of correct classifications, for either individual categories, the entire map or both. More rigorous analyses have used data transformations and (or) two-way classification analysis of variance. A more sophisticated step of data analysis techniques would be to use the entire classification error matrices using the methods of discrete multivariate analysis or of multiviariate analysis of variance.

Rosenfield, G.H.

1982-01-01

331

Mapper: A distributed object-oriented database application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the results of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project. The initial application involved decomposition of a large database across multiple processors to improve the speed of processing compound queries. The commercial outcome was a tourist information system with a point-to-point driving direction program called MAPPER. A distributed, object-oriented approach was used for the general design, while a spatial decomposition was used to divide the database into computationally manageable pieces. The resulting system is highly flexible with respect to both modifications and reuse.

Younger, Herbert; O'Reilly, John; Frogner, Bjorn

1995-01-01

332

Advanced mesospheric temperature mapper for high-latitude airglow studies.  

PubMed

Over the past 60 years, ground-based remote sensing measurements of the Earth's mesospheric temperature have been performed using the nighttime hydroxyl (OH) emission, which originates at an altitude of ?87??km. Several types of instruments have been employed to date: spectrometers, Fabry-Perot or Michelson interferometers, scanning-radiometers, and more recently temperature mappers. Most of them measure the mesospheric temperature in a few sample directions and/or with a limited temporal resolution, restricting their research capabilities to the investigation of larger-scale perturbations such as inertial waves, tides, or planetary waves. The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) is a novel infrared digital imaging system that measures selected emission lines in the mesospheric OH (3,1) band (at ?1.5???m) to create intensity and temperature maps of the mesosphere around 87 km. The data are obtained with an unprecedented spatial (?0.5??km) and temporal (typically 30?) resolution over a large 120° field of view, allowing detailed measurements of wave propagation and dissipation at the ?87??km level, even in the presence of strong aurora or under full moon conditions. This paper describes the AMTM characteristics, compares measured temperatures with values obtained by a collocated Na lidar instrument, and presents several examples of temperature maps and nightly keogram representations to illustrate the excellent capabilities of this new instrument. PMID:25321674

Pautet, P-D; Taylor, M J; Pendleton, W R; Zhao, Y; Yuan, T; Esplin, R; McLain, D

2014-09-10

333

GOES-R GLM: Introduction to the Geostationary Lightning Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extension of the COMET module “GOES-R: Benefits of Next Generation Environmental Monitoring” focuses on the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) instrument, the satellite's lightning mapper. The GLM will provide continuous lightning measurements over a large portion of the Western Hemisphere, mapping total lightning (intra-cloud and cloud–to–ground) flash rates and trends. GLM observations will improve local forecasts and warnings of severe weather and air quality, and provide new data for numerical weather prediction and studies of regional climate and climate change. The first part of the lesson describes the need for real-time lightning information and introduces the capabilities of the GLM, which will fly on the next-generation GOES-R satellites. The second section lets users explore the life cycle of a typical cloud-to-ground lightning flash, how it is observed by space and ground-based detection systems, and how lightning flashes translate into GLM observations. The final section explores some of the many applications that will benefit from GLM observations including convection and severe weather nowcasting, warning of lightning ground strike hazards, aviation, atmospheric chemistry, quantitative precipitation estimation, tropical cyclones, fire ignitions, numerical weather prediction, and climate and global studies.

2014-09-14

334

Improving the classification precision of spectral angle mapper algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm is used widely in hyperspectral data processing, such as classification, detection, identification, etc. In many cases, however, the classification result of SAM is not satisfied. The aim of this study is to improve the classification precision of the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm through investigating the change of similarity between the reference spectra and the selected spectra, evaluated by SAM, in the feature space. The properties of result calculated by SAM algorithm are exploited in the feature space whose dimensionality is equal to the number of bands. A new method, which represses the impact caused by the additive factor in the feature space, is proposed in this paper for its improvement on performance versus traditional SAM algorithm. The spectral discriminability of the new algorithm is greatly improved by reducing the additive factor in the feature space appropriately. In order to demonstrate its enhancement, a comparative study is conducted between the new algorithm and the SAM. The comparative results prove that the new approach can control the errors effectively and improve the precision and reliability of classification significantly. The new algorithm is implemented in IDL7.0 and tested in ENVI, using 1995 Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data from Cuprite, Nevada, USA.

Wang, Ying; Guo, Lei; Liang, Nan

2009-10-01

335

Thematic repository as alternative model for science communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The institutional and thematic repositories seen as alternative models of scientific communication can provide significant contributions to accelerate the scientific processes. It's presented in this article an academic experiment with the implementation of a thematic repository used to store digital content from academic research undertaken in the laboratory. Using a system of repositories of content developed in the Java programming

Domingos B. G. Santos; Luiz P. C. Silva; J. S. Coelho

2010-01-01

336

Science Adventures with Children's Literature: A Thematic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides background information on the development and implementation of thematic units that focus on a hands-on approach, process orientation, integrated curriculum, cooperative learning, and critical thinking. Topics of the thematic units and mini-units include wild animals, dinosaurs, rainforests, the human body, earth science,…

Fredericks, Anthony D.

337

The Thematic Photobook System: A Teaching Strategy for Exceptional Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Thematic Photobook System is a teaching strategy that uses an interpersonal approach to involve and encourage a child to participate in producing photobooks of specific themes to facilitate desired learning or behavioral objectives. A thematic photobook is a tool which integrates a number of educational or therapeutic photo activities focused…

Veksler, Dina; Reed, Henry; Ranish, Anna

2008-01-01

338

Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

Preece, Julia

2010-01-01

339

ACCURACY OF THEMATIC MAPS / IMPLICATIONS OF CHOROPLETH SYMBOLIZATION  

E-print Network

ACCURACY OF THEMATIC MAPS / IMPLICATIONS OF CHOROPLETH SYMBOLIZATION ALAN M MACEACHREN University: planimetricaccura- cy and data representation accuracy. The first is of only minor concern for thematic maps. Data representation accuracy, however, is at least as significant to map effectiveness as are the perceptual

Klippel, Alexander

340

CIESIN Thematic Guide Night-time Light Remote Sensing CIESIN Thematic Guide to Night-time Light  

E-print Network

and light pollution to economic activity, greenhouse gas emissions and using night-time lights to helpCIESIN Thematic Guide Night-time Light Remote Sensing 1 CIESIN Thematic Guide to Night-time Light-time Light Remote Sensing 2 Copyright © 2008 The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York

Columbia University

341

The Moon mineralogy mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a NASA-supported guest instrument on ISRO's remote sensing mission to Moon, Chandrayaan-1. The M3 is an imaging spectrometer that operates from the visible into the near-infrared (0.42-3.0 ??m) where highly diagnostic mineral absorption bands occur. Over the course of the mission M3 will provide low resolution spectroscopic data for the entire lunar surface at 140 m/pixel (86 spectral channels) to be used as a base-map and high spectral resolution science data (80 m/pixel; 260 spectral channels) for 25-50% of the surface. The detailed mineral assessment of different lunar terrains provided by M3 is principal information needed for understanding the geologic evolution of the lunar crust and lays the foundation for focused future in-depth exploration of the Moon.

Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Head, J.; Isaacson, P.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Mustard, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.

2009-01-01

342

Predicting taxonomic and thematic relational responding  

PubMed Central

Pairs of pictures were classified by the authors and others as related by identity (A—A), basic taxonomy (A—B), superordinate taxonomy (A—C), or by theme (A—D). Two-choice matching-to-sample trial types were composed of these same picture pairs in which the sample was common to the two stimulus pairs in each configuration and, together with the sample, each comparison exemplified one of the relations in the picture pair; that is: A(AB), A(AC), A(AD), A(BC), A(BD), and A(CD). In five experiments, for each picture pair, college students classified the relation (as taxonomic or thematic) and rated its strength (Exps 1, 3) or its similarity (Exp 4); others matched to sample the foregoing trial types only (Exps 2, 5), or they classified and rated, too (Exp 3). With exceptions, students classed most pairs as the authors did. They also collectively ordered relational strengths from (1) identity, (2) basic taxonomy, and (3) theme, to (4) superordinate taxonomy based, in part, on the similarity of sample and comparison. Subjects chose the comparisons of the more strongly related picture pairs in the matching-to-sample task on 90 percent or more of the configurations. Subjects' selections in two-choice, matching-to-sample configurations using natural stimuli may be based on existing stimulus control topographies such as those exhibited by ratings of the relations in a configuration. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:22477256

Osborne, J. Grayson; Heath, John

2003-01-01

343

Individual differences in the strength of taxonomic versus thematic relations  

PubMed Central

Knowledge about word and object meanings can be organized taxonomically (fruits, mammals, etc.) based on shared features, or thematically (eating breakfast, taking a dog for a walk, etc.) based on participation in events or scenarios. An eye-tracking study showed that both kinds of knowledge are activated during comprehension of a single spoken word, even when the listener is not required to perform any active task. The results further revealed that an individual’s relative activation of taxonomic relations compared to thematic relations predicts that individual’s tendency to favor taxonomic over thematic relations when asked to choose between them in a similarity judgment task. These results argue that individuals differ in the relative strengths of their taxonomic and thematic semantic knowledge and suggest that meaning information is organized in two parallel, complementary semantic systems. PMID:22201413

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2011-01-01

344

ASSESSMENT OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Landscape characteristics such as small patch size and land cover heterogeneity have been hypothesized to increase the likelihood of misclassifying pixels during thematic image classification. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence, to support these hypotheses. This...

345

Cross-calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-5 TM with the ResourceSat-1 (IRS-P6) AWiFS and LISS-III sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasingly, data from multiple sensors are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. The Landsat suite of satellites has collected the longest continuous archive of multispectral data. The ResourceSat-1 Satellite (also called as IRS-P6) was launched into the polar sunsynchronous orbit on Oct 17, 2003. It carries three remote sensing sensors: the High Resolution Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-IV), Medium Resolution Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-III), and the Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS). These three sensors are used together to provide images with different resolution and coverage. To understand the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy of IRS-P6 AWiFS and LISS-III sensors, image pairs from these sensors were compared to the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ sensors. The approach involved the calibration of nearly simultaneous surface observations based on image statistics from areas observed simultaneously by the two sensors.

Chander, G.; Scaramuzza, P.L.

2006-01-01

346

T H E EVOLUTION O F THEMATIC CARTOGRAPHY / A RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND HISTORICAL REVIEW  

E-print Network

T H E EVOLUTION O F THEMATIC CARTOGRAPHY / A RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND HISTORICAL REVIEW ALAN M framework on which research in the history of thematic cartography can be based is presented. A methodology of thematic cartography is discussed. Theevolution of thematic cartography is an area within the history

Klippel, Alexander

347

New dust opacity mapping from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global dust opacity mapping for Mars has been carried forward using the approach described by Martin (1986) for Viking IR Thermal Mapper data. New maps are presented for the period from the beginning of Viking observations, until Ls 210 deg in 1979 (1.36 Mars years). This range includes the second and more extensive planet-encircling dust storm observed by Viking, known as storm 1977b. Improvements in approach result in greater time resolution and smaller noise than in the earlier work. A strong local storm event filled the Hellas basin at Ls 170 deg, prior to the 1977a storm. Dust is retained in equatorial regions following the 1977b storm far longer than in mid-latitudes. Minor dust events appear to raise the opacity in northern high latitudes during northern spring. Additional mapping with high time resolution has been done for the periods of time near the major storm origins in order to search for clues to the mechanism of storm initiation. The first evidence of the start of the 1977b storm is pushed back to Ls 274.2 deg, preceding signs of the storm in images by about 15 hours.

Martin, Terry Z.; Richardson, Mark I.

1993-01-01

348

Venus Radar Mapper (VRM): Multimode radar system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface of Venus has remained a relative mystery because of the very dense atmosphere that is opaque to visible radiation and, thus, normal photographic techniques used to explore the other terrestrial objects in the solar system are useless. The atmosphere is, however, almost transparent to radar waves and images of the surface have been produced via Earth-based and orbital radars. The technique of obtaining radar images of a surface is variously called side looking radar, imaging radar, or synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar requires a moving platform in which the antenna is side looking. High resolution is obtained in the cross-track or range direction by conventional radar pulse encoding. In the along-track or azimuth direction, the resolution would normally be the antenna beam width, but for the SAR case, a much longer antenna (or much sharper beam) is obtained by moving past a surface target as shown, and then combining the echoes from many pulses, by using the Doppler data, to obtain the images. The radar design of the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) is discussed. It will acquire global radar imagery and altimetry data of the surface of Venus.

Johnson, William T. K.; Edgerton, Alvin T.

