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1

Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper outgassing effects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A periodic 3% to 5% variation in detector response affecting both image and internal calibrator (IC) data has been observed in bands 5 and 7 of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper. The source for this variation is thought to be an interference effect due to buildup of an ice-like contaminant film on a ZnSe window, covered with an antireflective coating (ARC), of the cooled dewar containing these detectors. Periodic warming of the dewar is required in order to remove the contaminant and restore detector response to an uncontaminated level. These effects in the IC data have been characterized over four individual outgassing cycles using thin-film models to estimate transmittance of the window/ARC and ARC/contaminant film stack throughout the instrument lifetime. Based on the results obtained from this modeling, a lookup table procedure has been implemented that provides correction factors to improve the calibration accuracy of bands 5 and 7 by approximately 5%.

Helder, D.L.; Micijevic, E.

2004-01-01

2

Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

2007-01-01

3

Improved outgassing models for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) detectors of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands 5 and 7 are maintained on cryogenic temperatures to minimize thermal noise and allow adequate detection of scene energy. Over the instrument's lifetime, gain oscillations are observed in these bands that are caused by an ice-like contaminant that gradually builds up on the window of a dewar that houses these bands' detectors. This process of icing, an effect of material outgassing in space, is detected and characterized through observations of Internal Calibrator (IC) data. Analyses of IC data indicated three to five percent uncertainty in absolute gain estimates due to this icing phenomenon. The thin-film interference lifetime models implemented in the image product generation systems at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) successfully remove up to 80 percent of the icing effects for the image acquisition period from the satellite's launch in 1984 until 2001; however, their correction ability was found to be much lower for the time thereafter. This study concentrates on improving the estimates of the contaminant film growth rate and the associated change in the period of gain oscillations. The goal is to provide model parameters with the potential to correct 70 to 80 percent of gain uncertainties caused by outgassing effects in L5 TM bands 5 and 7 over the instrument's entire lifetime. ?? 2007 IEEE.

Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.; Hayes, R.W.

2007-01-01

4

Improved outgassing models for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) detectors of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands 5 and 7 are maintained on cryogenic temperatures to minimize thermal noise and allow adequate detection of scene energy. Over the instrument's lifetime, gain oscillations are observed in these bands that are caused by an ice-like contaminant that gradually builds up on the window of a dewar that houses these bands' detectors. This process of icing, an effect of material outgassing in space, is detected and characterized through observations of Internal Calibrator (IC) data. Analyses of IC data indicated three to five percent uncertainty in absolute gain estimates due to this icing phenomenon. The thin-film interference lifetime models implemented in the image product generation systems at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) successfully remove up to 80 percent of the icing effects for the image acquisition period from the satellite's launch in 1984 until 2001; however, their correction ability was found to be much lower for the time thereafter. This study concentrates on improving the estimates of the contaminant film growth rate and the associated change in the period of gain oscillations. The goal is to provide model parameters with the potential to correct 70 to 80 percent of gain uncertainties caused by outgassing effects in L5 TM bands 5 and 7 over the instrument's entire lifetime. ?? 2007 IEEE.

Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.; Hayes, R.W.

2008-01-01

5

Thematic Mapper. Volume 1: Calibration report flight model, LANDSAT 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calibration of the Flight 1 Model Thematic Mapper is discussed. Spectral response, scan profile, coherent noise, line spread profiles and white light leaks, square wave response, radiometric calibration, and commands and telemetry are specifically addressed.

Cooley, R. C.; Lansing, J. C.

1984-01-01

6

Thematic Mapper Image Processing System - Geometric correction performance for Landsat-5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geometric correction performance data are presented for the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper and the Thematic Mapper Image Processing System. Temporal registration and geodetic rectification results are displayed in the form of 90 percent errors. Both error estimation and direct measurements demonstrate that the instrument and system meet performance requirements.

Brooks, J.

1985-01-01

7

Analyst variability in labeling of unsupervised classifications. [test sites for Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyst variability in the labeling of unsupervised classifications is tested for Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image products covering two test sites in southern California. The accuracy of results are tested using samples from a photo interpreted base map of the area. The significance of differences between analysts is indicated by comparing Kappa statistics derived from error matrices. Analyst variability is found to be statistically significant in most cases. Certain analysts provided consistently better results for a given study area or degree of training. This work demonstrates the potential influence of analyst bias on what would otherwise seem to be a fairly objective method and suggests that controls for this subjectivity should be factored into experimental designs.

Mcgwire, Kenneth C.

1992-01-01

8

Fire effects in the northern Chihuahuan Desert derived from Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper spectral indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire effects on desert ecosystems may be long-lasting based on ecological impact of fire in these environments which potentially is detected from multispectral sensors. To assess this, we analyzed changes in spectral characteristics from 1986 to 2010 of pixels associated with the location of fires that occurred between 1986 and 1999 in Big Bend National Park, USA, located in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data, we derived spectral indices including the simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), and normalized burn ratio (NBR) from 1989, 1999, and 2010 from the TM data and compared changes in spectral index values for sites with and without observed fire. We found that the NDVI and SAVI had significantly different values over the time for burned sites of different fire sizes. When differences of the spectral indices were calculated from each time period, time since fire was correlated with the SR and NBR indices. These results showed that large fires potentially had a persistent and long-term change in vegetation cover and soil characteristics which were detected by the extraordinary long-data collection period of the Landsat-5 TM sensor.

White, Joseph D.; Swint, Pamela

2014-01-01

9

Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geometric accuracy of the Landsat Thematic Mappers was assessed by a linear least-square comparison of the positions of conspicuous ground features in digital images with their geographic locations as determined from 1:24 000-scale maps. For a Landsat-5 image, the single-dimension standard deviations of the standard digital product, and of this image with additional linear corrections, are 11.2 and 10.3 m, respectively (0.4 pixel). An F-test showed that skew and affine distortion corrections are not significant. At this level of accuracy, the granularity of the digital image and the probable inaccuracy of the 1:24 000 maps began to affect the precision of the comparison. The tested image, even with a moderate accuracy loss in the digital-to-graphic conversion, meets National Horizontal Map Accuracy standards for scales of 1:100 000 and smaller. Two Landsat-4 images, obtained with the Multispectral Scanner on and off, and processed by an interim software system, contain significant skew and affine distortions. -Authors

Borgeson, W.T.; Batson, R.M.; Kieffer, H.H.

1985-01-01

10

Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 thematic mapper band 6 historical performance and calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, the Landsat-4 and -5 Thematic Mappers (TM) are the backbone of an extensive archive of moderate resolution Earth imagery. However, these sensors and their data products were not subjected to the type of intensive monitoring that has been part of the Landsat-7 system since its launch in 1999. With Landsat-4's 11 year and Landsat-5's 20+ year data record, there is a need to understand the historical behavior of the instruments in order to verify the scientific integrity of the archive and processed products. Performance indicators of the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands have recently been extracted from a processing system database allowing for a more complete study of thermal band characteristics and calibration than was previously possible. The database records responses to the internal calibration system, instrument temperatures and applied gains and offsets for each band for every scene processed through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS). Analysis of this database has allowed for greater understanding of the calibration and improvement in the processing system. This paper will cover the trends in the Landsat-4 and -5 thermal bands, the effect of the changes seen in the trends, and how these trends affect the use of the thermal data.

Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Higgs, N.

2005-01-01

11

Development of landsat-5 thematic mapper internal calibrator gain and offset table  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) has been the primary processing system for Landsat data since U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) started archiving Landsat data. NLAPS converts raw satellite data into radiometrically and geometrically calibrated products. NLAPS has historically used the Internal Calibrator (IC) to calibrate the reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), even though the lamps in the IC were less stable than the TM detectors, as evidenced by vicarious calibration results. In 2003, a major effort was made to model the actual TM gain change and to update NLAPS to use this model rather than the unstable IC data for radiometric calibration. The model coefficients were revised in 2007 to reflect greater understanding of the changes in the TM responsivity. While the calibration updates are important to users with recently processed data, the processing system no longer calculates the original IC gain or offset. For specific applications, it is useful to have a record of the gain and offset actually applied to the older data. Thus, the NLAPS calibration database was used to generate estimated daily values for the radiometric gain and offset that might have been applied to TM data. This paper discusses the need for and generation of the NLAPSIC gain and offset tables. A companion paper covers the application of and errors associated with using these tables.

Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.; Markham, B.L.; Haque, Md. O.

2008-01-01

12

A definitive calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper anchored to the Landsat-7 radiometric scale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A coordinated effort on the part of several agencies has led to the specification of a definitive radiometric calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) for its lifetime since launch in 1984. The time-dependent calibration record for Landsat-5 TM has been placed on the same radiometric scale as the Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+). It has been implemented in the National Landsat Archive Production Systems (NLAPS) in use in North America. This paper documents the results of this collaborative effort and the specifications for the related calibration processing algorithms. The specifications include (i) anchoring of the Landsat-5 TM calibration record to the Landsat-7 ETM+ absolute radiometric calibration, (ii) new time-dependent calibration processing equations and procedures applicable to raw Landsat-5 TM data, and (iii) algorithms for recalibration computations applicable to some of the existing processed datasets in the North American context. The cross-calibration between Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ was achieved using image pairs from the tandem-orbit configuration period that was programmed early in the Laridsat-7 mission. The time-dependent calibration for Landsat-5 TM is based on a detailed trend analysis of data from the on-board internal calibrator. The new lifetime radiometric calibration record for Landsat-5 will overcome problems with earlier product generation owing to inadequate maintenance and documentation of the calibration over time and will facilitate the quantitative examination of a continuous, near-global dataset at 30-m scale that spans almost two decades.

Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; Ruggles, T.A.; Landry, R.; Ahern, F.J.; Higgs, N.J.; Barsi, J.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Thome, K.J.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, F.D.

2004-01-01

13

Geometric accuracy of Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometric accuracy (GA) and errors in imagery by Landsat-4 and -5 were examined using data from regions with a minimal topography. A least-squares comparison was made between ground truth digitized photographs and TM data for prominent features displayed on a 1:24,000 map. The algorithms used for the transformation of the Landsat data to a Cartesian system are provided. Landsat-5 images had a calculated error of 11.2 m (0.4 pixel) and could not be improved with skew and affine-distortion corrections. However, the digitized images, including road tracks, were considered detailed enough for standard 1:50,000 maps. Landsat-5 imagery, when fully corrected, was consistently superior to Landsat-4 data.

Batson, R. M.; Kieffer, H. H.; Borgeson, W. T.

1985-01-01

14

The geometric properties of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data and their conformity to Landsat-4 data and to earth's surface geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometry of two TIPS processed Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper scenes was analyzed and compared with that of SCROUNGE processed Landsat-4 data. Swath-to-swath and band-to-band registration of Washington, DC, and northeastern Iowa scenes was found to be similar to or better than that of Landsat-4 data. Results indicate a high degree of geometric conformity between the images produced by the different systems. The geometric conformity of the TIPS processed images to the Space Oblique Mercator projection, however, proved to be less accurate than the targeted processing error of 15 meters.

Walker, R. E.; Gokham, B.; Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

1985-01-01

15

Detection of tamarisk defoliation by the northern tamarisk beetle based on multitemporal Landsat 5 thematic mapper imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spread of tamarisk (Tamarix spp., also known as saltcedar) is a significant ecological disturbance in western North America and has long been targeted for control, leading to the importation of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) as a biological control agent. Following its initial release along the Colorado River near Moab, Utah in 2004, the beetle has successfully established and defoliated tamarisk across much of the upper Colorado River Basin. However, the spatial distribution and seasonal timing of defoliation are complex and difficult to quantify over large areas. To address this challenge, we tested and compared two remote sensing approaches to mapping tamarisk defoliation: Disturbance Index (DI) and a decision tree method called Random Forest (RF). Based on multitemporal Landsat 5 TM imagery for 2006-2010, changes in DI and defoliation probability from RF were calculated to detect tamarisk defoliation along the banks of Green, Colorado, Dolores and San Juan rivers within the Colorado Plateau area. Defoliation mapping accuracy was assessed based on field surveys partitioned into 10 km sections of river and on regions of interest created for continuous riparian vegetation. The DI method detected 3711 ha of defoliated area in 2007, 7350 ha in 2008, 10,457 ha in 2009 and 5898 ha in 2010. The RF method detected much smaller areas of defoliation but proved to have higher accuracy, as demonstrated by accuracy assessment and sensitivity analysis, with 784 ha in 2007, 960 ha in 2008, 934 ha in 2009, and 1008 ha in 2010. Results indicate that remote sensing approaches are likely to be useful for studying spatiotemporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation as the tamarisk leaf beetle spreads throughout the western United States.

Meng, Ran; Dennison, Philip E.; Jamison, Levi R.; van Riper, Charles, III; Nager, Pamela; Hultine, Kevin R.; Bean, Dan W.; Dudley, Tom

2012-01-01

16

Measurement of Thematic Mapper data quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper data from Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 were examined for band-to-band registration, absolute geodetic registration, periodic noise and spatial resolution. Between focal planes, appreciable misregistrations existed in early data products but were corrected in later data products. The analysis of absolute geodetic registration used only system-corrected data because ground control point-corrected data were unavailable. Geodetic registration errors averaged only 9.7 pixels, less than expected for system-corrected data. Periodic noise at four spatial frequencies was observed in Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper data by using Fourier analysis on small areas over water. Magnitudes of periodic noise components were consistent within a scene. The modulation transfer function was determined for two Landsat-4 scenes. The effective instantaneous field of view was 40.8 meters in one case, and 48.6 meters in the other.

Wrigley, R. C.; Hlavka, C. A.; Card, D. H.; Buis, J. S.; Schowengerdt, R. A.

1985-01-01

17

Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper calibration update  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5 which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the TM-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988-1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations (a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert site) were developed. The results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime, with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this paper have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Mettler, Cory J.; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad

2012-01-01

18

Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper instruments, the protoflight (TM\\/PF) and flight (TM\\/F) models, respectively, is presented. Data collected by the Hughes\\/Santa Barbara Research Center on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with the spectral coverage and spectral matching specifications served as the basis for the characterization. Compliance with the spectral

BRIAN L. MARKHAM; JOHN L. BARKER

1985-01-01

19

Evaluation of Thematic Mapper interband registration and noise characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments aboard the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 spacecraft have provided the first digital imagery of the earth's surface with a resolution sufficient to distinguish cultural features easily. The present paper provides a description of the results of studies designed to investigate the band-to-band registration, geodetic registration to a map base, and periodic noise. In the eight TM scenes analyzed, the band-to-band registration accuracy was high even before correction, and the correction for the shift between focal planes brought all bands into registration according to tight specifications.

Wrigley, R. C.; Hlavka, C. A.; Card, D. H.; Buis, J. S.

1985-01-01

20

Comparison of outgassing models for the Landsat thematic mapper sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Thematic Mapper (TM) is a multi-spectral electro-optical sensor featured onboard both the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) satellites. TM sensors have seven spectral bands with center wavelengths of approximately 0.49, 0.56, 0.66, 0.83, 1.65, 11.5 and 2.21 mum, respectively. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) bands are located on the primary focal plane (PFP), and two short-wave infrared (SWIR)

Esad Micijevic; Gyanesh Chander

2007-01-01

21

Thematic Mapper geometric correction performance evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper provides a performance evaluation of geometric correction in the Thematic Mapper Image Processing System (TIPS). TIPS forms a part of NASA's Thematic Mapper (TM) data processing facility. During a TM Research and Development period which continues through 1984, the geometric accuracy of TIPS is currently being evaluated. A description is given of TIPS geometric correction system, taking into account a TIPS overview and the Thematic Mapper Control Point Library Build (TCL). TCL generates control point chips which are stored in a library for subsequent use in the Thematic Mapper Archive Generation (TAG). Methods for measuring accuracy are discussed, giving attention to error estimation and direct measurement. A temporal registration evaluation from error estimation is considered along with a temporal evaluation from direct measurement, and a geodetic correction evaluation.

Brooks, J.; Jai, A.; Keller, T.; Kimmer, E.; Su, J.

1984-01-01

22

Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

2010-01-01

23

Enhanced rock discrimination using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of TM data to rock discrimination is discussed. Sixteen specific terrains derived from geologic maps are examined on TM images of the Arabian shield obtained on Apr. 14, 1984; visual enhancement procedures are applied to the images. The rock types observed in the test site are described; the major sedimentary formations in the test area are laterite and sandstone. The data reveal that the layered rocks in the outcrop consist of a variety of metamorphosed volcanics, metamorphosed sediments, and amphibolite, and the intrusive complex is composed of several classes of mafic and acidic rocks.

Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Marcell, R. F.

1985-01-01

24

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress during the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan-ERIM's and 5 image data quality assessment program for the thematic mapper is described. Analyses of LANDSAT 5 TM radiometric characteristics were performed. Effects which had earlier been found in LANDSAT 4 TM data were found to be present in LANDSAT 5 data as well, including: (1) scan direction related signal droop; (2) scan correlated level shifts; and (3) low frequency coherent noise. Coincident LANDSAT 4 and 5 raw TM data were analyzed, and band by band relationships between the two sensors were derived. Earlier efforts which developed an information theoretic measure of multispectral information content were continued, comparing TM and MSS information content.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

25

Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A list of personnel who have contributed to the program is provided. Sixteen publications and presentations are also listed. A preprint summarizing five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations of the solar reflective bands of the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper is presented. The 23 band calibrations made on the five dates show a 2.5% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean. A preprint is also presented that discusses the reflectance-based results of the above preprint. It proceeds to analyze and present results of a second, independent calibration method based on radiance measurements from a helicopter. Radiative transfer through the atmosphere, model atmospheres, the calibration methodology used at White Sands and the results of a sensitivity analysis of the reflectance-based approach is also discussed.

Slater, Philip N.; Palmer, James M.

1986-01-01

26

Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric measurements were taken on the morning of the LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper overpass. The sky was cloud free and the sites were dry. Barnes multiband radiometer data were collected for a 4 x 4 pixel area and two fractional pixel areas of slightly higher and lower reflectances than the larger area. Helicopter color photography was obtained of all the ground areas. This photography will allow a detailed reflectance map of the 4 x 4 pixel are to be made and registered to the TM imagery to an accuracy of better than half a pixel. Spectropolarimeter data were also collected of the 4 x 4 pixel area from the helicopter. In addition, ground based solar radiometer data were collected to provide spectral extinction optical thickness valves. The radiative transfer theory used in the development of the Herman code which was used in predicting the TM entrance pupil spectral radiances from the ground based measurements is described.

Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (principal investigators)

1984-01-01

27

Thematic Mapper: Design through flight evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT 4 and 5, launched in 1982 and 1984, not only carried the Thematic Mapper, but were redesigned to handle the increased data rates associated with it, and to communicate that data to Earth via geosynchronous orbiting Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). The TM development program is summarized. A brief historical perspective is presented of the evolution of design requirements and hardware development. The basic performance parameters that serve as sensor design guidelines are presented.

1984-01-01

28

Thematic mapper critical elements breadboard program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 40.6 cm bidirectional scan mirror assembly, a scan line corrector and a silicon photodiode array with integral preamplifier input stages were designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate performance consistent with requirements of the Hughes thematic mapper system. The measured performance met or exceeded the original design goals in all cases with the qualification that well defined and well understood deficiencies in the design of the photodiode array package will require the prescribed corrections before flight use.

Dale, C. H., Jr.; Engel, J. L.; Harney, E. D.

1976-01-01

29

Evaluation of corn/soybeans separability using Thematic Mapper and Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multitemporal Thematic Mapper, Thematic Mapper Simulator, and detailed ground truth data were collected for a 9- by 11-km sample segment in Webster County, IA, in the summer of 1982. Three dates were acquired each with Thematic Mapper Simulator (June 7, June 23, and July 31) and Thematic Mapper (August 2, September 3, and October 21). The Thematic Mapper Simulator data were converted to equivalent TM count values using TM and TMS calibration data and model based estimates of atmospheric effects. The July 31, TMS image was compared to the August 2, TM image to verify the conversion process. A quantitative measure of proportion estimation variance (Fisher information) was used to evaluate the corn/soybeans separability for each TM band as a function of time during the growing season. The additional bands in the middle infrared allowed corn and soybeans to be separated much earlier than was possible with the visible and near-infrared bands alone. Using the TM and TMS data, temporal profiles of the TM principal components were developed. The greenness and brightness exhibited behavior similar to MSS greenness and brightness for corn and soybeans.

Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Shen, S. S.; Sorensen, C. T.; Carnes, J. G.

1984-01-01

30

Thematic mapper studies of Andean volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective was to identify all the active volcanoes in the Andean region of Bolivia. Morphological features of the Tata Sabaya volcano, Bolivia, were studied with the thematic mapper. Details include marginal levees on lava and pyroclastic flows, and summit crater structure. Valley glacier moraine deposits, not easily identified on the multispectral band scanner, were also unambiguous, and provide useful marker horizons on large volcanic edifices which were built up in preglacial times but which were active subsequently. With such high resolution imagery, it is not only possible to identify potentially active volcanoes, but also to use standard photogeological interpretation to outline the history of individual volcanoes.

Francis, P. W.

1986-01-01

31

Stability of landsat-4 thematic mapper outgassing models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oscillations in radiometric gains of the short wave infrared (SWIR) bands in Landsat-4 (L4) and Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mappers (TMs) are observed through an analysis of detector responses to the Internal Calibrator (IC) pulses. The oscillations are believed to be caused by an interference effect due to a contaminant film buildup on the window of the cryogenically cooled dewar that houses these detectors. This process of contamination, referred to as outgassing effects, has been well characterized using an optical thin-film model that relates detector responses to the accumulated film thickness and its growth rate. The current models for L4 TM are based on average detector responses to the second brightest IC lamp and have been derived from three data sets acquired during different times throughout the instrument's lifetime. Unlike in L5 TM outgassing characterization, it was found that the L4 TM responses to all three IC lamps can be used to provide accurate characterization and correction for outgassing effects. The analysis of single detector responses revealed an up to five percent difference in the estimated oscillating periods and also indicated a gradual variation of contaminant growth rate over the focal plane.

Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.

2006-01-01

32

Thematic Mapper research in the earth sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.

Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke

1989-01-01

33

Thematic mapper studies of central Andean volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of false color composite images covering the volcanic cordillera was written. Each image is 45 km (1536 x 1536 pixels) and was constructed using bands 7, 4, and 2 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Approximately 100 images were prepared to date. A set of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images was used in conjunction with the TM hardcopy to compile a computer data base of all volcanic structure in the Central Andean province. Over 500 individual structures were identified. About 75 major volcanoes were identified as active, or potentially active. A pilot study was begun combining Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data with TM for a test area in north Chile and Bolivia.

Francis, Peter W.

1987-01-01

34

Thematic Mapper image quality: Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on images analyzed so far, the band to band registration accuracy of the thematic mapper is very good. For bands within the same focal plane, the mean misregistrations are well within the specification, 0.2 pixels. For bands between the cooled and uncooled focal planes, there is a consistent mean misregistration of 0.5 pixels along-scan and 0.2-0.3 pixels across-scan. It exceeds the permitted 0.3 pixels for registration of bands between focal planes. If the mean misregistrations were removed by the data processing software, an analysis of the standard deviation of the misregistration indicates all band combinations would meet the registration specifications except for those including the thermal band. Analysis of the periodic noise in one image indicates a noise component in band 1 with a spatial frequency equivalent to 3.2 pixels in the along-scan direction.

Wrigley, R. C.; Card, D. H.; Hlavka, C. A.; Likens, W. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

1983-01-01

35

Outgassing models for Landsat-4 thematic mapper short wave infrared bands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detector responses to the Internal Calibrator (IC) pulses in the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) have been observed to follow an oscillatory behavior. This phenomenon is present only in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands and has been observed throughout the lifetime of the instrument, which was launched in July 1982 and imaged the Earth's surface until late 1993. These periodic changes in amplitude, which can be as large as 7.5 percent, are known as outgassing effects and are believed to be due to optical interference caused by a gradual buildup of an ice-like material on the window of the cryogenically cooled dewar containing the SWIR detectors. Similar outgassing effects in the Landsat-5 TM have been characterized using an optical thin-film model that relates detector behavior to the ice film growth rate, which was found to gradually decrease with time. A similar approach, which takes into consideration the different operational history of the instrument, has been applied in this study to three closely sampled data sets acquired throughout the lifetime of the Landsat-4 TM. Although Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers are essentially identical instruments, data generated from analyses of outgassing effects indicate subtle, but important, differences between the two. The estimated lifetime model could improve radiometric accuracy by as much as five percent.

Micijevic, E.; Helder, D.L.

2005-01-01

36

Snow reflectance from Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In California 75 percent of the agricultural water supply comes from the melting Sierra Nevada snowpack. Basin-wide spectral albedo measurements from the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) could be used to better forecast the timing of the spring runoff, because these data can be combined with solar radiation calculations to estimate the net radiation balance. The TM is better-suited for this purpose than the Multispectral Scanner because of its larger dynamic range. Saturation still occurs in bands 1-4, but is severe only in TM1 (0.45-0.52 micron). Snow reflectance in TM2 (0.43-0.61 micron) is typical of the visible wavelength region, where reflectance is almost insensitive to crystal size but sensitive to contamination. TM4 (0.78-0.90 micron) allows estimation of effective optical grain size and thereby spectral extension throughout the near-infrared. TM5 (1.57-1.78 microns) can discriminate clouds from snow.

Dozier, J.

1984-01-01

37

Information extraction from thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The improvements introduced in spectral, spatial, and ratiometric capabilities through installation of the thematic mapper (TM) on the Landsat-4 spacecraft are described. The TM optical sensors scan in the visible (0.45-0.52, 0.52-0.60, and 0.63-0.69 micron), near-IR (0.76-0.90 micron), middle-IR (1.55-1.75 micron), and thermal IR (10.4-12.5 microns). The reflectances of vegetation and the differences in chlorophyll absorption by various plants are discerned more accurately than with the MSS, while the effects of land surface obscuration by water vapor are reduced. The blue-green band upgrades water measurements for bathymetry, reef, and atoll mapping, and the middle-IR increases sensitivity to leaf water content. The field-of-view is a 30 x 30 m square, one-fifth that of the MSS. Results from sample surveys of forested wetlands in Tennessee and agricultural land use patterns are presented.

Tilton, E. L., III

1983-01-01

38

Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

Bird, John M.

1988-01-01

39

Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combinations of Thematic Mapper (TM) bands that best distinguish basalts of the Brooks Range ophiolites were determined. Geochemical analyses, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE), are being done in order to study the significance of TM spectral variations that were observed within some of the sampled rock units. An image of the topography of the western Brooks Range and Colville Basin was constructed. Elevation data for the rest of Northern Alaska are being acquired to expand the area covered by the topography image. Two balanced cross sections (one along the eastern margin, the other along the western margin of the Brooks Range) are being constructed, using the techniques of fault-bend and fault-propagation folding. These are being used to obtain regional shortening estimates for the Brooks Range in an attempt to constrain tectonic models for the evolution of Northern Alaska. The TM data are being used to confirm reconnaissance maps and to obtain structural data where no maps exist. Along with the TM data, digital topography, seismic reflection profiles, and magnetic and gravity surveys are examined to better understand the evolution of the Colville Basin, north of the Brooks Range.

Bird, J. M.

1986-01-01

40

History of Remote Sensing: Landsat's Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Landsat Thematic Mapper is a multispectral imaging sensor added to Landsats 4 and later. This site uses text, photographs, tables, and diagrams to explain how the Thematic Mapper works and the advantages of sensing radiation in wavelengths other than those normally visible to the human eye. It is part of NASA's Remote Sensing Tutorial and links to the rest of the tutorial are provided.

41

Landsat-4 thematic mapper and thematic mapper simulator data for a porphyry copper deposit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft thematic mapper (TM) data were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the Landsat-4 thematic mapper for geologic mapping and detection of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona. The data allow a comparison between aircraft TV simulator data and the Landsat-4 TM satellite data which possess similar spectral bands. A color rationcomposite of 30-m pixels was resampled, in order to clearly define a number of hydroxyl bearing minerals, (kaolinite, sericite, white mica), pyrite and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals. The iron oxide minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.45 and 0.85 micron regions of the spectrum, and the hydrous minerals are characterized by an absorption in the 2.2 micron region. The position of the spectral bands allow the TM to identify regions of hydrothermal alteration without resorting to a data processing algorithm. The comparison of the aircraft and Landsat-4 TM data showed considerable agreement, and confirmed the utility of TM data for identifying hydrothermal alteration zones. Samples of some color TM images are provided.

Abrams, M. J.

1984-01-01

42

Radiometric cross-calibration of the Landsat7 ETM+ and Landsat5 TM sensors based on tandem data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early in its mission, the Landsat-7 spacecraft was temporarily placed in a “tandem” orbit very close to that of the Landsat-5 spacecraft in order to facilitate the establishment of sensor calibration continuity between the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors. The key period for the tandem configuration was June 1–4, 1999, during which hundreds

P. m. Teillet; J. l. Barker; B. l. Markham; R. R Irish; G. Fedosejevs; J. c. Storey

2001-01-01

43

An overview of the thematic mapper geometric correction system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geometric accuracy specifications for LANDSAT 4 are reviewed and the processing concepts which form the basis of NASA's thematic mapper geometric correction system are summarized for both the flight and ground segments. The flight segment includes the thematic mapper instrument, attitude measurement devices, attitude control, and ephemeris processing. For geometric correction the ground segment uses mirror scan correction data, payload correction data, and control point information to determine where TM detector samples fall on output map projection systems. Then the raw imagery is reformatted and resampled to produce image samples on a selected output projection grid system.

Beyer, E. P.

1983-01-01

44

Comparison of outgassing models for the landsat thematic mapper sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Thematic Mapper (TM) is a multi-spectral electro-optical sensor featured onboard both the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) satellites. TM sensors have seven spectral bands with center wavelengths of approximately 0.49, 0.56, 0.66, 0.83, 1.65, 11.5 and 2.21 ??m, respectively. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) bands are located on the primary focal plane (PFP), and two short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands and the thermal infrared (TIR) band are located on the cold focal plane (CFP). The CFP bands are maintained at cryogenic temperatures of about 91 K, to reduce thermal noise effects. Due to the cold temperature, an ice film accumulates on the CFP dewar window, which introduces oscillations in SWIR and an exponential decay in TIR band responses. This process is usually monitored and characterized by the detector responses to the internal calibrator (IC) lamps and the blackbody. The ice contamination on the dewar window is an effect of the sensor outgassing in a vacuum of the space environment. Outgassing models have been developed, which are based on the thin-film optical interference phenomenon. They provide the coefficients for correction for outgassing effects for the entire mission's lifetime. While the L4 TM ceased imaging in August 1993, the L5 TM continues to operate even after more than 23 years in orbit. The process of outgassing in L5 TM is still occurring, though at a much lower rate than during early years of mission. Although the L4 and L5 TM sensors are essentially identical, they exhibit slightly different responses to the outgassing effects. The work presented in the paper summarizes the results of modeling outgassing effects in each of the sensors and provides a detailed analysis of differences among the estimated modeling parameters. For both sensors, water ice was confirmed as a reasonable candidate for contaminant material, the contaminant growth rate was found to be gradually decreasing with the time since launch, and the indications exist that some film may remain after the CFP warm-up procedures, which are periodically initiated to remove accumulated contamination. The observed difference between the models could be contributed to differences in the operational history for the sensors, the content and amount of contaminant impurities, the sensor spectral filter responses, and the internal calibrator systems.

Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.

2007-01-01

45

Comparison of outgassing models for the Landsat thematic mapper sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thematic Mapper (TM) is a multi-spectral electro-optical sensor featured onboard both the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) satellites. TM sensors have seven spectral bands with center wavelengths of approximately 0.49, 0.56, 0.66, 0.83, 1.65, 11.5 and 2.21 ?m, respectively. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) bands are located on the primary focal plane (PFP), and two short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands and the thermal infrared (TIR) band are located on the cold focal plane (CFP). The CFP bands are maintained at cryogenic temperatures of about 91 K, to reduce thermal noise effects. Due to the cold temperature, an ice film accumulates on the CFP dewar window, which introduces oscillations in SWIR and an exponential decay in TIR band responses. This process is usually monitored and characterized by the detector responses to the internal calibrator (IC) lamps and the blackbody. The ice contamination on the dewar window is an effect of the sensor outgassing in a vacuum of the space environment. Outgassing models have been developed, which are based on the thin-film optical interference phenomenon. They provide the coefficients for correction for outgassing effects for the entire mission's lifetime. While the L4 TM ceased imaging in August 1993, the L5 TM continues to operate even after more than 23 years in orbit. The process of outgassing in L5 TM is still occurring, though at a much lower rate than during early years of mission. Although the L4 and L5 TM sensors are essentially identical, they exhibit slightly different responses to the outgassing effects. The work presented in the paper summarizes the results of modeling outgassing effects in each of the sensors and provides a detailed analysis of differences among the estimated modeling parameters. For both sensors, water ice was confirmed as a reasonable candidate for contaminant material, the contaminant growth rate was found to be gradually decreasing with the time since launch, and the indications exist that some film may remain after the CFP warm-up procedures, which are periodically initiated to remove accumulated contamination. The observed difference between the models could be contributed to differences in the operational history for the sensors, the content and amount of contaminant impurities, the sensor spectral filter responses, and the internal calibrator systems.

Micijevic, Esad; Chander, Gyanesh

2007-09-01

46

Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

1986-01-01

47

Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an analysis that relates TM saturation level to ground reflectance, calendar date, latitude, and atmospheric conditions are reported. The determination of the spectral reflectance at the entrance pupil of the LANDSAT 4 pupil of the thematic mapper is described.

Palmer, J. (principal investigator); Slater, P.

1984-01-01

48

Thematic Mapper. Volume 2: Flight model preshipment review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The various systems of the Thematic Mapper are reviewed and a comparison of measured and specified performance is given. Test methodologies are described. The specific instrument systems discussed include the power supply assembly, scan mirror, electronics module, focal plane assembly, radiometer, and radiation cooler.

1982-01-01

49

Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an analysis that relates thematic mapper (TM) saturation level to ground reflectance, calendar date, latitude, and atmospheric condition is provided. A revised version of the preprint included with the last quarterly report is also provided for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing.

Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.

1983-01-01

50

Automated vegetation classification using Thematic Mapper Simulation data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of Thematic Mapper Simulation (TMS) data. One of the objectives of the study was related to an evaluation of the usefulness of the Thematic Mapper's (TM) improved spatial resolution and spectral coverage. The study was undertaken as part of a preparation for the efficient incorporation of Landsat 4 data into ongoing technology development in remote sensing. The study included an application of automated Landsat vegetation classification technology to TMS data. Results of comparing TMS data to Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data were found to indicate that all field definition, crop type discrimination, and subsequent proportion estimation may be greatly increased with the availability of TM data.

Nedelman, K. S.; Cate, R. B.; Bizzell, R. M.

1983-01-01

51

LANDSAT D to test thematic mapper, inaugurate operational system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA will launch the Landsat D spacecraft on July 9, 1982 aboard a new, up-rated Delta 3920 expendable launch vehicle. LANDSAT D will incorporate two highly sophisticated sensors; the flight proven multispectral scanner; and a new instrument expected to advance considerably the remote sensing capabilities of Earth resources satellites. The new sensor, the thematic mapper, provides data in seven spectral (light) bands with greatly improved spectral, spatial and radiometric resolution.

1982-01-01

52

Agricultural land-cover discrimination using thematic mapper spectral bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multispectral scanner system data simulating the thematic mapper (TM) of LANDSAT-4 were analysed for an area near Gedney Hill, Lincolnshire, U.K. The data were found to have a three-dimensional statistical structure similar to that for the LANDSAT-4 TM of parts of the United States. Divergence analysis indicates that the optimal choice of bands for cover discrimination should include one band

JOHN R. G. TOWNSHEND

1984-01-01

53

Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

1986-01-01

54

Revised Landsat5 TM radiometric calibration procedures and postcalibration dynamic ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective May 5, 2003, Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) will be radiometrically calibrated using a new procedure and revised calibration parameters. This change will improve absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data.

Gyanesh Chander; Brian Markham

2003-01-01

55

A prospectus for Thematic Mapper research in the Earth sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth science applications of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery are discussed. Prospective research themes are defined in a general sense in relation to the technical measurement capabilities of the TM and the various types of Earth information that can potentially be derived from multispectral TM imagery. An overview of the system developed to acquire and reduce TM data is presented. The technical capabilities of this system are presented in detail. The orbital performance of the TM sensor is described, based upon the analysis of LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data collected to date.

1984-01-01

56

Thematic Mapper image quality - Registration, noise, and resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat-4 satellite has two new imaging radiometers, including the redesigned Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and the Thematic Mapper (TM). The present investigation is concerned with an assessment of TM image quality on the basis of a study of band-to-band registration, periodic noise, and spatial resolution. In the TM images analyzed, the band-to-band registration accuracy of the instrument is very good. A few imperfections were found. Once a stable misregistration is removed, the TM should also meet its registration specifications between focal planes. Spatial resolution analyses in terms of MTF were performed in comparison modes. The forward and backward scans were shown to have virtually identical MTFs.

Wrigley, R. C.; Card, D. H.; Hlavka, C. A.; Hall, J. R.; Mertz, F. C.; Archwamety, C.; Schowengerdt, R. A.

1984-01-01

57

Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

1992-01-01

58

An Analysis LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Geometric Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT Thematic Mapper P-data of Washington, D. C., Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA are analyzed to determine magnitudes and causes of error in the geometric conformity of the data to known Earth surface geometry. Several tests of data geometry are performed. Intraband and interband correlation and registration are investigated, exclusive of map based ground truth. The magnitudes and statistical trends of pixel offsets between a single band's mirror scans (due to processing procedures) are computed, and the inter-band integrity of registration is analyzed. A line to line correlation analysis is included.

Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gokhman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

1984-01-01

59

Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectral coverage characteristics of the two thematic mapper instruments were determined by analyses of spectral measurements of the optics, filters, and detectors. The following results are presented: (1) band 2 and 3 flatness was slightly below specification, and band 7 flatness was below specification; (2) band 5 upper-band edge was higher than specifications; (3) band 2 band edges were shifted upward about 9 nm relative to nominal; and (4) band 4, 5, and 7 lower band edges were 16 to 18 nm higher then nominal.

Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

1984-01-01

60

Water productivity of different land uses in watersheds assessed from satellite imagery Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water productivity (WP) of various classes of soil usage from watersheds was estimated using the SAFER - Simple Algorithm For Evapotranspiration Retrieving - algorithm and the Monteith equation to estimate the parameters of biomass production (BIO). Monteith's equation is used to quantify the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and Actual Evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated with the SAFER algorithm. The objective of the research is to analyze the spatial-temporal water productivity in watersheds with different uses and soil occupation during the period from 1996 to 2010, in conditions of drought and using the Monteith model to estimate the production of BIO and using the SAFER model for ET. Results indicated an increase of 153.2% in ET value during the period 1997-2010, showing that the irrigated areas were responsible for this increase in ET values. In September 2000, image of day of year (DOY) 210 showed high values of BIO, with averages of 80.67 kg ha-1d-1. In the year 2010 (DOY:177), the mean value of BIO was 62.90 kg ha-1d-1, with an irrigated area with a maximum value of 227.5 kg ha-1d-1. The highest incremental values of BIO is verified from the start of irrigated areas equal to the value of ET, because there is a relationship between BIO and ET. The maximum water productivity (WP) value occurred in June/2001, with 3,08 kg m-3, the second highest value was in 2010 (DOY:177), with a value of 2,97 kg m-3. Irrigated agriculture show the highest WP value, with maximum value of 6.7 kg m-3. The lowest WP was obtained for DOY 267, because of the dry season with condition of low soil moisture.

Franco, Renato A. M.; Hernandez, Fernando B. T.; Teixeira, Antonio H. C.

2014-10-01

61

Investigating the use of Landsat thematic mapper data for estimation of forest  

E-print Network

Investigating the use of Landsat thematic mapper data for estimation of forest leaf area index at investigating the use of Landsat thematic mapper (TM) for mapping leaf area index (LAI) in coniferous, allometric equations, and litter-trap data, and empirical relationships between LAI estimates and satellite

Ardö, Jonas

62

NS001MS - Landsat-D thematic mapper band aircraft scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thematic mapper is a multispectral scanner which will be launched aboard Landsat-D in the early 1980s. Compared with previous Landsat scanners, this instrument will have an improved spatial resolution (30 m) and new spectral bands. Designated NS001MS, the scanner is designed to duplicate the thematic mapper spectral bands plus two additional bands (1.0 to 1.3 microns and 2.08 to 2.35 microns) in an aircraft scanner for evaluation and investigation prior to design and launch of the final thematic mapper. Applicable specifications used in defining the thematic mapper were retained in the NS001MS design, primarily with respect to spectral bandwidths, noise equivalent reflectance, and noise equivalent difference temperature. The technical design and operational characteristics of the multispectral scanner (with thematic mapper bands) are discussed.