1986-01-01

349

Lead Optimization Mapper: Automating free energy calculations for lead optimization  

PubMed Central

Alchemical free energy calculations hold increasing promise as an aid to drug discovery efforts. However, applications of these techniques in discovery projects have been relatively few, partly because of the difficulty of planning and setting up calculations. Here, we introduce Lead Optimization Mapper, LOMAP, an automated algorithm to plan efficient relative free energy calculations between potential ligands within a substantial library of perhaps hundreds of compounds. In this approach, ligands are first grouped by structural similarity primarily based on the size of a (loosely defined) maximal common substructure, and then calculations are planned within and between sets of structurally related compounds. An emphasis is placed on ensuring that relative free energies can be obtained between any pair of compounds without combining the results of too many different relative free energy calculations (to avoid accumulation of error) and by providing some redundancy to allow for the possibility of error and consistency checking and provide some insight into when results can be expected to be unreliable. The algorithm is discussed in detail and a Python implementation, based on both Schrödinger's and OpenEye's APIs, has been made available freely under the BSD license. PMID:24072356

Liu, Shuai; Wu, Yujie; Lin, Teng; Abel, Robert; Redmann, Jonathan P.; Summa, Christopher M.; Jaber, Vivian R.; Lim, Nathan M.; Mobley, David L.

2013-01-01

350

CheS-Mapper 2.0 for visual validation of (Q)SAR models  

PubMed Central

Background Sound statistical validation is important to evaluate and compare the overall performance of (Q)SAR models. However, classical validation does not support the user in better understanding the properties of the model or the underlying data. Even though, a number of visualization tools for analyzing (Q)SAR information in small molecule datasets exist, integrated visualization methods that allow the investigation of model validation results are still lacking. Results We propose visual validation, as an approach for the graphical inspection of (Q)SAR model validation results. The approach applies the 3D viewer CheS-Mapper, an open-source application for the exploration of small molecules in virtual 3D space. The present work describes the new functionalities in CheS-Mapper 2.0, that facilitate the analysis of (Q)SAR information and allows the visual validation of (Q)SAR models. The tool enables the comparison of model predictions to the actual activity in feature space. The approach is generic: It is model-independent and can handle physico-chemical and structural input features as well as quantitative and qualitative endpoints. Conclusions Visual validation with CheS-Mapper enables analyzing (Q)SAR information in the data and indicates how this information is employed by the (Q)SAR model. It reveals, if the endpoint is modeled too specific or too generic and highlights common properties of misclassified compounds. Moreover, the researcher can use CheS-Mapper to inspect how the (Q)SAR model predicts activity cliffs. The CheS-Mapper software is freely available at http://ches-mapper.org. Graphical abstract Comparing actual and predicted activity values with CheS-Mapper.

2014-01-01

351

Determination of regional distributions and seasonal variations of land surface heat fluxes from Landsat7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper data over the central Tibetan Plateau area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a parameterization method based on Landsat-7 ETM data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface reflectance, surface temperature, NDVI, MSAVI, vegetation coverage, LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous landscape. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the

Yaoming Ma; Lei Zhong; Zhongbo Su; Hirohiko Ishikawa; Massimo Menenti; Toshio Koike

2006-01-01

352

Relating thematic mapper bands TM3, TM4, and TM5 to agronomic variables for corn, cotton, sugarbeet, soybean, sorghum, sunflower and tobacco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Red, photographic infrared, near infrared spectral data of corn, cotton, soybeans, sugar beets, sorghum, sunflowers and tobacco were collected throughout the entire growing season by using a three band handheld radiometer. Different radiance patterns were found among these crops based on their morphology, green biomass duration and leaf size. Results show near infrared radiance is a good indicator of water content in plant tissue under small scale experimental conditions.

Fan, C. J. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

353

Estuarine and Tidal Freshwater Habitat Cover Types Along the Lower Columbia River Estuary Determined from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.  

SciTech Connect

Developing an understanding of the distribution and changes in estuarine and tidal floodplain ecosystems is critical to the management of biological resources in the lower Columbia River. Columbia River plants, fish, and wildlife require specific physicochemical and ecological conditions to sustain their populations. As habitats are degraded or lost, this capability is altered, often irretrievably; those species that cannot adapt are lost from the ecosystem. The Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) completed a comprehensive ecosystem protection and enhancement plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary in 1999 (Jerrick, 1999). The plan identified habitat loss and modification as a critical threat to the integrity of the lower Columbia River ecosystem and called for a habitat inventory as a key first step in its long term restoration efforts. In 2000, the Estuary Partnership initiated a multiphase project to produce a spatial data set describing the current location and distribution of estuarine and tidal freshwater habitat cover types along the lower Columbia River from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam using a consistent methodology and data sources (Fig. 1). The first phase of the project was the development of a broadbrush description of the estuarine and tidal freshwater habitat cover classes for the entire study area ({approx}146 river miles) using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite imagery. Phase II of the project entailed analysis of the classified satellite imagery from Phase I. Analysis of change in landcover and a summary of the spatial relationships between cover types are part of Phase II. Phase III of the project included the classification of the high resolution hyperspectral imagery collected in 2000 and 2001 for key focal areas within the larger study area. Finally, Phase IV consists of this final report that presents results from refining the Landsat ETM+ classification and provides recommendations for future actions. Previous studies (Thomas, 1980; Thomas, 1983; Graves et al., 1995; NOAA, 1997; Allen, 1999) produced similar landcover data sets; however, most of these studies used multiple and varied data sources and differed from one another in methodologies. Currently, no single data set has been produced using a consistent methodology and uniform scale data, which describes current estuarine and tidal freshwater floodplain cover types from the Columbia's mouth to the Bonneville Dam (Fig. 1). Results from this study will be used by the Estuary Partnership and its cooperators to: (1) develop indicators of 'habitat health' for target species and populations, and biological integrity at the community and ecosystem scales; (2) develop definitions of 'important salmonid habitat'; (3) identify and evaluate potential wetland conservation and restoration sites; (4) track non-indigenous and invasive species; and (5) develop an understanding of how estuarine and floodplain habitats have changed over the past 200 years. This study focused on estuarine and tidal freshwater floodplain habitat cover types, which are important to native species, particularly juvenile salmonids. Results from this study are meant to provide support for the multiple efforts currently underway to recover 12 species of Columbia River salmonids identified as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Spatial scale was an important consideration in this study. Our goal was to create a geographic information system (GIS) coverage depicting habitat cover types for the entire 146 river miles of the study area and the associated floodplain, at a spatial resolution sufficient to resolve important estuarine and floodplain features, wherever possible. Thus, in addition to the small scale (30 m pixel size) satellite imagery covering the study area described in this report, we also acquired high spatial resolution imagery ({approx}1.5 m pixel size) for key portions of the study area using a Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). Compared to the rather coarse, low spectral resolution of the satellite ima

Garono, Ralph; Robinson, Rob

2003-10-01

354

Study of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration. [Southern Ontario, Lawton, Oklahoma; Owl Creek, Wyoming; Washington, D.C.; and Death Valley California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved delineation of known oil and gas fields in southern Ontario and a spectacularly high amount of structural information on the Owl Creek, Wyoming scene were obtained from analysis of TM data. The use of hue, saturation, and value image processing techniques on a Death Valley, California scene permitted direct comparison of TM processed imagery with existing 1:250,000 scale geological maps of the area and revealed small outcrops of Tertiary volcanic material overlying Paleozoic sections. Analysis of TM data over Lawton, Oklahoma suggests that the reducing chemical environment associated with hydrocarbon seepage change ferric iron to soluble ferrous iron, allowing it to be leached. Results of the band selection algorithm show a suprising consistency, with the 1,4,5 combination selected as optimal in most cases.

Everett, J. R. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

355

Comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer data for the Cuprite mining district, Esmeralda, and Nye counties, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat TM images and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data were analyzed for the Cuprite mining district and compared to available geologic and alteration maps of the area. The TM data, with 30 m resolution and 6 broadbands, allowed discrimination of general mineral groups. Clay minerals, playa deposits, and unaltered rocks were mapped as discrete spectral units using the TM data, but specific minerals were not determined, and definition of the individual alteration zones was not possible. The GERIS, with 15 m spatial resolution and 63 spectral bands, permitted construction of complete spectra and identification of specific minerals. Detailed spectra extracted from the images provided the ability to identify the minerals alunite, kaolinite, hematite, and buddingtonite by their spectral characteristics. The GERIS data show a roughly concentrically zoned hydrothermal system. The mineralogy mapped with the aircraft system conforms to previous field and multispectral image mapping. However, identification of individual minerals and spatial display of the dominant mineralogy add information that can be used to help determine the morphology and genetic origin of the hydrothermal system.

Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Kruse, Fred A.

1989-01-01

356

Investigation of LANDSAT D Thematic Mapper geometric performance: Line to line and band to band registration. [Toulouse, France and Mississippi, U.S.A.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometric accuray of LANDSAT TM raw data of Toulouse (France) raw data of Mississippi, and preprocessed data of Mississippi was examined using a CDC computer. Analog images were restituted on the VIZIR SEP device. The methods used for line to line and band to band registration are based on automatic correlation techniques and are widely used in automated image to image registration at CNES. Causes of intraband and interband misregistration are identified and statistics are given for both line to line and band to band misregistration.

Begni, G.; BOISSIN; Desachy, M. J.; PERBOS

1984-01-01

357

LANDSAT 4 investigations of Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner applications. [Death Valley, California; Silver Bell Copper Mine, Arizona, and Dulles Airport near Washington, D.C.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimum index factor package was used to choose TM band for color compositing. Processing techniques were also used on TM data over several sites to: (1) reduce the amount of data that needs to be processed and analyzed by using statistical methods or by combining full-resolution products with spatially compressed products; (2) digitally process small subareas to improve the visual appearance of large-scale products or to merge different-resolution image data; and (3) evaluate and compare the information content of the different three-band combinations that can be made using the TM data. Results indicate that for some applications the added spectral information over MSS is even more important than the TM's increased spatial resolution.

Lauer, D. T. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

358

Using Landsat Thematic Mapper records to map land cover change and the impacts of reforestation programmes in the borderlands of southeast Yunnan, China: 1990-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the new millennium, after a severe drought and destructive floods along the Yangtze River, the Chinese government implemented two large ecological rehabilitation and reforestation projects: the Natural Forest Protection Programme and the Sloping Land Conversion Programme. Using Landsat data from a decade before, during and after the inception of these programmes, we analyze their impacts along with other policies on land use, land cover change (LULCC) in southwest China. Our goal is to quantify the predominant land cover changes in four borderland counties, home to tens of thousands of ethnic minority individuals. We do this in three time stages (1990, 2000 and 2010). We use support vector machines as well as a transition matrix to monitor the land cover changes. The land cover classifications resulted in an overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for forested area and cropland of respectively 91% (2% confidence interval) and 0.87. Our results suggest that the total forested area observed increased 3% over this 20-year period, while cropland decreased slightly (0.1%). However, these changes varied over specific time periods: forested area decreased between 1990 and 2000 and then increased between 2000 and 2010. In contrast, cropland increased and then decreased. These results suggest the important impacts of reforestation programmes that have accelerated a land cover transition in this region. We also found large changes in LULC occurring around fast growing urban areas, with changes in these peri-urban zones occurring faster to the east than west. This suggests that differences in socioeconomic conditions and specific local and regional policies have influenced the rates of forest, cropland and urban net changes, disturbances and net transitions. While it appears that a combination of economic growth and forest protection in this region over the past 20 years has been fairly successful, threats like drought, other extreme weather events and land degradation remain.

Zhang, Jialong; Pham, Thi-Thanh-Hiên; Kalacska, Margaret; Turner, Sarah

2014-09-01

359

Hyperspectral Soil Mapper (HYSOMA) software interface: Review and future plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellites that will routinely deliver high spectral resolution images for the entire globe (e.g. EnMAP, HISUI, HyspIRI, HypXIM, PRISMA), an increasing demand for the availability/accessibility of hyperspectral soil products is coming from the geoscience community. Indeed, many robust methods for the prediction of soil properties based on imaging spectroscopy already exist and have been successfully used for a wide range of soil mapping airborne applications. Nevertheless, these methods require expert know-how and fine-tuning, which makes them used sparingly. More developments are needed toward easy-to-access soil toolboxes as a major step toward the operational use of hyperspectral soil products for Earth's surface processes monitoring and modelling, to allow non-experienced users to obtain new information based on non-expensive software packages where repeatability of the results is an important prerequisite. In this frame, based on the EU-FP7 EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research) project and EnMAP satellite science program, higher performing soil algorithms were developed at the GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences as demonstrators for end-to-end processing chains with harmonized quality measures. The algorithms were built-in into the HYSOMA (Hyperspectral SOil MApper) software interface, providing an experimental platform for soil mapping applications of hyperspectral imagery that gives the choice of multiple algorithms for each soil parameter. The software interface focuses on fully automatic generation of semi-quantitative soil maps such as soil moisture, soil organic matter, iron oxide, clay content, and carbonate content. Additionally, a field calibration option calculates fully quantitative soil maps provided ground truth soil data are available. Implemented soil algorithms have been tested and validated using extensive in-situ ground truth data sets. The source of the HYSOMA code was developed as standalone IDL software to allow easy implementation in the hyperspectral and non-hyperspectral communities. Indeed, within the hyperspectral community, IDL language is very widely used, and for non-expert users that do not have an ENVI license, such software can be executed as a binary version using the free IDL virtual machine under various operating systems. Based on the growing interest of users in the software interface, the experimental software was adapted for public release version in 2012, and since then ~80 users of hyperspectral soil products downloaded the soil algorithms at www.gfz-potsdam.de/hysoma. The software interface was distributed for free as IDL plug-ins under the IDL-virtual machine. Up-to-now distribution of HYSOMA was based on a close source license model, for non-commercial and educational purposes. Currently, the HYSOMA is being under further development in the context of the EnMAP satellite mission, for extension and implementation in the EnMAP Box as EnSoMAP (EnMAP SOil MAPper). The EnMAP Box is a freely available, platform-independent software distributed under an open source license. In the presentation we will focus on an update of the HYSOMA software interface status and upcoming implementation in the EnMAP Box. Scientific software validation, associated publication record and users responses as well as software management and transition to open source will be discussed.

Chabrillat, Sabine; Guillaso, Stephane; Eisele, Andreas; Rogass, Christian

2014-05-01

360

The BHVI-EyeMapper: Peripheral Refraction and Aberration Profiles  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this article was to present the optical design of a new instrument (BHVI-EyeMapper, EM), which is dedicated to rapid peripheral wavefront measurements across the visual field for distance and near, and to compare the peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles obtained in myopic eyes with and without accommodation. Methods Central and peripheral refractive errors (M, J180, and J45) and higher-order aberrations (C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0]) were measured in 26 myopic participants (mean [±SD] age, 20.9 [±2.0] years; mean [±SD] spherical equivalent, ?3.00 [±0.90] diopters [D]) corrected for distance. Measurements were performed along the horizontal visual field with (?2.00 to ?5.00 D) and without (+1.00 D fogging) accommodation. Changes as a function of accommodation were compared using tilt and curvature coefficients of peripheral refraction and aberration profiles. Results As accommodation increased, the relative peripheral refraction profiles of M and J180 became significantly (p < 0.05) more negative and the profile of M became significantly (p < 0.05) more asymmetric. No significant differences were found for the J45 profiles (p > 0.05). The peripheral aberration profiles of C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0] became significantly (p < 0.05) less asymmetric as accommodation increased, but no differences were found in the curvature. Conclusions The current study showed that significant changes in peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles occurred during accommodation in myopic eyes. With its extended measurement capabilities, that is, permitting rapid peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration measurements up to visual field angles of ±50 degrees for distance and near (up to ?5.00 D), the EM is a new advanced instrument that may provide additional insights in the ongoing quest to understand and monitor myopia development. PMID:25105690

Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Bakaraju, Ravi C.; Holden, Brien A.

2014-01-01

361

GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper Performance Specifications and Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR imager/optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning. The mission objectives for the GLM are to: (1) Provide continuous, full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and nowcasting, (2) Provide early warning of tornadic activity, and (2) Accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997- present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global lightning activity. GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. The science data will consist of lightning "events", "groups", and "flashes". The algorithm is being designed to be an efficient user of the computational resources. This may include parallelization of the code and the concept of sub-dividing the GLM FOV into regions to be processed in parallel. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds (e.g., Lightning Mapping Arrays in North Alabama, Oklahoma, Central Florida, and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the prelaunch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution.

Mach, Douglas M.; Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Petersen, William A.; Boldi, Robert A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Bateman, Monte G.; Buchler, Dennis E.; McCaul, E. William, Jr.

2008-01-01

362

A radiometric interpretive legend for Landsat digital thematic maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A legend is suggested for use with computer-generated thematic maps made from Landsat digital data that designates some of the radiometric characteristics of each thematic map unit as well as the described terrain attributes of each map unit. The relationship between spectral band and radiance for each map unit is shown by a two-dimensional polygon with the four Landsat multispectral scanner bands plotted on the ordinate and radiance levels on the abscissa. The resulting shape is colored to correspond with the map unit color, thus facilitating the recognition and understanding of the computer-generated map units.

Robinove, Charles J.

1977-01-01

363

A Comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network Classifiers Combined with Landsat TM Imagery Analysis for Obtaining Burnt Area Mapping  

PubMed Central

Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878) the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795). Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ?1% for ANN and ?6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting. PMID:22294909

Petropoulos, George P.; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Karantounias, George; Scholze, Marko

2010-01-01

364

A comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network classifiers combined with Landsat TM imagery analysis for obtaining burnt area mapping.  

PubMed

Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878) the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795). Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ? 1% for ANN and ? 6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting. PMID:22294909

Petropoulos, George P; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Karantounias, George; Scholze, Marko

2010-01-01

365

Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Nanobiotechnology  

E-print Network

Thematic note to substantiate Risø's strategy ­ impact on society Nanobiotechnology Impact on society: Quality of life from health-related technology Introduction Risø focuses competencies of infection and long- term medication. Risø's health-technological activities must result in: · faster

366

Individual Differences in the Strength of Taxonomic versus Thematic Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge about word and object meanings can be organized taxonomically (fruits, mammals, etc.) on the basis of shared features or thematically (eating breakfast, taking a dog for a walk, etc.) on the basis of participation in events or scenarios. An eye-tracking study showed that both kinds of knowledge are activated during comprehension of a…

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2012-01-01

367

DESIGNA ND ANALYSIS FOR THEMATIC MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Before being used in scientific investigations and policy decisions, thematic maps constructed from remotely sensed data should be subjected to a statistically rigorous accuracy assessment. The three basic components of an accuracy assessment are: 1) the sampling design used to s...

368

Books on Wheels: Cooperative Learning through Thematic Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as an integrated package for thematic instruction, this book helps librarians and teachers select appropriate reading materials to use in specific areas of study and promote reading to students in primary grades. Sixteen chapters include such popular themes as: (1) "Risky Reading: Adventure Stories"; (2) "Old MacDonald's Place: Farm…

McArthur, Janice; McGuire, Barbara E.

369

MathThematics. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"MathThematics" is a mathematics curriculum for grades 6 through 8 that combines activity-based, discovery learning with direct instruction. The textbook for each grade level has eight instructional modules, with each module focused on a theme. Open-ended questions and projects are utilized throughout the curriculum to assess problem-solving…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

2008-01-01

370

ThemeRiver: Visualizing Thematic Changes in Large Document Collections  

E-print Network

ThemeRiver: Visualizing Thematic Changes in Large Document Collections Susan Havre, Member, IEEE of unstructured textual data in the form of document collections. Exploring multiple visual presenta- tions of the collection. Some visualizations of document collections are based on features derived from the textual

371

Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities. Third Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seven thematic units in this guide focus on communication skills, offering English teachers contemporary plans for teaching writing, listening, reading, reasoning, critical thinking, and appreciation of literary genres. The units were selected for their humanistic approaches to student language learning, combining English instruction with…

Spann, Sylvia, Ed.; Culp, Mary Beth, Ed.

372

Software Cartography A Prototype for Thematic Software Maps  

E-print Network

Software Cartography A Prototype for Thematic Software Maps diploma thesis for the philosophic Kuhn for his endurance. Meeting him was always as inspirational as helpful. The software cartography time. 5 #12;6 #12;Contents 1 Introduction 9 1.1 Software Cartography

Jäger, Gerhard

373

The REAL (Relevant, Exciting, Applicable Lessons) Project: Thematic Language Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of using a thematic intervention approach for children with language disorders. Twenty students receiving language therapy at a university speech and hearing clinic were selected as participants in this pilot study. This pilot project was entitled the REAL Project with the term REAL being an acronym…

Catt, Merrill; Neeley, Richard A.; Lovins, Shelby

2011-01-01

374

The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series (GOES-R) is the next block of four satellites to follow the existing GOES constellation currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Advanced spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved cloud and moisture imagery with the 16-channel Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity continuously day and night with near-uniform storm-scale spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 s over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions in the western hemisphere. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low Earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive prelaunch field campaigns. The GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extend their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with preoperational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and checkout of GOES-R in late 2015. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas; Bailey, Jeffrey; Buechler, Dennis; Carey, Larry; Schultz, Chris; Bateman, Monte; McCaul, Eugene; Stano, Geoffrey

2013-05-01

375

The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series provides the continuity for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive pre-launch field campaigns. GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extends their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in late 2015. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Results from recent field campaigns and forecaster evaluations on the utility of the total lightning products will be presented.

Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Buechler, D. E.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, C. J.; Bateman, M. G.; McCaul, E., Jr.; Stano, G. T.

2012-12-01

376

MAPPING SPATIAL ACCURACY AND ESTIMATING LANDSCAPE INDICATORS FROM THEMATIC LAND COVER MAPS USING FUZZY SET THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The accuracy of thematic map products is not spatially homogenous, but instead variable across most landscapes. Properly analyzing and representing the spatial distribution (pattern) of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable user information for assessing appropriate applic...

377

IMPACTS OF PATCH SIZE AND LANDSCAPE HETEROGENEITY ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Impacts of Patch Size and Landscape Heterogeneity on Thematic Image Classification Accuracy. Currently, most thematic accuracy assessments of classified remotely sensed images oily account for errors between the various classes employed, at particular pixels of interest, thu...

378

Earth Now! Landsat Image Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This viewer lets students see near real-time images from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). When a Landsat satellite passes within range of the ground station at the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), image data are downlinked and displayed in near-real time. When no satellites are within range, the most recent pass is displayed. By viewing the moving display, students can monitor changes in the Earth's surface. An index map and information display shows the path of the satellite, indicates which satellite is currently providing the imagery, and gives the acquisition date and time. A help page and frequently-asked-questions feature are provided to explain how to use the site.

379

Performance requirements and trade-offs for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is next in the series of Landsat Earth remote sensing missions. At this writing, both the Thematic Mapper on the Landsat 5 spacecraft and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus on the Landsat 7 spacecraft are producing routine Earth images, as part of a data set extending over three decades. The LDCM is required to continue this series of measurements. The LDCM Project has developed requirements for the data set to be produced by the LDCM sensor based on previous Landsat data, the proven technology from the Advanced Land Imager instrument flown on the EO-1 technology demonstration spacecraft, and on trade-offs made during the LDCM Formulation Phase. The unique nature of the LDCM government-commercial industry cooperative effort has resulted in a set of calibration and validation requirements intended to guarantee that the data from the commercially-owned LDCM sensor maintains the legacy of highly calibrated Landsat data.

Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Irons, James R.; Markham, Brian L.; Barnes, Robert A.; Schweiss, Robert J.

2003-11-01

380

Actual evapotranspiration estimation in a Mediterranean mountain region by means of Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS imagery and Sap Flow measurements in Pinus sylvestris forest stands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration monitoring has important implications on global and regional climate modelling, as well as in the knowledge of the hydrological cycle and in the assessment of environmental stress that affects forest and agricultural ecosystems. An increase of evapotranspiration while precipitation remains constant, or is reduced, could decrease water availability for natural and agricultural systems and human needs. Consequently, water balance methods, as the evapotranspiration modelling, have been widely used to estimate crop and forest water needs, as well as the global change effects. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute evapotranspiration at regional scales in a feasible way. Currently, the 38% of Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula) is covered by forests, and one of the most important forest species is Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) which represents the 18.4% of the area occupied by forests. The aim of this work is to model actual evapotranspiration in Pinus sylvestris forest stands, in a Mediterranean mountain region, using remote sensing data, and compare it with stand-scale sap flow measurements measured in the Vallcebre research area (42° 12' N, 1° 49' E), in the Eastern Pyrenees. To perform this study a set of 30 cloud-free TERRA-MODIS images and 10 Landsat-5 TM images of path 198 and rows 31 and 32 from June 2003 to January 2005 have been selected to perform evapotranspiration modelling in Pinus sylvestris forest stands. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected two different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily evapotranspiration, daily LST product and daily calibrated reflectances product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital Elevation Model, obtaining an RMS less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994) which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009). To compute actual evapotranspiration (AET) we have used the B-Method proposed by Jakson et al. (1977) and modified by Carlson et al. (1995) and Caselles et al. (1998), based on the energy budget, that needs as an input variables net radiation (Rn) and the difference between land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature (Ta). Air temperature has been modelled by means of multiple regression analysis and GIS interpolation using ground meteorological stations. Net radiation have been computed following two approaches based on the energy balance equation using albedo, land surface temperature, air temperature and solar radiation. Both air temperature and net radiation have been modelled at a regional scale. We have compared remote sensing daily actual evapotranspiration estimates with measured canopy transpiration. Sap flux density was measured by means of Heat dissipation sensors in 12 trees per stand, sampled according to diametric distribution, corrected to account for radial patter of sap flow using the Heat Field Deformation method and then scaled-up to stand level transpiration using tree sapwood areas. Sap flow measurements are comparable with AETd as in the Scots pine stand understorey evaporation is not significant. Measurements with sap flow technique show a mean, minimum and maximum values of AETd = 2.2, 0.6 and 3.6 mm day -1, respectively (Poyatos et al. 2005). Results show, in the case of MODIS AETd modelling, a RMSE of 1.6 mm compared with sap flo

Cristóbal, J.; Poyatos, R.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.