Richard, R. R.; Merkel, R. F.; Meeks, G. R.

1978-01-01

63

Landsat Thematic Mapper geodetic accuracy - Implications for geocoded map compatibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geodetic accuracy and geometric fidelity of corrected thematic mapper (TM) imagery are evaluated. The positional accuracy requirements for the TM are for a single band to within 0.5 pixels of true earth-surface locations at any point over 90 percent of the image and for interband registration to within 0.3 pixel tolerance over 90 percent of the data. Landsat 4 and 5 TM data are analyzed to investigate: (1) single band geometric integrity, (2) 30 m resolution interband registration; (3) image to image conformity; (4) image to ground conformity; and (5) image projective geometry conformity to a mapped earth geometry. The procedures used to study these characteristics are described. The data reveal that Landsat TM digital data met or exceed map accuracy standards for horizontal control.

Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.; Walker, R. E.; Gokhmann, B.

1985-01-01

64

Estimating forest productivity with Thematic Mapper and biogeographical data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) on three forest exosystems (the southern Illinois, the Great Smoky Mountains regions in Tennessee and North Carolina, and the central Adirondack Mountains in New York) were used in conjunction with ground-collected measures of forest productivity and such information as the area's slope, aspect, elevation, and soil and vegetation types, to develop models of regional forest productivity. It is shown that the models developed may be used to estimate the productivity of a region with a high degree of confidence, but that the reliability of single-pixel estimates is poor. The characteristics of a given ecosystem determine which spectral values are most closely related to forest productivity. Thus, mid-IR, NIR, and visible bands are most significant in Illinois and New York, while the thermal band is relatively more important in the Smokies.

Cook, Elizabeth A.; Iverson, Louis R.; Graham, Robin L.

1989-01-01

65

Analysis of conifer forest regeneration using Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to evaluate young conifer stands in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Regression and correlation analyses were used to describe the relationships between TM band values and age of young Douglas-fir stands (2 to 35 years old). Spectral data from well regenerated Douglas-fir stands were compared to those of poorly regenerated conifer stands. TM bands 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 were inversely correlated with the age (r greater than or equal to -0.80) of well regenerated Douglas-fir stands. Overall, the 'structural index' (TM 4/5 ratio) had the highest correlation to age of Douglas-fir stands (r = 0.96). Poorly regenerated stands were spectrally distinct from well regenerated Douglas-fir stands after the stands reached an age of approximately 15 years.

Fiorella, Maria; Ripple, William J.

1995-01-01

66

Hydrological planning studies using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is evaluating the capabilities of Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for environmental and hydrological applications. Attention is given to the results of studies conducted at the Clinton River Basin in Michigan and the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. In the former, the evaluation conducted was for the band combinations: (1) 2, 3, and 4; (2) 3, 4, and 5; (3) 3, 4, 5, and 6; and (4) all seven bands. In the latter case, Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and TM data were classified for combinations (1), (3) and (4). Wetland classification accuracy for the 7-band TM data in this study was found to be 9 percent higher than with MSS data, allowing more reliable and accurate monitoring.

Gervin, J. C.; Mulligan, P. J.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

1984-01-01

67

In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values into an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels at the entrance pupil of the TM in four of the TM spectral bands are determined. These levels are compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration is extended to all 16 detectors in each of the three bands.

Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, D.; Savage, R. K.

1984-07-01

68

Contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data to geologic exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increased number of carefully selected narrow spectral bands and the increased spatial resolution of thematic mapper data over previously available satellite data contribute greatly to geologic exploration, both by providing spectral information that permits lithologic differentiation and recognition of alteration and spatial information that reveals structure. As vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases relative to the value of the spatial component of the data. However, even in vegetated areas, the greater spectral breadth and discrimination of TM data permits improved recognition and mapping of spatial elements of the terrain. As our understanding of the spectral manifestations of the responses of soils and vegetation to unusual chemical environments increases, the value of spectral components of TM data to exploration will greatly improve in covered areas.

Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

1983-01-01

69

Classification of corn and soybeans using multitemporal Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multitemporal classification approach based on the greenness profile derived from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral bands has proved successful in effectively separating and identifying corn, soybean, and other ground cover classes. Features derived from these profiles have been shown to carry virtually all the information contained in the original data and, in addition, have been shown to be stable over a large geographic area of the United States. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the same features derived from multitemporal Thematic Mapper (TM) data would also prove effective in separating these two crop types, and, in fact, if algorithms developed for MSS could be directly applied to TM. It is shown that this is indeed the case. In addition, because of greater spatial and spectral resolution, the accuracy of TM classifications is better than in MSS.

Badhwar, G. D.

1984-01-01

70

Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT thematic mapper sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data collected on the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-4 backup thematic mapper instruments, the protoflight (TM/PF) and flight (TM/F) models, respectively, are presented and analyzed. Tests were conducted on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with two sets of spectral specifications: band-by-band spectral coverage and channel-by-channel within-band spectral matching. Spectral coverage specifications were placed on: (1) band edges--points at 50% of peak response, (2) band edge slopes--steepness of rise and fall-off of response, (3) spectral flatness--evenness of response between edges, and (4) spurious system response--ratio of out-of-band response to in-band response. Compliance with the spectral coverage specifications was determined by analysis of spectral measurements on the individual components contributing to the overall spectral response: filters, detectors, and optical surfaces.

Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

1983-01-01

71

Analysis of forest structure using thematic mapper simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure information has been explored by principal components and feature selection techniques. In a survey of forest structural properties conducted for 123 field sites of the Sequoia National Park, the canopy closure could be well estimated (r = 0.62 to 0.69) by a variety of channel bands and band ratios, without reference to the forest type. Estimation of the basal area was less successful (r = 0.51 or less) on the average, but could be improved for certain forest types when data were stratified by floristic composition. To achieve such a stratification, individual sites were ordinated by a detrended correspondence analysis based on the canopy of dominant species. The analysis of forest structure in the Sequoia data suggests that total basal area can be best predicted in stands of lower density, and in younger even-aged managed stands.

Peterson, D. L.; Westman, W. E.; Brass, J. A.; Stephenson, N. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Spanner, M. A.

1986-01-01

72

APPLICATION OF MULTI-DATE LANDSAT 5 TIM IMAGERY FOR WETLAND IDENTIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery was evaluated for the identification and monitoring of potential jurisdictional wetlands located in the states of Maryland and Delaware. A wetland map prepared from single-date TM imagery was compared to a hybrid map develope...

73

The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was acquired over central California in August, 1983 and used to simulate Thematic Mapper data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field center pixels) showed better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

1984-01-01

74

Thematic Mapper simulator research for forest resource mapping in the Clearwater National Forest, Idaho  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Per-pixel maximum likelihood digital classification and photo interpretation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) composited images for a managed conifer forest were used to evaluate both land cover and forest structure characteristics. TMS channels 4, 7, 5 and 3, which were found to be optimal for forest vegetation analysis, used the full range of the Thematic Mapper's spectral capability. Photo interpretation results indicate that a false color composite from TMS channels 4, 7, and 2 provided the highest accuracies; the combination of improved spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of the Thematic Mapper yielded greater sensitivity to forest structural characteristics.

Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.; Spanner, M. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ulliman, J. J.; Brockhaus, J.

1984-01-01

75

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Images of the Andes as a Classroom Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the use of Thematic Mapper images in undergraduate geology instruction. The work of the Andes Project at Cornell University is discussed. Digitally enhanced illustrations of landforms in the Andes mountains of South America are provided. (CW)

Bloom, Arthur L.; Fox, Andrew N.

1990-01-01

76

LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 3, Part 2: Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper is discussed as well as the atmospheric, radiometric, and geometric accuracy and correction of data obtained with this sensor. Methods are given for assessing TM band to band registration.

Barker, J. L. (editor)

1985-01-01

77

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part G: Miscellaneous system data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Functional and design data from various thematic mapper subsystems are presented. Coarse focus, modulation transfer function, and shim requirements are addressed along with spectral matching and spatial coverage tests.

1982-01-01

78

Systematic and random variations in digital Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiance recorded by any remote sensing instrument will contain noise which will consist of both systematic and random variations. Systematic variations may be due to sun-target-sensor geometry, atmospheric conditions, and the interaction of the spectral characteristics of the sensor with those of upwelling radiance. Random variations in the data may be caused by variations in the nature and in the heterogeneity of the ground cover, by variations in atmospheric transmission, and by the interaction of these variations with the sensing device. It is important to be aware of the extent of random and systematic errors in recorded radiance data across ostensibly uniform ground areas in order to assess the impact on quantative image analysis procedures for both the single date and the multidate cases. It is the intention here to examine the systematic and the random variations in digital radiance data recorded in each band by the thematic mapper over crop areas which are ostensibly uniform and which are free from visible cloud.

Duggin, M. J. (principal investigator); Sakhavat, H.

1985-01-01

79

A Preliminary Assessment of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a preliminary assessment of both raw and NASA processed Thematic Mapper (TM) data are discussed. Geometric correction of NASA processed TM data was carried out. Correction was possible to within 3 pixels in the along track direction and 2 pixels in the across track direction. A preliminary evaluation of TM imagery provided by the NASA LANDSAT Assessmemt System for geometric accuracy and map information content was performed on samples of imagery. The initial indications were that bands 3, 5 and 7 contain the most useful cartographic information. The resolution of rural and urban detail as well as the fit to plotted map detail was found to be improved over LANDSAT MSS, and such images may provide adequate revision information for 1:250,000 maps in areas where it is not currently profitable to use LANDSAT MSS. The relative gains and offsets for each detector in each band of raw data were calculated in a study of the radiometric correction of TM data. This was done for different subscenes as well as a full scene and the variation of the results with direction of scan and position of subscene were studied.

Goodenough, D. G.; Fleming, E. A.; Dickinson, K.

1984-01-01

80

A Preliminary Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Radiometric Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis was performed to characterize the radiometry of three Thematic Mapper (TM) digital products of a scene of Arkansas. The three digital products examined were the NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product. The frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band were examined on a series of image subsets from the full scene. The results are presented from one 1024 x 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. Bands 1, 2 and 5 of the sample area are presented. The subsets were extracted from the three digital data products to cover the same geographic area. This analysis provides the first step towards a full appraisal of the TM radiometry being performed as part of the ESA/CEC contribution to the NASA/LIDQA program.

Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

1984-01-01

81

An analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper geometric properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data of Washington, DC, Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine geometric integrity and conformity of the data to known earth surface geometry. Several tests were performed. Intraband correlation and interband registration were investigated. No problems were observed in the intraband analysis, and aside from indications of slight misregistration between bands of the primary versus bands of the secondary focal planes, interband registration was well within the specified tolerances. A substantial number of ground control points were found and used to check the images' conformity to the Space Oblique Mercator (SOM) projection of their respective areas. The means of the residual offsets, which included nonprocessing related measurement errors, were close to the one pixel level in the two scenes examined. The Harrisburg scene residual mean was 28.38 m (0.95 pixels) with a standard deviation of 19.82 m (0.66 pixels), while the mean and standard deviation for the Salton Sea scene were 40.46 (1.35 pixels) and 30.57 m (1.02 pixels), respectively. Overall, the data were judged to be a high geometric quality with errors close to those targeted by the TM sensor design specifications.

Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gohkman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

1984-01-01

82

Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts’ ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater models to evaluate economic feasibility for various crop rotations systems and irrigation management practices. In this study, we used a novel approach to derive an irrigated area map covering a 4-county area (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties) in the northwest region of the Texas High Plains from a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on August 13, 2008. The spectral band ratios and vegetation indices were used to define threshold value for the irrigated pixels. The hierarchical rule-based decision tree classification algorithm was employed to delineate final irrigated class. Ground truth data collected for accuracy assessment included land cover type, irrigation practices and their geographic locations using a global positioning system. Accuracy assessment of the irrigated area map indicated that we achieved an overall mapping accuracy of 96% with omission and commission errors at 9% and 8%, respectively, which are mainly due to clouds and shadows of clouds. Irrigated acreages of summer crops derived from the TM image closely matched with that from agricultural statistical reports for the 4-county area. At present, a spring image is being processed to identify irrigated area planted with winter wheat in the study area. The combined irrigated area map will be used in the comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes.

Biradar, C. M.; Gowda, P. H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Xiao, X.

2009-12-01

83

Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reduction of the data measured on July 8, 1984 at White Sands, New Mexico is summarized. The radiance incident at the entrance pupil of the LANDSAT 5 sensors have been computed for bands 1 to 4. When these are compared to the digital counts of the TM image, the ground based calibration for this sensor will be given. The image was received from Goddard SFC and is presently being analyzed.

Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (principal investigators)

1984-01-01

84

A Concept for the Processing and Display of Thematic Mapper Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thematic mapper system provides spectral information in seven carefully selected spectral bands. The challenge is to devise the best approach for presenting this complex spectral information in a pictorial format which can be understood and accepted as a standard by the growing user community. For photointerpretation purposes, the overall approach in the processing of multispectral, and especially of Thematic Mapper data is based on the Independent definition and optimization of individual panchromatic and spectral (interpretive) components and the combined display of these individual interpretive components in a perceivable manner. Processing of the Thematic Mapper data within the framework of interpretive components requires the application of special intensity, hue, saturation (IHS) and synthetic stereo (SST) display techniques. The results to date using these techniques demonstrate improved visual separability of spectral surface categories relative to standard multispectral color composites as well as a greater potential for conducting meaningful spectral-diagnostic analysis.

Haydn, R.

1985-01-01

85

Use of TMS/TM data for mapping of forest decline damage in the northeastern United States. [Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Thematic Mapper (TM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing systems were used to monitor forest decline damage suspected of being due to air pollution. Field activities and aircraft overflights were centered on montane spruce/fir forest sites. Using aircraft data acquired with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) during the growing season, extensive areas of forest decline damage were accurately mapped. Seven levels of decline damage are discrininated and mapped and the levels of discriminated damage agree well (rsq-0.94) with visual assessment conducted on the ground. New areas of high damage were discovered. A band ratio (TM5/TM4) is most useful in discriminating and quantifying the various levels of forest decline damage.

Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.

1986-01-01

86

The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was used to simulate TM data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field-center pixels) show better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

1984-01-01

87

Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 2: Sensor system study. [thematic mapper for earth resources application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.

1974-01-01

88

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 31 March 1983, the University of Delaware's Center for Remote Sensing initiated a study to evaluate the spatial, radiometric and spectral performance of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper for coastal and estuarine studies. The investigation was supported by Contract NAS5-27580 from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The research was divided into three major subprojects: (1) a comparison of LANDSAT TM to MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay; (2) remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation - a radiative transfer approach; and (3) remote sensing of coastal wetland biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands.

Klemas, V.; Ackleson, S. G.; Hardisky, M. A.

1985-01-01

89

A quantitative applications-oriented evaluation of Thematic Mapper design specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulated Thematic Mapper data sets were created from aircraft Multispectral Scanner data in order to predict the sensitivity of applications-oriented classification results to variations in selected sensor parameters. It was found that band-to-band misregistration as little as 0.3 pixel can have a pronounced effect on the classification of both field-center pixels and pixels associated with edges and small objects in the scene. It was also determined that a significant improvement in classification accuracy could be achieved if the resolution of the thermal band of the Thematic Mapper were comparable to the resolution of its other spectral bands.

Swain, P. H.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Jobusch, C. D.

1982-01-01

90

Detection and Classification of Muskox Habitat on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using Landsat Thematic Mapper data for mapping muskox summer habitat was tested on northern Banks Island, Northwest Territories. Digital image enhancement and classification techniques were examined to determine if summer foraging habitats could be detected and mapped using Thematic Mapper imagery. Interpretations of the Satellite data were verified in the field during the summers of 1988 and

ROBERT S. FERGUSON

1991-01-01

91

Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

2004-01-01

92

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part B: Subsystem data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summarized performance data are presented for the following major subsystems of the thematic mapper: the focal plane assembly, the radiative cooler, the radiative cooler door assembly, the top optical assembly, and the telescope assembly. Reference lists of the configurations status and of nonconforming material reports, failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

1982-01-01

93

APPLICATIONS OF RESOURCE SELECTION MODELING USING UNCLASSIFIED LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are often used for generating predictor variables for wildlife or plant resource selection models, and in producing maps of subsequent predicted values from the resulting models. Land cover class is often used as a possible covariate, if a land cover map derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper or other imagery is available for the study area of

WALLACE P. ERICKSON; RYAN NIELSON; ROBERT SKINNER; BEVERLY SKINNER; E. Tudor

94

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part C: Power supply data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acceptance test data package for the thematic mapper flight model power supply was reviewed and the data compared to the relevant specification. The power supply was found to be within specification. Final test data for outut voltage regulation and ripple, efficiency, over and undervoltage protection, telemetry, impedances, turn-on requirements, and input current limits are presented.

1982-01-01

95

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part C: System data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Failure reports for flight model-1 of the thematic mapper are summarized showing the symptom and cause of failure as well as the corrective action taken. Each report is keyed to the major subsystem against which the failure occurred. Requests for deviation/waiver are listed by number, description, and current status. Copies of engineering proposals are included.

1982-01-01

96

Information content of data from the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous data acquisition by the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper and the multispectral scanner permits the comparison of the two types of image data with respect to engineering performance and data applications. Progress in the evaluation of information content of matching scenes in agricultural areas is briefly reported.

Price, J. C.

1983-01-01

97

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part E: Electronics module data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests to verify the as-designed performance of all circuits within the thematic mapper electronics module unit are described. Specifically, the tests involved the evaluation of the scan line corrector driver, shutter drivers function, cal lamp controller function, post amplifier function, command decoder verification unit, and the temperature and actuator controllers function.

1982-01-01

98

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part A: System data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of vibration, acoustical noise, and thermal vacuum are described as well as tests studies of EMI/EMC and mass properties conducted for thematic mapper systems integration. Liens are summarized and the engineering change proposal status is presented. Requests for deviation/waiver are included along with failure and nonforming material reports.

1982-01-01

99

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part B: System data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures and results are presented for performance and systems integration tests of flight model-1 thematic mapper. Aspects considered cover electronic module integration, radiometric calibration, spectral matching, spatial coverage, radiometric calibration of the calibrator, coherent noise, dynamic square wave response, band to band registration, geometric accuracy, and self induced vibration. Thermal vacuum tests, EMI/EMS, and mass properties are included. Liens are summarized.

1982-01-01

100

LAND COVER MAPPING IN AN AGRICULTURAL SETTING USING MULTISEASONAL THEMATIC MAPPER DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

A multiseasonal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data set consisting of five image dates from a single year was used to characterize agricultural and related land cover in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon. Image registration was accomplished using an automated grou...

101

Comparing bright-target surface spectral-reflectance estimates obtained from IRS P6 LISS III to those obtained from Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2008 there have been a limited number of Landsat 5 thematic mapper (TM) images acquired between April and October in Australia. Consequently, TM imagery may not be available at the desired time of year for some monitoring applications. IRS (Indian Remote Sensing) P6 LISS (Linear Imaging and Self Scanner) III imagery has been acquired over Australia since 2008 and

T. K. Gill; T. Danaher; S. S. Gillingham; R. M. Mitchell

2012-01-01

102

Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

1986-01-01

103

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral thematic mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main emphasis of the research was to determine what effect different wetland plant canopies would have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. Biomass estimates computed from spectral data were most similar to biomass estimates determined from harvest data when models developed for a specific canopy were used. In other words, the spectral biomass estimate of a broadleaf canopy was most similar to the harvest biomass estimate when a broadleaf canopy radiance model was used. Work is continuing to more precisely determine regression coefficients for each canopy type and to model the change in the coefficients with various combinations of canopy types. Researchers suspect that textural and spatial considerations can be used to identify canopy types and improve biomass estimates from Thematic Mapper data.

Klemas, V.

1985-01-01

104

Analysis of thematic mapper simulator data collected over eastern North Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the analysis of aircraft-acquired thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data, collected to investigate the utility of thematic mapper data in crop area and land cover estimates, are discussed. Results of the analysis indicate that the seven-channel TMS data are capable of delineating the 13 crop types included in the study to an overall pixel classification accuracy of 80.97% correct, with relative efficiencies for four crop types examined between 1.62 and 26.61. Both supervised and unsupervised spectral signature development techniques were evaluated. The unsupervised methods proved to be inferior (based on analysis of variance) for the majority of crop types considered. Given the ground truth data set used for spectral signature development as well as evaluation of performance, it is possible to demonstrate which signature development technique would produce the highest percent correct classification for each crop type.

Anderson, J. E. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

105

Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data.

Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

1988-01-01

106

Thematic mapper protoflight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part A: Multiplexer data, book 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the final performance tests of the thematic mapper flight model multiplexer at ambient temperature are presented. Results cover the power supply, the input buffer, and the A/D threshold for bands 1 through 4.

1982-01-01

107

Leaf water stress detection utilizing thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 in soybean plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliar water stress in a mature soybean canopy, manifested as wilt rather than as a reflectance shift, was studied using reflectance measurements for Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.63-0.69 ?m), 4 (0.76-0.90 ?m) and 5 (1.55-1.75?m). Diffuse and total reflectances were determined using polarization measurements and compared statistically at a variety of look angles at 15min intervals from about 09.00 until

BRENT N. HOLBEN; JOHN B. SCHUTT; JAMES McMURTREY III

1983-01-01

108

GEODETIC ACCURACY OF LANDSAT 4 MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER AND THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

EROS Data Center is evaluating the geodetic accuracy of Landsat-4 data from both the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) processing systems. Geodetic accuracy is a measure of the precision of Landsat data registration to the Earth's figure. This paper describes a geodetic accuracy assessment of several MSS and TM scenes, based on the geodetic referencing information supplied on a standard Landsat 4 computer compatible tape.

Thormodsgard, June M.; DeVries, D.J.

1985-01-01

109

Study of Spectral/Radiometric Characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for Land Use Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation conducted in support of the LANDSAT 4/5 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program is discussed. Results of engineering analyses of radiometric, spatial, spectral, and geometric properties of the Thematic Mapper systems are summarized; major emphasis is placed on the radiometric analysis. Details of the analyses are presented in appendices, which contain three of the eight technical papers produced during this investigation; these three, together, describe the major activities and results of the investigation.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D. (principal investigator)

1985-01-01

110

Landsat-D thematic mapper simulation using aircraft multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation of imagery from the upcoming Landsat-D Thematic Mapper was accomplished by using selected channels of aircraft 24-channel multispectral scanner data. The purpose was to simulate Thematic Mapper 30-meter resolution imagery, to compare its spectral quality with the original aircraft MSS data, and to determine changes in thematic classification accuracy for the simulated imagery. The original resolution of approximately 7.5 meters IFOV and simulated resolution of 15, 30, and 60 meters were used to indicate the trend of spectral quality and classification accuracy. The study was based in a 6.5 square kilometer area of urban Los Angeles having a diversity of land use. The original imagery was reduced in resolution by two related methods: pixel matrix averaging, and matrix smoothing with a unity box filter, followed by matrix averaging. Thematic land use classification using training sites and a Bayesian maximum-likelihood algorithm was performed at three levels of standard deviation - 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 sigma. Plots of relative standard deviation showed that for larger training sites with a normal distribution of data, as the resolution decreased, the distribution range of density values decreased. Also, the classification accuracies for three levels of standard deviation increased as resolution decreased. However, the indication is that a point of diminishing returns had been reached, and 30 meters IFOV should be the best for multispectral classification of urban scenes.

Clark, J.; Bryant, N. A.

1977-01-01

111

Thematic Mapper laser profile resolution of Holocene Lake limit, Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The limit of Great Salt Lake's maximum expansion onto the floor of the Great Salt Lake Desert during Holocene time is marked by a break in slope which is clearly depicted in terrain models which merge Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner data and Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) laser profile data. Mean elevations of APTS-coincident TM pixels are strongly correlated with reflectance in TM Bands 5 and 7 when and where sufficient moisture contrasts among terrain components are high. TM-APTS models and field surveys place the highest Holocene standing water at an elavation of 4221 ft (1286.7 m).

Merola, John A.; Currey, Donald R.; Ridd, Merrill K.

1989-01-01

112

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect different wetland plant canopies have upon observed reflectance in Thematic Mapper bands is studied. The three major vegetation canopy types (broadleaf, gramineous and leafless) produce unique spectral responses for a similar quantity of live biomass. The spectral biomass estimate of a broadleaf canopy is most similar to the harvest biomass estimate when a broadleaf canopy radiance model is used. All major wetland vegetation species can be identified through TM imagery. Simple regression models are developed equating the vegetation index and the infrared index with biomass. The spectral radiance index largely agreed with harvest biomass estimates.

Klemas, V. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

113

Comparison of existing digital image analysis systems for the analysis of Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most existing image analysis systems were designed with the Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner in mind, leaving open the question of whether or not these systems could adequately process Thematic Mapper data. In this report, both hardware and software systems have been evaluated for compatibility with TM data. Lack of spectral analysis capability was not found to be a problem, though techniques for spatial filtering and texture varied. Computer processing speed and data storage of currently existing mini-computer based systems may be less than adequate. Upgrading to more powerful hardware may be required for many TM applications.

Likens, W. C.; Wrigley, R. C.

1984-01-01

114

Development of thematic mapper vegetative indices for assessing biomass in corn, soybeans and wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral transformations that utilize thematic mapper (TM) bands were found to be highly related to various agronomic parameters such as leaf area index, percent ground cover, total fresh biomass, and plant moisture for corn, soybeans, and wheat. It was found that different spectral transformations are necessary in order to obtain the maximum predictability for each agronomic variable. The TM bands in the water absorption region (1.55 micrometers to 1.75 micrometer and 2.08 micrometer 2.35 micrometer) appear to provide information concerning the water condition of the canopy.

Gardner, B. R.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Blad, B. L. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

115

Feature selection and the information content of Thematic Mapper simulator data for forest structural assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is made of the information content of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the case of a forested region, in order to determine the sensitivity of such data to forest crown closure and tree size class. Principal components analysis and Monte Carlo simulation indicated that channels 4, 7, 5 and 3 were optimal for four-channel forest structure analysis. As the number of channels supplied to the Monte Carlo feature selection routine increased, classification accuracy increased. The greatest sensitivity to the forest structural parameters, which included succession within clearcuts as well as crown closure and size class, was obtained from the 7-channel TMS data.

Spanner, M. A.; Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.

1984-01-01

116

Geologic results of the TMS survey over Mt. Emmons, Colorado. [Thematic Mapper Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1981, NASA conducted with an American company a cooperative study, involving the use of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data. The study was concerned with an area near Crested Butte, Colorado, which contains a known, but unmined, major molybdenum deposit. Detailed ground observations in the Mt. Emmons area demonstrated that the imagery was extremely effective for detection of geologically significant features. The imagery specifically delineated areas of ferric iron staining, seritization, and hornfelized rock. Attention is given to data acquisition and data processing, field work in 1982 and in 1983, the integration of gravity data, and costs.

Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

1985-01-01

117

Atmospheric modeling related to Thematic Mapper scan geometry. [atmospheric effects on satellite-borne photography of LANDSAT D  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation study was carried out to characterize atmospheric effects in LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper data. In particular, the objective was to determine if any differences would result from using a linear vs. a conical scanning geometry. Insight also was gained about the overall effect of the atmosphere on Thematic Mapper signals, together with the effects of time of day. An added analysis was made of the geometric potential for direct specular reflections (sun glint). The ERIM multispectral system simulation model was used to compute inband Thematic Mapper radiances, taking into account sensor, atmospheric, and surface characteristics. Separate analyses were carried out for the thermal band and seven bands defined in the reflective spectral region. Reflective-region radiances were computed for 40 deg N, 0 deg, and 40 deg S latitudes; June, Mar., and Dec. days; and 9:30 and 11:00 AM solar times for both linear and conical scan modes. Also, accurate simulations of solar and viewing geometries throughout Thematic Mapper orbits were made. It is shown that the atmosphere plays an important role in determining Thematic Mapper radiances, with atmospheric path radiance being the major component of total radiances for short wavelengths and decreasing in importance as wavelength increases. Path radiance is shown to depend heavily on the direct radiation scattering angle and on haze content. Scan-angle-dependent variations were shown to be substantial, especially for the short-wavelength bands.

Malila, W. A.; Gleason, J. M.; Cicone, R. C.

1976-01-01

118

Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

Price, Kevin Paul

1987-01-01

119

Landsat D Thematic Mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To characterize and quantify the performance of the Landsat thematic mapper (TM), techniques for dimensionality reduction by linear transformation have been studied and evaluated and the accuracy of the correction of geometric errors in TM images analyzed. Theoretical evaluations and comparisons for existing methods for the design of linear transformation for dimensionality reduction are presented. These methods include the discrete Karhunen Loeve (KL) expansion, Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA), Thematic Mapper (TM)-Tasseled Cap Linear Transformation and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). A unified approach to these design problems is presented in which each method involves optimizing an objective function with respect to the linear transformation matrix. From these studies, four modified methods are proposed. They are referred to as the Space Variant Linear Transformation, the KL Transform-MDA hybrid method, and the First and Second Version of the Weighted MDA method. The modifications involve the assignment of weights to classes to achieve improvements in the class conditional probability of error for classes with high weights. Experimental evaluations of the existing and proposed methods have been performed using the six reflective bands of the TM data. It is shown that in terms of probability of classification error and the percentage of the cumulative eigenvalues, the six reflective bands of the TM data require only a three dimensional feature space. It is shown experimentally as well that for the proposed methods, the classes with high weights have improvements in class conditional probability of error estimates as expected.

Ford, G. E.

1986-01-01

120

Assessing the accuracy of Landsat Thematic Mapper classification using double sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Double sampling was used to provide a cost efficient estimate of the accuracy of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) classification map of a scene located in the Rocky Moutnain National Park, Colorado. In the first phase, 200 sample points were randomly selected to assess the accuracy between Landsat TM data and aerial photography. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic were 49.5% and 32.5%, respectively. In the second phase, 25 sample points identified in the first phase were selected using stratified random sampling and located in the field. This information was used to correct for misclassification errors associated with the first phase samples. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic increased to 59.6% and 45.6%, respectively.Double sampling was used to provide a cost efficient estimate of the accuracy of a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) classification map of a scene located in the Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. In the first phase, 200 sample points were randomly selected to assess the accuracy between Landsat TM data and aerial photography. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic were 49.5 per cent and 32.5 per cent, respectively. In the second phase, 25 sample points identified in the first phase were selected using stratified random sampling and located in the field. This information was used to correct for misclassification errors associated with the first phase samples. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic increased to 59.6 per cent and 45.6 per cent, respectively.

Kalkhan, M.A.; Reich, R.M.; Stohlgren, T.J.

1998-01-01

121

Landsat thematic mapper (TM) soil variability analysis over Webster County, Iowa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data acquired June 7, June 23, and July 31, 1982, and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data acquired August 2, September 3, and October 21, 1982, over Webster County, Iowa, were examined for within-field soil effects on corn and soybean spectral signatures. It was found that patterns displayed on various computer-generated map products were in close agreement with the detailed soil survey of the area. The difference in spectral values appears to be due to a combination of subtle soil properties and crop growth patterns resulting from the different soil properties. Bands 4 (0.76-.90 micron), 5 (1.55-1.75 micron), and 7 (2.08-2.35 micron) were found to be responding to the within-field soil variability even with increasing ground cover. While these results are preliminary, they do indicate that the soil influence on the vegetation is being detected by TM and should provide improved information relating to crop and soil properties.

Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Pitts, D. E.

1984-01-01

122

Revised Landsat-5 TM Radiometrie Calibration Procedures and Postcalibration Dynamic Ranges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective May 5, 2003, Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) will be radiometrically calibrated using a new procedure and revised calibration parameters. This change will improve absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Users will need to use new parameters to convert the calibrated data products to radiance. The new procedure for the reflective bands (1-5,7) is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration curve for the instrument derived from the instrument's internal calibrator, cross-calibration with the ETM+, and vicarious measurements. The thermal band will continue to be calibrated using the internal calibrator. Further updates to improve the relative detector-to-detector calibration and thermal band calibration are being investigated, as is the calibration of the Landsat-4 (L4) TM.

Chander, G.; Markham, B.

2003-01-01

123

Use of Landsat thematic mapper images in regional correlation of syntectonic strata, Colorado River extensional corridor, California and Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilizes enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images in concert with field work to solve problems in regional correlation of Miocene rocks in the Colorado River extensional corridor of California and Arizona. These syntectonic volcanic and sedimentary deposits preserve a dateable record of crustal extension, although regional correlation and analysis of the deposits are difficult because of the small

K. K. Beratan; R. G. Blom; R. E. Crippen; J. E. Nielson

1990-01-01

124

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part B: Scan mirror assembly data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the thematic mapper scan mirror assembly (SMA) acceptance test are presented. Documentation includes: (1) a list of the acceptance test discrepancies; (2) flight 1 SMA test data book; (3) flight 1 SMA environmental report; (4) the configuration verification index; (5) the flight 1 SMA test failure reports; (6) the flight 1 data tapes log; and (7) the requests for deviation/waivers.

1982-01-01

125

Thematic mapper protoflight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part A: Multiplexer data book 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Final performance test data for the thematic mapper flight model multiplexer are presented in tables. Aspects covered include A/D thresholds for bands 5, 6, and 7; cross talk; the thermistor; bilevel commands signal parameters; A/D threshold ambient, voltage margin low bus; serial data and bit clock parameters; and the wire check. Tests were conducted at ambient temperature.

1982-01-01

126

Land cover map of Great Britain. An automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

SciTech Connect

The Land Cover Map of Great Britain was produced using supervised maximum-likelihood classifications of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. By combining summer and winter data, classification accuracies were substantially improved over single-data analyses. The map, bosed on a 25-m grid, records 25 cover types, consisting of sea and inland water, beaches and bare ground, developed and arable land, and 18 types of semi-natural vegetation. General cover is recorded at a field-by-field scale, while key landscape features, with strong spectral signatures, show patterns down to a minimum mappable unit of 0.125 ha. Comparisons with independent ground reference data showed correspondences which varied between 67 percent and 89 percent depending on the level of detail at which comparisons were made.

Fuller, R.M.; Groom, G.B.; Jones, A.R. [Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom)

1994-05-01

127

Digital to analog conversion and visual evaluation of Thematic Mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Landsat D Image Data Quality Analysis Program, the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center (EDC) developed procedures to optimize the visual information content of Thematic Mapper data and evaluate the resulting photographic products by visual interpretation. A digital-to-analog transfer function was developed which would properly place the digital values on the most useable portion of a film response curve. Individual black-and-white transparencies generated using the resulting look-up tables were utilized in the production of color-composite images with varying band combinations. Four experienced photointerpreters ranked 2-cm-diameter (0. 75 inch) chips of selected image features of each band combination for ease of interpretability. A nonparametric rank-order test determined the significance of interpreter preference for the band combinations.

McCord, James R.; Binnie, Douglas R.; Seevers, Paul M.

1985-01-01

128

Comparison of Wyoming land cover types derived from the Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite with climate variables  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Gap Analysis Program (National Biological survey) the land cover of Wyoming was mapped into 46 classes using the Landsat Thematic Mapper Satellite. This map was subsequently analyzed using a geographic information system (GIS) to calculate the amount of each type present in the state and to characterize each of the 46 types in terms of annual precipitation, minimum and maximum mean monthly temperature, growing degree days and elevation. Simple GCM-based climate change scenarios (changes in temperature and precipitation) were examined in relation to these characterizations. Results indicate that Wyoming types occupy overlapping climatic {open_quotes}envelopes{close_quotes} and possible climate change resulting from increased greenhouse gasses could result in significant changes in the Wyoming landscape.

Driese, K.L.; Reiners, W.A. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

1995-06-01

129

An Analysis of the High Frequency Vibrations in Early Thematic Mapper Scenes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The motion of the mirrors in the thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) instruments, and the motion of other devices, such as the TDRSS antenna drive, and solar array drives onboard LANDSAT-4 cause vibrations to propagate through the spacecraft. These vibrations as well as nonlinearities in the scanning motion of the TM mirror can cause the TM detectors to point away from their nominal positions. Two computer programs, JITTER and SCDFT, were developed as part of the LANDSAT-D Assessment System (LAS), Products and Procedures Analysis (PAPA) program to evaluate the potential effect of high frequency vibrations on the final TM image. The maximum overlap and underlap which were observed for early TM scenes are well within specifications for the ground processing system. The cross scan and scan high frequency vibrations are also within the specifications cited for the flight system.

Kogut, J.; Larduinat, E.

1985-01-01

130

Radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner. [of Thematic Mapper Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absolute radiometric calibration of the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator reflective channels was examined based on laboratory tests and in-flight comparisons to ground measurements. The NS001 data are calibrated in-flight by reference to the NS001 internal integrating sphere source. This source's power supply or monitoring circuitry exhibited greater instability in-flight during 1988-1989 than in the laboratory. Extrapolating laboratory behavior to in-flight data resulted in 7-20 percent radiance errors relative to ground measurements and atmospheric modeling. Assuming constancy in the source's output between laboraotry and in-flight resulted in generally smaller errors. Upgrades to the source's power supply and monitoring circuitry in 1990 improved its in-flight stability, though in-flight ground reflectance based calibration tests have not yet been performed.

Markham, Brian L.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Gellman, David I.; Slater, Philip N.

1991-01-01

131

Mapping surface energy balance components by combining landsat thematic mapper and ground-based meteorological data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface energy balance components were evaluated by combining satellite-based spectral data with on-site measurements of solar irradiance, air temperature, wind speed, and vapor pressure. Maps of latent heat flux density (??E) and net radiant flux density (Rn) were produced using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data for three dates: 23 July 1985, 5 April 1986, and 24 June 1986. On each date, a Bowen-ratio apparatus, located in a vegetated field, was used to measure ??E and Rn at a point within the field. Estimates of ??E and Rn were also obtained using radiometers aboard an aircraft flown at 150 m above ground level. The TM-based estimates differed from the Bowen-ratio and aircraft-based estimates by less than 12 % over mature fields of cotton, wheat, and alfalfa, where ??E and Rn ranged from 400 to 700 Wm-2. ?? 1989.

Moran, M.S.; Jackson, R. D.; Raymond, L.H.; Gay, L.W.; Slater, P.N.

1989-01-01

132

Landsat Thematic Mapper observations of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing with the Landsat Thematic Mapper of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes between 18 and 27 deg S revealed, for the first time, the presence of 28 breached volcanic cones and 11 major volcanic debris avalanche deposits, several of which cover areas in excess of 100 sq km. It is concluded that such avalanche deposits are normal products of the evolution of large composite volcanoes, comparable with lava and pyroclastic flow deposits. A statistical survey of 578 composite volcanoes in the same area indicated that a majority of cones which achieve edifice heights between 2000 and 3000 m may undergo sector collapse. The paper describes morphological criteria for identifying breached composite cones and volcanic debris avalanches using orbital images.

Francis, P. W.; Wells, G. L.

1988-01-01

133

Estimating biogeochemical fluxes across sagebrush-steppe landscapes with Thematic Mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data were coupled to an ecosystem simulation model to simulate variation in nitrogen mineralization over time and space in a sagebrush steppe. This system of data inputs and calculations provides estimates of ecosystem properties including rates of biogeochemical processes over extensive and complex landscapes, and under changing management and climatic conditions. The landscape surface was divided into three sagebrush ecosystem types plus one other class consisting of nonsagebrush vegetation. This classification presented a complex mosaic of ecosystem types that shifted markedly in composition from one end of the 933-sq km study area to the other. Annual N-mineralization rates ranged from 5 to 25 kg N/ha among the three sagebrush types. The most active type comprised 42 percent of the entire area but contributed 60 percent to the nitrogen mineralization throughout the landscape.

Reiners, W. A.; Strong, L. L.; Matson, P. A.; Burke, I. C.; Ojima, D. S.