2009-04-01

381

Lightning Mapper Sensor Lens Assembly S.O. 5459: Project Management Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kaiser Electro-Optics, Inc. (KEO) has developed this Project Management Plan for the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) program. KEO has integrated a team of experts in a structured program management organization to meet the needs of the LMS program. The project plan discusses KEO's approach to critical program elements including Program Management, Quality Assurance, Configuration Management, and Schedule.

Zeidler, Janet

1999-01-01

382

GBS data mapper: modeling worldwide availability of Ka-band links using ITU weather data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of SPAWAR PMW 176 (Navy SATCOM Program Office), we have developed GDM, the Global Broadcast Service (GBS) data mapper. GDM is comprised of a raster-based modeling core, a simple geographic display tool, a comprehensive set of ITU-based weather and RF propagation models, and a substantial set of weather and mapping databases. The model develops expected link margins for

Gerry Fitzgerald; Greg Bostrom

1999-01-01

383

Software used with the flux mapper at the solar parabolic dish test site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dicated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attemps at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations result in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the anaysis is included in an appendix.

Miyazono, C.

1984-01-01

384

The role of action representations in thematic object relations  

PubMed Central

A number of studies have explored the role of associative/event-based (thematic) and categorical (taxonomic) relations in the organization of object representations. Recent evidence suggests that thematic information may be particularly important in determining relationships between manipulable artifacts. However, although sensorimotor information is on many accounts an important component of manipulable artifact representations, little is known about the role that action may play during the processing of semantic relationships (particularly thematic relationships) between multiple objects. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions relevant to object relationship processing. First, we assessed whether participants tended to favor thematic relations including action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle—corkscrew), thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle—cheese), or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle—water bottle) when choosing between them in an association judgment task with manipulable artifacts. Second, we assessed whether the underlying constructs of event relatedness, action relatedness, and categorical relatedness determined the choices that participants made. Third, we assessed the hypothesis that degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex, a region of the brain associated with the representation of action knowledge, would reduce the influence of action on the choice task. Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness were differentially predictive of healthy participants' choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region to use action relatedness in determining their choices. These data indicate that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable artifacts. PMID:24672461

Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Watson, Christine E.; Jax, Steven A.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

2014-01-01

385

Cassini atmospheric chemistry mapper. Volume 1. Investigation and technical plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini Atmospheric Chemistry Mapper (ACM) enables a broad range of atmospheric science investigations for Saturn and Titan by providing high spectral and spatial resolution mapping and occultation capabilities at 3 and 5 microns. ACM can directly address the major atmospheric science objectives for Saturn and for Titan, as defined by the Announcement of Opportunity, with pivotal diagnostic measurements not accessible to any other proposed Cassini instrument. ACM determines mixing ratios for atmospheric molecules from spectral line profiles for an important and extensive volume of the atmosphere of Saturn (and Jupiter). Spatial and vertical profiles of disequilibrium species abundances define Saturn's deep atmosphere, its chemistry, and its vertical transport phenomena. ACM spectral maps provide a unique means to interpret atmospheric conditions in the deep (approximately 1000 bar) atmosphere of Saturn. Deep chemistry and vertical transport is inferred from the vertical and horizontal distribution of a series of disequilibrium species. Solar occultations provide a method to bridge the altitude range in Saturn's (and Titan's) atmosphere that is not accessible to radio science, thermal infrared, and UV spectroscopy with temperature measurements to plus or minus 2K from the analysis of molecular line ratios and to attain an high sensitivity for low-abundance chemical species in the very large column densities that may be achieved during occultations for Saturn. For Titan, ACM solar occultations yield very well resolved (1/6 scale height) vertical mixing ratios column abundances for atmospheric molecular constituents. Occultations also provide for detecting abundant species very high in the upper atmosphere, while at greater depths, detecting the isotopes of C and O, constraining the production mechanisms, and/or sources for the above species. ACM measures the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols via their opacity at 3 microns and, particularly, at 5 microns. ACM recovers spatially-resolved atmospheric temperatures in Titan's troposphere via 3- and 5-microns spectral transitions. Together, the mixing ratio profiles and the aerosol distributions are utilized to investigate the photochemistry of the stratosphere and consequent formation processes for aerosols. Finally, ring opacities, observed during solar occultations and in reflected sunlight, provide a measurement of the particle size and distribution of ring material. ACM will be the first high spectral resolution mapping spectrometer on an outer planet mission for atmospheric studies while retaining a high resolution spatial mapping capability. ACM, thus, opens an entirely new range of orbital scientific studies of the origin, physio-chemical evolution and structure of the Saturn and Titan atmospheres. ACM provides high angular resolution spectral maps, viewing nadir and near-limb thermal radiation and reflected sunlight; sounds planetary limbs, spatially resolving vertical profiles to several atmospheric scale heights; and measures solar occultations, mapping both atmospheres and rings. ACM's high spectral and spatial resolution mapping capability is achieved with a simplified Fourier Transform spectrometer with a no-moving parts, physically compact design. ACM's simplicity guarantees an inherent stability essential for reliable performance throughout the lengthy Cassini Orbiter mission.

Smith, William Hayden; Baines, Kevin Hays; Drossart, Pierre; Fegley, Bruce; Orton, Glenn; Noll, Keith; Reitsema, Harold; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

1990-02-01

386

Cassini atmospheric chemistry mapper. Volume 1. Investigation and technical plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cassini Atmospheric Chemistry Mapper (ACM) enables a broad range of atmospheric science investigations for Saturn and Titan by providing high spectral and spatial resolution mapping and occultation capabilities at 3 and 5 microns. ACM can directly address the major atmospheric science objectives for Saturn and for Titan, as defined by the Announcement of Opportunity, with pivotal diagnostic measurements not accessible to any other proposed Cassini instrument. ACM determines mixing ratios for atmospheric molecules from spectral line profiles for an important and extensive volume of the atmosphere of Saturn (and Jupiter). Spatial and vertical profiles of disequilibrium species abundances define Saturn's deep atmosphere, its chemistry, and its vertical transport phenomena. ACM spectral maps provide a unique means to interpret atmospheric conditions in the deep (approximately 1000 bar) atmosphere of Saturn. Deep chemistry and vertical transport is inferred from the vertical and horizontal distribution of a series of disequilibrium species. Solar occultations provide a method to bridge the altitude range in Saturn's (and Titan's) atmosphere that is not accessible to radio science, thermal infrared, and UV spectroscopy with temperature measurements to plus or minus 2K from the analysis of molecular line ratios and to attain an high sensitivity for low-abundance chemical species in the very large column densities that may be achieved during occultations for Saturn. For Titan, ACM solar occultations yield very well resolved (1/6 scale height) vertical mixing ratios column abundances for atmospheric molecular constituents. Occultations also provide for detecting abundant species very high in the upper atmosphere, while at greater depths, detecting the isotopes of C and O, constraining the production mechanisms, and/or sources for the above species. ACM measures the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols via their opacity at 3 microns and, particularly, at 5 microns. ACM recovers spatially-resolved atmospheric temperatures in Titan's troposphere via 3- and 5-microns spectral transitions. Together, the mixing ratio profiles and the aerosol distributions are utilized to investigate the photochemistry of the stratosphere and consequent formation processes for aerosols. Finally, ring opacities, observed during solar occultations and in reflected sunlight, provide a measurement of the particle size and distribution of ring material. ACM will be the first high spectral resolution mapping spectrometer on an outer planet mission for atmospheric studies while retaining a high resolution spatial mapping capability. ACM, thus, opens an entirely new range of orbital scientific studies of the origin, physio-chemical evolution and structure of the Saturn and Titan atmospheres. ACM provides high angular resolution spectral maps, viewing nadir and near-limb thermal radiation and reflected sunlight; sounds planetary limbs, spatially resolving vertical profiles to several atmospheric scale heights; and measures solar occultations, mapping both atmospheres and rings. ACM's high spectral and spatial resolution mapping capability is achieved with a simplified Fourier Transform spectrometer with a no-moving parts, physically compact design. ACM's simplicity guarantees an inherent stability essential for reliable performance throughout the lengthy Cassini Orbiter mission.

Smith, William Hayden; Baines, Kevin Hays; Drossart, Pierre; Fegley, Bruce; Orton, Glenn; Noll, Keith; Reitsema, Harold; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

1990-01-01

387

EDITORIAL Editorial to the thematic series ‘Invertebrate Circuitry’  

E-print Network

As a member of the Editorial Board who works in the field of invertebrate neuroscience, I feel very privileged by being able to introduce here the first thematic series of Neural Systems & Circuits [1]. Befitting the evolutionary history of neuronal circuits in the animal kingdom, this first thematic series will be entitled ‘Invertebrate Circuitry’. However, it is not only the evolutionary ‘seniority ’ of invertebrates that justifies the dedication of this series to invertebrate neural systems and circuits. It is well known these days that work on invertebrate neurons and circuits has made a key contribution to our understanding of many fundamental processes governing the function of all nervous systems, including the human brain. These evolutionarily highly conserved processes include the ionic mechanisms of the membrane

George Kemenes

388

Thematic processing of adjuncts: evidence from an eye-tracking experiment.  

PubMed

We investigated thematic processing in sentences containing a prepositional phrase that was ambiguous between a locative and a temporal interpretation. We manipulated context (temporal or locative), target sentence (temporal or locative), and whether or not the main verb of the target and the context was repeated. Results showed that context dictated the participants' thematic expectations. Thematically, congruent target and context pairs were read faster than incongruent pairs. This effect was not modulated by verb repetition. We argue that wh-words cause readers to lodge semantically vacuous thematic roles in their discourse representation that bias a reader's interpretation of subsequent thematically ambiguous adjuncts in their discourse representation. PMID:14620362

Liversedge, Simon P; Pickering, Martin J; Clayes, Emma L; Branigan, Holly P

2003-09-01

389

Spectral properties of fog over the Malaspina Glacier, Alaska, in comparison to snow, ice, and clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the Malaspina Glacier in southeastern Alaska has shown that fog overlying the glacier ice has reflectance characteristics similar to the ice below and that the spectral reflectance of fog can be different from other types of clouds. Fog is more reflective in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths compared to snow, ice, and cumulus clouds. The differentiation between clouds, fog, and the ice below can be enhanced by combining TM bands in the visible part of the spectrum.

Ormsby, James P.; Hall, Dorothy D.

1991-01-01

390

Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

1991-01-01

391

Fires Scorch Oregon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In southwestern Oregon, the Florence Fire (north) and the Sour Biscuit Fire (south) continue to burn virtually out of control. Numerous evacuation notices have been issued for residents in the area as the fires remain difficult to control due to the steep, rugged terrain of the Klamath Mountains. This false-color image from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper was acquired on July 21, 2002. In the image, vegetation is green, burned areas are deep magenta, active fire is bright pink, and smoke is light blue. Credit:Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

2002-01-01

392

Remote sensing as a mineral prospecting technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing and its application as an alternative technique to mineral resource exploration are reviewed. Emphasis is given here to the analysis of the three basic attributes of remote sensing, i.e., spatial attributes related to regional structural mapping, spectral attributes related to rock discrimination and seasonal attributes related to geobotanic anomalies mapping, all of which are employed in mineral exploration. Special emphasis is given to new developments of the Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT-5, principally with reference to the application of the bands 1.6 and 2.2 microns to map hydrothermally altered rocks and the band of red and blue shift to geobotanical anomalies mapping.