1989-01-01

134

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the thematic mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The previous characterization of scan-related low-frequency noise was confirmed and extended through analysis of reflective-band data from another nighttime acquisition. Amplitude and phase relationships of the level shifts were determined for each detector in each of free full frames. Analysis of scan-direction-related signal droop effects in nighttime data from the reflective bands was begun with encouraging initial observations. Also, an effort to characterize high-frequency noise in the reflective bands through Fourier analysis of nighttime data was initiated. Recommendations are made relative to the choice of radiometric calibration constants in the thematic mapper image processing system for the routine processing of TM data. Non-linear (piece-wise linear) calibration curves are recommended.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

135

Improved classification of small-scale urban watersheds using thematic mapper simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utility of Landsat MSS classification methods in the case of small, highly urbanized hydrological basins containing complex land-use patterns is limited, and is plagued by misclassifications due to the spectral response similarity of many dissimilar surfaces. Landsat MSS data for the Conley Creek basin near Atlanta, Georgia, have been compared to thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data obtained on the same day by aircraft. The TMS data were able to alleviate many of the recurring patterns associated with MSS data, through bandwidth optimization, an increase of the number of spectral bands to seven, and an improvement of ground resolution to 30 m. The TMS is thereby able to detect small water bodies, powerline rights-of-way, and even individual buildings.

Owe, M.; Ormsby, J. P.

1984-01-01

136

Application of thematic mapper-type data over a porphyry-molybdenum deposit in Colorado  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of thematic mapper data as a source of geologically useful information for mountainous areas of varying vegetation density. Much of the processing was done in an a priori manner without prior ground-based information. This approach resulted in a successfull mapping of the alteration associated with the Mt. Emmons molybdenum ore body as well as several other hydrothermal systems. Supervised classification produced a vegetation map at least as accurate as the mapping done for the environmental impact statement. Principal components were used to map zones of general, subtle alteration and to separate hematitically stained rock from staining associated with hydrothermal activity. Decorrelation color composites were found to be useful field mapping aids, easily delineating many lithologies and vegetation classes of interest. The factors restricting the interpretability and computer manipulation of the data are examined.

Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

1983-01-01

137

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT 5 TM data were analyzed. Effects which were found earlier and quantified in LANDSAT 4 TM data were quantified for LANDSAT-5 data as well, including: scan-direction-related signal droop and scan correlated level shifts. Coincident LANDSAT 4 and 5 fully corrected (CCT-PT) TM data were analyzed, and band-by-band relationships between the two sensors were derived in terms of both signal counts and radiance.

Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (principal investigators)

1985-01-01

138

A preliminary comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT-1 HRV multispectral data for estimating coniferous forest volume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT high-resolution visible (HRV) images of coniferous forest canopies were compared in their relationship to forest wood volume using correlation and regression analyses. Significant inverse relationships were found between softwood volume and the spectral bands from both sensors (P less than 0.01). The highest correlations were between the log of softwood volume and the near-infrared bands.

Ripple, W. J.; Wang, S.; Isaacson, D. L.; Paine, D. P.

1991-01-01

139

Using the Landsat Thematic Mapper to detect and monitor active volcanoes - An example from Lascar volcano, northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) offers a means of detecting and monitoring thermal features of active volcanoes. Using the TM, a prominent thermal anomaly has been discovered on Lascar volcano, northern Chile. Data from two short-wavelength infrared channels of the TM show that material within a 300-m-diameter pit crater was at a temperature of at least 380 C on two

P. W. Francis; D. A. Rothery

1987-01-01

140

Radiometric analysis of the longwave infrared channel of the Thematic Mapper on LANDSAT 4 and 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first objective was to evaluate the postlaunch radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) band 6 data. The second objective was to determine to what extent surface temperatures could be computed from the TM and 6 data using atmospheric propagation models. To accomplish this, ground truth data were compared to a single TM-4 band 6 data set. This comparison indicated satisfactory agreement over a narrow temperature range. The atmospheric propagation model (modified LOWTRAN 5A) was used to predict surface temperature values based on the radiance at the spacecraft. The aircraft data were calibrated using a multi-altitude profile calibration technique which had been extensively tested in previous studies. This aircraft calibration permitted measurement of surface temperatures based on the radiance reaching the aircraft. When these temperature values are evaluated, an error in the satellite's ability to predict surface temperatures can be estimated. This study indicated that by carefully accounting for various sensor calibration and atmospheric propagation effects, and expected error (1 standard deviation) in surface temperature would be 0.9 K. This assumes no error in surface emissivity and no sampling error due to target location. These results indicate that the satellite calibration is within nominal limits to within this study's ability to measure error.

Schott, John R.; Volchok, William J.; Biegel, Joseph D.

1986-01-01

141

Geobotanical information contained in Landsat Thematic Mapper images covering southern Missouri  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected in the late summer, fall, and winter of 1982 over forested bedrocks in southeastern Missouri were used in conjunction with forest surveys, field work, aerial photographs, and laboratory analyses to evaluate multispectral and seasonal information from visible and reflected IR data. The forested bedrock included granites, rhyolites, carbonates, and sandstones. High reflectance in band 4 (760-900 nm) in the summer scene corresponds to regions of xeric forest type. The fact that the xeric regions tend to develop flat-topped canopies, as opposed to irregular canopy surfaces of the wetter mesic areas, may partially control the TM response in bands 4, 5 (155-175 nm) and 7 (208-235 nm). The xeric regions correlated with soils having poor water retention capabilities, such as rhyolites and certain carbonate rocks with nonporous residum layers. An opposite relationship between xeric and mesic forest biomass was noted, if the commonly used TM band ratio 4/3 was used as a surrogate biomass measure. The high band 4 response over xeric forests gives anomalously high biomass estimates.

Green, G.; Arvidson, R.; Sultan, M.; Guinness, E.

1986-01-01

142

Data compression experiments with LANDSAT thematic mapper and Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A case study is presented where an image segmentation based compression technique is applied to LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. The compression technique, called Spatially Constrained Clustering (SCC), can be regarded as an adaptive vector quantization approach. The SCC can be applied to either single or multiple spectral bands of image data. The segmented image resulting from SCC is encoded in small rectangular blocks, with the codebook varying from block to block. Lossless compression potential (LDP) of sample TM and CZCS images are evaluated. For the TM test image, the LCP is 2.79. For the CZCS test image the LCP is 1.89, even though when only a cloud-free section of the image is considered the LCP increases to 3.48. Examples of compressed images are shown at several compression ratios ranging from 4 to 15. In the case of TM data, the compressed data are classified using the Bayes' classifier. The results show an improvement in the similarity between the classification results and ground truth when compressed data are used, thus showing that compression is, in fact, a useful first step in the analysis.

Tilton, James C.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

1989-01-01

143

Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data from Wind River basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data are limited by MSS spatial resolution (80 m or 262 ft) and bandwidth selection. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data have greatly enhanced spatial resolution (30 m or 98 ft) and TM operates in spectral bands suited to geologic interpretation. To compare the two systems, three images center over the Wind River basin of Wyoming were obtained. Two were TM images - a false color composite (FCC) and a natural color composite (NCC) - and the third was an MSS image. A systematic analysis of drainage, landforms, geologic structure, gross lithologic characteristics, lineaments, and curvilinears was performed on the three images. Drainage density and landform distinction were greatly enhanced on the TM images. Geologic features such as faults, strike and dip, folds, and lithologic characteristics are often difficult to distinguish on the MSS image but are readily apparent on the TM images. The lineament-curvilinear analysis of the MSS image showed longer but less distinct linear features. In comparison, the TM images allowed interpretation of shorter but more distinct linear elements, providing a more accurate delineation of the actual dimensions of the geologic features which these lineaments are thought to represent. An analysis of the oil production present in the study area showed 75% of the surface productive structures were delineated on the TM images, whereas only the most obvious structures were visible on the MSS image.

Geronsin, R.L.; Merry, M.C.

1984-07-01

144

Evaluation of Thematic Mapper for detecting soil properties under grassland vegetation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of Thematic Mapper data acquired November 15, 1982, over a vegetated site located in the East Texas Timberlands and Claypan area of Texas has indicated that montmorillonitic clay textured soils can be separated from soils with different textures. The difference of TM band 4 (0.76-0.90 micron) and band 7 (2.08-2.35 microns) had an agreement of 55.8 percent with the USDA soil survey for upland clay soils. This compared to 55.9-percent agreement when all six bands (excluding the thermal) were used. The disagreement occurred at the boundary lines as defined by the USDA soil survey and the spectral data. This result is considered to be fairly good, considering the difficulty in placement of soil boundaries by the soil scientist in the field. While the exact influence on the vegetation, and thus the spectral response observed by TM, is not understood at this time, it appears that TM band 7 is responding to the type of mineralogy of the soil and that soil properties important to the plant can be detected using TM.

Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

1984-01-01

145

New structural and stratigraphic insights for northwestern Pakistan from field and Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The remote Waziristan region of northwestern Pakistan includes outcrops of the India-Asia suture zone. The excellent exposure of the Waziristan ophiolite and associated sedimentary lithosomes and their inaccessibility made the use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data desirable in this study. Landsat TM data were used to create a spectral ratio image of bands 3/4, 5/4, and 7/5, displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively, and a principal component analysis image of bands 4, 5, and 7 (RGB). These images were interpreted in the context of available geologic maps, limited field work, and biostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic, and radiometric data. They were used to create a coherent geologic map of Waziristan and cross section of the area that document five tectonic units in the region and provide a new and more detailed tectonic history for the region. The lowest unit is comprised of Indian shelf sediments that were thrust under the Waziristan ophiolite. The ophiolite has been tectonically shuffled and consists of two separate tectonic units. The top thrust sheet is a nappe comprised of distal Triassic to Lower Cretaceous Neotethyan sediments that were underthrust during the Late Cretaceous by the ophiolite riding on Indian shelf strata. The uppermost unit contains unconformable Tertiary and younger strata. The thrust sheets show that the Waziristan ophiolite was obducted during Late Cretaceous time and imply that the Paleocene and Eocene deformation represents collision of India with the Kabul block and/or Asia.

Robinson, J.; Beck, R.; Gnos, E.; Vincent, R.K.

2000-01-01

146

Thematic mapper data quality and performance assessment in renewable resource/agricultural remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A "quick look" investigation of the initial LANDSAT-4, thematic mapper (TM) scene received from Goddard Space Flight Center was performed to gain early insight into the characteristics of TM data. The initial scene, containing only the first four bands of the seven bands recorded by the TM, was acquired over the Detroit, Michigan, area on July 20, 1982. It yielded abundant information for scientific investigation. A wide variety of studies were conducted to assess all aspects of TM data. They ranged from manual analyses of image products to detect obvious optical, electronic, or mechanical defects to detailed machine analyses of the digital data content for evaluation of spectral separability of vegetative/nonvegetative classes. These studies were applied to several segments extracted from the full scene. No attempt was made to perform end-to-end statistical evaluations. However, the output of these studies do identify a degree of positive performance from the TM and its potential for advancing state-of-the-art crop inventory and condition assessment technology.

Erickson, J. D.; Macdonald, R. B. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

147

Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

Price, Kevin P.

1993-01-01

148

Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objective of the project was to evaluate LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data in the context of geologic applications. This involved a quantitative assessment of the data quality including the spatial and spectral characteristics realized by the instrument. Three test sites were selected for the study: (1) Silver Bell, Arizona; (2) Death Valley, California; and (3) Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming. Conclusions include: (1) Artificial and natural targets can be used to atmospherically calibrate TM data and investigate scanner radiometry, atmospheric parameters, and construction of atmospheric Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF's), (2) No significant radiometric degradation occurs in TM data as a result of SCROUNGE processing; however, the data exhibit narrow digital number (DN) distributiosn suggesting that the configuration of the instrument is not optimal for each science applications, (30 Increased spatial resolution, 1:24,000 enlargement capability, and good geometric fidelity of TM data allow accurate photogeologic/geomorphic mapping, including relative age dating of alluvial fans, measurement of structural and bedding attitudes, and construction of such things as structural cross sections and stratigraphic columns. (4) TM bands 5 and 7 are particularly useful for geologic applications because they span a region of the spectrum not previously sampled by multispectral scanner data and are important for characterizing clay and carbonate materials.

Paylor, E. D.; Abrams, M. J.; Conel, J. E.; Kahle, A. B.; Lang, H. R.

1985-01-01

149

Extracting spectral contrast in Landsat Thematic Mapper image data using selective principal component analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A challenge encountered with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data, which includes data from size reflective spectral bands, is displaying as much information as possible in a three-image set for color compositing or digital analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the six TM bands simultaneously is often used to address this problem. However, two problems that can be encountered using the PCA method are that information of interest might be mathematically mapped to one of the unused components and that a color composite can be difficult to interpret. "Selective' PCA can be used to minimize both of these problems. The spectral contrast among several spectral regions was mapped for a northern Arizona site using Landsat TM data. Field investigations determined that most of the spectral contrast seen in this area was due to one of the following: the amount of iron and hematite in the soils and rocks, vegetation differences, standing and running water, or the presence of gypsum, which has a higher moisture retention capability than do the surrounding soils and rocks. -from Authors

Chavez, P.S., Jr.; Kwarteng, A.Y.

1989-01-01

150

Evaluation and interpretation of Thematic Mapper ratios in equations for estimating corn growth parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectance and agronomic Thematic Mapper (TM) data were analyzed to determine possible data transformations for evaluating several plant parameters of corn. Three transformation forms were used: the ratio of two TM bands, logarithms of two-band ratios, and normalized differences of two bands. Normalized differences and logarithms of two-band ratios responsed similarly in the equations for estimating the plant growth parameters evaluated in this study. Two-term equations were required to obtain the maximum predictability of percent ground cover, canopy moisture content, and total wet phytomass. Standard error of estimate values were 15-26 percent lower for two-term estimates of these parameters than for one-term estimates. The terms log(TM4/TM2) and (TM4/TM5) produced the maximum predictability for leaf area and dry green leaf weight, respectively. The middle infrared bands TM5 and TM7 are essential for maximizing predictability for all measured plant parameters except leaf area index. The estimating models were evaluated over bare soil to discriminate between equations which are statistically similar. Qualitative interpretations of the resulting prediction equations are consistent with general agronomic and remote sensing theory.

Dardner, B. R.; Blad, B. L.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.

1985-01-01

151

A Preliminary Evaluation of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data for Their Geometric and Radiometric Accuracies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some LANDSAT thematic mapper data collected over the eastern United States were analyzed for their whole scene geometric accuracy, band to band registration and radiometric accuracy. Band ratio images were created for a part of one scene in order to assess the capability of mapping geologic units with contrasting spectral properties. Systematic errors were found in the geometric accuracy of whole scenes, part of which were attributable to the film writing device used to record the images of film. Band to band registration showed that bands 1 through 4 were registered to within one pixel. Likewise, bands 5 and 7 also were registered to within one pixel. However, bands 5 and 7 were misregistered with bands 1 through 4 by 1 to 2 pixels. Band 6 was misregistered by 4 pixels to bands 1 through 4. Radiometric analysis indicated two kinds of banding, a modulo-16 stripping and an alternate light dark group of 16 scanlines. A color ratio composite image consisting of TM band ratios 3/4, 5/2, and 5/7 showed limonitic clay rich soils, limonitic clay poor soils, and nonlimonitic materials as distinctly different colors on the image.

Podwysocki, M. H.; Falcone, N.; Bender, L. U.; Jones, O. D.

1985-01-01

152

A preliminary evaluation of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data for their geometric and radiometric accuracies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some LANDSAT thematic mapper data collected over the eastern United States were analyzed for their whole scene geometric accuracy, band to band registration and radiometric accuracy. Band ratio images were created for a part of one scene in order to assess the capability of mapping geologic units with contrasting spectral properties. Systematic errors were found in the geometric accuracy of whole scenes, part of which were attributable to the film writing device used to record the images to film. Band to band registration showed that bands 1 through 4 were registered to within one pixel. Likewise, bands 5 and 7 also were registered to within one pixel. However, bands 5 and 7 were misregistered with bands 1 through 4 by 1 to 2 pixels. Band 6 was misregistered by 4 pixels to bands 1 through 4. Radiometric analysis indicated two kinds of banding, a modulo-16 stripping and an alternate light dark group of 16 scanlines. A color ratio composite image consisting of TM band ratios 3/4, 5/2, and 5/7 showed limonitic clay rich soils, limonitic clay poor soils, and nonlimonitic materials as distinctly different colors on the image.

Podwysocki, M. H.; Bender, L. U.; Falcone, N.; Jones, O. D.

1983-01-01

153

A Preliminary Assessment of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data. [Windsor, Ontario and Medicine Hat areas, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometric errors for image to map rectification of one Thematic Mapper (TM) scene of an area near Windsor, Ontario were studied. The scene had been produced on computer compatible tape by NASA and contained radiometric and system corrections for geometric distortions. The geometric properties of TM photographic imagery permitted very good fitting to map detail using simple scaling techniques to localized areas and, using simple scaling, the overall geometry remained with 500 meters or 0.4 mm at the image scale of 1:1,141,600. An affine transformation, permitting differential scaling, slightly improves the fit to about 400 meters or 0.35 mm at image scale. The imagery shows promise of having the needed additional resolution and spectral discrimination to provide map revision information in urban-rural areas where the MSS sensor is considered inadequate. The late-season prairie image, however, did not hold such promise, and judgement must be reserved until images are acquired at other seasons in this particular geographic area.

Goodenough, D. G.; Fleming, E. A.; Dickinson, K.

1985-01-01

154

Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data  

SciTech Connect

Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. Correlation analysis showed that TM Band 4 (near infrared) accounted for 78% of the variability in percent trees (r=[minus] 0.88). In multiple regression, percent trees, total soil loss, and percent total nonliving cover together accounted for nearly 70% of the variability in TM Bands 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain the apparent accelerated rate of pinyon-juniper spread in the western United States. These include removal of natural plant competition by livestock overgrazing, reduction of wildfires, climatic change, and reinvasion of sites cleared of trees by 19th century settlers.

Price, K.P. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geography)

1993-09-01

155

Preliminary evaluation of the landsat-4 thematic mapper data for mineral exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data recorded over an arid terrain were analyzed to determine the applicability of using of TM data for identifying and mapping hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Clays, micas, and other minerals bearing the OH anion in specific crystal lattice positions have absorption bands in the 2.2-??m region (TM channel 7, TM7) and commonly lack features in the 1.6-??m region (TM5). Channel ratios TM5/TM7, TM5/TM4, and TM3/TM1 were combined into a color-ratio-composite (CRC) image and used to distinguish hydrothermally altered rocks, unaltered rocks, and vegetation. These distinctions are made possible by using the TM5 and TM7, channels which are not available in the Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). Digital masking was used to eliminate ambiguities due to water and shadows. However, some ambiguities in identification resulted between altered volcanic rocks and unaltered sedimentary deposits that contained clays, carbonates, and gypsum, and between altered volcanic rocks and volcanic tuffs diagenetically altered to zeolites. However, compared to MSS data, TM data should greatly improve the ability to map hydrothermally altered rocks in arid terrains. ?? 1985.

Podwysocki, M.H.; Power, M.S.; Jones, O.D.

1985-01-01

156

Scan Angle and Detector Effects in Thematic Mapper Radiometry. [Iowa and Arkansas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of scan angle and interdetector differences on thematic mapper radiometry were analyzed. The data set used for this study consisted of computer compatible tapes (CCT's) of raw data (CCT-BT), radiometrically corrected data (CCT-AT), and geometrically corrected data (CCT-PT) for two scenes, 40049-16262 (north central Iowa) and 40037-16031 (Arkansas). Radiometric corrections currently performed were found to improve overall consistency of data, but some residual stripping remains in the corrected data due to the quantization of signal values and other effects. A new type of banding was discovered which is related to the bi-directional scanning of TM. An initial empirical model was developed for correcting this effect in band 1, but should receive additional development. The scan angle effects observed corresponded to those expected based on atmospheric considerations and scene characteristics. Low frequency scan-to-scan noise was detected in band 1, band 7, and to a lesser extent in bands 2 and 3. The band 1 detectors which exhibited this noise showed strong correlation in their variation.

Metzler, M. D.; Malila, W. A.

1985-01-01

157

Relationship of Thematic Mapper simulator data to leaf area index of temperate coniferous forests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regional relationships between remote sensing data and the leaf area index (LAI) of coniferous forests were analyzed using data acquired by an Airborne Thematic Mapper. Eighteen coniferous forest stands with a range of projected leaf area index of 0.6-16.1 were sampled from an environmental gradient in moisture and temperature across west-central Oregon. Spectral radiance measurements to account for atmospheric effects were acquired above the canopies from a radiometer mounted on a helicopter. A strong positive relationship was observed between LAI of closed canopy forest stands and the ratio of near-infrared and red spectral bands. A linear regression based on LAI explained 83 percent of the variation in the ratio of the atmospherically corrected bands. A log-linear equation fit the asymptotic characteristic of the relationship better, explaining 91 percent of the variance. The positive relationship is explained by a strong asymptotic inverse relationship between LAI and red radiation and a relatively flat response between LAI and near-infrared radiation.

Peterson, David L.; Spanner, Michael A.; Running, Steven W.; Teuber, Kurt B.

1987-01-01

158

Application of Thematic Mapper data to corn and soybean development stage estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model, utilizing direct relationship between remotely sensed spectral data and the development stage of both corn and soybeans has been proposed and published previously (Badhwar and Henderson, 1981; and Henderson and Badhwar, 1984). This model was developed using data acquired by instruments mounted on trucks over field plots of corn and soybeans as well as satellite data from Landsat. In all cases, the data was analyzed in the spectral bands equivalent to the four bands of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS). In this study the same model has been applied to corn and soybeans using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data combined with simulated TM data to provide a multitemporal data set in TM band intervals. All data (five total acquisitions) were acquired over a test site in Webster County, Iowa from June to October 1982. The use of TM data for determining development state is as accurate as with Landsat MSS and field plot data in MSS bands. The maximum deviation of 0.6 development stage for corn and 0.8 development stage for soybeans is well within the uncertainty with which a field can be estimated with procedures used by observers on the ground in 1982.

Badhwar, G. D.; Henderson, K. E.

1985-01-01

159

Leaf water stress detection utilizing thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 in soybean plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total and diffuse radiance responses of Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns), and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) to water stress in a soybean canopy are compared. Polarization measurements were used to separate the total from the diffuse reflectance; the reflectances were compared statistically at a variety of look angles at 15 min intervals from about 09.00 until 14.00 hrs EST. The results suggest that remotely sensed data collected in the photographic infrared region (TM4) are sensitive to leaf water stress in a 100 percent canopy cover of soybeans, and that TM3 is less sensitive than TM4 for detection of reversible foliar water stress. The mean values of TM5 reflectance data show similar trends to TM4. The primary implication of this study is that remote sensing of water stress in green plant canopies is possible in TM4 from ground-based observations primarily through the indirect link of leaf geometry.

Holben, B. N.; Schutt, J. B.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

1983-01-01

160

A geobotanical investigation based on linear discriminant and profile analyses of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the application of linear discriminant and profile analyses to detailed investigation of an airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) image collected over a geobotanical test site. The test site was located on the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and remote sensing data collection coincided with the onset of leaf senescence in the regional deciduous flora. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that sites overlying soil geochemical anomalies were distinguishable from background sites by the reflectance and thermal emittance of the tree canopy imaged in the airborne TMS data. The correlation of individual bands with the linear discriminant function suggested that the TMS thermal Channel 7 (10.32-12.33 microns) contributed most, while TMS Bands 2 (0.53-0.60 microns), 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), and 5 (1.53-1.73 microns) contributed somewhat more modestly to the separation of anomalous and background sites imaged by the TMS. The observed changes in canopy reflectance and thermal emittance of the deciduous flora overlying geochemically anomalous areas are consistent with the biophysical changes which are known or presumed to occur as a result of injury induced in metal-stressed vegetation.

Schwaller, Mathew R.

1987-01-01

161

Regional land cover characterization using Landsat thematic mapper data and ancillary data sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the activities of the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Interagency Consortium, an intermediate-scale land cover data set is being generated for the conterminous United States. This effort is being conducted on a region-by-region basis using U.S. Standard Federal Regions. To date, land cover data sets have been generated for Federal Regions 3 (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware) and 2 (New York and New Jersey). Classification work is currently under way in Federal Region 4 (the southeastern United States), and land cover mapping activities have been started in Federal Regions 5 (the Great Lakes region) and 1 (New England). it is anticipated that a land cover data set for the conterminous United States will be completed by the end of 1999. A standard land cover classification legend is used, which is analogous to and compatible with other classification schemes. The primary MRLC regional classification scheme contains 23 land cover classes. The primary source of data for the project is the Landsat thematic mapper (TM) sensor. For each region, TM scenes representing both leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are acquired, preprocessed, and georeferenced to MRLC specifications. Mosaicked data are clustered using unsupervised classification, and individual clusters are labeled using aerial photographs. Individual clusters that represent more than one land cover unit are split using spatial modeling with multiple ancillary spatial data layers (most notably, digital elevation model, population, land use and land cover, and wetlands information). This approach yields regional land cover information suitable for a wide array of applications, including landscape metric analyses, land management, land cover change studies, and nutrient and pesticide runoff modeling.

Vogelmann, J.E.; Sohl, T.L.; Campbell, P.V.; Shaw, D.M.

1998-01-01

162

Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust  

SciTech Connect

The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefiting hydrocarbon exploration.

Miller, J.E.

1984-04-01

163

Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust  

SciTech Connect

The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefitting hydrocarbon exploration.

Miller, J.E.

1984-04-01

164

Identification of landslides in clay terrains using Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) multispectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The slopes of the Cotswolds Escarpment in the United Kingdom are mantled by extensive landslide deposits, including both relict and active features. These landslides pose a significant threat to engineering projects and have been the focus of research into the use of airborne remote sensing data sets for landslide mapping. Due to the availability of extensive ground investigation data, a test site was chosen on the slopes of the Cotswolds Escarpment above the village of Broadway, Worcestershire, United Kingdom. Daedalus Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) imagery was subsequently acquired by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to provide high-resolution multispectral imagery of the Broadway site. This paper assesses the textural enhancement of ATM imagery as an image processing technique for landslide mapping at the Broadway site. Results of three kernel based textural measures, variance, mean euclidean distance (MEUC) and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) entropy are presented. Problems encountered during textural analysis, associated with the presence of dense woodland within the project area, are discussed and a solution using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is described. Landslide features in clay dominated terrains can be identified through textural enhancement of airborne multispectral imagery. The kernel based textural measures tested in the current study were all able to enhance areas of slope instability within ATM imagery. Additionally, results from supervised classification of the combined texture-principal component dataset show that texture based image classification can accurately classify landslide regions and that by including a Principal Component image, woodland and landslide classes can be differentiated successfully during the classification process.

Whitworth, Malcolm; Giles, David; Murphy, William

2002-01-01

165

Structural mapping and analysis of a Madagascar Precambrian shear zone using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the west coast of Madagascar has become a frontier region for petroleum exploration. Major structures in the Precambrian shield of Madagascar may have a strong control on the development of sedimentary basins, as has been documented in the Morondava basin. The 2.5-3.0+ Ga shield of Madagascar is an amphibolite- to granulite-grade metamorphic gneiss terrain, intruded by anorthosites and 550-Ma granites and pegmatites. Landsat Thematic Mapper data provides a cost-effective method for regional-scale structural mapping of this poorly known terrain. A five-component linear mixing model has been used to enhance the lithologic information in this six-band data. Lithologic component images thus produced utilize the full geologic spectral range of the data. A preliminary structural geologic map compiled from the component images has greater detail than existing maps at 1:100,000 scale, to which it has been compared. The Ankafotra-Saririaky shear zone has been identified as a north-northeast-trending, 15- to 20-km-wide region of appressed folds, attenuated layering, and subparallel faults on the western side of the shield. Two anorthosite massifs that occur within this shear zone have the structural characteristics of boudins in a ductile matrix. The shear deformed a preexisting terrain of poly-phase folding, characterized by tight folds and complex fold interference structures displayed by basins and domes on a scale of 10 km. Enhanced remote sensing data can be used to characterize the nature and mechanism of shear deformation in such zones.

Kilmer, D.S.; Duncan, I.J. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

1990-05-01

166

Intra-annual NDVI validation of the Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone of the extensive archive of moderate-resolution Earth imagery. Even after more than 24 years of service, the L5 TM is still operational. Given the longevity of the satellite, the detectors have aged and the sensor's radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters in the National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS) have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations in 2003 and 2007 have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data. This letter uses the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a metric to evaluate the radiometric calibration. The calibration change has improved absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic radiometry and will provide the basis for continued long-term studies of the Earth's land surfaces.

Chander, G.; Groeneveld, D.P.

2009-01-01

167

EVALUATION OF LOW-SUN ILLUMINATED LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR MAPPING HYDROTHERMALLY ALTERED ROCKS IN SOUTHERN NEVADA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of southern Nevada collected under conditions of low-angle solar illumination were digitally processed to identify hydroxyl-bearing minerals commonly associated with hydrothermal alteration in volcanic terrains. Digital masking procedures were used to exclude shadow areas and vegetation and thus to produce a CRC image suitable for testing the new TM bands as a means to map hydrothermally altered rocks. Field examination of a masked CRC image revealed that several different types of altered rocks displayed hues associated with spectral characteristics common to hydroxyl-bearing minerals. Several types of unaltered rocks also displayed similar hues.

Podwysocki, Melvin H.; Power, Marty S.; Salisbury, Jack; Jones, O.D.

1984-01-01

168

A preliminary comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT-1 HRV multispectral data for estimating coniferous forest volume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Satellite Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) High Resolution Visible (HRV) images of coniferous forest canopies were compared in their relationship to forest wood volume using correlation and regression analyses. Significant inverse relationships were found between softwood volume and the spectral bands from both sensors (P less than 0.01). The highest correlations were between the log of softwood volume and the near-infrared bands (HRV band 3, r = -0.89; TM band 4, r = -0.83).

Ripple, William J.; Wang, S.; Isaacson, Dennis L.; Paine, D. P.

1995-01-01

169

Statistical analysis of Thematic Mapper Simulator data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types in southwest Oregon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types based on vegetative cover characteristics is addressed in this research. A methodology for accomplishing this evaluation utilizing univariate and multivariate techniques is presented. TMS data acquired with a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral scanner were integrated with vegetation and geologic information for subsequent statistical analyses, which included a chi-square test, an analysis of variance, stepwise discriminant analysis, and Duncan's multiple range test. Results indicate that ultramafic rock types are spectrally separable from nonultramafics based on vegetative cover through the use of statistical analyses.

Morrissey, L. A.; Weinstock, K. J.; Mouat, D. A.; Card, D. H.

1984-01-01

170

Radiometric calibration of the reflective bands of NS001-Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and modular multispectral radiometers (MMR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator scanner (TMS) and several modular multispectral radiometers (MMRs) are among the primary instruments used in the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE). The NS001 has a continuously variable gain setting. Calibration of the NS001 data is influenced by drift in the dark current level of up to six counts during a mirror scan at typical gain settings. The MMR instruments are being used in their 1 deg FOV configuration on the helicopter and 15 deg FOV on the ground.

Markham, Brian L.; Wood, Frank M., Jr.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.

1988-01-01

171

Pre-Launch Noise Characterization of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM Plus)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A noise characterization of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument was performed as part of a near-real time performance assessment and health monitoring program. Perl'ormance data for the integrated Landsat-7 spacecraft and ETM+ were collected before, during, and after the spacecraft thermal vacuum testing program at the Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) facilities in Valley Forge, PA. The Landsat-7 spacecraft and ETM+ instrument were successfully launched on April 15, 1999. The spacecraft and ETM+ are now nearing the end of the on orbit engineering checkout phase, and Landsat-7 is expected to be declared operational on or about July 15, 1999. A preliminary post-launch noise characterization was performed and compared with the pre-launch characterization. In general the overall noise levels in the ETM+ are at or below the specification levels. Coherent noise is seen in most bands, but is only operationally significant when imaging in (he panchromatic band (band 8). This coherent noise has an amplitude as high as approximately 3 DN (peak-to-peak, high gain) at the Nyquist rate of 104 kHz, and causes the noise levels in panchromatic band images at times to exceed the total noise specification by up to approximately 10%. However, this 104 kHz noise is now much weaker than it was prior to the successful repair of the ETM+ power supplies that was completed in May 1998. Weak and stable coherent noise at approximately 5 kHz is seen in all bands in the prime focal plane (bands 1-4 and 8) with the prime (side A) electronics. Very strong coherent noise at approximately 20 kHz is seen in a few detectors of bands 1 and 8, but this noise is almost entirely in the turn-around region between scans when the ETM+ is not imaging the Earth. Strong coherent noise was seen in 2 detectors of band 5 during some of the pre-launch testing; however, this noise seems to be temperature dependent, and has not been seen in the current on orbit environment. Strong 91 kHz coherent noise was observed in the redundant (side B) panchromatic band data after the completion of spacecraft thermal vacuum testing. The cause of this coherent noise was identified as a failed capacitor that was replaced prior to launch, and this noise has not been seen on orbit.

Pedelty, J. A.; Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.; Seiferth, J. C.

1999-01-01

172

An evaluation of the first four LANDSAT-D thematic mapper reflective sensors for monitoring vegetation: A comparison with other satellite sensor systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first four LANDSAT-D thematic mapper sensors were evaluated and compared to: the return beam vidicon (RBV) and multispectral scanners (MSS) sensors from LANDSATS 1, 2, and 3; Colvocoresses' proposed 'operational LANDSAT' three band system; and the French SPOT three band system using simulation/intergration techniques and in situ collected spectral reflectance data. Sensors were evaluated by their ability to discriminate vegetation biomass, chlorophyll concentration, and leaf water content. The thematic mapper and SPOT bands were found to be superior in a spectral resolution context to the other three sensor systems for vegetational applications. Significant improvements are expected for most vegetational analyses from LANDSAT-D thematic mapper and SPOT imagery over MSS and RBV imagery.

Tucker, C. J.

1978-01-01

173

Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

1982-01-01

174

Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Extremadura region of western Spain, Ag, Pb, Zn, and Sn deposits occur in the pieces of late Hercynian granitic plutons and near the pluton contacts in late Proterozoic slate and metagraywacke that have been regionally metamorphosed to the green schist facies. The plutons generally are well exposed and have distinctive geomorphological expression and vegetation; poor exposures of the metasedimentary host rocks and extensive cultivation, however, make delineation of the contact aureoles difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been used to distinguish soil developed on the contact metamorphic rocks from soil formed on the stratigraphically equivalent slate-metagraywacke sequence. The mineral constituents of these soils are similar, except that muscovite is more common in the contact metamorphic soil; carbonaceous material is common in both soils. Contact metamorphic soil have lower reflectance, especially in the 1.6-micrometers wavelength region (TM 5), and weaker Al-OH, Mg-OH, and Fe3+ absorption features than do spectra of the slate-metagraywacke soil. The low-reflectance and subdued absorption features exhibited by the contact metamorphic soil spectra are attributed to the high absorption coefficient f the carbonaceous material caused by heating during emplacement of the granitic plutons. These spectral differences are evident in a TM 4/3, 4/5, 3/1 color-composite image. Initially, this image was used to outline the contact aureoles, but digital classification of the TM data was necessary for generating internally consistent maps of the distribution of the exposed contact metamorphic soil. In an August 1984, TM scene of the Caceras area, the plowed, vegetation-free fields were identified by their low TM 4/3 values. Then, ranges of TM 4/5 and 3/1 values were determine for selected plower fields within and outside the contact aureoles; TM 5 produced results similar to TM 4/5. Field evaluation, supported by X-ray diffraction and petrographic studies, confirmed the presence of more extensive aureoles than shown in published geologic maps; few misclassified areas were noted. Additional plowed fields consisting of exposed contact metamorphic soil were mapped digitally in an August 1985 TM scene. Subsequently, this approach was used to map two 1-km-wide linear zones of contact metamorphosed rock and oil in the San Nicolas-Sn-W Mine area, which is located approximated 125 km southeast of the Caceras study area. Exposures of granite in the San Nicolas area are limited to a few unaltered granitic dikes in the mine and a small exposure of unaltered pegmatite-bearing granite in a quarry about 1.5 km west of the mine. The present of coarsely crystalline biotite and beryl in the granite in the quarry and of contact metamorphosed slate up to 2.5 km from the nearest granite exposure suggest that only the apical part of a pluton is exposed in the quarry and that a larger, shallowly buried body is probably present. These results indicate that potential application of TM image analysis to mineral exploration in lithologically similar areas that are cultivated in spite of poor rock exposures.

Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

1987-01-01

175

Multi-Temporal Land Cover Analysis in the Mid-Willamette Basin, Oregon: Assessment of Riparian Forest Canopy Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 11,500 sq. mi. Willamette Basin is home to 70% of Oregon’s population and is associated with an extensive post-settlement history of land cover modification. Existing assessments estimate that between 30 and 44% of riparian zones have been subject to anthropogenic disturbances, which in turn have negatively impacted TMDL levels for temperature and sediment loading (Oregon DEQ, 2009). As such, riparian forest restoration is cited as one of the primary management objectives needed to improve habitat quality. This study involves a regional multi-temporal land cover analysis utilizing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery and supervised image classification to document changes in canopy cover (Landsat acquisition years 2000 and 2009). The rectangular study site is oriented north-south and extends from Yamhill to Eugene, occupying a 3,133 sq. mi. footprint that captures the dynamic landuse interface between urban centers, lowland riparian habitats, and Oregon Coast Range forests. Landsat 5 TM data for the study site were acquired via the USGS Global Visualization Viewer with multispectral imagery including 6 reflected bands suited for quantifying broad-scale land cover regimes, including vegetation. Classification training sites for water, forest, and agricultural land-cover categories were selected to accurately represent within-class spectral variability. A supervised classification scheme was employed to compare training signatures against the six reflective bands in each image year. A maximum likelihood algorithm was utilized to delineate land-cover classes with overlapping spectral signatures. Other processing techniques included radiometric normalization of brightness values, and derivation of NDVI and Tasseled Cap vegetative indices. Final classification accuracy was assessed by randomly assigning 100 spatially distributed point samples per class and comparing each to available ground truth. Two distinct landuse domains were delineated within the study area and separately analyzed to provide increased classification accuracy. The Oregon Coast Range domain, characterized by steeper slopes and timber management, transitions into a lower-gradient valley-agriculture subregion. Preliminary land-cover analyses reveal a 6% and 2.5% decline in canopy cover for the Coast Range and valley-agriculture domains, respectively. Results from this study have implications for monitoring riparian vegetation, which is essential for healthy streams and native fish habitats. This remote sensing survey produces regional land cover information suited for a wide spectrum of applications, including land management, landscape metric analyses and watershed planning.

Stanley, R. J.; Taylor, S. B.

2010-12-01

176

Results of 17 Independent Geopositional Accuracy Assessments of Earth Satellite Corporation's GeoCover Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery. Geopositional Accuracy Validation of Orthorectified Landsat TM Imagery: Northeast Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides results of an independent assessment of the geopositional accuracy of the Earth Satellite (EarthSat) Corporation's GeoCover, Orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over Northeast Asia. This imagery was purchased through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program.

Smith, Charles M.

2003-01-01

177

AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1997 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)  

EPA Science Inventory

High-Resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del Medio Ambiente y el Bes...

178

Comparative point-spread function calculations for the MOMS-1, Thematic Mapper and SPOT-HRV instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Point-spread functions (PSF) comparisons were made between the Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS-01), the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and the SPOT-HRV instruments, principally near Lake Nakuru, Kenya. The results, expressed in terms of the width of the point spread functions at the 50 percent power points as determined from the in-scene analysis show that the TM has a PSF equal to or narrower than the MOMS-01 instrument (50 to 55 for the TM versus 50 to 68 for the MOMS). The SPOT estimates of the PSF range from 36 to 40. When the MOMS results are adjusted for differences in edge scanning as compared to the TM and SPOT, they are nearer 40 in the 575 to 625 nm band.

Salomonson, V. V.; Nickeson, J. E.; Bodechtel, J.; Zilger, J.

1988-01-01

179

An analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper P-Product internal geometry and conformity to earth surface geometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance requirements regarding geometric accuracy have been defined in terms of end product goals, but until recently no precise details have been given concerning the conditions under which that accuracy is to be achieved. In order to achieve higher spatial and spectral resolutions, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor was designed to image in both forward and reverse mirror sweeps in two separate focal planes. Both hardware and software have been augmented and changed during the course of the Landsat TM developments to achieve improved geometric accuracy. An investigation has been conducted to determine if the TM meets the National Map Accuracy Standards for geometric accuracy at larger scales. It was found that TM imagery, in terms of geometry, has come close to, and in some cases exceeded, its stringent specifications.

Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.; Walker, R. E.; Gokhman, B.

1985-01-01

180

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of training statistics for the 30 meter resolution simulated thematic mapper MSS data was generated based on land use/land cover classes. In addition to this supervised data set, a nonsupervised multicluster block of training statistics is being defined in order to compare the classification results and evaluate the effect of the different training selection methods on classification performance. Two test data sets, defined using a stratified sampling procedure incorporating a grid system with dimensions of 50 lines by 50 columns, and another set based on an analyst supervised set of test fields were used to evaluate the classifications of the TMS data. The supervised training data set generated training statistics, and a per point Gaussian maximum likelihood classification of the 1979 TMS data was obtained. The August 1980 MSS data was radiometrically adjusted. The SAR data was redigitized and the SAR imagery was qualitatively analyzed.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

1981-01-01

181

DISCRIMINATION OF ALTERED BASALTIC ROCKS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES BY ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat Thematic Mapper image data were analyzed to determine their ability to discriminate red cone basalts from gray flow basalts and sedimentary country rocks for three volcanic fields in the southwestern United States. Analyses of all of the possible three-band combinations of the six nonthermal bands indicate that the combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 best discriminates among these materials. The color-composite image of these three bands unambiguously discriminates 89 percent of the mapped red volcanic cones in the three volcanic fields. Mineralogic and chemical analyses of collected samples indicate that discrimination is facilitated by the presence of hematite as a major mineral phase in the red cone basalts (hematite is only a minor mineral phase in the gray flow basalts and red sedimentary rocks).

Davis, Philip A.; Berlin, Graydon L.; Chavez, Pat S.

1987-01-01

182

Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

1987-01-01

183

Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Performance as Applied to Hydrocarbon Exploration. [Ontario, Canada; Cement, Oklahoma; and Death Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role data from the first three LANDSAT satellites have in geologic exploration and their current level of acceptance is reviewed and the advantages of LANDSAT 4 TM data over MSS data are discussed. Specially enhanced Thematic Mapper imager can make a very significant contribution to the oil and gas and mineral exploration industries. The TM's increased spatial resolution enables the production of larger scale imagery, which greatly increases the amount of geomorphic and structural information interpretable. TM's greater spectral resolution, combined with the smaller, more homogeneous pixels, should enable a far greater confidence in mapping lithologies and detecting geobotanical anomalies from space. The results from its applications to hydrocarbon and mineral exploration promise to bring the majority of the geologic exploration community into that final stage of acceptance and routine application of the satellite data.

Everett, J. R.; Sheffield, C.; Dykstra, J.

1985-01-01

184

An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper data for the classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Anderson, J. E.; Brannon, D. P.; Hill, C. L.

1982-01-01

185

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques. [south carolina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A literature review on radar and spectral band information was conducted and a NC-130 mission was flown carrying the NS001 scanner system which basically corresponds to the channel configuration of the proposed thematic mapper. Aerial photography and other reference data were obtained for the study site, an area approximately 290 sq miles in north central South Carolina. A cover type map was prepared and methods were devised for reformatting and geometrically correcting MSS CRT data. Arrangements were made to obtain LANDSAT data for dates approximating the NC-130 mission. Because of the waveband employed to obtain SEASAT radar data, it was decided to determine if X-band (2.40 cm to 3.75 cm wavelength) imagery is available.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

186

A statistical evaluation of the advantages of Landsat Thematic Mapper data in comparison to Multispectral Scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 16, 1982, the second decade of land remote sensing from space was inaugurated with the successful launch of Landsat-4. This satellite carries the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and a new sensor, the Thematic Mapper (TM). The TM represents the result of an effort in which all of the major improvements in remote-sensing capability were simultaneously integrated into one system. An experiment was developed and conducted to quantify the effect of each TM sensor parameter on classification accuracy. This paper discusses the experimental design and summarizes the results obtained using TM data acquired over the Washington, DC area on November 2, 1982. Attention is given to a study site/data description, the experimental design, photointerpretation and digitization, spectral simulation, radiometric simulation, and spatial simulation.

Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Markham, B. L.; Nelson, R. F.; Toll, D. L.; Latty, R. S.; Stauffer, M. L.

1984-01-01

187

Processing multi temporal Thematic Mapper data for mapping the submarine shelf of the Island Kerkennah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gulf of Gabes in Tunisia is unique among Mediterranean coastal environments by shallow water extension and tide amplitude. Kerkennah islands, located in this this gulf, are characterized by a -10 m isobath few kilometers away from the shoreline and by a lithology composition dominated by smooth rocks (sandstone and mio-plocene clay). These features, combined with a sea level rise and an active subsidence, constitute major risk factors. Islands vulnerability is increased by sebkha (salted low lands) extension which accounts now for 45% of the total area. Thus assessing the littoral sea depth change is a key issue for risk monitoring. Our study relies on the 30 years archive of Landsat 5 TM sensor managed by GSFC/NASA. The depth assessment has been carried out by an empiric method based on TM1 channel which has the better water penetration properties (up to 25 m). We focused on summer period and selected images from July 1986, August 1987, June 2003 and July 2009. After a first step of data preprocessing to ensure data homogeneity, we produced sub-aquatic morphology change maps. The observed features (submarine channels enlargement, cells sinking) are consistent with the hypothesis of the ebb tide as the process leading phenomenon.

Katlane, Rim; Berges, Jean-Claude; Beltrando, Gérard; Zargouni, Fouad

2014-05-01

188

Lithologic mapping of mafic intrusions in East Greenland using Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The East Greenland Tertiary Igneous Province contains a variety of intrusive and extrusive rock types. The Skaergaard complex is the most well known of the intrusive centers. Landsat thematic mapping (TM) was used in conjunction with field spectrometer data to map these mafic intrusions. These intrusions are of interest as possible precious metal ore deposits. They are spectrally distinct from the surrounding Precambrian gneisses. However, subpixel contamination by snow, oxide surface coatings, lichen cover and severe topography limit the discrimination of lithologic units within the gabbro. Imagery of the Skaergaard and surrounding vicinity, and image processing and enhancement techniques are presented. Student theses and other publications resulting from this work are also listed.

Naslund, H. Richard; Birnie, R. W.; Parr, J. T.

1989-01-01

189

An evaluation of simulated Thematic Mapper data and Landsat MSS data for discriminating suburban and regional land use and land cover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne multispectral scanner, operating in the same spectral channels as the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), was used in a region east of Denver, CO, for a simulation test performed in the framework of using TM to discriminate the level I and level II classes. It is noted that at the 30-m spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) the overall discrimination for such classes as commercial/industrial land, rangeland, irrigated sod, irrigated alfalfa, and irrigated pasture was superior to that of the Landsat Multispectral Scanner, primarily due to four added spectral bands. For residential and other spectrally heterogeneous classes, however, the higher resolution of TMS resulted in increased variability within the class and a larger spectral overlap.

Toll, D. L.

1984-01-01

190

Geological applications of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data and Geographic Information System (GIS): mapping and structural interpretation in south-west Iran, Zagros Structural Belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arabia-Eurasia convergence is achieved in north-west Zagros by a combination of shortening on NW-SE-trending folds and thrusts, mainly in the Zagros Structural Belt, and by right-lateral strike-slip on the NW-SE-trending Main Recent Fault. Structural patterns are often used as indicators of major features on the surface. In the present study, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data from 9 November 2002

Syed Ahmad Ali; Saied Pirasteh

2004-01-01

191

The time-space relationship of the data point (Pixels) of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner or the myth of simultaneity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified explanation of the time space relationships among scanner pixels is presented. The examples of the multispectral scanner (MSS) on Landsats 1, 2, and 3 and the thematic mapper (TM) of Landsat D are used to describe the concept and degree of nonsimultaneity of scanning system data. The time aspects of scanner data acquisition and those parts of the MSS and TM systems related to that phenomena are addressed.

Gordon, F., Jr.

1980-01-01

192

Comparison of the response of the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Earth Observing1 Advanced Land Imager over active lava flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using near simultaneously acquired Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) data we assess the relative radiant responses over active lava flows from the Mt. Etna July\\/August 2001 flank eruption. By assessing the extent of saturation between the two instruments and using the dual-band method of extracting sub pixel thermal information, we show

Stephen J. Donegan; Luke P. Flynn

2004-01-01

193

Using the Landsat Thematic Mapper to detect and monitor active volcanoes - An example from Lascar volcano, northern Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) offers a means of detecting and monitoring thermal features of active volcanoes. Using the TM, a prominent thermal anomaly has been discovered on Lascar volcano, northern Chile. Data from two short-wavelength infrared channels of the TM show that material within a 300-m-diameter pit crater was at a temperature of at least 380 C on two dates in 1985. The thermal anomaly closely resembles in size and radiant temperature the anomaly over the active lava lake at Erta'ale in Ethiopia. An eruption took place at Lascar on Sept. 16, 1986. TM data acquired on Oct. 27, 1986, revealed significant changes within the crater area. Lascar is in a much more active state than any other volcano in the central Andes, and for this reason it merits further careful monitoring. Studies show that the TM is capable of confidently identifying thermal anomalies less than 100 m in size, at temperatures of above 150 C, and thus it offers a valuable means of monitoring the conditions of active or potentially active volcanoes, particularly those in remote regions.

Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

1987-01-01

194

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supervised and cluster block training statistics were used to analyze the thematic mapper simulation MSS data (both 1979 and 1980 data sets). Cover information classes identified on SAR imagery include: hardwood, pine, mixed pine hardwood, clearcut, pasture, crops, emergent crops, bare soil, urban, and water. Preliminary analysis of the HH and HV polarized SAR data indicate a high variance associated with each information class except for water and bare soil. The large variance for most spectral classes suggests that while the means might be statistically separable, an overlap may exist between the classes which could introduce a significant classification error. The quantitative values of many cover types are much larger on the HV polarization than on the HH, thereby indicating the relative nature of the digitized data values. The mean values of the spectral classes in the areas with larger look angles are greater than the means of the same cover type in other areas having steeper look angles. Difficulty in accurately overlaying the dual polarization of the SAR data was resolved.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

1981-01-01

195

Estimating the age of deciduous forests in northeast China with Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data acquired in different phenological seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the ability of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data acquired in leaf-on and leaf-off seasons to estimate stand age of Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla in northeast China. The relationships of six band reflectances, nine vegetation indices, and six texture measures with stand age were examined. Linear and multivariable regression models and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN) were employed to estimate forest age based on these variables. The results indicate that reflectance in short-wave infrared bands and wetness are more significantly correlated with stand age in the leaf-on image, while reflectance in blue and green bands and greenness are more sensitive to stand age in leaf-off image. The MLP NN model can be effectively used to retrieve the stand age; the highest coefficient of determination and minimum root mean square error values of retrieved age are 0.47 and 21.3 years for Larix gmelinii, and 0.60 and 10.1 years for Betula platyphylla, respectively. The predicted age errors increased significantly when stand ages were >100 and >50 years for Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla, respectively. Remote sensing data acquired in the leaf-on season is more suitable for estimating forest age than that acquired in the leaf-off season over the study area.

Li, Dengqiu; Ju, Weimin; Fan, Wenyi; Gu, Zhujun

2014-01-01

196

Washburne anticline delta structure: model based on integration of thematic mapper, seismic, and well-log data  

SciTech Connect

The Washburne anticline located in western Arkansas is a prominent, thrust-related structure at the leading edge of the Ouachita orogenic belt. Previously interpreted as a complexly thrust-faulted anticline, the feature has been reinterpreted as a delta or triangle structure based on integration of surface mapping from thematic mapper (TM) data with subsurface interpretation of seismic and well-log cross sections. The northern limb of the Washburne anticline consists of a relatively unfaulted, steeply north-dipping sheet above a major north-dipping backthrust. The southern limb consists of several steeply south-dipping imbricate thrust sheets that form a duplex zone in the center of the delta structure. Seismic and well-log interpretations indicate the presence of the imbrication in the duplex zone, but poor seismic resolution within the structure made interpretation of the back thrust difficult. Surface mapping from TM imagery indicates the presence of the back thrust and the extent and geometry of the delta structure. Imbricate thrust sheets and horses also crop out, and their geometry is a guide to interpretation of subsurface data sets. The new model of the Washburne anticline as a delta structure has aided in subsurface-data analysis and has resulted in a better understanding of trap geometry and distribution. This study also demonstrates the application of detailed surface mapping from satellite remote-sensing data to prospect-scale analysis.

Dodge, R.L.; Keeling, M.L.; Cassiani, D.H.

1989-03-01

197

Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Data for Hydrologic Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed land cover classifications were performed on the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and MSS data of the Clinton River Basin (acquired on August 19, 1981, and June 28, 1980, respectively) using supervised classification techniques. Differences in interclass separability were compared to select several promising TMS band combinations, selected from the 27 covering the Clinton River Basin. The TMS data produced a more accurate and spatially contiguous classification than MSS for this study site. While the accuracy of the 4-band TM data set was as good as the 7-band, the 3-band TMS data sets were also better than the MSS. These results indicate that both the increased spectral discrimination and spatial resolution contribute to improved classification accuracy. The possibility of reducing the data analysis burden associated with large TM data volumes through effective band selection therefore appears promising. The implications of the improved classification accuracy of TMS data are important for hydrologic and economic modeling. In particular, the higher accuracies for the developed categories (residential and commercial) should improve the predictions of runoff in flood forecasting models and of flood damage for damage calculation models appreciably.

Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

1984-01-01

198

Using the Landsat Thematic Mapper to detect and monitor active volcanoes - An example from Lascar volcano, northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) offers a means of detecting and monitoring thermal features of active volcanoes. Using the TM, a prominent thermal anomaly has been discovered on Lascar volcano, northern Chile. Data from two short-wavelength infrared channels of the TM show that material within a 300-m-diameter pit crater was at a temperature of at least 380 C on two dates in 1985. The thermal anomaly closely resembles in size and radiant temperature the anomaly over the active lava lake at Erta'ale in Ethiopia. An eruption took place at Lascar on Sept. 16, 1986. TM data acquired on Oct. 27, 1986, revealed significant changes within the crater area. Lascar is in a much more active state than any other volcano in the central Andes, and for this reason it merits further careful monitoring. Studies show that the TM is capable of confidently identifying thermal anomalies less than 100 m in size, at temperatures of above 150 C, and thus it offers a valuable means of monitoring the conditions of active or potentially active volcanoes, particularly those in remote regions.

Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

1987-07-01

199

Analysis of thematic mapper simulator data acquired during winter season over Pearl River, Mississippi, test site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital processed aircraft-acquired thematic mapping simulator (TMS) data collected during the winter season over a forested site in southern Mississippi are presented to investigate the utility of TMS data for use in forest inventories and monitoring. Analyses indicated that TMS data are capable of delineating the mixed forest land cover type to an accuracy of 92.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct, respectively. The figures reflect the performance for products produced using the best subset of channels for each forest cover type. It was found that the choice of channels (subsets) has a significant effect on the accuracy of classification produced, and that the same channels are not the most desirable for all three forest types studied. Both supervised and unsupervised spectral signature development techniques are evaluated; the unsupervised methods proved unacceptable for the three forest types considered.

Anderson, J. E.; Kalcic, M. T. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

200

Paleobasin analysis and tectonic framework development of southern Zagros basin, interpreted from Landsat 4 thematic mapper image  

SciTech Connect

Detailed lineament maps produced with the digitally enhanced Landsat 4 thematic mapper in conjunction with field data provide new information on structural relations to the southern Zagros basin. Three major parallel lineaments are from north to south, Qatar-Kazern, Razak, and Oman. These lineaments trend approximately N17/sup 0/E and subdivide the Zagros basin into northern, central, and southern segments. The study area is enclosed by the Razak and Oman lineaments. Piercement salt domes (Precambrian salt) are abundant within the southern Zagros basin, absent east of the Oman lineament, and scarce in the area west of the Razak lineament. This salt dome distribution and the N17/sup 0/E trend suggest that these lineaments are surface manifestations of boundaries of basement crustal blocks that have been reactivated periodically since the Precambrian. The northern extension of this Precambrian basin is marked by salt domes (Precambrian salt) along the Oman lineament, located in the Kerman region 400 km north of Minab. Along the eastern boundary, at the juncture of the southern Zagros basin and western Makran Ranges, the trend of fold axes changes from east-west to north-south. The western basin boundary is characterized by a gradual change in the trend of the fold axis from east-west to northwest-southeast. This study provides useful information for subsurface interpretations, which will benefit hydrocarbon exploration. The Razak and Oman lineaments enclose a highly productive area, and separate the southern Zagros basin from less productive areas to the west and from a nonproductive region to the east where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that lineaments may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of the southern Zagros basin.

Iranpanah, A.

1986-05-01

201

BIA interpretation techniques for vegetation mapping using thematic mapper false color composites (interim report for San Carlos Reservation)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is responsible for the natural resource management of approximately 52 million acres of Trust lands in the contiguous United States. The lands are distributed in a "patchwork" fashion throughout the country. Management responsibilities on these areas include: minerals, range, timber, fish and wildlife, agricultural, cultural, and archaeological resources. In an age of decreasing natural resources and increasing natural resource values, effective multiple resource management is critical. BIA has adopted a "systems approach" to natural resource management which utilizes Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. The GIS encompasses a continuum of spatial and relational data elements, and included functional capabilities such as: data collection, data entry, data base development, data analysis, data base management, display, and report generalization. In support of database development activities, BIA and BLM/TGS conducted a cooperative effort to investigate the potential of 1:100,000 scale Thematic Mapper (TM) False Color Composites (FCCs) for providing vegetation information suitable for input to the GIS and to later be incorporated as a generalized Bureau wide land cover map. Land cover information is critical as the majority of reservations currently have no land cover information in either map or digital form. This poster outlines an approach which includes the manual interpretation of land cover using TM FCCs, the digitizing of interpreted polygons, and the editing of digital data, used upon ground truthing exercises. An efficient and cost-effective methodology for generating large area land cover information is illustrated for the Mineral Strip area on the San Carlos Indian Reservation in Arizona. Techniques which capitalize on the knowledge of the local natural resources professionals, while minimizing machine processing requirements, are suggested.

Bonner, W.J.; English, T.C.; Haas, R.H.; Feagan, T.R.; McKinley, R.A.

1987-01-01

202

Utilizing remote sensing of Thematic Mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT thematic mapper (TM) data are being used to refine and validate a stochastic spatial computer model to be applied to coastal resource management problems in Louisiana. Two major aspects of the research are: (1) the measurement of area of land (or emergent vegetation) and water and the length of the interface between land and water in TM imagery of selected coastal wetlands (sample marshes); and (2) the comparison of spatial patterns of land and water in the sample marshes of the imagery to that in marshes simulated by a computer model. In addition to activities in these two areas, the potential use of a published autocorrelation statistic is analyzed.

Browder, J. A.; May, L. N., Jr.; Rosenthal, A.; Baumann, R. H.; Gosselink, J. G.

1986-01-01

203

Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A stochastic spatial computer model addressing coastal resource problems in Lousiana is being refined and validated using thematic mapper (TM) imagery. The TM images of brackish marsh sites were processed and data were tabulated on spatial parameters from TM images of the salt marsh sites. The Fisheries Image Processing Systems (FIPS) was used to analyze the TM scene. Activities were concentrated on improving the structure of the model and developing a structure and methodology for calibrating the model with spatial-pattern data from the TM imagery.

Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson, Jr.; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

1987-01-01

204

LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6, appendix A: Partially processed thematic mapper High Density Tape (HDT-AT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the outputs of the data management system being developed to provide a variety of standard image products from the thematic mapper and the multispectral band scanners on LANDSAT 4, is the partially processed TM data (radiometric corrections applied and geometric correction matrices for two projections appended) which is recorded on a 28-track high density tape. Specifications are presented for the format of the recorded data as well as for the time code and the major and minor frames of the tape. Major frame types, formats, and field definitions are included.

Jai, A.

1982-01-01

205

Water quality assessment with simultaneous Landsat-5 TM data at Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

This study aims at determining relationships between water quality parameters and digital data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). The study area was the Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected on two dates, coincident with Landsat passages, and when different tide conditions were present at the Bay. TM Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, band ratios 1 / 3 and 2 / 3, and principal component analysis of TM Bands 1-4 were compared with in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of water samples. Some water quality parameters were very well correlated with the digital remotely sensed data, especially during high tide: for instance, iron and manganese concentrations in total suspended solids; salinity and Secchi depth; temperature and Secchi depth; temperature and total suspended solids; total suspended solids and Bands 4 and 6; Secchi depth and Bands 4 and 6; temperature and Band 6. Lower correlation coefficients, although also significant, were found for the low tide condition. No correlation was found with chlorophyll-a concentrations. TM data were shown to be adequate to analyze temperature, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, and iron and manganese contents in the total suspended solids for the polluted estuary area studied.

Braga, C.Z.F.; Setzer, A.W. (National Inst. of Space Research, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)); Lacerda, L.D. de (Federal Fluminense Univ., Niteroi (Brazil))

1993-06-01

206

[Retrieval of leaf area index of moso bamboo forest with Landsat Thematic Mapper image based on PROSAIL canopy radiative transfer model].  

PubMed

The PROSAIL canopy radiative transfer model was used to establish leaf area index (LAI) and canopy reflectance lookup-table for Moso bamboo forest. The combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image and this model was then used to retrieve LAI. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity of the input parameters in the PROSAIL model decreased in order of LAI >chlorophyll content (C(ab)) > leaf structure parameters (N) > mean leaf angle (ALA) > equivalent water thickness (C(w)) > dry matter content (C(m)). The most sensitive factors LAI and C(ab) were then used to construct the LAI-canopy reflectance lookup-table. The LAI estimates from the PROSAIL model had good agreement with the reference data, with the coefficient of determination (R2) reached 0.90. The root mean square error (RMSE) and relative RMSE were 0.58 and 13.0%, respectively. However, the mean LAI estimate was higher than the observed value. PMID:24380345

Gu, Cheng-yan; Du, Hua-qiang; Zhou, Guo-mo; Han, Ning; Xu, Xiao-jun; Zhao, Xiao; Sun, Xiao-yan

2013-08-01

207

Distribution of Potential Hydrothermally Altered Rocks in Central Colorado Derived From Landsat Thematic Mapper Data: A Geographic Information System Data Set  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the Central Colorado Mineral Resource Assessment Project, the digital image data for four Landsat Thematic Mapper scenes covering central Colorado between Wyoming and New Mexico were acquired and band ratios were calculated after masking pixels dominated by vegetation, snow, and terrain shadows. Ratio values were visually enhanced by contrast stretching, revealing only those areas with strong responses (high ratio values). A color-ratio composite mosaic was prepared for the four scenes so that the distribution of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks could be visually evaluated. To provide a more useful input to a Geographic Information System-based mineral resource assessment, the information contained in the color-ratio composite raster image mosaic was converted to vector-based polygons after thresholding to isolate the strongest ratio responses and spatial filtering to reduce vector complexity and isolate the largest occurrences of potentially hydrothermally altered rocks.

Knepper, Daniel H.

2010-01-01

208

Comparison of Land Cover Information from LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Data for Hydrologic Applications. [Clinton River Basin, Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data produced a more accurate and spatially contiguous classification than MSS for the Clinton River Basin in Michigan. While the accuracy of the 4-band TMS data set was as good as the 7-band, the 3-band TMS data sets were also better than the MSS. The combination of bands selected based on the transformed divergence technique provided one band in each of the major regions of the spectrum: visible (band 3), near IR (band 4), middle IR (band 5) and thermal IR (band 7). These results should be viewed with some caution, since the data are from a TMS rather than the actual TM and the MSS data were obtained in early summer while the TMS was flown in late summer. The higher accuracies for the developed categories (residential and commercial) should improve the predictions of runoff in flood forecasting models and of flood damage for damage calculation models appreciably.

Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

1985-01-01

209

Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The land-water interface of coastal marshes may influence the production of estuarine-dependent fisheries more than the area of these marshes. To test this hypothesis, a spatial model was created to explore the dynamic relationship between marshland-water interface and level of disintegration in the decaying coastal marshes of Louisiana's Barataria, Terrebonne, and Timbalier basins. Calibrating the model with Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery, a parabolic relationship was found between land-water interface and marsh disintegration. Aggregated simulation data suggest that interface in the study area will soon reach its maximum and then decline. A statistically significant positive linear relationship was found between brown shrimp catch and total interface length over the past 28 years. This relationship suggests that shrimp yields will decline when interface declines, possibly beginning about 1995.

Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

1988-01-01

210

Thematic mapper research in the earth sciences: Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe River Estuary, German Bight and Tidal Flats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Thematic Mapper (TM) field experiment was followed by a data analysis to determine TM capabilities for analysis of suspended matter and phytoplankton. Factor analysis showed that suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature can be retrieved as independent factors which determine the variation in the TM data over water areas. Spectral channels in the near infrared open the possibility of determining the Angstrom exponent better than for the coastal zone color scanner. The suspended matter distribution may then be calculated by the absolute radiance of channel 2 or 3 or the ratio of both. There is no indication of whether separation of chlorophyll is possible. The distribution of suspended matter and sea surface temperature can be observed with the expected fine structure. A good correlation between water depth and suspended matter distribution as found from ship data can now be analyzed for an entire area by the synoptic view of the TM scenes.

Grassl, H.; Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Brockmann, C.; Stoessel, M.

1987-01-01

211

Analysis of Thematic Mapper data for studying the suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thematic Mapper data were analyzed with respect to its capability for mapping the complex structure and dynamics of suspended matter distribution in the coastal area of the German Bight (North Sea). Three independent pieces of information were found by factor analysis of all seven TM channels: suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature. For the required atmospheric correction, the signal-to-noise ratios of Channels 5 and 7 have to be improved by averaging over 25 x 25 pixels, which also makes it possible to monitor the aerosol optical depth and aerosol type over cloud-free water surfaces. Near-surface suspended matter concentrations may be detected with an accuracy of factor less than 2 by using an algorithm derived from radiative transfer model calculation. The patchiness of suspended matter and its relation to underwater topography was analyzed with autocorrelation and cross-correlation.

Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Stoessel, M.; Brockmann, C.; Grassl, H.

1989-01-01

212

Automated mapping of mineral groups and green vegetation from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery with an example from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral satellite data acquired by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM) sensors are being used to populate an online Geographic Information System (GIS) of the spatial occurrence of mineral groups and green vegetation across the western conterminous United States and Alaska. These geospatial data are supporting U.S. Geological Survey national-scale mineral deposit database development and other mineral resource and geoenvironmental research as a means of characterizing mineral exposures related to mined and unmined hydrothermally altered rocks and mine waste. This report introduces a new methodology for the automated analysis of Landsat TM data that has been applied to more than 180 scenes covering the western United States. A map of mineral groups and green vegetation produced using this new methodology that covers the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, and the Four Corners Region is presented. The map is provided as a layered GeoPDF and in GIS-ready digital format. TM data analysis results from other well-studied and mineralogically characterized areas with strong hydrothermal alteration and (or) supergene weathering of near-surface sulfide minerals are also shown and compared with results derived from ASTER data analysis.

Rockwell, Barnaby W.

2013-01-01

213

Remote detection of canopy water stress in coniferous forests using the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator and the thermal infrared multispectral scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water stress was induced in two coniferous forest stands in West Germany by severing tree sapwood. Leaf water potential, Psi(L), measurements indicated that maximum, naturally occurring levels of water stress developed in the stressed plots while control plots exhibited natural diurnal trends. Images of each site were obtained with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) 12 to 15 days after stress induction. NS001 bands 2 to 6, NS001 indices combining bands 4 and 6, and NS001 and TIMS thermal bands showed significant radiance differences between stressed and control plots when large differences in Psi(L) and relative water content (RWC) existed during the morning overflights at Munich. However, the NS001 and TIMS sensors could not detect the slightly smaller differences in Psi(L) and RWC during the Munich afternoon and Frankfurt overflights. The results suggest that routine detection of canopy water stress under operational conditions is difficult utilizing current sensor technology.

Pierce, Lars L.; Running, Steven W.; Riggs, George A.

1990-01-01

214

Evaluation of the utility of subpixel analysis of thematic mapper imagery of serious soil degradation in the Yellow River source regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black soil shoal grassland is one of serious soil degradations in the Yellow River source regions. Large area mapping and monitoring of serious soil degradation is conducted typically using aerial sketch mapping and where necessary, ground survey. Both techniques have limited utility in wilderness areas where ground access is difficult and aerial mapping is too costly. Sub-pixel processing for analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery of Black soil shoal grassland was utilized and compared with survey. The study area was on Gande County, west part of Yellow River area in Qinghai province, west of China. Three dates of imagery were acquired and processed using Imagine Sub-pixel Classification software. The results were compared with existing limited ground survey data, and then three dates of result was compared. The sub-pixel analysis method can successfully detect Black soil shoal than using custom classification technology. Sub-pixel analysis can be an effective supplement to other means of soil degradation where the geographic extent of the degradation is too large for standard aerial sketch mapping techniques and dynamic surveying in cold and arid areas. The result also showed that the serious soil degradation extended very quickly, the velocity was about 3.4 percent every year.

Zhang, Shiqiang; Lu, Jian; Liu, Shiyin; Zeng, Yongnian

2003-07-01

215

Utilizing remote sensing of thematic mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continuing disintegration of the coastal marshes of Louisiana is one of the major environmental problems of the nation. The problem of marsh loss in Louisiana is relevant to fishery management because Louisiana leads the nation in landings of fishery products, and most of the landed species are dependent upon estuaries and their associated tidal marshes. In evaluating the potential effect of marshland loss on fisheries, the first two critical factors to consider are: whether land-water interface in actual disintegrating marshes is currently increasing or decreasing, and the magnitude of the change. In the present study, LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering specific marshes in coastal Louisiana were used to test conclusions from the Browder et al (1984) model with regard to the stage in disintegration at which maximum interface occurs; to further explore the relationship between maximum interface and the pattern of distribution of land and water suggested by the model; and to determine the direction and degree of change in land-water interface in relation to land loss in actual marshes.

Browder, Joan A.; May, L. Nelson, Jr.; Rosenthal, Alan; Baumann, Robert H.; Gosselink, James G.

1988-01-01

216

Image-based terrain modeling with thematic mapper applied to resolving the limit of Holocene Lake expansion in the Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scanner records reflected solar energy from the earth's surface in six wavelength regions, or bands, and one band that records emitted energy in the thermal region, giving a total of seven bands. Useful research was extracted about terrain morphometry from remote sensing measurements and this information is used in an image-based terrain model for selected coastal geomorphic features in the Great Salt Lake Desert (GSLD). Technical developments include the incorporation of Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) data in satellite image analysis, and the production and use of 3-D surface plots of TM reflectance data. Also included in the technical developments is the analysis of the ground control point spatial distribution and its affects on geometric correction, and the terrain mapping procedure; using satellite data in a way that eliminates the need to degrade the data by resampling. The most common approach for terrain mapping with multispectral scanner data includes the techniques of pattern recognition and image classification, as opposed to direct measurement of radiance for identification of terrain features. The research approach in this investigation was based on an understanding of the characteristics of reflected light resulting from the variations in moisture and geometry related to terrain as described by the physical laws of radiative transfer. The image-based terrain model provides quantitative information about the terrain morphometry based on the physical relationship between TM data, the physical character of the GSLD, and the APTS measurements.

Merola, John A.

1989-01-01

217

Utilizing remote sensing of Thematic Mapper data to improve our understanding of estuarine processes and their influence on the productivity of estuarine-dependent fisheries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the project is to refine and validate a probabilistic spatial computer model through the analyses of thematic mapper imagery. The model is designed to determine how the interface between marshland and water changes as marshland is converted to water in a disintegrating marsh. Coastal marshland in Louisiana is disintegrating at the rate of approximately 40 sq mi a year, and an evaluation of the potential impact of this loss on the landings of estuarine-dependent fisheries is needed by fisheries managers. Understanding how marshland-water interface changes as coastal marshland is lost is essential to the process of evaluating fisheries effects, because several studies suggest that the production of estuarine-dependent fish and shellfish may be more closely related to the interface between marshland and water than to acreage of marshland. The need to address this practical problem has provided an opportunity to apply some scientifically interesting new techniques to the analyses of satellite imagery. Progress with the development of these techniques is the subject of this report.

Browder, J. A. (principal investigator); Rosenthal, A.; May, L. N., Jr.; Bauman, R. H.; Gosselink, J. G.

1985-01-01

218

Anaysis of the quality of image data required by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner. [agricultural and forest cover types in California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial, geometric, and radiometric qualities of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were evaluated by interpreting, through visual and computer means, film and digital products for selected agricultural and forest cover types in California. Multispectral analyses employing Bayesian maximum likelihood, discrete relaxation, and unsupervised clustering algorithms were used to compare the usefulness of TM and MSS data for discriminating individual cover types. Some of the significant results are as follows: (1) for maximizing the interpretability of agricultural and forest resources, TM color composites should contain spectral bands in the visible, near-reflectance infrared, and middle-reflectance infrared regions, namely TM 4 and TM % and must contain TM 4 in all cases even at the expense of excluding TM 5; (2) using enlarged TM film products, planimetric accuracy of mapped poins was within 91 meters (RMSE east) and 117 meters (RMSE north); (3) using TM digital products, planimetric accuracy of mapped points was within 12.0 meters (RMSE east) and 13.7 meters (RMSE north); and (4) applying a contextual classification algorithm to TM data provided classification accuracies competitive with Bayesian maximum likelihood.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

219

Cross-calibration of Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI with Aqua MODIS using PICS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thematic Mapper (TM) onboard the Landsat 5 (L5) has provided an unprecedented amount of earth observations for more than 25 years since its launch on March 1, 1984. The MODIS sensor onboard the Aqua satellite is a part of the afternoon constellation of spacecraft and has been successfully providing near-continuous observations of the earth's surface and atmosphere since July 2002. A synergistic use of TM and MODIS reflective solar bands (RSB) measurements is immensely beneficial to the broad user community for different land cover change and global climate studies. A consistent radiometric calibration between the sensors is a prerequisite for creating high quality science products. Various pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) identified by CEOS have been widely used to monitor the on-orbit calibration consistency for a number of sensors. Near-simultaneous observations of the Saharan PICS by L5 TM and Aqua MODIS are used in this study. The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance from the spectrally matching RSB are corrected for test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), relative spectral response (RSR) mismatch, and impacts for atmospheric water-vapor, and used to estimate the long-term calibration differences between the two sensors. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard the Landsat 8 (L8) launched in February, 2013, is a follow-on mission to maintain the continuity of Landsat acquisitions. A similar cross-calibration methodology was extended to compare the spectrally matching bands of Aqua MODIS with OLI. A long-term drift is observed in bands 1 (3.7%) and 3 (1.86%) of L5 TM, which is expected to be mitigated in the next calibration coefficient update. With the exception of the SWIR-2 band (L5 TM band 7), the agreement with Aqua MODIS is seen to be within 4%. The L8 OLI and Aqua MODIS agreement is seen within 4% across all wavelengths.

Angal, Amit; Mishra, Nischal; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Helder, Dennis

2014-09-01

220

A procedure for radiometric recalibration of Landsat 5 TM reflective-band data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to the internal calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time, causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20%. In May 2003, the L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) were updated to use a lifetime lookup-table (LUT) gain model to radiometrically calibrate TM data instead of using scene-specific IC gains. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. The L5 TM data processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work-order report that was included in the original standard data product delivery is available. However, if users do not have the original work-order report, the IC trends can be used for recalibration. The IC trends were generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database. This paper provides the details of the recalibration procedure for the following: 1) data processed using IC where users have the work-order file; 2) data processed using IC where users do not have the work-order file; 3) data processed using prelaunch calibration parameters; and 4) data processed using the previous version of the LUT (e.g., LUT03) that was released before April 2, 2007.

Chander, G.; Haque, M.O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J.A.

2010-01-01

221

Mapping the invasive species, Chinese tallow, with EO1 satellite Hyperion hyperspectral image data and relating tallow occurrences to a classified Landsat Thematic Mapper land cover map  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our objective was to provide a realistic and accurate representation of the spatial distribution of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) in the Earth Observing 1 (EO1) Hyperion hyperspectral image coverage by using methods designed and tested in previous studies. We transformed, corrected, and normalized Hyperion reflectance image data into composition images with a subpixel extraction model. Composition images were related to green vegetation, senescent foliage and senescing cypress-tupelo forest, senescing Chinese tallow with red leaves ('red tallow'), and a composition image that only corresponded slightly to yellowing vegetation. These statistical and visual comparisons confirmed a successful portrayal of landscape features at the time of the Hyperion image collection. These landscape features were amalgamated in the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) pixel, thereby preventing the detection of Chinese tallow occurrences in the Landsat TM classification. With the occurrence in percentage of red tallow (as a surrogate for Chinese tallow) per pixel mapped, we were able to link dominant land covers generated with Landsat TM image data to Chinese tallow occurrences as a first step toward determining the sensitivity and susceptibility of various land covers to tallow establishment. Results suggested that the highest occurrences and widest distribution of red tallow were (1) apparent in disturbed or more open canopy woody wetland deciduous forests (including cypress-tupelo forests), upland woody land evergreen forests (dominantly pines and seedling plantations), and upland woody land deciduous and mixed forests; (2) scattered throughout the fallow fields or located along fence rows separating active and non-active cultivated and grazing fields, (3) found along levees lining the ubiquitous canals within the marsh and on the cheniers near the coastline; and (4) present within the coastal marsh located on the numerous topographic highs. ?? 2005 US Government.

Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Rangoonwala, A.; Nelson, G.; Ehrlich, R.

2005-01-01

222

Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.  

SciTech Connect

The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower generation, dredging, forestry, agriculture, channel alteration, diking, bank stabilization and floodplain development, have dramatically altered both the type and distribution of habitats along the Columbia River Estuary (CRE) and its floodplain. Along the Columbia River, tidally influenced habitats occur from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of 230 km. If we are to effectively manage the natural resources of the Columbia River ecosystem, there is a need to understand how habitats have changed because fish and wildlife populations are known to respond to changes in habitat quality and distribution. The goal of this study was to measure the amount and type of change of CRE land cover from 1992 to 2000. We performed a change analysis on two spatial data sets describing land cover along the lower portion of the estuary (Fig. 1). The 1992 data set was created by the NOAA Coastal Remote Sensing, Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) in cooperation with Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Point Adams Field Station, and State of Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR). The 2000 data set was produced by Earth Design Consultants, Inc. (EDC) and the Wetland Ecosystem Team (WET: University of Washington) as part of a larger Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) habitat mapping study. Although the image classification methodologies used to create the data sets differed, both data sets were produced by classifying Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery, making it feasible to assess land cover changes between 1992 and 2000.

Garono, Ralph; Anderson, Becci; Robinson, Rob

2003-10-01

223

Monitoring land use changes in the Upper Ganga Basin, India by using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques on Landsat 5 TM data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Green Revolution represents one of the largest environmental changes in India over the last century. The Upper Ganga basin is experiencing rapid rates of change of land use and irrigation practices. In combination with exploitation of groundwater resources in the northern Indian plains, this causes variations in recharge and fundamentally affects surface and groundwater resources, threatening India's water supplies. In this study, we have developed a methodology to map and investigate land-use change by applying Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques on 30m resolution multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for 1984, 1998 and 2010. Firstly, an automated protocol was applied to effectively correct the images for radiometric effects and remove atmospheric interference during the pre-processing analysis of satellite images. Afterwards, maximum likelihood supervised classifications were carried out on Landsat 5 TM colour composites of 1984, 1998 and 2010 with the aid of ground truth data. Post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat images in order to map land cover changes in the Upper Ganga basin. Change vectors of NDVI and Tasseled Cap brightness, greenness and wetness of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images are compared with those values from the initial date of imagery to detect change from no change. Ground truth information and historic images were used to assess the accuracy of the classification results. We find that most of the land-use change is conversion from forest and barren land to agricultural areas. Results indicate that between 1984 and 2010 agricultural areas have increased by more than 150% while forest areas decreased by 28%. The classification accuracy is also examined. Results confirm the importance of field-based accuracy assessment to identify problems in a land-use map and to improve area estimates for each class. The results quantify the land cover change patterns in the Upper Ganga basin and demonstrate the potential of multi-temporal Landsat data to provide an accurate map and analyse changes in land use over time that can be an important input in regional land-use planning and management strategies.

Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Buytaert, Wouter

2013-04-01

224

Feasibility of sea ice typing with synthetic aperture radar (SAR): Merging of Landsat thematic mapper and ERS 1 SAR satellite imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth Remote-Sensing Satellite (ERS) 1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) images were acquired for the same area in the Beaufort Sea, April 16 and 18, 1992. The two image pairs were colocated to the same grid (25-m resolution), and a supervised ice type classification was performed on the TM images in order to classify ice free, nilas, gray ice, gray-white ice, thin first-year ice, medium and thick first-year ice, and old ice. Comparison of the collocated SAR pixels showed that ice-free areas can only be classified under calm wind conditions (less than 3 m/s) and for surface winds greater than 10 m/s based on the backscattering coefficient alone. This is true for pack ice regions during the cold months of the year where ice-free areas are spatially limited and where the capillary waves that cause SAR backscatter are dampened by entrained ice crystals. For nilas, two distinct backscatter classes were found at -17 dB and at -10 dB. The higher backscattering coefficient is attributed to the presence of frost flowers on light nilas. Gray and gray-white ice have a backscatter signature similar to first-year ice and therefore cannot be distinguished by SAR alone. First-year and old ice can be clearly separated based on their backscattering coefficient. The performance of the Geophysical Processor System ice classifier was tested against the Landsat derived ice products. It was found that smooth first-year ice and rough first-year ice were not significantly different in the backscatter domain. Ice concentration estimates based on ERS 1 C band SAR showed an error range of 5 to 8% for high ice concentration regions, mainly due to misclassified ice-free and smooth first-year ice areas. This error is expected to increase for areas of lower ice concentration. The combination of C band SAR and TM channels 2, 4, and 6 resulted in ice typing performance with an estimated accuracy of 90% for all seven ice classes.

Steffen, Konrad; Heinrichs, John

1994-01-01

225

Neotectonic studies of northern Baja California, Mexico, with LANDSAT thematic mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery: Partitioning of dextral and extensional strain at the Pacific-North America plate boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous studies of active faulting in southern California indicate that the San Jacinto, Elsinore, and adjacent faults west of the San Andreas fault accommodate a significant proportion of Pacific-North America relative plate motion. Because of the complex distribution of slip, little is known about the activities of these and similar structures in northern Baja California and the southward transition to the oceanic ridge transform-fault system in the Gulf of California. SPOT and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper imagery for northern Baja California was processed to optimize discrimination of lithologic and structural features. This data was used to suggest a preliminary kinematic framework for distribution of relative plate motion between 31 and 33 degrees north, in which continental borderland tectonics play an important role in partitioning of plate motion.

Miller, M. Meghan; Crippen, Robert E.; Dixon, Timothy H.

1991-01-01

226

Land cover/use classification of Cairns, Queensland, Australia: A remote sensing study involving the conjunctive use of the airborne imaging spectrometer, the large format camera and the thematic mapper simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an attempt to improve the land cover/use classification accuracy obtainable from remotely sensed multispectral imagery, Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) images were analyzed in conjunction with Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) Large Format Camera color infrared photography and black and white aerial photography. Specific portions of the combined data set were registered and used for classification. Following this procedure, the resulting derived data was tested using an overall accuracy assessment method. Precise photogrammetric 2D-3D-2D geometric modeling techniques is not the basis for this study. Instead, the discussion exposes resultant spectral findings from the image-to-image registrations. Problems associated with the AIS-1 TMS integration are considered, and useful applications of the imagery combination are presented. More advanced methodologies for imagery integration are needed if multisystem data sets are to be utilized fully. Nevertheless, research, described herein, provides a formulation for future Earth Observation Station related multisensor studies.

Heric, Matthew; Cox, William; Gordon, Daniel K.

1987-01-01

227

Cross-sensor comparisons between Landsat 5 TM and IRS-P6 AWiFS and disturbance detection using integrated Landsat and AWiFS time-series images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Routine acquisition of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was discontinued recently and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has an ongoing problem with the scan line corrector (SLC), thereby creating spatial gaps when covering images obtained during the process. Since temporal and spatial discontinuities of Landsat data are now imminent, it is therefore important to investigate other potential satellite data that can be used to replace Landsat data. We thus cross-compared two near-simultaneous images obtained from Landsat 5 TM and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS)-P6 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS), both captured on 29 May 2007 over Los Angeles, CA. TM and AWiFS reflectances were compared for the green, red, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, as well as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on manually selected polygons in homogeneous areas. All R2 values of linear regressions were found to be higher than 0.99. The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method was used to calculate the NDVI correlation between the TM and AWiFS images. The NDVI regression line derived from selected polygons passed through several invariant cluster centres of the TIC density maps and demonstrated that both the scene-dependent polygon regression method and TIC method can generate accurate radiometric normalization. A scene-independent normalization method was also used to normalize the AWiFS data. Image agreement assessment demonstrated that the scene-dependent normalization using homogeneous polygons provided slightly higher accuracy values than those obtained by the scene-independent method. Finally, the non-normalized and relatively normalized ‘Landsat-like’ AWiFS 2007 images were integrated into 1984 to 2010 Landsat time-series stacks (LTSS) for disturbance detection using the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) model. Both scene-dependent and scene-independent normalized AWiFS data sets could generate disturbance maps similar to what were generated using the LTSS data set, and their kappa coefficients were higher than 0.97. These results indicate that AWiFS can be used instead of Landsat data to detect multitemporal disturbance in the event of Landsat data discontinuity.

Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Chander, Gyanesh; Ji, Lei; Tolk, Brian; Huang, Chengquan; Rollins, Matthew

2013-01-01

228

25 Years of Landsat 5 - Duration: 3:34.  

NASA Video Gallery

Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

229

Tracking Landsat-5 by a differential GPS technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an international campaign to develop precise geodetic applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of differential GPS tracking using Landsat-5. Two strategies have been investigated: one in which only the Landsat-5 orbit is estimated, and one in which both the Landsat-5 and GPS orbits are estimated together. Error studies show that under the limited conditions of the experiment, three-dimensional Landsat-5 position accuracies of about 5 m with the first strategy and 2 m with the second strategy can be achieved over a 20-min period of good observing geometry. Orbit determination results using a version of the first strategy appear to achieve the 5 m goal. This is supported by various formal error measures and independent comparisons. The more powerful strategy has yet to be carried out.

Yunck, T. P.; Bertiger, W. I.; Lichten, S. M.; Wu, S. C.

1986-01-01

230

Using the Sonoran and Libyan Desert test sites to monitor the temporal stability of reflective solar bands for Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus and Terra moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remote sensing imagery is effective for monitoring environmental and climatic changes because of the extent of the global coverage and long time scale of the observations. Radiometric calibration of remote sensing sensors is essential for quantitative & qualitative science and applications. Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing sensors. This paper focuses on the use of the Sonoran Desert site to monitor the radiometric stability of the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The results are compared with the widely used Libya 4 Desert site in an attempt to evaluate the suitability of the Sonoran Desert site for sensor inter-comparison and calibration stability monitoring. Since the overpass times of ETM+ and MODIS differ by about 30 minutes, the impacts due to different view geometries or test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are also presented. In general, the long-term drifts in the visible bands are relatively large compared to the drift in the near-infrared bands of both sensors. The lifetime Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance trends from both sensors over 10 years are extremely stable, changing by no more than 0.1% per year (except ETM+ Band 1 and MODIS Band 3) over the two sites used for the study. The use of a semi-empirical BRDF model can reduce the impacts due to view geometries, thus enabling a better estimate of sensor temporal drifts.

Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-young; Chander, Gyanesh; Wu, Aisheng

2010-01-01

231

A thematic mapper performance optimization study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A six-month systems study of earth resource surveys from satellites was conducted in early 1974. Skylab S-192 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data were used as a baseline to aid in evaluating the characteristics of future systems using satellite MSS sensors. The study took the viewpoint that overall system (sensor and processing) characteristics and parameter values should be determined largely by user requirements for automatic information extraction performance in quasi-operational earth resources surveys, the other major factor being hardware limitations imposed by state-of-the-art technology and cost.

Thomson, F. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Koerber, K.; Harnage, M. J.

1975-01-01

232

In-flight validation and recovery of water surface temperature with Landsat-5 thermal infrared data using an automated high-altitude lake validation site at Lake Tahoe  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The absolute radiometric accuracy of the thermal infrared band (B6) of the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument on the Landsat-5 (L5) satellite was assessed over a period of approximately four years using data from the Lake Tahoe automated validation site (California-Nevada). The Lake Tahoe site was established in July 1999, and measurements of the skin and bulk temperature have been made approximately every 2 min from four permanently moored buoys since mid-1999. Assessment involved using a radiative transfer model to propagate surface skin temperature measurements made at the time of the L5 overpass to predict the at-sensor radiance. The predicted radiance was then convolved with the L5B6 system response function to obtain the predicted L5B6 radiance, which was then compared with the radiance measured by L5B6. Twenty-four cloud-free scenes acquired between 1999 and 2003 were used in the analysis with scene temperatures ranging between 4??C and 22??C. The results indicate LSB6 had a radiance bias of 2.5% (1.6??C) in late 1999, which gradually decreased to 0.8% (0.5??C) in mid-2002. Since that time, the bias has remained positive (predicted minus measured) and between 0.3% (0.2??C) and 1.4% (0.9??C). The cause for the cold bias (L5 radiances are lower than expected) is unresolved, but likely related to changes in instrument temperature associated with changes in instrument usage. The in situ data were then used to develop algorithms to recover the skin and bulk temperature of the water by regressing the L5B6 radiance and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) total column water data to either the skin or bulk temperature. Use of the NCEP data provides an alternative approach to the split-window approach used with instruments that have two thermal infrared bands. The results indicate the surface skin and bulk temperature can be recovered with a standard error of 0.6??C. This error is larger than errors obtained with other instruments due, in part, to the calibration bias. L5 provides the only long-duration high spatial resolution thermal infrared measurements of the land surface. If these data are to be used effectively in studies designed to monitor change, it is essential to continue to monitor instrument performance in-flight and develop quantitative algorithms for recovering surface temperature.

Hook, S.J.; Chander, G.; Barsi, J.A.; Alley, R.E.; Abtahi, A.; Palluconi, F.D.; Markham, B.L.; Richards, R.C.; Schladow, S.G.; Helder, D.L.

2004-01-01

233

An assessment of regional climate trends and changes to the Mt. Jaya glaciers of Irian Jaya  

E-print Network

, pertinent to this thesis, were acquired by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensors, which are carried aboard the 17 Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites launched in 1984 and 1999, respectively. Both sensors collect...

Kincaid, Joni L.

2007-09-17

234

LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 Multispectral Scanner Coherent Noise Characterization and Removal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is described for characterizing the coherent noise found in LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data and a companion technique for filtering out the coherent noise. The techniques are demonstrated on LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 MSS data sets, and explanations of the noise pattern are suggested in Appendix C. A cookbook procedure for characterizing and filtering the coherent noise using special NASA/Goddard IDIMS functions is included. Also presented are analysis results from the retrofitted LANDSAT-5 MSS sensor, which shows that the coherent noise has been substantially reduced.

Tilton, James C.; Alford, William L.

1988-01-01

235

Thematic mapping of basement-related cross-strike structural discontinuities and their relationship to potential oil-bearing structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports how a digitally enhanced Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper mosaic (TM) data, a hand-held color space photograph from one of the early NASA satellite missions (Gemini), and field data were used to delineate three major basement-structural discontinuities (CSDs) with the Zagros Basin of southwestern Iran. Three major subparallel CSDs are, from north to south, Kazerun-Qatar (N05{sup {degrees}W} trend), Razak (N17{degrees}E trend), and Oman (N18{degrees}E). These subparallel CSDs subdivide the Zagros Basin into northern, central, and southern sub-basins. The Razak and Oman CSD enclose a relatively nonproductive area, separating the southern Zagros sub-basin from more productive regions to the northwest and the nonproductive Makran Ranges to the southeast where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that CSD may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of sedimentary basins. The results of this investigation also prove that lineament analysis is a potentially effective method for interpreting the basement-related CSD within a basin setting.

Iranpanah, A. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Pittsburg at Bradford, Bradford, PA (US))

1989-10-01

236

Mapper user's manual  

SciTech Connect

MAPPER is a front-end program for DISSPLA from Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This Manual is a copy of LASL Program Library Write-Up J5AJ which has been revised to be consistent with the version of MAPPER installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. MAPPER is an easy-to-learn program designed to make report-quality visual aids. The user with no previous programming experience can produce presentation slides, graphs, charts, tables, and maps on both color and black and white 35-mm microfilm, Tektronix terminals, and Versatec, Applicon and CalComp plotters. MAPPER can also be used to make 35- and 16-mm color or black and white movies. MAPPER reads English language based command files that the user has generated. An interactive editor, MAPEDIT, allows Tektronix users to add features on the scope and to have the additions automatically added to the command file. A Tektronix Graphics Tablet can be used to generate MAPPER command files directly via TABLET. MAPPER can draw boxes, circles, ellipses, and complex line segments in a wide variety of line format characteristics. There are six types of label commands and twelve lettering styles to cover the spectrum of labeling requirements. Label options include manual sizing and locations, two forms of automatic sizing and location, flexible string control, label rotation, justification control, and multiple line capabilities. The user has a choice of color control through the use of different commands, and special features permit selective shading of specific areas. Symbols may be defined, located, scaled, distorted, and shaded as desired. Axes, curves and error bars may be drawn. Additional features include various logos, skipping, multilevel rotating projection ports, contouring, three types of file subroutining, movie generating commands, and FORTRAN support capabilities.

Clark, B.A.; Fischer, K.N.; Nestor, C.W.; Penny, S.K.; Dahl, D.A.

1983-11-01

237

Strategy for Mitigating Collision Between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constellation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Science Mission Operations project, the French space agency Centre National d tudes Spatiales, the Argentinian space agency Comisi n Nacional de Actividades Espaciales, and the United States Geological Survey all operate spacecraft in sun-synchronous frozen orbits. The orbits are planned to not place any of the spacecraft at risk of colliding with another. However, evolution of these orbits over time has com-promised the safe interaction between Landsat-5 and the Afternoon Constella-tion. This paper analyzes the interactions between the Landsat-5 spacecraft and the Afternoon Constellation members over a period of 6 years, describing the current risk and plan to mitigate collisions in the future.

Levi, Joshua A.; Palmer, Eric J.

2011-01-01

238

Retrieved actual ET using SEBS model from Landsat-5 TM data for irrigation area of Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of ground-based evapotranspiration (ET) is of the most interesting for land-atmosphere interactions, such as water-saving irrigation, the performance of irrigation systems, crop water deficit, drought mitigation strategies and accurate initialization of climate prediction models especially in arid and semiarid catchments where water shortage is a critical problem. The recent year's drought in Australia and concerns about climate change has prominent the need to manage water resources more sustainably especially in the Murrumbidgee catchment which utilizes bulk water for food security and production. This paper discusses the application of a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model based on Landsat-5 TM data and field observations has been used and tested for deriving ET over Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA), located in the southwest of NSW, Australia. 16 Landsat-5 TM scenes were selected covering the time period of 2009, 2010 and 2011 for estimating the actual ET in CIA. To do the validation the used methodology, the ground-measured ET was compared to the Landsat-5 TM retrieved actual ET results for CIA. The derived ET value over CIA is much closer to the field measurement. From the remote sensing results and observations, the root mean square error (RMSE) is 0.74 and the mean APD is 7.5%. The derived satellite remote sensing values belong to reasonable range.

Ma, Weiqiang; Hafeez, Mohsin; Rabbani, Umair; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Ma, Yaoming

2012-11-01

239

AUTOMATED SEGMENTATION OF URBAN FEATURES FROM LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY  

E-print Network

IN PSEUDOINVARIANT FEATURE TEMPORAL IMAGE NORMALIZATION by Carl Salvaggio Submitted to the Center for Imaging Science wishes to thank Dr. Roger Easton for the hours he has spent in review of the form and grammar

Salvaggio, Carl

240

WATERSHED CHARACTERIZATION USING LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER IMAGERY: BLACKFOOT RIVER, MT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a portion of a large regional project undertaken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and water quality authorities in the States of Montana, Idaho, and Washington to identify and analyze factors which are affecting water quality in the Lake Pend Ore...

241

Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are summarized and analyzed from several prelaunch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere used as part of the absolute radiometric calibration experiments for the protoflight TM sensor carried on the LANDSAT-4 satellite. The calibration procedure is presented and the radiometric sensitivity of the TM is assessed. The internal calibrator and dynamic range after calibration are considered. Tables show dynamic range after ground processing, spectral radiance to digital number and digital number to spectral radiance values for TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and for channel 4 of band 6.

Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

1984-01-01

242

Use of Thematic Mapper for water quality assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation of simulated TM data obtained on an ER-2 aircraft at twenty-five predesignated sample sites for mapping water quality factors such as conductivity, pH, suspended solids, turbidity, temperature, and depth, is discussed. Using a multiple regression for the seven TM bands, an equation is developed for the suspended solids. TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 are used with logarithm conductivity in a multiple regression. The assessment of regression equations for a high coefficient of determination (R-squared) and statistical significance is considered. Confidence intervals about the mean regression point are calculated in order to assess the robustness of the regressions used for mapping conductivity, turbidity, and suspended solids, and by regressing random subsamples of sites and comparing the resultant range of R-squared, cross validation is conducted.

Horn, E. M.; Morrissey, L. A.

1984-01-01

243

Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of the atmosphere on propagating radiation must be known in order to calibrate an in orbit sensor using ground based measurements. A set of model atmosphere parameters, applicable to the White Sands (New Mexico) area is defined with particular attention given to those parameters which are required as input to the Herman Code. The radial size distribution, refractive index, vertical distribution, and visibility of aerosols are discussed as well as the molecular absorbers in the visible and near IR wavelength which produce strong absorption lines. Solar irradiance is also considered.

Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N. (principal investigators)

1985-01-01

244

Quantifying Wetland Dynamics and Hydrologic Function with Landsat Thematic Mapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America spans the glaciated prairies from Alberta, Canada, to central Iowa. The region contains hundreds of thousands of wetlands that provide habitat for an estimated 50 to 80 percent of North America's waterfowl. The composition of species that use the PPR are a function of wetland water chemistry. The water chemistry is driven by wetland functional processes that determine hydrogeochemical interactions of surface water, ground water, and their connectivity to other wetlands. As wetlands cycle from drought to deluge, significant surface water fluctuations can alter water chemistry and hydroperiods, influencing the composition of wetland communities. We quantified these temporal water dynamics with Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery, spanning a 17-year period during a drought-deluge cycle. Using clustering techniques, we grouped wetlands based on their functional responses to climate and quantified the traits of each cluster. We found that wetlands receiving groundwater discharge respond very differently to climatic shifts than wetlands functioning as recharge basins. In addition, wetlands with closed basins are less dynamic than wetlands located in open basins. Accuracies of the initial classification ranged from 75 to 100 percent. This study offers the first insight into wetland dynamics at a regional scale with implications for modeling biogeochemistry and ecosystem services across the PPR. Although this method was developed in the Missouri Coteau and nearby drift plains of the PPR, we believe this technique is applicable to other regions.

Rover, J. A.; Wright, C.; Wylie, B. K.; Euliss, N. H.

2007-12-01

245

Response of Thematic Mapper bands to plant water stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in leaf reflectance as water content decreases have been hypothesized to occur in the 1.55-1.75 and 2.08-2.35 micron wavelength regions. To evaluate this hypothesis, studies were conducted on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and oats (Avena sativa L.), which were grown in a controlled, outdoor situation. Both fully-watered control beds and water-stressed beds were periodically examined with a spectroradiometer calibrated against a reflectance reference of polytetrafluoroethylene. The observed changes correspond to those predicted by stochastic leaf models employed by other investigators (leaf reflection increases in the 1.55-1.75 micron region as leaf water content decreases). Although the percentage changes in TM bands 1-3 are nearly as great as those found in TM bands 5 and 7, the absolute values of reflectance change are much lower. It is believed that these patterns are probably characteristic of a broad range of vegetation types. In terms of phenomena detection, these patterns should be considered in any practical remote sensing sensor scenario.

Cibula, W. G.; Zetka, E. F.; Rickman, D. L.

1992-01-01

246

Geologic exploration: The contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major advantages of the TM data over that of MSS systems are increased spatial resolution and a greater number of narrow, strategically placed spectral bands. The 30 meter pixel size permits finer definition of ground features and improves reliability of the photointerpretation of geologic structure. The value of the spatial data increases relative to the value of the spectral data as soil and vegetation cover increase. In arid areas with good exposure, it is possible with careful digital processing and some inventive color compositing to produce enough spectral differentiation of rock types and thereby produce facsimiles of standard geologic maps with a minimum of field work or reference to existing maps. Hue-saturation value images are compared with geological maps of Death Valley, California, the Big Horn/Wind River Basin of Wyoming, the area around Cement, Oklahoma, and Detroit. False color composites of the Ontario region are also examined.

Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

1983-01-01

247

A Preliminary Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Radiometric Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product, and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product of a TM scene were analyzed examine the frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band. The analyses were performed on a series of image subsets from the full scence. Results are presented from one 1024 c 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. From this cursory examination of one of the first seven channel TM data sets, it would appear that the radiometric performance of the system is most satisfactory and largely meets pre-launch specifications. Problems were noted with Band 5 Detector 3 and Band 2 Detector 4. Differences were observed between forward and reverse scan detector responses both for the BT and AT products. No systematic variations were observed between odd and even detectors.

Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

1985-01-01

248

Early evaluation of Thematic Mapper data for coastal process studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two sets of TM data taken over the ocean off the coast of the Southeastern U.S. Bight were studied for the applicability of TM data to marine environments. First, the results of applying TM and TMS data to determine chlorophyll concentration in the ocean are presented. Chlorophyll quantification in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 mg/cu m was achieved by taking the ratio of TM band-1/band-2. Second, the results of applying TM band-6 data to monitor sea surface temperature are described. A comparison of TM data with AVHRR data shows TM readings coincide with AVHRR data within a scatter of 0.5 deg C in most of the areas studied. Lastly, the results of a technique to map the water depths of coral reefs in the Great Bahama Bank are demonstrated. Depths from 0 to 20 meters were delineated using TM band-1. The classification accuracy and origins of anomalous depth points are discussed.

Kim, H. H.; Linebaugh, G.

1985-01-01

249

Floodplain land cover mapping using Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of land-cover classifications based on Landsat-4 TM and MSS images (obtained in August 1982) and airborne TMS images (obtained in September 1981) of the New Martinsville, West Virginia area is evaluated by comparison with ground-truth data. TM, TMS, and MSS are found to have overall mapping accuracies 80.1, 78.5, and 75.6 percent; agriculture/grass accuracies 62.0, 29.7, and 46.6 percent; and developed-area accuracies 67.2, 77.8, and 59.4 percent, respectively.

Kerber, A. G.; Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y.-C.; Marcell, R.; Edwardo, H. A.

1986-01-01

250

Local combination histogram based segmentation of Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images using clustering aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new segmentation method for multispectral remote sensing imagery using the K-means clustering aggregation coupled with local combination histogram (LCH). First of all, the bands are partitioned into several nearly uncorrelated subsets. Then, some band combinations of the multispectral images are generated from the subsets. After that, the LCHs are computed from quantized images in each band combination. The LCH represents a pixel in the sense of both spectral information and neighborhood spatial information implicitly and serves as the input feature. Identical K-means procedures are employed to get several relatively coarse segmentation maps. The final K-means procedure refines these intermediate segmentation maps to achieve the final results. The segmentation results are evaluated and compared with other multispectral image segmentation methods by visual inspection and object-based image classification. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate segmentation maps and higher classification accuracy.

Yang, Wei; Hou, Kun; Yu, Fanhua; Sun, Tieli

2012-04-01

251

Solar thematic maps for space weather operations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thematic maps are arrays of labels, or "themes", associated with discrete locations in space and time. Borrowing heavily from the terrestrial remote sensing discipline, a numerical technique based on Bayes' theorem captures operational expertise in the form of trained theme statistics, then uses this to automatically assign labels to solar image pixels. Ultimately, regular thematic maps of the solar corona will be generated from high-cadence, high-resolution SUVI images, the solar ultraviolet imager slated to fly on NOAA's next-generation GOES-R series of satellites starting ~2016. These thematic maps will not only provide quicker, more consistent synoptic views of the sun for space weather forecasters, but digital thematic pixel masks (e.g., coronal hole, active region, flare, etc.), necessary for a new generation of operational solar data products, will be generated. This paper presents the mathematical underpinnings of our thematic mapper, as well as some practical algorithmic considerations. Then, using images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Advanced Imaging Array (AIA) as test data, it presents results from validation experiments designed to ascertain the robustness of the technique with respect to differing expert opinions and changing solar conditions.

Rigler, E. Joshua; Hill, Steven M.; Reinard, Alysha A.; Steenburgh, Robert A.

2012-01-01

252

Soil moisture modeling by means of Landsat-5 TM data over a Mediterranean mountain catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture has important implications on the hydrological cycle and its monitoring is relevant for the assessment of environmental stress that affects forest and agricultural ecosystems. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing are the technologies used to model soil moisture at regional scales in a feasible way. In this study we present a preliminary estimation of the daily soil moisture, for the period 2002-2009, using a set of 30 Landsat images (22 Landsat-5 TM and 8 Landsat-7 ETM+), for several locations in the Vallcebre research catchments (42° 12'N, 1° 49'E). This area is located in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula at 1100m a.s.l., and is characterized by a sub-Mediterranean climate with marked water deficit in summer. Mean annual temperature is 9.1°C and mean annual precipitation is 862 ± 206 mm, with a mean of 90 rainy days per year. Mean annual reference evapotranspiration is 823 ± 26 mm. Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital Elevation Model, obtaining an RMSE less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994), which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009) and the land surface emissivity computed by means of the methodology proposed by Sobrino and Raissouni (2000). Soil water content has been modeled through a multiple regression analysis between soil moisture data and several vegetation indexes - NDVI, EVI, Greenness - and wetness indexes - NDWI, Wetness and the land surface temperature. In order to select the variables before performing the multiple regression analysis a model's predictors have been computed on the basis of Mallows' Cp. Models have been validated through surface soil moisture measurements obtained in 10 TDR profiles covering a wide range of soil moisture conditions in different topographic locations and over different types of vegetation: grassland, Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) and Pubescent oaks (Quercus humilis). Preliminary results show a good agreement between soil moisture multiple regression models obtained using remote sensing data and field soil moisture data. Keywords: Soil moisture, Landsat-5 TM, multiple regression analysis, Mediterranean region.

Cristóbal, Jordi; Llorens, Pilar; Latron, Jérôme

2010-05-01

253

Evapotranspiration and energy balance components spatial distribution in the north region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using the SEBAL model and Landsat 5 TM images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) values is very useful information for planning irrigation, water supply estimation, regulation of water rights and river basins hydrologic studies. Values of ETc in the North region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were estimated in this research from the multispectral images of the Landsat 5 TM by means of the model Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land- SEBAL, based on the simplified energy balance equation of a surface covered by vegetation, using a few daily surface climatological parameters (wind speed, rainfall, air temperature and relative humidity, solar radiation). The aim of this study was to estimate the regional spatial distribution of the energy balance components and evapotranspiration in the study area, covering the irrigated perimeter of Gorutuba, involving the cities of Nova Porteirinha, Janaúba, Porteirinha, Verdelândia and Pai Pedro. Thematic maps of regional evapotranspiration and energy balance components were generated from spectral analyzes of the images obtained, associated with the used weather data. The ability of SEBAL to provide the spatial variability of energy balance components, including evapotranspiration, demonstrated its sensitivity to different occupation of the soil surface vegetation, and to high data temporal and spatial resolutions data, indicating that the SEBAL model can be used in scales and operational routine for north region of Minas Gerais.

Gomide, Reinaldo L.; de Paula Boratto, Isa Maria

2014-10-01

254

Scannerless terrain mapper  

SciTech Connect

NASA-Ames Research Center, in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, is developing a Scannerless Terrain Mapper (STM) for autonomous vehicle guidance through the use of virtual reality. The STM sensor is based on an innovative imaging optical radar technology that is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The sensor uses active flood-light scene illumination and an image intensified CCD camera receiver to rapidly produce and record very high quality range imagery of observed scenes. The STM is an all solid-state device (containing no moving parts) and offers significant size, performance, reliability, simplicity, and affordability advantages over other types of 3-D sensor technologies, such as scanned laser radar, stereo vision, and structured lighting. The sensor is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is very well suited for affordable application to a wide variety of military and commercial uses, including: munition guidance, target recognition, robotic vision, automated inspection, driver enhanced vision, collision avoidance, site security and monitoring, and facility surveying. This paper reviews the sensor technology, discusses NASA`s terrain mapping applications, and presents results from the initial testing of the sensor at NASA`s planetary landscape simulator.

Sackos, J.; Bradley, B.; Diegert, C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, P.; Gary, C. [NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

1996-09-01

255

Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

1992-01-01

256

Monitoring of defoliation in mixed-aged Eucalyptus plantations using Landsat 5-TM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of foliage is one of the primary physiological controls of plant functioning, which ultimately influences plant survival and growth. Repeated severe defoliation events have been linked to reduced growth rates and tree mortality in Eucalyptus forests throughout the world. Satellite remote sensing provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional ground-based assessment of forest health. In this study the potential of spectral mixture analysis for defoliation monitoring is evaluated. A novel spectral unmixing technique, referred to as weighted Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (wMESMA), was developed and successfully applied to Landsat 5 TM data acquired over a Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) plantation in southern Australia. This technique combines an iterative mixture analysis cycle allowing endmembers to vary on a per pixel basis (MESMA) and a weighting algorithm that prioritizes wavebands based on their robustness against endmember variability. Spectral mixture analysis provides an estimate of the physically interpretable canopy cover, which is not necessarily correlated with defoliation in mixed aged plantations due to natural variation in canopy cover as stands age. Results show that considerable variability in the degree of defoliation exists as well as in stand age amongst sites. In this study significantly improvement of the link between spectral unmixing and defoliation is observed by the inclusion of an age correction algorithm for the multispectral (R² no age correction = 0.55 vs. R² age correction = 0.73).

Somers, B.; Verbesselt, J.; Ampe, E. M.; Sims, N.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Coppin, P.

2010-05-01

257

THEMATIC ACCURACY OF MRLC LAND COVER FOR THE EASTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

One objective of the MultiResolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) consortium is to map general land-cover categories for the conterminous United States using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Land-cover mapping and classification accuracy assessment are complete for the e...

258

National Wetlands Inventory Online Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) online mapper displays current geospatially referenced information on the status, extent, characteristics and functions of wetland, riparian, deepwater and related aquatic habitats for the lower 48 States, Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Saipan. Users may zoom or pan to the desired area and view availability information for map scales either less than or greater than 1:100,000, and access wetland polygons, metadata and scans, or historic wetlands information. Other layers include cities and towns, roads and highways, zip code boundaries, U.S. Geological Survey map index outlines, and others. A tutorial on how to use the mapper is provided.

259

Hurricane Sandy Storm Tide Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

United States Geological Survey (USGS) provides real-time map-based information from USGS storm tide sensors. The data is reflected on the Hurricane Sandy Tide Mapper. The mapper provides location information, site photos and data for storm tide and inland flooding. In addition, the data from these sensors is used to create models of the precise time the storm-tide arrived, how ocean and inland water levels changed during the storm, the depth of the storm-tide throughout the event, and how long it took for the water to recede.

260

Monitoring glacier variations in the Urubamba and Vilcabamba Mountain Ranges, Peru, using "Landsat 5" images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Urubamba and Vilcabamba mountain ranges are two geological structures belonging to the Andes in the southern part of Peru, which is located in the tropical region. These mountain ranges are especially located within the transition area between the Amazon region (altitudes close to 1'000 m a.s.l.) and the Andes. These mountains, with a maximum height of 6'280 m a.s.l. (Salkantay Snow Peak in the Vilcabamba range), are characterized by glaciers mainly higher than 5000 m a.s.l. Here we present a study on the evolution of the ice cover based on "Landsat 5" images from 1991 and 2011 is presented in this paper. These data are freely available from the USGS in a georeferenced format and cover a time span of more than 25 years. The glacier mapping is based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). In 1991 the Vilcabamba mountain range had 221 km2 of glacier cover, being reduced to 116.4 km2 in 2011, which represents a loss of 48%. In the Urubamba mountain range, the total glacier area was 64.9 km2 in 1991 and 29.4 km2 in 2011, representing a loss of 54.7%. It means that the glacier area was halved during the past two decades although precipitation patterns show an increase in recent years (the wet season lasts from September to April with precipitation peaks in February and March). Glacier changes in these two tropical mountain ranges also impact from an economic point of view due to small local farming common in this region (use of water from the melting glacier). Furthermore, potential glacier related hazards can pose a threat to people and infrastructure in the valleys below these glaciers, where the access routes to Machu Picchu Inca City, Peru's main tourist destination, are located too.

Suarez, Wilson; Cerna, Marcos; Ordoñez, Julio; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Huggel, Christian

2013-04-01

261

Refocusing Advisories, Thematically.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By coupling the creative synergy of a school's staff with some field-tested planning strategies, any advisory program can be improved and focused on students' concerns. This article describes a middle school's efforts to link thematic units for learning with advisement opportunities. Step-by-step lesson plans for exploring stereotypical…

James, Michael A.

1993-01-01

262

THEMATIC SECTION INDUSTRIAL RISKS  

E-print Network

THEMATIC SECTION INDUSTRIAL RISKS PANGEA No. 29/30 June 1 Oecember 1998 THERMOGRAPHIE INFRAROUGE. On se propose de démontrer l'intérêt d'utiliser la thermographie pour réaliser ce type d'études. AprèsIIethods ofcharacterization are being developed. It is proposed /0 demOlis/rate the advanlage ofusillg thermography for t

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

Insects. Thematic Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a captivating whole-language thematic unit about the study of insects, relating it to our understanding of the past and our hopes for using our knowledge in the present to balance the ecosystem in the future. It contains a wide variety of lesson ideas and reproducible pages designed for use with intermediate students. At its core,…

Gosnell, Kathee

264

Lightning mapper sensor design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

World-wide continuous measurement of lightning location, intensity, and time during both day and night is to be provided by the Lightning Mapper (LITMAP) instrument. A technology assessment to determine if the LITMAP requirements can be met using existing sensor and electronic technologies is presented. The baseline concept discussed in this report is a compromise among a number of opposing requirements (e.g., ground resolution versus array size; large field of view versus narrow bandpass filter). The concept provides coverage for more than 80 percent of the lightning events as based on recent above-cloud NASA/U2 lightning measurements.

Eaton, L. R.; Poon, C. W.; Shelton, J. C.; Laverty, N. P.; Cook, R. D.

1983-01-01

265

ICOS Atmospheric Thematic Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICOS is a recently-launched, world-class research infrastructure dedicated to the monitoring and improved understanding of carbon sources and sinks. It consists of complementary, harmonized networks of long-term ecosystem monitoring stations focusing on Europe and adjacent regions. The ICOS networks will comprise about 40 operational atmospheric stations (measuring atmospheric composition in greenhouse gases and other core parameters), 30 ecosystem stations (measuring fluxes from ecosystems) and about 10 oceanic measurement platforms. The networks will be coordinated through a set of central facilities: three Thematic centres respectively for atmospheric, ecosystem and ocean data, and a Central analytical lab. The mission of the thematic centres are to process, validate and distribute data to end-users. ICOS will also set up a Carbon portal dedicated to easy discovery of and access to data and elaborated products such as flux maps by end users.The Atmospheric Thematic Center (ATC) has three main functions: Operate the atmospheric data processing chains, going from data transmission from stations to the routine delivery of quality checked data-stream Carry out regular measurement technology survey, analysis and enable development of new sensors and their testing Monitor the network and propose spare instruments, training, and technical assistance.

Rivier, Leonard; Hazan, Lynn; Tarniewicz, Jerome; Laurent, Olivier; Yver, Camille; Laurila, Tuomas; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Ramonet, Michel; Ciais, Philippe

2014-05-01

266

MAPPING SPATIAL THEMATIC ACCURACY WITH FUZZY SETS  

EPA Science Inventory

Thematic map accuracy is not spatially homogenous but variable across a landscape. Properly analyzing and representing spatial pattern and degree of thematic map accuracy would provide valuable information for using thematic maps. However, current thematic map accuracy measures (...

267

MAPPER: A personal computer map projection tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MAPPER is a set of software tools designed to let users create and manipulate map projections on a personal computer (PC). The capability exists to generate five popular map projections. These include azimuthal, cylindrical, mercator, lambert, and sinusoidal projections. Data for projections are contained in five coordinate databases at various resolutions. MAPPER is managed by a system of pull-down windows. This interface allows the user to intuitively create, view and export maps to other platforms.

Bailey, Steven A.

1993-01-01

268

Area-normalized thematic views  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel technique for dealing with a classic problem that frequently arises in visualization. Very expressive nonlinear transformations can be automatically generated to correct thematic maps so that the areas of map regions are proportional to the thematic variables assigned to them. This helps to eliminate one of the most commonly occurring visual lies that occurs in information visualization. Thematic variables are commonly used in cartography to encode additional information within the spatial layout of a map. Common examples of thematic variables are population density, pollution level and birth rate. The method is illustrated with two examples, mapping interstate speed limits and presidential election results.

Keahey, T.A.

1998-10-01

269

Empirical models for estimating the suspended sediment concentration in Amazonian white water rivers using Landsat 5/TM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended sediment yield is a very important environmental indicator within Amazonian fluvial systems, especially for rivers dominated by inorganic particles, referred to as white water rivers. For vast portions of Amazonian rivers, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is measured infrequently or not at all. However, remote sensing techniques have been used to estimate water quality parameters worldwide, from which data for suspended matter is the most successfully retrieved. This paper presents empirical models for SSC retrieval in Amazonian white water rivers using reflectance data derived from Landsat 5/TM. The models use multiple regression for both the entire dataset (global model, N = 504) and for five segmented datasets (regional models) defined by general geological features of drainage basins. The models use VNIR bands, band ratios, and the SWIR band 5 as input. For the global model, the adjusted R2 is 0.76, while the adjusted R2 values for regional models vary from 0.77 to 0.89, all significant (p-value < 0.0001). The regional models are subject to the leave-one-out cross validation technique, which presents robust results. The findings show that both the average error of estimation and the standard deviation increase as the SSC range increases. Regional models were more accurate when compared with the global model, suggesting changes in optical proprieties of water sampled at different sampling stations. Results confirm the potential for the estimation of SSC from Landsat/TM historical series data for the 1980s and 1990s, for which the in situ database is scarce. Such estimates supplement the SSC temporal series, providing a more comprehensive SSC temporal series which may show environmental dynamics yet unknown.

Montanher, Otávio C.; Novo, Evlyn M. L. M.; Barbosa, Cláudio C. F.; Rennó, Camilo D.; Silva, Thiago S. F.

2014-06-01

270

Estimating sagebrush cover in semi-arid environments using Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sagebrush ecosystems of the western US provide important habitat for several ungulate and vertebrate species. As a consequence of energy development, these ecosystems in Wyoming have been subjected to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Land managers require methodology that will allow them to consistently catalog sagebrush ecosystems and evaluate potential impact of proposed anthropogenic activities. This study addresses the utility of remotely sensed and ancillary geospatial data to estimate sagebrush cover using ordinal logistic regression. We demonstrate statistically significant prediction of ordinal sagebrush cover categories using spectral ( ?2 = 113; p < 0.0001) and transformed indices ( ?2 = 117; p < 0.0001). Both Landsat spectral bands ( c-value = 0.88) and transformed indices ( c-value = 0.89) can distinguish sites with closed, moderate and open cover sagebrush cover categories from no cover. The techniques described in this study can be used for estimating categories of sagebrush cover in arid ecosystems.

Sivanpillai, Ramesh; Prager, Steven D.; Storey, Thomas O.

2009-04-01

271

Thematic Mapper Analysis of Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii) in Central California1  

E-print Network

. There are presently four satellite-borne sensors providing synoptic coverage of Califor nia. These are the NOAA. Landsat MSS provides coverage at 80 m. resolution with four spectral bands, and SPOT HRV provides coverage and Pillsbury, 1987). The 30m spatial resolution of TM is well suited for mapping complex vegetation mosaics

Standiford, Richard B.