Meneses, P. R. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

393

TF Target Mapper: A BLAST search tool for the identification of Transcription Factor target genes  

PubMed Central

Background In the current era of high throughput genomics a major challenge is the genome-wide identification of target genes for specific transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) allows the isolation of in vivo binding sites of transcription factors and provides a powerful tool for examining gene regulation. Crosslinked chromatin is immunoprecipitated with antibodies against specific transcription factors, thus enriching for sequences bound in vivo by these factors in the immunoprecipitated DNA. Cloning and sequencing the immunoprecipitated sequences allows identification of transcription factor target genes. Routinely, thousands of such sequenced clones are used in BLAST searches to map their exact location in the genome and the genes located in the vicinity. These genes represent potential targets of the transcription factor of interest. Such bioinformatics analysis is very laborious if performed manually and for this reason there is a need for developing bioinformatic tools to automate and facilitate it. Results In order to facilitate this analysis we generated TF Target Mapper (Transcription Factor Target Mapper). TF Target Mapper is a BLAST search tool allowing rapid extraction of annotated information on genes around each hit. It combines sequence cleaning/filtering, pattern searching and BLAST searches with extraction of information on genes located around each BLAST hit and comparisons of the output list of genes or gene ontology IDs with user-implemented lists. We successfully applied and tested TF Target Mapper to analyse sequences bound in vivo by the transcription factor GATA-1. We show that TF Target Mapper efficiently extracted information on genes around ChIPed sequences, thus identifying known (e.g. ?-globin and ?-globin) and potentially novel GATA-1 gene targets. Conclusion TF Target Mapper is a very efficient BLAST search tool that allows the rapid extraction of annotated information on the genes around each hit. It can contribute to the comprehensive bioinformatic transcriptome/regulome analysis, by providing insight into the mechanisms of action of specific transcription factors, thus helping to elucidate the pathways these factors regulate. PMID:16524462

Horsman, Sebastiaan; Moorhouse, Michael J; de Jager, Victor CL; van der Spek, Peter; Grosveld, Frank; Strouboulis, John; Katsantoni, Eleni Z

2006-01-01

394

Nature and origin of mineral coatings on volcanic rocks of the Black Mountain, Stonewall Mountain and Kane Springs Wash volcanic centers, southern Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface coatings on volcanic rock assemblages that occur at select tertiary volcanic centers in southern Nevada were investigated using LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper imagery. Three project sites comprise the subject of this study: the Kane Springs Wash, Black Mountain, and Stonewall Mountain volcanic centers. LANDSAT 5 TM work scenes selected for each area are outlined along with local area geology. The nature and composition of surface coatings on the rock types within the subproject areas are determined, along with the origin of the coatings and their genetic link to host rocks, geologic interpretations are related to remote sensing units discriminated on TM imagery. Image processing was done using an ESL VAX/IDIMS image processing system, field sampling, and observation. Aerial photographs were acquired to facilitate location on the ground and to aid stratigraphic differentiation.

Taranik, J. V.; Noble, D. C.; Hsu, L. C.; Hutsinpiller, A.; Spatz, D.

1986-01-01

395

HeatMapper: powerful combined visualization of gene expression profile correlations, genotypes, phenotypes and sample characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate interpretation of data obtained by unsupervised analysis of large scale expression profiling studies is currently frequently performed by visually combining sample-gene heatmaps and sample characteristics. This method is not optimal for comparing individual samples or groups of samples. Here, we describe an approach to visually integrate the results of unsupervised and supervised cluster analysis using a correlation plot and additional sample metadata. Results We have developed a tool called the HeatMapper that provides such visualizations in a dynamic and flexible manner and is available from . Conclusion The HeatMapper allows an accessible and comprehensive visualization of the results of gene expression profiling and cluster analysis. PMID:16836741

Verhaak, Roel GW; Sanders, Mathijs A; Bijl, Maarten A; Delwel, Ruud; Horsman, Sebastiaan; Moorhouse, Michael J; van der Spek, Peter J; Löwenberg, Bob; Valk, Peter JM

2006-01-01

396

Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.  

PubMed

We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle. PMID:22063815

Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

2011-01-01

397

Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent

Peter J. Isaacson; Carle M. Pieters; Sebastien Besse; Roger N. Clark; James W. Head; Rachel L. Klima; John F. Mustard; Noah E. Petro; Matthew I. Staid; Jessica M. Sunshine; Lawrence A. Taylor; Kevin G. Thaisen; Stefanie Tompkins

2011-01-01

398

Asyntactic Thematic Role Assignment: The Use of a Temporal-Spatial Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report syntactic comprehension performance of a left-handed man with a right-hemisphere infarct. He was unable to accurately map grammatical categories (subject, object) onto thematic roles (agent, patient), despite demonstrating intact conceptual knowledge of these thematic roles. He performed poorly on both active and passive reversible sentences. His asyntactic thematic role assign ment cannot be accounted for by a short-term

A. Chatterjee; L. M. Maher; L. J. G. Rothi; K. M. Heilman

1995-01-01

399

ForM@Ter: a solid Earth thematic pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last years, several notable initiatives have been developed to provide Solid Earth sciences with an efficient research e-infrastructure. The EPOS project (European Plate Observing System) was included in the EFSRI roadmap in 2008. The 7th European frame program funded an e-science environment such as the Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community in Europe (VERCE). GEO supports the development of the Geohazard SuperSites and Natural Laboratories portal, while the ESA SSEP project (SuperSites exploitation plateform) is developing as an Helix Nebula usecase. Meanwhile, operational use of space data for emergency management is in constant progress, within the Copernicus services. This rich activity is still leaving some gaps between the data availability and its scientific use, either for technical reasons (big data issues) or due to the need for a better support in term of expert knowledge on the data, of software availability, or of data cost. French infrastructures for data distribution are organized around National Observatory Services (in situ data), scientific services participating to the International association of geodesy data centres and wider research infrastructures such as the Réseau Sismologique et géodésique Français (RESIF) that is contributing to EPOS. The need for thematic cooperative platforms has been underlined over tha last years. In 2009, after a scientific prospective of the French national space agency (CNES) it becomes clear the urgent need to create thematic centres designed to federate the scientific community of Earth observation. Four thematic data centres are currently developing in France in the field of ocean , atmosphere, critical zone and solid Earth sciences. For Solid Earth research, the project - named ForM@Ter - was initiated at the beginning of 2012 to design, with the scientific community, the perimeter, structure and functions of such a thematic centre. It was launched by the CNES and the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), with the active participation of the National institute for geographical and forestry information (IGN). Currently, it relies on the contributions of scientists from more than 20 French Earth science laboratories. Preliminary analysis showed that a focus on the determination of the shape and movements of the Earth surface ForM@Ter : Formes et Mouvements de la Terre can federate a wide variety of scientific areas (earthquake cycle, tectonics, morphogenesis, volcanism, erosion dynamics, mantle rheology, geodesy) and offers many interfaces with other thematics, such as glaciology or snow evolution. This choice motivates the design of an ambitious data distribution scheme, including a wide variety of sources - optical imagery, SAR, GNSS, gravity, satellite altimetry data, in situ observations (inclinometers, seismometers, topometry, etc.) - as well as a wide variety of processing techniques. The challenge of the project, in the evolving context of the current and forthcoming national and international e-infrastructures, is to design a non redundant service based on interoperations with existing services, and to cope with highly complex data flows due to the granularity of the data and its associated knowledge.

Ostanciaux, Emilie; Jamet, Olivier; Mandea, Mioara; Diament, Michel

2014-05-01

400

THEMATICS: A simple computational predictor of enzyme function from structure  

PubMed Central

We show that theoretical microscopic titration curves (THEMATICS) can be used to identify active-site residues in proteins of known structure. Results are featured for three enzymes: triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), aldose reductase (AR), and phosphomannose isomerase (PMI). We note that TIM and AR have similar structures but catalyze different kinds of reactions, whereas TIM and PMI have different structures but catalyze similar reactions. Analysis of the theoretical microscopic titration curves for all of the ionizable residues of these proteins shows that a small fraction (3–7%) of the curves possess a flat region where the residue is partially protonated over a wide pH range. The preponderance of residues with such perturbed curves occur in the active site. Additional results are given in summary form to show the success of the method for proteins with a variety of different chemistries and structures. PMID:11606719

Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Clifton, James G.; Ringe, Dagmar

2001-01-01

401

Depression diagnosis and treatment amongst multimorbid patients: a thematic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background We explored experiences of depression diagnosis and treatment amongst multimorbid patients referred to a metropolitan multidisciplinary outpatient clinic to identify commonalities across this patient group. Methods Patients with two or more chronic conditions and a diagnosis of depression participated in semi-structured interviews that were digitally recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was performed on the transcriptions. Results Multimorbid patients attributed depressive symptoms to the loss of ‘normal’ roles and functionality and struggled to reconcile the depression diagnosis with their sense of identity. Beliefs about themselves and depression affected their receptivity to diagnosis and intervention strategies. These included prescribed interventions, such as psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, and patient-developed strategies. Conclusions Functional and social role losses present a clear context in which GPs should raise the subject of mood, with the situational attribution of depression suggesting that psychotherapy, which is rarely offered, should be prioritised in these circumstances. PMID:24947875

2014-01-01

402

Introduction to the Thematic Minireview Series: Radical SAM Enzymes.  

PubMed

In the early days, radical enzyme reactions that use S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) coordinated to an Fe-S cluster, which Perry Frey described as a "poor man's coenzyme B12", were believed to be relatively rare chemical curiosities. Today, bioinformatics analyses have revealed the wide prevalence and sheer numbers of radical SAM enzymes, conferring superfamily status. In this thematic minireview series, the JBC presents six articles on radical SAM enzymes that accomplish wide-ranging chemical transformations. We learn that despite the diversity of the reactions catalyzed, family members share some common structural and mechanistic themes. Still in its infancy, continued explorations promise to be fertile grounds for discoveries that will undoubtedly further broaden our understanding of the catalytic repertoire and deepen our understanding of the chemical strategies used by radical SAM enzymes. PMID:25477525

Banerjee, Ruma

2014-12-01

403

The thematic and citation landscape of Data and Knowledge Engineering (19852007) q  

E-print Network

, and management issues. DKE has made significant con- tributions and impacts on the advances of data and knowledgeThe thematic and citation landscape of Data and Knowledge Engineering (1985­2007) q Chaomei Chen a b s t r a c t The thematic and citation structures of Data and Knowledge Engineering (DKE) (1985

Song, Il-Yeol

404

Thematic preorganizers and the reading comprehension of tenth?grade world literature students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the effects which thematic preorganizers might have on secondary students’ comprehension of prose fiction, the authors gave specially prepared organizers to tenth?grade experimental group subjects before they read each of six short stories selected from commercial anthologies. Control group subjects read the stories without benefit of the organizers. The investigation demonstrated that thematic preorganizers did not

Terry C. Ley

1991-01-01

405

Curvature of CoLinks Uncovers Hidden Thematic Layers in the World Wide Web  

E-print Network

Curvature of Co­Links Uncovers Hidden Thematic Layers in the World Wide Web Jean­Pierre Eckmann 1 the information stored in pages of the World Wide Web, a type of ``meta­ information'' is created when of the meta­information, without #12; Hidden Thematic Layers in the World Wide Web 2 having to define meaning

406

Damage to Temporo-Parietal Cortex Decreases Incidental Activation of Thematic Relations during Spoken Word Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both taxonomic and thematic semantic relations have been studied extensively in behavioral studies and there is an emerging consensus that the anterior temporal lobe plays a particularly important role in the representation and processing of taxonomic relations, but the neural basis of thematic semantics is less clear. We used eye tracking to…

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2012-01-01

407

Titan Radar Mapper observations from Cassini's T3 fly-by  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper imaged the surface of Saturn's moon Titan on its February 2005 fly-by (denoted T3), collecting high-resolution synthetic-aperture radar and larger-scale radiometry and scatterometry data. These data provide the first definitive identification of impact craters on the surface of Titan, networks of fluvial channels and surficial dark streaks that may be longitudinal dunes. Here we describe this great diversity of landforms. We conclude that much of the surface thus far imaged by radar of the haze-shrouded Titan is very young, with persistent geologic activity. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

Elachi, C.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Stofan, E.; Lopes, R.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Ostro, S.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

2006-01-01

408

Earth applications orbit analysis for a shuttle-mounted Multispectral Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The earth remote sensing problem of orbit design to acquire images with inherent geometric and geodetic accuracy is addressed. The basis for precise orbit modeling is discussed. Various orbit propagation tools are compared. Orbit characteristics for a nominal case at shuttle altitude are displayed. Modeling Parameter sensitivities are evaluated to determine limits on orbit propagation accuracy versus time. It is found that attainable propagation accuracies are sufficient for image quality assessment over the short term at the 15m pixel size desired for a Multispectral Mapper.

Driver, J. M.; Tang, C. C. H.

1981-01-01

409

Thermal control design of the Lightning Mapper Sensor narrow-band spectral filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the Lightning Mapper Sensor is dependent on the temperature shifts of its narrowband spectral filter. To perform over a 10 degree FOV with an 0.8 nm bandwidth, the filter must be 15 cm in diameter and mounted externally to the telescope optics. The filter thermal control required a filter design optimized for minimum bandpass shift with temperature, a thermal analysis of substrate materials for maximum temperature uniformity, and a thermal radiation analysis to determine the parameter sensitivity of the radiation shield for the filter, the filter thermal recovery time after occultation, and heater power to maintain filter performance in the earth-staring geosynchronous environment.

Flannery, Martin R.; Potter, John; Raab, Jeff R.; Manlief, Scott K.

1992-01-01

410

Titan Radar Mapper observations from Cassini's T3 fly-by.  

PubMed

Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper imaged the surface of Saturn's moon Titan on its February 2005 fly-by (denoted T3), collecting high-resolution synthetic-aperture radar and larger-scale radiometry and scatterometry data. These data provide the first definitive identification of impact craters on the surface of Titan, networks of fluvial channels and surficial dark streaks that may be longitudinal dunes. Here we describe this great diversity of landforms. We conclude that much of the surface thus far imaged by radar of the haze-shrouded Titan is very young, with persistent geologic activity. PMID:16760968

Elachi, C; Wall, S; Janssen, M; Stofan, E; Lopes, R; Kirk, R; Lorenz, R; Lunine, J; Paganelli, F; Soderblom, L; Wood, C; Wye, L; Zebker, H; Anderson, Y; Ostro, S; Allison, M; Boehmer, R; Callahan, P; Encrenaz, P; Flamini, E; Francescetti, G; Gim, Y; Hamilton, G; Hensley, S; Johnson, W; Kelleher, K; Muhleman, D; Picardi, G; Posa, F; Roth, L; Seu, R; Shaffer, S; Stiles, B; Vetrella, S; West, R

2006-06-01

411

The EPOS implementation of thematic services for solid Earth sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of EPOS is to build an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the solid Earth sciences in Europe. In particular, EPOS is a long-term plan to facilitate integrated use of data, models and facilities from mainly distributed existing, but also new, research infrastructures for Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes, ground stability, and tsunamis as well as those processes driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a significant step forward by developing new concepts and tools for accurate, durable, and sustainable answers to societal questions concerning geo-hazards and those geodynamic phenomena relevant to the environment and human welfare. EPOS coordinates the existing and new solid Earth RIs within Europe and is building the integrating RI elements. This integration requires a significant coordination between, among others, disciplinary (thematic) communities, national RIs policies and initiatives, as well as geo- and IT-scientists. The RIs that EPOS coordinates include: i) Regionally-distributed geophysical observing systems (seismological and geodetic networks); ii) Local observatories (including geomagnetic, near-fault and volcano observatories); iii) Analytical and experimental laboratories; iv) Integrated satellite data and geological information services. We present the results achieved during the EPOS Preparatory Phase (which will end on October 2014) and the progress towards construction in terms of both the design of the integrated core services (ICS) and the development of thematic core services (TCS) for the different communities participating to the integration plan. We will focus on discussing the strategies adopted to foster the necessary implementation of TCS, clarifying their crucial role as domain-specific service hubs for coordinating and harmonizing national resources/plans with the European dimension of EPOS. We will present the prototype of the ICS central hub as a key contribution for providing multidisciplinary services for solid Earth sciences as well as the glue to keep ICT aspects integrated and rationalized across EPOS. Finally we will present the well-defined role of the EPOS-ERIC Head-Quarter to coordinate and harmonize national RIs and EPOS services (through ICS and TCS) with a clear commitment by national governments. This will be an important opportunity to discuss the EPOS multidisciplinary platform for discoveries to foster scientific excellence in solid Earth research.

Cocco, Massimo; Consortium, Epos

2014-05-01

412

Contextual essay for integrated thematic unit: Kids, Quarks, and Quanta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This essay provides the research and rationale to support the theory that early adolescence is the best time to present an introduction to quantum mechanics. It supports the creation of an integrated thematic unit to be used with students ages 11--14 in an inclusion classroom without limiting the unit to only an inclusion setting. The first section sets forth five problems the unit was written to address. Citing The National Center for Education Statistics 2000 version of The Nation's Report Card, the problems with current practices in science education resulting in poor student performance are presented. References to Project 2061: Science for All Americans help to demonstrate that students with disabilities are seldom considered when physical science curriculum is being developed, supporting the position that equity in science education is necessary, while maintaining challenging subject matter. The problem of the poor quality of many physical science texts is addressed, with an emphasis on the importance of curricular connections. The poor quality of physical science teacher training in many university teacher training courses is discussed, and the nature of the integrated thematic unit as a curriculum design is examined with reference to what is considered the over-emphasis on "reality-based" content to the exclusion of abstract subject matter. Having presented the problems and supporting their validity, the essay then demonstrated how Kids, Quarks, and Quanta specifically addresses each problem. The two and a half year study of Dr. John Hubisz and the committee he formed under The David and Lucille Packard Foundation grant to review and critique the physical science textbooks currently used with early adolescents is often referenced to support both the problems of teacher training and the poor quality of many texts. Recent brain research conducted by researchers of the National Institute of Mental Health is used to support the presentation of more abstract subject matter for the 11--14 year old student. The research shows that rapid neuron growth and pruning does not just occur in the first years of life. Early adolescence is a second time of rapid neuron growth that begins at age ten for girls and eleven for boys, with pruning taking place until age 24. The theory is that this is the time when abstract thinking is developing and a "use it or lose it" maxim applies. The essay promotes the importance of differentiating curriculum for all students, and includes a substantial literature review and bibliography.

Draeger, Vicki Lee

413

Feasibility test for a V-slit star mapper for pioneer spacecraft terminal navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory demonstration of the feasibility of using a V-slit star mapper to meet the sensitivity and accuracy of on-board navigational requirements for future Pioneer Missions to the outer planets was conducted by the Control and Sensors Laboratory of TRW. The breadboard was extremely simple in configuration, consisting of an end-on photomultiplier tube and a V-slit reticle located at the focal plane of the objective lens. In addition, a plano-convex lens was used between the reticle and the PMT in a Fabry-Perot configuration. The analytical effort indicated that the sensor should easily meet the requirements. The Pioneer SRA test set was examined to determine its basic accuracy and modify it where necessary to bring its accuracy into the 1-3 arc second range. The test results show that it is feasible to use this type of star mapper in the 10 arc second accuracy range. The test equipment accuracy (approximately 5 arc Sec) was sufficient to bound the sensor errors at less than 10 arc seconds.

Gates, R. F.; Flannery, J. V.; Cragin, J. T.

1973-01-01

414

The Dawn Mission & Asteroid Mappers: The Impact of Crowd-Sourced Crater Counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the driving principle for a science investigation may be the pursuit of knowledge, the process of acquiring that knowledge that matters as much as the result. This process is known to many as the scientific method, a concept regularly taught in schools but that remains in many cases poorly tied to science outreach. But with the growth of the Citizen Science movement, we have entered a new era for both science and science outreach marked by the accessibility of tools that allow the public to experience science first hand in a manner previously unimagined. Gone are the days when a launch and a landing are all that are seen of a mission. Now, it's time to let the public in on the fun, and of course, all the work. In a time of large data returns and dwindling science budgets, citizen science may help scientists and educators with two fundamental problems: (1) increasing awareness and (2) accomplishing the key science investigations. The Dawn Mission has long been on the path towards involving the public in the process of science, and with the advent of the new Asteroid Mappers project, joint with CosmoQuest, the long-term goal of presenting the data to the public in a meaningful manner will be achieved. And in the long run, the public may also prove key to accomplishing mission science. Vesta is a unique body in the solar system, a likely a witness to the earliest stages of solar system formation and the environment within the main asteroid belt. Its impact history will be critical not only to understanding the initial population of the asteroid belt and thus impact hazards on the early Earth, but also the production of Vesta's impact family and the samples of Vesta, the HED meteorites, we have on Earth. Thus determining the impact crater population and distribution is a critical mission goal. Because craters are easily recognized and relatively straightforward to measure, a careful member of the public may be able to perform the same basic tasks as a scientist. But the benefit to citizen science is getting multiple eyes on the data, removing personal bias via statistical tests. Thus crater counting is uniquely suited to crowd sourcing, as seen with the Moon Mappers project. In Asteroid Mappers, the public will have the chance to experience what it is like to be a scientist on the Dawn mission. And since mission scientists and educators have been integrated in developing Asteroid Mappers, the surprise of finding tectonic features on Vesta—ridges, troughs, furrows—opened up a new set of questions for Citizen Science. Can the public do more than circle craters and boulders? Might they help to map an asteroid? In this presentation, we will highlight the progress of Asteroid Mappers, in terms of the participation by the public, and will share an assessment of the scientific potential of the results returned by the public from the first few months of the project.

Schmidt, B. E.; Scully, J. E.; Hart, R.; Russell, C. T.; Wise, J.; Cobb, W. H.; Ristvey, J.; Counley, J.; Hess, N.

2012-12-01

415

The Cross-Thematic Approach and its Implications for Secondary Education with Particular Reference to Greece and Cyprus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the impact of the Cross thematic approach on Greek and Greek Cypriot secondary education. The major argument put forward is that the Cross thematic approach (CTA) affects not only pedagogy and educational knowledge but teacher professionalism as well. In justifying this argument, the Cross thematic approach is considered as a…

Dieronitou, Irene

2009-01-01

416

Thematic and Content Analysis of Idiopathic Nightmares and Bad Dreams  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of prospectively collected bad dream and nightmare reports using a broad range of dream content variables. Design: Correlational and descriptive. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Three hundred thirty-one adult volunteers (55 men, 275 women, 1 not specified; mean age = 32.4 ± 14.8 y). Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: Five hundred seventy-two participants kept a written record of all of their remembered dreams in a log for 2 to 5 consecutive weeks. A total of 9,796 dream reports were collected and the content of 253 nightmares and 431 bad dreams reported by 331 participants was investigated. Physical aggression was the most frequently reported theme in nightmares, whereas interpersonal conflicts predominated in bad dreams. Nightmares were rated by participants as being substantially more emotionally intense than were bad dreams. Thirty-five percent of nightmares and 55% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. When compared to bad dreams, nightmares were more bizarre and contained substantially more aggressions, failures, and unfortunate endings. Conclusions: The results have important implications on how nightmares are conceptualized and defined and support the view that when compared to bad dreams, nightmares represent a somewhat rarer—and more severe—expression of the same basic phenomenon. Citation: Robert G; Zadra A. Thematic and content analysis of idiopathic nightmares and bad dreams. SLEEP 2014;37(2):409-417. PMID:24497669

Robert, Geneviève; Zadra, Antonio

2014-01-01

417

What is sexual satisfaction? Thematic analysis of lay people's definitions.  

PubMed

Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women. PMID:24070214

Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

2014-01-01

418

Improving Discrimination of Savanna Tree Species Through a Multiple-Endmember Spectral Angle Mapper Approach: Canopy-Level Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in within-species phenology and structure are controlled by genetic variation, as well as topography, edaphic properties, and climatic variables across the landscape, and present important challenges to species differentiation with remote sensing. The objectives of this paper are as follows: 1) to evaluate the classification performance of a multiple-endmember spectral angle mapper (SAM) classification approach in discriminating ten common

Moses Azong Cho; Pravesh Debba; Renaud Mathieu; Laven Naidoo; Jan van Aardt; Gregory P. Asner

2010-01-01

419

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium The OakMapper WebGIS: Improved Access  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium 65 The OakMapper WebGIS: Improved Access to Sudden Oak Death Spatial Data1 K. Tuxen2 and M. Kelly2 Abstract Access to timely and accurate sudden oak death (SOD) location data is critical for SOD monitoring, management and research. Several

Standiford, Richard B.

420

IMPACTS OF PATCH SIZE AND LAND COVER HETEROGENEITY ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Landscape characteristics such as small patch size and land cover heterogeneity have been hypothesized to increase the likelihood of miss-classifying pixels during thematic image classification. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support these hypotheses,...