272

Understanding and utilization of Thematic Mapper and other remotely sensed data for vegetation monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TM Tasseled Cap transformation, which provides both a 50% reduction in data volume with little or no loss of important information and spectral features with direct physical association, is presented and discussed. Using both simulated and actual TM data, some important characteristics of vegetation and soils in this feature space are described, as are the effects of solar elevation angle and atmospheric haze. A preliminary spectral haze diagnostic feature, based on only simulated data, is also examined. The characteristics of the TM thermal band are discussed, as is a demonstration of the use of TM data in energy balance studies. Some characteristics of AVHRR data are described, as are the sensitivities to scene content of several LANDSAT-MSS preprocessing techniques.

Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.; Metzler, M. D.; Parris, T. M.; Rice, D. P.; Sampson, R. E.

1983-01-01

273

Investigations of vegetation and soils information contained in LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extension of the TM tasseled cap transformation to reflectance factor data is presented, and the basic concepts underlying the tasseled cap transformations are described. The ratio of TM bands 5 and 7, and TM tasseled cap wetness, are both shown to offer promise of direct detection of available soil moisture. Some effects of organic matter and other soil characteristics or constituents on TM tasseled cap spectral response are also considered.

Crist, E. P.; Laurin, R.; Colwell, J. E.; Kauth, R. J.

1984-01-01

274

Mapping permafrost in the boreal forest with Thematic Mapper satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geographic data base incorporating Landsat TM data was used to develop and evaluate logistic discriminant functions for predicting the distribution of permafrost in a boreal forest watershed. The data base included both satellite-derived information and ancillary map data. Five permafrost classifications were developed from a stratified random sample of the data base and evaluated by comparison with a photo-interpreted permafrost map using contingency table analysis and soil temperatures recorded at sites within the watershed. A classification using a TM thermal band and a TM-derived vegetation map as independent variables yielded the highest mapping accuracy for all permafrost categories.

Morrissey, L. A.; Strong, L. L.; Card, D. H.

1986-01-01

275

Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part A: Subsystem data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance and acceptance data are presented for the multiplexer, scan mirror, power supply, mainframe/top mechanical and the aft optics, assemblies. Other major subsystems evaluated include the relay optics, the electronic module, the radiative cooler, and the cable harness. Reference lists of nonconforming materials reports, failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are also given.

1982-01-01

276

Deriving hourly surface energy fluxes and ET from Landsat Thematic mapper data using METRIC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET) have long been recognized as playing an important role in determining exchanges of energy and mass between the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. In this study, we applied the METRIC (Mapping ET at high Resolutions with Internal Calibration) alg...

277

Assessment of Thematic Mapper band-to-band registration by the block correlation method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.

Card, D. H.; Wrigley, R. C.; Mertz, F. C.; Hall, J. R.

1983-01-01

278

Response of some Thematic Mapper band ratios to variation in soil water content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bidirectional reflectance to nadir in the reflective TM bands and the 1.15-1.3-micron band was measured in the laboratory as moisture content was varied in ten soils. Stronger absorption by water in TM5 and TM7 was expected to cause ratios of other bands to TM5 and TM7 to increase with water content, but in most cases these ratios were constant or decreased at low to intermediate water content and increased only at high moisture levels. Because these ratios were found to decrease as illumination elevation angle decreased, it was suggested that increased roughness resulting from the methods of moistening and mixing the soil may have tended to counteract the expected ratio increases.

Musick, H. Brad; Pelletier, Ramona E.

1986-01-01

279

Response to soil moisture of spectral indexes derived from bidirectional reflectance in Thematic Mapper wavebands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory reflectance measurements of 10 soils were used to determine the relationship between soil moisture and three spectral indices: the TM5/7 ratio and the Wetness(R) and Brightness(R) features of the reflectance factor TM Tasseled Cap transformation. Response of the indices to dry mass water percentage was approximately linear for individual soils, except for Wetness(R) and Brightness(R) at high moisture content. Soil differences in the slopes of the Wetness(R)- and Brightness(R)-moisture content relationships were almost entirely eliminated by expressing water content as the percentage of water retained at 0.1 bar (10 kPa) tension (relative water content). The resultant soil lines were offset from one another by the differences in dry soil index value. Slope of the TM5/7 response was not completely normalized by expressing moisture status as relative water content, because slope appeared to vary with dry soil ratio value. Sensitivity to the effects of illumination angle was negligible for the TM5/7 ratio, somewhat greater for Wetness(R) and greatest for Brightness(R).

Musick, H. Brad; Pelletier, Ramona E.

1988-01-01

280

Spatial variation analyses of Thematic Mapper data for the identification of linear features in agricultural landscapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A need exists for digitized information pertaining to linear features such as roads, streams, water bodies and agricultural field boundaries as component parts of a data base. For many areas where this data may not yet exist or is in need of updating, these features may be extracted from remotely sensed digital data. This paper examines two approaches for identifying linear features, one utilizing raw data and the other classified data. Each approach uses a series of data enhancement procedures including derivation of standard deviation values, principal component analysis and filtering procedures using a high-pass window matrix. Just as certain bands better classify different land covers, so too do these bands exhibit high spectral contrast by which boundaries between land covers can be delineated. A few applications for this kind of data are briefly discussed, including its potential in a Universal Soil Loss Equation Model.

Pelletier, R. E.

1984-01-01

281

A global change data base using Thematic Mapper data - Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the main directions in creating an education program in earth system science aimed at combining top science and technology with high academic performance are presented. The creation of an Earth Monitoring Educational System (EMES) integrated with the research interests of the NASA Ames Research Center and one or more universities is proposed. Based on the integration of a global network of cooperators to build a global data base for assessments of global change, EMES would promote degrees at all levels in global ecology at associated universities and colleges, and extracurricular courses for multilevel audiences. EMES objectives are to: train specialists; establish a tradition of solving regional problems concerning global change in a systemic manner, using remote sensing technology as the monitoring tool; and transfer knowledge on global change to the national and world communities. South America is proposed as the pilot continent for the project.

D'Antoni, Hector L.; Peterson, David L.

1992-01-01

282

MAPPING TILLAGE PRACTICES IN SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS OF TEXAS WITH LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tillage information is crucial in environmental modeling as it has a direct impact on soil erosion and water holding capacity of agricultural soils. A remote sensing approach is promising for the rapid collection of tillage information on individual fields over large areas. In this study, existing...

283

Mapping in the Oman ophiolite using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The level of apparent lithological discrimination possible with Landsat TM images in the Oman are discussed. It is found that by using parts of the short-wavelength IR spectrum, the discrimination revealed by the TM data is sufficiently uniform throughout the Oman ophiolite to produce lithological maps at 1:100,000 scale. Decorrelation stretching of the data produces images in which allows for the recognition of variations in gabbro composition, the identification of small acidic, gabbroic, and ultramafic intrusions, the discrimation of the uppermost mantle from the deeper mantle, the precise location of the Moho, and the delineation of gossans and areas subject to choritic-epidotic alteration.

Abrams, M. J.; Rothery, D. A.; Pontual, A.

1988-01-01

284

Geologic mapping of the Semipalatinsk region, Eastern Kazakstan, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and spot panchromatic data  

SciTech Connect

This geologic reconnaissance study centers on a 90 by 140 km area about 100 km southwest of Semipalatinsk near the east border of the Kazakstan Republic of the USSR. Semipalatinsk, a regional center for grain growing, and several other cities along the Irtysh River were originally established as fortified outposts by the Russians during the 18th and 19th centuries to contain the indigenous, nomadic Kazak herdsmen. The Kazakstan region remained largely undeveloped until after the 1917 Russian Revolution, when exploration geologists began discovering many large mineral deposits. Today, known resources include coal, copper, iron ore, lead, zinc, and barite; most of these are of national significance. These vast mineral resources have prompted development of many metallurgical and chemical industries in the republic. Despite the extensive exploration for mineral resources in this region, published geologic maps (Nalivkin, 1960; Esenov, 1971; Borovikov, 1972) are all at scales of 1:1,100,000 or smaller, and there are no detailed descriptions of the geology around Semipalatinsk in the open literature. Our preliminary examination of commercial remote-sensing, data indicated that the lithology and structure of this area are extremely varied and complex at all scales -- much more so than that portrayed on the published geologic maps. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to use commercially available remotely sensed data for the area and remotely sensed data obtained for analog study sites, as well as the sparse, sketchy information in the published literature, to better define and map the geologic units (Sheet 1), structure (Sheet 2), and drainage features (Sheet 3) of this area.

Davis, P.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Berlin, G.L. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

1992-12-31

285

Radiometric properties of the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator aircraft multispectral scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory tests of the NS001 TM are described emphasizing absolute calibration to determine the radiometry of the simulator's reflective channels. In-flight calibration of the data is accomplished with the NS001 internal integrating-sphere source because instabilities in the source can limit the absolute calibration. The data from 1987-89 indicate uncertainties of up to 25 percent with an apparent average uncertainty of about 15 percent. Also identified are dark current drift and sensitivity changes along the scan line, random noise, and nonlinearity which contribute errors of 1-2 percent. Uncertainties similar to hysteresis are also noted especially in the 2.08-2.35-micron range which can reduce sensitivity and cause errors. The NS001 TM Simulator demonstrates a polarization sensitivity that can generate errors of up to about 10 percent depending on the wavelength.

Markham, Brian L.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.

1990-01-01

286

Predicting temperate conifer forest successional stage distributions with multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery  

E-print Network

Landsat imagery also improves prediction of forest successional stages. However, a linear model on a stand basis has a limited predictive power of forest stand successional stages (adjusted R2 =0.5435 using sensing signals for stands at the same successional stage. Therefore, accurate prediction of forest

Song, Conghe

287

Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the thematic mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The change in mean signal level as a function of scan angle and scan direction was studied. The overall scan angle effect corresponded to that expected based on atmospheric modeling and scene characteristics. An initial, empirical correction model employing exponential decay was developed for reflective bands. Band 6 has a significant scan direction effect which is markedly different from that found in the reflective bands. A low frequency noise was discovered which was most pronounced in Band 1, detectors 4, 12, 10, and 8, having amplitudes of approximately 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.75 quantizing levels, respectively. This low frequency variation in mean signal amplitude was highly correlated among these four Band 1 detectors. Low frequency noise was also observed in Band 7, detector 7; band 2, detector 1; Band 3, detectors 1 and 16; and Band 5, detector 10.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1983-01-01

288

Discriminating late volcanic differentiates commonly associated with precious metal deposits, using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magmatic differentiates emplaced late in volcanotectonic cycles (which when highly evolved commonly occur as domes, flow-dome complexes, and shallow intrusive porphyries) are typically more silicic and felsic than their earlier counterparts and exhibit unusually steep spectral curves from about 1.5 to 2.2 microns. This spectral characteristic emerges in the form of relatively high Landsat TM band 7 DN values and low 5/7 values, as well as dark-contrast or enhanced 5/7 images. These evolved late-phase differentiates are commonly associated both temporally and spatially with precious metal deposits, furnishing site-specific exploration targets as well as guides to caldera margins and other late-stage volcanotectonic structures.

Spatz, David M.; Taranik, James V.

1988-01-01

289

Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous characterization of scan-related low-frequency noise was extended and refined through detailed analysis of shutter calibration data on CCT-ADDS tapes and reflective-band data from nighttime acquisitions. A recommended correction procedure was identified that uses calibration shutter data both as a diagnostic and to obtain correction values. Through comparison of coincident TM and MSS data, illustrations of the added information content of TM data for agricultural applications were developed. The capability of improved spatial resolution to better define boundaries and to resolve spatial details is shown. Spectral analysis of tasseled-cap transformations of TM and MSS data shows high correlation between greenness features, greater signal range for TM, and indications that a subset of TM bands could accurately simulate MSS data, if required.

Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (principal investigators); Crist, E. P.

1983-01-01

290

Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An information theoretic measure of multispectral information content is developed and applied to a simultaneous LANDSAT TM and MSS data set. The entropy based function measures the dispersion and concentration of signal values in various data spaces, irrespective of specific class memberships. It is used to compare the information content of TM and MSS and of various subsets of TM and MSS bans, as well as tasseled cap transformations of the band values. Differences exist between the information measure results and results using variance based measures. System design information capacities and data space volumes are also compared. The results and observations presented are considered preliminary in nature since only one real and one simulated data set are analyzed.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

291

Abstract Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM+) data are presented which document the thermal  

E-print Network

. By examining the composition of the short-wave infra- red (SWIR) signal emitted from the flow surface, we infer are stationary or barely moving. The second unit is characterized by much higher levels of SWIR radiance, consistent with a chan- nel-fed active flow unit. Analysis of the SWIR data con- firm

Wright, Robert

292

A physically-based transformation of Thematic Mapper data The TM tasseled cap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an extension of previous simulation studies, a transformation of actual TM data in the six reflective bands is described which achieves three objectives: a fundamental view of TM data structures is presented, the vast majority of data variability is concentrated in a few (three) features, and the defined features can be directly associated with physical scene characteristics. The underlying TM data structure, based on three TM scenes as well as simulated data, is described, as are the general spectral characteristics of agricultural crops and other scene classes in the transformed data space.

Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

1984-01-01

293

Effect of Landsat Thematic Mapper sensor parameters on land cover classification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected sensor parameter differences between TM and MSS were assessed through classification performance of a suburban/regional test site. Overall classification accuracy of a seven-band Landsat TM scene in comparison to MSS yielded an improvement in accuracy from 74.8 percent to 83.2 percent. To study the possible causes for the difference in classification performance, key sensor parameter differences between MSS and TM, including: (1) spatial resolution (30 m for TM versus 80 m for MSS), (2) quantization level (256 levels for TM versus 64 for MSS), and (3) spectral regions (seven bands in four major spectral regions for TM versus four bands in two regions for MSS), were evaluated. Landsat TM data were processed to stimulate all possible combinations of these MSS and TM parameters, yielding a three-factor design with two levels per factor. The results indicated that the added spectral regions (TM 1, TM 5, and TM 7) and to a lesser degree the increase in quantization level to eight bits produced the improved TM classification accuracy. However, in this study, the higher 30 m spatial resolution of TM contributed to a reduced classification accuracy from increased within-field variability or class heterogeneity.

Toll, D. L.

1985-01-01

294

Selection of a seventh spectral band for the LANDSAT-D thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Each of the candidate bands were examined in terms of the feasibility of gathering high quality imagery from space while taking into account solar illumination, atmospheric attenuation, and the signal/noise ratio achievable within the TM sensor constraints. For the 2.2 micron region and the thermal IR region, inband signal values were calculated from representative spectral reflectance/emittance curves and a linear discriminant analysis was employed to predict classification accuracies. Based upon the substantial improvement (from 78 t0 92%) in discriminating zones of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered zones, over a broad range of observation conditions, a 2.08-2.35 micron spectral band having a ground resolution of 30 meters was recommended.

Holmes, Q. A. (principal investigator); Nuesch, D. R.

1978-01-01

295

Mapping surface energy balance components by combining Landsat Thematic Mapper and ground-based meteorological data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface energy balance components were evaluated by combining satellite-based spectral data with on-site measurements of solar irradiance, air temperature, wind speed, and vapor pressure. Maps of latent heat flux density and net radiant flux density were produced using Landsat TM data for three dates. The TM-based estimates differed from Bowen-ratio and aircraft-based estimates by less than 12 percent over mature fields of cotton, wheat, and alfalfa.

Moran, M. Susan; Jackson, Ray D.; Raymond, Lee H.; Gay, Lloyd W.; Slater, Philip N.

1989-01-01

296

Mapping deforestation and secondary growth in Rondonia, Brazil, using imaging radar and thematic mapper data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excellent data on deforestation have been obtained in the tropics with the use of high-resolution optical sensors. Yet, several problems remain. Cloud cover creates data gaps that limit the possibility of complete and frequent assessments, and secondary growth is not well characterized. Active microwave sensors could complement these sensors because they operate independently of cloud cover and smoke and can

Eric Rignot; William A. Salas; David L. Skole

1997-01-01

297

Investigating Grazing Intensity and Range Condition of Grasslands in Northeastern Kansas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing changes plant species composition of grassland ecosystems by selective removal and trampling. Grazing also alters soil physical and biogeochemical properties and can dramatically change hydrologic processes that can impact water budgets and quality. For these reasons, practical means are needed to assess grazing management practices and its impacts upon the land. This study examines whether a grazing intensity and

Dana L. Peterson; Kevin P. Price; Edward A. Martinko

2002-01-01

298

Investigation of LANDSAT follow-on thematic mapper spatial, radiometric and spectral resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Fine resolution M7 multispectral scanner data collected during the Corn Blight Watch Experiment in 1971 served as the basis for this study. Different locations and times of year were studied. Definite improvement using 30-40 meter spatial resolution over present LANDSAT 1 resolution and over 50-60 meter resolution was observed, using crop area mensuration as the measure. Simulation studies carried out to extrapolate the empirical results to a range of field size distributions confirmed this effect, showing the improvement to be most pronounced for field sizes of 1-4 hectares. Radiometric sensitivity study showed significant degradation of crop classification accuracy immediately upon relaxation from the nominally specified values of 0.5% noise equivalent reflectance. This was especially the case for data which were spectrally similar such as that collected early in the growing season and also when attempting to accomplish crop stress detection.

Nalepka, R. F. (principal investigator); Morgenstern, J. P.; Kent, E. R.; Erickson, J. D.

1976-01-01

299

Estimating the leaf area index of North Central Wisconsin forests using the landsat thematic mapper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf area index (LAI) is an extremely important structural characteristic of vegetation because it is directly related to the exchange of energy, CO2 and mass from plant canopies at a variety of scales. Research investigating the relationship between forest LAI and satellite data for hardwood and mixed conifer-hardwood forests is lacking, however. The objective of this study was to explore

Karin S. Fassnacht; Stith T. Gower; Mark D. MacKenzie; Erik V. Nordheim; Thomas M. Lillesand

1997-01-01

300

Discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using Thematic Mapper spectral data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The availability of high quality spectral data from the current suite of earth observation satellite systems offers significant improvements in the ability to survey and monitor food and fiber production on both a local and global basis. Current research results indicate that Landsat TM data when used in either digital or analog formats achieve higher land-cover classification accuracies than MSS data using either comparable or improved spectral bands and spatial resolution. A review of these quantitative results is presented for both natural and cultivated vegetation.

Degloria, Stephen D.; Bernstein, Ralph; Dizenzo, Silvano

1986-01-01

301

Multitemporal Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data of the Hubbard Glacier region, southeast Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In late May 1986, the advancing Hubbard Glacier blocked the entrance to Russell Fiord near Yakutat, Alaska, creating a large ice-dammed lake. Runoff from the surrounding glaciated mountains raised the level of the lake to about 25 m above sea level by 8 October, when the ice dam failed. Remote sensing offers one method to monitor this large tidal glacier system, particularly the glacier activity that would portend the re-closure of Russell Fiord. -Authors

Walker, K.-M.; Zenone, C.

1988-01-01

302

LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy. [Walnut Creek Watershed, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principal components transformations was applied to a Walnut Creek, Texas subscene to reduce the dimensionality of the multispectral sensor data. This transformation was also applied to a LANDSAT 3 MSS subscene of the same area acquired in a different season and year. Results of both procedures are tabulated and allow for comparisons between TM and MSS data. The TM correlation matrix shows that visible bands 1 to 3 exhibit a high degree of correlation in the range 0.92 to 0.96. Correlation for bands 5 to 7 is 0.93. Band 4 is not highly correlated with any other band, with corrections in the range 0.13 to 0.52. The thermal band (6) is not highly correlated with other bands in the range 0.13 to 0.46. The MSS correlation matrix shows that bands 4 and 5 are highly correlated (0.96) as are bands 6 and 7 with a correlation of 0.92.

Ford, G. E. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

303

THE USE OF LANDSAT 7 ENHANCED THEMATIC MAPPER PLUS DATA FOR MAPPING LEAFY SPURGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Euphorbia esula L. (leafy spurge) is an invasive weed that is a major problem in much of the Upper Great Plains region, including parts of Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, and Wyoming. Infestations in North Dakota alone have had a serious economic impact, estimated at $87 million annu...

304

Evaluation of LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work with digital data of Oklahoma, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and California demonstrate that the increased spectral refinement and spatial resolution of TM over MSS data greatly increase the value of the data to petroleum exploration in roles ranging from logistic planning to direct detection of phenomena related to microseepage of hydrocarbons. The value of the spatial content versus the spectral content of the data increases as soil and vegetation cover increase. The structural detail visible in the imagery can contribute to exploration at the prospect level. Examination of the variance/covariance matrix suggests that a combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 displays the most information for most areas.

Dykstra, J. D.; Everett, J. R.; Livaccarri, R.; Michael, R.; Richardson, G.; Prucha, S.; Russell, O.; Ruth, M.; Sheffield, C. A.; Staskowski, R.

1984-01-01

305

Statistical learning algorithms for identifying contrasting tillage practices with landsat thematic mapper data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tillage management practices have direct impact on water holding capacity, evaporation, carbon sequestration, and water quality. This study examines the feasibility of two statistical learning algorithms, such as Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), for cla...

306

A Physically-Based Transformation of Thematic Mapper Data---The TM Tasseled Cap  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an extension of previous simulation studies, a transformation of actual TM data in the six reflective bands is described which achieves three objectives: a fundamental view of TM data structures is presented, the vast majority of data variability is concentrated in a few (three) features, and the defined features can be directly associated with physical scene characteristics. The underlying

Eric P. Crist; Richard C. Cicone

1984-01-01

307

Assessing forest decline in coniferous forests of Vermont using NS-001 Thematic Mapper Simulator data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study evaluates the potential of measuring/mapping forest decline in spruce-fir forests using airborne NS-001 TMS data. Using field instruments, it was found that ratios of 1.65/1.23 and 1.65/0.83-micron reflectance discriminated between spruce samples of low and high-damage sites. Using TMS data, band ratios were found to be strongly correlated with ground-based measurements of forest damage. Ratio colo-density slice images using these band ratios, and images using 0.56 and 1.65-micron bands with either of these band ratios in a false-color composite, provide accurate means of detecting, quantifying and mapping levels of forest decline.

Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.

1986-01-01

308

The effect of Thematic Mapper spectral properties on land cover mapping for hydrologic modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of unsupervised land-cover classification from all seven Landsat TM bands and from six combinations of three or four bands is evaluated using images of the Clinton River Basin, a suburban watershed near Detroit. Data from aerial TMS photography, USGS topographic maps, and ground surveys are employed to determine the classification accuracy. The mapping accuracy of all seven bands is found to be significantly better (6 percent overall, 12 percent for residential areas, and 13 percent for commercial districts) than that with bands 2, 3, and 4; but almost the same accuracy is obtained by including at least one band from each major spectral region (visible, NIR, and mid-IR).

Gervin, J. C.; Lu, Y. C.; Gauthier, R. L.; Miller, J. R.; Irish, R. R.

1986-01-01

309

Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto - Evidence from Landsat Thematic Mapper images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mesoscale mapping of spatial variations in sand composition of the Gran Desierto (Sonora, Mexico) was carried out on multispectral Landsat TM images of this region, making it possible to examine the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. Compositions determined from remote imagery were found to agree well with samples from selected areas. The sand populations delineated were used to describe the sediment source areas, transport paths, and deposition sites. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations aver large areas that were not readily apparent in the field data.

Blount, Grady; Greeley, Ronald; Christensen, Phillip R.; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.

1990-01-01

310

Lava flow cooling estimated from Landsat Thematic Mapper infrared data - The Lonquimay eruption (Chile, 1989)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat TM data are used to measure the crust temperature and the fractional area for an active lava flow during the Lonquimay eruption. A progressive cooling of crusted lava from 250 to 170 C down a 1.5-km segment of the flow is shown. These results are obtained by solving 'dual-band' equations for the two short-wavelength infrared TM bands and by

Clive Oppenheimer

1991-01-01

311

Venus Radar Mapper orbit accuracy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacecraft orbital accuracies during the mapping phase of the Venus Radar Mapper Mission are the subject of this paper. The analysis presented describes the navigational strategy for the prime mission in support of mapping the planet Venus using a spacecraft deployed Synthetic Aperture Radar. Achievable orbital accuracies are shown to be limited by accuracy of interferometric data to be used.

S. N. Mohan; P. B. Esposito

1984-01-01

312

Ultrasonic Mapper Garment Project done in  

E-print Network

Ultrasonic Mapper Garment Project done in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for Course No and create an electronic-textile garment that maps a building as the user walks through it using ultrasonic. The model also accounts for the physical properties of the ultrasonic sensors and addresses three key issues

313

International Monetary Fund (IMF) Data Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The IMF publishes a range of time series data on IMF lending, exchange rates and other economic and financial indicators. Manuals, guides, and other material on statistical practices at the IMF, in member countries, and of the statistical community at large are also available. The data mapper allows the user to view IMF data in a variety of ways using differing indicators.

International Monetary Fund

314

Thematic relations in adults' concepts.  

PubMed

Concepts can be organized by their members' similarities, forming a kind (e.g., animal), or by their external relations within scenes or events (e.g., cake and candles). This latter type of relation, known as the thematic relation, is frequently found to be the basis of children's but not adults' classification. However, 10 experiments found that when thematic relations are meaningful and salient, they have significant influence on adults' category construction (sorting), inductive reasoning, and verification of category membership. The authors conclude that concepts function closely with knowledge of scenes and events and that this knowledge has a role in adults' conceptual representations. PMID:11293459

Lin, E L; Murphy, G L

2001-03-01

315

A Dose of Thematic Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the incorporation of thematic teaching into the author's Reading-Writing Workshop class. Shares a few activities from one coming-of-age unit that increased engagement and helped students generate writing topics that genuinely interested them and related to the same theme. (SG)

Gaughan, John

2003-01-01

316

Descriptive Writing: A Thematic Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic unit for teaching descriptive writing is organized around 10 days of lesson plans. The unit begins by asking key questions about descriptive writing and providing information on grade level, ability level, number of lessons and length of classes, and prior knowledge students should have. It also offers a unit rationale and key…

Smith, Joanna J.

317

Freshman General Studies Thematic. 1973-.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Freshman General Studies Thematic Program (GST) at California State University, Chico was established in 1973 to create a general education program for freshmen and to give faculty the opportunity to explore innovative teaching methods. What resulted was a 33-unit, year-long interdisciplinary course for 36 well-motivated, well-prepared…

California State Univ., Chico.

318

THEMATIC LIMNA SYMPOSIUM SYSTEMS GENETICS  

E-print Network

THEMATIC LIMNA SYMPOSIUM SYSTEMS GENETICS OF METABOLISM Starling Hotel, Lausanne Friday 14th Aebersold Genetic variability and the quantitative proteome 12h10 Greg Barsh Genetics of color variation Aldons J. Lusis Systems genetics of lipid metabolism 14h40 Johan Auwerx Systems analysis of mitochondria

Picasso, Marco

319

Using Landsat 5 TM Data to Identify and Map Areas of Mangrove in Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mangroves are recognized worldwide as a major ecosystem that provides significant ecosystem services. They are threatened due to rising pressures from human overpopulation and economic development. The Caribbean Coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula contains mangrove habitat that have been negatively impacted by the development of the region's tourist industry. However, little research has been done to map and quantify the extent of mangrove in the region. This study used remote sensing techniques to identify mangrove in the Municipality of Tulum located in Quintana Roo, and to produce an accurate vector based thematic map that inventories these areas. Anatomical differences were analyzed and related to high-resolution field spectral data for each mangrove species. A vector map of mangrove habitat, including areas of inland mangrove, was produced with an overall accuracy of 88%. The 19,262 ha. of mangrove identified by this study represents a 140% increase in area over previous studies.

Meachum, Samuel Standish

320

Thematic Unit Planning: English and the Humanities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, the use of thematic units in the teaching of language arts at the secondary level has significantly increased. This document discusses the theory and practice of using thematic units. The first section provides an overview of the use of thematic units and shows how such units can aid in teaching students about the composing process,…

Bushman, John H.; Jones, Sandra

321

Application of high spatial resolution airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data in thematic information extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data, such as PHI, OMIS, has the virtues of high spatial and spectral resolution. Hence, from the view of target classification we can consider that it can provide the ability of discriminating targets more detailedly than other data. So it's important to extract thematic information and update database using this kind of data. Whereas, the hyperspectral data has abundant bands and high between-band correlation, the traditional classification methods such as maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and spectral angle mapper (SAM) have performed poorly in thematic information extraction. For this reason, we present a new method for thematic information extraction with hyperspectral remote sensing data. We perform classification by means of combining the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network which is considered as full-pixel technique with linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) which is considered as mixed-pixel technique. The SOM neural network is improved from some aspects to classify the pure data and find the mixed data. And then the mixed data are unmixed and classified by LSMA. The result of experiment shows that we can have the better performance in thematic information extraction with PHI by this means.

Xu, Hong-gen; Ma, Hong-chao; Li, De-ren; Song, Yan

2006-10-01

322

Sacramento Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows Landsat Thematic Mapper data from the shortwave infrared (TM band 5), infrared (TM band 4), and visible green (TM band 2) channels of Sacramento. The TM data was collected by Landsat 5 on the 27th of September, 1997.

Jesse Allen

1999-04-09

323

St. Louis Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows Landsat Thematic Mapper data from the shortwave infrared (TM band 5), infrared (TM band 4), and visible green (TM band 2) channels of St. Louis. The TM data was collected by Landsat 5 on the 18th of November, 1997.

Jesse Allen

1999-04-09

324

San Diego Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scene shows Landsat Thematic Mapper data from the shortwave infrared (TM band 5), infrared (TM band 4), and visible green (TM band 2) channels of San Diego. The TM data was collected by Landsat 5 on the 12th of September, 1996.

Jesse Allen

1999-04-09

325

Deforestation in Costa Rica: A Quantitative Analysis Using Remote Sensing Imagery1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimates of forest cover and forest fragmentation are critical for developing countries such as Costa Rica, which holds four to five percent of the world's plant and bird species. We estimated forest cover for Costa Rica using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite scenes acquired between 1986 and 1991. In 1991, 29 percent (ca 14,000 km2) of the land cover

G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa; Robert C. Harriss; David L. Skole

2001-01-01

326

Application of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring the Thermal Pollution of Cooling-Water Discharge from Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a practical method to investigate thermal pollution in coastal water from satellite data. The intensity and distribution areas of thermal pollution by the heated effluent discharge from the nuclear power plant on Daya Bay, southern China were investigated by using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal band data from 1994 to 2001. A local algorithm was developed, based

Chuqun Chen; Ping Shi; Qingwen Mao

2003-01-01

327

Geomorphic and Sedimentological Controls on the Effectiveness of an Extreme Flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B STRA C T The 1993 flood on the Upper Mississippi River was a rare, large-magnitude hydrological event. Field and aerial survey analyses and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data were used to appraise the thickness of overbank deposits on leveed and unleveed reaches. Results indicate that minimal (,5 mm) overbank sedimentation occurred, except in the immediate vicinity of a

Francis J. Magilligan; Jonathan D. Phillips; L. Allan James; Basil Gomez

1998-01-01

328

Venus Radar Mapper orbit accuracy analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft orbital accuracies during the mapping phase of the Venus Radar Mapper Mission are the subject of this paper. The analysis presented describes the navigational strategy for the prime mission in support of mapping the planet Venus using a spacecraft deployed Synthetic Aperture Radar. Achievable orbital accuracies are shown to be limited by accuracy of interferometric data to be used. Implications of tracking system configurations and of expected degradation in data accuracy towards the end of the mission in the proximity of superior solar conjunction are examined.

Mohan, S. N.; Esposito, P. B.

1984-01-01

329

Patent-Mapper: Visualization of the geolocation of patents  

E-print Network

Patent-Mapper: Visualization of the geolocation of patents Yang Shen (Kevin) Department of Letter://www.funginstitute.berkeley.edu/sites/default/ les/PatentMapper.pdf August 5, 2013 130 Blum Hall #5580 Berkeley, CA 94720-5580 | (510) 664-4337 | www.funginstitute.berkeley.edu #12;! ! Abstract With thousands of patents emerging annually, and an approximate total of five million

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

330

An investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT-5 data quality. [Palmer County, Shelby, mt; White sands, NM; Great Salt Lake, UT; San Matted Bridge and Sacramento, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Band-to-band registration, geodetic registration, interdector noise, and the modulation transfer function (MTE) are discussed for the Palmer County; TX scene. Band combinations for several LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT 5 scenes; the geodetic registration test for the Sacramento, CA area; periodic noise components in TM band 5; and grey level measurements by detector for Great Salt Lake (UT) dark water forescans and backscans are considered. Results of MTF analyses of the San Mateo Bridge and of TM high resolution and aerial Daedalus scanner imagery are consistent and appear to be repeatable. An oil-on-sand target was constructed on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The two-image analysis procedure used is summarized.

Wrigley, R. C. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

331

Development and Application of an Annual Vegetation-Monitoring Tool in Gishwati Forest Reserve using MODIS NDVI product and Landsat-5 and 7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the most densely populated country in Africa, Rwanda relies heavily on a limited supply of natural resources to sustain its agrarian economy. Population pressures, economic policy, and the aftermath of the genocide have placed particular stress on the Gishwati Forest in Rwanda's Western Province. Deforestation for agricultural purposes and fuel consumption has disrupted the local climate, soil structure, and topography, leading to increased erosion, landslides and flooding. Once 280 km2, by 1995 the Gishwati Forest was only 6 km2. The Rwandan government and international NGOs have started initiatives to reverse deforestation, which would benefit from monitoring and evaluation using remote sensing technology. This study filled the gaps in the tumultuous history of Gishwati Forest since 1982 using NASA's Earth Observing System, specifically Landsat 5 and AVHRR. In collaboration with partner organizations, we developed a robust, yet simple to use, forest monitoring tool employing MODIS NDVI product and Landsat that provide annual estimates of the forest's health.

Makar, N. I.; Butler, K.; Fox, T.; Geddes, Q. A.; Janse van Vuuren, L.; Li, A.; Sharma, A.

2012-12-01

332

The Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) mission is sponsored by NASA to put a single spacecraft in orbit around Venus to map the surface of Venus using a synthetic aperture mapping radar. The spacecraft is scheduled to be launched in April 1988 using a Shuttle-Centaur G combination. The spacecraft arrives at Venus in late July 1988 and begins its mapping mission which lasts for one Venus rotation or 243 days. This paper describes the VRM mission at its present state of design. The science objectives and project constraints are described. Key features of the spacecraft system and radar system are discussed. The interplanetary and mapping orbit design are covered. Navigation strategy is explained, including trajectory maneuvers and mapping phase orbit determination. Finally, the mapping sequences to optimize planet coverage are described.

Cutting, E.; Kwok, J. H.; Mohan, S. N.

1984-01-01

333

MAPPER alignment sensor evaluation on process wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing. In order to reduce costs and to minimize the footprint of this tool a new alignment sensor has been developed; based on technologies used for DVD optical heads. A wafer with an alignment mark is scanned with the sensor, resulting in an intensity pattern versus position. From this pattern the mark position can be calculated. Evaluations have been made over the performance of this type of sensor using different mark designs at several lithography process steps for FEOL and BEOL manufacturing. It has been shown that sub-nanometer reproducibility (3? std) of alignment mark readings can be achieved while being robust against various process steps.

Vergeer, N.; Lattard, L.; de Boer, G.; Couweleers, F.; Dave, D.; Pradelles, J.; Bustos, J.

2013-03-01

334

Development of image mappers for hyperspectral biomedical imaging applications  

PubMed Central

A new design and fabrication method is presented for creating large-format (>100 mirror facets) image mappers for a snapshot hyperspectral biomedical imaging system called an image mapping spectrometer (IMS). To verify this approach a 250 facet image mapper with 25 multiple-tilt angles is designed for a compact IMS that groups the 25 subpupils in a 5 × 5 matrix residing within a single collecting objective's pupil. The image mapper is fabricated by precision diamond raster fly cutting using surface-shaped tools. The individual mirror facets have minimal edge eating, tilt errors of <1 mrad, and an average roughness of 5.4 nm. PMID:20357875

Kester, Robert T.; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

2010-01-01

335

The thematic mapping system on internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic Mapping Services (TMS) is about providing thematic mapping and analysis as a service way on internet. After the Internet Google launch Google Maps on the Internet in 2005, map application on the Internet appeared in large numbers. A large number of developers through the Google map API mashups maps out a wide variety of applications. With the concept of

Lili Jiang; Qingwen Qi; An Zhang

2010-01-01

336

The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

2011-01-01

337

United States History: The Thematic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The thematic approach to teaching United States history is stressed and units are suggested such as resource exploitations, federalism, cultural change, pursuit of individual civil rights, foreign involvement, and the redefinition of national goals that illustrate particular themes. (ND)

Liles, Jesse

1975-01-01

338

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands  

E-print Network

Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands: The contribution of the United Kingdom............................................................................................. 11 3. THE BIODIVERSITY OF ISLANDS INVOLVED WITH DI PROJECTS ........................................................................................... 49 6. THE DARWIN INITIATIVE'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE CBD'S ISLAND BIODIVERSITY PROGRAMME OF WORK

339

Spectral mixture analysis to monitor defoliation in mixed-aged Eucalyptus globulus Labill plantations in southern Australia using Landsat 5-TM and EO-1 Hyperion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defoliation is a key parameter of forest health and is associated with reduced productivity and tree mortality. Assessing the health of forests requires regular observations over large areas. Satellite remote sensing provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional ground-based assessment of forest health, but assessing defoliation can be difficult due to mixed pixels where vegetation cover is low or fragmented. In this study we apply a novel spectral unmixing technique, referred to as weighted Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (wMESMA), to Landsat 5-TM and EO-1 Hyperion data acquired over a Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) plantation in southern Australia. This technique combines an iterative mixture analysis cycle allowing endmembers to vary on a per pixel basis (MESMA) and a weighting algorithm that prioritizes wavebands based on their robustness against endmember variability. Spectral mixture analysis provides an estimate of the physically interpretable canopy cover, which is not necessarily correlated with defoliation in mixed-aged plantations due to natural variation in canopy cover as stands age. There is considerable variability in the degree of defoliation as well as in stand age among sites and in this study we found that results were significantly improved by the inclusion of an age correction algorithm for both the multi-spectral ( R2no age correction = 0.55 vs R2age correction = 0.73 for Landsat) and hyperspectral ( R2no age correction = 0.12 vs R2age correction = 0.50 for Hyperion) image data. The improved accuracy obtained from Landsat compared to the Hyperion data illustrates the potential of applying SMA techniques for analysis of multi-spectral datasets such as MODIS and SPOT-VEGETATION.

Somers, B.; Verbesselt, J.; Ampe, E. M.; Sims, N.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Coppin, P.

2010-08-01

340

Thermal Band Characterization of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper. [Buffalo, New York and water temperature in Lake Erie  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quick look monitor in the spacecraft control center was used to measure the TM Band 6 shutter background and the 34.7 C internal blackbody signal on over 50 dates. Comparison of relative internal gains between the four channels to prelaunch values showed changes over 9 months of up to 5%, while 512 x 512 subsections of the original 10 daytime scenes showed scene counts that ranged from 135 down to 62. A night scene of the Buffalo area was used to determine channel gain relative to the mean and to discern a systematic along scan pattern in a difference between forward and reverse scan counts of up to 0.5. A corrected digital image was produced and individual gains and offsets were calculated for the four channels. At satellite radiance was determine and noise equivalent temperature difference was calculated. The calibration data and the Buffalo scene, with the corrections and estimates of the atmospheric transmission and radiance, were used to make a temperature estimate for an area of Lake Erie of 21 C to 27 C. Local records of the temperature showed 21 C.

Lansing, J. C.; Barker, J. L.

1984-01-01

341

Energy Facility Siting by Means of Environmental Modelling with LANDSAT, Thematic Mapper and Geographic Information System (GIS) Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently based on ground and aerial surveys, the land cover data base of the Pennsylvania Power and Light Company is routinely used for modelling the effects of alternative generating plant and transmission line sites on the local and regional environment. The development of a satellite-based geographic information system would facilitate both the preparation of environmental impact statements by power companies and assessment of the data by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A cooperative project is planned to demonstrate the methodology for integrating satellite data into an existing geographic information system, d to further evaluate the ability of satellite data in modeling environmental conditions that would be applied in the preparation and assessment of environmental impact statements.

1982-01-01

342

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial characteristics of the data were evaluated. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. The potential need for some level of radiometric adjustment was evidenced by an along track band of high reflectance across different cover types in the Varian imagery. A multiple regression analysis was employed to explore the viewing angle effect on measured reflectance. Areas in the data set which appeared to have no across track stratification of cover type were identified. A program was developed which computed the average reflectance by column for each channel, over all of the scan lines in the designated areas. A regression analysis was then run using the first, second, and third degree polynomials, for each channel. An atmospheric effect as a component of the viewing angle source of variance is discussed. Cover type maps were completed and training and test field selection was initiated.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

343

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Training and test data sets for CAM1S from NS-001 MSS data for two dates (geometrically adjusted to 30 meter resolution) were used to evaluate wavelength band. Two sets of tapes containing digitized HH and HV polarization data were obtained. Because the SAR data on the 9 track tapes contained no meaningful data, the 7 track tapes were copied onto 9 track tapes at LARS. The LARSYS programs were modified and a program was written to reformat the digitized SAR data into a LARSYS format. The radar imagery is being qualitatively interpreted. Results are to be used to identify possible cover types, to produce a classification map to aid in the numerical evaluation classification of radar data, and to develop an interpretation key for radar imagery. The four spatial resolution data sets were analyzed. A program was developed to reduce the spatial distortions resulting from variable viewing distance, and geometrically adjusted data sets were generated. A flowchart of steps taken to geometrically adjust a data set from the NS-001 scanner is presented.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

344

Determination of surface reflectance and estimates of atmospheric optical depth and single scattering albedo from Landsat Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Groound-reflectance data on selected targets for calbiration of a Landsat TM image of Wind River Basin, Wyoming, acquired November 21, 1982 were examined. Field-derived calibration relationships together with Landsat radiometric calibration data are used to convert scanner DN values to spectral radiance for the TM bands and (together with a simplified homogeneous atmospheric model) to obtain estimates of single-scattering albedo and optical depth consistent with the derived path radiance and transmission properties of the atmosphere. These estimates are used to study the problems of evaluation of the magnitude of adjacency effects for reference targets, the assumption of isotropic properties, and the aggregate magnitude of multiple reflections between sky and ground. The radiance calibration equations are also used together with preflight measured signal/noise properties of the TM-4 system to estimate the noise-equivalent reflectance recoverable in practice from the system.

Conel, James E.

1990-01-01

345

Thematic Mapper and field investigations at the intersection of the Death Valley and Garlock fault zones, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of processed images and detailed field investigations have provided significant information concerning the late-Pliocene and Quaternary evolution of the intersection of the Garlock and Death Valley fault zones. The imagery was used to determine patterns of sedimentation and age relationships on alluvial fans and to determine the geometry, styles of deformation, and relative ages of movements on major and minor faults in the study area. The field investigation often confirmed the inferences drawn from the images and provided additional tectonic and geomorphologic data about the Quaternary deformation of the region. All the data gathered in the course of this project support the contention that the Garlock fault zone terminates in the Avawatz Mountains and that the Death Valley fault zone continues south of the intersection for at least 50 km, forming the eastern boundary of the Mojave province.

Brady, Roland H., III; Cregan, Alan; Clayton, Jeff; Troxel, Bennie W.; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Abrams, Michael

1989-01-01

346

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometric quality of TM film and digital products is evaluated by making selective photomeasurements and by measuring the coordinates of known features on both the TM products and map products. These paired observations are related using a standard linear least squares regression approach. Using regression equations and coefficients developed from 225 (TM film product) and 20 (TM digital product) control points, map coordinates of test points are predicted. The residual error vectors and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed on the east and north residual using nine image segments (blocks) as treatments. Based on the root mean square error of the 223 (TM film product) and 22 (TM digital product) test points, users of TM data expect the planimetric accuracy of mapped points to be within 91 meters and within 117 meters for the film products, and to be within 12 meters and within 14 meters for the digital products.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

347

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Separate holograms of horizontally (HH) and vertically (HV) polarized responses obtained by the APQ-102 side-looking radar were processed through an optical correlator and the resulting image was recorded on positive film from which black and white negative and positive prints were made. Visual comparison of the HH and HV images reveals a distinct dark band in the imagery which covers about 30% of the radar strip. Preliminary evaluaton of the flight line 1 date indicates that various features on the HH and HV images seem to have different response levels. The amount of sidelap due to the look angle between flight lines 1 and 2 is negligible. NASA mission #425 to obtain flightlines of NS-001 MSS data and supporting aerial photography was successfully flown. Flight line 3 data are of very good quality and virtually cloud-free. Results of data analysis for selection of test fields and for evaluation of waveband combination and spatial resolution are presented.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator); Latty, R. S.; Dean, E.; Knowlton, D. J.

1980-01-01

348

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The column normalizing technique was used to adjust the data for variations in the amplitude of the signal due to look angle effects with respect to solar zenith angle along the scan lines (i.e., across columns). Evaluation of the data set containing the geometric and radiometric adjustments, indicates that the data set should be satisfactory for further processing and analysis. Software was developed for degrading the spatial resolution of the aircraft data to produce a total of four data sets for further analysis. The quality of LANDSAT 2 CCT data for the test site is good for channels four, five, and six. Channel seven was not present on the tape. The data received were reformatted and analysis of the test site area was initiated.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

349

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To facilitate comparison between the four different spatial resolution of the NS-001 MSS data sets, a supervised approach was taken in defining training blocks for each of the different cover types. The training fields representing each cover type category were grouped and this group was clustered to determine the individual spectral classes within each cover type category which would effectively characterize the entire test site. Graphs show the variation in spectral response level with respect to distance in the across track dimension for four sampling intervals. Radar digitization procedures were developd. Flight characteristics and parameters for digitization of radar imagery are tabulated. The statement of work for phase 3 was reviewed and modifications were suggested to meet funding reduction.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

350

IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY FOR PRODUCTION OF NATIONAL LAND-COVER DATA (NLCD) FROM THE LANDSAT 7 THEMATIC MAPPER SATELLITE  

EPA Science Inventory

As environmental programs within and outside the federal government continue to move away from point-based studies to larger and larger spatial (not cartographic) scale, the need for land-cover and other geographic data have become ineluctable. The national land-cover mapping pr...

351

A Landsat Thematic Mapper investigation of the geobotanical relationships in the northern spruce-fir forest, Mt. Moosilauke, New Hampshire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This investigation, in the northern spruce-fir forest at Mt. Moosilauke, NH, indicates that Landsat TM data can be used to distinguish between and map major vegetation zones. Principal components analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the TM data; and in this simpler spectral space, it is easier to visualize the discrimination between major vegetation zones: the northern hardwoods zone, spruce-fir zone, fir zone, and alpine tundra zone. The moisture stress index highlights areas of heavy forest damage (fir waves), but does not correlate with low levels of damage in the mixed, background forest at Mt. Moosilauke. Care must be taken to avoid confusion between high-elevation climatically-stressed vegetation (normal krummholz forest) and damaged lower elevation forests, both of which have similar TM5/TM4 ratio values.

Torcoletti, Paul J.; Birnie, Richard W.

1988-01-01

352

Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper and multispectral scanners. [Plumas County, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A seven step procedure developed for evaluating the geometric properties of MSS and TM film produces is being implemented. Some 476 control points were selected of which 238 are being tested and edited for digitization and scaling errors. Tables show statistics established for assessing the spectral characteristics and variability, as well as the spatial resolution and radiometric sensitivity of TM data for a forest environment in an effort to determine the extent to which major forest cover type can be detected and identified on TM digital and image products. Results thus far show that the high quality obtained are more than sufficient for meeting most of the inventory objectives of the renewable resource specialist. The TM data should be extremely valuable for: (1) estimating forest cover types; (2) updating land use survey maps; and (3) determining the size and shape and location of individual forest clearings and water resources.

Colwell, R. N. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

353

The use of the Thematic Mapper for the analysis of eutrophic lakes: a case study in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat TM images were analysed to assess the scope and limitations of their use for inland water quality detection. The spectral information in the six visible to middle infrared bands is discussed. The relatively wide spectral bands, 1 to 4, of the TM, in the optical wavelength domain contain a mixture of spectrally opposing features of absorption and scatteringQualitative and

A. G. DEKKER; S. W. M. PETERS

1993-01-01

354

Comparative techniques used to evaluate Thematic Mapper data for land cover classification in Logan County, West Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several digital data processing techniques were evaluated in an effort to identify and map active/abandoned, partially reclaimed, and fully revegetated surface mine areas in the central portion of Logan County. The TM data were first subjected to various enhancement procedures, including a linear contrast stretch, principal components and canonical analysis transformations. At the same time, four general procedures were followed to produce six classifications as a means of comparing the techniques involved. Preliminary results show that various feature extraction/data reduction techniques provide classification results equal or superior to the more straightforward unsupervised clustering technique. Analyst interaction time for labelling clusters is reduced using the canonical analysis and principal components procedures, though the canonical technique has clearly produced better results to date.

Brumfield, J. O.; Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. F.

1985-01-01

355

Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several possibilities were considered for defining the data set in which the same test areas could be used for each of the four different spatial resolutions being evaluated. The LARSYS CLUSTER was used to sort the vectors into spectral classes to reduce the within-spectral class variability in an effort to develop training statistics. A data quality test was written to determine the basic signal to noise characteristics within the data set being used. Because preliminary analysis of the LANDSAT MSS data revealed the presence of high cirrus clouds, other data sets are being sought.

Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

356

Remote detection of geobotanical anomalies associated with hydrocarbon microseepage using thematic mapper simulator (TMS) and airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interpretation of TMS and AIS data sets collected from Lost River, West Virginia, are presented, along with a brief review of the supervised vegetation classification approach to vegetation mapping used at Lost River. A preliminary study of AIS data suggests that contiguous high-spectral resolution data from a very limited portion of the spectrum (1.2-1.5 micron) provide a greater discriminatory capability than do broad-band sensors such as the TMS covering of wider spectral range (0.45-2.35 microns).

Rock, B. N.

1984-01-01

357

An evaluation of thematic mapper simulator data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types in Southwest Oregon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rock type identification may be assisted by the use of remote sensing of associated vegetation, particularly in areas of dense vegetative cover where surface materials are not imaged directly by the sensor. The geobotanical discrimination of ultramafic parent materials was investigated and analytical techniques for lithologic mapping and mineral exploration were developed. The utility of remotely sensed data to discriminate vegetation types associated with ultramafic parent materials in a study area in southwest Oregon were evaluated. A number of specific objectives were identified, which include: (1) establishment of the association between vegetation and rock types; (2) examination of the spectral separability of vegetation types associated with rock types; (3) determination of the contribution of each TMS band for discriminating vegetation associated with rock types and (4) comparison of analytical techniques for spectrally classifying vegetation.

Weinstock, K. J.; Morrissey, L. A.

1984-01-01

358

Integration of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data and digitized aerial photography via an ISH transformation. [Intensity Saturation Hue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.

Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.

1991-01-01

359

Mapping hardwood forests through a two-stage unsupervised classification by integrating Landsat Thematic Mapper and forest inventory data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound forest management requires accurate forest maps at an appropriate scale. Forest cover data developed at a national scale may be too coarse for forest management at a local level. We demonstrated a two-stage unsupervised classification, integrating Continuous Forest Inventory (CFI) data and Landsat imageries, to classify forest types for Indiana State Forests (ISF) and 8-km surrounding areas. In the first stage, an automatic unsupervised classification assisted by CFI data was applied in ISF. In the second stage, the resultant forest cover information from the first stage was used to expand the classification area into the 8-km surrounding areas. Splitting the classification procedure into two stages made it possible to expand the classification area beyond the coverage of the CFI data. This data-aided unsupervised classification approach increased the repeatability of forest mapping. The resultant map contains five forest types: conifer, conifer-hardwood, maple, mixed hardwood, and oak-hickory forests. The overall accuracy was 81.9%, and the total disagreement was 0.176. The accuracies of conifer, conifer-hardwood, maple, mixed hardwood, and oak-hickory forests were 81.6, 63.4, 75.0, 33.3, and 90%, respectively. This forest mapping technique is suitable for automated mapping of forest areas where extensive plot data are available.

Shao, Gang; Pauli, Benjamin P.; Haulton, G. Scott; Zollner, Patrick A.; Shao, Guofan

2014-01-01

360

Thematic Mapper and Gis Data Integration to Evaluate the Flooding Dynamics Witbin the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes succinctly the methodology and the results obtained from a study on the evaluation of flooding dynamics in a section of the Pantanal, integrating remote sensing and field data in a GIs. 1. GEOGHU)SBIC SETTING AND OBJECTIVES The Pantanal is a large floodplain (approx. 140,000 sqfkm), including several ecosystems, with specific ecological and floristic characteristics. In this region,

J. dos Santos Vila da Silva

1992-01-01

361

The GOES-R Lightning Mapper Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lightning Mapper Sensor on GOES-R builds on previous measurements of lightning from low earth orbit by the OTD (Optical Transient Detector) and LIS (Lightning Imaging Sensor) sensors. Unlike observations from low earth orbit, the GOES-R platform will allow continuous monitoring of lightning activity over the Continental United States and southern Canada, Central and South America, and portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The LMS will detect total (cloud-to-ground and intracloud) lightning at storm scale resolution (approx. 8 km) using a highly sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector array. Discrimination between lightning optical transients and a bright sunlit background scene is accomplished by employing spectral, spatial, and temporal filtering along with a background subtraction technique. The result is 24 hour detection capability of total lightning. These total lightning observations can be made available to users within about 20 seconds. Research indicates a number of ways that total lightning observations from LMS could benefit operational activities, including 1) potential increases in lead times and reduced false alarms for severe thunderstorm and tornado Warnings, 2) improved routing of &rail around thunderstorms, 3) support for spacecraft launches and landings, 4) improved ability to monitor tropical cyclone intensity, 5) ability to monitor thunderstorm intensification/weakening during radar outages or where radar coverage is poor, 6) better identification of deep convection for the initialization of numerical prediction models, 7) improved forest fire forecasts, 8) identification of convective initiation, 9) identification of heavy convective snowfall, and 10) enhanced temporal resolution of storm evolution (1 minute) than is available from radar observations. Total lightning data has been used in an operational environment since July 2003 at the Huntsville, Alabama National Weather Service office. Total lightning measurements are obtained by the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and have successfully been used in warning decisions. Every 2 minutes, total lightning counts in 2 km by 2 km horizontal, 1 km vertical grids are available to forecasters on an AWIPS (Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System) workstation. Experience with the LMA total lightning data is used to illustrate the potential use of LMS data that would be available to forecasters across the US. This abstract is for submission as a presentation to the National Weather Association Annual Meeting to be held 16-21 October 2004 in Portland, OR. This abstract will be published in the conference proceedings.

Buechler, Dennis; Christian, Hugh; Goodman, Steve

2004-01-01

362

Digital classification of composite format color-infrared aerial video imagery  

E-print Network

). The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), present on both Landsat 4 and Landsat 5, produces 8-bit image data with nominal resolution of 30 meters in 7 bands (Philipson, 1986). In spite of the increased resolution, it has been found that analysis of 30-meter data... boreal forest region using Thematic Mapper Simulator data. Launched in 1985, the French SPOT satellite gathers data in both a panchromatic mode with 10-meter resolution and a multispectral mode in 3 channels with 30-meter resolution. Buchheim et al...

Palmer, Rebecca Anne

1989-01-01

363

Louisiana Air Quality - Using ASTER, Landsat 5, and MODIS to Assess the Impact of Sugar Cane and Marsh Burning Practices on Local Air Quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning is an event that occurs globally and encompasses both human-initiated and naturally-occurring fires. It is estimated that 3 billion metric tons of biomass are burned every year worldwide (Curtis 2002). Societies have used these burning techniques for cooking and heating, clearing land for agricultural use, and removing excess biomass from grazing and croplands (Levine 1991). Our study focuses on the state of Louisiana and its commonly occurring methods of sugarcane and marsh biomass burning (LSU Ag.Center 2000; Nyman and Chabreck 1995). Over the centuries, the sugarcane industry in this state has steadily grown to surpass all other agriculture commodities. To promote efficiency within this large industry, burning excess biomass takes place throughout the harvesting period (LSU Ag.Center 2000). In addition to sugarcane, Louisiana contains 30% of the total coastal marsh of the United States (LSU Ag.Center 2000). The periodic burning of such marshes is an ecologically important management tool that is practiced throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Nyman and Chabreck 1995). In most biomass burning instances, the leading by-product is particulate matter that is less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10). Through past research, this fine material has been shown to have negative health effects on surrounding populations (Boopathy2001). While burning guidelines have been set into place by the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) to reduce health effects, the guidelines are voluntary (LDAF 2000). To help quantify emission estimates, we will focus on Iberia Parish for sugarcane burning and Cameron Parish for marsh burning. Through analysis of ASTER, Landsat 5 TM, and MODIS data, our goal is to determine the amount and location of land area burned for the years 2008 and 2009 due to these practices. With emissions algorithms from Seiler and Crutzen, 1980, total acreage burned can be used to estimate emissions. This information will help to document the impact of these smoke plumes on local populations for the improvement of biomass burning policies in Louisiana.

Clark, Robert; Reahard, Ross; Robin, Chad; Zeringue, Jared

2010-01-01

364

Nitrogen Source and Loading Data for EPA Estuary Data Mapper  

EPA Science Inventory

Nitrogen source and loading data have been compiled and aggregated at the scale of estuaries and associated watersheds of the conterminous United States, using the spatial framework in EPA's Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) to provide system boundaries. Original sources of data include...

365

Thematic minireview series: metals in biology 2014.  

PubMed

This thematic series, the sixth in the Metals in Biology collection beginning in 2009, addresses the issue of why certain metals are used by particular enzymes, as well as the consequences of using the wrong metal. This prologue introduces the 2014 Metals in Biology thematic series. The first minireview in the series deals with general aspects of metal specificity, and the next two deal with specific cases, the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase and iron/manganese homeostasis in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The fourth discusses metal selection in oxidative stress, and the final minireview discusses lysosome-related organelles as mediators of metal homeostasis. PMID:25160633

Guengerich, F Peter

2014-10-10

366

Thematic Mathematics: The Combinatorics of Prime Factorizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we use a particular example to illustrate a thematic approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics. Our theme, suitable for undergraduates and able sixth-form students, is the enumeration of mathematical objects associated with the prime factorizations of integers. It is shown in detail how this gives rise to some beautiful…

Griffiths, Martin

2010-01-01

367

Thematic Cartography, Resource Paper No. 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource paper on thematic cartography is part of a series designed to supplement undergraduate geography courses. It reviews recent developments in the field and identifies problem areas which warrant future attention. Cartography is defined as both the conceptual, problem-oriented research and the technical processes of map making. It…

Muehrcke, Phillip

368

Thematic Approaches to Teaching Rhetorical Criticism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that a thematic approach to teaching criticism--based on frequent, integrated writing tasks--accommodates the constraints found in the typical undergraduate course on rhetorical criticism. Illustrates this approach with reference to two themes: Ronald Reagan's discourse and the rhetoric of war and peace. (MM)

Henry, David; Sharp, Harry, Jr.

1989-01-01

369

An Honorable Seduction: Thematic Studies in Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By using a thematic approach and by drawing on other disciplines for breadth, English teachers can "honorably seduce" career-oriented students into a love affair with literature and draw them back into the English curriculum. For example, a teacher's conversation with a student focusing on fathers and sons led the teacher to suggest that the…

Worby, Diana Z.

370

A Thematic Analysis of Suicide Notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of suicide notes is an integral part of understanding suicidal behaviour. To this end, Leenaars (1996, 1992) has developed the Thematic Guide to Suicide Prediction (TGSP) for profiling the psychological correlates of suicide. The utility of this tool in suicide prevention, however, is not known. This study applied the TGSP to suicide notes (n = 45), interpreted in

Rory C OConnor; Noel P Sheehy; Daryl B OConnor

1999-01-01

371

Genres of Literature. Thematic Study Guides & Bibliographies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at helping students in grades 5-8 read and enjoy more varieties of literature as well as promoting more writing, this guide offers materials which use a thematic approach to reading, writing, and literature. The guide provides reproducible and hands-on activity ideas plus bibliographies for the genres of realistic fiction, animal tales,…

Withington, Janice J.

372

Use of MindMapper software for research domain mapping.  

PubMed

The application of concept mapping software to facilitate the first steps of the research review process is discussed in relation to other software programs currently used for research synthesis. MindMapper software was used to develop a strategy for organizing the results of a comprehensive literature search into discrete categories with relationships among concepts graphically displayed to reveal the structure of the research domain. A Mind Map was developed for the scholarly literature on Web-based consumer health information. A second Mind Map examined the subconcept of barriers to consumer use of the Internet for health information. MindMapper has many features that facilitate description of the breadth and depth of literature in a domain of inquiry. It also facilitates identification of the number and nature of studies underpinning mapped relationships among concepts, thus laying the groundwork for systematic research reviews and meta-analyses. PMID:12464737

Lesley, Marsha; Floyd, Judith; Oermann, Marilyn

2002-01-01

373

Efficient generation of area thematic maps in KML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thematic maps using KML and KMZ are common for point and line features, but scarce for area features. We present a method and website for generation of the thematic map KMLs based on US Census geography. By taking advantage of various preprocessing and indexing methods, thematic maps viewable in any KML compliant viewer (eg, Google Maps, Google Earth, or ArcGIS

Bruce A. Ralston; Joshua A. Streufert

2008-01-01

374

Reading Thematically Related Texts to Develop Knowledge and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When literacy instruction uses books selected on the basis of thematic content, it can foster the attainment of literacy goals while developing readers' knowledge. This paper provides a rationale for the use of thematically-related texts in literacy instruction and describes some thematic units that have been a part of literacy intervention…

Gelzheiser, Lynn; Hallgren-Flynn, Laura; Connors, Margaret; Scanlon, Donna

2014-01-01

375

Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976–2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005–2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system. PMID:21170121

Hu, Daning; Dang, Yan; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Larson, Catherine A.; Chan, Joyce

2008-01-01

376

Reward processing in autism: a thematic series.  

PubMed

This thematic series presents theoretical and empirical papers focused on understanding autism from the perspective of reward processing deficits. Although the core symptoms of autism have not traditionally been conceptualized with respect to altered reward-based processes, it is clear that brain reward circuitry plays a critical role in guiding social and nonsocial learning and behavior throughout development. Additionally, brain reward circuitry may respond to social sources of information in ways that are similar to responses to primary rewards, and recent clinical data consistently suggest abnormal behavioral and neurobiologic responses to rewards in autism. This thematic series presents empirical data and review papers that highlight the utility of considering autism from the perspective of reward processing deficits. Our hope is that this novel framework may further elucidate autism pathophysiology, with the ultimate goal of yielding novel insights with potential therapeutic implications. PMID:22958239

Dichter, Gabriel; Adolphs, Ralph

2012-01-01

377

Analysis of thematic map classification error matrices.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The classification error matrix expresses the counts of agreement and disagreement between the classified categories and their verification. Thematic mapping experiments compare variables such as multiple photointerpretation or scales of mapping, and produce one or more classification error matrices. This paper presents a tutorial to implement a typical problem of a remotely sensed data experiment for solution by the linear model method.-from Author

Rosenfield, G.H.

1986-01-01

378

Which calibration-pulse location method is robust?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Threshold method, with high threshold and contiguous-block parameter values, was found to be a robust method of locating calibration pulses in the presence of light-leak and shutter-edge pulses within the calibration window. Tests used digitized calibration-window background and light-pulse data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument, analyzed by special software on an Apple II+ personal computer and on a VAX 11/780 minicomputer.

Gunther, F. J.

379

Which calibration-pulse location method is robust?. [for satellite imaging instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Threshold method, with high threshold and contiguous-block parameter values, was found to be a robust method of locating calibration pulses in the presence of light-leak and shutter-edge pulses within the calibration window. Tests used digitized calibration-window background and light-pulse data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument, analyzed by special software on an Apple II+ personal computer and on a VAX 11/780 minicomputer.

Gunther, F. J.

1985-01-01

380

Temporal trends in earth-atmosphere system reflectance factor for sagebrush steppe vegetation communities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four consecutive Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper acquisitions were used to examine trends in earth-atmosphere system reflectance factors of sagebrush steppe vegetation communities following soil moisture recharge from snow melt. Significant differences in trends between vegetation communities correspond to known differences in the initiation and duration of active vegetation growth. Information on short-term vegetation processes are a valuable supplement to estimates of total vegetation cover which can be obtained using satellite brightness images at less frequent temporal intervals.

Strong, Laurence L.

1987-01-01

381

Application of remote sensing data for oil spill monitoring in the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of remote sensing data for oil spill monitoring in the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During the emergency, Landsat-5\\/TM (Thematic Mapper) and Radarsat-1 data were acquired to monitor the location of the spill and its movement. Image classification procedures have been utilized to highlight oil-covered areas on the water surface. Ambiguities in the oil

Cristina Bentz; F. Pellon de Miranda

2001-01-01

382

Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Unlocking the Mysteries of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a state-of-the-art high spectral resolution imaging spectrometer that will characterize and map the mineral composition of the Moon. The M3 instrument will be flown on Chandrayaan-I, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission to be launched in March 2008. The Moon is a cornerstone to understanding early solar system processes. M3 high-resolution compositional maps will dramatically improve our understanding about the early evolution of the terrestrial planets and will provide an assessment of lunar resources at high spatial resolution.

Runyon, Cassandra

2006-01-01

383

A mapper's reflection on Dementia Care Mapping with older residents living in a nursing home.  

PubMed

Aim and objective.? This paper explores reflection stemming from a Dementia Care Mapper's own learning and development concerning person-centred care with older residents living in a dementia specific nursing home. Background.? Dementia Care Mapping has been employed in few Australian residential care facilities to promote person-centred care and the well-being of residents. Reflection has also been used selectively in some practices to improve and evaluate the care process. However, contemporary nursing literature has failed to highlight the usefulness of applying reflection following Dementia Care Mapping with older residents. Method.? The mapper's reflections arose from the Dementia Care Mapping observation of five older residents and writing a daily reflective journal. Findings.? From the reflection, a dominant major theme emerged named as the Learning Experience from Mapping Residents with two sub-themes entitled Mapper's Identification of Resident's Unique Needs and Mapper's Empowerment of Clinicians. Dementia Care Mapping recommendations from the mapper's experience highlighted effective approaches to conducting Dementia Care Mapping in residential care facilities. Conclusions.? The valuable process of reflection to Dementia Care Mapping provided the mapper with clinical insights. Further from the mapper's final reflection, a poem entitled Come Back Mind, Come Back to Me was conceived and penned. Relevance to clinical practice.? The mapper's engagement in ongoing reflection incorporated with Dementia Care Mapping has the potential to promote best practice for the care of older people living in aged care facilities. PMID:20925900

Mansah, Martha; Coulon, Lyn; Brown, Peter

2008-06-01

384

Evaluation of the OhmMapper Instrument for Soil Moisture Measurement Jeffrey P. Walker* and Paul R. Houser  

E-print Network

is the could be used to infer soil moisture content with a coefficient of OhmMapper by Geometrics Inc. (San the OhmMapper's potential to mapwas used. A more sophisticated analysis of the resistivity measure- rootEvaluation of the OhmMapper Instrument for Soil Moisture Measurement Jeffrey P. Walker* and Paul R

Walker, Jeff

385

HomozygosityMapper—an interactive approach to homozygosity mapping  

PubMed Central

Homozygosity mapping is a common method for mapping recessive traits in consanguineous families. In most studies, applications for multipoint linkage analyses are applied to determine the genomic region linked to the disease. Unfortunately, these are neither suited for very large families nor for the inclusion of tens of thousands of SNPs. Even if less than 10 000 markers are employed, such an analysis may easily last hours if not days. Here we present a web-based approach to homozygosity mapping. Our application stores marker data in a database into which users can directly upload their own SNP genotype files. Within a few minutes, the database analyses the data, detects homozygous stretches and provides an intuitive graphical interface to the results. The homozygosity in affected individuals is visualized genome-wide with the ability to zoom into single chromosomes and user-defined chromosomal regions. The software also displays the underlying genotypes in all samples. It is integrated with our candidate gene search engine, GeneDistiller, so that users can interactively determine the most promising gene. They can at any point restrict access to their data or make it public, allowing HomozygosityMapper to be used as a data repository for homozygosity-mapping studies. HomozygosityMapper is available at http://www.homozygositymapper.org/. PMID:19465395

Seelow, Dominik; Schuelke, Markus; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Nürnberg, Peter

2009-01-01

386

Advanced mesospheric temperature mapper for high-latitude airglow studies.  

PubMed

Over the past 60 years, ground-based remote sensing measurements of the Earth's mesospheric temperature have been performed using the nighttime hydroxyl (OH) emission, which originates at an altitude of ?87??km. Several types of instruments have been employed to date: spectrometers, Fabry-Perot or Michelson interferometers, scanning-radiometers, and more recently temperature mappers. Most of them measure the mesospheric temperature in a few sample directions and/or with a limited temporal resolution, restricting their research capabilities to the investigation of larger-scale perturbations such as inertial waves, tides, or planetary waves. The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) is a novel infrared digital imaging system that measures selected emission lines in the mesospheric OH (3,1) band (at ?1.5???m) to create intensity and temperature maps of the mesosphere around 87 km. The data are obtained with an unprecedented spatial (?0.5??km) and temporal (typically 30?) resolution over a large 120° field of view, allowing detailed measurements of wave propagation and dissipation at the ?87??km level, even in the presence of strong aurora or under full moon conditions. This paper describes the AMTM characteristics, compares measured temperatures with values obtained by a collocated Na lidar instrument, and presents several examples of temperature maps and nightly keogram representations to illustrate the excellent capabilities of this new instrument. PMID:25321674

Pautet, P-D; Taylor, M J; Pendleton, W R; Zhao, Y; Yuan, T; Esplin, R; McLain, D

2014-09-10

387

GOES-R GLM: Introduction to the Geostationary Lightning Mapper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extension of the COMET module “GOES-R: Benefits of Next Generation Environmental Monitoring” focuses on the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) instrument, the satellite's lightning mapper. The GLM will provide continuous lightning measurements over a large portion of the Western Hemisphere, mapping total lightning (intra-cloud and cloud–to–ground) flash rates and trends. GLM observations will improve local forecasts and warnings of severe weather and air quality, and provide new data for numerical weather prediction and studies of regional climate and climate change. The first part of the lesson describes the need for real-time lightning information and introduces the capabilities of the GLM, which will fly on the next-generation GOES-R satellites. The second section lets users explore the life cycle of a typical cloud-to-ground lightning flash, how it is observed by space and ground-based detection systems, and how lightning flashes translate into GLM observations. The final section explores some of the many applications that will benefit from GLM observations including convection and severe weather nowcasting, warning of lightning ground strike hazards, aviation, atmospheric chemistry, quantitative precipitation estimation, tropical cyclones, fire ignitions, numerical weather prediction, and climate and global studies.

2014-09-14

388

Children's understandings’ of obesity, a thematic analysis  

PubMed Central

Childhood obesity is a major concern in today's society. Research suggests the inclusion of the views and understandings of a target group facilitates strategies that have better efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts and themes that make up children's understandings of the causes and consequences of obesity. Participants were selected from Reception (4–5 years old) and Year 6 (10–11 years old), and attended a school in an area of Sunderland, in North East England. Participants were separated according to age and gender, resulting in four focus groups, run across two sessions. A thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) identified overarching themes evident across all groups, suggesting the key concepts that contribute to children's understandings of obesity are “Knowledge through Education,” “Role Models,” “Fat is Bad,” and “Mixed Messages.” The implications of these findings and considerations of the methodology are discussed in full. PMID:21897830

Fielden, Amy L.; Sillence, Elizabeth; Little, Linda

2011-01-01

389

THEMATICS analysis for functional ion channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion channels, as a group of integral membrane proteins, span the cell membrane forming ion-conducting pores that allow ions to traverse the hydrophobic lipid environment rapidly and selectively. The structure of the Streptomyces lividians (KcsA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis ion channel (Mscl) potassium ion channel have provided the impetus and has helped further the understanding of the structural and functional studies of these channels. The KcsA adapts the voltage-gated mechanism for opening and closing of the channel. While Mcsl represents the mechanosensitive model of the channels. However, the mechanism of the opening and closing of these channels are not fully understood. Electrostatic methods (THEMATICS) are used to locate the site where closing and opening of the channels are controlled. Two clusters of amino acid residues are identified in each of the previously mentioned active models where net charges play an important role in controlling the mechanism of the opening and closure of the ion channels.0

Shehadi, Ihsan A.

390

Science Adventures with Children's Literature: A Thematic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides background information on the development and implementation of thematic units that focus on a hands-on approach, process orientation, integrated curriculum, cooperative learning, and critical thinking. Topics of the thematic units and mini-units include wild animals, dinosaurs, rainforests, the human body, earth science,…

Fredericks, Anthony D.

391

Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

Preece, Julia

2010-01-01

392

The Thematic Photobook System: A Teaching Strategy for Exceptional Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Thematic Photobook System is a teaching strategy that uses an interpersonal approach to involve and encourage a child to participate in producing photobooks of specific themes to facilitate desired learning or behavioral objectives. A thematic photobook is a tool which integrates a number of educational or therapeutic photo activities focused…

Veksler, Dina; Reed, Henry; Ranish, Anna

2008-01-01

393

The Moon mineralogy mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a NASA-supported guest instrument on ISRO's remote sensing mission to Moon, Chandrayaan-1. The M3 is an imaging spectrometer that operates from the visible into the near-infrared (0.42-3.0 ??m) where highly diagnostic mineral absorption bands occur. Over the course of the mission M3 will provide low resolution spectroscopic data for the entire lunar surface at 140 m/pixel (86 spectral channels) to be used as a base-map and high spectral resolution science data (80 m/pixel; 260 spectral channels) for 25-50% of the surface. The detailed mineral assessment of different lunar terrains provided by M3 is principal information needed for understanding the geologic evolution of the lunar crust and lays the foundation for focused future in-depth exploration of the Moon.

Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Head, J.; Isaacson, P.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Mustard, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.

2009-01-01

394

CIESIN Thematic Guide Night-time Light Remote Sensing CIESIN Thematic Guide to Night-time Light  

E-print Network

and light pollution to economic activity, greenhouse gas emissions and using night-time lights to helpCIESIN Thematic Guide Night-time Light Remote Sensing 1 CIESIN Thematic Guide to Night-time Light-time Light Remote Sensing 2 Copyright © 2008 The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York

Columbia University

395

A thematic approach to system safety  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has refined a process for developing inherently safer system designs, based on methods used by the Laboratories to design detonation safety into nuclear weapons. The process was created when the Laboratories realized that standard engineering practices did not provide the level of safety assurance necessary for nuclear weapon operations, with their potential for catastrophic accidents. A systematic approach, which relies on mutually supportive design principles integrated through fundamental physical principles, was developed to ensure a predictably safe system response under a variety of operational and accident based stresses. Robust, safe system designs result from this thematic approach to safety, minimizing the number of safety critical features. This safety assurance process has two profound benefits: the process avoids the need to understand or limit the ultimate intensity of off normal environments and it avoids the requirement to analyze and test a bewildering and virtually infinite array of accident environment scenarios (e.g., directional threats, sequencing of environments, time races, etc.) to demonstrate conformance to all safety requirements.

Ekman, M.E.; Werner, P.W.; Covan, J.M.; D`Antonio, P.E.

1997-12-01

396

Cross-calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and Landsat-5 TM with the ResourceSat-1 (IRS-P6) AWiFS and LISS-III sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increasingly, data from multiple sensors are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. The Landsat suite of satellites has collected the longest continuous archive of multispectral data. The ResourceSat-1 Satellite (also called as IRS-P6) was launched into the polar sunsynchronous orbit on Oct 17, 2003. It carries three remote sensing sensors: the High Resolution Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-IV), Medium Resolution Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-III), and the Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS). These three sensors are used together to provide images with different resolution and coverage. To understand the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy of IRS-P6 AWiFS and LISS-III sensors, image pairs from these sensors were compared to the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ sensors. The approach involved the calibration of nearly simultaneous surface observations based on image statistics from areas observed simultaneously by the two sensors.

Chander, G.; Scaramuzza, P.L.

2006-01-01

397

Analysis of Micro-Rearrangements in 25 Eukaryotic Species Pairs by SyntenyMapper  

PubMed Central

High-quality mapping of genomic regions and genes between two organisms is an indispensable prerequisite for evolutionary analyses and comparative genomics. Existing approaches to this problem focus on either delineating orthologs or finding extended sequence regions of common evolutionary origin (syntenic blocks). We propose SyntenyMapper, a novel tool for refining predefined syntenic regions. SyntenyMapper creates a set of blocks with conserved gene order between two genomes and finds all minor rearrangements that occurred since the evolutionary split of the two species considered. We also present TrackMapper, a SyntenyMapper-based tool that allows users to directly compare genome features, such as histone modifications, between two organisms, and identify genes with highly conserved features. We demonstrate SyntenyMapper's advantages by conducting a large-scale analysis of micro-rearrangements within syntenic regions of 25 eukaryotic species. Unsurprisingly, the number and length of syntenic regions is correlated with evolutionary distance, while the number of micro-rearrangements depends only on the size of the harboring region. On the other hand, the size of rearranged regions remains relatively constant regardless of the evolutionary distance between the organisms, implying a length constraint in the rearrangement process. SyntenyMapper is a useful software tool for both large-scale and gene-centric genome comparisons. PMID:25375783

Kaufmann, Stefanie; Frishman, Dmitrij

2014-01-01

398

HGDP and HapMap Analysis by Ancestry Mapper Reveals Local and Global Population Relationships  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of human origins, migrations, and expansions is greatly enhanced by the availability of large datasets of genetic information from different populations and by the development of bioinformatic tools used to analyze the data. We present Ancestry Mapper, which we believe improves on existing methods, for the assignment of genetic ancestry to an individual and to study the relationships between local and global populations. The principle function of the method, named Ancestry Mapper, is to give each individual analyzed a genetic identifier, made up of just 51 genetic coordinates, that corresponds to its relationship to the HGDP reference population. As a consequence, the Ancestry Mapper Id (AMid) has intrinsic biological meaning and provides a tool to measure similarity between world populations. We applied Ancestry Mapper to a dataset comprised of the HGDP and HapMap data. The results show distinctions at the continental level, while simultaneously giving details at the population level. We clustered AMids of HGDP/HapMap and observe a recapitulation of human migrations: for a small number of clusters, individuals are grouped according to continental origins; for a larger number of clusters, regional and population distinctions are evident. Calculating distances between AMids allows us to infer ancestry. The number of coordinates is expandable, increasing the power of Ancestry Mapper. An R package called Ancestry Mapper is available to apply this method to any high density genomic data set. PMID:23189146

Magalhães, Tiago R.; Casey, Jillian P.; Conroy, Judith; Regan, Regina; Fitzpatrick, Darren J.; Shah, Naisha; Sobral, João; Ennis, Sean

2012-01-01

399

Predicting taxonomic and thematic relational responding  

PubMed Central

Pairs of pictures were classified by the authors and others as related by identity (A—A), basic taxonomy (A—B), superordinate taxonomy (A—C), or by theme (A—D). Two-choice matching-to-sample trial types were composed of these same picture pairs in which the sample was common to the two stimulus pairs in each configuration and, together with the sample, each comparison exemplified one of the relations in the picture pair; that is: A(AB), A(AC), A(AD), A(BC), A(BD), and A(CD). In five experiments, for each picture pair, college students classified the relation (as taxonomic or thematic) and rated its strength (Exps 1, 3) or its similarity (Exp 4); others matched to sample the foregoing trial types only (Exps 2, 5), or they classified and rated, too (Exp 3). With exceptions, students classed most pairs as the authors did. They also collectively ordered relational strengths from (1) identity, (2) basic taxonomy, and (3) theme, to (4) superordinate taxonomy based, in part, on the similarity of sample and comparison. Subjects chose the comparisons of the more strongly related picture pairs in the matching-to-sample task on 90 percent or more of the configurations. Subjects' selections in two-choice, matching-to-sample configurations using natural stimuli may be based on existing stimulus control topographies such as those exhibited by ratings of the relations in a configuration. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:22477256

Osborne, J. Grayson; Heath, John

2003-01-01

400

The Functional Neuroanatomy of Thematic Role and Locative Relational Knowledge  

E-print Network

cortex produced deficits in thematic role knowledge and damage to inferior fronto-parietal regions pro (Thompson-Schill, Kan, & Oliver, 2006; Martin, Ungerleider, & Haxby, 2000; Chao, Haxby, & Martin, 1999

Chatterjee, Anjan

401

Responses of Chinese University Students to the Thematic Apperception Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Murray's original Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Cards I to XX, was administered in two sessions to 80 Chinese male and female undergraduate students at the National Taiwan Normal University. The results are compared with American averages. (Author/JH)

Han, Elizabeth Yeo-hsien

1974-01-01

402

ASSESSMENT OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY  

EPA Science Inventory

Landscape characteristics such as small patch size and land cover heterogeneity have been hypothesized to increase the likelihood of misclassifying pixels during thematic image classification. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence, to support these hypotheses. This...