421

The Relation between Thematic Role Computing and Semantic Relatedness Processing during On-Line Sentence Comprehension  

PubMed Central

Sentence comprehension involves timely computing different types of relations between its verbs and noun arguments, such as morphosyntactic, semantic, and thematic relations. Here, we used EEG technique to investigate the potential differences in thematic role computing and lexical-semantic relatedness processing during on-line sentence comprehension, and the interaction between these two types of processes. Mandarin Chinese sentences were used as materials. The basic structure of those sentences is “Noun+Verb+‘le’+a two-character word”, with the Noun being the initial argument. The verb disambiguates the initial argument as an agent or a patient. Meanwhile, the initial argument and the verb are highly or lowly semantically related. The ERPs at the verbs revealed that: relative to the agent condition, the patient condition evoked a larger N400 only when the argument and verb were lowly semantically related; however, relative to the high-relatedness condition, the low-relatedness condition elicited a larger N400 regardless of the thematic relation; although both thematic role variation and semantic relatedness variation elicited N400 effects, the N400 effect elicited by the former was broadly distributed and reached maximum over the frontal electrodes, and the N400 effect elicited by the latter had a posterior distribution. In addition, the brain oscillations results showed that, although thematic role variation (patient vs. agent) induced power decreases around the beta frequency band (15–30 Hz), semantic relatedness variation (low-relatedness vs. high-relatedness) induced power increases in the theta frequency band (4–7 Hz). These results suggested that, in the sentence context, thematic role computing is modulated by the semantic relatedness between the verb and its argument; semantic relatedness processing, however, is in some degree independent from the thematic relations. Moreover, our results indicated that, during on-line sentence comprehension, thematic role computing and semantic relatedness processing are mediated by distinct neural systems. PMID:24755643

Li, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Haiyan; Lu, Yong

2014-01-01

422

Long-term orbit prediction for the Venus Radar Mapper Mission using an averaging method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of singly averaged equations of motion are presented and applied to long-term orbit prediction of an orbiting spacecraft around a slowly rotating planet, using the Venus Radar Mapper Mission as an example. The equations of motion used are valid for all eccentricities less than one. The disturbing potentials used include nonsphericity of the Venus gravity field and third-body effects due to the sun. Recursive relationships are used in the expansion and evaluation of these potentials and their respective partial derivatives. Special care is taken to optimize computational efficiency. The averaging method is compared with high precision Cowell's method using a desktop microcomputer and shows computational saving of about two orders of magnitude.

Kwok, J. H.

1984-01-01

423

The Connectome Mapper: An Open-Source Processing Pipeline to Map Connectomes with MRI  

PubMed Central

Researchers working in the field of global connectivity analysis using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can count on a wide selection of software packages for processing their data, with methods ranging from the reconstruction of the local intra-voxel axonal structure to the estimation of the trajectories of the underlying fibre tracts. However, each package is generally task-specific and uses its own conventions and file formats. In this article we present the Connectome Mapper, a software pipeline aimed at helping researchers through the tedious process of organising, processing and analysing diffusion MRI data to perform global brain connectivity analyses. Our pipeline is written in Python and is freely available as open-source at www.cmtk.org. PMID:23272041

Daducci, Alessandro; Gerhard, Stephan; Griffa, Alessandra; Lemkaddem, Alia; Cammoun, Leila; Gigandet, Xavier; Meuli, Reto; Hagmann, Patric; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

2012-01-01

424

Data processing method applying principal component analysis and spectral angle mapper for imaging spectroscopic sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data processing method for hyperspectral images is presented. Each image contains the whole diffuse reflectance spectra of the analyzed material for all the spatial positions along a specific line of vision. This data processing method is composed of two blocks: data compression and classification unit. Data compression is performed by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the spectral interpretation algorithm for classification is the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). This strategy of classification applying PCA and SAM has been successfully tested on the raw material on-line characterization in the tobacco industry. In this application case the desired raw material (tobacco leaves) should be discriminated from other unwanted spurious materials, such as plastic, cardboard, leather, candy paper, etc. Hyperspectral images are recorded by a spectroscopic sensor consisting of a monochromatic camera and a passive Prism- Grating-Prism device. Performance results are compared with a spectral interpretation algorithm based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN).

García-Allende, P. B.; Conde, O. M.; Mirapeix, J.; Cubillas, A. M.; López-Higuera, J. M.

2007-07-01

425

European Space Agency (ESA) Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive Bulk-Processing: processor improvements and data quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat program is a joint United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enterprise for Earth Observation (EO), that represents the world's longest running system of satellites for moderate-resolution optical remote sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe through the ESA ground stations over the last 40 years, in co-operation with USGS and NASA. A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor has been developed. This enhanced processor aligns the historical Landsat products to the highest quality standards that can be achieved with the current knowledge of the instruments. The updated processor is mainly based on the USGS algorithm; however the ESA processor has some different features that are detailed in this paper. Using this upgraded processor, ESA is currently performing for the first time a bulk-processing of its entire Landsat series MSS/TM/ETM+ historical archive to make all products available to users. Current achievements include the processing and online distribution of approximately 290 000 new Landsat 5 TM high-quality products acquired at the Kiruna ground station between 1983 and 2011. The Landsat 5 TM bulk-processed products are made available for direct download after registration at: https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/pi-community/apply for-data/fast-registration. The remainder of the ESA's Landsat data, dating back more than 40 years, will gradually become available for all users during the course of 2014. The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk-processing, and an overview on the data quality on a subset of the Landsat 5 TM data are herein presented.

Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Ferrara, R.; Fischer, P.; Galli, L.; Hoersch, B.; Hopkins, S.; Jackson, J.; Lavender, S.; Mica, S.; Northrop, A.; Paciucci, A.; Paul, F.; Pinori, S.; Saunier, S.

2014-09-01

426

Imaging ATUM ultrathin section libraries with WaferMapper: a multi-scale approach to EM reconstruction of neural circuits  

PubMed Central

The automated tape-collecting ultramicrotome (ATUM) makes it possible to collect large numbers of ultrathin sections quickly—the equivalent of a petabyte of high resolution images each day. However, even high throughput image acquisition strategies generate images far more slowly (at present ~1 terabyte per day). We therefore developed WaferMapper, a software package that takes a multi-resolution approach to mapping and imaging select regions within a library of ultrathin sections. This automated method selects and directs imaging of corresponding regions within each section of an ultrathin section library (UTSL) that may contain many thousands of sections. Using WaferMapper, it is possible to map thousands of tissue sections at low resolution and target multiple points of interest for high resolution imaging based on anatomical landmarks. The program can also be used to expand previously imaged regions, acquire data under different imaging conditions, or re-image after additional tissue treatments. PMID:25018701

Hayworth, Kenneth J.; Morgan, Josh L.; Schalek, Richard; Berger, Daniel R.; Hildebrand, David G. C.; Lichtman, Jeff W.

2014-01-01

427

Temporal Dynamics of Activation of Thematic and Functional Knowledge During Conceptual Processing of Manipulable Artifacts  

PubMed Central

The current research aimed at specifying the activation time course of different types of semantic information during object conceptual processing and the effect of context on this time course. We distinguished between thematic and functional knowledge and the specificity of functional similarity. Two experiments were conducted with healthy older adults using eye tracking in a word-to-picture matching task. The time course of gaze fixations was used to assess activation of distractor objects during the identification of manipulable artifact targets (e.g., broom). Distractors were (a) thematically related (e.g., dustpan), (b) related by a specific function (e.g., vacuum cleaner), or (c) related by a general function (e.g., sponge). Growth curve analyses were used to assess competition effects when target words were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and embedded in contextual sentences of different generality levels (Experiment 2). In the absence of context, there was earlier and shorter lasting activation of thematically related as compared to functionally related objects. The time course difference was more pronounced for general functions than specific functions. When contexts were provided, functional similarities that were congruent with context generality level increased in salience with earlier activation of those objects. Context had little impact on thematic activation time course. These data demonstrate that processing a single manipulable artifact concept implicitly activates thematic and functional knowledge with different time courses and that context speeds activation of context-congruent functional similarity. PMID:22449134

Kalénine, Solène; Mirman, Daniel; Middleton, Erica L.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

2012-01-01

428

Thematic Matching as Remedial Teaching for Symbolic Matching for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.  

PubMed

Matching-to-sample (MTS) is often used to teach symbolic relationships between spoken or printed words and their referents to children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. However, many children have difficulty learning symbolic matching, even though they may demonstrate generalized identity matching. The current study investigated whether training on symbolic MTS tasks in which the stimuli are physically dissimilar but members of familiar categories (i.e., thematic matching) can remediate an individual's difficulty learning symbolic MTS tasks involving non-representative stimuli. Three adolescent males diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were first trained on symbolic MTS tasks with unfamiliar, non-representative form stimuli. Thematic matching was introduced after the participants failed to learn 0, 2 or 4 symbolic MTS tasks and before additional symbolic MTS tasks were introduced. After exposure to thematic matching, accuracy on symbolic MTS tasks with novel stimuli increased to above chance for all participants. For two participants, high accuracy (> 90%) was achieved on a majority of these sessions. Thus, thematic matching may be an effective intervention for students with limited verbal repertoires and who have difficulty learning symbolic MTS tasks. Possible explanations for the facilitative effect of thematic matching are considered and warrant further investigation. PMID:24634695

Lionello-Denolf, Karen M; Farber, Rachel; Jones, B Max; Dube, William V

2014-05-01

429

Temporal dynamics of activation of thematic and functional knowledge during conceptual processing of manipulable artifacts.  

PubMed

The current research aimed at specifying the activation time course of different types of semantic information during object conceptual processing and the effect of context on this time course. We distinguished between thematic and functional knowledge and the specificity of functional similarity. Two experiments were conducted with healthy older adults using eye tracking in a word-to-picture matching task. The time course of gaze fixations was used to assess activation of distractor objects during the identification of manipulable artifact targets (e.g., broom). Distractors were (a) thematically related (e.g., dustpan), (b) related by a specific function (e.g., vacuum cleaner), or (c) related by a general function (e.g., sponge). Growth curve analyses were used to assess competition effects when target words were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and embedded in contextual sentences of different generality levels (Experiment 2). In the absence of context, there was earlier and shorter lasting activation of thematically related as compared to functionally related objects. The time course difference was more pronounced for general functions than specific functions. When contexts were provided, functional similarities that were congruent with context generality level increased in salience with earlier activation of those objects. Context had little impact on thematic activation time course. These data demonstrate that processing a single manipulable artifact concept implicitly activates thematic and functional knowledge with different time courses and that context speeds activation of context-congruent functional similarity. PMID:22449134

Kalénine, Solène; Mirman, Daniel; Middleton, Erica L; Buxbaum, Laurel J

2012-09-01

430

Lightning Sensing from Space: Early Observations to the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning was serendipitously detected by some of the earliest space-based sensors. Small instruments of opportunity such as the Piggy Back Experiment followed these early observations. In 1980, NASA began a serious study on the possibility for observing lightning from geostationary orbit. An U-2 aircraft was instrumented with optical and electric field sensors and flown over the tops of thunderstorms. This early work quantified the characteristics of the lightning optical emissions radiating from cloud tops and lead to the selection of the 774 nm oxygen emission line (originally identified by Leon Salanave) as the line of choice for space-based lightning observations. The U-2 results provided the basis for the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) designs. The OTD and LIS were the first pixilated lightning sensors to be flown in space, an approach that enabled high detection efficiency for both cloud and ground flashes and good spatial resolution. OTD and LIS data provided the first detailed view of the global distribution of lightning activity, an accurate estimate of the global flash rate, helped quantify the global relationship between ice flux and flash rates, provided a lightning climatology over a continuous 15 year interval and made numerous other contributions. In addition, OTD and LIS data provided the detailed characterization of optical lightning emissions that been necessary for the effective design of geostationary-based lightning sensors. The low earth orbiting lightning data played an essential role in refining the conceptional design of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) and provided the basis for the detailed design of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) which is scheduled to be launch on the GOES-R satellite. The GLM is being designed to detect 90% of all lightning flashes within its field of view with less than a 5% false alarm rate and a spatial resolution of 8 km. An analysis of how these performance goals can be achieved will be presented along with details of how lightning characteristics drove the instrument design.

Christian, H.

2010-12-01

431

Thematic Design: My Story is Better When Your Story is Better  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

What does a well-designed thematic workshop look like? Walking into a presentation at a convention center or at a NASA center, one might see formal and informal educators receiving space science content from knowledgeable science experts, actively participating in topic-related activities, questioning, collaborating, and investigating, connecting topics and content to their education needs, and having fun. But what is really going on, and what did it take to get to this point-the point of delivery. This is an opportunity to share experience and knowledge pertaining to designing and conducting space science thematic workshops and trainings. It is an attempt to describe the thematic approach to space science education that has been demonstrated in Solar System Exploration Education Forum workshops over many years and to articulate the best practices pertain-ing to designing and presenting those workshops.