403

Orfeo, the Pleiades Accompaniment Program and its Users Thematic Commissioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ORFEO, the PLEIADES Accompaniment Program, was set up by CNES, the French Space Agency, to prepare, accompany and promote the use and the exploitation of the images acquired by this Very High Resolution optical sensor. It was initiated in 2004 and will last until the end of the first year of the satellite life (launched in December 2011) . The Thematic part of the ORFEO accompaniment program covers a large range of applications, and aims at specifying and validating products and services required by users. An in-depth work of user needs assessments in eight thematic domains (sea and coastline, risks and humanitarian aid, cartography and urban planning, geophysical hazards, hydrology, forestry, agriculture and defence) has given rise to a large number of feasibility studies from 2006 to 2011. The Methodological Part of the ORFEO accompaniment program aims at preparing the use and exploitation of these submetric images. CNES decided to develop Orfeo Toolbox (OTB), an open source library capitalising the methodological know-how as a set of image processing and algorithmic components. Among other, OTB provides a number of heavily documented image processing functionalities such as filtering, feature extraction, segmentation, classification, change detection, 3D extraction, GIS links,.... As a conclusion to the ORFEO program, the PLEIADES Users Thematic Commissioning (UTC) started three months after the satellite launch and will last until mid 2013. It covers a large number of specific interest ORFEO sites, on which PLEIADES images are being intensively acquired and processed. These ORFEO sites have been chosen according to the expectations expressed by the users in terms of their interest for dedicated thematic, their geographic location and their multi-thematic content. This paper presents the ORFEO program achievements (thematic and methodology) and the organisation of the Users Thematic Commissioning (sites, studies). The paper is illustrated with some examples of multi-thematic studies, lead through ORFEO, covering a large range of applications, and aiming at validating value added products and services provided to end users from PLEIADES imagery.

Tinel, C.; Grizonnet, M.; Fontannaz, D.; de Boissezon, H.; Giros, A.

2012-08-01

404

ThemeRiver: Visualizing Thematic Changes in Document Collections  

SciTech Connect

The ThemeRiver(TM) visualization depicts thematic variations over time within a large collection of documents. The thematic changes are shown in the context of a time line and corresponding external events. The focus on temporal thematic change within a context framework allows a user to discern patterns that suggest relationships or trends. For example, the sudden change of thematic strength following an external event may indicate a causal relationship. Such patterns are not readily accessible in other visualizations of the data. We use a river metaphor to convey several key notions. The document collection's time line, selected thematic content, and thematic strength are indicated by the river's directed flow, composition and changing width, respectively. The directed flow from left to right is interpreted as movement through time; the horizontal distance between two points on the river defines a time interval. At any point in time, the vertical distance, or width, of the river indicates the collective strength of the selected themes. Colored ''currents'' flowing within the river represent individual themes. A current's vertical distance narrows or widens to indicate a decreases or increases in the strength of the individual theme.

Havre, Susan L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Whitney, Paul D.; Nowell, Lucy T.

2002-01-01

405

Towards Thematic Web Services for Generic Data Visualization and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial analysis packages and thematic mapping are available in a number of traditional desktop GIS. However, visualizing thematic maps through the Internet is still limited to fix contents and restrict changes of the input data. The users with limited GIS knowledge or people who do not own digital map data are normally having difficulties to create output thematic maps from generic data. In this study, we developed thematic mapping services that can be applied to non-spatial data format served through powerful map services solutions. Novice users who have no GIS software experience or have no digital base map can simply input a plain text file with location identifier field such as place name or gazetteer to generate thematic maps online. We implemented a prototype by using web service standards recommended by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) such as Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS) and Styled Layer Descriptor (SLD) to provide a principle for communication and allow users to visualize spatial information as thematic maps. The system dedicates a great deal of effort to the initial study of geospatial analysis and visualization for novice users including those with no past experience using Geographic Information Systems.

Horanont, T.; Basa, M.; Shibasaki, R.

2012-07-01

406

New dust opacity mapping from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global dust opacity mapping for Mars has been carried forward using the approach described by Martin (1986) for Viking IR Thermal Mapper data. New maps are presented for the period from the beginning of Viking observations, until Ls 210 deg in 1979 (1.36 Mars years). This range includes the second and more extensive planet-encircling dust storm observed by Viking, known as storm 1977b. Improvements in approach result in greater time resolution and smaller noise than in the earlier work. A strong local storm event filled the Hellas basin at Ls 170 deg, prior to the 1977a storm. Dust is retained in equatorial regions following the 1977b storm far longer than in mid-latitudes. Minor dust events appear to raise the opacity in northern high latitudes during northern spring. Additional mapping with high time resolution has been done for the periods of time near the major storm origins in order to search for clues to the mechanism of storm initiation. The first evidence of the start of the 1977b storm is pushed back to Ls 274.2 deg, preceding signs of the storm in images by about 15 hours.

Martin, Terry Z.; Richardson, Mark I.

1993-01-01

407

Juno's Earth flyby: the Jupiter infrared auroral mapper preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Juno spacecraft has been launched on August 2011 with the goal of investigating the origin and evolution of Jupiter. JIRAM, the Jupiter Infrared Auroral Mapper on board the spacecraft, is a spectro-imager whose science objectives are the auroras’ analysis, the atmospheric component gases retrieval in hot spots and the constraining of the Jupiter’s formation environment through the study of the composition and the abundances of the chemical species in the Jovian atmosphere. To achieve these objectives JIRAM is equipped with a IR imager split in two spectral channels: L band, centered at 3.45 mum with a 290 nm bandwidth, and M band, centered at 4.78 mum with a 480 nm bandwidth, and a spectrometer in the 2.0-5.0 mum interval. JIRAM status and capabilities have been tested on 9 October 2013 during the Juno’s Earth flyby. The instrument targeted the Moon for about half an hour. Beyond the scientific value of the observation, this has been so far the first occasion during the cruise phase to verify the execution of the science observing sequences as they will be operated at Jupiter. Here the first elaboration of that series of observations is presented. The imager in M band has been able to capture the Moon region straddling the terminator. Some surface features are recognizable and have been mapped with the support of the geometric information available for JIRAM data. Spectra from the most prominent surface structure visualized, are also shown.

Adriani, Alberto; Mura, Alessandro; Grassi, Davide; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Tosi, Federico; Noschese, Raffaella; Moriconi, Maria Luisa; Filacchione, Gianrico; Sindoni, Giuseppe; Cicchetti, Andrea

408

The GOES-R Series Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), which will have just completed Critical Design Review and move forward into the construction phase of instrument development. The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (an engineering development unit and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas M.

2011-01-01

409

Lead Optimization Mapper: Automating free energy calculations for lead optimization  

PubMed Central

Alchemical free energy calculations hold increasing promise as an aid to drug discovery efforts. However, applications of these techniques in discovery projects have been relatively few, partly because of the difficulty of planning and setting up calculations. Here, we introduce Lead Optimization Mapper, LOMAP, an automated algorithm to plan efficient relative free energy calculations between potential ligands within a substantial library of perhaps hundreds of compounds. In this approach, ligands are first grouped by structural similarity primarily based on the size of a (loosely defined) maximal common substructure, and then calculations are planned within and between sets of structurally related compounds. An emphasis is placed on ensuring that relative free energies can be obtained between any pair of compounds without combining the results of too many different relative free energy calculations (to avoid accumulation of error) and by providing some redundancy to allow for the possibility of error and consistency checking and provide some insight into when results can be expected to be unreliable. The algorithm is discussed in detail and a Python implementation, based on both Schrödinger's and OpenEye's APIs, has been made available freely under the BSD license. PMID:24072356

Liu, Shuai; Wu, Yujie; Lin, Teng; Abel, Robert; Redmann, Jonathan P.; Summa, Christopher M.; Jaber, Vivian R.; Lim, Nathan M.; Mobley, David L.

2013-01-01

410

Squash: A Scalable Quantum Mapper Considering Ancilla Sharing  

E-print Network

Quantum algorithms for solving problems of interesting size often result in circuits with a very large number of qubits and quantum gates. Fortunately, these algorithms also tend to contain a small number of repetitively-used quantum kernels. Identifying the quantum logic blocks that implement such quantum kernels is critical to the complexity management for realizing the corresponding quantum circuit. Moreover, quantum computation requires some type of quantum error correction coding to combat decoherence, which in turn results in a large number of ancilla qubits in the circuit. Sharing the ancilla qubits among quantum operations (even though this sharing can increase the overall circuit latency) is important in order to curb the resource demand of the quantum algorithm. This paper presents a multi-core reconfigurable quantum processor architecture, called Requp, which supports a layered approach to mapping a quantum algorithm and ancilla sharing. More precisely, a scalable quantum mapper, called Squash, is introduced, which divides a given quantum circuit into a number of quantum kernels- each kernel comprises k parts such that each part will run on exactly one of k available cores. Experimental results demonstrate that Squash can handle large-scale quantum algorithms while providing an effective mechanism for sharing ancilla qubits.

Mohammad Javad Dousti; Alireza Shafaei; Massoud Pedram

2014-12-27

411

CheS-Mapper 2.0 for visual validation of (Q)SAR models  

PubMed Central

Background Sound statistical validation is important to evaluate and compare the overall performance of (Q)SAR models. However, classical validation does not support the user in better understanding the properties of the model or the underlying data. Even though, a number of visualization tools for analyzing (Q)SAR information in small molecule datasets exist, integrated visualization methods that allow the investigation of model validation results are still lacking. Results We propose visual validation, as an approach for the graphical inspection of (Q)SAR model validation results. The approach applies the 3D viewer CheS-Mapper, an open-source application for the exploration of small molecules in virtual 3D space. The present work describes the new functionalities in CheS-Mapper 2.0, that facilitate the analysis of (Q)SAR information and allows the visual validation of (Q)SAR models. The tool enables the comparison of model predictions to the actual activity in feature space. The approach is generic: It is model-independent and can handle physico-chemical and structural input features as well as quantitative and qualitative endpoints. Conclusions Visual validation with CheS-Mapper enables analyzing (Q)SAR information in the data and indicates how this information is employed by the (Q)SAR model. It reveals, if the endpoint is modeled too specific or too generic and highlights common properties of misclassified compounds. Moreover, the researcher can use CheS-Mapper to inspect how the (Q)SAR model predicts activity cliffs. The CheS-Mapper software is freely available at http://ches-mapper.org. Graphical abstract Comparing actual and predicted activity values with CheS-Mapper.

2014-01-01

412

LANDSAT 4 investigations of Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner applications. [Death Valley, California; Silver Bell Copper Mine, Arizona, and Dulles Airport near Washington, D.C.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimum index factor package was used to choose TM band for color compositing. Processing techniques were also used on TM data over several sites to: (1) reduce the amount of data that needs to be processed and analyzed by using statistical methods or by combining full-resolution products with spatially compressed products; (2) digitally process small subareas to improve the visual appearance of large-scale products or to merge different-resolution image data; and (3) evaluate and compare the information content of the different three-band combinations that can be made using the TM data. Results indicate that for some applications the added spectral information over MSS is even more important than the TM's increased spatial resolution.

Lauer, D. T. (principal investigator)

1984-01-01

413

Estuarine and Tidal Freshwater Habitat Cover Types Along the Lower Columbia River Estuary Determined from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.  

SciTech Connect

Developing an understanding of the distribution and changes in estuarine and tidal floodplain ecosystems is critical to the management of biological resources in the lower Columbia River. Columbia River plants, fish, and wildlife require specific physicochemical and ecological conditions to sustain their populations. As habitats are degraded or lost, this capability is altered, often irretrievably; those species that cannot adapt are lost from the ecosystem. The Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) completed a comprehensive ecosystem protection and enhancement plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary in 1999 (Jerrick, 1999). The plan identified habitat loss and modification as a critical threat to the integrity of the lower Columbia River ecosystem and called for a habitat inventory as a key first step in its long term restoration efforts. In 2000, the Estuary Partnership initiated a multiphase project to produce a spatial data set describing the current location and distribution of estuarine and tidal freshwater habitat cover types along the lower Columbia River from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam using a consistent methodology and data sources (Fig. 1). The first phase of the project was the development of a broadbrush description of the estuarine and tidal freshwater habitat cover classes for the entire study area ({approx}146 river miles) using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite imagery. Phase II of the project entailed analysis of the classified satellite imagery from Phase I. Analysis of change in landcover and a summary of the spatial relationships between cover types are part of Phase II. Phase III of the project included the classification of the high resolution hyperspectral imagery collected in 2000 and 2001 for key focal areas within the larger study area. Finally, Phase IV consists of this final report that presents results from refining the Landsat ETM+ classification and provides recommendations for future actions. Previous studies (Thomas, 1980; Thomas, 1983; Graves et al., 1995; NOAA, 1997; Allen, 1999) produced similar landcover data sets; however, most of these studies used multiple and varied data sources and differed from one another in methodologies. Currently, no single data set has been produced using a consistent methodology and uniform scale data, which describes current estuarine and tidal freshwater floodplain cover types from the Columbia's mouth to the Bonneville Dam (Fig. 1). Results from this study will be used by the Estuary Partnership and its cooperators to: (1) develop indicators of 'habitat health' for target species and populations, and biological integrity at the community and ecosystem scales; (2) develop definitions of 'important salmonid habitat'; (3) identify and evaluate potential wetland conservation and restoration sites; (4) track non-indigenous and invasive species; and (5) develop an understanding of how estuarine and floodplain habitats have changed over the past 200 years. This study focused on estuarine and tidal freshwater floodplain habitat cover types, which are important to native species, particularly juvenile salmonids. Results from this study are meant to provide support for the multiple efforts currently underway to recover 12 species of Columbia River salmonids identified as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Spatial scale was an important consideration in this study. Our goal was to create a geographic information system (GIS) coverage depicting habitat cover types for the entire 146 river miles of the study area and the associated floodplain, at a spatial resolution sufficient to resolve important estuarine and floodplain features, wherever possible. Thus, in addition to the small scale (30 m pixel size) satellite imagery covering the study area described in this report, we also acquired high spatial resolution imagery ({approx}1.5 m pixel size) for key portions of the study area using a Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). Compared to the rather coarse, low spectral resolution of the satellite ima

Garono, Ralph; Robinson, Rob

2003-10-01

414

Comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer data for the Cuprite mining district, Esmeralda, and Nye counties, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat TM images and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data were analyzed for the Cuprite mining district and compared to available geologic and alteration maps of the area. The TM data, with 30 m resolution and 6 broadbands, allowed discrimination of general mineral groups. Clay minerals, playa deposits, and unaltered rocks were mapped as discrete spectral units using the TM data, but specific minerals were not determined, and definition of the individual alteration zones was not possible. The GERIS, with 15 m spatial resolution and 63 spectral bands, permitted construction of complete spectra and identification of specific minerals. Detailed spectra extracted from the images provided the ability to identify the minerals alunite, kaolinite, hematite, and buddingtonite by their spectral characteristics. The GERIS data show a roughly concentrically zoned hydrothermal system. The mineralogy mapped with the aircraft system conforms to previous field and multispectral image mapping. However, identification of individual minerals and spatial display of the dominant mineralogy add information that can be used to help determine the morphology and genetic origin of the hydrothermal system.

Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Kruse, Fred A.

1989-01-01

415

Applications of Landsat Thematic Mapper and ground-based spectrometer data to a study of the Skaergaard and other mafic intrusions of East Greenland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat TM data have been used in conjunction with field spectrometer data to map the lithologic units associated with a series of gabbroic intrusions in the East Greenland Tertiary Igneous Province. The general lack of vegetation combined with the difficulty of access to these intrusions make them ideal candidates for lithologic mapping using remote sensing techniques. In addition, these bodies are of interest as possible precious metal ore deposits. The intrusions are spectrally distinct from the surrounding Precambrian gneisses; however, subpixel contamination by snow, oxide surface coatings, and lichen cover and severe topography limit the discrimination of lithologic units within the gabbro. The spectral nature of the surface contaminants was evaluated with a Barringer Hand Held Ratioing Radiometer (HHRR). These HHRR data indicate that bare rock exposures have distinct TM signatures for each lithologic unit but that even small amounts of subpixel contamination are enough to mask these differences because of the large differences between the TM signatures of the rocks and the contaminants.

Birnie, Richard W.; Naslund, H. Richard; Nichols, Jennifer D.; Turner, Patricia A.; Parr, J. Thomas

1989-01-01

416

Using Landsat Thematic Mapper records to map land cover change and the impacts of reforestation programmes in the borderlands of southeast Yunnan, China: 1990-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of the new millennium, after a severe drought and destructive floods along the Yangtze River, the Chinese government implemented two large ecological rehabilitation and reforestation projects: the Natural Forest Protection Programme and the Sloping Land Conversion Programme. Using Landsat data from a decade before, during and after the inception of these programmes, we analyze their impacts along with other policies on land use, land cover change (LULCC) in southwest China. Our goal is to quantify the predominant land cover changes in four borderland counties, home to tens of thousands of ethnic minority individuals. We do this in three time stages (1990, 2000 and 2010). We use support vector machines as well as a transition matrix to monitor the land cover changes. The land cover classifications resulted in an overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for forested area and cropland of respectively 91% (2% confidence interval) and 0.87. Our results suggest that the total forested area observed increased 3% over this 20-year period, while cropland decreased slightly (0.1%). However, these changes varied over specific time periods: forested area decreased between 1990 and 2000 and then increased between 2000 and 2010. In contrast, cropland increased and then decreased. These results suggest the important impacts of reforestation programmes that have accelerated a land cover transition in this region. We also found large changes in LULC occurring around fast growing urban areas, with changes in these peri-urban zones occurring faster to the east than west. This suggests that differences in socioeconomic conditions and specific local and regional policies have influenced the rates of forest, cropland and urban net changes, disturbances and net transitions. While it appears that a combination of economic growth and forest protection in this region over the past 20 years has been fairly successful, threats like drought, other extreme weather events and land degradation remain.

Zhang, Jialong; Pham, Thi-Thanh-Hiên; Kalacska, Margaret; Turner, Sarah

2014-09-01

417

Study of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper performance as applied to hydrocarbon exploration. [Southern Ontario, Lawton, Oklahoma; Owl Creek, Wyoming; Washington, D.C.; and Death Valley California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved delineation of known oil and gas fields in southern Ontario and a spectacularly high amount of structural information on the Owl Creek, Wyoming scene were obtained from analysis of TM data. The use of hue, saturation, and value image processing techniques on a Death Valley, California scene permitted direct comparison of TM processed imagery with existing 1:250,000 scale geological maps of the area and revealed small outcrops of Tertiary volcanic material overlying Paleozoic sections. Analysis of TM data over Lawton, Oklahoma suggests that the reducing chemical environment associated with hydrocarbon seepage change ferric iron to soluble ferrous iron, allowing it to be leached. Results of the band selection algorithm show a suprising consistency, with the 1,4,5 combination selected as optimal in most cases.

Everett, J. R. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

418

Investigation of LANDSAT D Thematic Mapper geometric performance: Line to line and band to band registration. [Toulouse, France and Mississippi, U.S.A.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geometric accuray of LANDSAT TM raw data of Toulouse (France) raw data of Mississippi, and preprocessed data of Mississippi was examined using a CDC computer. Analog images were restituted on the VIZIR SEP device. The methods used for line to line and band to band registration are based on automatic correlation techniques and are widely used in automated image to image registration at CNES. Causes of intraband and interband misregistration are identified and statistics are given for both line to line and band to band misregistration.

Begni, G.; BOISSIN; Desachy, M. J.; PERBOS

1984-01-01

419

Estuarine and Tidal Freshwater Habitat Cover Types Along the Lower Columbia River Estuary Determined from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) Imagery, Technical Report 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing an understanding of the distribution and changes in estuarine and tidal floodplain ecosystems is critical to the management of biological resources in the lower Columbia River. Columbia River plants, fish, and wildlife require specific physicochemical and ecological conditions to sustain their populations. As habitats are degraded or lost, this capability is altered, often irretrievably; those species that cannot adapt

Ralph Garono; Rob Robinson

2003-01-01

420

Land cover change detection using a GIS-guided, feature-based classification of Landsat thematic mapper data. [Geographic Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat TM data were combined with land cover and planimetric data layers contained in the State of Michigan's geographic information system (GIS) to identify changes in forestlands, specifically new oil/gas wells. A GIS-guided feature-based classification method was developed. The regions extracted by the best image band/operator combination were studied using a set of rules based on the characteristics of the GIS oil/gas pads.

Enslin, William R.; Ton, Jezching; Jain, Anil

1987-01-01

421

Relating thematic mapper bands TM3, TM4, and TM5 to agronomic variables for corn, cotton, sugarbeet, soybean, sorghum, sunflower and tobacco  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Red, photographic infrared, near infrared spectral data of corn, cotton, soybeans, sugar beets, sorghum, sunflowers and tobacco were collected throughout the entire growing season by using a three band handheld radiometer. Different radiance patterns were found among these crops based on their morphology, green biomass duration and leaf size. Results show near infrared radiance is a good indicator of water content in plant tissue under small scale experimental conditions.

Fan, C. J. (principal investigator)

1982-01-01

422

Hyperspectral Soil Mapper (HYSOMA) software interface: Review and future plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellites that will routinely deliver high spectral resolution images for the entire globe (e.g. EnMAP, HISUI, HyspIRI, HypXIM, PRISMA), an increasing demand for the availability/accessibility of hyperspectral soil products is coming from the geoscience community. Indeed, many robust methods for the prediction of soil properties based on imaging spectroscopy already exist and have been successfully used for a wide range of soil mapping airborne applications. Nevertheless, these methods require expert know-how and fine-tuning, which makes them used sparingly. More developments are needed toward easy-to-access soil toolboxes as a major step toward the operational use of hyperspectral soil products for Earth's surface processes monitoring and modelling, to allow non-experienced users to obtain new information based on non-expensive software packages where repeatability of the results is an important prerequisite. In this frame, based on the EU-FP7 EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research) project and EnMAP satellite science program, higher performing soil algorithms were developed at the GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences as demonstrators for end-to-end processing chains with harmonized quality measures. The algorithms were built-in into the HYSOMA (Hyperspectral SOil MApper) software interface, providing an experimental platform for soil mapping applications of hyperspectral imagery that gives the choice of multiple algorithms for each soil parameter. The software interface focuses on fully automatic generation of semi-quantitative soil maps such as soil moisture, soil organic matter, iron oxide, clay content, and carbonate content. Additionally, a field calibration option calculates fully quantitative soil maps provided ground truth soil data are available. Implemented soil algorithms have been tested and validated using extensive in-situ ground truth data sets. The source of the HYSOMA code was developed as standalone IDL software to allow easy implementation in the hyperspectral and non-hyperspectral communities. Indeed, within the hyperspectral community, IDL language is very widely used, and for non-expert users that do not have an ENVI license, such software can be executed as a binary version using the free IDL virtual machine under various operating systems. Based on the growing interest of users in the software interface, the experimental software was adapted for public release version in 2012, and since then ~80 users of hyperspectral soil products downloaded the soil algorithms at www.gfz-potsdam.de/hysoma. The software interface was distributed for free as IDL plug-ins under the IDL-virtual machine. Up-to-now distribution of HYSOMA was based on a close source license model, for non-commercial and educational purposes. Currently, the HYSOMA is being under further development in the context of the EnMAP satellite mission, for extension and implementation in the EnMAP Box as EnSoMAP (EnMAP SOil MAPper). The EnMAP Box is a freely available, platform-independent software distributed under an open source license. In the presentation we will focus on an update of the HYSOMA software interface status and upcoming implementation in the EnMAP Box. Scientific software validation, associated publication record and users responses as well as software management and transition to open source will be discussed.

Chabrillat, Sabine; Guillaso, Stephane; Eisele, Andreas; Rogass, Christian

2014-05-01

423

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill - Landsat 5  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, an explosion at an oil well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a major oil spill. Since then, emergency response efforts have been underway to cap the leaking well system and contain the growing oil slick before it reaches wildlife refuges, fisheries, and beaches along the southern...

424

HomozygosityMapper2012—bridging the gap between homozygosity mapping and deep sequencing  

PubMed Central

Homozygosity mapping is a common method to map recessive traits in consanguineous families. To facilitate these analyses, we have developed HomozygosityMapper, a web-based approach to homozygosity mapping. HomozygosityMapper allows researchers to directly upload the genotype files produced by the major genotyping platforms as well as deep sequencing data. It detects stretches of homozygosity shared by the affected individuals and displays them graphically. Users can interactively inspect the underlying genotypes, manually refine these regions and eventually submit them to our candidate gene search engine GeneDistiller to identify the most promising candidate genes. Here, we present the new version of HomozygosityMapper. The most striking new feature is the support of Next Generation Sequencing *.vcf files as input. Upon users’ requests, we have implemented the analysis of common experimental rodents as well as of important farm animals. Furthermore, we have extended the options for single families and loss of heterozygosity studies. Another new feature is the export of *.bed files for targeted enrichment of the potential disease regions for deep sequencing strategies. HomozygosityMapper also generates files for conventional linkage analyses which are already restricted to the possible disease regions, hence superseding CPU-intensive genome-wide analyses. HomozygosityMapper is freely available at http://www.homozygositymapper.org/. PMID:22669902

Seelow, Dominik; Schuelke, Markus

2012-01-01

425

GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper Performance Specifications and Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR imager/optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning. The mission objectives for the GLM are to: (1) Provide continuous, full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and nowcasting, (2) Provide early warning of tornadic activity, and (2) Accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997- present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global lightning activity. GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. The science data will consist of lightning "events", "groups", and "flashes". The algorithm is being designed to be an efficient user of the computational resources. This may include parallelization of the code and the concept of sub-dividing the GLM FOV into regions to be processed in parallel. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds (e.g., Lightning Mapping Arrays in North Alabama, Oklahoma, Central Florida, and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the prelaunch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution.

Mach, Douglas M.; Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Petersen, William A.; Boldi, Robert A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Bateman, Monte G.; Buchler, Dennis E.; McCaul, E. William, Jr.

2008-01-01

426

A radiometric interpretive legend for Landsat digital thematic maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A legend is suggested for use with computer-generated thematic maps made from Landsat digital data that designates some of the radiometric characteristics of each thematic map unit as well as the described terrain attributes of each map unit. The relationship between spectral band and radiance for each map unit is shown by a two-dimensional polygon with the four Landsat multispectral scanner bands plotted on the ordinate and radiance levels on the abscissa. The resulting shape is colored to correspond with the map unit color, thus facilitating the recognition and understanding of the computer-generated map units.

Robinove, Charles J.

1977-01-01

427

The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series provides the continuity for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive pre-launch field campaigns. GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extends their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in late 2015. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Results from recent field campaigns and forecaster evaluations on the utility of the total lightning products will be presented.

Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Buechler, D. E.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, C. J.; Bateman, M. G.; McCaul, E., Jr.; Stano, G. T.

2012-12-01

428

The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series (GOES-R) is the next block of four satellites to follow the existing GOES constellation currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Advanced spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved cloud and moisture imagery with the 16-channel Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity continuously day and night with near-uniform storm-scale spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 s over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions in the western hemisphere. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low Earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive prelaunch field campaigns. The GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extend their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with preoperational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and checkout of GOES-R in late 2015. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas; Bailey, Jeffrey; Buechler, Dennis; Carey, Larry; Schultz, Chris; Bateman, Monte; McCaul, Eugene; Stano, Geoffrey

2013-05-01

429

Geostationary Lightning Mapper for GOES-R and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR imager/optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk as part of a 3-axis stabilized, geostationary weather satellite system. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series with a planned launch readiness in December 2014 will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fUlly operational. The mission objectives for the GLM are to 1) provide continuous, full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and nowcasting, 2) provide early warning of tornadic activity, and 3) accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997-Present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global lightning activity. Instrument formulation studies were completed in March 2007 and the implementation phase to develop a prototype model and up to four flight models will be underway in the latter part of 2007. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds (e.g., Lightning Mapping Arrays in North Alabama and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time lightning mapping data are being provided in an experimental mode to selected National Weather Service (NWS) forecast offices in Southern and Eastern Region. This effort is designed to help improve our understanding of the application of these data in operational settings.

Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.

2008-01-01

430

A Comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network Classifiers Combined with Landsat TM Imagery Analysis for Obtaining Burnt Area Mapping  

PubMed Central

Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878) the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795). Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ?1% for ANN and ?6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting. PMID:22294909

Petropoulos, George P.; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Karantounias, George; Scholze, Marko

2010-01-01

431

OECD Thematic Review on Adult Learning: Norway. Background Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult learning in Norway was examined in a thematic review that focused on the following areas: the contexts of adult learning; the participants in, providers of, and returns from adult learning; issues and problems facing adult learning; and good practices. The following are among the main findings of the review: (1) adult learning has a long…

Tangen, Fride

432

Thematic Analysis in Information Science: The Example of "Literature Obsolescence."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the concept of thematic analysis, discusses its strengths and limitations, and explores the applicability of the concept to the literature of information science through an examination of articles from volumes 16-27 of the Journal of the American Society for Information Science. A 16-item reference list is attached. (JL)

Kuch, T. D. C.

1982-01-01

433

The REAL (Relevant, Exciting, Applicable Lessons) Project: Thematic Language Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of using a thematic intervention approach for children with language disorders. Twenty students receiving language therapy at a university speech and hearing clinic were selected as participants in this pilot study. This pilot project was entitled the REAL Project with the term REAL being an acronym…

Catt, Merrill; Neeley, Richard A.; Lovins, Shelby

2011-01-01

434

PRECISE TOPOGRAPHIC AND THEMATIC MAPS OF PLANET MARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board of the European Mars Express spacecraft provides high resolu- tion color and stereo imagery. Based on orthoimage mosaics and Digital Terrain Models, which are systematically deri- ved from HRSC data, precise topographic and thematic maps of high quality are produced. The main cartographic product is the Topographic Image Map Mars 1:200,000. This

JÖRG ALBERTZ; STEPHAN GEHRKE; HARTMUT LEHMANN; MARITA WÄHLISCH; GERHARD NEUKUM

2005-01-01

435

Parks as Classrooms: Developing a Thematic Ecosystem Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of a thematic ecosystem curriculum for a K-8 school, in partnership with the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, in which park interpretation is merged with formal curricula. Notes that teachers and interpreters should work closely to develop curricula, and that interpreters must be familiar with textbooks and subject…

Cox, W. Eugene

1996-01-01

436

Individual Differences in the Strength of Taxonomic versus Thematic Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge about word and object meanings can be organized taxonomically (fruits, mammals, etc.) on the basis of shared features or thematically (eating breakfast, taking a dog for a walk, etc.) on the basis of participation in events or scenarios. An eye-tracking study showed that both kinds of knowledge are activated during comprehension of a…

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2012-01-01

437

DESIGNA ND ANALYSIS FOR THEMATIC MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Before being used in scientific investigations and policy decisions, thematic maps constructed from remotely sensed data should be subjected to a statistically rigorous accuracy assessment. The three basic components of an accuracy assessment are: 1) the sampling design used to s...

438

Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is dedicated to the use of a humanistic, thematic approach to the teaching of English. The chapters deals with such topics as teaching poetry, teaching American folklore and tradition, and helping students achieve greater self-knowledge and self-understanding through using the "speaking voice" in oral and written communication. The book…

Spann, Sylvia, Ed.; Culp, Mary Beth, Ed.

439

Contextual essay for integrated thematic unit: Kids, Quarks, and Quanta  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay provides the research and rationale to support the theory that early adolescence is the best time to present an introduction to quantum mechanics. It supports the creation of an integrated thematic unit to be used with students ages 11--14 in an inclusion classroom without limiting the unit to only an inclusion setting. The first section sets forth five

Vicki Lee Draeger

2002-01-01

440

Thematization across Machine and Human Translation: English to French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of human and machine French translations of independent clauses from an English journal article about physics found that automatic translation was generally faithful to the original thematization, although English complexities and lexical gaps caused the machine to lose, create, and garble some themes. The human translation, although…

Dubois, Betty Lou

1990-01-01

441

Integrated Early Years Services: A Thematic Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the findings of a thematic review of research literature about integrated early years services (IEYS) [1995-2012]. Four themes are discussed: broad support for IEYS; critiques of claims about IEYS; a focus on inter-professional practice; and the challenge of evaluating IEYS. The article concludes with reflections concerning…

Wong, Sandie; Sumsion, Jennifer

2013-01-01

442

Learning from Mistakes in History--A Thematic Instructional Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a thematic unit for secondary education students that focuses on eight themes, with accompanying activities, on learning from mistakes, such as "mistakes are inevitable, and everyone makes them" and "making mistakes does not make you a faulty person." Provides a concluding activity on the Titanic. (CMK)

Richburg, Robert W.; Harward, Kathleen; Steinkamp, Kathy

2000-01-01

443

Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities. Third Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seven thematic units in this guide focus on communication skills, offering English teachers contemporary plans for teaching writing, listening, reading, reasoning, critical thinking, and appreciation of literary genres. The units were selected for their humanistic approaches to student language learning, combining English instruction with…

Spann, Sylvia, Ed.; Culp, Mary Beth, Ed.

444

Thematic Solutions Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…

Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.

2006-01-01

445

Thematic and Situational Features of Chinese BBS Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study adopts the framework of Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG; Halliday, 1994\\/2000; Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004) to investigate thematic features in messages sent to an electronic bulletin board system (BBS) in mainland China. As a concept derived from the Prague School, theme in SFG has been identified as \\

Xin Dai

2009-01-01

446

Actual evapotranspiration estimation in a Mediterranean mountain region by means of Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS imagery and Sap Flow measurements in Pinus sylvestris forest stands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration monitoring has important implications on global and regional climate modelling, as well as in the knowledge of the hydrological cycle and in the assessment of environmental stress that affects forest and agricultural ecosystems. An increase of evapotranspiration while precipitation remains constant, or is reduced, could decrease water availability for natural and agricultural systems and human needs. Consequently, water balance methods, as the evapotranspiration modelling, have been widely used to estimate crop and forest water needs, as well as the global change effects. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute evapotranspiration at regional scales in a feasible way. Currently, the 38% of Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula) is covered by forests, and one of the most important forest species is Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) which represents the 18.4% of the area occupied by forests. The aim of this work is to model actual evapotranspiration in Pinus sylvestris forest stands, in a Mediterranean mountain region, using remote sensing data, and compare it with stand-scale sap flow measurements measured in the Vallcebre research area (42° 12' N, 1° 49' E), in the Eastern Pyrenees. To perform this study a set of 30 cloud-free TERRA-MODIS images and 10 Landsat-5 TM images of path 198 and rows 31 and 32 from June 2003 to January 2005 have been selected to perform evapotranspiration modelling in Pinus sylvestris forest stands. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected two different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily evapotranspiration, daily LST product and daily calibrated reflectances product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital Elevation Model, obtaining an RMS less than 30 m. Radiometric correction of Landsat non-thermal bands has been done following the methodology proposed by Pons and Solé (1994) which allows to reduce the number of undesired artifacts that are due to the effects of the atmosphere or to the differential illumination which is, in turn, due to the time of the day, the location in the Earth and the relief (zones being more illuminated than others, shadows, etc). Atmospheric correction of Landsat thermal band has been carried out by means of a single-channel algorithm improvement developed by Cristóbal et al. (2009). To compute actual evapotranspiration (AET) we have used the B-Method proposed by Jakson et al. (1977) and modified by Carlson et al. (1995) and Caselles et al. (1998), based on the energy budget, that needs as an input variables net radiation (Rn) and the difference between land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature (Ta). Air temperature has been modelled by means of multiple regression analysis and GIS interpolation using ground meteorological stations. Net radiation have been computed following two approaches based on the energy balance equation using albedo, land surface temperature, air temperature and solar radiation. Both air temperature and net radiation have been modelled at a regional scale. We have compared remote sensing daily actual evapotranspiration estimates with measured canopy transpiration. Sap flux density was measured by means of Heat dissipation sensors in 12 trees per stand, sampled according to diametric distribution, corrected to account for radial patter of sap flow using the Heat Field Deformation method and then scaled-up to stand level transpiration using tree sapwood areas. Sap flow measurements are comparable with AETd as in the Scots pine stand understorey evaporation is not significant. Measurements with sap flow technique show a mean, minimum and maximum values of AETd = 2.2, 0.6 and 3.6 mm day -1, respectively (Poyatos et al. 2005). Results show, in the case of MODIS AETd modelling, a RMSE of 1.6 mm compared with sap flo

Cristóbal, J.; Poyatos, R.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.

2009-04-01

447

Spectral Angle Mapper Classification of Fluorescence Hyperspectral Image for Aflatoxin Contaminated Corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contamination in corn is a serious problem for both producers and consumers. The present study applied the Spectral Angle Mapper classification technique to classify single corn kernels into contaminated and healthy groups. Fluorescence hyperspectral images were used in the classification....

448

CORRAL: Stackable Copy-on-Write Versioning Device using Linux Device-Mapper  

E-print Network

CORRAL: Stackable Copy-on-Write Versioning Device using Linux Device-Mapper Julian Monteiro of modified blocks; 6) operate on a mounted file system; 7) use of standard user level tools. Initialization of the system is mapped to a device named PREV. Not yet modified chunks are mapped using the target zero

449

GlitchMap: An FPGA Technology Mapper for Low Power Considering Glitches  

E-print Network

GlitchMap: An FPGA Technology Mapper for Low Power Considering Glitches Lei Cheng, CS Dept, Design, Experimentation Keywords FPGA technology mapping, dynamic power, glitch 1. INTRODUCTION FPGAs are not power efficient. It is estimated that an FPGA design consumes 10 times more power than a func- tionally

Chen, Deming

450

Lightning Mapper Sensor Lens Assembly S.O. 5459: Project Management Plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kaiser Electro-Optics, Inc. (KEO) has developed this Project Management Plan for the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) program. KEO has integrated a team of experts in a structured program management organization to meet the needs of the LMS program. The project plan discusses KEO's approach to critical program elements including Program Management, Quality Assurance, Configuration Management, and Schedule.

Zeidler, Janet

1999-01-01

451

Xmap: a Technology Mapper for Table-lookup Field-Programmable Gate Arrays  

E-print Network

Xmap: a Technology Mapper for Table-lookup Field-Programmable Gate Arrays Kevin Karplus" Baskin-level logic to field-programmable gate arrays based on table-lookup gates, such as those used in the Xilinx to such flexible cells, and so dummy cell libraries are usually created, where each library entry is one way

Karplus, Kevin

452

1216 PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES NOTE DNA Analyser (Applied Biosystems) and GeneMapper  

E-print Network

1216 PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES NOTE DNA Analyser (Applied Biosystems) and GeneMapper version 3.7 analysis software (Applied Biosystems). Tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium-Weinberg equilibrium was detected for one locus, HoA006, and no significant linkage association was found among

Jordano, Pedro

453

The OakMapper WebGIS: Improved Access to Sudden Oak Death Spatial Data1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to timely and accurate sudden oak death (SOD) location data is critical for SOD monitoring, management and research. Several websites (hereafter called the OakMapper sites) associated with sudden oak death monitoring efforts have been maintained with up-to- date SOD location information for over five years, providing information and maps of the most current spatial and attribute data on Phytophthora

K. Tuxen; M. Kelly

454

Software used with the flux mapper at the solar parabolic dish test site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dicated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attemps at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations result in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the anaysis is included in an appendix.

Miyazono, C.

1984-01-01

455