Tobola, Kay; Allen, Jaclyn

2011-01-01

432

Thematic music as a structuring element in the drama of Lope de Vega  

E-print Network

their introduction and reiteration bind together the related but disconnected events of each comedia. Additionally, I will demonstrate that Lope's continued use of thematic music prepared him to make the natural step from comedia to opera, a logical evolution from... the two realms. yh ~ 1~Ad 1 V It h 1 f ht 1 f h other and of the subsequent death of Adonis caused by Apollo's jealousy. There are various sub-plots which fit into the main theme, but the out- 'standing single ingredient of this comedia is the thematic...

Sifers, Ann Manville

2012-06-07

433

STOCK: Structure mapper and online coarse-graining kit for molecular simulations.  

PubMed

We present a web toolkit STructure mapper and Online Coarse-graining Kit for setting up coarse-grained molecular simulations. The kit consists of two tools: structure mapping and Boltzmann inversion tools. The aim of the first tool is to define a molecular mapping from high, for example, all-atom, to low, that is, coarse-grained, resolution. Using a graphical user interface it generates input files, which are compatible with standard coarse-graining packages, for example, Versatile Object-oriented Toolkit for Coarse-graining Applications and DL_CGMAP. Our second tool generates effective potentials for coarse-grained simulations preserving the structural properties, for example, radial distribution functions, of the underlying higher resolution model. The required distribution functions can be provided by any simulation package. Simulations are performed on a local machine and only the distributions are uploaded to the server. The applicability of the toolkit is validated by mapping atomistic pentane and polyalanine molecules to a coarse-grained representation. Effective potentials are derived for systems of TIP3P (transferable intermolecular potential 3 point) water molecules and salt solution. The presented coarse-graining web toolkit is available at http://stock.cmm.ki.si. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25504076

Bevc, Staš; Junghans, Christoph; Praprotnik, Matej

2015-03-15

434

Optical maturity variation in lunar spectra as measured by Moon Mineralogy Mapper data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High spectral and spatial resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument on Chandrayaan-1 are used to investigate in detail changes in the optical properties of lunar materials accompanying space weathering. Three spectral parameters were developed and used to quantify spectral effects commonly thought to be associated with increasing optical maturity: an increase in spectral slope (“reddening”), a decrease in albedo (“darkening”), and loss of spectral contrast (decrease in absorption band depth). Small regions of study were defined that sample the ejecta deposits of small fresh craters that contain relatively crystalline (immature) material that grade into local background (mature) soils. Selected craters are small enough that they can be assumed to be of constant composition and thus are useful for evaluating trends in optical maturity. Color composites were also used to identify the most immature material in a region and show that maturity trends can also be identified using regional soil trends. The high resolution M3 data are well suited to quantifying the spectral changes that accompany space weathering and are able to capture subtle spectral variations in maturity trends. However, the spectral changes that occur as a function of maturity were observed to be dependent on local composition. Given the complexity of space weathering processes, this was not unexpected but poses challenges for absolute measures of optical maturity across diverse lunar terrains.

Nettles, J. W.; Staid, M.; Besse, S.; Boardman, J.; Clark, R. N.; Dhingra, D.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Pieters, C. M.; Taylor, L. A.

2011-07-01

435

Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture Radar images of Titan's surface during four fly-bys during the mission's first year. These images show that Titan's surface is very complex geologically, showing evidence of major planetary geologic processes, including cryovolcanism. This paper discusses the variety of cryovolcanic features identified from SAR images, their possible origin, and their geologic context. The features which we identify as cryovolcanic in origin include a large (180 km diameter) volcanic construct (dome or shield), several extensive flows, and three calderas which appear to be the source of flows. The composition of the cryomagma on Titan is still unknown, but constraints on rheological properties can be estimated using flow thickness. Rheological properties of one flow were estimated and appear inconsistent with ammonia-water slurries, and possibly more consistent with ammonia-water-methanol slurries. The extent of cryovolcanism on Titan is still not known, as only a small fraction of the surface has been imaged at sufficient resolution. Energetic considerations suggest that cryovolcanism may have been a dominant process in the resurfacing of Titan. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc.

Lopes, R.M.C.; Mitchell, K.L.; Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Wall, S.D.; Robshaw, L.E.; Fortes, A.D.; Neish, C.D.; Radebaugh, J.; Reffet, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Elachi, C.; Allison, M.D.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Boubin, G.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M.A.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.O.; Ori, G.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.E.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L.A.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.D.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.A.

2007-01-01

436

Basis and methods of NASA airborne topographic mapper lidar surveys for coastal studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of airborne laser altimetry for surveys of coastal topography, and describes the methods used in the acquisition and processing of NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) surveys that cover much of the conterminous US coastline. This form of remote sensing, also known as "topographic lidar", has undergone extremely rapid development during the last two decades, and has the potential to contribute within a wide range of coastal scientific investigations. Various airborne laser surveying (ALS) applications that are relevant to coastal studies are being pursued by researchers in a range of Earth science disciplines. Examples include the mapping of "bald earth" land surfaces below even moderately dense vegetation in studies of geologic framework and hydrology, and determination of the vegetation canopy structure, a key variable in mapping wildlife habitats. ALS has also proven to be an excellent method for the regional mapping of geomorphic change along barrier island beaches and other sandy coasts due to storms or long-term sedimentary processes. Coastal scientists are adopting ALS as a basic method in the study of an array of additional coastal topics. ALS can provide useful information in the analysis of shoreline change, the prediction and assessment of landslides along seacliffs and headlands, examination of subsidence causing coastal land loss, and in predicting storm surge and tsunami inundation.

Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

2002-01-01

437

Inversion and classification studies of live-site production-level MetalMapper data sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper illustrates the discrimination performance of a set of advanced models at an actual UXO live site. The suite of methods, which combines the orthonormalized volume magnetic source (ONVMS) model, a data-preprocessing technique based on joint diagonalization (JD), and differential evolution (DE) minimization, among others, was tested at the former Camp Beale in California. The data for the study were collected independently by two UXO production teams from Parsons and CH2M HILL using the MetalMapper (MM) sensor in cued mode; each set of data was also processed independently. Initially all data were inverted using a multi-target version of the combined ONVMS-DE algorithm, which provided intrinsic parameters (the total ONVMS amplitudes) that were then used to perform classification after having been inspected by an expert. Classification of the Parsons data was conducted by a Sky Research production team using a fingerprinting approach; analysis of the CH2M HILL data was performed by a Sky/Dartmouth R&D team using unsupervised clustering. During the classification stage the analysts requested the ground truth for selected anomalies typical of the different clusters; this was then used to classify them using a probability function. This paper reviews the data inversion, processing, and discrimination schemes involving the advanced EMI methods and presents the classification results obtained for both the CH2M HILL and the Parsons data. Independent scoring by the Institute for Defense Analyses reveals superb all-around classification performance.

Shubitidze, F.; Fernández, J. P.; Miller, J.; Keranen, J.; Barrowes, B. E.; Bijamov, A.

2012-06-01

438

Automatic classification of unexploded ordnance applied to live sites for MetalMapper sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper extends a previously-introduced method for automatic classification of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) across several datasets from live sites. We used the MetalMapper sensor, from which extrinsic and intrinsic parameters are determined by the combined Differential Evolution (DE) and Ortho-Normalized Volume Magnetic Source (ONVMS) algorithms. The inversion provides spatial locations and intrinsic time-series total ONVMS principal eigenvalues. These are fit to a power-decay empirical model, providing dimensionality reduction to 3 coefficients (k, b, and g) for polarizability decay. Anomaly target features are grouped using the unsupervised clustering Weighted-Pair Group Method with Averaging (WPGMA) algorithm. Central elements of each cluster are dug, and the results are used to train the next round of dig requests. A Naive Bayes classifier is used as a supervised learning algorithm, in which the product of each feature's independent probability density represents each class of UXO in the feature space. We request ground truths for anomalies in rounds, until there are no more Targets of Interest (TOI) in consecutive requests. This fully automatic procedure requires no expert intervention, saving time and money. Naive Bayes outperformed previous efforts with Gaussian Mixture Models(GMM) in all cases.

Sigman, John Brevard; O'Neill, Kevin; Barrowes, Benjamin; Wang, Yinlin; Shubitidze, Fridon

2014-06-01

439

Mapping lunar mare basalt units in mare Imbrium as observed with the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M³)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine compositional variations of volcanic units in the Imbrium basin using spectral observations from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M³) instrument on board the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. The spectral range of M³ reflectance measurements from 400 to 3000 nm is well-suited to study distinctive absorption bands near 1000 and 2000 nm resulting from mafic minerals in lunar basaltic flows. Eighty-three units with various mineralogical compositions were identified, and spectroscopic analyses were used to map variations in olivine and pyroxene content within basalts emplaced in the Imbrium basin. The results exhibit a more precise mapping of basaltic flow units with M³ data based on their better spatial and spectral range in comparison to previous available datasets. Nevertheless, there is a general correlation between units mapped in this work and previous studies. Moreover, the results tend to indicate an increase in olivine abundances in the stratigraphically younger high-Ti basalts compared to the older low-Ti basalts. Therefore, on the basis of M³ data, we refine previous spectral maps that have been used, for example, to determine first order homogenous units for crater size-frequency distribution measurements.

Thiessen, F.; Besse, S.; Staid, M. I.; Hiesinger, H.

2014-12-01

440

Newer views of the Moon: Comparing spectra from Clementine and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) provided the first global hyperspectral data of the lunar surface in 85 bands from 460 to 2980 nm. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and near-infrared (NIR). In an effort to understand how M3 improves our ability to analyze and interpret lunar data, we compare M3 spectra with those from Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the UV-VIS and NIR. We have found that M3 reflectance values are lower across all wavelengths compared with albedos from both of Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. M3 spectra show the Moon to be redder, that is, have a steeper continuum slope, than indicated by Clementine. The 1 m absorption band depths may be comparable between the instruments, but Clementine data consistently exhibit shallower 2 m band depths than M 3. Absorption band minimums are difficult to compare due to the significantly different spectral resolutions. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Kramer, G.Y.; Besse, S.; Nettles, J.; Combe, J.-P.; Clark, R.N.; Pieters, C.M.; Staid, M.; Malaret, E.; Boardman, J.; Green, R.O.; Head, J.W.; McCord, T.B.

2011-01-01

441

Quantifying gravity wave momentum fluxes with Mesosphere Temperature Mappers and correlative instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper and other instruments at the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research in Norway (69.3°N) and at Logan and Bear Lake Observatory in Utah (42°N) are used to demonstrate a new method for quantifying gravity wave (GW) pseudo-momentum fluxes accompanying spatially and temporally localized GW packets. The method improves on previous airglow techniques by employing direct characterization of the GW temperature perturbations averaged over the OH airglow layer and correlative wind and temperature measurements to define the intrinsic GW properties with high confidence. These methods are applied to two events, each of which involves superpositions of GWs having various scales and character. In each case, small-scale GWs were found to achieve transient, but very large, momentum fluxes with magnitudes varying from ~60 to 940 m2 s-2, which are ~1-2 decades larger than mean values. Quantification of the spatial and temporal variations of GW amplitudes and pseudo-momentum fluxes may also enable assessments of the total pseudo-momentum accompanying individual GW packets and of the potential for secondary GW generation that arises from GW localization. We expect that the use of this method will yield key insights into the statistical forcing of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere by GWs, the importance of infrequent large-amplitude events, and their effects on GW spectral evolution with altitude.

Fritts, David C.; Pautet, P.-Dominique; Bossert, Katrina; Taylor, Michael J.; Williams, Bifford P.; Iimura, Hiroyuki; Yuan, Tao; Mitchell, Nicholas J.; Stober, Gunter

2014-12-01

442

The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and the Global Observing System for Total Lightning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product latency of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. The GLM will help address the National Weather Service requirement for total lightning observations globally to support warning decision-making and forecast services. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS national centers, forecast offices, and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in 2016. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.; Buechler, D.; Carey, L.; Chronis, T.; Mach, D.; Bateman, M.; Peterson, H.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; Stano, G. T.; Bitzer, P. M.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Cummins, K. L.

2014-01-01

443

An Initial Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data for the Discrimination of Agricultural, Forested Wetlands, and Urban Land Cover. [Poinsett County, Arkansas; and Reelfoot Lake and Union City, Tennessee  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities of TM data for discriminating land covers within three particular cultural and ecological realms was assessed. The agricultural investigation in Poinsett County, Arkansas illustrates that TM data can successfully be used to discriminate a variety of crop cover types within the study area. The single-date TM classification produced results that were significantly better than those developed from multitemporal MSS data. For the Reelfoot Lake area of Tennessee TM data, processed using unsupervised signature development techniques, produced a detailed classification of forested wetlands with excellent accuracy. Even in a small city of approximately 15,000 people (Union City, Tennessee). TM data c